WorldWideScience

Sample records for bsr simulacao numerica

  1. Numerical simulation and experimental analysis for a Risers Uphold Sub-Surface Buoy (BSR); Simulacao numerica e ensaio experimental da Boia de Sub-superficie de Suporte de Risers - BSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jairo B. de; Almeida, Jose Carlos L. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rangel, Marcos; Fernandes, Antonio C.; Santos, Melquisedec F. dos; Sales Junior, Joel Sena [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents results, numeric and experimental, due to installation operation of a Risers Uphold Sub-Surface Buoy, (BSR). This kind of installation developed by PETROBRAS is unique in the world. The work of BSR installation was based on a numeric pre analysis to verify the system and determine the main parameters to be experimentally verified. The second phase of the work was the experimental analysis in a deep water ocean basin. s. The work describes the BSR and their main accessories, the experimental environment and the model constructed in aluminum in a 1:12 scale and the main results. (author)

  2. Matematica numerica

    CERN Document Server

    Quarteroni, Alfio; Saleri, Fausto; Gervasio, Paola

    2014-01-01

    La Matematica Numerica è elemento fondante del calcolo scientifico. Punto di contatto di diverse discipline nella matematica e nelle moderne scienze applicate, ne diventa strumento di indagine qualitativa e quantitativa. Scopo di questo testo è fornire i fondamenti metodologici della matematica numerica, richiamandone le principali proprietà, quali la stabilità, l’accuratezza e la complessità algoritmica. Nel contesto di ogni specifica classe di problemi vengono illustrati gli algoritmi più idonei, ne viene fatta l’analisi teorica e se ne verificano i risultati previsti implementandoli con l'ausilio di programmi in linguaggio MATLAB. Ogni capitolo è integrato da esercizi e temi svolti, questi ultimi corredati da programmi MATLAB. Il volume è indirizzato principalmente agli studenti delle facoltà scientifiche, con particolare attenzione ai corsi di laurea in Ingegneria, Matematica e Scienze dell’Informazione. L’enfasi posta sullo sviluppo di software lo rende interessante anche per ricercat...

  3. Characteristics of BSR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Characteristics of BSR. Depth of BSR is close to the predicted depth of hydrate stability zone. Mimics the seafloor topography. Opposite polarity with respect to seafloor. Crosscut the existing geological reflector.

  4. "BSR Eagle" lendas Tartusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    8. veebr. Tartus Loodusuurijate Seltsi majas toimunud seminarist "Mida Juku õues ei õpi, seda Juhan vallaametnikuna ei tea", mis toimus Läänemere-piirkonna loodusharidusprojekti "BSR Eagle" raames

  5. Modellistica numerica per problemi differenziali

    CERN Document Server

    Quarteroni, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    In questo testo si introducono i concetti di base per la modellistica numerica di problemi differenziali alle derivate parziali. Si considerano le classiche equazioni lineari ellittiche, paraboliche ed iperboliche, ma anche altre equazioni, quali quelle di diffusione e trasporto, di Navier-Stokes e le leggi di conservazione. Si forniscono inoltre numerosi esempi fisici che stanno alla base di tali equazioni. Quindi si analizzano metodi di risoluzione numerica basati su elementi finiti (continui e discontinui), differenze finite, volumi finiti, metodi spettrali (continui e discontinui), nonché strategie di approssimazione più avanzate basate sui metodi di decomposizione di domini, i metodi a basi ridotte o quelli di risoluzione di problemi di controllo ottimale. In particolare vengono discussi gli aspetti algoritmici e di implementazione al calcolatore e si forniscono diversi programmi di semplice utilizzo. Il testo non presuppone una approfondita conoscenza matematica delle equazioni alle derivate parziali:...

  6. Numerical simulation supports formation testing planning; Simulacao numerica auxilia planejamento de teste de formacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Rogerio Marques; Fonseca, Carlos Eduardo da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A well test is an operation that allows the engineer assessing reservoir performance and fluids properties by measuring flow rates and pressures under a range of flowing conditions. In most well tests, a limited amount of fluid is allowed to flow from the formation being tested. The formation is isolated behind cemented casing and perforated at the formation depth or, in open hole, the formation is straddled by a pair of packers that isolate the formation. During the flow period, the pressure at the formation is monitored over time. Then, the formation is closed (or shut in) and the pressure monitored at the formation while the fluid within the formation equilibrates. The analysis of these pressure changes can provide information on the size and shape of the formation as well as its ability to produce fluids. . The flow of fluid through the column test causes your heating and hence its elongation. Several factors affect the rate of exchange of heat as well and the characteristics of the fluid, the flow of time and the flow and the existence of deep water. The prediction of temperature over well, in its various components, and the effect caused in the column test is not a trivial task. Some authors, for example, describe a method of calculating the behaviour of columns of production, making it simpler variation of constant temperature throughout the entire column, a fact that this does not occur in practice. The work aims at presenting the advantages of using the numerical simulation in determining the efforts and corresponding movements of the column of test of formation. (author)

  7. Multi-scale approach in numerical reservoir simulation; Uma abordagem multiescala na simulacao numerica de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Solange da Silva

    1998-07-01

    Advances in petroleum reservoir descriptions have provided an amount of data that can not be handled directly during numerical simulations. This detailed geological information must be incorporated into a coarser model during multiphase fluid flow simulations by means of some upscaling technique. the most used approach is the pseudo relative permeabilities and the more widely used is the Kyte and Berry method (1975). In this work, it is proposed a multi-scale computational model for multiphase flow that implicitly treats the upscaling without using pseudo functions. By solving a sequence of local problems on subdomains of the refined scale it is possible to achieve results with a coarser grid without expensive computations of a fine grid model. The main advantage of this new procedure is to treat the upscaling step implicitly in the solution process, overcoming some practical difficulties related the use of traditional pseudo functions. results of bidimensional two phase flow simulations considering homogeneous porous media are presented. Some examples compare the results of this approach and the commercial upscaling program PSEUDO, a module of the reservoir simulation software ECLIPSE. (author)

  8. Matematica numerica esercizi, laboratori e progetti

    CERN Document Server

    Quarteroni, Alfio

    2013-01-01

    La Matematica Numerica una disciplina che si sviluppa in simbiosi con il calcolatore; essa fa uso di linguaggi di programmazione che consentono di tradurre gli algoritmi in programmi eseguibili. Questo testo si propone di aiutare lo studente nella transizione fra i concetti teorici e metodologici della Matematica Numerica e la loro implementazione al computer. A questo scopo vengono proposti Esercizi teorici da risolvere con carta e penna atti a far comprendere meglio al lettore la teoria, e Laboratori, in cui per un dato problema si debbono scegliere gli algoritmi pi adatti, realizzare un programma in linguaggio MATLAB per la loro implementazione, rappresentare graficamente in maniera idonea i risultati ottenuti dal calcolatore, infine interpretarli ed analizzarli alla luce della teoria. Per ogni Esercizio ed ogni Laboratorio si presenta una risoluzione dettagliata,completata da una ampia discussione critica. Per una migliore fruizione degli argomenti sviluppati, il testo si apre con una introduzione allambi...

  9. The Distributuion BSR and Multiple BSR Across The Danube Delta on the Offshore Romania and Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atgin, Orhan; Cifci, Gunay; Dondurur, Derman; Bialas, Jorg; Klaucke, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Danube river which flows into the Black Sea is one of the world's biggest amount sediment transporter to the marine environment. Throughout long geological periods, Danube has formed many channel structures and the channel developments are still being continuened. Danube River has caused a lot of potential gas hydrate formations which spread over quite larger areas. Under the frame of SUGAR Project, high resolution multichannel seismic data were collected using the facilities of Seismic Laboratory (SeisLab) in the Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology of Dokuz Eylül University on board R/V Maria S. Merian in 2013. More then 2300 km Multichannel seismic reflection data acquired across the palaeo Danube delta to investigate BSR and potential gas hyrdate areas on the continental shelf where Danube river reaches to the Black Sea, BSR areas and potential gas hyrdates. Also, in relation with high sediment input, the effects of deltas on BSR's are aimed to research and several of inactive and partly buried channel systems could be mapped. There are large number of buried channel levee systems which seem to underlain by a continuous BSR indicating availability of free gas. There are also a significant reflector of inverted polarity was identified within a depth of about 100 m below seafloor. A very prominent BSR with reversed polarity is determined 200 ms TWT below seafloor on the eastern levee of the channel and simulate and crosscut the sediment layer. Three distinct BSRs as multiple BSR signature are observed on the high resolution multichannel seismic with a slightly varying dips. Multiple BSR's up to 5 BSRs are exist around river channels and paleochannels which have formed during different geological periods. In some paleochannel areas, high amount of sediment transportation causes dissolution of gashyrdate structures. At such areas seismic signals are being absorbed and structures which indicate dissolved gas are determined. In addition parasound data show

  10. Salt mechanical behavior numeric simulation in oil wells; Simulacao numerica do comportamento mecanico do sal em pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravina, Carlos Cabral

    1997-10-01

    Drilling incidents such as stuck pipe and collapsed casing string take place when when some type of salt formations are drilled because of the high pronounced plastic behavior of the salt and the creep behavior as a function of this type of rock. The creep behavior becomes faster and more severe if temperature an/or pressure acting on the salt go up. The deeper the salt is found, the earlier and more intense the troubles caused by salt creep will be evidence. (author)

  11. African horse sickness virus infects BSR cells through macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaak, Elaine; Conradie, Andelé M; Maree, Francois F; Theron, Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Cellular pathways involved in cell entry by African horse sickness virus (AHSV), a member of the Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family, have not yet been determined. Here, we show that acidic pH is required for productive infection of BSR cells by AHSV-4, suggesting that the virus is likely internalized by an endocytic pathway. We subsequently analyzed the major endocytic routes using specific inhibitors and determined the consequences for AHSV-4 entry into BSR cells. The results indicated that virus entry is dynamin dependent, but clathrin- and lipid raft/caveolae-mediated endocytic pathways were not used by AHSV-4 to enter and infect BSR cells. Instead, binding of AHSV-4 to BSR cells stimulated uptake of a macropinocytosis-specific cargo and inhibition of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, actin polymerization and cellular GTPases and kinases involved in macropinocytosis significantly inhibited AHSV-4 infection. Altogether, the data suggest that AHSV-4 infects BSR cells by utilizing macropinocytosis as the primary entry pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Soluciones numericas continuas de ecuaciones diferenciales matriciales con cotas de error a priori.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponsoda Miralles, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    EN ESTA MEMORIA SE CONSIDERAN DOS TIPOS DE ECUACIONES DIFERENCIALES MATRICIALES. EN PRIMER LUGAR SE CONSTRUYEN SOLUCIONES NUMERICAS PARA PROBLEMAS DE VALORES INICIALES MATRICIALES UTILIZANDO METODOS LINEALES MULTIPASO MATRICIALES. A CONTINUACION, VIA INTERPOLACION LINEAL MATRICIAL SE CONSTRUYEN SOLUCIONES NUMERICAS CONTINUAS CON COTAS DE ERROR EXPRESADOS EN TERMINOS DE LOS DATOS. PARTICULAR ATENCION SE PRESTAN A LAS ECUACIONES DE TIPO RICCATI Y LYAPUNOV GENERALIZADAS CON COEFICIENTES VARIABLE...

  13. Modelling and numerical simulation of the gasoline containing alcohol spilling in the groundwaters; Modelagem e simulacao numerica do derramamento de gasolina acrescida de alcool em aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordazzo, Jonas; Maliska, Clovis R. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: jonas@sinmec.ufsc.br; maliska@sinmec.ufsc.br; Corseuil, Henry X. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental]. E-mail: corseuil@ens.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a model and the respective two-dimensional numerical solution for the problem of pollutant spilling on the soil saturated region,in finite volumes, with first order biodegradation model. The model is adapted to the brazilian gasoline considering the ethanol influence on the biodegradation of the BTEX constituents and on the ethanol co-solvence in the gasoline phenomenon.The gasoline sorption effect is taken into consideration, when considering linear sorption. The numerically solved transport equation take into consideration the dispersion, advection, sorption and the biodegradation of the MTEX compounds and the ethanol, as well. The groundwater velocity field is numerically solved by using the Darcy equations, allowing the regions with different permeabilities to be considered.

  14. Compositional numerical simulation with implicit formulation and gravitational and capillary effects; Simulacao numerica composicional com formulacao implicita e efeitos gravitacional e capilar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caminha, Romulo de Athayde

    1999-03-01

    This work aims to present an isothermal, one-dimensional, compositional numerical simulator. A two-phase (oil and gas) multicomponent flow is treated implicitly in pressure, saturation and compositions. Flow terms consider gravitational effect, which allows the study of flow in inclined reservoir. The highly non-linear equations, which are necessary to equate the problem, require a numerical solution, which is obtained by the Newton-Raphson method. The one-dimensional treatment given to the problem yields a tridiagonal block Jacobian matrix. It is assumed that the two-phase flow is dominated by convection and that the dispersive effects are neglected. No mobile water is considered in the porous media, and the original gas-oil capillary pressure curve, obtained from the laboratory, is modified to include the variations of interfacial tensions. Instantaneous thermodynamic equilibrium is admitted and it is computed by means of the Peng and Robinson equation of state. The fluids densities are calculated with the equation of state. Gas and oil viscosities are computed using the Lohrenz method. The medium is considered incompressible, homogeneous and isotropic, chemically and physically inert to the fluids. (author)

  15. Numerical simulation in steam injection wellbores by mechanistic approach; Simulacao numerica do escoamento de vapor em pocos por uma abordagem mecanicista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Junior, J.C. de; Campos, W.; Lopes, D.; Moura, L.S.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Thomas, A. Clecio F. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work addresses to the development of a hydrodynamic and heat transfer mechanistic model for steam flow in injection wellbores. The problem of two-phase steam flow in wellbores has been solved recently by using available empirical correlations from petroleum industry (Lopes, 1986) and nuclear industry (Moura, 1991).The good performance achieved by mechanistic models developed by Ansari (1994), Hasan (1995), Gomez (2000) and Kaya (2001) supports the importance of the mechanistic approach for the steam flow problem in injection wellbores. In this study, the methodology to solve the problem consists in the application of a numerical method to the governing equations of steam flow and a marching algorithm to determine the distribution of the pressure and temperature along the wellbore. So, a computer code has been formulated to get numerical results, which provides a comparative study to the main models found in the literature. Finally, when compared to available field data, the mechanistic model for downward vertical steam flow in wellbores gave better results than the empirical correlations. (author)

  16. BSR: B-spline atomic R-matrix codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsarinny, Oleg

    2006-02-01

    BSR is a general program to calculate atomic continuum processes using the B-spline R-matrix method, including electron-atom and electron-ion scattering, and radiative processes such as bound-bound transitions, photoionization and polarizabilities. The calculations can be performed in LS-coupling or in an intermediate-coupling scheme by including terms of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. New version program summaryTitle of program: BSR Catalogue identifier: ADWY Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWY Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers on which the program has been tested: Microway Beowulf cluster; Compaq Beowulf cluster; DEC Alpha workstation; DELL PC Operating systems under which the new version has been tested: UNIX, Windows XP Programming language used: FORTRAN 95 Memory required to execute with typical data: Typically 256-512 Mwords. Since all the principal dimensions are allocatable, the available memory defines the maximum complexity of the problem No. of bits in a word: 8 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: no No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 69 943 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 746 450 Peripherals used: scratch disk store; permanent disk store Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: This program uses the R-matrix method to calculate electron-atom and electron-ion collision processes, with options to calculate radiative data, photoionization, etc. The calculations can be performed in LS-coupling or in an intermediate-coupling scheme, with options to include Breit-Pauli terms in the Hamiltonian. Method of solution: The R-matrix method is used [P.G. Burke, K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes: An R-Matrix Approach, IOP Publishing, Bristol, 1993; P.G. Burke, W.D. Robb, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 11 (1975) 143; K.A. Berrington, W.B. Eissner, P.H. Norrington, Comput

  17. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm line HA-BSR1 highly tolerant to Sclerotinia basal stalk rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a devastating disease that causes a significant damage to worldwide sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production by reducing seed yield and quality. The objective of this research was to develop highly BSR tolerant sunflower g...

  18. The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BSR1 mediates chitin-induced defense signaling in rice cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Yasukazu; Yokotani, Naoki; Maeda, Satoru; Nishizawa, Yoko; Kamakura, Takashi; Mori, Masaki

    2017-08-01

    Broad-Spectrum Resistance 1 (BSR1) encodes a rice receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, and enhances disease resistance when overexpressed. Rice plants overexpressing BSR1 are highly resistant to diverse pathogens, including rice blast fungus. However, the mechanism responsible for this resistance has not been fully characterized. To analyze the BSR1 function, BSR1-knockout (BSR1-KO) plants were generated using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system. Experiments using suspension-cultured cells revealed that defense responses including H 2 O 2 production (i.e. oxidative burst) and expression of defense-related genes induced by autoclaved conidia of the rice blast fungus significantly decreased in BSR1-KO cells. Furthermore, a treatment with chitin oligomers which function as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) of the rice blast fungus resulted in considerably suppressed defense responses in BSR1-KO cells. These results suggest that BSR1 is important for the rice innate immunity triggered by the perception of chitin.

  19. Guide for design and application of protective instrumentation for experiments in the BSR and ORR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, K.W.

    1977-03-01

    This report is a guide for the design and application of protective instrumentation for experiments that are to be operated in the Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) or the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and are to be connected to the reactor power-reduction and alarm systems

  20. BSR-kotkas läks lendu / Toomas Jüriado

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jüriado, Toomas, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Hiiu maavalitsuse arendusnõunik Reet Kokovkin asus juhtima Euroopa piiriülese koostöö programmi Interreg IIIB rahastatavat Läänemere piirkonna keskkonnahariduse projekti BSR Eagle, mis tegeleb loodushariduse ja looduse õpetamise arendamisega Läänemere ääres

  1. Publication du rapport de BSR sur le travail des enfants en Birmanie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 juin 2016 ... Le rapport, intitulé « Child Labor in Myanmar's Garment Sector », a été préparé par Business for Social Responsibility (BSR). Il arrive à point nommé, car les intervenants du monde des affaires sur la scène internationale manifestent un intérêt croissant à l'égard du Myanmar, parallèlement à la levée des ...

  2. Study on stress relaxation behavior of silicon carbide by BSR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kazuma; Nogami, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Akira; Nozawa, Takashi; Hinoki, Tatsuya

    2011-10-01

    Bend stress relaxation (BSR) experiment at temperatures of 600-1400 °C for 1-100 h was performed on the two types of highly crystallized monolithic silicon carbide (SiC) produced by chemically vapor deposition (CVD) and liquid phase sintering (LPS) methods. Both materials exhibited similar time-dependent trend of stress relaxation. The BSR ratio dropped rapidly during the first hour of the tests and then decreased gradually in the higher temperature tests. The CVD-SiC and the LPS-SiC showed good thermal creep resistance at the expected operating temperature (about 600-1000 °C) of fusion blanket using SiC fiber-reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composite. On the other hand, the BSR ratio of those two materials, especially of the LPS-SiC, dropped steeply at the temperatures of 1200-1400 °C. The activation energy of the stress relaxation calculated by a cross-cut method increased with the temperature.

  3. Study on stress relaxation behavior of silicon carbide by BSR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Kazuma, E-mail: abe@jupiter.qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Nogami, Shuhei, E-mail: shuhei.nogami@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Hasegawa, Akira, E-mail: akira.hasegawa@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Nozawa, Takashi, E-mail: nozawa.takashi67@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hinoki, Tatsuya, E-mail: hinoki@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Bend stress relaxation (BSR) experiment at temperatures of 600-1400 deg. C for 1-100 h was performed on the two types of highly crystallized monolithic silicon carbide (SiC) produced by chemically vapor deposition (CVD) and liquid phase sintering (LPS) methods. Both materials exhibited similar time-dependent trend of stress relaxation. The BSR ratio dropped rapidly during the first hour of the tests and then decreased gradually in the higher temperature tests. The CVD-SiC and the LPS-SiC showed good thermal creep resistance at the expected operating temperature (about 600-1000 deg. C) of fusion blanket using SiC fiber-reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composite. On the other hand, the BSR ratio of those two materials, especially of the LPS-SiC, dropped steeply at the temperatures of 1200-1400 deg. C. The activation energy of the stress relaxation calculated by a cross-cut method increased with the temperature.

  4. Overexpression of BSR1 confers broad-spectrum resistance against two bacterial diseases and two major fungal diseases in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Satoru; Hayashi, Nagao; Sasaya, Takahide; Mori, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M. oryzae. Here, we report that BSR1-OX rice showed extended resistance against two other different races of Xoo, and to at least one other race of M. oryzae. In addition, the rice showed resistance to another bacterial species, Burkholderia glumae, which causes bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, and to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, another fungal species causing brown spot. Furthermore, BSR1-OX rice showed slight resistance to rice stripe disease, a major viral disease caused by rice stripe virus. Thus, we demonstrated that BSR1-OX rice shows remarkable broad-spectrum resistance to at least two major bacterial species and two major fungal species, and slight resistance to one viral pathogen.

  5. Deep water methane hydrates in the Arctic Ocean: Reassessing the significance of a shallow BSR on the Lomonosov Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, Matthew; Moran, Kathryn

    2010-05-01

    Recently published multichannel seismic data from the Lomonosov Ridge image a reversed polarity bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) tentatively attributed to the presence of deepwater marine hydrates and recognized throughout a survey area exceeding 100,000 km2. In addition to the importance of these findings for estimating Arctic hydrate reserves, if shown to correspond to the base of the hydrate stability zone, this seismic marker could provide a means for expanding spatial cover of heat flow data in deepwater settings of the Amerasian Basin, where little is known about the tectonic origin and nature of plate boundaries. As an initial test on the validity of this assumption, we develop a petrophysical model using sediments collected from circumpolar regions of the Lomonosov Ridge to derive an estimate of surface heat flow patterns from the BSR. The results show that the BSR inferred geothermal gradient and surface heat flow are exceedingly high when compared to published regional measurements. Although potential errors in the analysis may explain some of this discrepancy, the observation that the BSR remains at a constant subbottom depth despite large variations in water depths (>2400 m) and relative sedimentation rates provides additional evidence that it cannot mark the base of the hydrate stability zone. A further understanding of its origin requires a more detailed investigation of the existing seismic data and highlights the need for renewed collection of heat flow data from the Arctic Ocean.

  6. Numerical simulation of a cogeneration plant with micro gas turbine using computational tool EES; Simulacao numerica de uma planta de cogeracao com microturbina a gas natural utilizando ferramenta computacional EES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Guilherme L.B. de; Oliveira, Andrezza C.C.T.; Dutra, Jose C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Today, the cogeneration of energy has been widely disseminated and presents itself as a very viable alternative for energy savings, reducing CO2 emissions by conducting reuse energy. This study aims to develop a software for simulation, analysis and optimization of a cogeneration system that uses a natural gas turbine as a primary source. The data contained in the software were similar to existing data in a micro-cogeneration plant installed at UFPE and the results showed up in the standard presented by actual plant. We conclude that the software serves as a tool to pre-analysis of the plant of choice for cogeneration equipment to be installed as: pumps, heat exchangers, chillers, cooling towers. (author)

  7. Simulation study {epsilon}-Caprolactam monomer and metallic elements migration from irradiated polymeric packaging into food stimulants; Simulacao numerica da migracao de elementos metalicos e do monomero {epsilon}-caprolactama de embalagens polimericas irradiadas para simulantes de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Faena Machado Leite

    2008-07-01

    For decades migration study of chemical compounds from packaging into food, such as metals, residual monomers and additives, is a very important issue, concerning public health and minimize chemical contamination. In this work, it was done irradiations of packagings taken in contact with food simulant, and it was studied this migration through a mathematical model of the diffusion process, compiled in a computational simulation method in order to study the microscopic behavior of migration of metallic elements cadmium, chromium, antimony and cobalt, present in metallic plastics from dairy product packagings, and also the migration of - caprolactam monomer, present in nylon polymeric plastics used for package meat stuffs, to the food simulant acetic acid 3%. The results from simulations of the migration of -caprolactam monomer were compared with experimental results obtained from high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) measurements, and the simulation of metallic elements migration were compared with the neutron activation analysis measurements (NAA). These experimental results were performed and kindly informed by another research groups, partners in this project. The food packaging system was discretized in one-dimension space and in time and the partial differential equation that defines the diffusive process, the second 'Fick's law', together with an equation of Arrhenius type dealing with the thermal influence, were solved using finite differences. The final step of the resolution was a tridiagonal linear system, solved using the Thomas algorithm. It was studied, and in some cases even foreseen, experimental quantities, like the diffusion coefficient, activation energy and concentration profile of migrant compounds, allowing the understanding of the diffusion process and the quantitative estimate of the migration of such compounds under ionizing radiation influence. Variation on the initial concentration levels (C{sub 0}) of the monomer inside the packaging happens. Simulations showed that the migration process strongly depends on the initial concentration profile and, in spite of the absence of a formal validation method, the simulation results showed excellent agreement with several experimental results obtained from different analytical techniques. This simulator is an interesting tool for future studies on ionizing radiation influence in food-packaging systems. (author)

  8. Numerical simulation of a viscoelastic flow through a concentric annular with BSD scheme, influence of the Deborah number; Simulacao numerica do escoamento laminar de fluido viscoelastico PTT (Phan-Thien-Tanner) em tubo anular concentrico - influencia do numero de Deborah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambros, Alder C.; Vitorassi, Pedro H.; Franco, Admilson T.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Matins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Engenharia de Perfuracao

    2008-07-01

    The success of oil well drilling process depends on the correct prediction of the velocities and stresses fields inside the gap between the drill string and the rock formation. Using CFD is possible to predict the behavior of the drilling fluid flow along the annular space, from the bottom to the top of the well. Commonly the drilling fluid is modeled as a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. An alternative is to employ a non-linear viscoelastic model, like the one developed by Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT). In the present work the PTT constitutive equation is used to model the drilling fluid flow along the annular space. Thus, this work investigates the influence of the Deborah number on the laminar flow pattern through the numerical solution of the equations formed by the coupled velocity-pressure-stress fields. The results are analyzed and validated against the analytical solution for the fully developed annular pipe flow. The relation between the Deborah number (De) and the entry length is investigated, along with the influence of high values of Deborah number on the friction factor, stress and velocity fields. (author)

  9. Characterization of three types of silicon solar cells for SEPS deep space missions. Volume 1: Current-voltage characteristics of OCLI BSF/BSR 10 ohm-cm, and BSR 2 ohm-cm cells as a function of temperature and intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Little, S. A.; Smith, C. F., Jr.; Wooden, V. A.

    1979-01-01

    Three types of high performance silicon solar cells, BSF/BSR 10 ohm-cm, BSR 10 ohm-cm, and BSR 2 ohm-cm, were evaluated for their low temperature and low intensity performance. Sixteen cells of each type were subjected to ten temperatures and nine intensities. The BSF/BSR 10 ohm-cm cells provided the best performance at 1 solar constant and +25 C with an efficiency of 14.1% while the BSR 2 ohm-cm cells had the highest low temperature and low intensity performance with an efficiency of 22.2% at 0.04 solar constant and -170 C and the most consistent cell-to-cell characteristics.

  10. Effect of thermal non-equilibrium, seafloor topography and fluid advection on BSR-derived geothermal gradient

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, R.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Kumar, B.J.P.; Vishwanath, K.

    -waters hydrocarbon exploration (Nimblett et al., 2005). In seismic sections, gas hydrate is identified by an anomalous reflector known as Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) which mimics with the seafloor, crosscuts geological layers and its polarity is reversed... of Oceanography, Goa – India 403004 2Directorate General of Hydrocarbons, Noida, U.P – India 201 301 *corresponding author: pdewangan@nio.org Abstract The seafloor and bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) are interpreted from the 3D seismic data...

  11. The large-scale blast score ratio (LS-BSR) pipeline: a method to rapidly compare genetic content between bacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahl, Jason W; Caporaso, J Gregory; Rasko, David A; Keim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background. As whole genome sequence data from bacterial isolates becomes cheaper to generate, computational methods are needed to correlate sequence data with biological observations. Here we present the large-scale BLAST score ratio (LS-BSR) pipeline, which rapidly compares the genetic content of hundreds to thousands of bacterial genomes, and returns a matrix that describes the relatedness of all coding sequences (CDSs) in all genomes surveyed. This matrix can be easily parsed in order to identify genetic relationships between bacterial genomes. Although pipelines have been published that group peptides by sequence similarity, no other software performs the rapid, large-scale, full-genome comparative analyses carried out by LS-BSR. Results. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the LS-BSR pipeline was tested on 96 Escherichia coli and Shigella genomes; the pipeline ran in 163 min using 16 processors, which is a greater than 7-fold speedup compared to using a single processor. The BSR values for each CDS, which indicate a relative level of relatedness, were then mapped to each genome on an independent core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based phylogeny. Comparisons were then used to identify clade specific CDS markers and validate the LS-BSR pipeline based on molecular markers that delineate between classical E. coli pathogenic variant (pathovar) designations. Scalability tests demonstrated that the LS-BSR pipeline can process 1,000 E. coli genomes in 27-57 h, depending upon the alignment method, using 16 processors. Conclusions. LS-BSR is an open-source, parallel implementation of the BSR algorithm, enabling rapid comparison of the genetic content of large numbers of genomes. The results of the pipeline can be used to identify specific markers between user-defined phylogenetic groups, and to identify the loss and/or acquisition of genetic information between bacterial isolates. Taxa-specific genetic markers can then be translated into clinical

  12. Neutronics model of the bulk shielding reactor (BSR): validation by comparison of calculations with the experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Miller, L.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1981-05-01

    A neutronics model for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bulk Shielding Reactor (ORNL-SAR) was developed and verified by experimental measurements. A cross-section library was generated from the 218 group Master Library using the AMPX Block Code system. A series of one-, two-, and three-dimensional neutronics calculations were performed utilizing both transport and diffusion theory. Spectral comparison was made with 58 Ni(n,p) reaction. The results of the comparison between the calculational model and other experimental measurements showed agreement within 10% and therefore the model was determined to be adequate for calculating the neutron fluence for future irradiation experiments in the ORNL-BSR

  13. Insect-cell expression, crystallization and X-ray data collection of the bradyzoite-specific antigen BSR4 from Toxoplasma gondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grujic, Ognjen; Grigg, Michael E.; Boulanger, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the bradyzoite-specific surface antigen BSR4 from T. gondii are described. Toxoplasma gondii is an important global pathogen that infects nearly one third of the world’s adult population. A family of developmentally expressed structurally related surface-glycoprotein adhesins (SRSs) mediate attachment to and are utilized for entry into host cells. The latent bradyzoite form of T. gondii persists for the life of the host and expresses a distinct family of SRS proteins, of which the bradyzoite-specific antigen BSR4 is a prototypical member. Structural studies of BSR4 were initiated by first recombinantly expressing BSR4 in insect cells, which was followed by crystallization and preliminary X-ray data collection to 1.95 Å resolution. Data processing showed that BSR4 crystallized with one molecule in the asymmetric unit of the P4 1 2 1 2 or P4 3 2 1 2 space group, with a solvent content of 60% and a corresponding Matthews coefficient of 2.98 Å 3 Da −1

  14. A new cis-encoded sRNA, BsrH, regulating the expression of hemH gene in Brucella abortus 2308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaowei; Dong, Hao; Wu, Qingmin

    2015-01-01

    A total of 129 sRNA candidates were identified in Brucella abortus 2308 in our previous work, and one candidate with potential to regulate expression of hemH gene was further analyzed in this study. We found that the novel sRNA can inhibit the expression of hemH and called it BsrH (Brucella sRNA regulating HemH). The expression level of BsrH was tested in four different stress conditions. A significant upregulation was detected during the growth in acidic and Brucella minimal media, as well as in the presence of hydroxyl peroxide, while iron deficiency caused the opposite effect. As expected, BsrH strongly affected the survival ratio of the Brucella cells under iron-limitation conditions, though overexpression of BsrH did not affect Brucella virulence. Thus, we conclude that BsrH plays a regulatory role in bacterial heme biosynthesis and can be considered as the first Brucella sRNA involved in stress responses. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Insect-cell expression, crystallization and X-ray data collection of the bradyzoite-specific antigen BSR4 from Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grujic, Ognjen [Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, PO Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Grigg, Michael E. [Molecular Parasitology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Boulanger, Martin J., E-mail: mboulang@uvic.ca [Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, PO Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the bradyzoite-specific surface antigen BSR4 from T. gondii are described. Toxoplasma gondii is an important global pathogen that infects nearly one third of the world’s adult population. A family of developmentally expressed structurally related surface-glycoprotein adhesins (SRSs) mediate attachment to and are utilized for entry into host cells. The latent bradyzoite form of T. gondii persists for the life of the host and expresses a distinct family of SRS proteins, of which the bradyzoite-specific antigen BSR4 is a prototypical member. Structural studies of BSR4 were initiated by first recombinantly expressing BSR4 in insect cells, which was followed by crystallization and preliminary X-ray data collection to 1.95 Å resolution. Data processing showed that BSR4 crystallized with one molecule in the asymmetric unit of the P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 space group, with a solvent content of 60% and a corresponding Matthews coefficient of 2.98 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}.

  16. Fine mapping of the Bsr1 barley stripe mosaic virus resistance gene in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cui

    Full Text Available The ND18 strain of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV infects several lines of Brachypodium distachyon, a recently developed model system for genomics research in cereals. Among the inbred lines tested, Bd3-1 is highly resistant at 20 to 25 °C, whereas Bd21 is susceptible and infection results in an intense mosaic phenotype accompanied by high levels of replicating virus. We generated an F(6:7 recombinant inbred line (RIL population from a cross between Bd3-1 and Bd21 and used the RILs, and an F(2 population of a second Bd21 × Bd3-1 cross to evaluate the inheritance of resistance. The results indicate that resistance segregates as expected for a single dominant gene, which we have designated Barley stripe mosaic virus resistance 1 (Bsr1. We constructed a genetic linkage map of the RIL population using SNP markers to map this gene to within 705 Kb of the distal end of the top of chromosome 3. Additional CAPS and Indel markers were used to fine map Bsr1 to a 23 Kb interval containing five putative genes. Our study demonstrates the power of using RILs to rapidly map the genetic determinants of BSMV resistance in Brachypodium. Moreover, the RILs and their associated genetic map, when combined with the complete genomic sequence of Brachypodium, provide new resources for genetic analyses of many other traits.

  17. The large-scale blast score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline: a method to rapidly compare genetic content between bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Sahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. As whole genome sequence data from bacterial isolates becomes cheaper to generate, computational methods are needed to correlate sequence data with biological observations. Here we present the large-scale BLAST score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline, which rapidly compares the genetic content of hundreds to thousands of bacterial genomes, and returns a matrix that describes the relatedness of all coding sequences (CDSs in all genomes surveyed. This matrix can be easily parsed in order to identify genetic relationships between bacterial genomes. Although pipelines have been published that group peptides by sequence similarity, no other software performs the rapid, large-scale, full-genome comparative analyses carried out by LS-BSR.Results. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the LS-BSR pipeline was tested on 96 Escherichia coli and Shigella genomes; the pipeline ran in 163 min using 16 processors, which is a greater than 7-fold speedup compared to using a single processor. The BSR values for each CDS, which indicate a relative level of relatedness, were then mapped to each genome on an independent core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based phylogeny. Comparisons were then used to identify clade specific CDS markers and validate the LS-BSR pipeline based on molecular markers that delineate between classical E. coli pathogenic variant (pathovar designations. Scalability tests demonstrated that the LS-BSR pipeline can process 1,000 E. coli genomes in 27–57 h, depending upon the alignment method, using 16 processors.Conclusions. LS-BSR is an open-source, parallel implementation of the BSR algorithm, enabling rapid comparison of the genetic content of large numbers of genomes. The results of the pipeline can be used to identify specific markers between user-defined phylogenetic groups, and to identify the loss and/or acquisition of genetic information between bacterial isolates. Taxa-specific genetic markers can then be translated

  18. Beaufort Sea deep-water gas hydrate recovery from a seafloor mound in a region of widespread BSR occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Patrick E.; Pohlman, John W.; Lorenson, T.D.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate was recovered from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay in August 2010 during a U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy expedition (USCG cruise ID HLY1002) under the direction of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Interpretation of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected in 1977 by the USGS across the Beaufort Sea continental margin identified a regional bottom simulating reflection (BSR), indicating that a large segment of the Beaufort Sea slope is underlain by gas hydrate. During HLY1002, gas hydrate was sampled by serendipity with a piston core targeting a steep-sided bathymetric high originally thought to be an outcrop of older, exposed strata. The feature cored is an approximately 1100m diameter, 130 m high conical mound, referred to here as the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM), which overlies the crest of a buried anticline in a region of sub-parallel compressional folds beneath the eastern Beaufort outer slope. An MCS profile shows a prominent BSR upslope and downslope from the mound. The absence of a BSR beneath the CSM and occurrence of gas hydrate near the summit indicates that free gas has migrated via deep-rooted thrust faults or by structural focusing up the flanks of the anticline to the seafloor. Gas hydrate recovered from near the CSM summit at a subbottom depth of about 5.7 meters in a water depth of 2538 m was of nodular and vein-filling morphology. Although the hydrate was not preserved, residual gas from the core liner contained >95% methane by volume when corrected for atmospheric contamination. The presence of trace C4+hydrocarbons (extrusion contributing to the development of the mound. Blister-like inflation of the seafloor caused by formation and accumulation of shallow hydrate lenses is also a likely factor in CSM growth. Pore water analysis shows the sulfate-methane transition to be very shallow (0-1 mbsf), also supporting an active high-flux interpretation. Pore water with chloride concentrations as low as 160 m

  19. Characterization of ASEC BSR 2 ohm-cm silicon solar cells with dielectric wraparound contacts as a function of temperature and intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Little, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty high performance BSR 2 ohm-cm silicon solar cells manufactured by ASEC were evaluated at 1 AU conditions and at low temperature and low intensities representative of deep space. These cells showed evidence of series resistance of 1 AU conditions and approximately 50% had reduced power outputs under deep space conditions. Average efficiency of these cells was 12.4% of 1 AU conditions of 1 SC/+25 C.

  20. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 6: Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab BSF, BSR, textured, 10 ohm-cm, 50 micron advanced OAST solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical parametric data are presented on BSF, BSR, textured 10 ohm cm, 50 micron advanced OAST cells in graphical and tabular form as functions of solar illumination intensity, temperature, and 1 MeV electron fluence.

  1. Numerical simulation of the performance and economical study of three cookers: solar, hybrid (solar and natural gas) and a LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) cooker for one typical year in Fortaleza-Brazil; Simulacao numerica da performance e estudo da viabilidade economica de tres tipos de fogoes: solar, hibrido (solar e gas natural) e a GLP (Gas Liquefeito do Petroleo) para um ano em Fortaleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria Eugenia Vieira da; Santana, Lana Ludmila Pinheiro [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar e Gas Natural (LESGN); Schwarzer, Klemens [Universidade de Ciencias Aplicadas de Aachen (Germany). Solar Institute Juelich; Miller, Francisco Mateus [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Baratelli Junior, Fernando [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Gas e Energia

    2004-07-01

    Alternative energy sources can represent viable economical solutions for the energy supply problems and also minimize damages to the environment. This research paper presents an economical and technical study of three different types of cookers: a solar cooker, a hybrid cooker and a conventional LPG cooker, through simulation for one typical year in Fortaleza. The solar cooker used in the experiments is composed of two pots, an oven, a tank of storage and 2m{sup 2} of solar collector area. The hybrid cooker has the same structure of the solar one with an additional natural gas burner, and the LPG stove can be easily found in the market. To find the value of the necessary energy to make food in a solar cooker, the amount of solar radiation was measured, as well as the sensible and latent efficiencies of the used stove. In the hybrid, it was considered that the natural gas is used only in the periods of the day when the amount of solar energy is not enough to heat the system up to the desired temperature. The results show an economical and technical comparison of the three different types of cookers. (author)

  2. The use of a numerical simulation for the evaluation and optimization of a industrial equipment operation using a natural gas combustion; O uso da simulacao numerica para avaliar e otimizar a operacao de equipamentos industriais envolvendo a combustao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Marcos Sebastiao de P.; Nieckele, Angela O.; Naccache, Monica F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Nascimento Filho, Lenart Palmeira do [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Tecnologia do Gas Natural

    2004-07-01

    Numerical modeling may be used with great efficiency for predicting the behavior of systems operating in new situations. By using adequate models, it is possible to predict the performance of a system in a great number of different situations, in a fast manner and saving resources. The objective of the work was to develop a methodology, by using numerical modeling, with the purpose of predicting the behavior of combustion equipment operating with natural gas. The simulations included the modeling of the turbulent flow, the heat transfer and mass transfer problems, and also for considering the chemical reactions mechanisms. The investigation focused on the industrial segment. Two typical geometries were studied, represented by Industrial furnace for melting and re-melting metals, and Industrial furnace for ceramics ('tunnel' type). The simulations produced results, for the two geometries which were considered, on the velocity and temperature fields and species concentrations, within both furnaces. The developed methodology may be employed in other applications of practical interest. (author)

  3. Mathematical and numerical modeling of the turbulent dispersion of reactive pollutant plumes; Modelacion matematica y numerica de la dispersion turbulenta de plumas de contaminantes reactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodas Grapain, Arturo

    1999-07-01

    desarrolladas, por lo que poseen dos efectos secundarios inevitables: la inestabilidad del metodo numerico, es decir, su capacidad para lograr una convergencia rapida y aceptable del valor aproximado con relacion al valor real, el alto consumo de memoria de la maquina donde se ejecutan los calculos numericos y, paralelamente, el tiempo requerido para desarrollar dichos calculos. Otro problema innato a lo anterior es la estructura del modelo de calidad del aire, es decir, la base matematica donde descansan los calculos medulares de dicho modelo matematico. Generalmente los modelos simples realizan calculos rapidos pero poco precisos, contrapuesto a los modelos complejos y elaborados que realizan calculos mas precisos, pero que tardan mucho tiempo en llevarse a cabo, y por lo mismo tienen que ser ejecutados en potentes y rapidas computadoras, tales como las estaciones de trabajo o en super computadoras como una Cray. Por todo lo anterior, el modelo que aqui se propone, aunque posee una estructura teorica relativamente simple, produce resultados bastante aceptables con relacion al calculo puntual de concentraciones, mismos que son comparados por dos modelos matematicos de moderada complejidad teorica y numerica (modelos de Georgopoulos-Seinfeld y de Lipphardt). Este modelo propuesto, denominado MOTTQUIP (modelo de transporte turbulento y quimica de plumas), posee la caracteristica sobresaliente de que no involucra (al menos explicitamente) la solucion numerica de ecuaciones en diferenciales parciales y, por lo tanto, no presenta las dificultades tipicas de los metodos numericos de solucion para las ecuaciones de este tipo.

  4. Modulation of Inter-kingdom Communication by PhcBSR Quorum Sensing System in Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype I Strain GMI1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is a ubiquitous soil-borne plant pathogenic bacterium, which frequently encounters and interacts with other soil cohabitants in competition for environmental niches. Ralsolamycin, which is encoded by the rmy genes, has been characterized as a novel inter-kingdom interaction signal that induces chlamydospore development in fungi. In this study, we provide the first genetic evidence that the rmy gene expression is controlled by the PhcBSR quorum sensing (QS system in strain GMI1000. Mutation of phcB could lead to significant reduction of the expression levels of the genes involved in ralsolamycin biosynthesis. In addition, both the phcB and rmy mutants were attenuated in induction of chlamydospore formation in Fusarium oxysporum f. cubense and diminished in the ability to compete with the sugarcane pathogen Sporisorium scitamineum. Agreeable with the pattern of QS regulation, transcriptional expression analysis showed that the transcripts of the rmy genes were increased along with the increment of the bacterial population density. Taken together, the above findings provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms that the QS system involves in governing the ralsolamycin inter-kingdom signaling system.

  5. Numerical relativity; La relatividad numerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcubierre, M.

    2015-07-01

    Today the numerical relativity has developed numerical techniques and an understanding of the structure of the field equations and terms of coordinates, as well as an explosion in speed and memory capacity of supercomputers, make it possible to simulate the collision of black holes with masses and different spins in gravitational orbits. It has also allowed to study in detail the collapse and collision of stars neutrons.la numerical relativity has allowed other both numerical and theoretical studies. (Author)

  6. Development of Molecular Markers Linked to Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm4b by Combining SNP Discovery from Transcriptome Sequencing Data with Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSR-Seq) in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peipei; Xie, Jingzhong; Hu, Jinghuang; Qiu, Dan; Liu, Zhiyong; Li, Jingting; Li, Miaomiao; Zhang, Hongjun; Yang, Li; Liu, Hongwei; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Zhongjun; Li, Hongjie

    2018-01-01

    Powdery mildew resistance gene Pm4b, originating from Triticum persicum, is effective against the prevalent Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) isolates from certain regions of wheat production in China. The lack of tightly linked molecular markers with the target gene prevents the precise identification of Pm4b during the application of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). The strategy that combines the RNA-Seq technique and the bulked segregant analysis (BSR-Seq) was applied in an F2:3 mapping population (237 families) derived from a pair of isogenic lines VPM1/7∗Bainong 3217 F4 (carrying Pm4b) and Bainong 3217 to develop more closely linked molecular markers. RNA-Seq analysis of the two phenotypically contrasting RNA bulks prepared from the representative F2:3 families generated 20,745,939 and 25,867,480 high-quality read pairs, and 82.8 and 80.2% of them were uniquely mapped to the wheat whole genome draft assembly for the resistant and susceptible RNA bulks, respectively. Variant calling identified 283,866 raw single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and InDels between the two bulks. The SNPs that were closely associated with the powdery mildew resistance were concentrated on chromosome 2AL. Among the 84 variants that were potentially associated with the disease resistance trait, 46 variants were enriched in an about 25 Mb region at the distal end of chromosome arm 2AL. Four Pm4b-linked SNP markers were developed from these variants. Based on the sequences of Chinese Spring where these polymorphic SNPs were located, 98 SSR primer pairs were designed to develop distal markers flanking the Pm4b gene. Three SSR markers, Xics13, Xics43, and Xics76, were incorporated in the new genetic linkage map, which located Pm4b in a 3.0 cM genetic interval spanning a 6.7 Mb physical genomic region. This region had a collinear relationship with Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 5, rice chromosome 4, and sorghum chromosome 6. Seven genes associated with disease

  7. Development of Molecular Markers Linked to Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm4b by Combining SNP Discovery from Transcriptome Sequencing Data with Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSR-Seq in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew resistance gene Pm4b, originating from Triticum persicum, is effective against the prevalent Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt isolates from certain regions of wheat production in China. The lack of tightly linked molecular markers with the target gene prevents the precise identification of Pm4b during the application of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS. The strategy that combines the RNA-Seq technique and the bulked segregant analysis (BSR-Seq was applied in an F2:3 mapping population (237 families derived from a pair of isogenic lines VPM1/7∗Bainong 3217 F4 (carrying Pm4b and Bainong 3217 to develop more closely linked molecular markers. RNA-Seq analysis of the two phenotypically contrasting RNA bulks prepared from the representative F2:3 families generated 20,745,939 and 25,867,480 high-quality read pairs, and 82.8 and 80.2% of them were uniquely mapped to the wheat whole genome draft assembly for the resistant and susceptible RNA bulks, respectively. Variant calling identified 283,866 raw single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and InDels between the two bulks. The SNPs that were closely associated with the powdery mildew resistance were concentrated on chromosome 2AL. Among the 84 variants that were potentially associated with the disease resistance trait, 46 variants were enriched in an about 25 Mb region at the distal end of chromosome arm 2AL. Four Pm4b-linked SNP markers were developed from these variants. Based on the sequences of Chinese Spring where these polymorphic SNPs were located, 98 SSR primer pairs were designed to develop distal markers flanking the Pm4b gene. Three SSR markers, Xics13, Xics43, and Xics76, were incorporated in the new genetic linkage map, which located Pm4b in a 3.0 cM genetic interval spanning a 6.7 Mb physical genomic region. This region had a collinear relationship with Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 5, rice chromosome 4, and sorghum chromosome 6. Seven genes associated with

  8. Release of BSR's "Child Labour in Myanmar's Garment Sector" Report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... The research found that young workers are participating in the garment sector, but that they typically make up a small percentage of a factor's workforce and the presence of underage ... Related Employment and Growth initiatives include: Better Jobs in Asia and Reforming Labour Markets in Myanmar.

  9. Conditional truncated plurigaussian simulation; Simulacao plurigaussiana truncada com condicionamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Vitor Hugo

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this work was a development of an algorithm for the Truncated Plurigaussian Stochastic Simulation and its validation in a complex geologic model. The reservoir data comes from Aux Vases Zone at Rural Hill Field in Illinois, USA, and from the 2D geological interpretation, described by WEIMER et al. (1982), three sets of samples, with different grid densities ware taken. These sets were used to condition the simulation and to refine the estimates of the non-stationary matrix of facies proportions, used to truncate the gaussian random functions (RF). The Truncated Plurigaussian Model is an extension of the Truncated Gaussian Model (TG). In this new model its possible to use several facies with different spatial structures, associated with the simplicity of TG. The geological interpretation, used as a validation model, was chosen because it shows a set of NW/SE elongated tidal channels cutting the NE/SW shoreline deposits interleaved by impermeable facies. These characteristics of spatial structures of sedimentary facies served to evaluate the simulation model. Two independent gaussian RF were used, as well as an 'erosive model' as the truncation strategy. Also, non-conditional simulations were proceeded, using linearly combined gaussian RF with varying correlation coefficients. It was analyzed the influence of some parameters like: number of gaussian RF,correlation coefficient, truncations strategy, in the outcome of simulation, and also the physical meaning of these parameters under a geological point of view. It was showed, step by step, using an example, the theoretical model, and how to construct an algorithm to simulate with the Truncated Plurigaussian Model. The conclusion of this work was that even with a plain algorithm of the Conditional Truncated Plurigaussian and a complex geological model it's possible to obtain a usefulness product. (author)

  10. COMPORTAMIENTO MECANICO DE LA AORTA ASCENDENTE: CARACTERZACION EXPERIMENTAL Y SIMULACION NUMERICA.

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA HERRERA, CLAUDIO; GARCIA HERRERA, CLAUDIO

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza una caracterización experimental y numérica del comportamiento mecánico de la pared de la aorta humana. Se destaca la importancia (le este tema debido al creciente interés cii coiiocer las propiedades y la respuesta mecánica de 193p.

  11. Analisis y resolucion numerica de flujos cavitacionales piezoviscosos en lubricacion hidrodinamica

    OpenAIRE

    Durany, J.; Vázquez, C.

    1993-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia un modelo matemático de cavitación para fluidos que aparecen en problemas de lubricación hidrodinámica de pares ejes-cojinetes. El fenómeno de la cavitación se analiza mediante un modelo del tipo Reynolds para el q l se presenta un resultado de existencia de solución utilizando métodos de regularización. Finalmente, la resolución numérica del modelo continuo se efectúa mediante técnicas de elementos finitos combinadas con algoritmos de transporte-difusión....

  12. Analysis of numerical solutions for Bateman equations; Analise de solucoes numericas para as equacoes de Bateman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loch, Guilherme G.; Bevilacqua, Joyce S., E-mail: guiloch@ime.usp.br, E-mail: joyce@ime.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Matematica Aplicada. Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica; Hiromoto, Goro; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando, E-mail: rodrijr@ipen.br, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The implementation of stable and efficient numerical methods for solving problems involving nuclear transmutation and radioactive decay chains is the main scope of this work. The physical processes associated with irradiations of samples in particle accelerators, or the burning spent nuclear fuel in reactors, or simply the natural decay chains, can be represented by a set of first order ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients, for instance, the decay radioactive constants of each nuclide in the chain. Bateman proposed an analytical solution for a particular case of a linear chain with n nuclides decaying in series and with different decay constants. For more complex and realistic applications, the construction of analytical solutions is not viable and the introduction of numerical techniques is imperative. However, depending on the magnitudes of the decay radioactive constants, the matrix of coefficients could be almost singular, generating unstable and non convergent numerical solutions. In this work, different numerical strategies for solving systems of differential equations were implemented, the Runge-Kutta 4-4, Adams Predictor-Corrector (PC2) and the Rosenbrock algorithm, this last one more specific for stiff equations. Consistency, convergence and stability of the numerical solutions are studied and the performance of the methods is analyzed for the case of the natural decay chain of Uranium-235 comparing numerical with analytical solutions. (author)

  13. correction to numerica advection of moments of the particle size distribution in eulerian model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L.; Schwartz, S.; McGraw, B.; Lewis, E.

    2007-12-01

    Quadrature method of moments(QMOM) offers a alternative more efficient than sectional methods and more accurate than modal methods. If QMOM is incorporated into eulerian model, invalid moments set are produced by nonlinear transport methods when valid moments are transported as seperate tracers. A non-negative least squares (NNLS) soultion eliminates the problem without requiring modification of the transport algorithm. The evaluation of NNLS for two representative advection schemes in one dimension was done for 10E4 test cases.

  14. Peningkatan Titik Lembek Aspal Termodifikasi Menggunakan Block Skim Rubber (Bsr) Terdepolimerisasi

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhan, Arief; Kinasih, Norma Arisanti

    2015-01-01

    Titik lembek jalan beraspal cenderung lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan suhu di permukaan jalan. Terutama pada suhu lingkungan yang tinggi, jalan beraspal menjadi rusak. Peningkatan titik lembek aspal dapat dilakukan dengan penambahan karet alam pada aspal. Penambahan belerang dan resin perlu diberikan pada aspal termodifikasi karet alam untuk meningkatkan kompatibilitas aspal-karet alam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa karakteristik aspal termodifikasi yang dihasilkan dari penambah...

  15. Passive constituents dispersion simulation in Solimoes river; Simulacao de dispersao de constituintes passivos no rio Solimoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Assad, Luiz Paulo de Freitas; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Palagano, Mariana Ramalho; Decco, Hatsue Takanaca de; Mano, Manlio Fernandes; Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LAMMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos; Ferreira, Paulo Gustavo Crisostomo [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a passive constituents transport simulation in Solimoes river, that is part of Piatam Project modeling activities. The fluvial hydraulic was done using the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) for the Solimoes Terminal (TESOL) proximity region. An ADCP section was used as initial condition in one of the model boundaries. The velocity field was compared with five ADCP section collected along the simulated river and similar velocity magnitude was observed. Then this dynamic field was used to initialize the oil transport model NICOIL, the one that was used to simulate a 1000 m{sup 3} of soft oil spill (42 deg API), the Urucu type oil. Simultaneously to the ADCP data collection an in situ observation has been done to observe the oil spill spreading, using popcorn liberated in the river. The popcorn spill trajectory observed was similar to the one modeled. (author)

  16. Measurements, modelling and harmonic simulation in industry; Medicoes, modelagem e simulacao de hamonica em industria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Paul; Burke, Orla; Phang, Willian [ESB International (Ireland)

    2010-11-15

    Due to extending of a big industrial plant, with the exchange of synchronous motors of 2 MW for asynchronous of 4 MW, the impacts of the increase in load and the introduction of capacitors to provide the reactive power lost with the removal of synchronous motors were evaluated, as contribution for the current harmonics and voltage in the plant. The possible resonances and the use of the capacitors as filters were also evaluated.

  17. Simulation of batch adsorption systems; Simulacao de sistemas adsorvedores operando em batelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio, Cristiano C.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Stachiw, Rosalvo [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the treatments used to adequate the wastewater from petroleum industry according to environmental laws, is the treatment by the adsorption process. Powdered activated carbon is the commonly used adsorber material, for this great affinity with various organic compounds. But there are alternative adsorber materials that can substitute activated carbon, with a low cost, and limited applicability. In this work, will be used the software resulting from Efli project, developed at Federal University of Technology - Parana, to compare the alternative adsorber materials (oil shale compounds and fluid catalytic cracking) efficiency to that of activated carbon. (author)

  18. Transport simulation of mangoes irradiated for exportation; Simulacao do transporte de mangas irradiadas para exportacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe

    2007-07-01

    It had been studied the effect of the ionizing radiation (gamma) in mangoes for exportation, simulating the stage of preservation of the fruit during its transport, through the refrigeration in cold chamber. In a first stage they had been analyzed through loss of weight, pH, treatable acidity, soluble solid, texture and decomposition. Later, sensorial analyses had been become fulfilled (alterations of color, odor, flavor, texture). The assays had been carried through in two stadiums of maturation of the fruits, that is, 2 and 3, with the intention of studying optimum point of harvest for the best dosage of irradiation. The results disclose together that the treatment of the mangoes Tommy Atkins in the dose of 0,75 kGy was significant, with the fruit in stadium 2, for the retardation of the matureness and consequent profit of time for the exportation. (author)

  19. Thermal recovery simulation at the pore-network level; Simulacao de recuperacao termica em escala microscopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Claudio L.N.; Almeida, Murilo P.; Andrade Junior, Jose S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Herrmann, Hans J. [Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich (ETHZ), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of temperature in penetration of an inviscid fluid into a porous media saturated with a very high viscous fluid. Gradient of temperature is applied across the medium. The viscosity of the defending fluid is considered as an exponential-like function with temperature. This scheme represents a small fraction of a heavy oil reservoir where steam injection is applied. The results show that the recovery of the viscous fluid is a hyperbolic tangent function with the difference of temperature, where it has a maximum recovery for high gradient. Our results show, also, that the recovery efficiency can increase substantially with the gradient of temperature. (author)

  20. Modelling and simulation of a photovoltaic generator; Modelagem e simulacao de gerador fotovoltaico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Claudia Valeria T.; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: tclavale@vicosa.ufv.br; Machado Neto, Lauro de Vilhena B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC/Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Diniz, Antonia Sonia Alves C. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A photovoltaic generator is subject to diverse variations in solar intensity, surrounding temperature or load, which alter the optimal operation point. Thus, one must analyze its behavior regarding such variations in order to optimize its functioning. This paper aims at modeling a photovoltaic generator regarding the features provided by the manufacturer and simulate it, using, for that purpose, simulation and curve digitalisation programs (Simulink of Matlab), analyzing its behavior with regard to the temperature and solar intensity variation, comparing the obtained curves to those provided by the manufacturer. The obtained results were satisfactory, the model used being valid for photovoltaic generators simulation. (author)

  1. Simulation model of a micro turbine; Modelo para simulacao de uma microturbina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Felipe Samuel de; Ruppert Filho, Ernesto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao

    2004-07-01

    The introduction of distributed generation (DG) units in the electric power system has been surrounded by many promises and uncertainnesses. Hence, new simulation tools are needed in order to assess the issues and the benefits related to the connection of DG in the electric power system. In this paper will be presented and simulated a model of a micro turbine, a new and emerging distributed generation technology. (author)

  2. 3Wave propagation in rock samples under medium and low temperature conditions. Characteristics of methane hydrate-BSR phenomena; Chu teion ryoiki ni okeru ganseki shiryo no hado denpa tokusei. 1. Methane hydrate BSR gensho no kosatsu suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y.; Matsushima, J.; Sano, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-22

    In relation to sea-bottom pseudo reflection face and methane hydrate in seismic exploration records, fundamental experimental studies have been made. In order to get a handhold to elucidate phenomena accompanying methane hydrate, the studies have investigated wave propagation behavior of rock samples and sandy sediments under medium and low temperature conditions. The experiments have used a constant-temperature cooling water circulating equipment to control temperatures of each sample. The samples were placed in a cooler box with the vibration transmitter and receiver fixedly installed, and changes of the waves against temperature change were measured. Sand-stones and two kinds of tuffs were used as rock samples for the measurement. Artificial sand sample soaked in water was used as a substitute for a methane hydrate layer. As a result of the experiments, the relation between the hydrate layer and the gas layer was comprehended. In addition, the blanking phenomenon was thought occurring as a result of the nearly whole substance presenting the speed of ice due to freezing of the sediments, rather than by what is described in the ground homogeneousness theory. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Numerical modeling of compositional variation in petroleum secondary migration; Modelagem numerica da variacao composicional na migracao secundaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcia Santos de Almeida

    1999-07-01

    The secondary migration of petroleum is analyzed in this study from a compositional perspective, with phase separation, using a numerical simulator. The modeling is focused on two different geologic scenarios, where migration occurs along the formation rocks or through a fault. Each scenario is initialized with a single-phase hydrocarbon bank, with mixtures defined in the oil and gas zones and in the proximity of the critical point in their respective phase envelopes. These fluids are obtained using a PVT simulator based on four samples (Black-oil, volatile oil and two retrograde gases) which generate various hydrocarbon mixtures from which some are selected to meet the pressure and temperature conditions established for the models. The results obtained indicate that the phase separation process, the migration and the oil and gas differences are adequately represented, and that this type of modeling may be used to explain complex fluid distribution in a single accumulation or petroleum province. However, the analysis of post-filling processes indicate the need for the inclusion of a diffusive term in the flow equations used in the simulator and for a higher precision in the fluid properties outputs. (author)

  4. Numerical Simulation of a Polymer electrolyte Fuel Cell; Simulacion Numerica de una Pila de combustible de Membrana Polimerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Fabian, D.; Naud, B.

    2005-07-01

    This document reproduces the final project of David San Fabian Ayuso, presented on May 26, 2005, for the obtention of the engineer degree of the Carlos III University of Madrid. A single-phase, isothermal model, including both electron and proton transport, is introduced for the simulation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEM). The model is implemented in the commercial code Fluent 6.0, through the use of UDFs (User Defined Functions). In order to validate the model, a single canal of a PEM monocell is simulated in three dimensions. The obtained result are qualitatively satisfactory. It is observed that it is not essential to solve the current collectors when a monocell is considered (and not a stack). in the present study, the number of nodes is the computational grid appears to be too low in the membrane zone in order to make a complete validation of the model. (Author) 20 refs.

  5. Evaluation of the numerical solution of polymer flooding; Avaliacao da solucao numerica da injecao de polimeros em reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Vinicius Ligiero; Pires, Adolfo Puime; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel G. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao do Petroleo (LENEP)

    2004-07-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods include injection of different fluids into reservoirs to improve oil displacement. The EOR methods may be classified into the following kinds: injection of chemical solutions, injection of solvents and thermal methods. The chemical fluids most commonly injected are polymers, surfactants, micellar solutions, etc. Displacement of oil by any of these fluids involves complex physico-chemical processes of interphase mass transfer, phase transitions and transport properties changes. These processes can be divided into two main categories: thermodynamical and hydrodynamical ones. They occur simultaneously during the displacement, and are coupled in the modern mathematical models of EOR. The model for one-dimensional displacement of oil by polymer solutions is analyzed in this paper. The Courant number is fixed, and we compare the results of different runs of a numerical simulator with the analytical solution of this problem. Each run corresponds to a different spatial discretization. (author)

  6. Experimentation and numerical simulation of steel fibre reinforced concrete pipes; Experimentacion y simulacion numerica de tubos de hormigon con fibras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, A. de la; Domingues de Figueiredo, A.; Aguado, A.; Molins, C.; Chama Neto, P. J.

    2011-07-01

    The results concerning on an experimental and a numerical study related to SFRCP are presented. Eighteen pipes with an internal diameter of 600 mm and fibre dosages of 10, 20 and 40 kg/m3 were manufactured and tested. Some technological aspects were concluded. Likewise, a numerical parameterized model was implemented. With this model, the simulation of the resistant behaviour of SFRCP can be performed. In this sense, the results experimentally obtained were contrasted with those suggested by means MAP reaching very satisfactory correlations. Taking it into account, it could be said that the numerical model is a useful tool for the optimal design of the SFRCP fibre dosages, avoiding the need of the systematic employment of the test as an indirect design method. Consequently, the use of this model would reduce the overall cost of the pipes and would give fibres a boost as a solution for this structural typology. (Author) 27 refs.

  7. Safety analysis report for the National Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF) at the ORNL Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.; Richardson, S.A.

    1986-06-01

    This report provides information concerning: the experiment facility; experiment assembly; instrumentation and controls; materials; radioactivity; shielding; thermodynamics; estimated or measured reactivity effects; procedures; hazards; and quality assurance

  8. Malakostratigrafie pleistocenních svahovin u Dolních Věstonic (CHKO/BSR Pálava)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ložek, Vojen

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2007, - (2008), s. 104-109 ISSN 0514-8057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Pleistocene * slope sediments * loess series * molluscan successions * landsliedes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2007/2007-29.pdf

  9. Methodology for transient simulation of a small heliothermic central station; Metodologia para simulacao transiente de uma pequena central heliotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, Marcelo

    2010-08-15

    The final steps of generating electricity from concentrated solar power technologies are similar to conventional thermal processes, since steam or gas is also employed for moving turbines or pistons. The fundamental difference lies on the fact that steam or hot gas is generated by solar radiation instead of fossil fuels or nuclear heat. The cheapest electricity generated from solar energy has been achieved with large-scale power stations based on this concept. Computer simulations represent a low-cost option for the design of thermal systems. The present study aims to develop a methodology for the transient simulation of a micro-scale solar-thermal power plant (120 kWe) which should be appropriate in terms of accuracy and computational effort. The facility considered can optionally operate as a cogeneration plant producing electric power as well as chilled water. Solar radiation is collected by parabolic troughs, electricity is generated by an organic Rankine cycle and chilled water is produced by an absorption cooling cycle. The organic Rankine cycle is of interest because it allows for a plant with relatively simple structure and automated operation. The simulation methodology proposed in this study is implemented in TRNSYS with new components (TYPEs) developed for the solar field and thermal cycles. The parabolic trough field component is based on an experimental efficiency curve of the solar collector. In the case of the Rankine and absorption cycles, the components are based on performance polynomials generated with EES from detailed thermodynamic models, which are calibrated with performance data from manufacturers. Distinct plant configurations are considered. An optimization algorithm is used for searching the best operating point in each case. Results are presented for the following Brazilian sites: Fortaleza, Petrolina and Bom Jesus da Lapa. The latter offers the highest global plant performance. An analysis about the influence of the thermal storage on the annual efficiency and capacity factor shows trends that are similar to results found in literature. An analysis with the absorption cycle demonstrates that it is not feasible to recover waste heat from the Rankine cycle condenser in order to produce chilled water. The simulation of the facility proves to be numerically stable and appropriate for analyzing the dynamic behavior and the long-term performance of a micro-scale solar-thermal power plant. (author)

  10. Simulation bidimensional of water and gas alternative injection; Simulacao bidimensional de injecao alternada de agua e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Ana Paula Silva C. de

    1999-07-01

    This dissertation presents a study of the unidimensional of water and gas alternate injection (WAG) using the stream line theory. It is considered incompressible fluid., unit mobility ratio, negligible capillary and gravitational effects, homogeneous and isotropic reservoir, isothermal flow two phases, oil and water, and three components, oil, water and gas. In the stream line theory, the following injection schemes are considered: staggered line five-spot, direct line and seven-spot. It is also considered that there is no flow among the streams. In the WAG calculations it is used the fractional flow theory and the method of characteristics, which consists of shock waves and rarefactions. The composition of these waves is said compatible if it satisfies the entropy condition. The solution goes through a certain path from the left to the right side constrained by the initial and boundary conditions. The gas injection is at a high pressure to ensure miscible displacement. It is considered first injection of a water bank and then, injection of a gas bank. We concluded that the gas injection at a high pressure recoveries all residual oil and the water saturation remains is greater than initial saturation. (author)

  11. Validation of response simulation methodology of Albedo dosemeter; Validacao da metodologia de simulacao de resposta de dosimetro de Albedo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, B.M.; Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: bfreitas@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao do Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Mauricio, C.L.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria developed and runs a neutron TLD albedo individual monitoring service. To optimize the dose calculation algorithm and to infer new calibration factors, the response of this dosemeter was simulated. In order to validate this employed methodology, it was applied in the simulation of the problem of the QUADOS (Quality Assurance of Computational Tools for Dosimetry) intercomparison, aimed to evaluate dosimetric problems, one being to calculate the response of a generic albedo dosemeter. The obtained results were compared with those of other modeling and the reference one, with good agreements. (author)

  12. Grain scale simulation of multiphase flow through porous media; Simulacao em escala granular do escoamento multifasico em meio poroso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Ricardo Golghetto; Cheng, Liang-Yee [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2012-07-01

    Since the grain scale modeling of multi-phase flow in porous media is of great interest for the oil industry, the aim of the present research is to show an implementation of Moving Particle Semi-Implicit (MPS) method for the grain scale simulation of multi-phase flow in porous media. Geometry data obtained by a high-resolution CT scan of a sandstone sample has been used as input for the simulations. The results of the simulations performed considering different resolutions are given, the head loss and permeability obtained numerically, as well as the influence of the wettability of the fluids inside the sample of the reservoir's sandstone. (author)

  13. In-situ combustion simulation with dynamic grid; Simulacao de combustao in-situ com grades dinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, C.H.A.; Almeida, M.P.; Vasconcelos, H.H.M.; Oliveira, C.L.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we study the effects of the introduction of 3D dynamics grids on in-situ combustion simulation results as means of describing the most realistically possible the dynamics of these processes, in particular of the combustion front. The dynamic refinement of grid blocks is important because in thesis it enhances the precision in the calculations once that more grid blocks are considered in the grid, especially within the narrow region of high temperature of the combustion front. We have performed dry combustion simulation (only water injection) and wet combustion simulation (air + water injection) for forward combustion in a variety of well configurations. Our initial results have shown changes in oil, water and gas productions when we use dynamics grids in the simulations, making clear the relevance of its usage in the understanding of the dynamics of these processes. (author)

  14. Simulation of an antiprotons beam applied to the radiotherapy; Simulacao de um feixe de antiprotons aplicado a radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Leonardo de Almeida

    2006-07-15

    Results for the interaction of a antiproton beam with constituent nuclei of the organic matter are presented. This method regards of the application of an computational algorithm to determine quantitatively the differential cross sections for the scattered particles, starting from the interaction of these antiprotons with the nuclei, what will allow in the future to draw the isodose curve for antiproton therapy, once these beams are expected to be used in cancer treatment soon. The calculation will be done through the application of the concepts of the method of intranuclear cascade, providing yield and differential cross sections of the scattered particles, present in the software MCMC. Th algorithm was developed based on Monte Carlo's method, already taking into account a validate code. The following physical quantities are presented: the yield of secondary particles, their spectral and angular distributions for these interactions. For the energy range taken into account the more important emitted particles are protons, neutrons and pions. Results shown that emitted secondary particles can modify the isodose curves, because they present high yield and energy for transverse directions. (author)

  15. Application of mathematical model for simulation of groundwater flow; Aplicacao de modelo matematico para simulacao do fluxo de agua subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Filho, Carlos Alberto de; Branco, Otavio Eurico de Aquino [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Loureiro, Celso de Oliveira [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental

    2000-07-01

    The main purpose of the present research work is the groundwater flow characterization of the aquifer system of the Engenho Nogueira Creek watershed basin, particularly within the limits of the Pampulha Campus of the Federal University of Minas Gerais and nearby. In order to reach the aforementioned goal, a numerical model was implemented for simulation the groundwater flow, using the MODFLOW code. The local hydrogeology consists of a porous granular aquifer placed above and hydraulically connected to a fractured aquifer, constituting a unique aquifer system, mixed and phreatic type, heterogeneous and anisotropic. The local hydrogeological system is strongly influenced by a complex drain system and by the Engenho Nogueira Creek. After calibration, it was possible to predict the average phreatic depth measured in the observation wells for the period in study with a standard deviation of 1.65 m and a correlation coefficient of 0.94. (author)

  16. Simulation spread sheet of Angra-1 secondary circuit; Planilha de simulacao do circuito secundario de Angra-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futuro, F.L.; Rucos, J.; Ogando, A. [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: jrucos@eletronuclear.gov.br; Maprelian, E.; Bassel, W.S.; Baptista Filho, B.D. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). E-mail: emaprel@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    The efficient operation of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) requires the continuous identification of derivations in the main operating parameters. The identification and analysis of those derivations allow someone to detect the degradation of instruments or even of any equipment. In order to study this problem the group of thermal generation of Angra 1 NPP, devised the use of a Microsoft Excel spread sheet for the automation of Angra 1 thermal balance. In the set of simulation spread sheets, measured values of the secondary system main parameters were compared with project values for a given reactor power level and condenser pressure. The spread sheets provide the turbines power and efficiency and do the plant thermal balance. This work presents a general description of the spread sheets set and a real case analysis of Angra 1 NPP, showing its precision and use easiness. (author)

  17. Bench for the simulation of the dynamic behavior of hydrogenerators; Bancada para a simulacao do comportamento dinamico de hidrogeradores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.O.M.; Diniz, A.C.G.C.; Neves, F.J.R.; Oliveira, A.B.S. [Universidade de Brasilia (Unb), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: molavo@unb.br, ferneves@unb.br, cvsv@unb.br, lbrsalomon@unb.br, alessandro@unb.br, adiniz@unb.br

    2009-07-01

    In this work a test rig was developed to model, test and study the dynamic behavior of hydro power generators. Specifically, a Kaplan turbine / generator rotor with a vertical shaft was modeled in this project. The rig was initially developed with the aim to preserve only electrical and mechanical dynamic behavior similarities between the reduced model and the prototype. (author)

  18. Generalized transmissibilities for corner point rids in reservoir simulation; Transmissibilidades generalizadas em malhas corner point na simulacao de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Mauricio P.; Silva, Antonio Fabio C. da; Maliska, Clovis R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao Numerica em Mecanica dos Fluidos e Transferencia de Calor (SINMEC)

    2008-07-01

    It is common to use five points schemes in reservoir simulation, since it simplifies the computational implementation and takes the linear resultant system simplest to be solved, giving more process velocity and robust to simulator. However, the use of these schemes may introduce significant errors solutions as function of volume's non orthogonality and medium anisotropy. These errors do not disappear with grid refinement since they are not truncate errors, it is a flux calculus approximation in the control volume faces. In order to get a correct solution and with no errors of these kind, it must be used a nine point scheme based on the correct flux calculus. The objective of this work is to present a new methodology to calculate the transmissibility on simulation reservoir that use a five and nine points scheme with corner-points grids. This mode considers full tensor anisotropy and the heterogeneity. The transmissibility presented are derivative of the discrete flux expression through control volume faces, where a generalized curvilinear coordinate system, located inner to the control volume, it is adopted. The transmissibility is then written on vector form and may to be used for any coordinate system. (author)

  19. Numerical Resolution of N-dimensional Fokker-Planck stochastic equations; Resolucion Numerica de Ecuaciones Estocasticas de tipo Fokker-Planck en Varias Dimensiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, R. A.; Munoz Roldan, A.

    1992-07-01

    This document describes the use of a library of programs able to solve stochastic Fokker-Planck equations in a N-dimensional space. The input data are essentially: (i) the initial distribution of the stochastic variable, (ii) the drift and fluctuation coefficients as a function of the state (which can be obtained from the transition probabilities between neighboring states) and (iii) some parameters controlling the run. A last version of the library accepts sources and sinks defined in the states space. The output is the temporal evolution of the probability distribution in the space defined by a N-dimensional grid. Some applications and readings in Synergetic, Self-Organization, transport phenomena, Ecology and other fields are suggested. If the probability distribution is interpreted as a distribution of particles then the codes can be used to solve the N-dimensional problem of advection-diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  20. Physical and numerical modelings of lateral drag in a pipeline in very soft clay; Modelagens fisica e numerica de arraste lateral de duto em argila mole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato M.S.; Almeida, Maria C.F.; Almeida, Marcio S.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Borges, Ricardo G.; Amaral, Claudio S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses some results from a joint research project undertaken by COPPE/UFRJ and CENPES/PETROBRAS about soil-structure interaction applied to thermal snaking of shallowly buried pipelines embedded in very soft clay. At this phase, the lateral soil reaction due to pipeline horizontal displacements was studied by means of physical and numerical modeling. In that way, a set of comprehensive centrifuge tests has been undertaken using a 1:30 scaled pipe dragged laterally, varying the burial depth condition. The soil used for the tests is a very soft clay sample collected at the Duque de Caxias Refinery area in Rio de Janeiro. The vertical and horizontal displacements of the pipe were imposed by computer-controlled actuators, with soil reaction forces being measured on both directions. The physical modeling results were compared with numerical simulations of the same centrifuge scenarios using the software AEEPECD, developed by PETROBRAS, showing good agreement in terms of horizontal and vertical soil reactions. (author)

  1. Numerical analysis of the turbulent natural convection in a solar chimney; Analise numerica da conveccao natural turbulenta em uma chamine solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasil, Cristiana S.; Valle, Ramon M.; Cortez, Marcio F.B.; Ferreira, Andre G. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: tite@demec.ufmg.br; ramon@demec.ufmg.br; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; ferreira@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the turbulent natural convection in a solar chimney operating in steady flow, with prescribed conditions of temperature in the ground. The solar radiation heats the air under the cover, which flows to the tower without artificial pumping. The hot air produced may be used to dry several agricultural products. The numerical analysis of the natural convection in this kind of dryer has fundamental importance on the design and building of this device. The mathematical model includes the conservation laws for mass, momentum and thermal energy and the transport equations for the turbulence model variables (k and e ). The k- e model of turbulence with wall functions was used. A computational code using the Finite Volume Method in Generalized Coordinates was developed to solve the system of equations that describes thermal and hydro dynamically the flow. The velocity and temperature fields are shown to the flow in the solar chimney. With geometrical alterations on the device, one can obtain a detailed description of the flow, which allow the guideline for a suitable configuration to build an experimental prototype. (author)

  2. Numerical analysis of the actual airflow in a solar chimney; Analise numerica do escoamento real de ar em uma chamine solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Andre G.; Cortez, Marcio F.B.; Valle, Ramon M.; Brasil, Cristiana S. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ferreira@demec.ufmg.br; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; ramon@demec.ufmg.br; tite@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the turbulent natural convection of the airflow in a solar chimney, under actual solar radiation conditions. The solar chimneys are devices that consist of a transparent radial cover and of a tubular tower positioned in its center. The ground absorbs part of the incident solar radiation on the cover, heating the air in the greenhouse and inducing an upward airflow on the tower. It was developed a model that allows the evaluation of the ground temperature as a function of an energetic balance involving the incident solar radiation. The flow is described by the conservation laws for mass, momentum and thermal energy and the transport equations for the turbulence model (k and e ). A computational code using the Finite Volume Method in Generalized Coordinates was developed to solve these equations. Outlet dimensionless parameters are presented as functions of the radiation time and conditions, besides the unsteady behavior of the ground surface temperature. (author)

  3. Numerical modeling of oil spill in the Patos Lagoon estuary; Modelagem numerica de derrames de oleo no estuario da Lagoa dos Patos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho, Vivian; Monteiro, Igor Oliveira; Janeiro, Joao; Fernandes, Elisa Helena Leao [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Navigation is responsible for the input of 555.000 tons of oil per year in the marine environment. The recovery of the system can take dozens of years, affecting economical, ecological and social areas. The Patos Lagoon estuary presents wide importance and high susceptibility to accidents of oil spill. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the spread of oil spills using the MOHID model, which simulates both the hydrodynamics of the estuary and the oil dispersion considering the different processes involved. Wind and water level data from May 1 to August 18, 1999 were used to simulate a hypothetic accident of involving 2000 m3 of oil MF 380 during the passage of a cold front considering high and low river discharges. Results indicate that the oil dispersion is governed by the estuarine dynamic, which is controlled by the wind action and river discharge. Thus, during southwest wind the oil is retained within the estuary, and in situations of northeast wind the oil tends to leave the estuary and sometimes can reach the inner shallow bays. (author)

  4. Numerical investigation of the High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) using computational fluid dynamics; Investigacao numerica do Reator de Alta Temperatura (VHTR) utilizando fluidodinamica computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Joao Pedro C.T.A.; Santos, Andre A. Campagnole dos; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: jpctap@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG),Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica

    2013-07-01

    This work consists to evaluate and continue the study that is being developed in the Laboratory of Thermo-Hydraulics of the CNEN/CDTN (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear), aiming to validate the methods and procedures used in the numerical calculations of fluid flow in fuel elements of the core of the VHTR.

  5. Infiltration analysis for Abadia de Goias repository: numerical solution; Analise de infiltracao para o repositorio de Abadia de Goias: solucao numerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Alves, Antonio S. de [NUCLEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Passos, Aline M.M. dos [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The safety analysis of a structure known as repository for medium activity wastes leads to investigating the physical phenomena connected to the water infiltration. This work shows succinctly an engineering approach to obtain numerical results for the model differential equations. One of these equations, related to the two-phase flow within the structure, is a nonlinear Riccati type, whose solution is only known for certain cases. For safety analysis and design purposes, the solution for the case of variable parameters is also advantageous when one aims some accident scenarios analysis. The utilization of numerical techniques allowed excellent results applied for the design of the Abadia de Goias repository. The case treated in this paper was one of those applied to the safety assessment of this repository. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Development of pathological anthropomorphic models using 3D modelling techniques for numerical dosimetry; Desenvolvimento de modelos antropomorficos patologicos usando tecnicas de modelagem 3D para dosimetria numerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Kleber Souza Silva [Faculdade Integrada de Pernambuco (FACIPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Barbosa, Antonio Konrado de Santana; Vieira, Jose Wilson [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Computational exposure models can be used to estimate human body absorbed dose in a series of situations such as X-Ray exams for diagnosis, accidents and medical treatments. These models are fundamentally composed of an anthropomorphic simulator (phantom), an algorithm that simulates a radioactive source and a Monte Carlo Code. The accuracy of data obtained in the simulation is strongly connected to the adequacy of such simulation to the real situation. The phantoms are one of the key factors for the researcher manipulation. They are generally developed in supine position and its anatomy is patronized by compiled data from international institutions such as ICRP or ICRU. Several pathologies modify the structure of organs and body tissues. In order to measure how significant these alterations are, an anthropomorphic model was developed for this study: patient mastectomies. This model was developed using voxel phantom FASH and then coupled with EGSnrc Monte Carlo code

  7. Analysis of Auto ignition of Hydrogen-Air Mixture using Direct Numerical Simulation; Analisis de la Autoignicion de Mezclas Hidrogeno-Aire mediante Simulacion Numerica directa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Vera, I.; Paola, G. de; Jimenez Sanchez, C.

    2008-07-01

    This document reproduces the final project of Ignacio Hernandez Vera, presented on September 25, 2008, for the obtention of the engineer degree of the Carlos III University of Madrid. A study on the auto ignition process of different hydrogen-air mixtures for different simple geometries is carried out by means of direct numerical simulation. Auto ignition time is compared for different configurations and it is discussed the influence that different parameters have on it, such as temperature or transport phenomena. Afterwards a new reduced chemical mechanism for the simulation of this phenomenon is tested and assessed. Finally the mixing and ignition process is tackled using different mixture fractions and its implications on the construction of combustion models briefly discussed. (Author) 15 refs.

  8. Performance analysis of numeric solutions applied to biokinetics of radionuclides; Analise de desempenho de solucoes numericas aplicadas a biocinetica de radionuclideos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingatos, Danielle dos Santos; Bevilacqua, Joyce da Silva, E-mail: dani@ime.usp.br, E-mail: joyce@ime.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica; Todo, Alberto Saburo; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando, E-mail: astodo@ipen.br, E-mail: rodrijr@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Biokinetics models for radionuclides applied to dosimetry problems are constantly reviewed by ICRP. The radionuclide trajectory could be represented by compartmental models, assuming constant transfer rates between compartments. A better understanding of physiological or biochemical phenomena, improve the comprehension of radionuclide behavior in the human body and, in general, more complex compartmental models are proposed, increasing the difficulty of obtaining the analytical solution for the system of first order differential equations. Even with constant transfer rates numerical solutions must be carefully implemented because of almost singular characteristic of the matrix of coefficients. In this work we compare numerical methods with different strategies for ICRP-78 models for Thorium-228 and Uranium-234. The impact of uncertainty in the parameters of the equations is also estimated for local and global truncation errors. (author)

  9. Numerical model of simulation for solar collector of water heating; Modelo de simulaco numerica para colector solar de aquecimento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A. C. G. C.; Dutra, J. C. C.; Henriquez, J. R.; Michalewicz, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    Before being installed a solar heater, It must be tested, numerical or experimentally to get his characteristic equation, which is the efficiency curve, plotted as a function on the temperature of entry and solar incident radiation on the collector. In this work was developed a tool for numerical simulation of heating water flat-plate solar collectors. This tool has been developed from a mathematical model which is composed of a system of equations. In the model are included equations of balance energy for the collector, equation of the first law, the law of cooling equation of Newton, convective heat transfer coefficient correlations, equations for calculating the solar incident radiation, and one equation that calculates of the water flow due to the siphon effect. The solution of the equations system was obtained by the multidimensional version of the Newton-Raphson method. the model was validated with experimental data from literature. The results shows, that it is a very interesting tool to simulate efficiency curve of the solar collector. (Author)

  10. Stress and thermal expansion numerical analysis of subsea buried pipelines; Analise numerica de tensoes e expansao termica de dutos submarinos enterrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Marcio de S.; Vaz, Murilo A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Solano, Rafael F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The design of Capixaba North Terminal pipelines (TNC) became very complex, once the pipelines are exposed to elevated temperature variations. As the pipelines are buried, the interaction with the seabed can become critical with the thermal expansion development, since an axial compressive force arise, reaching critical values and then leading the pipeline to the thermo mechanical instability phenomenon. To minimize these effects, the pipeline will cross the shore approach through a horizontal directional drilling, and expansion loops and intermediate tie-ins took place on his route in order to permit pipeline displacements, working thermally. The objective of this present work is to develop a numerical model, able to analyze the entire pipeline stress, strain and displacements, considering different kinds of soil along of his route. The influence of expansion loops is evaluated and a comparative analysis in order to discover the minimum curvature radius at the directional drilling region is carried out. This study defines a methodology based on the developed numerical model which will be extended to future applications in subsea buried pipeline design. (author)

  11. Numerical simulation of diametral compression tests for the evaluation of porous ceramic disks; Simulacion numerica de ensayos de compresion diametral para la evaluacion de discos ceramicos porosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M. L.; Tomba Martinez, A. G.; Camerucci, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    The mechanical behavior of porous cordierite materials was studied by diametral compression tests. The analytical solution allowing the indirect measuring of the tensile mechanical strength in this load configuration is formulated under certain assumption which may be not satisfied in practice. With the aim to analyze deviations of the ideal conditions, the test was simulated using computational techniques. Porous cordierite disks were prepared by firing (650 degree centigrade, 2h) and reaction-sintering (1330 degree centigrade, 4h) of green disks shaped by thermo gelling the aqueous suspensions of a cordierite precursor mixture (kaolin, talc and alumina) with native potato starch as a consolidator/binder of ceramic particles and a pore former by burn-out at high temperature. The mechanical tests were carried out in displacement control (0.2 mm/min) using a servo hydraulic testing machine. From the apparent stress-strain ratio, the following parameters were determined: mechanical strength, apparent Young modulus and yield stress. Fracture features of tested disks were also analyzed. The influence of the geometrical deviations more usually identified in practice (deviation of the circularity and no parallelism between the plane surfaces of the disk) on the stress distribution was studied by means of the simulation by finite element method, considering the Hertzs equation for contact problems as reference. (Author) 20 refs.

  12. Reactivity analysis for numerical solution of the point kinetic equation for subcritical; Analise da reatividade para solucao numerica da equacao da cinetica pontual para sistemas subcriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrice Junior, Edson; Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz, E-mail: ejunior@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia Nuclear; Palma, Daniel Artur Pinheiro, E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides a comparison between the reactivity calculated by the approximation based on the multiplication factor (K{sub eff}) and a new approach for the reactivity calculation to be used in the kinetics point equation for subcritical systems. To obtain the necessary kinetic parameters as well and the reference Power value calculation and validation, a subcritical system was simulated with the Monte Carlo code Serpent. This study is important for determining nuclear Power in such systems. The results shown consistent values with the validation method and new in-depth studies to calculate the reactivity should be performed to such systems, making the issue a very current theme. (author)

  13. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    One major pre-condition for assessing a manure management technique in a whole system or LCA-approach is to define a reference system against which this technique can be assessed. This report thus presents and details the establishment of such reference systems, comprising eight different manure...... types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...... of these 15 reference systems, a description of the key managerial practices throughout the whole chain (e.g. storage duration, type of cover, type of manure application, etc.) and of the key site-specific conditions applying (e.g. average annual storage temperature, crop rotation and soil type on which...

  14. Properties of rotating protoneutron star within the extended field theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Gulshan; Dhiman, Shashi K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, BSR1, BSR3, BSR5, and BSR7 parameter set correspond to the value of ω-meson self-coupling ζ = 0.00, BSR8, BSR10, BSR12, and BSR14 parameter set correspond to the value of ω meson self-coupling ζ = 0.03, and BSR15, BSR17, BSR19, BSR21 parameter set correspond to the value of ω meson self-coupling ζ = 0.06, and for each parametrization set the value of neutron skin thickness of 208 Pb varies from 0.16 to 0.28 fm in intervals of 0.04 fm have been employed. The values of the maximum gravitational mass (M) and corresponding radius (R) of a rotating PNS rotating with Keplerian frequency, are presented as a function of the neutron skin thickness Δr in the 208 Pb nucleus

  15. Monte Carlo simulation on teaching of luminescence and excited states decay kinetics; Simulacao Monte Carlo no ensino de luminescencia e cinetica de decaimento de estado excitado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnischofer, Herbert; Araujo, Marcio Peres de; Dias Junior, Lauro Camargo; Novo, Joao Batista Marques [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    A software based in the Monte Carlo method have been developed aiming the teaching of important cases of mechanisms found in luminescence and in excited states decay kinetics, including: multiple decays, consecutive decays and coupled systems decays. The Monte Carlo Method allows the student to easily simulate and visualize the luminescence mechanisms, focusing on the probabilities of the related steps. The software CINESTEX was written for FreeBASIC compiler; it assumes first-order kinetics and any number of excited states, where the pathways are allowed with probabilities assigned by the user. (author)

  16. Evaluation of absorbed radiation dose in mammography using Monte Carlo simulation; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em mamografia usando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Bruno L.; Tomal, Alessandra [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2016-07-01

    Mammography is the main tool for breast cancer diagnosis, and it is based on the use of X-rays to obtain images. However, the glandular tissue present within the breast is highly sensitive to ionizing radiation, and therefore requires strict quality control in order to minimize the absorbed dose. The quantification of the absorbed dose in the breast tissue can be done by using Monte Carlo simulation, which allows a detailed study of the deposition of energy in different regions of the breast. Besides, the results obtained from the simulation can be associated with experimental data and provide values of dose interest, such as the dose deposited in glandular tissue. (author)

  17. Modelling and simulation of natural gas sweetening and dehydration process; Modelagem e simulacao dos processos de adocamento e desidratacao de gas natural ou associado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Adao de Mattos; Moraes, Elenise Bannwart de; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Sweetening consists in removing gases, H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} and dehydration is for water. It is important to remove these contaminants, which is normally made through absorption: amines for H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}, and triethyleneglycol for water. For the study of these processes, the use of process commercial simulators is welcome. For the quality data acquisition many cares must be taken, such as, the good choice of the thermodynamic model and the suitable choice of the method for calculating of the equipment. In the amines process, where the absorption occurs with the chemical reaction in electrolyte environment, the model is fundamental. This work presents a methodology to analyze the different equilibrium models for sweetening and dehydration processes and selects the best one after the comparison with experimental data. It was introduced a new methodology for the efficiency calculation developed by Barros and Wolf, which is used for the simulation with phase equilibrium based method. The influence of the efficiency is more evident on the sweetening process than on the dehydration. Sensibility analyses were carried out in order to optimize the absorber and the regenerator, separately. With these optimized conditions, both processes were presented with recycle, focusing the reuse of the solvent. (author)

  18. Simulation, optimization and analysis of cost of biodiesel plant pot route enzymatic; Simulacao, otimizacao e analise de custo de planta de biodiesel via rota enzimatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Jocelia S.; Ferreira, Andrea L.O. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Silva, Giovanilton F. [Tecnologia Bioenergetica - Tecbio, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work ware simulation, optimization and to find the biodiesel production cost produced by enzymatic route. Consequently, it was carried out a methodology of economic calculations and sensitivity analyses for this process. It was used a computational software from balance equations for obtaining the biodiesel cost. The economical analysis was obtained by capital cost of biofuel. The whole process was developed according analysis of fixed capital cost, total manufacturing cost, raw material cost, and chemical cost. The results of economic calculations to biodiesel production showed efficient. The model was meant for use in assessing the effects on estimated biodiesel production cost of changes in different types of oils. (author)

  19. Simulation of the phenomenon of single-phase and two-phase natural circulation; Simulacao do fenomeno de circulacao natural mono e bifasica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillo, Lazara Silveira

    1998-02-01

    Natural convection phenomenon is often used to remove the residual heat from the surfaces of bodies where the heat is generated e.g. during accidents or transients of nuclear power plants. Experimental study of natural circulation can be done in small scale experimental circuits and the results can be extrapolated for larger operational facilities. The numerical analysis of transients can be carried out by using large computational codes that simulate the thermohydraulic behavior in such facilities. The computational code RELAP5/MOD2, (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) was developed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions's. Division of Reactor Safety Research with the objective of analysis of transients and postulated accidents in the light water reactor (LWR) systems, including small and large ruptures with loss of coolant accidents (LOCA's). The results obtained by the simulation of single-phase and two-phase natural circulation, using the RELAP5/MOD2, are presented in this work. The study was carried out using the experimental circuit built at the 'Departamento de Engenharia Quimica da Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo'. In the circuit, two experiments were carried out with different conditions of power and mass flow, obtaining a single-phase regime with a level of power of 4706 W and flow of 5.10{sup -5} m{sup 3}/s (3 l/min) and a two-phase regime with a level of power of 6536 W and secondary flow 2,33.10{sup -5} m{sup 3}/s (1,4 l/min). The study allowed tio evaluate the capacity of the code for representing such phenomena as well as comparing the transients obtained theoretically with the experimental results. The comparative analysis shows that the code represents fairly well the single-phase transient, but the results for two-phase transients, starting from the nodalization and calibration used for the case single-phase transient, did not reproduce faithfully some experimental results. (author)

  20. Analysis and simulation of water supply systems with photovoltaic pumping; Analise e simulacao de sistemas de abastecimento de agua com tecnologia fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, Olga de Castro

    1996-09-01

    During the last two decades, a remarkable progress on the technology of photovoltaic pumping systems (PVP) has been observed. The decrease in the costs of the photovoltaic module and the increase in the efficiency of photovoltaic pumping systems (generator and motor-pump) make PVP systems a good option for rural communities. Most analysis and simulations of PVP systems, utility function, assume the existence of a linear relationship between the hydraulic power and the solar collected radiation. Usually, more general relations exist between those variables. This work presents a new procedure for the analysis and simulation of PVP systems, which uses the utility function to consider the fluctuations in solar radiation, and leads to analytical solutions for PVP systems whose behavior can be represented by general functions, including linear relations as a particular case. The system analyzed considers the energy source (solar radiation) and the components of the water supply system like water source, photovoltaic array, subsystem for conversion of electric into hydraulic energy and, finally, hydraulic network. An analytical procedure to calculate absorbed solar radiation in the optical layers of the photovoltaic module was developed, substituting the conventional ray tracing method. The volume of pumped water was obtained integrating the water flow rate through time, considering the fluctuations related to the behavior of solar radiation and the minimum level of radiation necessary to produce useful energy. The mathematical properties of the utility function allow to derive analytical solutions for the integrals of water flow and hydraulic power. At the same time, we developed a spreadsheet which allows tho visualize the behavior of all variables involved in the process and offers the possibility of simulating different situations in order to maximize the amount of pumped water for any given system. The results obtained through the new procedure were compared with experiments made with a PVP systems installed in Oldenburg, Germany. The model reproduces well the experimental results. Both, estimated and experimental efficiency values of the system were lower (highest efficiency of 3.1%) than the values published in the technical reports (4 to 5%). (author)

  1. Computer simulation of thermal-hydraulic transient events in multi-circuits with multipumps; Simulacao computacional de eventos termo-hidraulicos transitorios em multicircuitos com multibombas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio

    2003-07-01

    PANTERA-2 (from Programa para Analise Termo-hidraulica de Reatores a Agua - Program for Thermal-hydraulic Analysis of Water Reactors, Version 2), whose fundamentals are described in this work, is intended to carry out rod bundle subchannel analysis in conjunction with multiloop simulation. It solves simultaneously the conservation equations of mass, axial and lateral momentum, and energy for subchannel geometry coupled with the balance equations that describe the fluid flows in any number of coolant loops connected to a pressure vessel containing the rod bundle. As far as subchannel analysis is concerned, the basic computational strategy of PANTERA-2 comes from COBRA codes, but an alternative implicit solution method oriented to the pressure field has been used to solve the finite difference approximations for the balance laws. The results provided by the subchannel model comprise the fluid density, enthalpy, flow rate, and pressure fields in the subchannels. The loop model predicts the individual loop flows, total flow through the pressure vessel, and pump rotational speeds as a function of time subsequent to the failure of any number of the coolant pumps. The flow transients in the loops may initiated by partial, total or sequential loss of electric power to the operating pumps. Transient events caused by either shaft break or rotor locking may also be simulated. The changes in rotational speed of the pumps as a function of rime are determined from a torque balance. Pump dynamic head and hydraulic torque are calculated as a function of rotational speed and volumetric flow from two polar homologous curves supplied to the code in the tabular form. In order to illustrate the analytical capability of PANTERA-2, three sample problems are presented and discussed. Comparisons between calculated and measured results indicate that the program reproduces with a good accuracy experimental data for subchannel exit temperatures and critical heat fluxes in 5x5 rod bundles. It is also observed a good correspondence between the theoretical curves predicted by PANTERA-2 and measured values for pump rotational speeds and mass flow rates in the primary loops of Angra-2 nuclear power plant, when the four main coolant pumps are simultaneously switched off to simulate the flow decline event. (author)

  2. Three dimensional simulation of compressible and incompressible flows through the finite element method; Simulacao tridimensional de escoamentos compressiveis e incompressiveis atraves do metodo dos elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gustavo Koury

    2004-11-15

    Although incompressible fluid flows can be regarded as a particular case of a general problem, numerical methods and the mathematical formulation aimed to solve compressible and incompressible flows have their own peculiarities, in such a way, that it is generally not possible to attain both regimes with a single approach. In this work, we start from a typically compressible formulation, slightly modified to make use of pressure variables and, through augmenting the stabilising parameters, we end up with a simplified model which is able to deal with a wide range of flow regimes, from supersonic to low speed gas flows. The resulting methodology is flexible enough to allow for the simulation of liquid flows as well. Examples using conservative and pressure variables are shown and the results are compared to those published in the literature, in order to validate the method. (author)

  3. Polymer composites for optical imaging and X-rays in hydraulic simulation tanks; Compositos polimericos para imageamento optico e por raios-x em tanques de simulacao hidraulica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Maria H.S.; Goncalves, Raiane V.; Basso, Nara R.S.; Moura, Cassio S., E-mail: maria.helena@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: raiane.goncalves@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: nrbass@pucrs.br, E-mail: cassio.moura@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This research is related to new approaches for non-invasive imaging techniques that allows registering the internal architecture of sedimentary deposits generated in hydraulic simulation tanks to better understand the behavior of density currents. Polymeric composite with properties and characteristics similar to coal 205 was prepared with inorganic filler for non-destructive tests. It was used an orthophthalic polyester resin with different dye loads and barium sulfate as inorganic filler. Tests on x-ray Microtomography showed that the barium sulphate provides the necessary opacity for detection with such technique. Scanning electron microscopy allowed evaluating and classifying the shape of the matrix and measuring the nanometric dimensions of the filler. Specific mass and drop rate were also evaluated and it was found that the incorporation of dye and filler did not affected significantly the desired characteristics. For this reasons, the composite prepared show potential use in simulations and non-invasive imaging. (author)

  4. Modeling and simulation of the atomization process in the ceramic tile industry; Modelagem e simulacao do processo de atomizacao na industria de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, Renata Cristina

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to numerically simulate the behaviour of the drying system for several sets of operating conditions in order to improve and optimize this process. However, the mathematical modeling adopted here can be employed to simulate other systems such as the processes that occur in liquid-fueled engines with direct spray injection and ceramic spraying for hard surfacing. Then, mathematical and physical models were established to simulate the interaction of continuous and disperse phases in drying processes of ceramic slurries. Solving the set of governing coupled partial differential equations, it is possible to study the influence of drying air on the atomized droplets of alumina slurry, and vice-versa. The materials used as continuous and disperse phase, air and alumina slurry respectively, are representative since any kind of gas and slurry can be used if its thermodynamic and transport properties are known. Several experimental tests were carried out in a spray dryer in the 'Laboratorio de Insumos', at IPEN - Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares for different sets of operating conditions: initial temperature of the drying air, the gas flow rate, the slurry feed rate and atomiser configuration among others. Measurements of the wet and the dry bulb temperatures were made in some experimental tests to allow the calculations of the air humidity. The dynamic pressure were also measured in order to determine the gas flow rate. Some samples of the material used in the tile industry and of the one produced at IPEN were analysed to determine: the morphology of the atomized material and the range of granules diameter through scanning electron microscopy; the amount of pores and the bulk density through porosimetry; the residual moisture of the material through thermogravimetry; and the granulometric distribution of granules and particles through laser diffraction. Important information about the process and the final material are given by the experimental test and analyses allowing the consistency of computer code and models to be verified. The first numerical tests were carried out for the evaporation of water droplets in a flow of hot air. After that, the water is changed to alumina slurry and the air velocity, temperature and humidity, as well as the droplets mass and temperature history, are obtained. For such condition, several sets of injection angle and type of flow of the droplets were simulated; it shows the versatility of the programme. At last, some experimental tests carried in the laboratory dryer were simulated to verify the model and computer code consistency; the difference between the rate of water vapor calculated by the programme (and the one obtained through the measurements of wet and dry bulb temperatures is 10%, approximately, confirming the consistency of both the computer code and mathematical model. The influence of many operating parameters on continuous and disperse phases were studied. The parameters varied were: gas flow rate; initial temperature of the drying media; slurry feed rate; different amount and sizes for the droplets and initial velocity of droplets. The results of the parametric study were compared to the experimental ones and also confirm the model consistency. (author)

  5. Simplified analytical model to simulate radionuclide release from radioactive waste trenches; Modelo simplificado para simulacao da liberacao de radionuclideos de repositorios de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Bernardete Lemes Vieira de

    2001-07-01

    In order to evaluate postclosure off-site doses from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, a computer code was developed to simulate the radionuclide released from waste form, transport through vadose zone and transport in the saturated zone. This paper describes the methodology used to model these process. The radionuclide released from the waste is calculated using a model based on first order kinetics and the transport through porous media was determined using semi-analytical solution of the mass transport equation, considering the limiting case of unidirectional convective transport with three-dimensional dispersion in an isotropic medium. The results obtained in this work were compared with other codes, showing good agreement. (author)

  6. Frequency-dependent friction and its significance for liquid pipeline simulation; Influencia do fator de atrito com dependencia da frequencia na simulacao de transientes em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepedino, Alexandre F. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rachid, Felipe B. Freitas [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Transporte de Liquidos e Gases

    2008-07-01

    Unsteady liquid flow in pipelines is usually described by using one-dimensional models and, in a procedure referred to as quasi-steady approximation, friction losses are estimated by formulae derived for steady state flow conditions. The assumption is that the friction loss during transient flow conditions can be approximated by the friction loss obtained for a steady flow with the same average velocity. However, during unsteady flow conditions the velocity profile can be considerably different from the steady flow. The shear stress at the pipe wall and the mean velocity are not in phase. Therefore, friction losses computed according to the quasi-steady approximation are inaccurate. To overcome this, the concept of frequency-dependent friction was proposed, including the time history of the mean flow velocity and acceleration, resulting in better correlation to experimental data. This work presents an investigation of situations in which the use of a frequency-dependent friction model could bring additional improvement for the petroleum and products pipeline simulation. To do so, through computer simulations, the predictions of both quasi-steady and unsteady friction models, for short and long lines, operating under a range of Reynolds numbers, are compared and the significance of the friction model is evaluated. (author)

  7. Modelling and simulation of a solar cooler based on physical adsorption; Modelagem e simulacao de um refrigerador solar por adsorcao fisica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Gerson

    1993-12-31

    This study describes the construction of a simple mathematical model its validation through the simulation in transient state of a real cycle performed by a solar refrigerator based on physical adsorption using an activated carbon/methanol pair. The deviation from experimental results was 4% for the cycled mass of methanol, 2.2 % for maximum collector average temperature, and 3 x 10{sup -3} for the theoretical cycle coefficient of performance. Additional simulations of the same cycle inputting values representing different types and larger amounts of activated carbon showed the possibility of increasing the cycled methanol mass up to about 150%. (author) 26 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Thermohydraulic simulation of HTR-10 nuclear reactor core using realistic CFD approach; Simulacao termohidraulica do nucleo do reator nuclear HTR-10 com o uso da abordagem realistica CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alexandro S.; Dominguez, Dany S., E-mail: alexandrossilva@gmail.com, E-mail: dsdominguez@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil); Mazaira, Leorlen Y. Rojas; Hernandez, Carlos R.G., E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, La Habana (Cuba); Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) have the potential to be used as possible energy generation sources in the near future, owing to their inherently safe performance by using a large amount of graphite, low power density design, and high conversion efficiency. However, safety is the most important issue for its commercialization in nuclear energy industry. It is very important for safety design and operation of an HTGR to investigate its thermal–hydraulic characteristics. In this article, it was performed the thermal–hydraulic simulation of compressible flow inside the core of the pebble bed reactor HTR (High Temperature Reactor)-10 using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The realistic approach was used, where every closely packed pebble is realistically modelled considering a graphite layer and sphere of fuel. Due to the high computational cost is impossible simulate the full core; therefore, the geometry used is a column of FCC (Face Centered Cubic) cells, with 41 layers and 82 pebbles. The input data used were taken from the thermohydraulic IAEA Benchmark (TECDOC-1694). The results show the profiles of velocity and temperature of the coolant in the core, and the temperature distribution inside the pebbles. The maximum temperatures in the pebbles do not exceed the allowable limit for this type of nuclear fuel. (author)

  9. Models calibration for the simulation of energetic consumption in buildings; Calibracao de modelos para a simulacao do consumo energetico de edificacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberts, Roberto; Gomez, Luis Alberto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    1995-12-31

    This work describes a process for models calibration in energetic simulation of buildings. The methodology requires one year of hourly monitoring of the building operational data as well as the weather conditions. The simulation results are compared to the end use energetic consumption and the model is adjusted to reduce the differences. A case study is presented 3 figs., 4 refs.

  10. Fluid dynamic simulation of the fluidized bed using propane-air fuel; Simulacao dinamica de um combustor de leito fluidizado utilizando como combustivel o ar-propanado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Junior, L.P.; Lucena, S.; Silva, D.J. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: limajun@br.inter.net

    2004-07-01

    This paper has for purpose to present the modeling and simulation of the homogeneous combustion of the mixture of propane-air in a combustor of fluidized bed with inert particles, basing on a stationary model with phases in series, being taken into account the thermal changes and mass changes among the phases and it changes thermal with the wall for radiation. Computational methods are used for such simulation and CFX 4.4 as dynamic flowing computation software (CFD), kindred of more proximity with the real aspects. Being studied like this dynamic and kinetic flowing parameters of the involved components. (author)

  11. Computational simulation of flow and heat transfer in single-phase natural circulation loops; Simulacao computacional de escoamento e transferencia de calor em circuitos de circulacao natural monofasica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Larissa Cunha

    2017-07-01

    Passive decay heat removal systems based on natural circulation are essential assets for the new Gen III+ nuclear power reactors and nuclear spent fuel pools. The aim of the present work is to study both laminar and turbulent flow and heat transfer in single-phase natural circulation systems through computational fluid dynamics simulations. The working fluid is considered to be incompressible with constant properties. In the way, the Boussinesq Natural Convection Hypothesis was applied. The model chosen for the turbulence closure problem was the k -- εThe commercial computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS CFX 15.0 was used to obtain the numerical solution of the governing equations. Two single-phase natural circulation circuits were studied, a 2D toroidal loop and a 3D rectangular loop, both with the same boundary conditions of: prescribed heat flux at the heater and fixed wall temperature at the cooler. The validation and verification was performed with the numerical data provided by DESRAYAUD et al. [1] and the experimental data provided by MISALE et al. [2] and KUMAR et al. [3]. An excellent agreement between the Reynolds number (Re) and the modified Grashof number (Gr{sub m}), independently of Prandtl Pr number was observed. However, the convergence interval was observed to be variable with Pr, thus indicating that Pr is a stability governing parameter for natural circulation. Multiple steady states was obtained for Pr = 0,7. Finally, the effect of inclination was studied for the 3D circuit, both in-plane and out-of-plane inclinations were verified for the steady state laminar regime. As a conclusion, the Re for the out-of-plane inclination was in perfect agreement with the correlation found for the zero inclination system, while for the in-plane inclined system the results differ from that of the corresponding vertical loop. (author)

  12. Simulation of adsorption process of benzene present in effluent of the petrochemical industry; Simulacao do processo de adsorcao do benzeno presente em efluentes da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Adriana D. da; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Adriano da [Universidade Comunitaria Regional de Chapeco (UNOCHAPECO), SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The adsorption processes have shown quite efficient in the removal of pollutant in liquid effluents, especially hydrocarbons of difficult removal, such as benzene. This work presents a phenomenological model that describes the process of benzene removal through the adsorption in a fixed bed column, being used coal activated as adsorbent. The model considers the internal and external resistances of mass transfer to the adsorbent particle. The method of Finite Volumes is used in the discretization of the equations. The numerical results obtained through the simulation presented good correlation when compared with experimental data found in the literature, demonstrating that the developed computational code, together with the mathematical modeling, represents an important tool for the project of adsorption columns. (author)

  13. Comparison of performance among three systems of Clinical PET by computerized simulation; Comparacao de desempenho entre tres sistemas de PET clinico por simulacao computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franze, Daniel L.; Bertolo, Antonio C.N.; Gama, Andressa F.; Moraes, Eder R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GIMN/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Imagens em Medicina Nuclear

    2016-07-01

    Whereas sensitivity and spatial resolution of PET images formed in coincidence systems may exhibit improvements with reduction of the distance between the detectors. Furthermore, since the human cross section not be a circle three different detection geometries of a PET system have been simulated; a circular and two ellipticals. The performance comparison was performed by the sensitivity, resolution and the Noise Equivalent Count Rate curve. The results show that elliptical systems may experience 25% lower cost detectors, increased sensitivity to 63%. The resolution improvements introduced in X direction, large loss in the Y direction, although the use of iterative reconstruction can reduce the loss in resolution. The reduction of peak NEC curve indicates the image with better quality is achieved with lower activity of the source. (author)

  14. Virtual reality in simulation of operational procedures in radioactive waste deposits; Realidade virtual na simulacao de procedimentos operacionais em depositos de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Victor Goncalves Gloria

    2016-07-01

    One of the biggest problems in the nuclear area are still the radioactive waste generated in the various applications of this form of energy, all these tailings are stored in warehouses that often are monitored and restructured for better allocation of then. These tailings are stored until it is safe to release into the environment. This work presents a methodology based on virtual reality, for the development of virtual deposits of radioactive waste in order to enable virtual simulations in these deposits. As application will be developed virtually the nuclear waste repository located at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering IEN/CNEN. The development of a virtual warehouse, more specifically, makes it possible to simulate/train the allocation and reallocation of materials with low and medium level of radioactivity, seen the possibility of locomotion of virtual objects and dynamic calculation of the rate of radiation in this environment. Using this methodology it also possible know the accumulated dose, by the virtual character, during the procedures run in the virtual environment. (author)

  15. Depropagation and propagation simulation of the acoustic waves by using finite differences operators; Simulacao da propagacao e depropagacao de ondas acusticas usando operadores de diferencas finitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Marco A.B.; Santos, Roberto H.M. dos; Silva, Marcelo S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Geofisica e Geologia

    2004-07-01

    The numerical simulation of shot gathers over a (2D) velocity field, which corresponds to a model of Atlantic continental shelf, at the continental break area, using a typical model of the Brazilian Atlantic coast, suggested by PETROBRAS. The finite difference technique (FD) is used to solve the second derivatives in time and space of the acoustic wave equation, using fourth order operators to solve the spatial derivatives and second order operators to solve the time derivative. It is applied an explicitly scheme to calculate the pressure field values at a future instant. The use of rectangular mesh helps to generate data less noisy, since we can control better the numerical dispersion. The source functions (wavelets), as the first and the second derivatives of the gaussian function, are proper to generate synthetic seismograms with the FD method, because they allow an easy discretization. On the forward modeling, which is the simulation of wave fields, allows to control the stability limit of the method, wherever be the given velocity field, just employing compatible small values of the sample rate. The algorithm developed here, which uses only the FD technique, is able to perform the forward modeling, saving the image times, which can be used latter to perform the retropropagation of the wave field and thus migrate the source-gathers the reverse time extrapolation is able to test the used velocity model, and detect determine errors up to 5% on the used velocity model. (author)

  16. Identification of the curve of maximum power of photovoltaic modules using simulation software; Identificacao da curva de maxima potencia de modulos FV utilizando softwares de simulacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Andre Pimentel; Ramalho, Geraldo Luis Bezerra; Dias, Samuel Vieira [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Ceara (CEFETCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], emails: apmoreira@cefetce.br, gramalho@cefetce.br, samueldias@cefetce.br; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (PPGEE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFETPet), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], email: rangel@cefetpet.br

    2008-07-01

    This article is presented the study and compared the behaviour of real and simulated a photovoltaic system, through the design and simulation software, Electronic Workbench (MultiSIM 9), AIM-Spice and identifying the point of maximum power (MPP), with the help of modeling software from Matlab. The results of the simulated model were very close to data collected from a real.photovoltaic system. (author)

  17. ANATEM-A comprehensive program for power system dynamic simulation; Programa ANATEM para simulacao do desmpenho dinamico dos sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sebastiao E.M.; Rangel, Ricardo D.; Thome, Luiz M.; Baitelli, Roberto; Guimaraes, Carlos H. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents a description of the characteristics of the program ANATEM. It also shows the facilities to execution of the software in the current development stagy. (author) 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Development of a voxel phantom specific for simulation of eye brachytherapy; Desenvolvimeto de um fantoma de voxel especifico para simulacao de braquiterapia ocular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcilio S.; Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: msilveira.fisica@gmail.com, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: jose-wilson59@live.com [lnstituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The ophthalmic brachytherapy involves inserting a plate with seeds of radioactive material in the patient's eye for the treatment of tumors. The radiation dose to be taken by the patient is prescribed by physicians and time of application of the material is calculated from calibration curves supplied by the manufacturers of the plates. To estimate the dose absorbed by the patient, in a series of diagnostic tests, it is necessary to perform simulations using a computational model of exposure. These models are composed primarily by a anthropomorphic phantom, and a Monte Carlo code. The coupling of a phantom voxel whole body to a Monte Carlo code is a complex process because the computer model simulations with exposure takes time, knowledge of the code used and various adjustments to be implemented. The problem is aggravated even more complex when you want to radiate one region of the body. In this work we developed a phantom, specifically the region containing the eyeball, from MASH (Male Adult voxel). This model was coupled to the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc (Electron Gamma Shower) together with an algorithm simulator source of I-125 , considering only its effect of higher energy range.

  19. Computer simulating for oil fields with artificial elevation method by electrical submersible pump; Simulacao computacional para pocos de petroleo com metodo de elevacao artificial por bombeio centrifugo submerso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Evellyne da Silva; Maitelli, Andre Laurindo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Costa, Rutacio de Oliveira [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio RN/CE; Barbosa, Tiago de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Computacao

    2008-07-01

    The architecture heterogeneities and petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs result from a combination of platform morphology, related depositional environments, relative sea level changes and diagenetic events. The reservoir layering built for static and dynamic modelling purposes should reflect the key heterogeneities (depositional or diagenetic) which govern the fluid flow patterns. The layering needs to be adapted to the goal of the modelling, ranging from full field computations of hydrocarbon volumes, to sector-based fine-scale simulations to test the recovery improvement. This paper illustrates various reservoir layering types, including schemes dominated by depositional architecture, and those more driven by the diagenetic overprint. The examples include carbonate platform reservoirs from different stratigraphic settings (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Permian) and different regions (Europe, Africa and Middle East areas). This review shows how significant stratigraphic surfaces (such as sequence boundaries or maximum flooding) with their associated facies shifts, can be often considered as key markers to constrain the reservoir layering. Conversely, how diagenesis (dolomitization and karst development), resulting in units with particular poroperm characteristics, may significantly overprint the primary reservoir architecture by generating flow units which cross-cut depositional sequences. To demonstrate how diagenetic processes can create reservoir bodies with geometries that cross-cut the depositional fabric, different types of dolomitization and karst development are illustrated. (author)

  20. Computer simulation of deasphalting vacuum residues in a pilot unit; Simulacao computacional de desasfaltacao de residuo de vacuo realizada em unidade piloto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, Viktor Oswaldo Cardenas; Quirino, Filipe Augusto Barral; Koroisgi, Erika Tomie; Rivarola, Florencia Wisnivesky Rocca; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian Carmen; Barros, Ricardo Soares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the national petroleum industry, it is interesting to keep the production of the paraffinic lubricant oil type I, which implies in the identification of new loads to ensure the feeding of the existing units. Therefore, it is important to carry out carefully the characterization of the oils, defining its potential for fuel, asphalt and lubricant. Aiming to introduce in the characterization and evaluation of petroleum for lubricant, carried out by PETROBRAS/CENPES, information of basic oils, more similar to industrial oils, was built up in the Laboratory of Process Separation Development - LDPS of UNICAMP/FEQ, a deasphalting pilot unit. In this work, the deasphalting process of a vacuum residue of Brazilian petroleum is simulated, using Aspen Plus{sup R} simulator, in order to remove asphaltenes, resins and other heavy components of vacuum residue. The simulations were carried out considering the configuration of the pilot plant, evaluating the extraction in near-critical operational condition applied to a petroleum, using propane as the solvent. The extraction efficiency and the solvent power were evaluated considering variations in temperature, pressure and in the solvent/feed ratio in order to obtain yields with more efficiency in the production of deasphalted oil (DAO), what means more asphaltene removal. (author)

  1. Simulation of distillation in structured packing column to o obtain lube oils; Simulacao de uma coluna de destilacao com recheio estruturado para a obtencao de oleos lubrificantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Rodrigo S.; Nicolaiewsky, Elioni M.A.; Mendes, Marisa F. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work aims for the simulation of a laboratorial distillation column, operating continuously at vacuum conditions, in order to obtain basic lubricating oils. The feed is a mixture of light neutral, medium distillate and bright stock, aiming to produce light neutral as the top product, the medium distillate in the side stream and bright stock in the bottom. The simulation was performed using PRO II software in order to establish the best operating conditions. This work was based in a previous simulation using the same column with 20 theoretical trays, in order to obtain the medium distillate and bright stock at the top and bottom respectively, without the side stream. The simulations were performed varying the feed flow of 1 and 3 Kg/h, entering in the middle or at the bottom of the column, the operational pressure of 7 and 10mbar and the reflux ratio of 3 and 5, using the true boiling point curve - TBP of the feed, with an initial boiling point of 378.9 deg C and end boiling point of 598.3 deg C. (author)

  2. Analysis of an in-line diesel production system through event driven simulation; Avaliacao do esquema de producao em linha de diesel atraves da simulacao por eventos discretos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Gilsa P.; Naegeli, Guilherme S.T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Santos, Nilza M.Q. [PETROBRAS S.A., Mataripe, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Refinaria Landulfo Alves (RLAM); Netto, Joaquim D.A. [DNV Energy Solutions, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The interactions between refining processes (such as distillation, hydrotreatment, etc.) and typical transfer and storage operations (mixtures, decantation, storage, etc.) provide a high complexity to the refineries production systems of petroleum derivatives. These production systems are characterized by many aspects, such as: blending rules, feed composition, petroleum campaigns, storage tanks limitations, continuous and batch processes interactions, etc. Besides these operational aspects, the equipment and systems' reliability has strong influence on the level of production goals achievement and petroleum derivatives quality specification. Looking for a higher economic efficiency and in order to provide refineries with orientation about resources optimization for their petroleum derivatives' production systems, the development of a methodology capable of being applied since the design phase to identify systems limitations and improvement opportunities, considering all the raised aspects, is a very important task. With this objective, this article presents the main points of an evaluation that was conducted during the conceptual design for a diesel in-line blending production system proposed by a Brazilian refinery, detailing the main steps of the methodology that was developed through this analysis, based on discrete event simulation. (author)

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian Clinac 600C accelerator using dynamic wedges; Simulacao Monte Carlo do acelerador Varian Clinac 600C utilizando cunhas dinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, S. [Universidade da Beira Interior (UBI), Covilha (Portugal); Chaves, A.; Lopes, M.C. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Doutor Francisco Gentil (IPO), Coimbra (Portugal); Peralta, L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Lisboa (Portugal)]|[Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias

    2004-07-01

    The advent of linear accelerators (linac) with computer-controlled dynamic collimation systems and functional and anatomical imaging techniques allowed a more exact delimitation and localisation of the target volume. These advanced treatment techniques inevitably increase the complexity level of dose calculation because of the introduction of the temporal variable. On account of this, it is mandatory the usage of more accurate modelling techniques of the collimator components, as it is the case of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, which has created an enormous interest in research and clinical practice. Because the patients bodies are not homogenous nor are their body surfaces plane and regular, the dose distribution may differ significantly from the standard distribution from the linac calibration. It is in the treatment planning systems, which include algorithms that are usually measured in homogeneous water phantoms specific for each correction that the dose distributions from each case are obtained. In a real treatment, exception made to superficial lesions, two or more radiation fields are used in order to obtain the recommended dose distributions. The simplest arrangement is made from two parallel and opposed fields that originate a homogeneous dose distribution in almost all the irradiated volume. The available resources are, for example, different types of energies and of radiation, the application of bolus, the protection of healthy structures, the usage of wedged filters and the application of dynamic wedges. A virtual or dynamic wedge, modelled through the movement of one of the jaws, when compared with a set of physical wedges offers an alternative calculation method of an arbitrary number of wedged fields, instead of the four traditional fields of 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg and 60 deg angle and obtained with physical wedges. The goal of this work consists in the study of the application of dynamic wedges in tailoring the radiation field by the Varian Clinac 600C linac. For such, the influence of the virtual wedge on a 4 MV photon beam, produced by the Varian Clinac 600C linac, was studied using the MC codes GEANT3 and DPM. A good agreement was obtained between the experimental and simulated data in the dose lateral profiles at 1 cm depth and using a 10 X 10 cm{sup 2} field size. (author)

  4. Development of a digital card to simulate period transients in research reactors; Desenvolvimento de um cartao digital para simulacao da variacao do periodo em reatores de pesquisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masotti, Paulo Henrique Ferraz

    1999-07-01

    This work presents the development of a card to be used in a 'slot' of a micro-computer for evaluation of a nuclear channel used to monitor the start up of nuclear reactors. The results of the bench tests showed good linearity and 2% error deviation in the entire range of operation. Fields tests, performed with the start up channel of IEA-R1 research reactor showed that the card is an excellent device to verify the performance of the channel during steady state, and transient conditions. (author)

  5. Average accelerator simulation Truebeam using phase space in IAEA format; Simulacao do acelerador medico Truebeam utilizando espacos de fases em formato IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Emico Ferreira; Milian, Felix Mas; Paixao, Paulo Oliveira; Costa, Raranna Alves da; Velasco, Fermin Garcia, E-mail: efsantana@uesc.br, E-mail: f.mas.milian@gmail.com, E-mail: popaixao@uesc.br, E-mail: racosta@uesc.br, E-mail: fermingv@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper is used a computational code of radiation transport simulation based on Monte Carlo technique, in order to model a linear accelerator of treatment by Radiotherapy. This work is the initial step of future proposals which aim to study several treatment of patient by Radiotherapy, employing computational modeling in cooperation with the institutions UESC, IPEN, UFRJ e COI. The Chosen simulation code is GATE/Geant4. The average accelerator is TrueBeam of Varian Company. The geometric modeling was based in technical manuals, and radiation sources on the phase space for photons, provided by manufacturer in the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) format. The simulations were carried out in equal conditions to experimental measurements. Were studied photons beams of 6MV, with 10 per 10 cm of field, focusing on a water phantom. For validation were compared dose curves in depth, lateral profiles in different depths of the simulated results and experimental data. The final modeling of this accelerator will be used in future works involving treatments and real patients. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic simulation for a vapour compression system using organic refrigerants; Simulacao termodinamica do ciclo de compressao a vapor utilizando fluidos refrigerantes organicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Francisco S.; Santos, Carlos A.C. dos [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar; Torres, Ednildo A.; Jesus, Marcos F. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Energia e Gas

    2004-07-01

    According to the Montreal protocol, it is foreseen a total retreat of CFCs and HCFCs in applications of refrigeration and air conditioning. Before this context, considerable attention has been used in the substitution of HCFC-22 (R22) in systems of air conditioning, where they appear as possible alternatives two HFCs (R407c and R410a) and two HCs (R290 and R600a). In this work, possibilities and problems for the use of these fluids as alternatives to R22 in equipment of refrigeration are discussed. Five refrigerants (R22, R407c, R410a, R290 and R600) are selected, computational simulations done and your characteristic in terms of thermodynamic cycles are shown. The obtained conclusion is that propane offers the best alternative for R22 in equipment of refrigeration, because this besides being energetically efficient, is environmentally acceptable. However, safety precautions due to your inflammability must be seriously taken into account. For some applications the substitution of the current fluids (halocarbons) by the hydrocarbons can be done without larger additional costs, but not in the general case. (author)

  7. Estimate of fuel burnup spatial a multipurpose reactor in computer simulation; Estimativa da queima espacial do combustivel de um reator multiproposito por simulacao computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Nadia Rodrigues dos, E-mail: nadia.santos@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Paracambi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br, E-mail: zrlima@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In previous research, which aimed, through computer simulation, estimate the spatial fuel burnup for the research reactor benchmark, material test research - International Atomic Energy Agency (MTR/IAEA), it was found that the use of the code in FORTRAN language, based on the diffusion theory of neutrons and WIMSD-5B, which makes cell calculation, bespoke be valid to estimate the spatial burnup other nuclear research reactors. That said, this paper aims to present the results of computer simulation to estimate the space fuel burnup of a typical multipurpose reactor, plate type and dispersion. the results were considered satisfactory, being in line with those presented in the literature. for future work is suggested simulations with other core configurations. are also suggested comparisons of WIMSD-5B results with programs often employed in burnup calculations and also test different methods of interpolation values obtained by FORTRAN. Another proposal is to estimate the burning fuel, taking into account the thermohydraulics parameters and the appearance of xenon. (author)

  8. High performance computing applied to simulation of the flow in pipes; Computacao de alto desempenho aplicada a simulacao de escoamento em dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozin, Cristiane; Lueders, Ricardo; Morales, Rigoberto E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, computer cluster has emerged as a real alternative to solution of problems which require high performance computing. Consequently, the development of new applications has been driven. Among them, flow simulation represents a real computational burden specially for large systems. This work presents a study of using parallel computing for numerical fluid flow simulation in pipelines. A mathematical flow model is numerically solved. In general, this procedure leads to a tridiagonal system of equations suitable to be solved by a parallel algorithm. In this work, this is accomplished by a parallel odd-oven reduction method found in the literature which is implemented on Fortran programming language. A computational platform composed by twelve processors was used. Many measures of CPU times for different tridiagonal system sizes and number of processors were obtained, highlighting the communication time between processors as an important issue to be considered when evaluating the performance of parallel applications. (author)

  9. Semi-empirical simulation of thermoluminescent response under different filter geometries; Simulacao semi-empirica da resposta termoluminescente sob diferentes geometrias de filtro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shammas, Gabriel Issa Jabra

    2006-07-01

    Many thermoluminescent materials has been developed and used for photon personal dosimetry but no one has all desired characteristics alone. These characteristics include robustness, high sensitivity, energy photon independence, large range of photon energy detection, good reproducibility, small fading and simple glow curve with peaks above 150 deg C. Calcium Sulfate Dysprosium doped (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) phosphor Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) has been used by many laboratories, mainly in Brazil and India. Another interesting phosphor is Calcium Fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). These phosphor advantages begin to be more required and its disadvantages have became more apparent, in a global market more and more competitive. These phosphors are used in environmental and area monitoring, once they present more sensibility than other phosphors, like LiF:Mg. Theirs mainly disadvantage is a strong energetic dependence response, which must be corrected for theirs application in the field, where photon radiation is unknown a priori. An interesting way do make this correction in orthogonal incidence of the radiation on the phosphor is to interject a plane leaked filter between the beam and the phosphor. In order to reduce the energetic dependence on any incidence angle, reducing the field dose measurement uncertainty too, this work presents a simulation study on spherical filter geometries. It was simulated photon irradiations with Gamma rays of {sup 60}Co and x-rays of 33; 48 and 118 keV, on many incidence angles from zero to ninety degrees. These semi-empirical computational simulations using finite differences in three dimensions were done in spherical coordinates. The results pointed out the best filter thicknesses and widths, in order to optimize the correction on energetic dependence. (author)

  10. Simulating of single phase flow in typical centrifugal pumps oil industry; Simulacao do escoamento monofasico em bombas centrifugas tipicas da industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Ana Carla Costa; Silva, Aldrey Luis Morais da; Maitelli, Carla Wilza Souza de Paula [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    With the various techniques applied in production processes and oil exploration, has been using the artificial lift equipment with the aim of promoting an increase in flow in oil wells and gas. Choosing the most appropriate method of elevation depends on certain factors, among them the initial costs of installation, maintenance and conditions in the producing field, resulting in a more precise analysis of the project. Although there are other methods that represent a low cost and easy maintenance, the BCS method (Electrical Submersible Pumping), appears to be quite effective when it is intended to pump more flow of liquids from both terrestrial and marine environments, in conditions adverse temperature, presence of free gas in the mixture and viscous fluids. This method is based in most cases where the vessel pressure was low, and the fluid does not reach the surface without intervention of an artificial means which can lift them. Similar happens at the end of productive life of a resurgence for the well, or even when the flow of it is far below what is expected to produce, requiring a complement of natural energy through artificial lift. By definition, the BCS is a method of artificial lift in which a subsurface electric motor turns electrical energy into mechanical centrifugal pump and a multistage overlapping converts mechanical energy into kinetic energy of the engine bringing the fluid surface. In this study we performed computer simulations using a commercial program ANSYS #Registered Sign# CFX #Registered Sign# dimensions previously obtained by the 3D geometry in CAD format, with the objective of evaluating the single-phase flow inside typical centrifugal pump submerged in the oil industry. The variable measured was the height of elevation and drilling fluids are oil and water.(author)

  11. Simulation of transient inadvertent safety injection system during power operation; Simulacao do transitorio de operacao inadvertida do sistema de injecao de seguranca durante operacao em potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanni, Enio Antonio [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: vanni@eletronuclear.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    The Condition II transient Inadvertent Safety Injection System Operation During Power Operation described on item 15.2.14 of Angra 1 Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) has been analyzed. Simulations with RETRAN computer code have been performed to evaluate the consequences to the transient as the Boron Injection Tank (BIT) concentration is reduced from 20000 to 2000 ppm. The first simulation has been carried out for a BIT concentration of 20000 ppm, in order to compare RETRAN results with those presented on FSAR. It has been verified that RETRAN models used and the hypotheses adopted were correct. The second simulation has been performed for a BIT concentration of 2000 ppm. It has been proved that even for this lower concentration level the Departure from Nucleate Boiling ratio (DNBR) limit (1,3) has not been violated. (author)

  12. Markov random fields simulation: an introduction to the stochastic modelling of petroleum reservoirs; Simulacao de campos aleatorios markovianos: uma introducao voltada a modelagem estocastica de reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha Filho, Paulo Carlos

    1998-02-01

    Stochastic simulation has been employed in petroleum reservoir characterization as a modeling tool able to reconcile information from several different sources. It has the ability to preserve the variability of the modeled phenomena and permits transference of geological knowledge to numerical models of flux, whose predictions on reservoir constitute the main basis for reservoir management decisions. Several stochastic models have been used and/or suggested, depending on the nature of the phenomena to be described. Markov Random Fields (MRFs) appear as an alternative for the modeling of discrete variables, mainly reservoirs with mosaic architecture of facies. In this dissertation, the reader is introduced to the stochastic modeling by MRFs in a generic sense. The main aspects of the technique are reviewed. MRF Conceptual Background is described: its characterization through the Markovian property and the equivalence to Gibbs distributions. The framework for generic modeling of MRFs is described. The classical models of Ising and Potts-Strauss are specific in this context and are related to models of Ising and Potts-Strauss are specific in this context and are related to models used in petroleum reservoir characterization. The problem of parameter estimation is discussed. The maximum pseudolikelihood estimators for some models are presented. Estimators for two models useful for reservoir characterization are developed, and represent a new contribution to the subject. Five algorithms for the Conditional Simulation of MRFs are described: the Metropolis algorithm, the algorithm of German and German (Gibbs sampler), the algorithm of Swendsen-Wang, the algorithm of Wolff, and the algorithm of Flinn. Finally, examples of simulation for some of the models discussed are presented, along with their implications on the modelling of petroleum reservoirs. (author)

  13. Local dose enhancement in radiation therapy: Monte Carlo simulation study; Reforco local de dose em radioterapia utilizando nanoparticulas: estudo por simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Laura E. da; Nicolucci, Patricia, E-mail: laura.emilia.fm@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras

    2014-04-15

    The development of nanotechnology has boosted the use of nanoparticles in radiation therapy in order to achieve greater therapeutic ratio between tumor and healthy tissues. Gold has been shown to be most suitable to this task due to the high biocompatibility and high atomic number, which contributes to a better in vivo distribution and for the local energy deposition. As a result, this study proposes to study, nanoparticle in the tumor cell. At a range of 11 nm from the nanoparticle surface, results have shown an absorbed dose 141 times higher for the medium with the gold nanoparticle compared to the water for an incident energy spectrum with maximum photon energy of 50 keV. It was also noted that when only scattered radiation is interacting with the gold nanoparticles, the dose was 134 times higher compared to enhanced local dose that remained significant even for scattered radiation. (author)

  14. Application of numerical simulation to study the behavior of deep beams of reinforced concrete; Aplicacion de la simulacion numerica al estudio del comportamiento de vigas de gran peralto de hormigon armado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Plasencia, G.; Douglas Bonilla Rocha, J.; Hernandez Santana, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    In this investigation a preliminary study is carried out of the behaviour of deep beams of reinforced concrete under static loads with the prevalence of the shear force, starting from the numerical simulation of the experimental studies. A bilinear model is considered for steel and the Drucker-Prager model is considered for concrete. ABAQUS (2008) is utilized to model the deep beams test. the numerical results obtained have goad correspondence with the experimental values; this fact demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the Finite element Method for the study of the behaviour of deep beams of reinforced concrete. Moreover, taking advantage of the benefits of numerical simulation, the stress states are analysed through the stress iso lines and iso zones obtained. Also parameters that are decisive in the tension-deformational behaviour of these types of structures are numerically analysed. (Author) 19 refs.

  15. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics of a port and effect of a wave-driven seawater pump; Simulacion numerica de la hidrodinamica de un puerto y el efecto de un sistema de bombeo por energia de oleaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Vidal, Xavier; Ramirez-Aguilar, Isabel [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Czitrom-Baus, Steven [Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-03-15

    A three-dimensional numerical model was adapted to study the circulation, stratification and mixing patterns inside the port of El Sauzal. Salinity, temperature and density field data were measured, showing that density variations were mainly due to the temperature field with a very small contribution from salinity. The model simulated surface currents and the temperature field. The simulation was compared against field data showing that the model reproduces satisfactorily the circulation, stratification and mixing patterns. Surface circulation and vertical mixing were mainly forced by the tide, although winds greater than 6 m s{sup -}1 became the main forcing of vertical mixing and surface circulation. The surface currents traveled outside the port during ebb tide and vice versa during flood tide; however, with winds greater than 6 m s{sup -}1, the surface velocity followed the wind direction. When a discharge of 0.2 m{sup 3} s{sup -}1 was introduced into the system, the simulation showed an increase of 0.5 cm s{sup -}1 in the surface current velocity, during ebb tide. The vertical temperature structure increased as much as the discharge temperature (17.2 degree centigrade). This result verifies that a controlled discharge could improve circulation and mixing, reducing the residence time and improving the levels of oxygen in the water. [Spanish] Con la finalidad de conocer el patron de circulacion, estratificacion y mezcla dentro del puerto de El Sauzal, se adapto un modelo numerico tridimensional. Paralelamente se obtuvieron datos hidrograficos en el puerto de El Sauzal, en los que se encontro a la temperatura como el agente que modifica el campo de densidad, ya que la salinidad tiene poca variacion en este sistema. Debido a lo anterior, el modelo simulo solamente el patron de distribucion de temperatura y corrientes. La simulacion fue validada con datos de campo, demostrando que el modelo reproduce adecuadamente el patron de circulacion, estratificacion y mezcla. El principal forzamiento de la circulacion superficial y mezcla vertical en este sistema fue la variacion del nivel del mar; sin embargo, el viento superior a 6 m s{sup -}1, se convirtio en el principal forzamiento del patron de circulacion y mezcla. Durante la bajamar la direccion de la corriente superficial fue hacia afuera del puerto y viceversa durante la pleamar; sin embargo, cuando el viento tuvo velocidades superiores a 6 m s{sup -}1, la direccion de las corrientes siguio la direccion del viento. Durante la bajamar, al introducir una descarga de 0.2 m{sup 3} s{sup -}1 al sistema, la simulacion presento un incremento de 0.5 cm s{sup -}1 en la velocidad de las corrientes superficiales. La estructura vertical de temperatura presento un incremento generalizado hasta igualar la temperatura de la descarga (17.2 grados centigrados). Este resultado indica que una descarga controlada puede ser capaz de mejorar la circulacion y mezcla, lo que podria reducir los tiempos de residencia y mejorar los niveles de oxigeno en el agua.

  16. Numerical solution of the 1D kinetics equations using a cubic reduced nodal scheme; Solucion numerica de las ecuaciones de la cinetica 1D usando un esquema nodal cubico reducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M.; Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)] e-mail: armagotorres@aol.com

    2003-07-01

    In this work a finite differences technique centered in mesh based on a cubic reduced nodal scheme type finite element to solve the equations of the kinetics 1 D that include the equations corresponding to the concentrations of precursors of delayed neutrons is described. The technique of finite elements used is that of Galerkin where so much the neutron flux as the concentrations of precursors its are spatially approached by means of a three grade polynomial. The matrices of rigidity and of mass that arise during this discretization process are numerically evaluated using the open quadrature non standard of Newton-Cotes and that of Radau respectively. The purpose of the application of these quadratures is the one of to eliminate in the global matrices the couplings among the values of the flow in points of the discretization with the consequent advantages as for the reduction of the order of the matrix associated to the discreet problem that is to solve. As for the time dependent part the classical integration scheme known as {theta} scheme is applied. After carrying out the one reordering of unknown and equations it arrives to a reduced system that it can be solved but quickly. With the McKin compute program developed its were solved three benchmark problems and those results are shown for the relative powers. (Author)

  17. COMPARACION Y MODELACION NUMERICA DE LAHARES CALIENTES EN EL VOLCAN CALBUCO (41,3S) Y LAHARES FRIOS EN EL VOLCAN VILLARRICA (39,5S), ANDES DEL SUR.

    OpenAIRE

    CASTRUCCIO ALVAREZ, ANGELO; CASTRUCCIO ALVAREZ, ANGELO

    2008-01-01

    El volcán Calbuco (41,3° S), corresponde a un estrafovolcán ubicado en los Andes del Sur de Chile, cuyos productos son principalmente de composición andesitica silícea y que posee un registro eruptivo violento, que incluye la generación de flujos de lava, 177p.

  18. Numerical simulation methods applied to injection and storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers; Metodos de simulacion numerica aplicados a la inyeccion y almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en formaciones salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjona Garcia-Borreguero, J.; Rodriguez Pons-Esparver, R.; Iglesias Lopez, A.

    2015-07-01

    One of the Climate Change mitigation proposals suggested by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) in its Synthesis Report 2007 involves the launch of applications for capturing and storing carbon dioxide, existing three different geological structures suitable for gas storage: oil and gas depleted reservoirs, useless coal layers and deep saline structures. In case of deep saline structures, the main problem to prepare a study of CO{sub 2} storage is the difficulty of obtaining geological data for some selected structure with characteristics that could be suitable for injection and gas storage. According to this situation, the solution to analyze the feasibility of a storage project in a geological structure will need numerical simulation from a 3D terrain model. Numerical methods allow the simulation of the carbon dioxide filling in saline structures from a well, used to inject gas with a particular flow. This paper presents a methodology to address the modeling and simulation process of CO{sub 2} injection into deep saline aquifers. (Author)

  19. Numerical simulation of the spinodal decomposition in hypothetical A-B and A-B-C alloy systems; Simulacion numerica de la descomposicion espinodal en sistemas de aleacion hipoteticos A-B y A-B-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila-Davila, E.O.; Lezama-Alvarez, S.; Saucedo-Munoz, M. L.; Lopez-Hirata, V.M.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Perez-Labra, M.

    2012-11-01

    The phase field method is based on the thermodynamics, mechanism and kinetic of the precipitation reactions in alloys. This method can be used to simulate numerically the microstructural evolution in an alloy system, and constitutes a powerful tool to predict the phase transformations. The phase field method solves the nonlinear Cahn- Hilliard partial differential equation and offers computational advantages. The effect of the parameters into this equation on the morphology and kinetics of the phase separation in binary A-B and ternary A-B-C hypothetical alloy systems with a miscibility gap was analyzed. The results showed that the atomic mobility modifies the phase separation kinetics. In contrast, elastic-strain energy is an important parameter that affects the morphology of phases causing changes from spheres to cuboids or plates with preferential crystallographic alignment. (Author) 16 refs.

  20. Analysis of fluid flow in a stirred reverberatory furnace with different impellers, by physical and numerical modeling; Analisis del comportamiento de flujo de fluidos en un horno de rereverbero agitado con diferentes impulsores, mediante la modelacion fisica y numerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, R.; Flores, A.; Macias, E.; Reyes, N.

    2009-07-01

    A fluid flow analysis and particle trajectory in a 5 t molten capacity scaled 1.2 model of a reverberatory furnace was performed using both physical and numerical simulation. The design of the system allowed studying the behavior of the liquid in a system agitated by impellers. The parameters studied were, rotating shape and height, of the impeller. The physical and numerical simulations were used to determine circulation and mixing times, fluid flow patters and velocity profiles in the agitation and melting chambers. Using experimental data, it was possible to establish the interaction between turbulent flow and circulating solid particles. The original design of the reverberatory furnace was modified based on the physical and numerical simulation analysis. The new design showed an increased magnesium removal rate by means of a more efficient and faster mixing. (Author) 18 refs.

  1. Solution of the punctual kinetic equation with constant reactivity by Laplace transformation with numeric inversion; Solucao da equacao de cinetica pontual com reatividade constante por transformada de Laplace com inversao numerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwanz, Daphne, E-mail: daphne_schwanz@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Petersen, Claudio Z., E-mail: claudiopetersen@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Leite, Sargio Q.B., E-mail: bogado@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e Ciclo do Combustivel

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the punctual kinetic equation, which consists of a Stiff type ordinary equation system, will be solved by the technique of Laplace Transformation with numerical inversion. The punctual kinetic equation will be written in a matrix form assuming constant reactivity. The inversion of the Laplace Transformation will be solved by the gaussian quadrature method. We will perform numerical simulation and will make comparisons with obtained results in the literature for constant reactivity

  2. Mercapto-based coupling agent for improved thermophotovoltaic device back surface reflector adhesion and reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernsman, Bernard; Fiedor, Joseph N.; Irr, Lawrence G.; Palmisiano, Marc N.

    2016-10-04

    A back surface reflector (BSR) is described. The BSR includes a reflecting layer, a substrate and an adhesion layer between the reflecting layer and the substrate. The adhesion layer includes 3-mercaptopropyl (trimethoxy) silane (a.k.a. Merc).

  3. New method for qualitative simulations of water resources systems. 2. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, M.P.; Seixas, M.J.; Camara, A.S.; Pinheiro, M.

    1987-11-01

    SLIN (Simulacao Linguistica) is a new method for qualitative dynamic simulation. As was presented previously, SLIN relies upon a categorical representation of variables which are manipulated by logical rules. Two applications to water resources systems are included to illustrate SLIN's potential usefulness: the environmental impact evaluation of a hydropower plant and the assessment of oil dispersion in the sea after a tanker wreck.

  4. Genotyping-by-sequencing uncovers the introgression alien segments associated with Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance from wild species—I. Helianthus argophyllus and H. petiolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR), caused by Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease in sunflower worldwide. The progress of breeding for Sclerotinia BSR resistance has been hampered due to the lack of effective sources of resistance for cultivated sunflower. Our objective was to transfer BSR resista...

  5. Real-time Estimation of UAS Performance Using Efficient Sampling of Functional Models, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerica proposes to developed advanced algorithms for constructing a UAS vehicle model from ATC surveillance data in real-time. Using functional descriptions of...

  6. Simulation of a gas thermal plant in the new environment of the Brazilian electricity sector: a risk versus return analysis; Simulacao de uma usina termica a gas no novo contexto do setor eletrico brasileiro: uma analise risco versus retorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinhel, Antonio Carlos da Costa

    2000-12-15

    This work has as its main objective the evaluation of the financial impact in respect to the investment in a thermal gas plant, taking into consideration the complementary role of thermal electricity generation within the interconnected system. A risk x return analysis is performed, by means of computer simulations based on different assumptions, among which the following: costs involved; electric system expansion scenarios; flexible plant operation; long and short term contracting of generation capacity. The combination between flexibility in operation (the level of take/ship or pay in gas contracts) - which in favorable hydraulic periods allows for the use of water which would otherwise overflow through spillways or stored at low value - and a trading strategy - which reduces the risk exposure to electricity spot prices - makes it possible to have a significant increase in the cost effectiveness of the project. Among the main conclusions of the study, the following should be highlighted: the electricity price gap occurring between the prices practiced in present contracts between suppliers and distributors and those of the 'new energy', resulting from the system expansion; the relevance the flexibility in fuel purchase, in order to allow for the cost reduction of the energy generated, through the elimination of unnecessary gas consumption; the high risk associated to strategies in which investors come up with no signed long term power purchase agreements; and the risks for the system expansion, considering the consumer point of view. (author)

  7. Behaviour of the gasoline containing ethanol (E-20) and the pure one after a leakage simulation in laboratory columns; Comportamento da gasolina com etanol (E-20) e da gasolina pura apos a simulacao de um vazamento em colunas de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Silvia Maria; Oliveira, Everton [Hidrologia e Planejamento Ambiental - HIDROPLAN, Cotia, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: silvia@hidroplan.com.br; Duarte, Uriel [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental

    2004-10-15

    Commercial gasolines sold in Brazil are added ethanol from 20 to 24% by volume. This oxygenated additive raises the octane level and reduces carbon monoxide emissions to the atmosphere. Underground storage tanks and gasoline lines are a major potential problem for soil and groundwater contamination. Since ethanol has cosolvent properties that alter the behavior of phase distribution in subsurface, this study compares the existing relationship between apparent and real thicknesses of free phase gasoline and E-20 (80% gasoline and 20% ethanol by volume) found respectively in monitoring wells and porous medium material used in two column experiments. Two cylindrical plexiglass columns were used (100 cm long and 23 cm in internal diameter). The bottom ends were capped using plexiglass plate 0.60 cm thick. A spout-like connection of PVC was fitted near the base of each column as an inlet/outlet. One well screen (100 cm long and 3,5 cm in internal diameter) in white PVC was cut in half lengthwise and attached to the inside walls of columns to be used as monitoring wells. The columns were then filled with 0,088 mm grain size sand (very fine). The apparent thickness of pure gasoline was 2.6 times thicker than the actual thickness in the aquifer while it was only 0.6 thicker for E-20. The interfacial tension of E-20 is 67% lower than that of the pure gasoline, allowing a larger quantity of pores to be accessed, which was reflected in oil saturation 54% greater than that of pure gasoline. (author)

  8. Simulation and evaluation of mammography quality from an X-ray equipment of a instrument calibration laboratory; Simulacao e avaliacao das qualidades da mamografia do equipamento de raios-x de um laboratorio de calibracao de instrumentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia F. da; Castro, Maysa C. de; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: na.fiorini@gmail.com, E-mail: maysadecastro@gmail.com, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Instrument Calibration Laboratory (ICL) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil has developed some work in order to establish a primary standard system for low energy X-ray employing a ionization chamber of free air. For this, one of the most important steps is the determination of factors of correction of its answer. Simulation is a frequently used tool for this because some correction factors can not be determined experimentally. For the correct simulation of these correction factors is necessary some input parameters such as geometry, the material composition of the dosimeter, the experimental arrangement and the radiation source are specified correctly. For the ionization chamber available on the LCI, the geometry, the material components and the experimental arrangement can be obtained easily. On the other hand, spectrum of radiation energy source, which must be inserted into the computer code has not been obtained. Thus, this study aims to determine this radiation spectrum, thus enabling the characterization of the new primary standard for low power X-radiation of ICL.

  9. Simulation of ferric ions transfer in dosemeter Fricke-Xylenol-Gel in means no homogeneous; Simulacao da difusao de ions ferricos em dosimetros Fricke-Xilenol-Gel em meios nao homogeneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Caio J.; Bevilacqua, Joyce da Silva, E-mail: caio.milani@usp.br, E-mail: joyce@ime.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica. Departamento de Matematica Aplicada; Cavinato, Christianne C.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Campos, Leticia L., E-mail: rodrijr@ipen.br, E-mail: Icrodri@ipen.br, E-mail: ccavinato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (lPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes

    2013-11-01

    Dosimetry in three dimensions using Fricke-Xilenol-Gel dosimeters (FXG) allows the confirmation and a better understanding of a treatment by Radiotherapy. The technique involves the assessment of the irradiated volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or optical-CT. On both cases, the time elapsed between the irradiation and the measurement is an important factor in the quality of results. The quality of the images can be compromised by the mobility of the ferric ions (Fe{sup 3+}), formed during the the interaction of the radiation with the matter, increasing the uncertainty in the determination of the isodoses in the volume. In this work, the phenomenon of the diffusion of the ferric ions formed by an irradiated region is simulated in a bidimensional domain. The dynamic of the Fe{sup 3+} in Fricke-Gel is modeled by a parabolic partial differential equation and solved by the ADI-Peaceman-Rachford algorithm. Stability and consistency of the method guarantee the convergence of the numerical solution for a pre-defined error magnitude, based on choices for the discretization values of time and space. Homogeneous and non-homogeneous cases are presented considering an irradiated region and a physical barrier that prevents the movement of the ions, on the non-homogeneous case. Graphical visualizations of the phenomenon are presented for better understanding of the process. (author)

  10. Diffusion simulation of ferric ions in dosemeter Fricke-gel with variable diffusion coefficient; Simulacao da difusao de ions ferricos em dosimetros Fricke-gel com coeficiente de difusao variavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Caio Jacob; Bevilacqua, Joyce da Silva, E-mail: caio.milani@usp.br, E-mail: joyce@ime.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando, E-mail: rodrijr@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes

    2014-07-01

    Dosimetry using dosimeters Fricke-xylenol-Gel (FXG) allows confirmation and better understanding of radiotherapy treatments. The technique involves the evaluation of volumes irradiated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT-optical. In both cases, the time spent between the irradiation and measurement is an important factor that directly influences the results. The quality of the images can be compromised by the mobility of ferric ions (Fe 3+), formed during the interaction of radiation with matter, increasing the uncertainty in determining the isodose. In this work, we simulated the dynamic involving ferric ions formed in one irradiated region irradiated in a two-dimensional domain with a variable diffusion coefficient. This phenomenon is modeled by a differential equation and solved numerically by an efficient algorithm that generalizes the Crank-Nicolson method. The stability and consistency of the method guarantee the convergence of the numerical solution for a predefined tolerance based in the choice of discretization steps of time and space. Different continuous functions were chosen to represent the diffusion coefficient and graphical views of the phenomenon are presented for a better understanding of the process.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of treatment by hydrocyclone of the sea water contaminated by petroleum-derived; Modelagem e simulacao via CFD do tratamento por hidrociclone de agua do mar contaminado por derivado de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Lais A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.; Santos, Valdemir A. dos [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Gama, Paulo H.R.P. [B and G Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Sistemas Eletricos S.A., Recifie, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Hilario J.B. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    A liquid-liquid hydrocyclone (LLHC) has been designed to act as an element responsible for the final step of physical separation of a mixture consisting of sea water and oil products, with subsequent simulation by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The use of LLHC for contaminated sea water is a separation processes more attractive due to the type of compact equipment, without moving parts, capable of reaching environmental requirements for disposal of effluent. LLHC is a tube composed of cylindrical and conical components juxtaposed effecting the separation of the dispersed phase by the action of the resulting centrifugal field, by configuration of the equipment and by the way suspension feeds. LLHC of interest of this work was hydraulically sized using the Matlab software, assuming dynamic similarity criteria from dimensionless numbers, ensuring optimization of the structure and obtain future scale-up correlations. To obtain the geometry of the equipment and of a suitable grid was used the pre-processor GAMBIT from FLUENT software, with the highest density in the radial direction due to the considerable variation in flow properties in this direction. In axial direction the mesh can be relatively spaced to reduce the computational effort. Calculations were performed by combining the Reynolds Stress Model and a multiphase algorithm. The profiles of current lines, the volume fraction of phases and the pressure drop of mixture explained the separation process. This indicates the current simulation could be an effective tool to optimization design of LLHC. (author)

  12. Simulation of clinical X-ray tube using the Monte Carlo Method - PENELOPE code; Simulacao de um tubo de raios X clinico atraves do Metodo de Monte Carlo usando codigo PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, M.A.G.; David, M.G.; Almeida, C.E. de; Magalhaes, L.A.G., E-mail: malbuqueque@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Bernal, M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Braz, D. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. The main strategy to increase the long-term survival of patients with this disease is the early detection of the tumor, and mammography is the most appropriate method for this purpose. Despite the reduction of cancer deaths, there is a big concern about the damage caused by the ionizing radiation to the breast tissue. To evaluate these measures it was modeled a mammography equipment, and obtained the depth spectra using the Monte Carlo method - PENELOPE code. The average energies of the spectra in depth and the half value layer of the mammography output spectrum. (author)

  13. Fuel performance computer code simulation of steady-state and transient regimes of the stainless steel fuel rods; Simulacao com programas computacionais de desempenho do combustivel em regimes permanente e transiente de varetas combustiveis de aco inoxidavel austenitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel de Souza

    2014-07-01

    The immediate cause of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in March 2011 was the meltdown of the reactor core. During this process, the zirconium cladding of the fuel reacts with water, producing a large amount of hydrogen. This hydrogen, combined with volatile radioactive materials leaked from the containment vessel and entered the building of the reactor, resulting in explosions. In the past, stainless steel was used as the coating in many pressurized water reactors (PWR) under irradiation and their performance was excellent, however, the stainless steel was replaced by a zirconium-based alloy as a coating material mainly due to its lower section shock-absorbing neutrons. Today, the stainless steel finish appears again as a possible solution for security issues related to the explosion and hydrogen production. The objective of this thesis is to discuss the performance under irradiation of fuel rods using stainless steel as a coating material. The results showed that stainless steel rods exhibit lower temperatures and higher fuel pellet width of the gap - coating the coated rods Zircaloy and this gap does not close during the irradiation. The thermal performance of the two fuel rods is very similar, and the penalty of increased absorption of neutrons due to the use of stainless steel can be offset by the combination of a small increase in the enrichment of U- 235 and changes in the size of the spacing between the fuel rods. (author)

  14. Development of virtual anthropomorphism of head mathematical model for using in dosimetry computerized simulation; Desenvolvimento de modelo matematico antropomorfico virtual de cabeca para utilizacao em simulacao computacional de dosimetria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V.F.; Hoff, G.; Streck, E.E. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica. Grupo de Experimentacao e Simulacao Computacional em Fisica (GESiC)]. E-mail: ghoff@pucrs.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper shows the development of a virtual anthropomorphous model of head, considering different tissue composition, based in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) images. The head original images were acquired in an equipment of NMR GE Sigma Horizon LX 1.5 T Echo Speed, available in the clinic of diagnosis for image SIDI. These images were segmented using routines developed in C++ language. The generated model is a group of 124 matrices of sequential data in format ASCII, where 26 indices evidence different structures. (author)

  15. Optimization by simulation and development of solar cells with aluminium paste rear emitter and diffusion in conveyor furnace; Otimizacao por simulacao e desenvolvimento de celulas solares com emissor posterior formado por pasta de aluminio e difusao em forno de esteira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallmann, Ana Paula

    2011-01-15

    Photovoltaic solar energy is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity and it has low impact to the environment during electric energy production. The main device of this technology is the solar cell and silicon is the substrate most used. The solar cells are electrically connected and encapsulated in order to form the photovoltaic module. The aims of this thesis are to optimize, develop and to analyse n{sup +}np{sup +} solar cells processed in n type Si-PV-FZ and with aluminum rear emitter formed in belt furnace. The optimization of solar cells by simulation is an important step before the device development. The software PC-1D and another program developed using Visual Basic language were used. Considering a metal grid formed by evaporation technique in vacuum ambient an efficiency of 16.8 % may be achieved. With screen printed grid, 15.8 % efficient solar cells were obtained. From the simulation results it was found that the screen printing metallization may become more viable than evaporation technique because there is low difference in the efficiency and the screen printing is a simpler technique. The experimental optimization of silicon wafers texture process resulted in reflectance of 12 %. This value is typical for monocrystalline silicon with textured surface. Experimental optimization of phosphorus front surface field shows a sheet resistance of (36 {+-} 4) {omega}/ for this region. This region was formed in a thermal step in a conventional furnace with POCl{sub 3}. It was found that after the phosphorus diffusion occurred gettering to specific temperature and time. It was verified that the minority carrier lifetime in the final of processing is similar to the initial value. The influence of steps sequence of front silver paste firing and rear diffusion/firing aluminium paste, of surface passivation and the influence of dry air flow during the aluminium paste diffusion/firing, of aluminium paste diffusion/firing temperature and of belt speed under the fabricated devices electric characteristics were analysed. The aluminum rear emitter n{sup +}np{sup +} silicon solar cells resulted in 29 efficiency up to 9,5 %. The best solar cells were processed under 900 deg C to aluminium paste diffusion/firing and belt speed of 140 cm/min. The efficiency is limited by low values of V{sub OC} and FF reached. It was also verified that the local rear emitter formation results in solar cells with higher efficiency than those with homogeneous emitter. (author)

  16. Dosimetry in non-homogeneous media with alanine/EPR mini dosemeters and simulation with PENELOPE Monte Carlo code;Dosimetria em meios nao-homogeneos com minidosimetros de alanina/EPR e simulacao Monte Carlo com o codigo PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ramirez, J.L.; Chen, F.; Nicolucci, P.; Baffa, O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2009-07-01

    The dosimetric system of L-alanine mini dosimeter and K-Band EPR spectrometer was tested for the dosimetry in non-homogeneous media through the determination of the Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curve for a small radiation field. The alanine mini dosimeters were produced by mechanical pressure of a mixture of L-alanine (95%) and PVA (5%) to nominal dimensions of 1 mm diameter and 3 mm length and 3 - 4 mg. For detecting the EPR signal of the mini dosimeters irradiated to 25 Gy, a K-Band (24 GHz) spectrometer was used. The dosimeters were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co radiotherapy unit using 80 cm source skin distance and field sizes of 2.5 x 2.5 cm{sup 2}. The inhomogeneous phantom consisted of acrylic and cork sheets of 30 x 30 x 1 cm{sup 3}; six cork sheets were sandwiched between five and nine acrylic sheets, which were placed at the top and bottom regions respectively. PDD curves with radiographic film and PENELOPE simulation were also determined. The PDD results for alanine mini dosimeters agreed better than 5.9% with film and PENELOPE. (author)

  17. Calibration method for a in vivo measurement system using mathematical simulation of the radiation source and the detector; Metodo de calibracao de um sistema de medida in vivo atraves da simulacao matematica da fonte de radiacao e do detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John

    1998-12-31

    A Monte Carlo program which uses a voxel phantom has been developed to simulate in vivo measurement systems for calibration purposes. The calibration method presented here employs a mathematical phantom, produced in the form of volume elements (voxels), obtained through Magnetic Resonance Images of the human body. The calibration method uses the Monte Carlo technique to simulate the tissue contamination, the transport of the photons through the tissues and the detection of the radiation. The program simulates the transport and detection of photons between 0.035 and 2 MeV and uses, for the body representation, a voxel phantom with a format of 871 slices each of 277 x 148 picture elements. The Monte Carlo code was applied to the calibration of in vivo systems and to estimate differences in counting efficiencies between homogeneous and non-homogeneous radionuclide distributions in the lung. Calculations show a factor of 20 between deposition of {sup 241} Am at the back compared with the front of the lung. The program was also used to estimate the {sup 137} Cs body burden of an internally contaminated individual, counted with an 8 x 4 Nal (TI) detector and an {sup 241} Am body burden of an internally contaminated individual, who was counted using a planar germanium detector. (author) 24 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. Sonic profile simulation from the profiles of gamma ray and resistivity in the wells from Campos Basin; Simulacao do perfil sonico a partir dos perfis de raios gama e de resistividade em pocos da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Marcos, E-mail: marcosviniciuscl@gmail.com [PETROBRAS, E e P - SERV/US - PO, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Carrasquilla, Abel, E-mail: abel@lenep.uenf.br [Laboratorio de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LENEP/UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Jadir da [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of the rocks is essential in the calculation of the stability of the oil wells and in the elaboration of drilling projects, because they help in the selection of the best equipment for each geologic scene. In these activities, the most important mechanical property is the rock compressibility, which can be calculated from the sonic geophysical log, but this one, not always available in the well data set. In order to minimize this limitation, it was developed, in this work, a methodology to simulate it through an algorithm that utilizes fuzzy logic concepts, using as input data gamma ray and resistivity logs. The basic principle of this methodology is to propose that any geophysical log, including the sonic log, can be considered function of other measured geophysical logs in the same depths. On the other hand, to test the confidence of this approach, it was compared with two others commonly used in the simulation of logs: the linear multiple regression and the neural network back-propagation, showing, our methodology, however, better results. Finally, to validate the method, it was tested using wells from Namorado Oil Field in Campos Basin, which contains gamma ray, sonic and resistivity logs. (author)

  19. Simulation of the ethanol autothermal reforming process for the hydrogen production in integrated unity; Simulacao do processo de reforma autotermica de etanol para a producao de hidrogenio em unidade integrada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Neto, Antonio Jose; Camargo, Joao Carlos [Hytron Tecnologia em Hidrogenio, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lopes, Daniel Gabriel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Silva, Ennio Peres da; Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2006-07-01

    A small ethanol autothermal processor, capable to produce 5 m{sup 3}/h (298,15 K; 101,325 kPa) of hydrogen, was fully sized according to the thermodynamics described and processing products from the ethanol reforming experience. The parameters used to determine all the catalyst amounts were assumed upon state-of-the-art GHSV (Gas Hourly Space Velocity) values and lead a four-bed system implementation, composed by auto thermal reforming catalyst (ATR), high and low temperature shift catalysts (HTS and LTS, respectively) and finally, a carbon monoxide isothermal preferential oxidation catalyst (iso-PrOx). This simulation was solved with EES (Engineering Equation Solver), using its solution algorithm and its thermodynamics chemical species database as well. It follows PEM fuel cell system characteristics (hydrogen supplying conditions, efficiencies and tolerances), and a brief analysis upon global efficiencies for power generation assuming distinct topologies for the generation plant as well different business opportunities for the hydrogen production plant was conducted. (author)

  20. Assessment of influence of OSL dosimeters in the skin dose in radiotherapy: study for Monte Carlo simulation; Avaliacao da influencia de dosimetros OSL na dose na pele em radioterapia: estudo por simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, Franciely F.; Nicolucci, Patricia, E-mail: franschuch@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeiraoo Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The interest in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry materials is growing due to its potential use in quality control in Radiotherapy. The use of these dosimeters for in vivo dosimetry, however, may influence the dose to the skin and deeper tissues in the patient. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of the OSL Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material in dose deposited in the skin and deep in Radiotherapy. Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate this purpose when OSL dosimeters of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are positioned on the skin surface of the patient. Percentage depth dose curves for clinical beams of 6 and 10 MV were simulated with and without the presence of the dosimeter on the surface of a water phantom. The results showed a decrease of doses in regions close to the surface of the skin. In the build-up region, the maximum decreases of dose produced by the presence of the dosimeters were 52,5% and 47,5% for the 6 and 10 MV beams, respectively. After the build-up region, there are not significant changes in the doses for any of the used beams. The differences of doses found are due to the influence of the dosimetric material on the relative fluence of electrons near the end surface of the dosimeter. Thus, the results showed that the presence of the dosimetric material on the surface interferes on the skin dose. However, these dosimeters do not cause dose variations in depths of clinical interest, allowing its application in routine in vivo dosimetry in Radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Optimization of a computer simulation code to analyse thermal systems for solar energy water heating; Aperfeicoamento de um programa de simulacao computacional para analise de sistemas termicos de aquecimento de agua por energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzebon, Felipe Barin

    2009-02-15

    The potential of solar water heating systems through solar energy in Brazil is excellent due to the climatic features of the country. The performance of these systems is highly influenced also by the materials used to build it and by the dimension of its equipment and components. In face of global warming, solar energy gains more attention, since it is one of the renewable energy that will be largely used to replace some of the existing polluting types of energy. This paper presents the improvement of a software that conducts simulations of water heating systems using solar energy in thermosyphon regime or forced circulation. TermoSim, as it is called, was initiated at the Solar Labs, and is in its version 3.0. The current version is capable of simulating 6 different arrangements' possibilities combined with auxiliary energy: systems with solar collectors with auxiliary energy with gas, electric energy, internal electric energy, electric energy in series with the consumption line, and no auxiliary energy. The software is a tool to aid studies and analysis of solar heating systems, it has a friendly interface that is easy to comprehend and results are simple to use. Besides that, this version also allows simulations that consider heat losses at night, situation in which a reverse circulation can occur and mean efficiency loss, depending on the simulated system type. There were many simulations with the mathematical models used and comparisons were made with the climatic data of the city of Caxias do Sul, in Rio Grande do Sul state, in Brazil, determining the system with the most efficient configuration for the simulated water consume profile. The paper is finalized with simple economic analyses with the intention of foreseeing the time for payback on the investment, taking into account the current prices for electrical energy in the simulated area and the possible monthly economy provided with the use of a solar energy heating system. (author)

  2. Determination of microstructural evolution of a micro alloyed steel during annealing in coil case by physical testing laboratory simulation; Determinacao da evolucao microestrutural de um aco microligado durante o recozimento em caixa de bobinas atraves de simulacao fisica laboratorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branchini, Osvaldo L.G.; Gorni, Antonio A. [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (Brazil); Tschiptschin, Andre P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1990-12-31

    The microstructural variation of a niobium micro alloyed steel, cold-rolled under a slow heating up to 670 degrees Celsius temperature, during 10 hours, is discussed. Samples were analysed at different time and previous determined temperatures also regarding to microstructure and hardness. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  3. Cogeneration in breweries analysis and simulation of systems for simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration using natural gas; Sistemas de refrigeracao a partir da cogeracao: analise e simulacao de propostas para o caso de cervejarias utilizando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio Garrido

    1998-07-01

    The present work analyses some proposals of cogeneration systems for the simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration in a brewery. The requirements of steam, refrigeration and electricity, as well as the production of beer in a plant of the Antarctica Company, located in Jaguariuna - SP were collected monthly for the year of 1997. Three conceptions of systems using two gas turbines with heat recovery steam generator were then proposed to meet the surveyed demand. The proposals differ in the refrigeration system: the first one uses a traditional ammonia compression system while the second uses an ammonia absorption system, the third proposal is a combination of the compression and absorption systems. These proposals are compared to the present configuration which purchases electricity from the Public Utility for power and refrigeration (using an ammonia compression)system, and fuel oil to generate steam for process heat. The technical, economical and environmental feasibility of the proposals, as well as of the present configuration are discussed on the basis of mass balances, energy balances (first law of Thermodynamics), exergy fluxes (second law analysis), operational and capital cost, based on simulation of the performance of each configuration proposed to meet the monthly electricity, steam and refrigeration requirements for the referred plant. The turbines were chosen so as to meet the peek energy demand of the plant and two cases were simulated for each proposal: turbine operational meets only the demand of the plant and turbine operates at full load, selling electricity for the Public utility. Results obtained show that the current operational costs are higher than any of the proposals presented. The high capital costs of the proposals, though,make them less interesting financially. The simulation of the case of excess electricity to the Public Utility is very attractive, considering the cost of natural gas 3,38 U$/M btu and the fare of 40 U$/MWh. The proposal of best performance energetically, operationally and economically is the one that uses the combined compression and absorption system, presenting a flexibility to absorb the variations of the electrical and thermal energy demand inherent to the process of production of beer. In general terms, the combination of energy, exergy, economic and environmental analysis are important tools to evaluate concurrent industrial energy technologies. (author)

  4. 3D simulation of the catalyst density radial distribution in a riser of the FCC unit; Simulacao 3D da distribuicao radial de densidade do catalisador num riser de uma unidade de FCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apolonio, Adelia M.; Santos, Valdemir A. dos; Finkler, Christine L.L. [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Dantas, Carlos C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    Local variations in the catalyst/vacuum gas oils mixing can lead to low conversions in some parts of a fluid cracking catalytic riser, while in other parts, high conversions will produce undesirable fuel gas and coke quantities. Knowledge of the apparent solid concentration in a cross-section of the riser is then essential. A computational program to generate tri dimensional graphics and level curves of the radial catalyst density in FCC risers was elaborated. The algorithm is based on determinations of the polynomial coefficients with aid of least square method and was tested with literature data, obtained by applications of nuclear technique of gamma radiation attenuation. The simulation results showed convergence with the experimental data. The precision of the mapping depends on the number of measurements and promote better conditions of diagnostic of the distribution catalyst type in the riser. (author)

  5. A stochastic model for neutron simulation considering the spectrum and nuclear properties with continuous dependence of energy; Um modelo estocastico de simulacao neutronica considerando o espectro e propriedades nucleares com dependencia continua de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Dayana Queiroz de

    2011-01-15

    This thesis has developed a stochastic model to simulate the neutrons transport in a heterogeneous environment, considering continuous neutron spectra and the nuclear properties with its continuous dependence on energy. This model was implemented using Monte Carlo method for the propagation of neutrons in different environment. Due to restrictions with respect to the number of neutrons that can be simulated in reasonable computational processing time introduced the variable control volume along the (pseudo-) periodic boundary conditions in order to overcome this problem. The choice of class physical Monte Carlo is due to the fact that it can decompose into simpler constituents the problem of solve a transport equation. The components may be treated separately, these are the propagation and interaction while respecting the laws of energy conservation and momentum, and the relationships that determine the probability of their interaction. We are aware of the fact that the problem approached in this thesis is far from being comparable to building a nuclear reactor, but this discussion the main target was to develop the Monte Carlo model, implement the code in a computer language that allows extensions of modular way. This study allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of energy on the neutron population and its impact on the life cycle of neutrons. From the results, even for a simple geometrical arrangement, we can conclude the need to consider the energy dependence, i.e. an spectral effective multiplication factor should be introduced each energy group separately. (author)

  6. Simulation of surge and swab pressures in well drilling operations; Simulacao do problema de 'surge' e 'swab' em atividades de perfuracao de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fernando T.G.M.C. de; Kimura, Hudson Faglioni; Ramalho, Vanessa; Negrao, Cezar O. Ribeiro; Junqueira, Silvio L.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The movements of the well drilling pipe, known as trips, cause variations in the well inner pressure. When the pipe is moving downwards, in an operation called 'running', the pressure increases and is known as surge pressure and, when it is moving upwards, in an operation called 'pulling', the pressure decreases and it is so called a swab pressure. The study of this phenomenon is of great importance not only due to financial reasons but also for the determination of speeds and accelerations which should be used in running and pulling operations. Among the researchers have studied this problem, Fontenot and Clark are two of the most important. They formulated the problem solution through considerations about the friction factor. The present work's target is to develop a computational program which allows the calculus of those pressures, according to previous investigations and models found in the literature and for different types of fluids as well, such as Bingham fluid and Power Law fluid. (author)

  7. Modelling and simulation the radioactive source-term of fission products in PWR type reactors; Modelagem e simulacao do termo-fonte radioativo de produtos de fissao em reatores nucleares do tipo PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porfirio, Rogilson Nazare da Silva

    1996-07-01

    The source-term was defined with the purpose the quantify all radioactive nuclides released the nuclear reactor in the case of accidents. Nowadays the source-term is limited to the coolant of the primary circuit of reactors and may be measured or modelled with computer coders such as the TFP developed in this work. The calculational process is based on the linear chain techniques used in the CINDER-2 code. The TFP code considers forms of fission products release from the fuel pellet: Recoil, Knockout and Migration. The release from the gap to the coolant fluid is determined from the ratio between activity measured in the coolant and calculated activity in the gap. Considered the operational data of SURRY-1 reactor, the TFP code was run to obtain the source=term of this reactor. From the measured activities it was verified the reliability level of the model and the employed computational logic. The accuracy of the calculated quantities were compared to the measured data was considered satisfactory. (author)

  8. Thermodynamical simulation for solid oxide (SOFC) type fuel cells with ethanol direct internal reforming; Simulacao termodinamica para celulas a combustivel do tipo SOFC com reforma interna direta do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aline Lima da; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga; Heck, Nestor Cezar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais (PPGEM)]. E-mail: als14br2000@yahoo.com.br; Mello, Celso Gustavo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica (PPGEQ); Halmenschlager, Cibele Melo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais (PPGEM). Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos

    2008-07-01

    In SOFC, high operative temperature allows the direct conversion of ethanol into H{sub 2} to take place in the electrochemical cell. Direct internal reforming of ethanol, however, can produce undesirable products that diminish system efficiency and, in the case of carbon deposition over the anode, may occur the breakdown of the electrode. In this way, thermodynamic analysis is fundamental to predict the product distribution as well as the conditions favorable for carbon to precipitate inside the cell. Equilibrium determinations are performed by the Gibbs energy minimization method, using the GRG algorithm. Thermodynamic conditions for carbon deposition were analyzed, in order to establish temperature ranges and H{sub 2}O/ethanol ratios where carbon precipitation is not feasible. A mathematical relationship between Lagrange multipliers and carbon activity is presented, unveiling the carbon activity in atmosphere. The effect of the type of solid electrolyte (O{sup 2-} or H{sup +} conducting) on carbon formation is also investigated. The results of this work are in agreement with previous results reported in literature using the stoichiometric method. (author)

  9. An approach to speed up simulation time of WAG-CO{sub 2} process; Uma abordagem para reducao do tempo de simulacao do processo WAG-CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligero, Eliana Luci [Centro de Estudos de Petroleo (CEPETRO/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The use of CO{sub 2} in EOR processes is an attractive alternative to increase oil recovery and, at the same time, to avoid the emission of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere. The possibility of CO{sub 2} injections is not limited to depleted reservoirs or to reservoirs after waterflooding, but also to reservoirs in the initial phase of their lives. A possible manner to inject CO{sub 2} is through the WAG process that combines the advantages of the two injection processes. The rigorous simulation of the WAG process is executed by a compositional formulation instead the simplified Black-Oil formulation. The compositional formulation requires more computational time to run a simulation model. Also, the procedure to shut-in and shut-off the injector wells alternately, to change the injection fluid, will once again increase the computational time of the WAG process. For this reason, a numerical approach was investigated in order to reduce this computational time. In this approach, called Pseudo WAG, water and CO{sub 2} are simultaneously injected into the simulation model, maintaining the same quantity of injection fluid as in the WAG process. The possibility of the Pseudo WAG to adequately represent the physical phenomena resulting from WAG-CO{sub 2} was investigated using a commercial and compositional simulator. The simulation runs executed for light oil with dissolved CO{sub 2} indicated that the WAG-CO{sub 2} process was effective for oil recovery. For the studied cases, the Pseudo WAG was capable of adequately representing the WAG-CO{sub 2} process, thus validating the proposed approach, providing a significant reduction in the computational time.(author)

  10. Two-phase flow simulation inside a tubing string with artificial lift system PCP based; Simulacao do escoamento bifasico em uma coluna de producao com sistema de elevacao artificial por BCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, F.J.T.; Salazar, A.O.; Maitelli, A.L. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mail: francisco@dca.ufrn.br; andres@dca.ufrn.br; maitelli@dca.ufrn.br; Assmann, B.W. [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios]. E-mail: benno@petrobras.com.br; Lima, J.A. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: jalima@dem.ufrn.br

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of the present work is the computational simulation of the vertical two-phase flow within a tubing string in the production of oil equipped with a PCP artificial lift system (Progressive Cavity Pumping). By initially adopting the homogeneous model for the two-phase mixture (oil and gas), the fields of velocity and pressure are evaluated for prediction of pressure loss along the tubing, as well as the spatial and temporal behavior of typical parameters as gas-oil ratio, bubble pressure, solubility ratio, void fraction, gas and oil formation volume factors, among others. Prediction of these properties is an integral part of pressure loss calculations, as well as they constitute essential parameters for optimization of any artificial lift system. The numerical simulation is based on the transport equations (continuity and momentum equations) for a pseudo-fluid through the finite difference method, and the mixture properties are evaluated by employing the black-oil fluid model. Behavior analyses of the main flow variables are made and results for a typical artificial lift system PCP based are discussed. (author)

  11. Dimensioning and CFD simulation of a continuous decanter for treatment of the effluent of a thermoelectric; Dimensionamento e simulacao via CFD de um decantador continuo para tratamento do afluente de uma termeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Lais A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.; Santos, Valdemir A. dos [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Gama, Paulo H.R.P. [B and G Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Sistemas Eletricos S.A., Recifie, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Hilario J.B. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The simulation of phase separation of the mixture of sea water and oil products in a continuous horizontal settler was developed with aid of commercial software FLUENT, after developing a sizing program in Excel spreadsheet. The current thermoelectric power plant installed in Pernambuco - Termope, in Suape Port and Industrial Complex, with a generation capacity of 540 MW electric, sits on the banks of the port, being in a situation of considerable risk. The Termope uses seawater to cool its turbines. However, the side of said power plant is installed a large tanking park of oil products, setting up a situation of imminent spill of chemicals. The separator vessel dimensions were based on the following assumptions: continuous phase is a stagnant fluid, the drop of fluid is dispersed spherical shape and is rigid, the drops move in a laminar flow, the droplets are larger, so that the Brownian movement and can be discarded, the droplets of the dispersed phase not collide with the tank walls. The FLUENT software based on finite volume method, allowed to solve the differential equations arising from the mass conservation, momentum and energy, through the discretization of algebraic equations system, which were solved numerically. For the present work used a non-structured grid and a continuous phase model of multiphase mixture. To a dispersed phase was used a turbulence semi-empirical (k-e) model witch consisted of two transport equations. The analysis of profiles of velocity, static pressure and volume fraction of the mixture allowed the understanding of the separation process and validation of the design method for the construction of the experimental arrangement bench. (author)

  12. Techniques for contact and contact with friction problems; Tecnicas para problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velandia Arana, Gonzalo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    Different numerical techniques are presented based in the finite element method to obtain numerical solutions to contact and contact with friction problems between solid bodies, and compared between each other. [Espanol] Se presentan diferentes tecnicas numericas basadas en el metodo de elementos finitos para la obtencion de soluciones numericas de problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion entre cuerpos solidos, y se comparan entre si.

  13. Development and implementation of a set of numerical quadratures SQ{sub N} and EQ{sub N} type in the transport code AZTRAN; Desarrollo e implementacion de un conjunto de cuadraturas numericas de tipo SQ{sub N} y EQ{sub N} en el codigo de transporte AZTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chepe P, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Xolocostli M, J. V.; Gomez T, A. M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Del Valle G, E., E-mail: liaison.web@gmail.com [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The deterministic transport codes for analysis of nuclear reactors have been used for several years already, these codes have evolved in terms of the methodology used and the degree of accuracy, because at the present time has more computer power. In this paper, the transport code used considers the classical technique of multi-group for discretization energy, for space discretization uses the nodal methods, while for the angular discretization the discrete ordinates method is used; so that presents the development and implementation of a set of numerical quadratures of SQ{sub N} type symmetrical with the same weight for each angular direction and these are compared with the quadratures of EQ{sub N} type. The two sets of numerical quadratures were implemented in the program AZTRAN to a problem with isotropic medium in XYZ geometry, in steady state using the nodal method RTN-0 (Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec). The analyzed results correspond to the effective multiplication factor k{sub eff} and neutron angular flux with approximations from S{sub 4} to S{sub 16}. (Author)

  14. Experimental essay and numerical modelling in a reduced model with physical similarity to a pipeline with zig-zag geometry in Guanabara Bay (PE-3); Ensaio experimental e modelagem numerica em modelo reduzido com semelhanca fisica do duto com geometria zig-zag da Baia de Guanabara (PE-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poiate Junior, Edgard; Costa, Alvaro M. da; Amaral, Claudio S.; Rocha, Renato S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Guimaraes, Giuseppe B.; Souza, Pablo F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In January 2000 PETROBRAS faced a leakage of heavy heated MF380 oil from a 16'' pipeline in Guanabara Bay. The thermal structural buckling of the pipeline, interacting with the soil, induced the rupture of the pipeline wall, causing the leakage of oil. In order to overcome this undesired phenomenon PETROBRAS studied several alternatives of a new pipeline. As a result of these studies a pipeline with 'ZIGZAG' geometry was adopted, named PE-3. Due to the very few applications of this kind of concept by the oil industry and in different soil conditions compared to the existing one in Guanabara Bay, a very sophisticated procedure including the simulation of the thermal mechanical interactions between the soil and the pipeline structure was developed. Computer modeling was carried out using the finite element method considering the soil and pipeline non-linear material behavior and finite displacements. In order to validate the numerical modelling was build an experimental test in a reduced model with physics similarity of a pipeline with ZIG-ZAG geometry (PE-3). The numerical and experimental results are comparing and have a good agreement. (author)

  15. Investigations on the influence of the shape factor and friction in compression processes of cylindrical billets of AA 6082-T6 aluminum alloy by numerical and experimental techniques; Investigaciones sobre la influencia del factor de forma y del rozamiento en procesos de compresion de piezas cilindricas de aleacion de aluminio AA 6082-T6 mediante tecnicas numericas y experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, M. M.; Camacho, A. M.; Bernal, C.; Sebastian, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    The material characterization under similar load conditions to those applied during manufacturing is important in order to analyse Bulk Forming Compression Processes from a more realistic point of view. Open die forging of AA 6082-T6 aluminum alloy has been analysed by using experimental techniques and Finite Elements Method (FEM). The influence of the work piece geometry on the effects that friction produces in typical process variables such as applied forces, contact pressures and stresses and strains in work pieces has been analysed by FEM simulation. It has been shown that higher shape factors of the initial work piece geometry are recommended in such a way that friction effect is minimised. These results are interesting in order to decrease the required energy of the process and the tool wear, and could be used in further analysis of stamping processes. (Author)

  16. Avaliação da aplicação do Metodo Mulligan e massoterapia classica nas disfunções da articulação temporomandibular em mulheres adultas por meio da escala visual-numerica de dor e pelo SF-36

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Cristina Di Grazia

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar e verificar os efeitos do programa de terapia manual (Método Mulligan associado à massagem clássica) nas queixas de dor e na qualidade de vida de mulheres adultas com disfunção da articulação temporomandibular (DTM). Participaram da pesquisa 29 mulheres, com idades entre 28 e 59 anos (média de idade de 47,41 (dp±6,71) anos), encaminhadas pelo serviço odontológico do Centro de saúde da Comunidade da Unicamp (CECOM). Todas as voluntárias apr...

  17. Numerical simulation by CFD of the behavior of the Inter stage 1 flow in stable state of a gas turbine Frame 7; Simulacion numerica por CFD del comportamiento del flujo en la inter etapa 1 en estado estable de una turbina de gas frame 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez R, Alejandro; Lopez H, Juan Arturo R; Mazur Czerwiec, Zdizslaw; Cordero G, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This technical article presents an analysis including the three-dimensional modeling of the flow channel in the nozzle and the movable blade in order to discover the velocity distribution, temperatures and pressures of the main hot gas flow produced in the inter-stage 1. The aim is to establish key evaluation criteria leading to an opportune repair and therefore smaller operation expenses. Thus, the application of a commercial software of CFD is described to model the channel of the first stage in the gas turbine Frame 7, the geometric architecture is shown in the web of the gas turbine, as well as the border conditions used in the results assessment. [Spanish] Este articulo tecnico presenta un analisis que incluye la modelacion tridimensional del canal de flujo en la tobera y el alabe movil para conocer las distribuciones de las velocidades, temperaturas y presiones del flujo principal de gases calientes que se desarrollan en la inter-etapa 1. El fin es establecer criterios clave de evaluacion que conduzcan a una oportuna reparacion y por ende menores gastos de operacion. Asi, se describe la aplicacion de un software comercial de CFD para modelar el canal de flujo de la primera etapa de una turbina de gas Frame 7, se muestra la arquitectura geometrica y el mallado de la turbina de gas, asi como las condiciones de frontera usadas y la validacion de resultados.

  18. Crystal structure of methyl (3RS,4SR,4aRS,11aRS,11bSR-5-oxo-3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,11,11a-decahydro-3,11b-epoxyazepino[2,1-a]isoindole-4-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavien A. A. Toze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H19NO4, is the a product of the esterification of the corresponding carbonic acid with methanol. The molecule comprises a fused tetracyclic system containing three five-membered rings (2-pyrrolidinone, tetrahydrofuran and dihydrofuran and one seven-membered ring (azepane. The five-membered rings have the usual envelope conformations, with the quaternary C atom being the flap atom for the 2-pyrrolidinone ring, and the ether O atom being the common flap atom for the remaining rings. The seven-membered azepane ring adopts a chair conformation with the methine and middle methylene C atoms lying above and below the mean plane defined by the remaining five atoms. The carboxylate substituent is rotated by 77.56 (5° with respect to the base plane of the tetrahydrofuran ring. In the crystal, the molecules are bound by weak C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions into puckered layers parallel to (001.

  19. Phenotypic characterization and complementation analysis of Bacillus subtilis 6S RNA single and double deletion mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Philipp G; Burenina, Olga Y; Weber, Michael H W; Elkina, Daria A; Nesterchuk, Mikhail V; Sergiev, Petr V; Hartmann, Roland K; Kubareva, Elena A

    2015-10-01

    6S RNA, a global regulator of transcription in bacteria, binds to housekeeping RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzymes to competitively inhibit transcription from DNA promoters. Bacillus subtilis encodes two 6S RNA homologs whose differential functions are as yet unclear. We constructed derivative strains of B. subtilis PY79 lacking 6S-1 RNA (ΔbsrA), 6S-2 RNA (ΔbsrB) or both (ΔbsrAB) to study the physiological role of the two 6S RNAs. We observed two growth phenotypes of mutant strains: (i) accelerated decrease of optical density toward extended stationary phase and (ii) faster outgrowth from stationary phase under alkaline stress conditions (pH 9.8). The first phenotype was observed for bacteria lacking bsrA, and even more pronounced for ΔbsrAB bacteria, but not for those lacking bsrB. The magnitude of the second phenotype was relatively weak for ΔbsrB, moderate for ΔbsrA and again strongest for ΔbsrAB bacteria. Whereas ΔbsrAB bacteria complemented with bsrB or bsrA (strains ΔbsrAB + B and ΔbsrAB + A) mimicked the phenotypes of the ΔbsrA and ΔbsrB strains, respectively, complementation with the gene ssrS encoding Escherichia coli 6S RNA failed to cure the "low stationary optical density" phenotype of the double mutant, despite ssrS expression, in line with previous findings. Finally, proteomics (two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, 2D-DIGE) of B. subtilis 6S RNA deletion strains unveiled a set of proteins that were expressed at higher levels particularly during exponential growth and preferentially in mutant strains lacking 6S-2 RNA. Several of these proteins are involved in metabolism and stress responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative genomic and plasmid analysis of beer-spoiling and non-beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Ziola, Barry

    2017-12-01

    Beer-spoilage-related lactic acid bacteria (BSR LAB) belong to multiple genera and species; however, beer-spoilage capacity is isolate-specific and partially acquired via horizontal gene transfer within the brewing environment. Thus, the extent to which genus-, species-, or environment- (i.e., brewery-) level genetic variability influences beer-spoilage phenotype is unknown. Publicly available Lactobacillus brevis genomes were analyzed via BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE) for BSR genes and assessed for pangenomic relationships. Also analyzed were functional coding capacities of plasmids of LAB inhabiting extreme niche environments. Considerable genetic variation was observed in L. brevis isolated from clinical samples, whereas 16 candidate genes distinguish BSR and non-BSR L. brevis genomes. These genes are related to nutrient scavenging of gluconate or pentoses, mannose, and metabolism of pectin. BSR L. brevis isolates also have higher average nucleotide identity and stronger pangenome association with one another, though isolation source (i.e., specific brewery) also appears to influence the plasmid coding capacity of BSR LAB. Finally, it is shown that niche-specific adaptation and phenotype are plasmid-encoded for both BSR and non-BSR LAB. The ultimate combination of plasmid-encoded genes dictates the ability of L. brevis to survive in the most extreme beer environment, namely, gassed (i.e., pressurized) beer.

  1. Gclust Server: 198498 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 198498 Bja_bsr2013 Cluster Sequences - 87 hypothetical protein 1 1.00e-40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.23 0.0 Show 1984...98 Cluster ID 198498 Sequence ID Bja_bsr2013 Link to cluster sequences Cluster Sequ

  2. Publications | Page 17 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Publication du rapport de BSR sur le travail des enfants en Birmanie. Le CRDI finance plusieurs projets de recherche sur les facteurs expliquant le travail des enfants, incluant le rapport intitulé 'Child labor in Myanmar's Garment Sector' écrit récemment par l'organisme Business for Social Responsibility (BSR).

  3. Seismic Data Processing and the Characterization of a Gas Hydrate Bearing Zone Offshore of Southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Deng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Various seismic attributes of gas hydrate bearing sediments were analyzed in the accretionary prism offshore of southwestern Taiwan utilizing seismic imaging, velocity analysis, AVO analysis, and AVO inversion of large offset seismic data. A bottom-simulating reflector (BSR is clearly observed on the seismic section with a reversed polarity compared to that of the seabed reflection. Instantaneous amplitude sectioning clearly shows lateral variations of the BSR. The zero-phase waveform of the BSR is distinct and the weak reflectors above the BSR can be observed on the instantaneous phase section. AVO analysis shows the absolute value of the negative BSR amplitude increasing with offset. A low P-wave interval velocity layer was found below the strong BSR by detailed velocity analysis. Both the P (normal incident P-wave reflection coefficient and G (AVO gradient values are highly negative for the strong BSR on the P and G sections, and they lie in the third quadrant of the P and G cross-plot section. The P+G (reflectivity of Poisson¡¦s ratio value is also negative on the P+G section and the P-G (normal incident S-wave reflection coefficient value is approximately zero on the P-G section along the same strong BSR. All the seismic characters described above suggest that a gas hydrate layer exists together with a free gas layer below it along strong BSRs in the area offshore southwestern Taiwan.

  4. Parched elasto hydrodynamic lubrication film thickness measurement in an instrument ball bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, E.; Schritz, B.; Prahl, J.

    1988-01-01

    Parched Elasto Hydrodynamic Lubricant (PEHL) film thickness in a large instrument ball bearing is measured by electrical capacitance across its ball set. Correlation is shown between changes in film thickness and changes in Basic Speed Ratio (BSR) measured at the same time. BSR is confirmed as a sensitive, non-intrusive measure of transients in film thickness in a real bearing.

  5. Development of a kinetic model for biological sulphate reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, in the BSR model the end-product sulphide has a gaseous equilibrium not in the UCTADM1 model, and hence the physical gas exchange for sulphide is included. The BSR biological, chemical and physical processes are integrated with those of the UCTADM1 model, to give a complete kinetic model for competitive ...

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. This paper presents a method to reduce different transformer setting at distribution transformer tap setting may affect high pow the tap changing, the system can avoid research demonstrated through numerica. Engineering (PSS. TM. E) Software and Pyth generate the load profile for time series ...

  7. Parallel computing: numerics, applications, and trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trobec, Roman; Vajteršic, Marián; Zinterhof, Peter

    2009-01-01

    ... and/or distributed systems. The contributions to this book are focused on topics most concerned in the trends of today's parallel computing. These range from parallel algorithmics, programming, tools, network computing to future parallel computing. Particular attention is paid to parallel numerics: linear algebra, differential equations, numerica...

  8. Elementi di trasmissione del calore

    CERN Document Server

    Guglielmini, Giovanni

    1990-01-01

    Introduzione ; concetti fondamentali di conduzione termica ; conduzione termica in regime stazionario ; conduzione termica in regime variabile ; analisi numerica nei problemi do conduzione ; concetti fondamentali di convezione termica ; convezione forzata ; convezione naturale ; scambio termico in ebollizione e condensazione ; concetti fondamentali di radiazione termica ; scambio termico per radiazione ; scambiatori di calore ; problemi termici negli edifici.

  9. Project of air conditioning system by absorption of water-lithium bromide using solar energy and simulation of its operation under several conditions; Projeto de sistema para condicionamento de ar por absorcao de agua-brometo de litio utilizando energia solar e simulacao de sua operacao sob condicoes diversas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbravati, Alan; Figueiredo, Jose Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: alan@fem.unicamp.br; jrfigue@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This article presents computational models for water - lithium bromide absorption air conditioning systems, verifying the use of solar energy as source of heat for the cycle. Four different models were elaborated for the cycle, changing the configurations and hypotheses. In each model two algorithms were elaborated: the first one accomplished the calculations of the heat and mass flows and a estimative of the areas heat transfer, a project of a system, and another which, based on the answers of the first, simulate the behavior of this system when the conditions of initial project are changed, keeping constant the constructive parameters. As in the project a numeric procedure has been used for solution of non lineal systems based on the algorithm of Newton-Raphson. The main alteration among the models went to substitution of the expansion device and evaporator, and, in the fourth model, was increased a procedure for calculation of the solar collector performance. (author)

  10. Using the model release ARTM associated with resources for simulation geoprocessing radiological environmental impact of atmospheric emissions from a research reactor; Utilizacao do modelo de dispersao ARTM associado a recursos de geoprocessamento para simulacao do impacto ambiental radiologico de emissoes atmosfericas de um reator de pesquisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Simone Fonseca

    2013-08-01

    The knowledge of the dispersion of radionuclides emissions into the atmosphere arising from a nuclear reactor, in normal operation, is an important step in the process of the nuclear and environmental assessment study. These processes require an assessment study of the radiological environmental impact. However, to estimate this impact a simulation of the transport mechanisms and deposition of pollutants released into the atmosphere is required. The present study aimed at the application of the dispersion model ARTM (Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model), together with the powerful tools of the GIS (Geographic Information System) for the environmental impact assessment of a radiological nuclear reactor under typically routine and conditions. Therefore some important information from the national project for a research reactor known as Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) was considered. The information of the atmospheric emissions of the reactor, needed for the simulation of this project, was based on data of the Open Pool Australian Light Water (OPAL).Other important data that had to be collected and analyzed were the source term, the topography, the meteorology and the environmental data. The radionuclides analyzed as pollutants were {sup 41}Ar; {sup 140}Ba; {sup 51}Cr; {sup 137}Cs; {sup 131}I; {sup 133}I; {sup 85m} Kr; {sup 87}Kr; {sup 88}Kr; {sup 140}La; {sup 133}Xe; {sup 135}Xe; {sup 3}H; {sup 90}Sr. The model was run for two chronological scenarios according to their meteorological data for the years 2009 and 2010, respectively. The adoption of GIS techniques was relevant in planning, data preprocessing and in the post-processing of results as well. After pre-processing, the input data were processed by the ARTM dispersion model. Maps, charts, and tables were then produced and evaluated. According to the simulated and evaluated scenarios it could be concluded that exposure pathways that mostly contributed to the dose for individual public were {sup 41}Ar, for immersion in the plume, and {sup 133}I, for inhalation. Nevertheless, even these pathways were much below the limits established by the current standards. (author)

  11. Uncertainty evaluation of the kerma in the air, related to the active volume in the ionization chamber of concentric cylinders, by Monte Carlo simulation; Avaliacao de incerteza no kerma no ar, em relacao ao volume ativo da camara de ionizacao de cilindros concentricos, por simulacao de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Bianco, A.S.; Oliveira, H.P.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: abianco@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2009-07-01

    To implant the primary standard of the magnitude kerma in the air for X-ray between 10 - 50 keV, the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI) must evaluate all the uncertainties of measurement related with Victtoren chamber. So, it was evaluated the uncertainty of the kerma in the air consequent of the inaccuracy in the active volume of the chamber using the calculation of Monte Carlo as a tool through the Penelope software

  12. Evaluation of the response of modified MAGIC-f polymeric gel using a clinical brachytherapy source and Monte Carlo simulation with package PENELOPE; Avaliacao da resposta do gel polimerico MAGIC-f modificado utilizando uma fonte clinica de braquiterapia e simulacao Monte Carlo com o pacote PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, Ana Luiza; Nicolucci, Patricia, E-mail: anaquevedo@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Borges, Leandro F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Setor de Radioterapia

    2016-07-01

    A comparison of experimental and simulated relative doses of a clinical brachytherapy source was performed. A 5 x 5 x 7 cm{sup 3} phantom with a modified MAGIC-f gel was irradiated using a clinical {sup 192}Ir source, Varian, model GammaMed Plus. The phantom was irradiated with 7,5 Gy, commonly used in gynecological treatments. The dose distributions readings were performed 24h after irradiation using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, weighted in T2, with repetition time of 6000 ms, echo-time of 15 ms, 16 echos and 0.40 mm pixel size. The same brachytherapy source was modeled in the Monte Carlo package PENELOPE to obtain dose distributions. The energy cutoff for electrons, photons and positrons was 100 keV, the primary particles condensation parameters remained the same at 0.3. The dose distributions were obtained in two planes perpendicular to the source: one passing through the source’s center and the other at 0.5 cm away from the source’s center in direction of the top of encapsulation. A comparison of the experimental results using the polymeric gel to the computational results showed maximum differences of 12.5%, at 0.62 cm from the source for the central plane, and 6.4% at 0.5 cm from the source for the superior plane. Considering the high dose gradient of these clinical brachytherapy sources, the results obtained in these work show that MAGIC-f gel with modified formulation, is promising for dosimetry in brachytherapy. (author)

  13. Characterization of array scintillation detector for follicle thyroid 2D imaging acquisition using Monte Carlo simulation; Caracterizacao de uma matriz detectora cintiladora para aquisicao de imagem 2D da regiao folicular da glandula tireoide por emissao radioativa usando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Borges da

    2007-05-15

    The image acquisition methods applied to nuclear medicine and radiobiology are a valuable research study for determination of thyroid anatomy to seek disorders associated to follicular cells. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has also been used in problems related to radiation detection in order to map medical images since the improvement of data processing compatible with personnel computers (PC). This work presents an innovative study to find out the adequate scintillation inorganic detector array that could be coupled to a specific light photo sensor, a charge coupled device (CCD) through a fiber optic plate in order to map the follicles of thyroid gland. The goal is to choose the type of detector that fits the application suggested here with spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and good detector efficiency. The methodology results are useful to map a follicle image using gamma radiation emission. A source - detector simulation is performed by using a MCNP4B (Monte Carlo for Neutron Photon transport) general code considering different source energies, detector materials and geometries including pixel sizes and reflector types. The results demonstrate that by using MCNP4B code is possible to searching for useful parameters related to the systems used in nuclear medicine, specifically in radiobiology applied to endocrine physiology studies to acquiring thyroid follicles images. (author)

  14. Preliminary study of the distribution of dose in patients with Graves disease undergoing examination of uptake of iodine-131 using Monte Carlo simulation;Estudo preliminar da distribuicao de dose em pacientes com doenca de Graves submetidos a exame de captacao de iodo-131 utilizando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarcke, Marcelo; Marques, Tatiana; Alva, Mirko; Baffa, Oswaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Nicolucci, Patricia [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Instrumentacao, Dosimetria e Radioprotecao

    2009-07-01

    Patients with Graves' disease have a high hormonal disorder, which causes the change of behavior in society. One way to treat this disease is the use of doses of Iodine-131, requiring that the patient carries out the examination of uptake of 131 I estimates for completion of the activity to be administered. Using these data capture and compared with the simulated data using the Monte Carlo code Penelope is possible to determine a distribution of dose to the region surrounding the thyroid. As noted the difference between the simulated values and the experimentally obtained were 10.36%, thus showing the code of simulation for accurate determination of absorbed dose in tissue near the thyroid. (author)

  15. Preliminary study of the distribution of dose in patients with Graves' disease undergoing examination of uptake of iodine-131 using Monte Carlo simulation; Estudo preliminar da distribuicao de dose em pacientes com doenca de Graves submetidos a exame de captacao de iodo-131 utilizando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarcke, Marcelo; Marques, Tatiana; Nicolucci, Patricia; Baffa, Oswaldo, E-mail: mschwarcke@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Bornemann, Clarissa [Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear de Santa Maria

    2010-06-15

    Patients with Graves disease have a high hormonal disorder, which causes behavioral changes. One way to treat this disease is the use of high doses of {sup 131} Iodine, requiring that the patient carries out the examination of {sup 131}I uptake to estimate the activity to be administered. Using these data capture and compared with the simulated data using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE is possible to determine a distribution of dose to the region surrounding the thyroid. As noted the difference between the simulated values and the experimentally obtained were 10.36%, thus showing the code of simulation for accurate determination of absorbed dose in tissue near the thyroid. (author)

  16. Dosimetric study of prostate brachytherapy using techniques of Monte-Carlo simulation, experimental measurements and comparison with a treatment plan; Estudo dosimetrico de braquiterapia da prostata utilizando tecnicas de simulacao de Monte-Carlo, medidas experimentais, e comparacao com um procedimento de plano de tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Pedro; Barros, Silvia; Vaz, Pedro; Goncalves, Isabel [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico; Cardoso, Simone [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Facure, Alessandro [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Luiz da; Santos, Maira [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira Junior, Pedro Paulo [Dosimetrika (Brazil); Zankl, Maria [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Munchen (Germany). Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen

    2013-10-01

    Prostate Brachytherapy is a radiotherapy technique, which consists in inserting a number of radioactive seeds (containing, usually, the following radionuclides {sup 125} l, {sup 241}Am or {sup 103}Pd ) surrounding or in the vicinity of, prostate tumor tissue . The main objective of this technique is to maximize the radiation dose to the tumor and minimize it in other tissues and organs healthy, in order to reduce its morbidity. The absorbed dose distribution in the prostate, using this technique is usually non-homogeneous and time dependent. Various parameters such as the type of seed, the attenuation interactions between them, their geometrical arrangement within the prostate, the actual geometry of the seeds,and further swelling of the prostate gland after implantation greatly influence the course of absorbed dose in the prostate and surrounding areas. Quantification of these parameters is therefore extremely important for dose optimization and improvement of their plans conventional treatment, which in many cases not fully take into account. The Monte Carlo techniques allow to study these parameters quickly and effectively. In this work, we use the program MCNPX and generic voxel phantom (GOLEM) where simulated different geometric arrangements of seeds containing {sup 125}I, Amersham Health model of type 6711 in prostates of different sizes, in order to try to quantify some of the parameters. The computational model was validated using a phantom prostate cubic RW3 type , consisting of tissue equivalent, and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Finally, to have a term of comparison with a treatment real plan it was simulate a treatment plan used in a hospital of Rio de Janeiro, with exactly the same parameters, and our computational model. The results obtained in our study seem to indicate that the parameters described above may be a source of uncertainty in the correct evaluation of the dose required for actual treatment plans. The use of Monte Carlo techniques can serve as a complementary tool to conventional assessment used today in most hospitals and health centers. (author)

  17. Computational simulation model development for petroleum supply-chain analysis and petroleum products distribution in PETROBRAS, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Desenvolvimento de um modelo de simulacao para analise da cadeia de suprimentos de petroleo e distribuicao de derivados da PETROBRAS na regiao de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarini M, Daniel V.; Pereira, Barbara C.; Caulliraux, Heitor M.; Pellegrin, Ivan de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Grupo de Producao Integrada; Yonamine, Juliana S.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisa e Pos-Graduacao em Administracao de Empresas - COPPEAD; Paschoal, Luis Claudio Moreira [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes part of a project developed in a partnership between Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento -CENPES/PETROBRAS and Grupo de Producao Integrada - GPI/COPPE/UFRJ. The main objective is to develop a simulation model to support understanding how PETROBRAS's downstream supply-chain's logistics works, focusing on oil's flows and stocks. The project's first stage is described, approaching the following topics: the method used and the problem's description, providing the decisions made about the project's purpose and delimitation, the detail's level and the stages of the first model developed, the difficulties founded, as well as the simplifications adopted; the description of the concept modeling, presenting the main topics, from the oil's arrival in the maritime port to the final products consume in the primaries bases of PETROBRAS, including the conversion of oil in products and the transferences between the locations modeled; the results obtained, through some indicators, like the utilization and medium tank's level and the conclusions of the project's first stage and the future steps. (author)

  18. New method for electric equivalents synthesis expressed in digital filters form for transitory simulations in real time for great power nets; Novo metodo para sintese de equivalentes eletricos a filtros digitais para simulacao de transitorios em tempo real em redes eletricas de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Clever [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico em Descargas Atmosfericas]. E-mail: clever@cpdee.ufmg.br; Carneiro Junior, Sandoval [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Szczupak, Jacques [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This article presents a new method to obtain subtransmission nets equivalents, expressed in form of digital filters of finite answer to the impulse, for transitory simulations in great power nets. Initially, it has been made considerations in the way of obtaining these filters, showing that they basically have been synthesized from the impedance and admittance functions of the secondary electric net to be processed in terms of equivalents in the domain of the w analogical frequency. It also is shown the transference technique to the time domain, in which it is used the z plane of the digital frequencies as an intermediate plane, being obtained from this way a set of equations susceptible of being implemented in program of transitory simulation in the time domain. The evaluation of this new method and evaluation of the reduction effect in the order of representative filters of the equivalents, are executed through the comparison of simulations which use the new technique together with other ones coming from EMTP. The obtained replies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method, opening new possibilities for transitory simulations in great power nets.

  19. Comparison of absorbed dose in the cervix carcinoma therapy by brachytherapy of high dose rate using the conventional planning and Monte Carlo simulation; Comparacao da dose absorvida no tratamento do cancer ginecologico por braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose utilizando o planejamento convencional do tratamento e simulacao de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aneli Oliveira da

    2010-07-01

    This study aims to compare the doses received for patients submitted to brachytherapy High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a method of treatment of the cervix carcinoma, performed in the planning system PLATO BPS with the doses obtained by Monte Carlo simulation using the radiation transport code MCNP 5 and one female anthropomorphic phantom based on voxel, the FAX. The implementation of HDR brachytherapy treatment for the cervix carcinoma consists of the insertion of an intrauterine probe and an intravaginal probe (ring or ovoid) and then two radiographs are obtained, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) to confirm the position of the applicators in the patient and to allow the treatment planning and the determination of the absorbed dose at points of interest: rectum, bladder, sigmoid and point A, which corresponds anatomically to the crossings of the uterine arteries with ureters The absorbed doses obtained with the code MCNP 5, with the exception of the absorbed dose in the rectum and sigmoid for the simulation considering a point source of {sup 192}Ir, are lower than the absorbed doses from PLATO BPS calculations because the MCNP 5 considers the chemical compositions and densities of FAX body, not considering the medium as water. When considering the Monte Carlo simulation for a source with dimensions equal to that used in the brachytherapy irradiator used in this study, the values of calculated absorbed dose to the bladder, to the rectum, to the right point A and to the left point A were respectively lower than those determined by the treatment planning system in 33.29, 5.01, 22.93 and 19.04%. These values are almost all larger than the maximum acceptable deviation between patient planned and administered doses (5 %). With regard to the rectum and bladder, which are organs that must be protected, the present results are in favor of the radiological protection of patients. The point A, that is on the isodose of 100%, used to tumor treatment, the results indicate an under dosage of the target volume of about 20%. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the response of polymeric gel modified MAGIC-f using a clinical brachytherapy source and Monte Carlo simulation with package PENELOPE; Avaliacao da resposta do gel polimerico MAGIC-f modificado utilizando uma fonte clinica de braquiterapia e simulacao Monte Carlo com o pacote PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, Ana Luiza; Nicolucci, Patricia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica; Borges, Leandro F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Setor de Radioterapia

    2016-07-01

    In this work a comparison of experimental and simulated relative doses of a clinical brachytherapy source was performed. A 5 x 5 x 7 cm{sup 3} phantom with a modified MAGIC-f gel was irradiated using a clinical {sup 192}Ir source and read using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The Monte Carlo simulation package PENELOPE was used to simulate the dose distributions of the same radiation source. The dose distributions were obtained in two planes perpendicular to the source: one passing through the source's center and the other at 0.5 cm away from the source's center. The higher differences found between experimental and computational distributions were 12.5% at a point 0.62 cm from the source for the central plane and 8.6% at 1.3 cm from the source to the plane 0.5 cm away from the source's center. Considering the high dose gradient of these dose distributions, the results obtained show that the modified MAGIC-f gel is promising for brachytherapy dosimetry. (author)

  1. The Role of Bottom Simulating Reflectors in Gas Hydrate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, U.; Shedd, W. W.; Cook, A.; Frye, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this research we test the viability of using a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) to detect gas hydrate. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) occur at many gas hydrate sites near the thermodynamic base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), and are frequently used to identify possible presence of gas hydrate on a regional scale. To find if drilling a BSR actually increases the chances of finding gas hydrate, we combine an updated dataset of BSR distribution from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management with a comprehensive dataset of natural gas hydrate distribution as appraised from well logs, covering an area of around 200,000 square kilometers in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The BSR dataset compiles industry 3-D seismic data, and includes mostly good-quality and high-confidence traditional and non-traditional BSRs. Resistivity well logs were used to identify the presence of gas hydrate from over 700 existing industry wells and we have found over 110 wells with likely gas hydrate occurrences. By integrating the two datasets, our results show that the chances of encountering gas hydrate when drilling through a BSR is ~ 42%, while that when drilling outside the BSR is ~15%. Our preliminary analysis indicates that a positive relationship exists between BSRs and gas hydrate accumulations, and the chances of encountering gas hydrate increases almost three-fold when drilling through a BSR. One interesting observation is that ~ 58% of the wells intersecting a BSR show no apparent evidence of gas hydrate. In this case, a BSR may occur at sites with no gas hydrate accumulations due to the presence of very low concentration of free gas that is not detected on resistivity logs. On the other hand, in a few wells, accumulations of gas hydrate were observed where no BSR is present. For example in a well in Atwater Valley Block 92, two intervals of gas hydrate accumulation in fractures have been identified on resistivity logs, of which, the deeper interval has 230 feet thick

  2. Hybrid Back Surface Reflector GaInAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RK Huang; CA Wang; MK Connors; GW Turner; M Dashiell

    2004-01-01

    Back surface reflectors have the potential to improve thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device performance though the recirculation of infrared photons. The ''hybrid'' back-surface reflector (BSR) TPV cell approach allows one to construct BSRs for TPV devices using conventional, high efficiency, GaInAsSb-based TPV material. The design, fabrication, and measurements of hybrid BSR-TPV cells are described. The BSR was shown to provide a 4 mV improvement in open-circuit voltage under a constant shortcircuit current, which is comparable to the 5 mV improvement theoretically predicted. Larger improvements in open-circuit voltage are expected in the future with materials improvements

  3. Nuclear installations safety in France. Compilation of regulatory guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    General plan: 1. General organization of public officials. Procedures 1.1. Texts defining the general organization and the procedures 1.2. Interventing organisms; 2. Texts presenting a technical aspect other than basic safety rules and associated organization texts; 2.1. Dispositions relating to safety of nuclear installations 2.2. Dispositions relating to pressure vessels 2.3. Dispositions relating to quality 2.4. Dispositions relating to radioactive wastes release 2.5. Dispositions relating to activities depending of classified installations; 3. Basic Safety Rules (BSR) 3.1. BSR relating to PWR 3.2. BSR relating to nuclear installations other than PWR 3.3. Other BSR [fr

  4. The Role of Physical Education in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, M. L.; Wamukhoya, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that a child's early exposure to movement activities promotes a positive self concept. Elaborates that physical education gives training to body and mind as well as providing enjoyment as the child matures. (BSR)

  5. Innovacionnyj process v regione Baltijskogo morja [The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain its global competitiveness in the future, the Baltic Sea region (BSR needs to preserve and improve its technological capability and innovativeness. This article focuses on innovations in the Baltic Sea region, particularly on external innovation drivers and innovation environments in the BSR and individual countries within the region. Firstly, some definitions of innovations, innovation drivers, and characteristics of a favourable innovation environment are presented. Secondly, the current condition of innovation environments in the BSR is described and the innovation performances of Baltic countries are compared. Finally, the research aims to conclude, as well as to analyse, the future innovation development of the BSR. The research material for this desk study is collected from various sources, including journal articles, statistics, media, research reports, and other publications.

  6. Partners in Democracy: India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkovich, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    Provides background on the historical connections between India and the United States and compares their political systems. Offers a number of learning activities designed to promote better understanding between India and the United States. (BSR)

  7. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatta, Richard W. And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a variety of computer software. Subjects reviewed include history simulations and wordprocessing programs. Some of the eleven packages reviewed are Thog, North Utilities, HBJ Writer, Textra, Pro-cite, and Simulation Construction Kit. (BSR)

  8. An Analysis on Stability and Deposition Zones of Natural Gas Hydrate in Dongsha Region, North of South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuan Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose several physical/chemical causes to support the seismic results which find presence of Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR at site 1144 and site 1148 in Dongsha Region, North of South China Sea. At site 1144, according to geothermal gradient, the bottom of stability zone of conduction mode is in agreement with BSR. At site 1148, however, the stability zone of conduction mode is smaller than the natural gas presence zone predicted by the BSR. We propose three causes, that is, mixed convection and conduction thermal flow mode, multiple composition of natural gas and overpressure in deep sediment to explain the BSR presence or gas hydrate presence. Further, our numerical simulation results suggest yet another reason for the presence of BSR at site 1144 and site 1148. Because the temperatures in deep sediment calculated from the mixed convection and conduction thermal flow mode are lower than that from the single conduction mode, the bottom of gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ is deeper than the bottom of gas hydrate deposition zone (GHDZ or BSR. The result indicates that occurrence zone of natural is decided by the condition that natural gas concentrate in the zone is greater than its solubility.

  9. Brain Stimulation Reward Supports More Consistent and Accurate Rodent Decision-Making than Food Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Matthew S; Conway, Sineadh M; Roitman, Jamie D

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of decision-making rely on an animal's motivation to decide and its ability to detect differences among various alternatives. Food reinforcement, although commonly used, is associated with problematic confounds, especially satiety. Here, we examined the use of brain stimulation reward (BSR) as an alternative reinforcer in rodent models of decision-making and compared it with the effectiveness of sugar pellets. The discriminability of various BSR frequencies was compared to differing numbers of sugar pellets in separate free-choice tasks. We found that BSR was more discriminable and motivated greater task engagement and more consistent preference for the larger reward. We then investigated whether rats prefer BSR of varying frequencies over sugar pellets. We found that animals showed either a clear preference for sugar reward or no preference between reward modalities, depending on the frequency of the BSR alternative and the size of the sugar reward. Overall, these results suggest that BSR is an effective reinforcer in rodent decision-making tasks, removing food-related confounds and resulting in more accurate, consistent, and reliable metrics of choice.

  10. Ill Posed Problems: Numerical and Statistical Methods for Mildly, Moderately and Severely Ill Posed Problems with Noisy Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    AD-A 7 .SA92 925 WISCONSIN UN ! V-MADISON DEFT OF STATISTICS F/S 11,𔃻 ILL POSED PRORLEMS: NUMERICAL ANn STATISTICAL METHODS FOR MILOL-ETC(U FEB 80 a...Numerical aspects of some regularization methods and apolication to data collected in isolated dog heart experiments. Laboratorio di Analisi Numerica...minimum d’une fonction convexe sur une intersection de convexes. Proceedings of the Symposium on Optimization, held in Nice, France, June 23-July 5

  11. Control and Estimation of Distributed Parameter Systems. Volume 126, International Conference in Vorau (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Parabolic Boundary Control Problem ARIELA BRIANI AND MAURIZIO FALCONE Dipartimento di Matematica Universitä di Pisa Dipartimento di Matematica ...Ministry for University and Scientific Research (MURST Project "Analisi Numerica e Matematica Computazionale"). 50 A Priori Estimates for the...Briani Dipartimento di Matematica Universitä di Pisa Via Buonarroti 2 1-56126 Pisa e-mail:briani@dm.unipi.it Maurizio Falcone Dipartimento di

  12. Conferência Internacional "CIDADES E ALTERAÇÕES CLIMÁTICAS. QUE FUTURO?", Lisboa, 15-16 Maio 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Carraça, M.G.D.; Collier, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Major urban development and regeneration have been planned in several regions of the UK and elsewhere. The modification of the morphology of the cities expected in the future poses new challenges in various knowledge fields, from building design and city planning to meteorology. The present work reports an investigation of the effects of urban surface heterogeneity on the distribution of sensible heat flux and its impact on convective precipitation, in Greater Manchester. A simple numerica...

  13. Dinamica classica dei sistemi fisici

    CERN Document Server

    Turchetti, Giorgio

    1998-01-01

    Principi generali ; problemi unidimensionali ; campo centrale ; sistemi di punti ; punto vincolato ; sistemi di punti vincolati ; simmetrie ; rotazioni e moto relativo ; corpo rigido ; sistemi lineari ; stabilità ; teoria qualitativa ; piccole oscillazioni ; principi variazionali ; trasformazioni canoniche ; serie di Lie ; proprietà dell'azione ; sistemi integrabili ; teoria perturbativa ; sistemi quasi integrabili ; sistemi caotici ; integrazione numerica ; modelli hamiltoniani ; equazioni stocastiche ; meccanica statistica ; corda elastica ; equazione delle onde ; meccanica dei continui.

  14. Adaptive Wavelet Galerkin Methods on Distorted Domains: Setup of the Algebraic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Lipschitz domain Q C Rn (n > 1), its numerical approximation by a variational method (Galerkin, Petrov-Galerkin, weighted residuals, ... ) requires the...an adaptive approximation di ,of of Remark 2. The construction of A* according to (13) seems to require the explicit knowledge of all the (infinite...Istituto di Analisi Numerica del C.N.R. in Pavia, Italy. References 1. Barinka, A., T. Barsch, P. Charton, A. Cohen, S. Dahlke, W. Dahmen, and K. Urban

  15. Allelic variation for broad-spectrum resistance and susceptibility to bacterial pathogens identified in a rice MAGIC population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossa-Castro, Ana M; Tekete, Cheick; Raghavan, Chitra; Delorean, Emily E; Dereeper, Alexis; Dagno, Karim; Koita, Ousmane; Mosquera, Gloria; Leung, Hei; Verdier, Valérie; Leach, Jan E

    2018-02-06

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) that confer broad-spectrum resistance (BSR), or resistance that is effective against multiple and diverse plant pathogens, have been elusive targets of crop breeding programmes. Multiparent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) populations, with their diverse genetic composition and high levels of recombination, are potential resources for the identification of QTL for BSR. In this study, a rice MAGIC population was used to map QTL conferring BSR to two major rice diseases, bacterial leaf streak (BLS) and bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pathovars (pv.) oryzicola (Xoc) and oryzae (Xoo), respectively. Controlling these diseases is particularly important in sub-Saharan Africa, where no sources of BSR are currently available in deployed varieties. The MAGIC founders and lines were genotyped by sequencing and phenotyped in the greenhouse and field by inoculation with multiple strains of Xoc and Xoo. A combination of genomewide association studies (GWAS) and interval mapping analyses revealed 11 BSR QTL, effective against both diseases, and three pathovar-specific QTL. The most promising BSR QTL (qXO-2-1, qXO-4-1 and qXO-11-2) conferred resistance to more than nine Xoc and Xoo strains. GWAS detected 369 significant SNP markers with distinguishable phenotypic effects, allowing the identification of alleles conferring disease resistance and susceptibility. The BSR and susceptibility QTL will improve our understanding of the mechanisms of both resistance and susceptibility in the long term and will be immediately useful resources for rice breeding programmes. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Characterization of Desulfovibrio salinus sp. nov., a slightly halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a saline lake in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali Gam, Zouhaier; Thioye, Abdoulaye; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Joseph, Manon; Fauque, Guy; Labat, Marc

    2018-03-01

    A novel slightly halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain P1BSR T , was isolated from water of a saline lake in Tunisia. Strain P1BSR T had motile (single polar flagellum), Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming cells, occurring singly or in pairs. Strain P1BSR T grew at temperatures between 15 and 45 °C (optimum 40 °C), and in a pH range between 6 and 8.5 (optimum pH 6.7). The strain required NaCl for growth (1 % w/v), and tolerated high NaCl concentration (up to 12 % w/v) with an optimum of 3 % (w/v). Sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite served as terminal electron acceptors, but not elemental sulfur, fumarate, nitrate and nitrite. Strain P1BSR T utilized lactate, pyruvate, formate, d-fructose and glycerol as carbon and energy sources. The main cellular fatty acid was C16 : 0 (50.8 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that strain P1BSR T was affiliated to the genus Desulfovibrio, with the type strains Desulfovibrio salexigens (96.51 %), Desulfovibrio zosterae (95.68 %), Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis (94.81 %) and Desulfovibrio ferrireducens (94.73 %) as its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, it is proposed to assign strain P1BSR T to a novel species of the genus Desulfovibrio, Desulfovibrio salinus sp. nov. The type strain is P1BSR T (=DSM 101510 T =JCM 31065 T ).

  17. Contrasting effects of lithium chloride and CB1 receptor blockade on enduring changes in the valuation of reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eHernandez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available When an organism has been trained to respond for a reward, its learned behavior can be characterized as goal-directed or habitual based on whether or not it is susceptible to reward devaluation. Here, we evaluated whether instrumental responding for brain stimulation reward (BSR can devalued using a paradigm traditionally used for natural rewards. Rats were trained to lever press for BSR. Subsequently, BSR was paired with either lithium chloride (LiCl, 5 mg/kg, i.p, a pro-emetic, or AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist (3 mg/kg, i.p.. Pairings of BSR with these two compounds or their respective vehicle were performed in a novel environment so that only unconditional effects of BSR were affected by the pharmacological manipulations. Subsequently, in a probe test, all rats were returned in the drug-free state to the boxes where they had received training instrumental responding was reassessed in the absence of BSR delivery. LiCl produced enduring decreases in the number of responses during the test session, whereas AM251 had no effect. These results show that instrumental responding for BSR is susceptible to devaluation, in accord with the proposal that this behavior is supported at least in part by associations between the response and the rewarding outcome. Furthermore, they suggest that the reward modulation observed in studies involving the use of CB1 receptor antagonists arises from changes in the organism’s motivation rather than due to drug-induced changes in the intrinsic value of reward.

  18. Molecular defense response of oil palm to Ganoderma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C

    2015-06-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bottom-simulating reflector dynamics at Arctic thermogenic gas provinces: An example from Vestnesa Ridge, offshore west Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Faverola, A.; Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Hong, W.-L.; Mienert, J.; Bünz, S.; Chand, S.; Greinert, J.

    2017-06-01

    The Vestnesa Ridge comprises a >100 km long sediment drift located between the western continental slope of Svalbard and the Arctic mid-ocean ridges. It hosts a deep water (>1000 m) gas hydrate and associated seafloor seepage system. Near-seafloor headspace gas compositions and its methane carbon isotopic signature along the ridge indicate a predominance of thermogenic gas sources feeding the system. Prediction of the base of the gas hydrate stability zone for theoretical pressure and temperature conditions and measured gas compositions results in an unusual underestimation of the observed bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) depth. The BSR is up to 60 m deeper than predicted for pure methane and measured gas compositions with >99% methane. Models for measured gas compositions with >4% higher-order hydrocarbons result in a better BSR approximation. However, the BSR remains >20 m deeper than predicted in a region without active seepage. A BSR deeper than predicted is primarily explained by unaccounted spatial variations in the geothermal gradient and by larger amounts of thermogenic gas at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Hydrates containing higher-order hydrocarbons form at greater depths and higher temperatures and contribute with larger amounts of carbons than pure methane hydrates. In thermogenic provinces, this may imply a significant upward revision (up to 50% in the case of Vestnesa Ridge) of the amount of carbon in gas hydrates.

  20. Conical diffraction illumination opens the way for low phototoxicity super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Julien; Fallet, Clément; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Moisan, Lionel; Braitbart, L Philippe (Ori); Sirat, Gabriel Y; Shorte, Spencer L

    2014-01-01

    We present a new technology for super-resolution fluorescence imaging, based on conical diffraction. Conical diffraction is a linear, singular phenomenon, taking place when a laser beam is diffracted through a biaxial crystal. We use conical diffraction in a thin biaxial crystal to generate illumination patterns that are more compact than the classical Gaussian beam, and use them to generate a super-resolution imaging modality. While there already exist several super-resolution modalities, our technology (biaxial super-resolution: BSR) is distinguished by the unique combination of several performance features. Using BSR super-resolution data are achieved using low light illumination significantly less than required for classical confocal imaging, which makes BSR ideal for live-cell, long-term time-lapse super-resolution imaging. Furthermore, no specific sample preparation is required, and any fluorophore can be used. Perhaps most exciting, improved resolution BSR-imaging resolution enhancement can be achieved with any type of objective no matter the magnification, numerical aperture, working distance, or the absence or presence of immersion medium. In this article, we present the first implementation of BSR modality on a commercial confocal microscope. We acquire and analyze validation data, showing high quality super-resolved images of biological objects, and demonstrate the wide applicability of the technology. We report live-cell super-resolution imaging over a long period, and show that the light dose required for super-resolution imaging is far below the threshold likely to generate phototoxicity. PMID:25482642

  1. Стратегия ЕС для региона Балтийского моря: проблемы и перспективы международного сотрудничества

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Yuri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main characteristics of international cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR within the framework of the EU macroregional strategy. The analysis of the key directions, structure, and the Strategy implementation mechanisms demonstrates its experimental and innovative nature. At the same time, the authors identify problems and contradictions in the very idea of the Strategy, as well as its actual implementation in intergovernmental relations of the BSR countries. The main factor hampering the Strategy activities is ignoring the key role of Russia the BSR. At the same time, Russia and some non-BSR countries are already members of all significant BSR cooperation instruments. Therefore, there is a need to supplement the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region with the Northern Dimension project. The innovative nature of macroregional cooperation in the Baltic Sea region is manifested in interpreting the region as an indivisible whole rather than an administrative unite serving as a pla tform for various cooperation programmes implemented in its different parts. From this point of view, the Strategy for the Baltic Sea region, apparently inspired by ‘rational functionalism’, can assign a new meaning to the concept of the region.

  2. Bayesian Subset Modeling for High-Dimensional Generalized Linear Models

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a new prior setting for high-dimensional generalized linear models, which leads to a Bayesian subset regression (BSR) with the maximum a posteriori model approximately equivalent to the minimum extended Bayesian information criterion model. The consistency of the resulting posterior is established under mild conditions. Further, a variable screening procedure is proposed based on the marginal inclusion probability, which shares the same properties of sure screening and consistency with the existing sure independence screening (SIS) and iterative sure independence screening (ISIS) procedures. However, since the proposed procedure makes use of joint information from all predictors, it generally outperforms SIS and ISIS in real applications. This article also makes extensive comparisons of BSR with the popular penalized likelihood methods, including Lasso, elastic net, SIS, and ISIS. The numerical results indicate that BSR can generally outperform the penalized likelihood methods. The models selected by BSR tend to be sparser and, more importantly, of higher prediction ability. In addition, the performance of the penalized likelihood methods tends to deteriorate as the number of predictors increases, while this is not significant for BSR. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  3. Over expression of the selectable marker blasticidin S deaminase gene is toxic to human keratinocytes and murine BALB/MK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona Adriana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The blasticidin S resistance gene (bsr is a selectable marker used for gene transfer experiments. The bsr gene encodes for blasticidin S (BS deaminase, which has a specific activity upon BS. Therefore, its expression is supposed to be harmless in cells. The work reported on herein consisted of experiments to verify a possible toxicity of bsr on mammalian cells, which include several cell lines and primary cultures. Results Murine keratinocyte BALB/MK and human primary keratinocyte cells transduced with the retroviral vector LBmSN, which has an improved expression system of bsr, namely bsrm, died in five days after the transduction. Meanwhile the control vector LBSN, which expresses bsr, did not provoke cell death. The lethal activity of bsrm was observed only in human keratinocytes and BALB/MK cells among the cell types tested here. Death appears to be mediated by a factor, which is secreted by the BALB/MK transduced cells. Conclusion By our study we demonstrated that the expression of bsrm gene is toxic to human keratinocytes and BALB/MK cells. It is likely over expression of BS deaminase gene is responsible for the death.

  4. The Structural Reform for EU Banks:Does It Works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Chenchen

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission adopted a proposal on bank structural reform in January 2014(EC Proposal). After an 18-month debate, financial ministers eventually agreed on a text, ‘proposal for a regulation on structural measures improving the resilience of EU credit institutions’ on June 19, 2015(BSR......). The envisaged structural reform under the BSR included two tiers: (i) the first tier mandatory separation of trading-oriented activities from the core credit institution; (ii) the second tier of separation on a discretionary basis. This paper seeks to provide an overview and assessment of the two tiers...... watered down due to the narrowed scope of the tier 2 banks and its strength on curbing subsidization. On (2), the BSR mainly stresses reducing the ‘probability of failure’, but not much the ‘impact of failure’, i.e. it does not provides material provisions on cooperation between structural reform...

  5. STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burket, P

    2009-02-24

    This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

  6. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford's blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a ''tie back'' between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular ESTD and BSR products (radioactive and non-radioactive) were analyzed for total constituents and durability tested as a granular waste form. A subset of the granular material was stabilized in a clay based geopolymer matrix at 42% and 65% FBSR loadings and durability tested as a monolith waste form. The 65 wt% FBSR loaded monolith made with clay (radioactive) was more durable than the 67-68 wt% FBSR loaded monoliths made from fly ash (non-radioactive) based on short term PCT testing. Long term, 90 to 107

  7. Analysis of ParB-centromere interactions by multiplex SPR imaging reveals specific patterns for binding ParB in six centromeres of Burkholderiales chromosomes and plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavien Pillet

    Full Text Available Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.

  8. Self-stigma and empowerment in combined-CMHA and consumer-run services: two controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Steven P; Silverman, Carol J; Temkin, Tanya L

    2013-10-01

    Self-help agencies (SHAs) are consumer-operated service organizations managed as participatory democracies involving members in all management tasks. Hierarchically organized board- and staff-run consumer-operated service programs (BSR-COSPs) are consumer managed, but they afford members less decision-making power. This study considered the relative effectiveness of SHAs and BSR-COSPs working jointly with community mental health agencies (CMHAs) and the role of organizational empowerment in reducing self-stigma. Clients seeking CMHA services were assigned in separate randomized controlled trials to a trial of combined SHA and CMHA services versus regular CMHA services (N=505) or to a trial of combined BSR-COSP and CMHA services versus regular CMHA services (N=139). Self-stigma, organizational empowerment, and self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and eight months with the Attitudes Toward Persons With Mental Illness Scale, the Organizationally Mediated Empowerment Scale, and the Self-Efficacy Scale. Outcomes were evaluated with fully recursive path analysis models. SHA-CMHA participants experienced greater positive change in self-stigma than CMHA-only participants, a result attributable to participation in the combined condition (b=1.20, p=.016) and increased organizational empowerment (b=.27, p=.003). BSR-COSP-CMHA participants experienced greater negative change in self-stigma than CMHA-only participants, a result attributable to participation in the combined service (b=-4.73, p=.031). In the SHA-CMHA trial, participants showed positive change in self-efficacy, whereas the change among BSR-COSP-CMHA participants was negative. Differential organizational empowerment efforts in the SHA and BSR-COSP appeared to account for the differing outcomes. Members experienced reduced self-stigma and increases in self-efficacy when they were engaged in responsible roles.

  9. Seismic velocity structure at a gas hydrate reflector, offshore western Colombia, from full waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, T. A.; Singh, S. C.; Westbrook, G. K.

    1994-03-01

    Seismic reflection profiles across many continental margins have imaged bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs), which have been interpreted as being formed at the base of a methane hydrate stability field. Such reflectors might arise either from an impedance contrast between high-velocity, partially hydrated sediments and water-saturated sediments or from a contrast with partially gas-saturated sediments. These alternatives may be hard to distinguish by conventional amplitude-versus-offset or waveform modeling approaches. Here, we investigate the origin of a high amplitude BSR in the accretionary wedge offshore of western Colombia by seismic waveform inversion. The inversion procedure consists of three steps: firstly, determination of root-mean-square velocities and hence estimates of the interval velocities between major reflectors by a global grid search for maximum normalized energy along elliptical trajectories in the intercept time-slowness domain; secondly, determination of accurate interval velocities between these reflectors by a Monte Carlo search for maximum energy; and thirdly, a waveform fit in the frequency-slowness domain, using differential reflectivity seismograms and a conjugate-gradient optimization algorithm to minimize the sample-by-sample waveform misfit between data and synthetic. At two locations, near a structural high, we find an approximately 30-m thick low-velocity zone beneath the BSR, with the properties of a partially gas-saturated zone, while at a third location, where the BSR amplitude is lower, we find no evidence for anomalously low velocities. The preferential development of the BSR in structures that would tend to intercept fluid flow or migrating gas and the presence of free gas beneath the BSR indicate a mechanism of BSR formation in which free methane gas migrates upward into the hydrate stability field or is carried there in advecting pore water.

  10. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  11. Operating manual for the Bulk Shielding Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    The BSR is a pool-type reactor. It has the capabilities of continuous operation at a power level of 2 MW or at any desired lower power level. This manual presents descriptive and operational information. The reactor and its auxiliary facilities are described from physical and operational viewpoints. Detailed operating procedures are included which are applicable from source-level startup to full-power operation. Also included are procedures relative to the safety of personnel and equipment in the areas of experiments, radiation and contamination control, emergency actions, and general safety. This manual supersedes all previous operating manuals for the BSR.

  12. Digital, remote control system for a 2-MW research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Corbett, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    A fault-tolerant programmable logic controller (PLC) and operator workstations have been programmed to replace the hard-wired relay control system in the 2-MW Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In addition to the PLC and remote and local operator workstations, auxiliary systems for remote operation include a video system, an intercom system, and a fiber optic communication system. The remote control station, located at the High Flux Isotope Reactor 2.5 km from the BSR, has the capability of rector startup and power control. The system was designed with reliability and fail-safe features as important considerations. 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. Operating manual for the Bulk Shielding Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The BSR is a pool-type reactor. It has the capabilities of continuous operation at a power level of 2 MW or at any desired lower power level. This manual presents descriptive and operational information. The reactor and its auxillary facilities are described from physical and operational viewpoints. Detailed operating procedures are included which are applicable from source-level startup to full-power operation. Also included are procedures relative to the safety of personnel and equipment in the areas of experiments, radiation and contamination control, emergency actions, and general safety. This manual supercedes all previous operating manuals for the BSR

  14. Operating manual for the Bulk Shielding Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    The BSR is a pool-type reactor. It has the capabilities of continuous operation at a power level of 2 MW or at any desired lower power level. This manual presents descriptive and operational information. The reactor and its auxillary facilities are described from physical and operational viewpoints. Detailed operating procedures are included which are applicable from source-level startup to full-power operation. Also included are procedures relative to the safety of personnel and equipment in the areas of experiments, radiation and contamination control, emergency actions, and general safety. This manual supercedes all previous operating manuals for the BSR.

  15. Operating manual for the Bulk Shielding Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The BSR is a pool-type reactor. It has the capabilities of continuous operation at a power level of 2 MW or at any desired lower power level. This manual presents descriptive and operational information. The reactor and its auxiliary facilities are described from physical and operational viewpoints. Detailed operating procedures are included which are applicable from source-level startup to full-power operation. Also included are procedures relative to the safety of personnel and equipment in the areas of experiments, radiation and contamination control, emergency actions, and general safety. This manual supersedes all previous operating manuals for the BSR

  16. Kinetics of the reaction of 5-substituted orotic acids with diazodiphenylmethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEKSANDAR D. MARINKOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Rate konstants for the reaction of eight 5-substituted orotic acids with diazodiphenylmethane (DDM in dimethylformamide (DMF were determined at 30 ºC by the known spectrophotometric method. The determined rate constants were correlated with the equations: log k2 = as1 + bsR + h log k2 = as1 + bsR + yn + h to detect the presence and investigate the influence of both electrical and steric substituent effects. The obtained results show that the electrical effect (the localized – field and delocalized – resonance is predominant and that the steric effect, althought present, is releatively small in this reaction.

  17. Finite difference modelling of scattered hydrates and its implications in gas-hydrate exploration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Ramana, M.V.

    having larger Fresnel zone show continuous BSR from the scat- tered hydrates 6 . Moreover, BSRs appear weak in high- frequency seismic data in contrast to strong reflection observed in the low-frequency seismics. This frequency dependence of BSR... distribution of the hydrates was modelled using one-sided Gaussian membership function with maximum concentra- tion at BHSZ and reducing to zero at a distance of 15 m from the BHSZ. In a similar fashion, the free gas below the BHSZ was modelled. The Gaussian...

  18. Bulk Shielding Facility quarterly report, July, August, and September of 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, III, S. S.; Lance, E. D.; Thomas, J. R.

    1977-06-01

    The BSR operated at an average power level of 1637 kW for 50.05 percent of the time during July, August, and September. Water-quality control in both the reactor primary and secondary cooling systems was satisfactory. The BSR was operated at low and variable power during this quarter for 27.327 hours as part of the training programs for nuclear reactor operator trainees from Memphis State University. The PCA was also used in the above-mentioned training programs and was operated on six occasions when the Oak Ridge Associated Universities or Memphis State University students actively participated in training laboratories.

  19. New Results on the Simulation of Particulate Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, M.

    2004-07-01

    We propose a new immersed boundary method for the simulation of particulate flows. The fluid solid interaction force is formulate din a direct manner, without resorting to a feed-back mechanisms and thereby avoiding the introduction of additional free parameters. The regularized delta function of Peskin (Acta Numerica, 2002) is used to pass variables between Lagrangian and Eulerian representations, providing for a smooth variation of the hydrodynamic forces while particles are in motion relative to the fixed grid. The application of this scheme to several benchmark problems in two space dimensions demonstrates its feasibility and efficiency. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper B.; Christensen, Erik N.

    2017-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also numerica......We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also...

  1. Dal CAD al GIS: il trasferimento di informazioni cartografiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Scianna

    2005-10-01

    necessario verificare quali siano le informazioni che rimangono associate agli oggetti della classe al momento del caricamento dei dati, in formato DXF, all’interno di software GIS. Negli ultimi anni a livello internazionale sono state fissate norme tendenti a individuare linee guida per la definizione della struttura del contenuto semantico della cartografia numerica, delle caratteristiche geometriche e delle relazioni topologiche dell’informazione geografica.

  2. Estudio Te\\'orico del espectro de emisi\\'on para un sistema microcavidad-punto cu\\'antico en una aproximaci\\'on de campo medio (Theoretical study of emission spectrum for a quantum dot-microcavity system in a mean field approximation)

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas-Arias, Juan S.; Rodriguez, B.; Vinck-Posada, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo, se obtiene una expresi\\'on num\\'erica para calcular el espectro de emisi\\'on de un sistema microcavidad-punto cu\\'antico usando una teor\\'ia de campo medio en el formalismo de la matriz densidad. El sistema modelado es un micropilar semiconductor que contiene un \\'unico punto cu\\'antico en el interior de la microcavidad, este sistema presenta p\\'erdida de fotones a trav\\'es de los espejos de la cavidad y bombeo de excitones al punto cu\\'antico. Obtenemos una ecuaci\\'on maestr...

  3. Estudo por simulação Monte Carlo de um estimador robusto utilizado na inferência de um modelo binomial contaminado = A Monte Carlo simulation study of a robust estimator used in the inference of a contaminated binomial model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Angelo Cirillo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A inferencia estatistica em populacoes binomiais contaminadas esta sujeita a erros grosseiros de estimacao, uma vez que as amostras nao sao identicamente distribuidas. Por esse problema, este trabalho tem por objetivo determinar qual a melhor constante de afinidade (c1 que proporcione melhor desempenho em um estimador pertencente a classedos estimadores-E. Com esse proposito, neste trabalho, foi utilizada a metodologia, considerando-se o metodo de simulacao Monte Carlo, no qual diferentes configuracoes descritas pela combinacao de valores parametricos, niveis de contaminacao e tamanhos de amostra foram avaliados. Concluiu-se que, para alta probabilidade de mistura (ƒÁ = 0,40, recomenda-se assumir c1 = 0,1 nas situacoes de grandes amostras (n = 50 e n = 80. The statistical inference in binomial population is subject to gross errors of estimate, as the samples are not identically distributed. Due to this problem, this work aims to determine which is the best affinity constant (c1 that provides the best performance in the estimator, belonging to the class of E-estimators. With that purpose, the methodology used in this work was applied considering the Monte Carlo simulation method, in which different configurations described by combination of parametric values, levels of contamination and sample sizes were appraised. It was concluded that for the high probability of contamination (ƒÁ = 0.40, c1 = 0.1 is recommended in cases with large samples (n = 50 and n = 80.

  4. Manual of program operation for data analysis from radiometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Mello, L.A.R. da; Migliora, C.G.S.

    1987-12-01

    This manual describes how to use the software to retrieve and analyse data from radiometer systems and raingauges used in the 12 GHz PROPAGATION MEASUREMENTS/CANADA - TELEBRAS COOPERATION PROGRAM. The data retrieval and analisys is being carried out by CETUC, as part of the activities of the project Simulacao de Enlaces Satelite (SES). The software for these tasks has been supplied by the Canadian Research Centre (CRC), together with the measurement equipment. The two following sections describe the use of the data retrieval routines and the data analysis routines of program ATTEN. Also, a quick reference guide for commands that can be used when a microcomputer is local or remotely connected to a radiometer indoor unit is included as a last section. A more detailed description of these commands, their objectives and cautions that should de taken when using them can be found in the manual ''12 GHz Propagation Measurements System - Volume 1 - Dual Slope Radiometer and Data Aquisition System'', supplied by Diversitel Communications Inc. (author) [pt

  5. Development of a kinetic model for biological sulphate reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rhodes BioSUREÆÊ Process is a low-cost active treatment system for acid mine drainage (AMD) waters. Central to this process is biological sulphate reduction (BSR) using primary sewage sludge (PSS) as the electron donor and organic carbon source, with the concomitant reduction of sulphate to sulphide and ...

  6. Identification of a partial oil palm polygalacturonase-inhibiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal stem rot disease (BSR) is a common and serious fungal disease of the oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense. This fungal disease infects thousands of hectares of plantings in Southeast Asia every year causing not only yield but also tree losses. A natural plant self defence mechanism against fungal infection is ...

  7. Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kidney carcinoma cell lines of hamsters (BSR). [11]. While, in another article, A. sieberia unrefined extract exhibited dose dependent antiproliferative activity against several cancer cell lines (human bladder carcinoma RT112, human laryngeal carcinoma and human myelogenous leukaemia K562), with IC50. = 81.59, 59.05 ...

  8. Magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) microspheres for affinity purification of monospecific anti-p46 kDa/Myo1C antibodies for early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Daniel; Hlídková, Helena; Kit, Y.; Antonyuk, V.; Myronovsky, S.; Stoika, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku BSR20160526. ISSN 0144-8463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14318 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) * magnetic microspheres * affinity purification Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.906, year: 2016

  9. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  10. Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental results indicate that high treatment efficiency was achieved at more than 90% sulphate reduction at a liquid hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13.5 h. In this ... From these results, it can be concluded that the UASB configuration using PSS as energy source would be a viable method for the BSR of AMD.

  11. Characterization of Burkholderia cepacia genomovar I as a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Burkholderia is an important bacterial genus containing several species of ecological, biotechnological and pathological .... The data were later transformed .... application. The effects of agrochemicals on UPMB3 for good management of BSR by the bacteria also need to be investigated. REFERENCES.

  12. Inequality of ownership of foreign and local tourism investments and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent at which inequality of tourism ownership constrains the implementation of business social responsibility (BSR) in the Western Cape tourism industry. A total of 307 different tourism businesses were surveyed using stratified sampling, in which 452 employees were ...

  13. The Knitting Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pamela

    1987-01-01

    Based on Jean-Francois Millet's 1869 painting, "The Knitting Lesson," this lesson's goal is to introduce students in grades seven through nine to genre (everyday life) painting the nineteenth century. The lesson is also designed to show that some aspects of genre may be timeless. (BSR)

  14. First identification of Ganoderma boninense isolated from Sabah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High incidence of BSR results in economic losses due to zero yields from dead palms and significantly reduced weight and number of fruit bunches in infected but living palms. Due to the importance of oil palm industry to Malaysia's economy, the transfer of any materials that are related to Ganoderma is strictly prohibited ...

  15. Bridging EOS remote sensing measurements and fire emissions, smoke dispersion, and air quality DSS in the Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Qu; Xianjun Hao; Ruixin Yang; Swarvanu Dasgupta; Sanjeeb Bhoi; Menas Kafatos

    1999-01-01

    Fire eniissions, smoke dispersiotl. ancl air quality are very important for fire fighting and planing of prescribed burning. BlueskyRATNS (BSR) is a comprehenisive and state-of-the-art Decision Support System (DSS) for fire managers and air quality managers to plan fiiels treatments and support state air qiiality smoke regulatory actions, especially related to...

  16. Buyer social responsibility: a general concept and its implications for marketing management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of sustainability concerns in consumer decision-making poses new challenges to marketing. The existing literature contains a variety of concepts and definitions that pertain to social issues in consumption but lacks an overarching conceptualisation of buyer social responsibility (BSR)

  17. Education for Coping with Conflict - A Participatory Approach to Discipline Using Negotiation and Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheder, Mildred

    1987-01-01

    Examines the use of corporal punishment and contends that a more democratic educational system demand its abolition. States that two essentials of democratic education are a caring atmosphere and a true spirit of reconciliation. Outlines assertion techniques that enhance conflict resolution. (BSR)

  18. Interactions between crayfish, benthic invertebrates, macrophyte roots and sediment in a littoral zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ságová-Marečková, Markéta

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 155, č. 4 (2002), s. 645-665 ISSN 0003-9136 Grant - others:GA the Center for Limnology of the UW-Madison(XX) BSR8514330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : predation * food * crayfish Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2002

  19. Separation of Powers in Foreign and Domestic Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the concept of separation of powers in terms of recent conflicts between the executive and legislative branches of the U.S. government. Points out that what the Supreme Court has said about separation of powers in the domestic context may complicate resolution of more serious problems in foreign affairs. (BSR)

  20. Women in the University during the First World War--An Autobiographical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitner, Elisabeth

    1988-01-01

    The author describes her experiences as one of the first females in secondary schools and universities in three German cities in the early 1900s. These experiences illustrate the development of educational opportunities for female students during the First World War. (Author/BSR)

  1. Brachypodium distachyon line Bd3-1 resistance is elicited by the barley stripe mosaic virus triple gene block 1 movement protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.Y.; Yan, L.J.; Gorter, F.A.; Kim, B.Y.T.; Cui, Y.; Hu, Y.; Yuan, C.; Grindheim, J.; Ganesan, U.; Liu, Z.Y.; Han, C.G.; Yu, J.L.; Li, D.W.; Jackson, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus North Dakota 18 (ND18), Beijing (BJ), Xinjiang (Xi), Type (TY) and CV21 strains are unable to infect the Brachypodium distachyon Bd3-1 inbred line, which harbours a resistance gene designated Bsr1, but the Norwich (NW) strain is virulent on Bd3-1. Analysis of ND18 and NW

  2. Development of soil and terrain digital database for major food-growing regions of India for resource planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandran, P.; Tiwary, P.; Bhattacharyya, T.; Mandal, C.; Prasad, J.; Ray, S.K.; Sarkar, D.; Pal, D.K.; Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Batjes, N.H.; Bindraban, P.S.; Thakre, S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil information system in SOTER (soil and terrain digital database) framework is developed for the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and black soil regions (BSR) of India with the help of information from 842 georeferenced soil profiles including morphological, physical and chemical properties of soils in

  3. Concurrent Cognitive Processes in Rat Serial Pattern Learning: Item Memory, Serial Position, and Pattern Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Melissa D.; Fountain, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined the processes mediating rat serial pattern learning for rule-consistent versus rule-violating pattern elements ("violation elements"). In all three experiments, rats were trained to press retractable levers in a circular array in a specific sequence for brain-stimulation reward (BSR). Experiment 1 examined the role of…

  4. Macro-regions : regional integration within and beyond the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three European macro-regions: the Baltic Sea Region (BSR), the –revamped- Benelux, and the Danube Region (DR). It makes a comparative analysis of these three schemes of regional integration within (and in some cases beyond) the EU. The paper discusses literature on

  5. Lamb and Creeping Waves Around Submerged Spherical Shells Resonantly Excited by Sound Scattering. 2: Further Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Adnan H. Navfeh 1521 anisotropic media Plane acoustic %aves in linear viscoelastic porous media: Energy , Patrick N. J. Rasolofosaon 1532 particle...xx) Ivs n. The frequency x replaced by A (bsr), where I ( bsg , for most metal shells in can be chosen to be a resonance frequency x,,, of the body, or

  6. Effects of time of change from broiler starter to broiler finisher diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of time of change from broiler starter ration (BSR) to broiler finisher ration (BFR) on growth performance and economy of gain of meat- type chickens. Six hundred Abor Acres broiler chickens were used in an 8-week study in which same starter and finisher diets were fed but at ...

  7. Drosophila pallidosa: whether a separate species or a light form of D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. N. SINGH

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... Certain similarities which show that the position of these two species is not yet clear are mentioned below: .... (2001) mapped some loci on distinct positions near the Delta locus on the middle of the left ..... Financial support from the University Grants Commission, New. Delhi in the form of UGC-BSR Faculty ...

  8. The genus Drosophila is characterized by a large number of sibling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... Journal of Genetics, DOI 10.1007/s12041-016-0699-x, Vol. 95, No. 4, December 2016. 1053 ..... the basis of mtDNA analysis: one consisting of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae and the other consists remaining .... Financial assistance in the form of UGC-BSR Faculty Fellowship. Award to the author is gratefully ...

  9. In-situ metal precipitation in a zinc-aerobic, sandy aquifer by means of biological sulfate reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.M.C.M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of in situ metal precipitation (ISMP) based on bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with molasses as carbon source was tested for the immobilization of a zinc plume in an aquifer with highly unsuitable initial conditions (high Eh, low pH, low organic matter content, and low sulfate

  10. Publications | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    Results 181 - 190 of 6381 ... The Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC), an IDRC grantee under the Think Tank Initiative program, reached a major milestone on May 4, 2016, ... drives child labour, including the newly released 'Child labor in Myanmar's Garment Sector' report by Business for Social Responsibility (BSR).

  11. Publications | Page 21 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    Results 201 - 210 of 6341 ... The Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC), an IDRC grantee under the Think Tank Initiative program, reached a major milestone on May 4, 2016, ... drives child labour, including the newly released 'Child labor in Myanmar's Garment Sector' report by Business for Social Responsibility (BSR).

  12. DIALLEL ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL STALK ROT (Pectobacterium chrysanthemi pv. zeae Burk., McFad. and Dim. IN CORN (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning A. Subekti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major disease problems affecting maize farming in the Philippines is bacterial stalk rot (BSR caused by Pectobacterium chrysanthemi pv. zeae Burk., McFad. and Dim., which is formerly known as Erwinia chrysanthemi. The annual loss due to BSR is estimated at PhP. 20 million equivalent to Rp3.5 billion. At present, there is no effective control method against BSR and, therefore, varietal improvement through breeding resistant germplasms is needed. The present study aimed to determine the combining ability and the extent of additive and non-additive genetic effects in corn inbred lines with a range of reaction to BSR. Four resistant lines (S3YB 137-1-1-B, TUPI (S3 5-1-B, TUPI (S3 15-2-B, and 97-835 and two susceptible lines (CML 295 and 97-733 were used as genetic materials. Generation of test entries and evaluation of disease resistance were conducted at the experimental farm station of University of the Philippines Los Banos and Institute of Plant Breeding Los Banos, respectively, during 2002 to 2003 wet seasons. Griffing’s diallel mating system Model 1, Method 1 was followed in generating the test entries to make a total of 36 entries (six selfed parental lines and 15 each of F1 crosses and their reciprocalcrosses. The entries were then evaluated for disease resistance in a yield trial following a randomized complete block design (RCBD with two replications. Results of diallel analysisshowed two lines, S3YB 137-1-1-B and TUPI (S3 5-1-B, exhibited the best general combining ability (GCA for resistance to BSR, while the crosses S3YB 137-1-1-B x TUPI (S3 5-1-B and TUPI (S3 5-1-B x 97-835 performed the best specific combining ability (SCA for the resistance. GCA effect was greater than that of SCA. This indicated that additive gene effects were found to be more important than non-additive gene effects in the expression of resistance to BSR in the six corn lines used. Therefore, breeding programs towards

  13. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  14. Characterization of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the rhizosphere of oil palm and evaluation of their ability to suppress basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings when applied as powder formulations in a glasshouse trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariffah-Muzaimah, S A; Idris, A S; Madihah, A Z; Dzolkhifli, O; Kamaruzzaman, S; Maizatul-Suriza, M

    2017-12-18

    Ganoderma boninense, the main causal agent of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) basal stem rot (BSR), severely reduces oil palm yields around the world. To reduce reliance on fungicide applications to control BSR, we are investigating the efficacy of alternative control methods, such as the application of biological control agents. In this study, we used four Streptomyces-like actinomycetes (isolates AGA43, AGA48, AGA347 and AGA506) that had been isolated from the oil palm rhizosphere and screened for antagonism towards G. boninense in a previous study. The aim of this study was to characterize these four isolates and then to assess their ability to suppress BSR in oil palm seedlings when applied individually to the soil in a vermiculite powder formulation. Analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (512 bp) revealed that the isolates exhibited a very high level of sequence similarity (> 98%) with GenBank reference sequences. Isolates AGA347 and AGA506 showed 99% similarity with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus and Streptomyces ahygroscopicus, respectively. Isolates AGA43 and AGA48 also belonged to the Streptomyces genus. The most effective formulation, AGA347, reduced BSR in seedlings by 73.1%. Formulations using the known antifungal producer Streptomyces noursei, AGA043, AGA048 or AGA506 reduced BSR by 47.4, 30.1, 54.8 and 44.1%, respectively. This glasshouse trial indicates that these Streptomyces spp. show promise as potential biological control agents against Ganoderma in oil palm. Further investigations are needed to determine the mechanism of antagonism and to increase the shelf life of Streptomyces formulations.

  15. Seismic evidence of gas hydrates, multiple BSRs and fluid flow offshore Tumbes Basin, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguy, Constance; Calvès, Gérôme; Calderon, Ysabel; Brusset, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    Identification of a previously undocumented hydrate system in the Tumbes Basin, localized off the north Peruvian margin at latitude of 3°20'—4°10'S, allows us to better understand gas hydrates of convergent margins, and complement the 36 hydrate sites already identified around the Pacific Ocean. Using a combined 2D-3D seismic dataset, we present a detailed analysis of seismic amplitude anomalies related to the presence of gas hydrates and/or free gas in sediments. Our observations identify the occurrence of a widespread bottom simulating reflector (BSR), under which we observed, at several sites, the succession of one or two BSR-type reflections of variable amplitude, and vertical acoustic discontinuities associated with fluid flow and gas chimneys. We conclude that the uppermost BSR marks the current base of the hydrate stability field, for a gas composition comprised between 96% methane and 4% of ethane, propane and pure methane. Three hypotheses are developed to explain the nature of the multiple BSRs. They may refer to the base of hydrates of different gas composition, a remnant of an older BSR in the process of dispersion/dissociation or a diagenetically induced permeability barrier formed when the active BSR existed stably at that level for an extended period. The multiple BSRs have been interpreted as three events of steady state in the pressure and temperature conditions. They might be produced by climatic episodes since the last glaciation associated with tectonic activity, essentially tectonic subsidence, one of the main parameters that control the evolution of the Tumbes Basin.

  16. Optimización de la biorremediación en relaves de cianuración adicionando nutrientes y microorganismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Hurtado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue encontrar los parámetros óptimos para el desarrollo de los proceso de bioremediacion de relaves de cianuración, mediante experimentos factoriales a nivel de columnas con la adición de nutrientes y el empleo de bacterias sulfato reductoras (BSR para estabilizar iones metálicos mediante la formación de sulfuros y bacterias capaces de biodegradar cianuro (BC. Se aislaron BSR de relave y se usó un inoculo previamente aislado de BC. Se realizó una prueba de adaptación a relave y una prueba en columnas para probar: (1 el efecto del empleo de 1 y 10 mM de lactato para incrementar la actividad de BSR; y (2 adición de 0,1 y 1 mM de acetato de sodio y ácido fosfórico para mejorar la actividad de BC. Con las mejores condiciones encontradas se realizó una prueba a nivel de columnas donde se adicionó un cultivo mixto (BSR-BC y una mezcla de lactato y acetato en concentraciones de 1 mM y 10 mM. Se encontró que los nutrientes incrementaban la reducción de sulfatos un 48% en promedio y la adición de inoculo un 42%. La bioremediacion de cianuro se mantuvo en 12% sin efecto en la adición de nutrientes o inoculo. Se probó en dos relaves adicionales y la adición de lactato de sodio 1 mM permitió la inducción de BSR en 8 días en uno de ellos.

  17. Geochemical and stable isotopic constraints on the generation and passive treatment of acidic, Fe-SO4 rich waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Romy; Aplin, Andrew C; Boyce, Adrian J; Jarvis, Adam P

    2012-03-15

    Reducing and Alkalinity Producing Systems (RAPS) remediate net-acidic metalliferous mine drainage by creating anoxic conditions in which bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) raises alkalinity and drives the precipitation of iron and other chalcophilic elements as sulfides. We report chemical and stable isotopic data from a study monitoring the biogeochemical processes involved in the generation of mine waters and their remediation by two RAPS. Sulfur isotopes show that sulfate in all mine waters has a common source (pyrite oxidation), whilst oxygen isotopes show that oxidation of pyritic sulfur is mediated by Fe(III)(aq). The isotopic composition of dissolved sulfide, combined with the sulfur and oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate in RAPS effluents, proves BSR and details its dual isotope systematics. The occurrence and isotopic composition of solid phase iron sulfides indicate the removal of reduced sulfur within the RAPS, with significant amounts of elemental sulfur indicating reoxidation steps. However, only 0 to 9% of solid phase iron occurs as Fe sulfides, with approximately 70% of the removed iron occurs as Fe(III) (hydr)oxides. Some of the (hydr)oxide is supplied to the wetland as solids and is simply filtered by the wetland substrate, playing no role in alkalinity generation or proton removal. However, the majority of iron is supplied as dissolved Fe(II), indicating that acid generating oxidation and hydrolysis reactions dominate iron removal. The overall contribution of BSR to the sulfur geochemistry in the RAPS is limited and sulfate retention is dominated by sulfate precipitation, comparable to aerobic treatment systems, and show that the proton acidity resulting from iron oxidation and hydrolysis must be subsequently neutralised by calcite dissolution and/or BSR deeper in the RAPS sediments. BSR is not as important as previously thought for metal removal in RAPS. The results have practical consequences for the design, treatment performance and long

  18. BSRs Elevated by Fluid Upwelling on the Upper Amazon Fan : Bottom-up Controls on Gas Hydrate Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, D.; Silva, C. G.; dos Reis, A. T.; Ketzer, J. M.; Unnithan, V.; Perovano Da Silva, R. J.; Cruz, A. M.; Gorini, C.

    2017-12-01

    The stability of natural gas hydrate accumulations on continental margins has mainly been considered in terms of changes in seawater pressures and temperatures driven from above by climate. We present evidence from the Amazon deep-sea fan for stability zone changes driven from below by fluid upwelling. A grid of 2D and 3D multichannel seismic data show the upper Amazon fan in water depths of 1200-2000 m to contain a discontinuous bottom-simulating seismic reflection (BSR) that forms `patches' 10-50 km wide and up to 140 km long, over a total area of at least 5000 km2. The elongate BSR patches coincide with anticlinal thrust-folds that record on-going gravitational collapse of the fan above décollements at depths of up to 10 km. The BSR lies within 100-300 m of seafloor, in places rising beneath features that seafloor imagery show to be pockmarks and mud volcanoes, some venting gas to the water column. The BSR patches are up to 500 m shallower than predicted for methane hydrate based on geothermal gradients as low as 17˚C/km measured within the upper fan, and inversion of the BSR to obtain temperatures at the phase boundary indicates gradients 2-5 times background levels. We interpret the strongly elevated BSR patches to record upwelling of warm gas-rich fluids through thrust-fault zones 101 km wide. We infer this process to favour gas hydrate occurrences that are concentrated in proportion to flux and locally pierced by vents, and that will be sensitive to temporal variations in the upward flux of heat and gas. Thus episodes of increased flux, e.g. during thrusting, could dissociate gas hydrates to trigger slope failures and/or enhanced gas venting to the ocean. Structurally-driven fluid flow episodes could account for evidence of recurrent large-scale failures from the compressive belt on the upper fan during its Neogene collapse, and provide a long-term alternative to sea level triggering. The proposed mechanism of upward flux links the distribution and

  19. A SIMS Study of Sulfur Isotopes of Accessory Pyrites Associated with Barites from Methane Cold Seeps in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, E. C.; Aharon, P.

    2017-12-01

    Bacteria and archaea associated with seeps can fix methane from sublimating gas hydrates through coupled bacterial sulfate reduction/ anaerobic methane oxidation (BSR/AMO) and prevent outgassing to the atmosphere. The occurrence of such microbial processes has been established on the basis of the sulfur isotope compositions of microbial byproducts (pyrites; FeS2) that reflect the degree of fractionation between SO4 and FeS2 via the production of the H2S intermediate phase. BSR/AMO coupling has been discerned in accessory sulfides associated with carbonates from gas hydrate sites. Whether BSR/AMO coupling is also active in barites, another ubiquitous product of gas hydrate sublimation, has so far been overlooked. Here we present results of a new sulfur isotope study of accessory sulfides in barites associated with gas hydrates at the threshold of stability occurring on the Gulf of Mexico slope. Using a fractionation factor of 1.009 and a seawater δ34SSO4 value of 20.3‰ and assuming a Rayleigh distillation closed system model for marine sulfide precipitation, pyrites from barite gas seeps are predicted to exhibit a range of δ34S values (about -1‰ to 20‰ CDT) as the pool of sulfate is continuously depleted. Actual δ34S values could fall outside of the predicted range because the system in question is likely only partially closed and kinetic fractionations are likely. δ34S of accessory pyrites from three Garden Banks Lease Block 382 (510 - 640m water depth) and one Mississippi Canyon Lease Block 929 (590m) barite samples have been determined using an ims-1290 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS). Two Garden Banks samples and one Mississippi Canyon sample reveal a spread of values from 5.30 ± 0.04 to 25.90 ± 0.09 (‰ CDT), which follow the predicted trend for gas seeps and indicate the source of fractionation is likely from the coupled BSR/AMO process. One Garden Banks sample yields a wide spread of values from -26.2 ± 0.05 to 20.5 ± 0.4 (‰ CDT). The

  20. GammaScorpion: mobile gamma-ray tomography system for early detection of basal stem rot in oil palm plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Jaafar; Hassan, Hearie; Shari, Mohamad Rabaie; Mohd, Salzali; Mustapha, Mahadi; Mahmood, Airwan Affendi; Jamaludin, Shahrizan; Ngah, Mohd Rosdi; Hamid, Noor Hisham

    2013-03-01

    Detection of the oil palm stem rot disease Ganoderma is a major issue in estate management and production in Malaysia. Conventional diagnostic techniques are difficult and time consuming when using visual inspection, and destructive and expensive when based on the chemical analysis of root or stem tissue. As an alternative, a transportable gamma-ray computed tomography system for the early detection of basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palms due to Ganoderma was developed locally at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang, Malaysia. This system produces high quality tomographic images that clearly differentiate between healthy and Ganoderma infected oil palm stems. It has been successfully tested and used to detect the extent of BSR damage in oil palm plantations in Malaysia without the need to cut down the trees. This method offers promise for in situ inspection of oil palm stem diseases compared to the more conventional methods.

  1. Cold season soil respiration in response to grazing and warming in the High Arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strebel, Ditte; Elberling, Bo; Morgner, Elke

    2010-01-01

    of Arctic Goose Habitat: Impacts of Land Use, Conservation and Elevated Temperatures). New measurements of soil CO2 effluxes, temperatures and water contents were regularly made from July to November 2007. SOC stocks were quantified, and the reactivity and composition measured by basal soil respiration (BSR...... in significantly higher CO2 effluxes. Different grazing intensities had no significant effects on observed soil respiration, but BSR rates at the mesic site (13-23 mu g CO2 g soil-C-1 h-1) were highest with moderate grazing and lowest in the absence of grazing. A limited effect of grazing on microbial respiration......The influence of goose grazing intensity and open-topped chambers (OTCs) on near-surface quantities and qualities of soil organic carbon (SOC) was evaluated in wet and mesic ecosystems in Svalbard. This study followed up a field experiment carried out in 2003-05 (part of the project Fragility...

  2. A unifying model for Neoproterozoic-Palaeozoic exceptional fossil preservation through pyritization and carbonaceous compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffbauer, James D; Xiao, Shuhai; Cai, Yaoping; Wallace, Adam F; Hua, Hong; Hunter, Jerry; Xu, Huifang; Peng, Yongbo; Kaufman, Alan J

    2014-12-17

    Soft-tissue fossils capture exquisite biological detail and provide our clearest views onto the rise of animals across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. The processes contributing to fossilization of soft tissues, however, have long been a subject of debate. The Ediacaran Gaojiashan biota displays soft-tissue preservational styles ranging from pervasive pyritization to carbonaceous compression, and thus provides an excellent opportunity to dissect the relationships between these taphonomic pathways. Here geochemical analyses of the Gaojiashan fossil Conotubus hemiannulatus show that pyrite precipitation was fuelled by the degradation of labile tissues through bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). Pyritization initiated with nucleation on recalcitrant tube walls, proceeded centripetally, decelerated with exhaustion of labile tissues and possibly continued beneath the BSR zone. We propose that pyritization and kerogenization are regulated principally by placement and duration of the decaying organism in different microbial zones of the sediment column, which hinge on post-burial sedimentation rate and/or microbial zone thickness.

  3. Imperical relationship in the properties of static and rotating protoneutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Gulshan; Dhiman, Shashi K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the extended relativistic mean field (ERMF) model and its perametrizations BSR1- BSR21 are employed. The Lagrangian density, Lagrangian terms and the Euler-Lagrangian equations for ground state expectation values of the meson fields are same as earlier studies. At finite temperatures the baryon vector density, scalar density and charge density are as defined in earlier studies. The Keplerian configurations of rapidly rotating protoneutron stars have been computed in framework of general relativity by solving the Einstein eld equations for stationary axisymmetric space time and references therein. The numerical calculations have been performed by employing the Rotating Neutron Star (RNS) code. The perametrizations have been generated by varying the ω meson self-coupling ζ and neutron skin thickness Δr for the 208 Pb nucleus

  4. A Monte Carlo simulation for the field theory with quartic interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sergio Mittmann dos [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Sul (IFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In the work [1-S. M. Santos, B. E. J. Bodmann and A. T. Gomez, Um novo metodo computacional para a teoria de campos na rede: resultados preliminares, IV Escola do Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, 2002; and 2-S. M. Santos and B. E. J. Bodmann, Simulacao na rede de teorias de campos quanticos, XXVIII Congresso Nacional de Matematica Aplicada e Computacional (CNMAC), Sao Paulo, 2005], a computational method on the lattice was elaborated for the problem known as scalar field theory with quartic interaction (for instance, see: J. R. Klauder, Beyound conventional quantization, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). This one introduced an algorithm, which allows the simulation of a given field theory and is independent of the lattice spacing, by redefining the fields and the parameters (the mass m and the coupling constant g). This kind of approach permits varying the dimension of the lattice without changing the computational complexity of the algorithm. A simulation was made using the Monte Carlo method, where the renormalized mass m{sub R}, the renormalized coupling constant g{sub R} and the two point correlation function were determined with success. In the present work, the genuine computational method is used for new simulations. Now, the Monte Carlo method is not used just for the simulation of the algorithm, like in [1, 2], but also for defining the adjust parameters (the mass and the coupling constant), introduced ad hoc in [1, 2]. This work presents the first simulations' outcomes, where best results that [1, 2] were determined, for the renormalized mass and the renormalized coupling constant. (author)

  5. A Monte Carlo simulation for the field theory with quartic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sergio Mittmann dos

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In the work [1-S. M. Santos, B. E. J. Bodmann and A. T. Gomez, Um novo metodo computacional para a teoria de campos na rede: resultados preliminares, IV Escola do Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, 2002; and 2-S. M. Santos and B. E. J. Bodmann, Simulacao na rede de teorias de campos quanticos, XXVIII Congresso Nacional de Matematica Aplicada e Computacional (CNMAC), Sao Paulo, 2005], a computational method on the lattice was elaborated for the problem known as scalar field theory with quartic interaction (for instance, see: J. R. Klauder, Beyound conventional quantization, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). This one introduced an algorithm, which allows the simulation of a given field theory and is independent of the lattice spacing, by redefining the fields and the parameters (the mass m and the coupling constant g). This kind of approach permits varying the dimension of the lattice without changing the computational complexity of the algorithm. A simulation was made using the Monte Carlo method, where the renormalized mass m R , the renormalized coupling constant g R and the two point correlation function were determined with success. In the present work, the genuine computational method is used for new simulations. Now, the Monte Carlo method is not used just for the simulation of the algorithm, like in [1, 2], but also for defining the adjust parameters (the mass and the coupling constant), introduced ad hoc in [1, 2]. This work presents the first simulations' outcomes, where best results that [1, 2] were determined, for the renormalized mass and the renormalized coupling constant. (author)

  6. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  7. The effect of climate fluctuation on chimpanzee birth sex ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar S Kühl

    Full Text Available Climate and weather conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, precipitation and temperature influence the birth sex ratio (BSR of various higher latitude species, including deer, elephant seals or northern human populations. Although, tropical regions show only little variation in temperature, climate and weather conditions can fluctuate with consequences for phenology and food resource availability. Here, we evaluate, whether the BSR of chimpanzees, inhabiting African tropical forests, is affected by climate fluctuations as well. Additionally, we evaluate, if variation in consumption of a key food resource with high nutritional value, Coula edulis nuts, is linked to both climate fluctuations and variation in BSR. We use long-term data from two study groups located in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire to assess the influence of local weather conditions and the global climate driver El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO on offspring sex. Côte d'Ivoire has experienced considerable climate variation over the last decades, with increasing temperature and declining precipitation. For both groups we find very similar time windows around the month of conception, in which offspring sex is well predicted by ENSO, with more males following low ENSO values, corresponding to periods of high rainfall. Furthermore, we find that the time spent cracking and feeding on Coula nuts is strongly influenced by climate conditions. Although, some of our analysis suggest that a higher proportion of males is born after periods with higher nut consumption frequency, we cannot conclude decisively at this point that nut consumption may influence shifts in BSR. All results combined suggest that also chimpanzees may experience climate related shifts in offspring sex ratios as response to climate fluctuation.

  8. Bulk shielding facility quarterly report, October, November, and December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, III, S. S.; Lance, E. D.; Thomas, J. R.

    1977-08-01

    The BSR operated at an average power level of 1,836 kw for 78.01 percent of the time during October, November, and December. Water-quality control in both the reactor primary and secondary cooling systems was satisfactory. The PCA was used in training programs and was operated on two occasions when the University of Kentucky students actively participated in training laboratories.

  9. Marine Gas Hydrates - An Untapped Non-conventional Energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Marine Gas Hydrates - An Untapped Non-conventional Energy Resource · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Gas Hydrate Stability Zone · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Exploration of gas hydrates (seismic) · Characteristics of BSR · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Distribution of Gas Hydrates in KG ...

  10. National Low-Temperature Neutron-Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Klabunde, C.E.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    The Materials Sciences Division of the United States Department of Energy will establish a National Low Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF) which will utilize the Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facility will provide high radiation intensities and special environmental and testing conditions for qualified experiments at no cost to users. This report describes the planned experimental capabilities of the new facility

  11. Integrating and Amplifying Signal from Riboswitch Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Mountain View, CA)  Restriction endonucleases KpnI and BlpI (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA)  QIAprep plasmid miniprep kit (QIAgen, Valencia, CA... Restriction endonucleases KpnI, BsrGI, BstBI, and BmrI (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA)  PCR and cloning and fluorescent detection...in this circuit are restricted to those responsive to HSL, the remaining synthetic biological parts that can tune expression are Ribosome Binding

  12. Gas hydrate-related proxies inferred from multidisciplinary investigations in the India offshoe areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Sathe, A.V.; Sethi, A.K.

    - lous seismic reflection known as the Bottom Sim u lating Reflection (BSR), a manifestation of negative p o larity compressional ( P ) - wave mimicking the seafloor refle c tion on the Multi - Channel Seismic (MCS) reflection r e cords... and deep tow digital side scan sonar records (Figure 3) and station locations (Figure 4) are indicated as thick lines and solid circles r e- spectively. gr avity, 1150 lkm of high resolution chirp sonar and deep tow digital side scan sonar...

  13. The Institute for Mathematics and its Applications. Volume 68, Flow Control,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    criptivc set of governing cqtations, may be used for initial and intermediate direct solutions. Th’ algorithm separation alho allows relatively simple BSR’s...q -• F¢j - A.i,,, - r i = 1. ,n At, n-’ i i fit The (me)th equation i! alho selected to remove the sy-w. and i, rophrard by the constraint equation

  14. A behavioral task for investigating action discovery, selection and switching: comparison between types of reinforcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Fisher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Action discovery and selection are critical cognitive processes that are understudied at the cellular and systems neuroscience levels. Presented here is a new rodent joystick task suitable to test these processes due to the range of action possibilities that can be learnt while performing the task. Rats learned to manipulate a joystick while progressing through task milestones that required increasing degrees of movement accuracy. In a switching phase designed to measure action discovery, rats were repeatedly required to discover new target positions to meet changing task demands. Behavior was compared using both food and electrical brain stimulation reward (BSR of the substantia nigra as reinforcement. Rats reinforced with food and those with BSR performed similarly overall, although BSR-treated rats exhibited greater vigor in responding. In the switching phase, rats learnt new actions to adapt to changing task demands, reflecting action discovery processes. Because subjects are required to learn different goal-directed actions, this task could be employed in further investigations of the cellular mechanisms of action discovery and selection. Additionally, this task could be used to assess the behavioral flexibility impairments seen in conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The versatility of the task will enable cross-species investigations of these impairments.

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of oil palm leaves infected with Ganoderma boninense revealed changes in proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and immunity and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery Daim, Leona Daniela; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Ithnin, Nalisha; Mohd Yusof, Hirzun; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2015-08-01

    The basidiomycete fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense is the causative agent for the incurable basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. This disease causes significant annual crop losses in the oil palm industry. Currently, there is no effective method for disease control and elimination, nor is any molecular marker for early detection of the disease available. An understanding of how BSR affects protein expression in plants may help identify and/or assist in the development of an early detection protocol. Although the mode of infection of BSR disease is primarily via the root system, defense-related genes have been shown to be expressed in both the root and leafs. Thus, to provide an insight into the changes in the global protein expression profile in infected plants, comparative 2DE was performed on leaf tissues sampled from palms with and without artificial inoculation of the Ganoderma fungus. Comparative 2DE revealed that 54 protein spots changed in abundance. A total of 51 protein spots were successfully identified by LC-QTOF MS/MS. The majority of these proteins were those involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism as well as immunity and defense. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Secara Molekuler Ganoderma spp. yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Busuk Pangkal Batang di Kelapa Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Indah Purnamasari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of Ganoderma spp. isolates was isolated from oil palms attacked by basal stem rot (BSR disease in Padang and Pontianak plantations. Genetic polymorphism of these isolates was analyzed based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequence of ribosomal DNA region. In addition, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis was also performed to determine the association of the isolates with BSR disease. The isolated Ganoderma spp. showed high DNA polymorphism and there was no obvious genetic clustering of isolates that may correspond to their geographical position in Padang and Pontianak. This indicated that exchange of DNA between Ganoderma spp. infecting oil palm is not uncommon. This can be explained by the heterothallic nature of Ganoderma spp. in which DNA recombination occurs during sexual reproduction between different thalli. RFLP analysis showed that ITS fragments from all Ganoderma spp. isolates were digested with restriction enzymes MluI and SacI. This indicated that the anoderma spp. isolates were specific for oil palm and thus associated with the BSR.Key words: basal stem rot, Ganoderma spp., internal transcribed spacer, oil palm

  17. Microbiological Diversity of the Anaerobic Sludge During Treatment of Venezuelan Oilfield Produced Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajacuri María Patricia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation the microbial abundances in the granular sludge of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB were compared: the first one fed with production waters of light oil (31.1-39.0° API, from the zuliana region (Venezuela (APP and the second one with glucose. To this respect, the populations of glucose fermenting bacteria (BFG, acetogenic bacteria (BAC, metanogens (MET, sulfatereducing bacteria (BSR, nitrate-reducing bacteria (BNRand heterotrophic bacteria were monitored, using selective culture media. The microbial density was correlated with physicochemical parameters: pH, total alkalinity, COD, SO4 =, NO3-, as well as with the percentages of CH4, CO2 and N2in the biogas. The results exhibit significant differences between the microbial diversity of both reactors, with a proportion of BFG > BSR > MET > BAC > BNR for the glucose reactor and of MET > BNR > BAC > BSR > BFG for the APP. The abundance of bacteria in the glucose reactor was in the order of 108, whereas in the APP reactor was of 105, which ensues from the organic and mineral composition of effluents. The results presented in this study reach evidences on the population dynamics in sludge of UASB reactors, during the treatment of oilfield produced waters.

  18. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivi, M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M. S.; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-01-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease. PMID:27721689

  19. 3D basin-shape ratio effects on frequency content and spectral amplitudes of basin-generated surface waves and associated spatial ground motion amplification and differential ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal; Narayan, J. P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the effects of basin-shape ratio (BSR) on the frequency content and spectral amplitudes of the basin-generated surface (BGS) waves and the associated spatial variation of ground motion amplification and differential ground motion (DGM) in a 3D semi-spherical (SS) basin. Seismic responses were computed using a recently developed 3D fourth-order spatial accurate time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm based on the parsimonious staggered-grid approximation of the 3D viscoelastic wave equations. The simulated results revealed the decrease of both the frequency content and the spectral amplitudes of the BGS waves and the duration of ground motion in the SS basin with the decrease of BSR. An increase of the average spectral amplification (ASA), DGM and the average aggravation factor (AAF) towards the centre of the SS basin was obtained due to the focusing of the surface waves. A decrease of ASA, DGM and AAF with the decrease of BSR was also obtained.

  20. The reliability and validity of a chair sit-and-reach test as a measure of hamstring flexibility in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C J; Rikli, R E; Max, J; Noffal, G

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability and the criterion validity of a newly developed chair sit-and-reach (CSR) test as a measure of hamstring flexibility in older adults CSR performance was also compared to sit-and-reach (SR) and back-saver sit-and-reach (BSR) measures of hamstring flexibility. To estimate reliability, 76 men and women (M age = 70.5 years) performed the CSR on 2 different days, 2-5 days apart. In the validity phase of the study, scores of 80 men and women (M age = 74.2 years) were obtained on three field test measures of hamstring flexibility (CSR, SR, and BSR) and on a criterion test (goniometer measurement of a passive straight-leg raise). Results indicate that the CSR has good intraclass test-retest reliability (R = .92 for men; r = .96 for women), and has a moderate-to-good relationship with the criterion measure (r = .76 for men; r = .81 for women). The criterion validity of the CSR for the male and female participants is comparable to that of the SR (r = .74 and r = .71, respectively) and BSR (r = .70 and r = .71, respectively). Results indicate that the CSR test produces reasonably accurate and stable measures of hamstring flexibility. In addition, it appears that the CSR is a safe and socially acceptable alternative to traditional floor sit-and-reach tests as a measure of hamstring flexibility in older adults.

  1. Real analysis series, functions of several variables, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Laczkovich, Miklós

    2017-01-01

    This book develops the theory of multivariable analysis, building on the single variable foundations established in the companion volume, Real Analysis: Foundations and Functions of One Variable. Together, these volumes form the first English edition of the popular Hungarian original, Valós Analízis I & II, based on courses taught by the authors at Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary, for more than 30 years. Numerous exercises are included throughout, offering ample opportunities to master topics by progressing from routine to difficult problems. Hints or solutions to many of the more challenging exercises make this book ideal for independent study, or further reading. Intended as a sequel to a course in single variable analysis, this book builds upon and expands these ideas into higher dimensions. The modular organization makes this text adaptable for either a semester or year-long introductory course. Topics include: differentiation and integration of functions of several variables; infinite numerica...

  2. Scrittura e riscrittura nei 'Basement Tapes' di Bob Dylan: 'Ode to Billie Joe' di Bobbie Gentry e 'Clothesline Saga (Answer to Ode'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bratus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La grande diffusione di fenomeni riconducibili a pratiche intertestuali nella popular music, siano esse cover, canzoni risposta, citazioni, allusioni di diversa natura (melodica, testuale, timbrica, stilistica, etc., non ha mancato nel corso degli anni di sollevare un grande interesse nel dibattito accademico. Ciò non è dovuto solamente alla consistenza numerica di tali esempi in queste musiche, ma anche alle aperture che un argomento del genere offre per un'analisi di tipo interdisciplinare sugli oggetti della popular culture. Confrontarsi con le dinamiche che pertinenti la reinterpretazione, rielaborazione, scrittura e riscrittura di testi preesistenti, da un lato trova le sue radici in un approccio di tipo comparatistico di matrice sostanzialmente etnomusicologica, dall'altro lato pone una serie di questioni cruciali riguardanti la natura stessa della popular music, il concetto di composizione in quest'ambito, la costruzione identitaria dei suoi artisti.

  3. Design, Synthesis and DFT/DNP Modeling Study of New 2-Amino-5-arylazothiazole Derivatives as Potential Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraa Abu-Melha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 2-amino-5-arylazothiazole derivatives has been designed and synthesized in 61–78% yields and screened as potential antibacterial drug candidates against the Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli. The geometry of the title compounds were being studied using the Material Studio package and semi-core pseudopods calculations (dspp were performed with the double numerica basis sets plus polarization functional (DNP to predict the properties of materials using the hybrid FT/B3LYP method. Modeling calculations, especially the (EH-EL difference and the energetic parameters revealed that some of the title compounds may be promising tools for further research work and the activity is structure dependent.

  4. La musica del vuoto indagine sulla natura della materia

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2007-01-01

    I pattern delle onde che descrivono i protoni, i neutroni e tutti i loro parenti ricordano le vibrazioni di strumenti musicali, e in effetti le equazioni matematiche che governano questi due domini, superficialmente molto diversi, sono in realtà molto simili. Quest'analogia musicale risale alla preistoria della scienza: già Pitagora scoprì che le note armoniose sono quelle suonate da corde le cui lunghezze sono in una semplice relazione numerica, mentre Keplero trascorse anni in tediosi calcoli ed erronee ipotesi alla ricerca dell'armonia nascosta dell'universo. Wilczek riprende questa metafora nella descrizione della realtà delle masse parlando di "musica del vuoto", moderna espressione dell'antica, inafferrabile e mistica musica delle sfere.

  5. Calcolo scientifico esercizi e problemi risolti con Matlab e Octave

    CERN Document Server

    Quarteroni, Alfio; Gervasio, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Questo testo è concepito per i corsi delle Facoltà di Ingegneria e di Scienze. Esso affronta tutti gli argomenti tipici della Matematica Numerica, spaziando dal problema di risolvere sistemi di equazioni lineari e non lineari a quello di approssimare una funzione, di calcolare i suoi minimi, le sue derivate ed il suo integrale definito fino alla risoluzione di equazioni differenziali ordinarie e alle derivate parziali con metodi alle differenze finite ed agli elementi finiti. Un capitolo iniziale conduce lo studente ad un rapido ripasso degli argomenti dell'Analisi Matematica e dell'Algebra Lineare di uso frequente nel volume e ad una introduzione ai linguaggi MATLAB e Octave. Al fine di rendere maggiormente incisiva la presentazione e fornire un riscontro quantitativo immediato alla teoria vengono implementati in linguaggio MATLAB e Octave tutti gli algoritmi che via via si introducono. Vengono inoltre proposti numerosi esercizi, tutti risolti per esteso, ed esempi, anche con riferimento ad applicazioni in...

  6. Predictability of chaotic dynamics a finite-time Lyapunov exponents approach

    CERN Document Server

    Vallejo, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    This book is primarily concerned with the computational aspects of predictability of dynamical systems – in particular those where observation, modeling and computation are strongly interdependent. Unlike with physical systems under control in laboratories, for instance in celestial mechanics, one is confronted with the observation and modeling of systems without the possibility of altering the key parameters of the objects studied. Therefore, the numerical simulations offer an essential tool for analyzing these systems. With the widespread use of computer simulations to solve complex dynamical systems, the reliability of the numerical calculations is of ever-increasing interest and importance. This reliability is directly related to the regularity and instability properties of the modeled flow. In this interdisciplinary scenario, the underlying physics provide the simulated models, nonlinear dynamics provides their chaoticity and instability properties, and the computer sciences provide the actual numerica...

  7. Numerical modeling of Etla Valley aquifer, Oax., Mexico: Evolution and remediation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Marquez, E. L; Martinez-Serrano, R. G; Chavez, R. E; Crusillo, Y [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Jimenez, G [Facultad de Ingenieria, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Camops-Enriquez, O [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Short-term evolution (for 2001, 2005 and 2015) for the shallow aquifer of Etla Valley, Oaxaca, southern Mexico, was simulated based in a 3D hydrological model elaborated from the available geological, geophysical, geochemical, and hydrologic parameters. The numerical simulations were based on Visual MODFLOW code. These simulations indicate that, if the actual extraction regime is maintained, the drawdown of the potentiometric surface will get worse to the SE of the study area (i. e. beneath Oaxaca city). The prevailing aquifer flow direction favors the ground water pollution by fertilizers and leakage from the sewage network (dumped to the Atoyac river). According to the numerical simulation, remediation of this situation is possible if the wells located in the neighborhood of Oaxaca City are relocated at the recharge zones (i. e. at the feet from Sierra de Juarez). This remediation scenario will allow a recovery of the drawdown of the potentiometric surface. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo geohidrologico evolutivo 3D a corto plazo (para los anos 2001, 2005 y 2015) del acuifero somero del Valle de Etla, Oaxaca, sureste de Mexico, basado en los parametros disponibles de geologia, geofisica, geoquimica e hidrologia. Las simulaciones numericas fueron realizadas en Visual MODFLOW. Estas simulaciones indican que, si el actual regimen de extraccion es mantenido, el abatimiento de la superficie potenciometrica puede ser mayor en el SE del area de estudio (i. e. cerca de la ciudad de Oaxaca). La contaminacion por fertilizantes y por las fugas de drenaje es favorecida por la direccion de flujo imperante en el acuifero (vaciandose en el rio Atoyac). De acuerdo a las simulaciones numericas, existe una posible remediacion de este proceso, relocalizando los pozos situados en la ciudad de Oaxaca en las zonas de recarga (i. e. en las faldas de la Sierra de Juarez). Este escenario de remediacion permitiria una recuperacion en el nivel de la superficie potenciometrica.

  8. Study on the fabrication of back surface reflectors in nano-crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by using random texturing aluminum anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang Sik; Jang, Eunseok; Cho, Jun-Sik; Yoo, Jinsu; Park, Joo Hyung; Byungsung, O.

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, researchers have improved the efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells in many ways. One of the easiest and most practical methods to improve solar-cell efficiency is adopting a back surface reflector (BSR) as the bottom layer or as the substrate. The BSR reflects the incident light back to the absorber layer in a solar cell, thus elongating the light path and causing the so-called "light trapping effect". The elongation of the light path in certain wavelength ranges can be enhanced with the proper scale of BSR surface structure or morphology. An aluminum substrate with a surface modified by aluminum anodizing is used to improve the optical properties for applications in amorphous silicon solar cells as a BSR in this research due to the high reflectivity and the low material cost. The solar cells with a BSR were formed and analyzed by using the following procedures: First, the surface of the aluminum substrate was degreased by using acetone, ethanol and distilled water, and it was chemically polished in a dilute alkali solution. After the cleaning process, the aluminum surface's morphology was modified by using a controlled anodization in a dilute acid solution to form oxide on the surface. The oxidized film was etched off by using an alkali solution to leave an aluminum surface with randomly-ordered dimple-patterns of approximately one micrometer in size. The anodizing conditions and the anodized aluminum surfaces after the oxide layer had been removed were systematically investigated according to the applied voltage. Finally, amorphous silicon solar cells were deposited on a modified aluminum plate by using dc magnetron sputtering. The surfaces of the anodized aluminum were observed by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The total and the diffuse reflectances of the surface-modified aluminum sheets were measured by using UV spectroscopy. We observed that the diffuse reflectances increased with increasing anodizing voltage. The

  9. Salinity effect of irrigation with treated wastewater in basal soil respiration in SE of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugan, A.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.

    2012-04-01

    The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to utilizing better-quality water, especially in semiarid regions where water shortage is a very serious problem. Wastewater use in agriculture is not a new practice, all over the world this reuse has been common practice for a long time, but the concept is of greater importance currently because of the global water crisis. Replacement of freshwater by treated wastewater is seen as an important conservation strategy contributing to agricultural production, substantial benefits can derive from using this nutrient-rich waste water but there can also be a negative impact. For this reason it is necessary to know precisely the composition of water before applying it to the soil in order to guarantee minimal impact in terms of contamination and salinization. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, different parameters in calcareous soils irrigated with treated wastewater in an agricultural Mediterranean area located at Biar (Alicante, SE Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters were used for the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated wastewater from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type during the study period. A soil sampling was carried out every four months. We show the results of the evolution of basal soil respiration (BSR), and its relationship with other parameters. We observed a similar pattern of behavior for BSR between treatments, a decrease at the first eighteen months of irrigation and an increase at the end of study. In our study case, the variations of BSR obtained for all the treatments seem to be closely related to the dose and frequency of irrigation and the related soil wetting and drying cycles. However, the results showed a negative correlation between BSR and

  10. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O’Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O’Malley. Overall

  11. Behavioral self-regulation for weight loss in young adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Rena R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining young adults in a brief behavioral weight loss intervention tailored for this age group, and to assess the preliminary efficacy of an intervention that emphasizes daily self-weighing within the context of a self-regulation model. Methods Forty young adults (29.1 ± 3.9 years, range 21–35, average BMI of 33.36 ± 3.4 were randomized to one of two brief behavioral weight loss interventions: behavioral self-regulation (BSR or adapted standard behavioral treatment (SBT. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment (10 weeks, and follow-up (20 weeks. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using general linear modeling in SPSS version 14.0. Results Participants in both groups attended an average of 8.7 out of 10 group meetings, and retention rates were 93% and 88% for post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Both groups achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment (BSR = -6.4 kg (4.0; SBT = -6.2 kg (4.5 and follow-up (BSR = -6.6 kg (5.5; SBT = -5.8 kg (5.2, p p = .84. Across groups, there was a positive association between frequency of weighing at follow-up and overall weight change at follow-up (p = .01. Daily weighing was not associated with any adverse changes in psychological symptoms. Conclusion Young adults can be recruited and retained in a behavioral weight loss program tailored to their needs, and significant weight losses can be achieved and maintained through this brief intervention. Future research on the longer-term efficacy of a self-regulation approach using daily self-weighing for weight loss in this age group is warranted. Clinical Trials Registration # NCT00488228

  12. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  13. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump. Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O

  14. Emission Trading as a Basis for new Bioenergy Business Concepts in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterinen, Pirkko; Helynen, Satu

    2006-01-01

    The new EU Emission Trading system started in the beginning of 2005. This system will bring new challenges, but also new opportunities for the energy market in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) countries. Typically in some EU countries the decreasing of greenhouse gas emissions tends to be more expensive to achieve than in the others. This brings about new trade schemes that could be implemented in the BSR. One important way of reducing emissions is to replace fossil fuels with biomass-based fuels in large scale power and steam production. As the availability of biomass, price level of biomass, electricity and steam, and national subsidies and taxation are different in different countries, it may be economically viable to create a framework for international trade. The product to be traded may be e.g. wood fuel (either as logs and chips or in refined form like pellets), energy (electricity), green certificates or emission allowances. It is also possible to implement so-called JI (Joint Implementation) projects to reach the emission reduction targets.All the above mentioned options may be realised in different ways. The purpose of the project is to find win-win opportunities, in which both the exporting and importing countries/regions will get profit from the system. These positive impacts may be quite impressive in regional level, as they directly boost several business areas like fuel production and transport, equipment manufacturing and maintenance, plant construction, as well as energy production and use. In addition, the impacts cover also forestry and agriculture, by bringing new value and utilisation options for their by-products.The paper presents the first results of an on-going project which is co-financed by the EU programme BSR INTERREG III B. The two-year project started in the beginning of 2005, and the main results will be available in autumn 2006

  15. TINGKAT KESEMBUHAN TB PARU PADA ANAK BALITA YANG MENDAPAT SUPLEMENTASI VITAMIN A DOSIS TINGGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi S. Suwardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available THE RECOVERY RATE OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS OF THE UNDERFIVE CHILDREN SUPPLEMENTED BY HIGHDOSE VITAMIN A.Background: Tuberculosis (TB is the most common cause of death among other Infection disease. It Is recognized thattuberculosis affects various age groups, Including underfive children. The complete and fast treatments are needed to reduce the prevalence and Incidence of TB in the communities. Considering the role of vitamin A In reducing the severely of Infection, supplementation of hlghdose (200.000 IU vitamin A in every two months for 6 months will be helpful to increase recovery rate of pulmonary tuberculosis.Design: This study was conducted at the hospital in Bogor region. Sample size was 66 children of underfive years old, whowere suffered pulmonary TB according to Mantoux test, clinical examination, and chest x-ray (CXR. Physical examination, morbidity, and anthropometric data were assessed every month. Food consumption recall, serum vitamin A concentration, hemoglobin content, hematocrit, blood sedimen rate (BSR, and CXR were assessed at 0 and 6 months. The children wererandomly assigned to either vitamin A-supplemented (AS, n=33 group or vitamin A-unsupplemented (AUS, n=37. All of the children were treated by isoniazide, ethambutol and rifampicin. The recovery rate was assessed according to the score of 3 variabels: nutrition status, BSR, and CXR.Results: Nutrition status and hemoglobin increased significantly in both groups (p<0,05. The clinical symptoms subsided and BSR decreased in both groups, but was not significant different between groups. The CXR data showed there were improvement in 84,5% of AS group and 67,7% of AUS group. There were scoring improvement of the recovery rate in bothgroups, but was not significant different between groups.Conclusions: There was significant relation between vitamin A status and the recovery rate of pulmonary tuberculosis, but was not significant different between groups.Keywords: tuberculosis

  16. Bird assemblages in natural and urbanized habitats along elevational gradient in Nainital district (western Himalaya of Uttarakhand state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh BHATT, Kamal Kant JOSHI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indian subcontinent is amongst the biologically better known parts of the tropics and its bird fauna has been well documented. However, avian community composition and diversity along elevational gradients and amongst habitat types remains unclear in India. We attempted to estimate bird assemblages in terms of diversity, species composition, status and abundance in urban and forest habitats of Nainital district of Uttarakhand (350–2450 m asl; 29°N, Western Himalayas. We sampled different elevational gradients and to understand the effect of urbanization and season on avian community composition. Field studies were conducted during January 2005 to January 2007. Results indicated that the forest had more complex bird community structure in terms of higher species richness (14.35 vs 8.69, higher species diversity (Shannon’s index 4.00 vs 3.54, higher evenness (0.838 vs 0.811 and more rare species (17 vs 5 as compared to urban habitat. However, the abundance of 11 species was higher in urban habitats. Bird Species Richness (BSR varied considerably among study areas (91 to 113 species, was highest (113 species at mid elevation (1450–1700 m asl and decreased (22 species at high elevation (1900–2450 m asl. It seems that high BSR at mid altitudes is not caused by the presence of a group of mid altitude specialists but rather that there is an overlap in the distribution of low land and high elevation specialists at this altitude. BSR and Bird Species Diversity fluctuated across seasons but not habitat type [Current Zoology 57 (3: 318–329, 2011].

  17. Breeding sex ratio and population size of loggerhead turtles from Southwestern Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A Lasala

    Full Text Available Species that display temperature-dependent sex determination are at risk as a result of increasing global temperatures. For marine turtles, high incubation temperatures can skew sex ratios towards females. There are concerns that temperature increases may result in highly female-biased offspring sex ratios, which would drive a future sex ratio skew. Studying the sex ratios of adults in the ocean is logistically very difficult because individuals are widely distributed and males are inaccessible because they remain in the ocean. Breeding sex ratios (BSR are sought as a functional alternative to study adult sex ratios. One way to examine BSR is to determine the number of males that contribute to nests. Our goal was to evaluate the BSR for loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta nesting along the eastern Gulf of Mexico in Florida, from 2013-2015, encompassing three nesting seasons. We genotyped 64 nesting females (approximately 28% of all turtles nesting at that time and up to 20 hatchlings from their nests (n = 989 using 7 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We identified multiple paternal contributions in 70% of the nests analyzed and 126 individual males. The breeding sex ratio was approximately 1 female for every 2.5 males. We did not find repeat males in any of our nests. The sex ratio and lack of repeating males was surprising because of female-biased primary sex ratios. We hypothesize that females mate offshore of their nesting beaches as well as en route. We recommend further comparisons of subsequent nesting events and of other beaches as it is imperative to establish baseline breeding sex ratios to understand how growing populations behave before extreme environmental effects are evident.

  18. Fiber-optic components for optical communicatios and sensing =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carlos Alberto Ferreira

    Nos ultimos anos, a Optoelectronica tem sido estabelecida como um campo de investigacao capaz de conduzir a novas solucoes tecnologicas. As conquistas abundantes no campo da optica e lasers, bem como em comunicacoes opticas tem sido de grande importancia e desencadearam uma serie de inovacoes. Entre o grande numero de componentes opticos existentes, os componentes baseados em fibra optica sao principalmente relevantes devido a sua simplicidade e a elevada de transporte de dados da fibra optica. Neste trabalho foi focado um destes componentes opticos: as redes de difraccao em fibra optica, as quais tem propriedades opticas de processamento unicas. Esta classe de componentes opticos e extremamente atraente para o desenvolvimento de dispositivos de comunicacoes opticas e sensores. O trabalho comecou com uma analise teorica aplicada a redes em fibra e foram focados os metodos de fabricacao de redes em fibra mais utilizados. A inscricao de redes em fibra tambem foi abordado neste trabalho, onde um sistema de inscricao automatizada foi implementada para a fibra optica de silica, e os resultados experimentais mostraram uma boa aproximacao ao estudo de simulacao. Tambem foi desenvolvido um sistema de inscricao de redes de Bragg em fibra optica de plastico. Foi apresentado um estudo detalhado da modulacao acustico-optica em redes em fibra optica de silica e de plastico. Por meio de uma analise detalhada dos modos de excitacao mecanica aplicadas ao modulador acustico-optico, destacou-se que dois modos predominantes de excitacao acustica pode ser estabelecidos na fibra optica, dependendo da frequencia acustica aplicada. Atraves dessa caracterizacao, foi possivel desenvolver novas aplicacoes para comunicacoes opticas. Estudos e implementacao de diferentes dispositivos baseados em redes em fibra foram realizados, usando o efeito acustico-optico e o processo de regeneracao em fibra optica para varias aplicacoes tais como rapido multiplexador optico add-drop, atraso de grupo

  19. OVERVIEW OF THE STATE OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY WITHIN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, multinational companies should play a crucial role in supporting and developing a responsible corporate behavior from social, as well as ecological point of view, within the globalization framework. Thus, the process of globalization and liberalization of markets, of goods and services, must be accompanied by the real progress towards an effective system of global governance, with its own social and environmental dimensions. The paper dwells upon the diagnosis of the current state of corporate social responsibility within the international business environment, substantiated on the basis of a study carried out in 2010 by the American scientific and professional organization Business for Social Responsibility (BSR.

  20. Building counting by traditional game: Mathematics Program for Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrullah Nasrullah; Zulkardi Zulkardi

    2011-01-01

    In line with design research, the use of Bermain Satu Rumah (BSR) as traditional  game to support children’s counting classroom wherein students are encouraged to construct mathematical understanding. Number in traditional games is an interesting aspect that is helpful for children to encounter numerous situations that bring them into contact with sounds, symbols and meanings that relate to numbers. Bermain satu rumah as starting activity would be media to enhance student’s sense of number as...

  1. Diagenesis of magnetic minerals in a gas hydrate/cold seep environment off the Krishna-Godavari basin, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Basavaiah, N.; Badesab, F.K.; Usapkar, A.; Mazumdar, A.; Joshi, R.; Ramprasad, T.

    in the vicinity of Site NGHP-01- 10. The multi-channel seismic data show the presence of a BSR (Fig. 1b). The core is located on top of a mound presumably related to neo/shale tectonic activity. The fault system formed due to these activities facilitated... may be related to the opening and closing of the fault system formed due to neo/shale tectonism (Dewangan et al., 2010; Mazumdar et al., 2012a). The temporal variations in methane flux are reported to be closely linked to the deeper gas hydrate...

  2. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    The report summarizes the key results of the consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs) carried out for a variety of manure management techniques over the Baltic Sea Regions (BSR). For all manure management technologies assessed, the environmental impacts (in terms of potential to global warming......, acidification of aquatic & terrestrial systems as well as phosphorus and nitrogen enrichment) are evaluated along the whole “manure management chain”, quantified and compared to the applying reference manure management system. The LCA results presented in this report cover 4 main manure types (dairy cow slurry...

  3. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Despite a change of government in September 2011, Danish politics have been largely characterised by continuity since the beginning of the economic crisis in 2008, although with an increased emphasis on reforming the welfare state in order to increase growth and create new jobs. A pragmatist turn...... in domestic and foreign policy priorities across the political spectrum has left economic austerity at centre stage, whereas the promotion of values at home and abroad plays a more marginal role than previously. The Baltic Sea Region (BSR) continues to play a role in Danish foreign policy, with the Danish...

  4. Burst-Suppression Ratio on Electrocorticography Depends on Interelectrode Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Calin, Alexandru; Kumaraswamy, Vishakhadatta M.

    2016-01-01

    the fraction of time spent in suppression, is clinically considered a global index of brain function in sedation monitoring. Recent studies indicate that BS may be considerably asynchronous when measured with higher spatial resolution such as on electrocorticography. The authors investigated the magnitude...... of BSR changes with cortical recording interelectrode distance. Methods: The authors selected fronto-parietal electrocorticography recordings showing propofol-induced BS recorded via 8-electrode strips (1-cm interelectrode distance) during cortical motor mapping in 31 patients. For 1-minute epochs...

  5. Cooperative Business Structures for Green Transport Corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In its White Paper on “A Sustainable Future of Transport”, the European Commission promoted the idea of green transport corridors (GTCs by establishing trans-shipment routes with concentration of freight traffic between major hubs. GTCs reduce environmental and climate impact of the traffic on these relatively long distances of transport while increasing safety and efficiency with the application of sustainable logistics solutions. The Baltic Sea Region (BSR enjoys a vanguard position in the development and realisation of green transport concepts within Europe.

  6. Advanced Motor-Controller Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-22

    IS EXHAUSTED 0720 * 0721 ’ BEGIN LOOP 0722 F378 :8D 18 PRECIO BSR PUNBYT .. ,:.CC=O IF COUNT = 0) 0723 F3A 2E FC BGT PRECIG 0724 * ENLO LOOP 0725 F0TC...PUNDIO F24E -:4 F 6 PI-ND20 F-4C E4 2’FrA PUNBYT F3 84 2F.7 PRECiO F378 :-:4 2F7C PXISTX FZA6 E. 4 .F.5 PX1 FA6 -4 2FSE PX2 F363 84 2F97 RDF90 F3BB 84

  7. Impact of different IMRT techniques to improve conformity and normal tissue sparing in upper esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin E Amin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for cervical esophageal cancer is challenging. Although IMRT techniques using inverse planning algorithms are facilitating the treatment planning process, the irradiation dose to the normal tissues can be a critical issue. This study was performed to investigate the effect of beam numbers and their directions and local optimization on: (1 dose conformity and homogeneity to the planning target volume (PTV and (2 dose to the organ at risks (OARs.Methods: Four upper esophageal cancer cases were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. Eight IMRT plans were generated for each case with the same dose-volume constraints but with different beam numbers and arrangements. Local optimization using regular structures drawn automatically around the PTV with margins from 0.5-1.5 cm was performed. IMRT plans were evaluated with respect to isodose distributions, dose-volume histograms (DVHs parameters, homogeneity index (HI, and conformity index (CI. The statistical comparison between the types of plans was done using the One Way ANOVA test.Results: The results showed that IMRT using three or five beams was not sufficient to obtain good dose optimization. The seven field plans showed the best coverage for the PTV with tolerable doses for the OARs, and the beam orientation was very critical. Increasing beams (Bs number from 7 to 13 did not show significant differences in the PTV coverage, while the mean lung dose was increased. The PTV coverage were 95.1, 95.1, 98.1, 97.3, 97.3, 97.3, 97.0, and 97.0% for 3Bs, 5Bs, 7Bs, 9Bs, 13Bs, 7Bs(30, 7Bs(60 (beam angles were changed from 0o to 30o and 60o, and 7Bs(R (seven IMRT plans with ring, respectively. The mean heart dose did not exceed 0.36 Gy with p < 0.05. For lung doses, the best plan was the one with 9Bs which reduced lung volume doses V20Gy (% and V30Gy (%, and reduced mean lung dose from 5.4 to 4.5 Gy with p < 0.05 for 7Bs(R plans. IMRT improved the

  8. Study on gas hydrate as a new energy resource in the 21th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Byeong-Jae; Kwak Young-Hoon; Kim, Won-Sik [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Natural gas hydrate, a special type of clathrate hydrates, is a metastable solid compound which mainly consists of methane and water, and generally called as gas hydrate. It is stable in the specific low-temperature/high-pressure conditions. Gas hydrates play an important role as major reservoir of methane on the earth. On the other hand, the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates could cause the plugging in pipeline, gas kick during production, atmospheric pollution and geohazard. To understand the formation and dissociation of the gas hydrate, the experimental equilibrium conditions of methane hydrate were measured in pure water, 3 wt.% NaCl and MgCl{sub 2} solutions. The equilibrium conditions of propane hydrates were also measured in pure water. The relationship between methane hydrate formation time and overpressure was also analyzed through the laboratory work. The geophysical surveys using air-gun system and multibeam echo sounder were implemented to develop exploration techniques and to evaluate the gas hydrate potential in the East Sea, Korea. General indicators of submarine gas hydrates on seismic data is commonly inferred from the BSR developed parallel to the see floor, amplitude blanking at the upper part of the BSR, and phase reversal and decrease of the interval velocity at BSR. The field data were processed using Geobit 2.9.5 developed by KIGAM to detect the gas hydrate indicators. The accurate velocity analysis was performed by XVA (X-window based Velocity Analysis). Processing results show that the strong reflector occurred parallel to the sea floor were shown at about 1800 ms two way travel time. The interval velocity decrease at this strong reflector and at the reflection phase reversal corresponding to the reflection at the sea floor. Gas hydrate stability field in the study area was determined using the data of measured hydrate equilibrium condition, hydrothermal gradient and geothermal gradient. The depth of BSR detected in the seismic

  9. A comparison of the sit-and-reach test and the back-saver sit-and-reach test in university students

    OpenAIRE

    López-Miñarro, Pedro A.; Andújar, Pilar Sáinz de Baranda; RodrÑGuez-GarcÑa, Pedro L.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the forward reach score, spine and pelvis postures, and hamstring criterion-related validity (concurrent validity) between the sit-and-reach test (SR) and the back-saver sit-and-reach test (BS). Seventy-six men (mean age ± SD: 23.45 ± 3.96 years) and 67 women (mean age ± SD: 23.85 ± 5.36 years) were asked to perform three trials of SR, BS left (BSl), right (BSr), and passive straight leg raise (PSLR) right and left (hamstring criterion measure) in a randomized order. The t...

  10. Technique for measuring irradiation creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, G.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test has been designed to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers being considered for fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Thermal creep results on Nicalon-CG and Hi-Nicalon were shown to be consistent with previously published data with Hi-Nicalon showing about a 100{degrees}C improvement in creep resistance. Preliminary data was also obtained on Nicalon-S that demonstrated that its creep resistance is greater than that of Hi-Nicalon.

  11. Design of Algorithms for their Use in the Control of Solutes Transport in Contaminated Aquifers; Diseno de algoritmos para su uso en el control del transporte de solutos en acuiferos contaminados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Najera, Juan Diego [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2002-06-01

    This paper establishes the theoretical foundations of a mathematical methodology to approach the rehabilitation of aquifers contaminated by dissolved substances, with the assistance of numerical techniques. The derived algorithms are of control or management type, since simultaneously to the predictive numerical solution of the solute transport equation, they determine those solutions that fulfil water quality restrictions. The controlling variable is the concentration of the polluting agent dissolved in the flow field. The considerations are kinematics because they take into account the advection and dispersion terms, but they also considerate the first order kinetic sorption model and the sources/sinks for the concentration. We describe the physical arguments and mathematical theory of subdiferentials necessary to establish the control problem of initial and boundary values for the solutes transport equation; afterwards, the primal variational model and the mixed of dual internal control as well as the formal discrete version of both formulations are obtained, so that solution algorithms of finite element semi discrete type are generated. Due to the hyperbolic-parabolic character of the transport equation, when the advective tem is dominant, in this work it is approximated by means of the lkeda's partial upwind technique. To prove the theory a hypothetical example is presented, and we analyze the two possible cases for the concentration of a polluting agent: when it dose not exceed and when it escapes the regulator limits of water quality. In both situations the primal and mixed algorithms determine the appropriate numerical solutions of each kind of problem. [Spanish] Este trabajo establece los fundamentos teoricos de una metodologia matematica para abordar la rehabilitacion de mantos acuiferos contaminados por sustancias disueltas, con la asistencia de tecnicas numericas. Los algoritmos que se derivan son de control o de manejo, ya que inmerso a la

  12. Application of a hydrodynamic model to a coastal zone; Aplicacion de un modelo hidrodinamico en una zona costera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon-Villalobos, J. Rodolfo; Vicente-Vidal, Francisco; Vicente-Vidal, Victor M [Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-09-01

    This study describes the results of a numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of cooling water discharged into the sea from the Tuxpan Power Plant under two different meteorological and oceanographic conditions: case 1, southwesterly variable winds with an average velocity of 3 m s{sup -}1 and case II, northwesterly variable winds with an average velocity of 11.1 m s{sup -}1. The numerical simulations were made using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of coastal circulation and heat exchange. The southerly winds induce a sea surface circulation towards the north, which moves the discharged warm water away from the intake. The northerly winds, however, drive the hydrothermal effluent towards the intake. Comparisons between the numerical simulation results and field data show that the model correctly predicts the surface diffusion and dispersion of the hydrothermal effluents measured August 18 to 21, 1992 (case I) and November 24 to 27, 1992 (case II). The model predicts the extent of the areas impacted with cooling water with a precision of {+-}11%. For all the cases analyzed, the real size of the impacted areas that might have adverse effects on the marine ecosystems was not greater than 100 m{sup 2}. Thus, these possible adverse effects are considered to be of local significance only. The simulated vertical profiles of temperature show that the discharged cooling water remains mostly on the surface of the receiving water mass and reaches a maximum depth of 3.5 m. [Spanish] Este estudio describe los resultados de la simulacion numerica de comportamiento hidrodinamico de la descarga al mar del agua de enfriamiento de la Central de Potencia Tuxpan, bajo dos distintas condiciones ambientales meteorologicas y oceanograficas: caso I, viento variable de direccion del suroeste con intensidad promedio de 3 m s-1, y caso II, viento variable del noroeste con intensidad promedio de 11.1 m s-1. Las simulaciones numericas se realizaron mediante un modelo

  13. Study of heat and salt transport processes in the Espinheiro Channel (Ria de Aveiro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Nuno Alexandre Firmino

    O principal objectivo deste trabalho consistiu no estudo da dinâmica termohalina do Canal do Espinheiro em funcao de dois forcamentos principais: mare e caudal fluvial, usando duas abordagens distintas: trabalho experimental e modelacao numerica. A propagacao da mare e o caudal fluvial do Rio Vouga sao determinantes no estabelecimento da estrutura horizontal da salinidade ao longo do canal. A estrutura termica horizontal ao longo do canal e, em grande parte, determinada pela variacao sazonal da temperatura da agua do Rio Vouga, bem como, pela variacao sazonal das condicoes meteorologicas devido a reduzida profundidade. Foi observada a formacao de fortes gradientes de salinidade (relacionados com a formacao de frentes estuarinas) numa regiao a cerca de 7-8 km da embocadura do canal, observando-se a sua migracao numa regiao de aproximadamente 1 km, dependendo do regime de mare. O balanco entre o transporte de sal de natureza advectiva e difusiva foi calculado, revelando que junto a embocadura os processos fisicos que mais contribuem para o transporte de sal sao a circulacao residual e o aprisionamento da agua em canais secundarios. Junto a foz do Rio Vouga os termos devidos a descarga fluvial e a circulacao gravitacional dominam o transporte de sal. Foi calibrado e validado um modelo numerico (Mohid, em modo 2D e 3D), sendo posteriormente utilizado para estudar a hidrologia do canal. Foi concedida particular atencao ao estudo da hidrologia em condicoes extremas de caudal fluvial e de mare. Os resultados da modelacao numerica permitiram numa primeira fase avaliar o bom desempenho do Mohid na reproducao dos escoamentos barotropicos na Ria de Aveiro, bem como na evolucao temporal das propriedades termohalinas da agua. Sob condicoes de caudal fluvial reduzido, a dinâmica do canal e essencialmente dominada pela mare. Com o aumento do caudal fluvial, a influencia da agua doce estende-se para jusante, estratificando a coluna de agua. As simulacoes 3D do Canal do

  14. Flow prediction and heat transfer in a cooling square duch of a gas turbine blade using CFD; Predicciones de flujo y transferencia de calor en un conductor de alabe enfriado de turbina de gas utilizando CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquiza B, Gustavo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sierra E, Fernando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Kubiak S, Janusz; Campos A, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    A numerical investigation has been conducted to study the turbulent flow and the heat transfer in a blade turbine coolant passage involving a 180 degrees turn. The study provides a comparison test for two turbulence models. The numerical solution was conducted employing two models for turbulence, the renormalization Group Theory (RNG) and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM), using a refined grid to model with detail the recirculating flow. Computations are performed with a commercial finite volume code which solves three dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes and Energy equations. At the passage turn, significant secondary flows are present, formed by a pair of symmetrical vortices. Results have been compared against published experimental data for Re = 53 000. Very good agreement is achieved for the prediction of the local static pressure distribution along the passage. A strong effect of rotation has been observed mainly in the flow field as described in detail in the paper. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta una investigacion numerica para estudiar el flujo turbulento y la transferencia de calor en un conducto de enfriamiento de un alabes de turbina de gas con giro de 180 grados. El estudio proporciona una comparacion de resultados para dos modelos de turbulencia. La solucion numerica emplea dos modelos de turbulencia: el modelo de esfuerzos de Reynolds (RSM) y el modelo de la teoria del grupo de renormalizacion (RNG), utilizando una malla refinada para modelar con detalle el flujo de recirculacion. Los calculos fueron realizados con un codigo comercial de volumenes finitos el cual resuelve las ecuaciones tridimensionales de Navier-Stoke y de energia para flujo incompresible. En la seccion de giro del conductor, aparecen flujos secundarios significativos, formados por un par de celulas simetricas. Los resultados han sido comparados contra datos experimentales de la literatura para Re = 53 000. se obtuvo un buen acuerdo para la prediccion de la distribucion de

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the research and development to lead to gas hydrate using technology. Research and development on exploration, research and development on drilling technologies, survey and research on a method to evaluate environmental impact, and survey and research on a utilization system; 1997 nendo gas haidoreto shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansanado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The present study is intended to analyze comprehensively geophysical, geological and geochemical data, and establish a technology to estimate distribution of gas hydrate (GH) in sea areas around Japan. It is also intended to develop a high-accuracy resource amount calculating method utilizing the result of excavation of GH planned in the future. In order to achieve these goals, the following activities are performed: (1) study on a method to estimate production environment of GH deposits, (2) development of a method to estimate GH stability areas by using the crust thermal flow measuring method, and (3) study on estimation of GH distribution and wide-area potential. For the study (1), an inorganic element analyzer was introduced, and calibration of devices was performed in fiscal 1997. A survey was carried out on literatures related to distribution of inorganic elements and process of GH deposit production. In the study (2), design and trial fabrication were executed on a high-accuracy crust thermal flow measuring device, capable of long-term continuous observation. In the study (3), re-processing focusing on BSR was implemented by using the latest computer and analysis software on the data in which BSR has been confirmed in the surveys done in the past on sea areas around Japan. (NEDO)

  16. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  17. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  18. Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilaoui, Mounir; Ait Mouse, Hassan; Jaafari, Abdeslam; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba. Methods Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs. Results Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves) were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86%) and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%); esters constituted the major fraction (62.8%) of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used. PMID:26196123

  19. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  20. Enantioselective transesterification of glycidol catalysed by a novel lipase expressed from Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tai, Jian-Dong; Wang, Ren; Xun, Er-Na; Wei, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zhi

    2010-05-10

    A novel plasmid (pBSR2) was constructed by incorporating a strong lipase promoter and a terminator into the original pBD64. The lipase gene from Bacillus subtilis strain IFFI10210 was cloned into the plasmid pBSR2 and transformed into B. subtilis A.S.1.1655 to obtain an overexpression strain. The recombinant lipase [BSL2 (B. subtilis lipase 2)] has been expressed from the novel constructed strain and used in kinetic resolution of glycidol through enantioselective transesterification. The effects of reaction conditions on the activity as well as enantioselectivity were investigated. BSL2 showed a satisfying enantioselectivity (E>30) under the optimum conditions [acyl donor: vinyl butyrate; the mole ratio of vinyl butyrate to glycidol was 3:1; organic medium: 1,2-dichloroethane with water activity (a(w))=0.33; temperature 40 degrees C]. The remaining (R)-glycidol with a high enantiomeric purity [ee (enantiomeric excess) >99%] could be obtained when the conversion was approx. 60%. The results clearly show a good potential for industrial application of BSL2 in the resolution of glycidol through enantioselective transesterification.

  1. Study On Seismic Identification And Distribution Characters Of Marine Gas Hydrate In Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Jin, X.; Li, M.; Tang, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The paper studies the formation processes and distribution of marine gas hydrate, through systematically and thoroughly analyzing the geological setting, gas sources and distribution features of the most marine gas hydrate deposits around the world. Based on study of the geologic features in Okinawa Trough and adjacent area, it is showed that there exist favorable geological conditions for the formation of gas hydrate, and the seismic indicator -BSR has also been identified from multi-channel digit seismic data by re-processing and analyzing. This shows that Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea area may distribute a mass of gas hydrate sedimentary deposit. Then the paper discusses the prospect of the gas hydrate resource in Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea area, based on the calculating of the hydrate stability zone thickness. Main conclusions of the paper can be summed up as follows: Based on the systematically comparative analysis of the marine gas hydrate deposits in different marine gas hydrate accumulate belts, the paper summarizes the different geologic formation processes and characters of the gas hydrate. And the importance of the continuous supplementation of the gas source, the transporting and accumulating of the gaseous fluid during the formation processes of the gas hydrate, and the preservation conditions of the gas hydrate deposit are discussed. It is thought that the Okinawa Trough (especially the west slope of the Trough) has the favorable conditions for gas hydrate through the analysis of its geologic features. The geologic features of Okinawa Trough, such as water depth, low temperature of bottom water, very thick sediments with high organic matter content, a large amount of gas from deep parts induced by the upward of the high temperature mantle flow under the Trough, very developed fracture system, and lots of pore space in the under-compacted sediment induced by the rapid sedimentation-are beneficial to form gas hydrate. This provided the advantaged

  2. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hall, H. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-08-01

    amorphous, macro-encapsulates the granules, and the monoliths pass ANSI/ANS 16.1 and ASTM C1308 durability testing with Re achieving a Leach Index (LI) of 9 (the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, IDF, criteria for Tc-99) after a few days and Na achieving an LI of >6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford’s blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a “tie back” between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non

  3. Mild salinization stimulated glyphosate degradation and microbial activities in a riparian soil from Chongming Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changming; Shen, Shuo; Wang, Mengmeng; Li, Jianhua

    2013-04-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of simulated saltwater treatment with different percentages of artificial seawater on degradation dynamics of herbicide glyphosate and microbial activities in a riparian soil in Chongming Island, China. The results showed that 10% seawater treatment showed significantly enhancing effects on degradation efficiency of glyphosate with the lowest residual concentration among all the treatments. However, glyphosate degradation was markedly decreased in the riparian soil with 20% and 50% seawater treatments. The half-lives for 20% and 50% seawater treatments were prolonged by 12.1 and 39.0%, respectively, as compared to control. Microbial investigation indicated that 10% seawater treatment significantly stimulated microbial activities in the glyphosate-spiked riparian soil throughout the incubation period. At 42 day of incubation experiment, flourescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis rate, microbial adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and basal soil respiration (BSR) in the glyphosate-spiked riparian soil with 10% seawater were 59.2, 42.5 and 31.8% higher than those with no saltwater treatment, respectively. In contrast, saltwater treatment with 50% seawater significantly inhibited microbial activities. Especially, FDA hydrolysis rate, microbial ATP and BSR were decreased by 66.4, 58.6 and 66.8%, respectively, as compared to control. The results indicate that levels of simulated saltwater can exert variable effects on herbicide degradation dynamics and microbial parameters in the riparian soil.

  4. Detection of Oil Palm Root Penetration by Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformed Ganoderma boninense, Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nisha; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2017-04-01

    A highly efficient and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Ganoderma boninense was developed to facilitate observation of the early stage infection of basal stem rot (BSR). The method was proven amenable to different explants (basidiospore, protoplast, and mycelium) of G. boninense. The transformation efficiency was highest (62%) under a treatment combination of protoplast explant and Agrobacterium strain LBA4404, with successful expression of an hyg marker gene and gus-gfp fusion gene under the control of heterologous p416 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Optimal transformation conditions included a 1:100 Agrobacterium/explant ratio, induction of Agrobacterium virulence genes in the presence of 250 μm acetosyringone, co-cultivation at 22°C for 2 days on nitrocellulose membrane overlaid on an induction medium, and regeneration of transformants on potato glucose agar prepared with 0.6 M sucrose and 20 mM phosphate buffer. Evaluated transformants were able to infect root tissues of oil palm plantlets with needle-like microhyphae during the penetration event. The availability of this model pathogen system for BSR may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenicity factors associated with G. boninense penetration into oil palm roots.

  5. Effects of hazelnut husk compost application on soil quality parameters in hazelnut orchards in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilkaya, Ridvan

    2016-04-01

    The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, respiration, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded two hazelnut orchards having different textures by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of different doses (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ton da-1) of hazelnut husk compost (HH) during hazelnut growth. After nine months of HHC application, soil quality parameters such as microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), basal respiration (BSR), total organic carbon (Corg), total N, C/N ratio, aggregate stability and some soil chemical properties (pH, EC and NO3-N content) were carried out on collected soil samples. The results showed that soil quality parameters were significantly affected by soil texture and HHC application doses. In general, Cmic, BSR, C/N ratio and the contents of Corg and N increased (Pparameters in soil, it was clear from the evidence obtained the research that the ideal HHC application was 5 ton per decare to increase the organic matter content by 2%. (This research was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Project number: 111O698).

  6. Seismic imaging of the Formosa Ridge cold seep site offshore of southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ho-Han; Liu, Char-Shine; Morita, Sumito; Tu, Shu-Lin; Lin, Saulwood; Machiyama, Hideaki; Azuma, Wataru; Ku, Chia-Yen; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2017-12-01

    Multi-scale reflection seismic data, from deep-penetration to high-resolution, have been analyzed and integrated with near-surface geophysical and geochemical data to investigate the structures and gas hydrate system of the Formosa Ridge offshore of southwestern Taiwan. In 2007, dense and large chemosynthetic communities were discovered on top of the Formosa Ridge at water depth of 1125 m by the ROV Hyper-Dolphin. A continuous and strong BSR has been observed on seismic profiles from 300 to 500 ms two-way-travel-time below the seafloor of this ridge. Sedimentary strata of the Formosa Ridge are generally flat lying which suggests that this ridge was formed by submarine erosion processes of down-slope canyon development. In addition, some sediment waves and mass wasting features are present on the ridge. Beneath the cold seep site, a vertical blanking zone, or seismic chimney, is clearly observed on seismic profiles, and it is interpreted to be a fluid conduit. A thick low velocity zone beneath BSR suggests the presence of a gas reservoir there. This "gas reservoir" is shallower than the surrounding canyon floors along the ridge; therefore as warm methane-rich fluids inside the ridge migrate upward, sulfate carried by cold sea water can flow into the fluid system from both flanks of the ridge. This process may drive a fluid circulation system and the active cold seep site which emits both hydrogen sulfide and methane to feed the chemosynthetic communities.

  7. The Baltic Sea Macro-Regional Transport Cluster as an Element of the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nežerenko Olga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the opportunities of the Chinese initiative “One Belt, One Road”, for the development of the Baltic Sea macro-region (BSR, as a single transport cluster. One of the objectives of the initiative is to strengthen transport linkages from the Pacific Ocean to the Baltic Sea Region. Thus, the contemporary macro-regional approach to the development of EU macro-regions can provide an additional impulse to the creation of formal macro-regional inter-cooperation, via in this case, the project that will advance the transport infrastructure of the region. This study examines the situation of the railway sector in the BSR in the period 2004–2015, through hierarchical cluster analysis, to identify countries with similar trends in cargo flow turnover. Taking into account the favorable geographical position of Poland, its transport performance and advanced (in comparison to other Baltic Sea region countries relations with China, it is concluded that Poland’s conditions are more suitable to promote economic integration with its closest neighbors – the Baltic countries-through the creation of formal macro-regional railway transport within the Rail Baltic project.

  8. QUALIDADE SANITÁRIA E FISIOLÓGICA, MÉTODOS DE DETECÇÃO DE Fusarium spp. E TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE PUPUNHEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos da Costa Junior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rotting (BSR, caused by Fusarium spp., has been observed in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. var. gasipaes Henderson plantations in Brazil since 2000. The disease is a limiting factor to peach palm farming, damaging plants of different ages. The pathogen presence has been verified in seeds. The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the sanitary and physiological quality of eight commercial lots of peach palm seeds from Porto Velho, state of Rondonia, in Brazil; to compare two detection methods for Fusarium spp. in peach palm seeds; to evaluate pathogenicity and to compare aggressiveness of Fusarium spp. isolates from peach palm seeds; and to evaluate the chemical treatment of two peach palm seed lots for controlling Fusarium spp., about their effects on: a sanitary effect; b germination and vigor. The Fusarium spp. pathogenic may be transmitted by seeds to seedlings causing BSR disease. The paperboard methodology for Fusarium spp. detection proved to be more efficient for recovering this pathogen in peach palm seeds. The Chlorothalonil + Thiophanate Methyl and Thiophanate Methyl fungicides achieved the effective control over the target pathogen Fusarium spp. in peach palm seeds. Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium proliferatum isolated from seed and seedling, respectively, were pathogenic to peach palm.

  9. A new method for evaluating biological safety of environmental water with algae, daphnia and fish toxicity ranks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Dongbin [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: wei-db@163.com; Kisuno, Akira [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Kameya, Takashi [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Urano, Kohei [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2006-12-01

    In this study, an innovative approach to evaluate biological safety of environmental water with toxicity ranks was proposed. Widely used species, algae (Selenustrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna) and fish (Oryzias latipes larvae) belonging to three trophic levels in aquatic ecosystem, were selected and combined as a test set to measure the bio-toxicity of water sample. Maximum exposure concentrations for algae, daphnia and fish test were respectively designed as 10-, 50- and 50-fold of river water based on a simplification of conventional toxicity extrapolation method EU Directive EEC/93/67. A novel assessment index 'safety score' of 1, 2, 3 and 4 with 1 being the safest was established for normalizing the toxicity effects. Safety score was determined according to the highest exposure concentration where adverse ecotoxicological effects could not be observed, and a triangle figure was designed to visually describe the safety scores of three toxicity tests. Finally, in order to conveniently evaluate the biological safety of environmental water, an integrated assessment index 'bio-safety rank' (BSR) was established and determined according to the safety scores of the three tests, and with the index BSR, water sample could be ranked as A, B, C or D with A being the safest. It was shown that the proposed new method was effective for screening and evaluating the biological safety of river water in case studies.

  10. Shear Ram Verification Test Protocol (VTP) Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, Roy A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Braun, Joseph C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A blowout preventer (BOP) is a critical component used on subsea oil and gas wells during drilling, completion, and workover operations on the U. S. outer continental shelf (OCS). The purpose of the BOP is to seal oil and gas wells, and in the case of an emergency well-control event, to prevent the uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons. One of the most important components of the BOP is the hydraulically operated blind shear ram (BSR) that shears drilling-related components, such as drill pipes, casings, tubings, and wire-related tools that may have been placed in the well. In addition to shearing these components, the BSR must form a seal to keep hydrocarbons within the well bore, even when under the highest well-fluid pressures expected. The purpose of this document is for Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide an independent view, based on current regulations, and best practices for testing and confirming the operability and suitability of BSRs under realistic (or actual) well conditions.

  11. Multiple Endonuclease Restriction Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification: A Novel Analytically Rapid, Sensitive, Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Detection Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Lan, Ruiting; Xu, Huaqing; Ma, Aijing; Li, Dongxun; Dai, Hang; Yuan, Xuejiao; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2015-07-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is restricted to detecting a single target, limiting the usefulness of this method. To achieve multiplex LAMP-based detection, we developed a novel approach we called the multiple endonuclease restriction real-time-LAMP assay. In this system, the LAMP forward or backward inner primers contain 5' end short sequences that are recognized by the restriction endonuclease Nb.BsrDI, and the new forward or backward inner primers were modified at the 5' end with a fluorophore and in the middle with a dark quencher. Nb.BsrDI digests the newly synthesized double-stranded terminal sequences (5' end short sequences and their complementary sequences), which releases the quenching, resulting in a gain of signal. The assay permitted real-time detection of single or multiple target sequences in a single tube, and the positive results can be obtained in as short as 12 minutes. The novel methodology is highly efficient and specific, detecting down to 250 fg of DNA per reaction of Listeria DNA tested, and was successful in evaluating raw meat samples. The multiple endonuclease restriction real-time-LAMP technology, which is an extension of LAMP to accommodate robust, target-specific, and multiplex detection, provides a molecular diagnostic tool with less detection time and high sensitivity and specificity compared with those of LAMP and quantitative real-time PCR. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inheritance of black sigatoka disease resistance in plantain-banana (Musa spp.) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R; Vuylsteke, D

    1994-10-01

    Black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet), an airborne fungal leaf-spot disease, is a major constraint to plantain and banana (Musa spp.) production world-wide. Gaining further knowledge of the genetics of host-plant resistance will enhance the development of resistant cultivars, which is considered to be the most appropriate means to achieve stable production. Genetic analysis was conducted on 101 euploid (2x, 3x and 4x) progenies, obtained from crossing two susceptible triploid plantain cultivars with the resistant wild diploid banana 'Calcutta 4'. Segregating progenies, and a susceptible reference plantain cultivar, were evaluated over 2 consecutive years. Three distinct levels of host response to black sigatoka were defined as follows: susceptible ( 10). Segregation ratios for resistance at the 2x level fitted a genetic model having one major recessive resistance allele (bs 1) and two independent alleles with additive effects (bsr 2 and bsr 3). A similar model explains the results at the 4x level assuming that the favourable resistance alleles have a dosage effect when four copies of them are present in their respective loci (bs i (4) ). The proposed model was further validated by segregation data of S 1 progenies. Mechanisms of black sigatoka resistance are discussed in relation to the genetic model.

  13. New discovered Izmir and Busan Mud Volcanoes and Application of Seismic Attributes and AVO Analysis in the Easternmost Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, S.; Cifci, G.; Ozel, S.; Atgin, O.; Ozel, O.; Barin, B.; Er, M.; Dondurur, D.; Kucuk, M.; Gurcay, S.; Choul Kim, D.; Sung-Ho, B.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, the continental margins of Black Sea became important for its gas content. There are no scientific researches offshore Trabzon-Giresun area except the explorations of oil companies. This is the first survey that performed in that area. 1700 km high resolution multichannel seismic and chirp data simultaneously were collected onboard R/V K.Piri Reis . The seismic data reveal BSRs, bright spots and acoustic maskings especially on the eastern part of the survey area. The survey area in the Eastern Black Sea includes continental slope, apron and deep basin. Two mud volcanoes are discovered and named as Busan and Izmir. The observed fold belt is believed to be the main driving force for the growth of mud volcanoes.Faults are developed at the flanks of diapiric uplift. Seismic attributes and AVO analysis are applied to 9 seismic sections which have probable gassy sediments and BSR zones. In the seismic attribute analysis high amplitude horzions with reverse polarity are observed in instantaneous frequency, envelope and apparent polarity sections also with low frequency at instantaneous frequency sections. These analysis verify existence of gas accumulations in the sediments. AVO analysis and cross section drawing and Gradient analysis show Class 1 AVO anomaly and indicate gas in sediments. Keywords: BSR, Bright spot, Mud volcano, Seismic Attributes, AVO

  14. Benchmark Calculations for Electron Collisions with Complex Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix (BSR) approach [1,2] is based on the non-perturbative close-coupling method. As such it is, in principle, based on an exact expansion of the solution of the time-independent Schrödinger equation, as an infinite sum/integral of N-electron target states coupled to the wave function of the scattering projectile. The N-electron target states, again, can in principle be calculated with almost arbitrary accuracy using sufficiently large configuration-interaction expansions and the correct interaction hamiltonian. In practice, of course, the infinite expansions have to be cut off in some way and the exact hamiltonian may not be available. In the collision part of the BSR method, the integral over the ionization continuum and the infinite sum over high-lying Rydberg states are replaced by a finite sum over square-integrable pseudo-states. Also, a number of inner shells are treated as (partially) inert, i.e., a minimum number of electrons are required in those subshells.

  15. Use of VAP3D software for production and manipulation of synthetic radiographies of anthropomorphic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Lindeval Fernandes de; Vieira, Jose W.; Leal Neto, Viriato

    2011-01-01

    The Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica has developed exposure computational models (ECM) involving a Monte Carlo code and voxel phantoms to simulate various situations of internal and external exposure to ionizing radiation. Most analyses of the produced results are presented in tables and graphics formats. An alternative to this traditional way of analyzing results is to save voxels of Regions of Interest (ROI) of the phantom irradiated with information like the location of the voxel and the energy deposited in it during the simulation. Such information can be saved to a text file and later turned into 3D objects. In this paper the VAP3D software has been used to read text files produced in simulations using the ECM of DEN (Nuclear Energy Dept. - UFPE), converting them into binary files of the type RAW, and visualize them. In order to reflect the radiosensitivity of the organs and tissues suggested by ICRP-60, for conversion of text file to binary, of the energy deposited values are multiplied by the weighting factor of the tissue to which the voxel belongs. The result of the multiplication is normalized to the interval [0, 255]. The files transformed are referred herein as synthetic radiographies. In VAP3D software, it is possible to generate stacks from theses radiographies in transverse, sagittal and coronal directions. In order to illustrate the production of synthetic radiographies, some images are presented in this paper, and dosimetric results are obtained from a variety of ROIs of the phantoms of DEN for radiological exams. (author)

  16. New format for storage of voxel phantom, and exposure computer model EGS4/MAX to EGSnrc/MASH update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, Jose W.; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Lima, Lindeval F.

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the dosage absorbed by those subjected to ionizing radiation, it is necessary to perform simulations using the exposure computational model (ECM). Such models are consists essentially of an anthropomorphic phantom and a Monte Carlo code (MC). The conjunction of a voxel phantom of the MC code is a complex process and often results in solving a specific problem. This is partly due to the way the phantom voxel is stored on a computer. It is usually required a substantial amount of space to store a static representation of the human body and also a significant amount of memory for reading and processing a given simulation. This paper presents a new way to store data concerning the geometry irradiated (similar to the technique of repeated structures used in the geometry of MCNP code), reducing by 52% the disk space required for storage when compared to the previous format applied by Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq). On the other hand, research in numerical dosimetry leads to a constant improvement on the resolution of voxel phantoms leading thus to a new requirement, namely, to develop new estimates of dose. Therefore, this work also performs an update of the MAX (Male Adult voXel)/EGS4 ECM for the MASH (Adult MaleMeSH)/EGSnrc ECM and presents instances of dosimetric evaluations using the new ECM. Besides the update of the phantom and the MC code, the algorithm of the source used has also been improved in contrast to previous publications. (author)

  17. Alcune considerazioni sulla relazione insegnante e allievo disabile: Analisi di un’esperienza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Disanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obiettivo principale del nostro contributo è individuare e qualificare, all’interno della relazione educativa con l’allievo portatore di handicap, l’insieme di contenuti non immediatamente accessibili alla coscienza, che si rivelano solo una volta superate delle resistenze. Il rilievo di questi aspetti è stato possibile attraverso la elaborazione di un questionario cui ognuno ha risposto liberamente, garantito dal più assoluto anonimato. La significatività numerica del materiale a nostra disposizione (134 questionari, ci ha permesso di proporre delle considerazioni che, senza avere la pretesa di essere esaustive, risultano valide per introdurre delle riflessioni sull’argomento.Le riflessioni che presentiamo hanno avuto come occasione di stimolo e di riflessione un corso di formazione per insegnanti di sostegno della scuola dell’obbligo, nella cui impostazione si è cercato di integrare elementi presenti su un piano di realtà con aspetti relativi ad un livello inconscio. Quella che presentiamo è l’elaborazione finale di dati che analizzeremo non quantitativamente ma sul piano dei contenuti, attraverso il riconoscimento dei meccanismi di identificazione che intervengono nella relazione dell’insegnante con il bambino portatore di handicap: come si specifichi, cioè, il processo psicologico per cui si fanno propri elementi caratteristici, attributi di un’altra persona e ci si trasforma, totalmente o parzialmente, sul modello di quest’ultima.

  18. Calculation of the electromagnetic fields in electric machines through the use of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of induction problems. Pt. 3; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas de induccion. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part of the series for the indirect solution of partial differential equations. Magnetic systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density is partially known (induction problems) are considered. Includes the ability to deal with means in movement and a sinusoidal behavior for the source density current is assumed. Some algorithms are developed that are implanted in the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to obtain the numerical solutions of these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained through the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte de la serie y en el planteamiento proporcionado en la segunda parte para la solucion indirecta de ecuaciones diferenciales parciales. Se consideran sistemas magneticos en regiones cerradas con simetria traslacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total es parcialmente conocida (problemas de induccion). Incluye la capacidad para tratar medios con movimiento y se supone un comportamiento senoidal para la densidad de corriente fuente. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se implantan en el programa de computo CALIIE-2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para obtener las soluciones numericas de estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  19. Analysis of conjugated heat transfer, in transient state of the first stage of a gas turbine; Analisis de transferencia de calor conjugada, en estado transitorio, de la primera etapa de una turbina de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Mazur C, Zdzislaw [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Gallegos Munoz, Armando [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Electrica y Electronica (FIMEE), Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This article presents an analysis of conjugated heat transfer in the first stage of movable blades during the starting of a gas turbine, covering a period of 1,012 seconds. The developed computer model is in 3D and uses as initial and border conditions typical starting curves for stack gases, the cooling air and the angular velocity of the blades. As a result of the numerical predictions, the temperature distributions in stack gases, the trowel of the blade and the cooling air are included, doing emphasis in the results obtained in the solid (body of the blade), since these are used for thermo-mechanical stress analysis and later estimation of the blade residual life. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta un analisis de transferencia de calor conjugada en la primera etapa de alabes moviles, durante el arranque de una turbina de gas, cubriendo un periodo de 1.012 segundos. El modelo computacional desarrollado es en tres dimensiones y utiliza como condiciones iniciales y de frontera curvas de arranque tipicas para los gases de combustion, el aire de enfriamiento y la velocidad angular de los alabes. Como resultado de las predicciones numericas, se incluyen las distribuciones de temperatura en los gases de combustion, la paleta del alabe y el aire de enfriamiento, haciendo enfasis en los resultados obtenidos en el solido (cuerpo del alabe), ya que estos se utilizan para analisis de esfuerzos termomecanicos y posterior estimacion de vida residual del alabe.

  20. Learning on the fly with the analogical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Mehrnoosh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Today in Italy 20-25% of students in primary school is reported to have difficulties with mathematical skills, although several researchers have noticed a man’s natural predisposition towards numbers. In the light of this high number of reports becomes therefore necessary to reconsider the didactic context to better support the natural evolution of numerical and mathematical cognition from early childhood. The following article presents the analogical method developed by Camillo Bortolato: non-conceptual didactic path focused on semantic process, subitizing and mental math. Apprendere al volo con il metodo analogicoAd oggi in Italia il 20-25% degli alunni nella scuola primaria viene segnalato per difficoltà nel calcolo, nonostante diversi ricercatori abbiano evidenziato una naturale predisposizione dell’uomo verso la numerosità. Alla luce di questo elevato numero di segnalazioni diviene necessario ripensare il contesto didattico per sostenere al meglio e fin dalla prima infanzia la naturale evoluzione della cognizione numerica e di calcolo. Nel seguente articolo viene presentato il metodo analogico di Camillo Bortolato, un percorso didattico non concettuale attento ai processi semantici, al ruolo del subitizing e del calcolo a mente.

  1. Use of VAP3D software for production and manipulation of synthetic radiographies of anthropomorphic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Lindeval Fernandes de, E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.b [Universidade Federal de Roraima (DMAT/UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade de Pernambuco (EPP/UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco; Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Leal Neto, Viriato [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica has developed exposure computational models (ECM) involving a Monte Carlo code and voxel phantoms to simulate various situations of internal and external exposure to ionizing radiation. Most analyses of the produced results are presented in tables and graphics formats. An alternative to this traditional way of analyzing results is to save voxels of Regions of Interest (ROI) of the phantom irradiated with information like the location of the voxel and the energy deposited in it during the simulation. Such information can be saved to a text file and later turned into 3D objects. In this paper the VAP3D software has been used to read text files produced in simulations using the ECM of DEN (Nuclear Energy Dept. - UFPE), converting them into binary files of the type RAW, and visualize them. In order to reflect the radiosensitivity of the organs and tissues suggested by ICRP-60, for conversion of text file to binary, of the energy deposited values are multiplied by the weighting factor of the tissue to which the voxel belongs. The result of the multiplication is normalized to the interval [0, 255]. The files transformed are referred herein as synthetic radiographies. In VAP3D software, it is possible to generate stacks from theses radiographies in transverse, sagittal and coronal directions. In order to illustrate the production of synthetic radiographies, some images are presented in this paper, and dosimetric results are obtained from a variety of ROIs of the phantoms of DEN for radiological exams. (author)

  2. Numerical simulation of TIG welding with filler of steel pieces of high thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmigani, B.; Toselli, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The problem of numerical simulation of welding process with filler, in particular TIG (tungsten inert gas) with cold filler, has been approached with ABAQUS/S code. Reference has been made to some experimental models studied and prepared ad hoc in order to better know the physical phenomena involved in TIG welding technique and to validate the computation methodologies and results obtained. The results obtained, compared with the experimental ones, will be presented, analyzed and discussed. [Italian] Con il codice di analisi termo-strutturale non lineare agli EF, ABAQUS/S, viene affrontato per la prima volta il problema della simulazione numerica di un processo di saldatura con materiale d'apporto, in particolare il processo di saldatura TIG (tungsten inert gas). In questo lavoro sono presentati, analizzati e discussi e confrontati con le misure corrispondenti sperimentali i primi risultati ottenuto. Sono state descritte e discusse anche le difficolta' incontrate, le approssimazioni fatte e la ricerca di procedure di calcolo piu' semplificate.

  3. L’ontologia del "De musica"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Fortin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nel sesto libro del De musica Agostino pone il problema della natura del conoscere a partire da una descrizione, che si potrebbe definire fenomenologica, dei movimenti ritmici di cui il soggetto fa esperienza. Inizia così un percorso conoscitivo, che prendendo le mosse dalle tracce dei numeri arriva a indagare le condizioni di possibilità della conoscenza, rilanciando continuamente l’indagine su molteplici livelli. Con questo articolo si intende comprendere le più rilevanti implicazioni del paradigma conoscitivo agostiniano, il quale non appare riducibile a una mera logica numerica ma permette di  gettare uno sguardo filosofico fino alla realtà metafisica della creatura.   In the De musica’s sixth Book Augustin puts the question of the knowledge’s nature from the description (that we can consider as a phenomenological one of the rhytmical movements experienced by the subject. This is the beginning of a cognitive process that starts from the numers’ traces and ends with the inquiry about the conditions of knowledge’s possibility, giving impulse to a research on several levels. The article’s purpose is to understand the most important implications of the Augustinian cognitive paradigm, that doesn’t seem to be a mere numerical logic but allow us to take a philosophical glance to the creature’s metaphysical truth.

  4. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of problems with known total densities. Pt. 2; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas con densidades totales conocidas. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mauricio F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part. Here are only considered the magnetic systems or electric systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density or total electric load density is known. The algorithms that have been implanted in the software CLIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are developed in order to obtain numerical solutions for these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained by means of the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte. Aqui solo se consideran sistemas magneticos o sistemas electricos en regiones cerradas con simetria translacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total o densidad de carga electrica total es conocida. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se han implantado en el programa de computo CLIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) con el fin de obtener soluciones numericas para estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  5. Modeling of an atomizer for two fluids; Modelacion de un atomizador de dos fluidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia Ramirez, Zoili [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    The work reported in this article presents the results of the effort to improve the basic understanding of the flow structure that is formed in a two fluid sprayer before and after the interaction between the sprayed fluid and the spraying fluid. The images in the interior of the mixing chamber of the atomizer are shown, which were taken with a high velocity video camera. Also the results of the numerical simulation of the internal flow obtained by means of a package of commercial modeling are shown. [Espanol] El trabajo reportado en este articulo presenta los resultados del esfuerzo por mejorar el entendimiento basico de la estructura del flujo que se forma en un atomizador de dos fluidos antes y despues de la interaccion entre el fluido atomizado y el fluido atomizante. Se muestran imagenes del flujo en el interior de la camara de mezclado del atomizador, las cuales fueron tomadas con una camara de video de alta velocidad. Tambien se incluyen los resultados de la simulacion numerica del flujo interno obtenidas por medio de un paquete de modelacion comercial.

  6. New format for storage of voxel phantom, and exposure computer model EGS4/MAX to EGSnrc/MASH update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal Neto, Viriato [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco. Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco. UPE, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Lindeval F., E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.br [Departamento de Matematica. Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In order to estimate the dosage absorbed by those subjected to ionizing radiation, it is necessary to perform simulations using the exposure computational model (ECM). Such models are consists essentially of an anthropomorphic phantom and a Monte Carlo code (MC). The conjunction of a voxel phantom of the MC code is a complex process and often results in solving a specific problem. This is partly due to the way the phantom voxel is stored on a computer. It is usually required a substantial amount of space to store a static representation of the human body and also a significant amount of memory for reading and processing a given simulation. This paper presents a new way to store data concerning the geometry irradiated (similar to the technique of repeated structures used in the geometry of MCNP code), reducing by 52% the disk space required for storage when compared to the previous format applied by Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq). On the other hand, research in numerical dosimetry leads to a constant improvement on the resolution of voxel phantoms leading thus to a new requirement, namely, to develop new estimates of dose. Therefore, this work also performs an update of the MAX (Male Adult voXel)/EGS4 ECM for the MASH (Adult MaleMeSH)/EGSnrc ECM and presents instances of dosimetric evaluations using the new ECM. Besides the update of the phantom and the MC code, the algorithm of the source used has also been improved in contrast to previous publications. (author)

  7. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (POLI). Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Vanildo J. de M., E-mail: vjr@ufpe.br [Departamento de Anatomia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Lindeval F., E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.br [Departamento de Matematica (DMAT). Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  8. Sediment Budgets and Sources Inform a Novel Valley Bottom Restoration Practice Impacted by Legacy Sediment: The Big Spring Run, PA, Restoration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. C.; Merritts, D.; Rahnis, M. A.; Gellis, A.; Hartranft, J.; Mayer, P. M.; Langland, M.; Forshay, K.; Weitzman, J. N.; Schwarz, E.; Bai, Y.; Blair, A.; Carter, A.; Daniels, S. S.; Lewis, E.; Ohlson, E.; Peck, E. K.; Schulte, K.; Smith, D.; Stein, Z.; Verna, D.; Wilson, E.

    2017-12-01

    Big Spring Run (BSR), a small agricultural watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania, is located in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, which has the highest nutrient and sediment yields in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. To effectively reduce nutrient and sediment loading it is important to monitor the effect of management practices on pollutant reduction. Here we present results of an ongoing study, begun in 2008, to understand the impact of a new valley bottom restoration strategy for reducing surface water sediment and nutrient loads. We test the hypotheses that removing legacy sediments will reduce sediment and phosphorus loads, and that restoring eco-hydrological functions of a buried Holocene wetland (Walter & Merritts 2008) will improve surface and groundwater quality by creating accommodation space to trap sediment and process nutrients. Comparisons of pre- and post-restoration gage data show that restoration lowered the annual sediment load by at least 118 t yr-1, or >75%, from the 1000 m-long restoration reach, with the entire reduction accounted for by legacy sediment removal. Repeat RTK-GPS surveys of pre-restoration stream banks verified that >90 t yr-1 of suspended sediment was from bank erosion within the restoration reach. Mass balance calculations of 137Cs data indicate 85-100% of both the pre-restoration and post-restoration suspended sediment storm load was from stream bank sources. This is consistent with trace element data which show that 80-90 % of the pre-restoration outgoing suspended sediment load at BSR was from bank erosion. Meanwhile, an inventory of fallout 137Cs activity from two hill slope transects adjacent to BSR yields average modern upland erosion rates of 2.7 t ha-1 yr-1 and 5.1 t ha-1 yr-1, showing modest erosion on slopes and deposition at toe of slopes. We conclude that upland farm slopes contribute little soil to the suspended sediment supply within this study area, and removal of historic valley bottom sediment effectively

  9. Exploring Vesta's Surface Roughness and Dielectric Properties Using VIR Spectrometer and Bistatic Radar Observations by the Dawn Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E. M.; Heggy, E.; Capria, M. T.; Tosi, F.; Kofman, W. W.; Russell, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple lines of evidence from NASA's Dawn mission suggest transient volatile presence at the surface of asteroid Vesta. Radar remote sensing is a useful technique for the investigation of volatile content at the surface and shallow subsurface, but requires the use of accurate dielectric and topographic models in order to deconvolve the effect of surface roughness from the total observed radar backscatter. Toward this end, we construct a dielectric model for the dry, volatile-poor case of Vesta's surface to represent average surface conditions, and to assess the expected average range of dielectric properties due to known variations in mineralogy, temperature, and density as inferred from Dawn VIR data. We employ dielectric studies of lunar samples to serve as a suitable analog to the Vestan regolith, and in the case of 10-wavelength penetration depth of X-band frequency radar observations, our model yields ɛ' from 2.5 to 2.6 from the night to dayside of Vesta, and tan δ from 0.011 to 0.014. Our estimation of ɛ' corresponds to specular surface reflectivity of ~0.05. In addition to modeling, we have also conducted an opportunistic bistatic radar (BSR) experiment at Vesta using the communications antennas aboard Dawn and on Earth. In this configuration, Dawn transmits a continuous radar signal toward the Earth while orbiting Vesta. As the Dawn spacecraft passes behind Vesta (entering an occultation), the line of sight between Dawn and Earth intersects Vesta's surface, resulting in a reflection of radar waves from the surface and shallow subsurface, which are then received on Earth for analysis. The geometry of the Dawn BSR experiment results in high incidence angles on Vesta's surface, and leads to a differential Doppler shift of only a few 10s of Hz between the direct signal and the surface echo. As a consequence, this introduces ambiguity in the measurement of bandwidth and peak power of each surface echo. We report our interpretations of each surface echo in

  10. EFEKTIVITAS SUPLEMENTASI VITAMIN A DOSIS TINGGI TERHADAP TINGKAT PENYEMBUHAN DAN STATUS IMUN ANAK BALITA PENDERITA TUBERKULOSIS PARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi S. Suwardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of High Dose Vitamin A Supplementation on The Recovery Rate and Immune Status of Underfive Children Suffering From Tuberculosis.Tuberculosis (TB, the infectious disease, is still one of the health problems in Indonesia. TB does not just make the people sick physically, but also interfere the immunity. As we have known that vitamin A can improve the immunity. The aimed of this randomized double blind study was to know the effect of high dose vitamin A on the improvement, immune status and the relationship between vitamin A and immune status in TB. Sixtyfive underfive children were selected from the Pediatrics Wards for out patient in Salak and Clsarua Hospital. They were grouped into 11 treatment group who received standard regimen therapy for TB plus high dose vitamin A in each month for 6 months and 21 control group who received the same TB regimen plus placebo also in each month for 6 months. Data on physical examination, weight, height, hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Ht, blood sedimen rate (BSR, serum vitamin A, immunoglobulin G (IgG to TB, chest X ray (CXR and food consumption were collected before and after (6 months intervention. Information on morbidity and socioeconomic also were recorded. To evaluate the degree of improvement, score on nutritional status, BSR and CXR were made. The results showed that after 6 month there were improvement in anthropometry status, morbidity rate, Hb, Ht, BSR, IgG and CXR for both groups. The treatment group was improved in 7.2% subjects meanwhile the control group was improved in 58% subjects. Analysis for scoring improvement showed that the treatment group had better improvement 2,4 times than the control group. The conclusions are that the high dose vitamin A has a positive effect on the recovery and immune status of underfive children suffering TB. This study suggests to give high dose vitamin A to the regimen therapy for TB in children to get better results.Keywords: tuberculosis, vitamin A

  11. Pore Size Distribution and Methane Equilibrium Conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihani, A. D.; Daigle, H.; Cook, A.; Glosser, D.; Shushtarian, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  12. Pore size distribution and methane equilibrium conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihani, Abhishek [University of Texas at Austin; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin; Cook, Ann [Ohio State University; Glosser, Deborah [Ohio State University; Shushtarian, Arash [University of Texas at Austin

    2015-12-15

    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  13. National Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF). The status of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    In May 1983, the Department of Energy authorized the establishment of a National Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF) at ORNL's Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR). The NLTNIF, which will be available for qualified experiments at no cost to users, will provide a combination of high radiation intensities and special environmental and testing conditions that have not been previously available in the US. Since the DOE authorization, work has proceeded on the design and construction of the new facility without interruption. This report describes the present status of the development of the NLTNIF and the anticipated schedule for completion and performance testing. There is a table of the major specifications and capabilities and a schematic layout of the irradiation cryostate for design and dimensioning of test and experiment assemblies

  14. Transcriptome datasets of oil palm pathogen Ganoderma boninense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Liza Isaac

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma boninense is known to be the causal agent for basal stem rot (BSR affecting the oil palm industry worldwide thus cumulating to high economic losses every year. Several reports have shown that a compatible monokaryon pair needs to mate; producing dikaryotic mycelia to initiate the infection towards the oil palm. However, the molecular events occurs during mating process are not well understood. We performed transcriptome sequencing using Illumina RNA-seq technology and de novo assembly of the transcripts from monokaryon, mating junction and dikaryon mycelia of G. boninense. Raw reads from these three libraries were deposited in the NCBI database with accession number SRR1745787, SRR1745773 and SRR1745777, respectively.

  15. Indoor Air Quality Assessment Based on Human Physiology - Part 2. Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate indoor air quality in practice it is necessary to establish limits, or more exactly, tolerable ranges for unadapted and adapted persons. The optimal value overwhelmingly corresponds to PD 20 %. A better value of PD 10 % could be prescribed for asthmatics and for persons with increased requirements, i.e. those allergic to the environment and operators in airport control towers and atomic power stations. A worse value PD 30 % could be accepted as an admissible value. These values differ for unadapted and adapted persons (as introduced by BSR/ASHRAE 62-1989 R. The long-term tolerable value is the end of SBS range (for CO2 it is based on USSR space research, for TVOC on Molhave. The short-term tolerable value is the beginning of the toxic range (for CO2 it is taken from British Guidance Note EH 40/90; for TVOC from Molhave.

  16. New Insights Into the Mechanisms and Biological Roles of D-Amino Acids in Complex Eco-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliashkevich, Alena; Alvarez, Laura; Cava, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    In the environment bacteria share their habitat with a great diversity of organisms, from microbes to humans, animals and plants. In these complex communities, the production of extracellular effectors is a common strategy to control the biodiversity by interfering with the growth and/or viability of nearby microbes. One of such effectors relies on the production and release of extracellular D-amino acids which regulate diverse cellular processes such as cell wall biogenesis, biofilm integrity, and spore germination. Non-canonical D-amino acids are mainly produced by broad spectrum racemases (Bsr). Bsr’s promiscuity allows it to generate high concentrations of D-amino acids in environments with variable compositions of L-amino acids. However, it was not clear until recent whether these molecules exhibit divergent functions. Here we review the distinctive biological roles of D-amino acids, their mechanisms of action and their modulatory properties of the biodiversity of complex eco-systems. PMID:29681896

  17. Linear Algebra Using Pascal MT(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    EL N; WRITEL11(’ ’:5,1D ’,’DETERMINANT OF REAL M1ATRIX’); JE ITEL N; l’*iPTELN(’ ’:5,’E 1 ’ItNVERSE OF REAL MATRIX’); .4PITCLN; ;JRTTELN...DOWN] B’ CRTINJFO[FCOLOR] @l CRTINE’O[BCOLOR] ’C’ CRTINFO[REVIDONJ = p CRTII]FO[EVIDOFFI := q’ CRTM:FO[TiPrEVON] r’ CRT I,-lrO[INTE:NOFF] ll Cl" TIFO ...Sll] IN OKSET THEN STEMP := CONCAT(STEMP,Sl) EL SE IF S1lIl=CIHR(Bsr) THEN BEGIN CRT(LEFT); WRITE(l ’); CRT(LEFT); DELETE(STEMP,LENGTH(STEMP)

  18. The ethics of good communication in a complex research partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeke, Stephen; Turner, Timothy; Tarver, Will

    2010-08-01

    The tripartite partnership among Morehouse School of Medicine, Tuskegee University, and University of Alabama at Birmingham is complex. In 2005, the three schools--with different institutional cultures, characters, and resources--agreed to collaborate in efforts to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in cancer burdens. Pursuing this laudable aim predictably involved some miscommunication. The Bioethics Shared Resource (BSR) group foresaw such challenges and monitored interactions to prevent harm, noting that while effective communication is critical to the achievement of mutual goals, an understanding and prudent use of proven communication principles is a sine qua non for success. In this commentary, we share the undergirding moral concepts, communication approaches, and lessons learned. This experience has led us to propose an ethics of good communication for others to consider.

  19. Glucokinase, the pancreatic glucose sensor, is not the gut glucose sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, R; Tura, A; Clark, P M

    2008-01-01

    measured at five time-points during a 75 g OGTT in 49 participants having GCK mutations with those of 28 familial controls. Mathematical modelling of glucose, insulin and C-peptide was used to estimate basal insulin secretion rate (BSR), total insulin secretion (TIS), beta cell glucose sensitivity....../INTERPRETATION: Glucokinase, the major pancreatic glucose sensor, is not the main gut glucose sensor. By modelling OGTT data in GCK mutation carriers we were able to distinguish a specific beta cell glucose-sensing defect. Our data suggest a reduction in potentiation of insulin secretion by glucose that is independent......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide (GIP) are released from intestinal endocrine cells in response to luminal glucose. Glucokinase is present in these cells and has been proposed as a glucose sensor. The physiological...

  20. Precipitation of heavy metals from coal ash leachate using biogenic hydrogen sulfide generated from FGD gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaranjan, Madawala Liyanage Duminda; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were undertaken to utilize flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum for the treatment of leachate from the coal ash (CA) dump sites. Bench-scale investigations consisted of three main steps namely hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) production by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) using sulfate from solubilized FGD gypsum as the electron acceptor, followed by leaching of heavy metals (HMs) from coal bottom ash (CBA) and subsequent precipitation of HMs using biologically produced sulfide. Leaching tests of CBA carried out at acidic pH revealed the existence of several HMs such as Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn. Molasses was used as the electron donor for the biological sulfate reduction (BSR) process which produced sulfide rich effluent with concentration up to 150 mg/L. Sulfide rich effluent from the sulfate reduction process was used to precipitate HMs as metal sulfides from CBA leachate. HM removal in the range from 40 to 100% was obtained through sulfide precipitation.

  1. Utility of the DNA barcoding gene fragment for parasitic wasp phylogeny (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea): data release and new measure of taxonomic congruence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quicke, D. L. J.; Smith, M. A.; Janzen, D. H.; Hallwachs, W.; Fernandez-Triana, J.; Laurenne, N. M.; Zaldívar-Riverón, A.; Shaw, M. R.; Broad, G. R.; Klopfstein, S.; Shaw, S. R.; Hrček, Jan; Hebert, P. D. N.; Miller, S. E.; Rodriguez, J. J.; Whitfield, J. B.; Sharkey, M. J.; Sharanowski, B. J.; Jussila, R.; Gauld, I. D.; Chesters, D.; Vogler, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2012), s. 676-685 ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) BSR 9024770; National Science Foundation(US) DEB 9306296; National Science Foundation(US) DEB 9400829; National Science Foundation(US) DEB 9705072; National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0072730; National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0515699; National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0841885; National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0542864; NERC grant(GB) NDC519583; NERC Case studentship(GB) NER/S/A/2006/14013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Braconidae * cytochrome oxidase 1 * Ichneumonidae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.432, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2012.03143.x/pdf

  2. Formal And Informal Macro-Regional Transport Clusters As A Primary Step In The Design And Implementation Of Cluster-Based Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nežerenko Olga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the identification of a formal macro-regional transport and logistics cluster and its development trends on a macro-regional level in 2007-2011 by means of the hierarchical cluster analysis. The central approach of the study is based on two concepts: 1 the concept of formal and informal macro-regions, and 2 the concept of clustering which is based on the similarities shared by the countries of a macro-region and tightly related to the concept of macro-region. The authors seek to answer the question whether the formation of a formal transport cluster could provide the BSR a stable competitive position in the global transportation and logistics market.

  3. Detection of phytoplasma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, E; Masiga, D; Wachira, F; Gurja, B; Khan, Z R

    2011-02-01

    Napier stunt phytoplasma (16SrXI and 16SrIII) in eastern Africa is a serious threat to the expansion of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) farming in the region, where it is widely cultivated as fodder in zero grazing livestock systems. The grass has high potential for bio-fuel production, and has been adopted by farmers as a countermeasure to cereal stem borer Lepidoptera, since it attracts and traps the insect. Diagnosis of stunt phytoplasma have been largely by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. However, the method is laborious, costly and technically demanding. This investigation has developed a simpler but effective phytoplasma diagnostic tool, called; loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP). The assay was tested on 8 symptomatic and 8 asymptomatic plants, while its detection limit was compared to nested PCR using samples serially diluted from 3 ng/μl to 0.38 pg/μl. Molecular typing of LAMP products was determined by BsrI restriction digestion and Southern blot analysis. The assay sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values were estimated, while the specificity was tested on 11 phytoplasma groups. LAMP was specific to 5 phytoplasma groups: 16SrVI, X, XI and XVI. BsrI restriction digestion produced two predicted fragments, and there was specific binding of probe DNA to the LAMP amplicons in Southern blot analysis. The assay sensitivity was 100%, while the positive and negative predictive values were 63 and 100% respectively. LAMP was 20-fold more sensitive than nested PCR. This study validates LAMP for routine diagnosis of Napier stunt and other closely related phytoplasmas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Long-Term Geothermal Observatory Spanning Subseafloor Gas Hydrates in IODP Hole U1364A, Cascadia Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Davis, E.; Heesemann, M.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.; O'Brien, J. K.; von der Heydt, K.

    2017-12-01

    We report the configuration of and initial results from a 24-thermistor cable installed to 268 m below seafloor (mbsf) in IODP Hole U1364A in the frontal accretionary prism of the Cascadia subduction zone. The thermistor array spans the gas hydrate stability zone and a clear bottom-simulating reflector at 225-230 mbsf. The thermistor string was deployed in July 2016 along with a seismic-strain observatory into the cased section of a pressure-monitoring Advanced CORK (ACORK) that had been installed in 2010 during IODP Expedition 328. Formation pressures are monitored via permeable screens on the outside of solid steel casing that is sealed at the bottom by a bridge plug and cement up to 302 mbsf. All three observatory systems were connected to the Ocean Networks Canada NEPTUNE cabled observatory Clayoquot Slope node in June of 2017, with the thermistor temperatures being logged by ONC every minute. The thermistor array was designed with concentrated vertical spacing around the BSR and two pressure-monitoring screens at 203 and 244 mbsf, with wider thermistor spacing elsewhere to document the geothermal state up to seafloor. The initial six weeks of data logged via the ONC connection show a generally linear temperature gradient, with temperatures of about 15.8°C at the BSR depth, consistent with methane hydrate stability at that depth and pressure. Sensor temperatures at most depths are quite stable over this period, with the exceptions of two sensors at 76 and 256 mbsf that show slowly rising temperatures; these could be due to cellular convection of borehole fluids, sensor degradation, or formation processes, but this requires a longer time series to resolve. We will report updated results after four more months of data recording through November 2017, along with any correlations to the pressure records. The data are freely available to all registered ONC users via the ONC data management and archiving system.

  5. Analysis guide - Nuclear criticality risks and their prevention in plants and laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galet, C.; Le Bars, I.

    2011-01-01

    This report first describes the nuclear criticality risks and the prevention principles adopted in plants and laboratories, and reminds the French Basic Safety Rule (BSR) No. I.3.c. Diagrams are then used to introduce (i) the methodology recommended by this BSR, and (ii), for the reference fissile medium and each criticality control mode, the parameters to be considered 'conventionally' in a analysis, the 'typical' failures to be investigated, and the 'standard' scenarios associated with these failures. These diagrams, developed by IRSN and subject to change as feedback is received from experience in operating facilities or in implementation analyses and assessments, constitute a guide to the analysis of nuclear criticality risks, whether this is for compiling safety documents or for assessing them. As regards the possibility of modifying this guide, a sheet to be used for suggesting changes, intended for users of the guide, is provided on the last page of this report. Lastly, this guide is nothing more than the compilation of the 'conventional' and 'essential' precautions for preventing nuclear criticality risks. Although these precautions must always be kept in mind, the reader should never forget that each configuration is a special case and that there may be scenarios that apply only to this particular case. It is therefore appropriate to remind here that all criticality accidents are the result of failures and incident scenarios that have not been considered in the analysis. This guide is therefore a tool which is not intended to be exhaustive, and does not replace the necessary analysis to adapt to every situation

  6. Rhizosphere soil microbial index of tree species in a coal mining ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S.; Masto, R.E.; Ram, L.C.; Selvi, V.A.; Srivastava, N.K.; Tripathi, R.C.; George, J. [Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad (India)

    2009-09-15

    Microbial characterization of the tree rhizosphere provides important information relating to the screening of tree species for re-vegetation of degraded land. Rhizosphere soil samples collected from a few predominant tree species growing in the coal mining ecosystem of Dhanbad, India, were analyzed for soil organic carbon (SOC), mineralizable N, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), active microbial biomass carbon (AMBC), basal soil respiration (BSR), and soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase). Principal component analysis was employed to derive a rhizosphere soil microbial index (RSMI) and accordingly, dehydrogenase, BSR/MBC, MBC/SOC, EC, phenol oxidase and AMBC were found to be the most critical properties. The observed values for the above properties were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and the scores were integrated into RSMI. The tree species could be arranged in decreasing order of the RSMI as: A. marmelos (0.718), A. indica (0.715), Bauhinia bauhinia (0.693), B. monosperma (0.611), E. jambolana (0.601), Moringa oleifera (0.565), Dalbergia sissoo (0.498), T indica (0.488), Morus alba (0.415), F religiosa (0.291), Eucalyptus sp. (0.232) and T grandis (0.181). It was concluded that tree species in coal mining areas had diverse effects on their respective rhizosphere microbial processes, which could directly or indirectly determine the survival and performance of the planted tree species in degraded coal mining areas. Tree species with higher RSMI values could be recommended for re-vegetation of degraded coal mining area.

  7. Temporal dynamics of the compositions and activities of soil microbial communities post-application of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole in paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Liu, Jia; Li, Weitao; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei

    2017-10-01

    Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is a newly developed insecticide widely used in rice fields in China. There has been few studies evaluating the toxicological effects of CAP on soil-associated microbes. An 85-day microcosm experiment was performed to reveal the dissipation dynamics of CAP in three types of paddy soils in subtropical China. The effects of CAP on microbial activities (microbial biomass carbon-MBC, basal soil respiration-BSR, microbial metabolic quotient-qCO 2 , acid phosphatase and sucrose invertase activities) in the soils were periodically evaluated. Microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used to evaluate the change of soil microbial community composition on day 14 and 50 of the experiment. CAP residues were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuChERS) method and quantification was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The half-lives (DT 50 ) of CAP were in the range of 41.0-53.0 days in the three soils. The results showed that CAP did not impart negative effects on MBC during the incubation. CAP inhibited BSR, qCO 2 , acid phosphatase and sucrose invertase activities in the first 14 days of incubation in all the soils. After day 14, the soil microbial parameters of CAP-treated soils became statistically at par with their controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) determining abundance of biomarker PLFAs indicated that the application of CAP significantly changed the compositions of microbial communities in all three paddy soils on day 14 but the compositions of soil microbial communities recovered by day 50. This study indicates that CAP does not ultimately impair microbial activities and microbial compositions of these three paddy soil types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distributions of recent gullies on hillslopes with different slopes and aspects in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dichen; Fan, Haoming; Fan, Xiangguo

    2017-09-17

    Gully erosion is an important environmental problem worldwide and the main process by which water and soil losses occur in the Black Soil Region (BSR) of Northeast China. At the end of 2012, 295,663 gullies were present in this region. However, few studies have examined the gullies of the Black Soil Region as a whole. Studying the distribution of recent gullies can reveal the pattern of gully distribution and can help predict their spatial development according to the soil and water conservation regionalization of China. This study examines the recorded gullies in the BSR of Northeast China, which is included in the first census of water resources in China and in six sub-regions of the soil and water conservation regionalization of China. Specifically, digital elevation model (DEM) data are combined with data on gullies occurring on hillslopes with different slopes and aspects to study the distribution of these features. The results illustrate that gully density, developing gully density, and the proportion of cutting land initially increase with increasing slope up to some threshold value, then decrease as the slope increases further. The patterns of stable gullies are divided into unimodal and bimodal types. Three patterns of gully intensity are identified. The areas and lengths of gullies are larger on sunny slopes, but larger numbers of gullies are present on shaded slopes. In addition, more space is available for gully development in the Hulun Buir hilly and plain sub-region and the Changbai Mountain-Wanda Mountain sub-region than in the other sub-regions.

  9. Bistatic Radar Observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andert, T.; Remus, S.; Simpson, R. A.; Paetzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Tellmann, S.; González Peytavi, G.; Bird, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Objectives of the Rosetta Radio Science investigations included determining the dielectric properties, small-scale roughness, and rotational state of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) from bistatic radar (BSR) measurements. The radio transmitter and high gain antenna (HGA) on the spacecraft beamed right circularly polarized (RCP) radio signals at two wavelengths - 3.6 cm (X-Band) and 13 cm (S-Band) - toward the nucleus surface. Part of the impinging radiation was then scattered toward a 70-m ground station of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) on Earth where it was received and recorded coherently in both RCP and left circular polarization (LCP). Between late September and mid-December 2014 six BSR experiments at 67P/C-G were successfully conducted. Such measurements had never before been attempted at such a small body in interplanetary space. The distances between the spacecraft and the comet varied from 10 km (September) to 30 km (December) and the incident angles ranged from 42° to 56°. In five experiments the HGA footprint was close to the equator; on 29 November the footprint was close to the rotation axis. Both RCP and LCP echoes were detected at X-band during the experiments; the echoes on 29 November were strongest. Rosetta's ultra-stable oscillator provided a very stable frequency reference for transmission; such stability was required because the direct and reflected signals were separated during the experiments by only a fraction of 1 Hz. For a known incidence angle and measured RCP/LCP power ratio, the surface dielectric constant may be obtained by applying Fresnel theory if the surface is sufficiently smooth. In the Rosetta case the resulting power ratios on 29 November yielded non-physical dielectric constants, possibly because of the irregularly shaped surface. The paper will investigate the possibility that a cloud of discrete scatters might be responsible for the observed RCP/LCP ratios.

  10. Efectos del entrenamiento intermitente de alta intensidad en la condición física de jugadores de baloncesto en silla de ruedas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Granados Domínguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los efectos del entrenamiento intermitente de alta intensidad (EIAI en el rendimiento físico, las respuestas fisiológicas y la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo en jugadores de baloncesto en silla de ruedas (BSR. Para ello, 12 jugadores masculinos (32.6 ± 10.7 años de primera división de la Liga Española participaron en este estudio. La batería de test (sprint en 5 y 20 m, sprint con arrastre de peso en 5 y 20 m, test de cambio de dirección y test de resistencia multi-stage fitness test –MSFT– se realizó en una única sesión midiéndose antes (T1 y después (T2 del programa de entrenamiento de EIAI. El tiempo en 5 m en T2 fue un 7.14% significativamente mayor (p < 0.05, d = 0.88, alto que en T1. No hubo diferencias significativas en el tiempo en 20 m ni en el sprint con arrastre de peso en 5 y 20 m ni en el test de cambio de dirección. Tampoco se obtuvieron diferencias en la distancia recorrida, la frecuencia cardiaca máxima (FCmax, la concentración de lactato sanguíneo (LA y la temperatura timpánica. Además, aunque no fue significativo, se observó un mayor esfuerzo percibido en el T2 respecto al T1, tanto a nivel respiratorio (RPEres, 16%, d = -0.64, moderado como a nivel muscular (RPEmus, 9%, d = 0.50, moderado. El programa de EIAI de 10 semanas no produjo ninguna mejora en jugadores de BSR, incluso disminuyó un 7% el rendimiento en el sprint en 5 m.

  11. Evolution of a Pathogen: A Comparative Genomics Analysis Identifies a Genetic Pathway to Pathogenesis in Acinetobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahl, Jason W.; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James M.; Waddell, Victor G.; Driebe, Elizabeth M.; Engelthaler, David M.; Keim, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emergent and global nosocomial pathogen. In addition to A. baumannii, other Acinetobacter species, especially those in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, have also been associated with serious human infection. Although mechanisms of attachment, persistence on abiotic surfaces, and pathogenesis in A. baumannii have been identified, the genetic mechanisms that explain the emergence of A. baumannii as the most widespread and virulent Acinetobacter species are not fully understood. Recent whole genome sequencing has provided insight into the phylogenetic structure of the genus Acinetobacter. However, a global comparison of genomic features between Acinetobacter spp. has not been described in the literature. In this study, 136 Acinetobacter genomes, including 67 sequenced in this study, were compared to identify the acquisition and loss of genes in the expansion of the Acinetobacter genus. A whole genome phylogeny confirmed that A. baumannii is a monophyletic clade and that the larger Acb complex is also a well-supported monophyletic group. The whole genome phylogeny provided the framework for a global genomic comparison based on a blast score ratio (BSR) analysis. The BSR analysis demonstrated that specific genes have been both lost and acquired in the evolution of A. baumannii. In addition, several genes associated with A. baumannii pathogenesis were found to be more conserved in the Acb complex, and especially in A. baumannii, than in other Acinetobacter genomes; until recently, a global analysis of the distribution and conservation of virulence factors across the genus was not possible. The results demonstrate that the acquisition of specific virulence factors has likely contributed to the widespread persistence and virulence of A. baumannii. The identification of novel features associated with transcriptional regulation and acquired by clades in the Acb complex presents targets for better understanding the

  12. 3D seismic analysis of the gas hydrate system and the fluid migration paths in part of the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsanpe, Olumuyiwa T.; Adepelumi, Adekunle A.; Benjamin, Uzochukwu K.; Falebita, Dele E.

    2017-12-01

    Comprehensive qualitative and semi-quantitative seismic analysis was carried out on 3-dimensional seismic data acquired in the deepwater compressional and shale diapiric zone of the Niger Delta Basin using an advanced seismic imaging tool. The main aim of this work is to obtain an understanding of the forming mechanism of the gas hydrate system, and the fluid migration paths associated with this part of the basin. The results showed the presence of pockmarks on the seafloor and bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) in the field, indicating the active fluid flux and existence of gas hydrate system in the area. In the area of approximately 195 km2 occupying nearly 24% of the entire study field, three major zones with continuous or discontinuous BSRs of 3 to 7 km in length which are in the northeastern, southern and eastern part of the field respectively were delineated. The BSR is interpreted to be the transition between the free gas zone and the gas hydrate zone. The geologic structures including faults (strike-slip and normal faults), chimneys and diapirs were deduced to be the main conduits for gas migration. It is concluded that the biogenic gases generated in the basin were possibly transported via faults and chimneys by advection processes and subsequently accumulated under low temperature and high pressure conditions in the free gas zone below the BSR forming gas hydrate. A plausible explanation for the presence of the ubiquitous pockmarks of different diameters and sizes in the area is the transportation of the excessive gas to the seafloor through these mapped geologic structures.

  13. Imaging P- and S-wave velocity structures in hydrate bearing sediments along an OBS profile across the Yuan-An Ridge, off southwest Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Bin Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve our understanding of the marine slope instability of hydrate-bearing sediments in the offshore southwestern Taiwan, P- and S-waves seismic data generated by P-S conversion on reflection from airgun shots recorded from a multi-component Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS survey were used to construct two-dimensional velocity model. The investigated profile lies above a structural high of the Yuan-An ridge, proposed as a high priority drilling site for gas hydrate investigations off southwest Taiwan. The locations of the OBSs were determined with high accuracy by an inversion based on the shot traveltimes. Traveltime inversion and forward modeling of seismic data result in general trends P- and S-wave velocities of sediments. Generally, P- and S-wave velocities are high beneath topographic ridges which might represent a series of thrust-cored anticlines develop in the accretionary wedge. P-wave velocities of the sea floor are about ~1.58 km s-1, increasing to the bottom simulating reflectors (BSR, reaching values of about ~2 km s-1. Below it, a low velocity layer (1.62 - 1.74 km s-1 is observed, which indicates the presence free gas in the sedimentary layer. S-wave velocities of the sediments over the entire section range from 0.3 to ~0.6 km s-1. Significant lateral velocity variations were found beneath the eastern flank of the Yuan-An ridge, probably represents thrust faults that extend from seafloor to hydrate-bearing layer. We suggest that the BSR has been disturbed by the thrust faults and further rupture of the fault could potentially trigger failures in the study area.

  14. High-resolution seismic images of the Formosa Ridge off southwestern Taiwan where hydrothermal chemosynthetic community is present at a cold seep site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.S.; Liao, Y.H.; Lin, S. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Oceanography; Morita, S. [Geological Survey of Japan (Japan); Ku, C.Y. [National Central Univ., Chung-li, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Geophysics; Machiyama, H.; Soh, W. [Kochi Inst., Kochi (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Seismic surveys conducted over the Formosa Ridge offshore southwestern Taiwan in the Luzon subduction zone have revealed a complex system of faults, mud diapirs, submarine channels and sedimentary basins in the area. The preliminary results of the seismic studies revealed an active fluid conduit beneath a cold seep site. The ridge geometry enabled the formation of an unusual fluid circulation system that may be responsible for the co-existing of both hydrothermal and cold seep chemosynthetic communities. A remotely operated vehicle (ROV) also discovered that the site is populated with both deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons and galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri. Swatch bathymetry, was integrated with multichannel seismic and high-resolution seismic reflection data to provide a better understanding of the structural characters of the cold seep site. The cold seep is situated at the summit of Formosa Ridge's southern peak. The ridge formation was controlled by the submarine canyons found on the continental slope on both sides of the ridge. Although the sedimentary strata are generally flat lying, they have been deformed by mass wasting processes. Strong and continuous bottom simulating reflections (BSR) were observed 400 to 500 ms below the seafloor of the ridge. A narrow vertical blanking zone raising from BSR to the crest of the ridge is interpreted to be the fluid conduit of the seep site. The authors suggested the unusual chemosynthetic communities observed at the Formosa Ridge cold seep site can be attributed to hydrothermal circulation that developed when cold sea water was able to get into the fluid system in this ridge type gas reservoir configuration. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Prospecting for Natural Gas Gydrate in the Orca & Choctaw Basins in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, A.; Hillman, J. I. T.; Sawyer, D.; Frye, M.; Palmes, S.; Shedd, W. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Orca and Choctaw salt bounded mini-basins, which occur in 1.5 to 2.5 km water depth on the northern Gulf of Mexico slope, are currently under consideration as an IODP scientific drilling location for coarse-grained natural gas hydrate systems. We use a 3D seismic dataset for gas hydrate prospecting that covers parts of eleven lease blocks ( 200 km2) in the Walker Ridge protraction area. The study area includes the southern section of the Orca Basin and a smaller section of the northern Choctaw Basin. We have mapped a discontinuous bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) over nearly 30% of our seismic dataset, which varies significantly in both amplitude and depth throughout the area. The southeastern section of our dataset contains three positive impedance amplitude horizons with possible phase reversals at the BSR. Detailed mapping in the area also reveals at the base of gas hydrate stability, a complicated intercalation of an east-west trending fault system and an amalgamated deepwater depositional system comprising channel levee deposits and turbidite sheet sands. Three industry wells drilled in the southwestern section of our study area indicate that the sedimentary sequence infilling the basins consists of predominantly mud rich units with interbedded turbidite sands, forming a 2 km thick supra-salt sequence of late Miocene to Pleistocene sediments. Two of the industry wells have strong evidence for natural gas hydrate in clay-rich sediment, with moderate resistivity (between 2-10 Ωm) increases above background resistivity in zones that exceed 60 m thick. Additionally, the electromagnetic resistivity curves in these wells separate suggesting that the gas hydrate occurs in high-angle fractures. We will present our seismic dataset, our continuing analysis and selected drill sites in the Orca and Choctaw basins. Furthermore, our analysis in the southeastern section of the study area underscores the importance of interpreting faults when considering phase

  16. Evolution of a pathogen: a comparative genomics analysis identifies a genetic pathway to pathogenesis in Acinetobacter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Sahl

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an emergent and global nosocomial pathogen. In addition to A. baumannii, other Acinetobacter species, especially those in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb complex, have also been associated with serious human infection. Although mechanisms of attachment, persistence on abiotic surfaces, and pathogenesis in A. baumannii have been identified, the genetic mechanisms that explain the emergence of A. baumannii as the most widespread and virulent Acinetobacter species are not fully understood. Recent whole genome sequencing has provided insight into the phylogenetic structure of the genus Acinetobacter. However, a global comparison of genomic features between Acinetobacter spp. has not been described in the literature. In this study, 136 Acinetobacter genomes, including 67 sequenced in this study, were compared to identify the acquisition and loss of genes in the expansion of the Acinetobacter genus. A whole genome phylogeny confirmed that A. baumannii is a monophyletic clade and that the larger Acb complex is also a well-supported monophyletic group. The whole genome phylogeny provided the framework for a global genomic comparison based on a blast score ratio (BSR analysis. The BSR analysis demonstrated that specific genes have been both lost and acquired in the evolution of A. baumannii. In addition, several genes associated with A. baumannii pathogenesis were found to be more conserved in the Acb complex, and especially in A. baumannii, than in other Acinetobacter genomes; until recently, a global analysis of the distribution and conservation of virulence factors across the genus was not possible. The results demonstrate that the acquisition of specific virulence factors has likely contributed to the widespread persistence and virulence of A. baumannii. The identification of novel features associated with transcriptional regulation and acquired by clades in the Acb complex presents targets for better

  17. Peculiaridades de la pequeña empresa familiar ante la responsabilidad social empresarial: un análisis exploratorio en la Comunidad de Madrid=Peculiarities of the small family firm on business social responsibility: an exploratory analysis in the Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina López-Cózar Navarro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas familiares presentan ciertas peculiaridades que pueden considerarse puntos fuertes en la implantación de políticas de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE, como tener una sólida cultura empresarial, basada en unos valores compartidos, una orientación a largo plazo y una especial relación con la comunidad local. No obstante, hay otros aspectos que pueden resultar debilidades, como la escasa descentralización en la toma de decisiones o el nepotismo. Pese a que existen numerosos trabajos en la literatura académica sobre RSE, son muy escasos los estudios que analizan el caso concreto de la pequeña empresa familiar. Dada la importancia de este tipo de empresas en la mayoría de las economías, se pretende contribuir a cubrir esta laguna; por tanto, el objetivo del presente trabajo es identificar aquellos aspectos propios de las pequeñas empresas familiares de primera generación que pueden dificultar o favorecer la adopción de un comportamiento socialmente responsable.Family businesses have certain peculiarities that can be considered strengths in their attitude towards Business Social Responsibility (BSR, like having a solid business culture with shared values, a long-term orientation and a special feeling towards the local community. Nonetheless, there are other aspects that can be considered as weaknesses, including nepotism or centralized decision making. Despite the large body of academic literature on BSR, there are not many studies that are only focused on the particular case of small family businesses. Given the importance of family businesses in most economies, this paper will contribute to fill this gap in the literature. The aim of this study is to determine the specific aspects of the small first-generation family business that may hinder or facilitate the adoption of responsible behavior.

  18. Measurement and calculation of dynamic coefficients in hydrodynamic bearings of gas films; Medicion y calculo de coeficientes dinamicos en cojinetes hidrodinamicos de peliculas de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Rafael O.; Di Liscia, Marcelo H.; Diaz, Sergio E. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Sartendejas, Baruta (Venezuela)

    2007-11-15

    dynamic coefficients. [Spanish] La identificacion de los coeficientes dinamicos en cojinetes de aire es fundamental para un adecuado analisis rotodinamico. El presente trabajo muestra el desarrollo de un algoritmo que permite la obtencion directa de los coeficientes dinamicos en cojinetes hidrodinamicos de aire tanto de forma numerica como experimental. El banco de pruebas utilizado consta de dos cojinetes magneticos, los cuales soportan al rotor en sus extremos y a su vez funcionan como actuadores permitiendo inducir orbitas controladas en el rotor. El cojinete de prueba se encuentra ubicado entre los cojinetes magneticos. Las fuerzas dinamicas generadas en el cojinete de aire se registran a partir de tres celdas de carga. El algoritmo fue desarrollado en un codigo comercial de programacion grafica, a traves del cual se pueden colectar, controlar y procesar las senales. El comportamiento no lineal de este tipo de cojinetes dificulta el calculo de los coeficientes dinamicos, por esta razon el procesamiento de las senales en espacio frecuencial facilita de cierta manera su manejo. Por otra parte, el modelo numerico se comparo con los resultados experimentales obteniendo aproximaciones aceptables tanto en magnitud como en comportamiento. El calculo de los coeficientes dinamicos numericos se realizo resolviendo la ecuacion diferencial de Reynolds para un fluido compresible en el espesor de la pelicula de gas, tomando en consideracion el flujo masico del fluido que se introduce, asi como la perdida de presion que sufre el mismo al pasar a traves de los orificios de alimentacion. Los metodos numericos utilizados incluyen la resolucion de la ecuacion diferencial de Reynolds por diferencias finitas, el calculo del perfil de presiones realizando iteraciones sucesivas y el calculo de las fuerzas hidrodinamicas a traves de una integracion numerica de Simpson. Los coeficientes dinamicos numericos fueron hallados aplicando una tecnica de minimos cuadrados a las fuerzas hidrodinamicas

  19. The Quasi-Linear Solution of Vertical Infiltration; La solucion cuasi-lineal de la infiltracion vertical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Carlos [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Parlangue, Jean-Yves [Departamento de Agricultura e Ingenieria Biologica (United States); Haverkamp, Randel; Vauclin, Michael [Laboratorio de Estudio de las Transferencias en Hidrologia y Medio ambiente (France)

    2001-12-01

    The exact solution of the one-dimensional vertical infiltration equation is deducted, when the hydraulic diffusivity is considered constant and the hydraulic conductivity is a combination of both a linear and quadratic functions of the soil water content. This quasi-linear solution includes as particular cases, both the classical solution known as linear soil and the Knight solution. The cumulative infiltrated water as a function of time provided by the quasi-linear solution has been compared with the cumulative infiltrated water obtained from the numerical solution of the Richards equation on three different soils of contrasting hydrodynamic properties. The good agreement between the two solutions has shown that the quasi-linear solution can be used on soils where the accepted hypothesis, on hydraulic diffusivity and hydraulic conductivity, for its deduction is not satisfied. [Spanish] Se deduce la solucion exacta de la ecuacion de la infiltracion unidimensional vertical cuando la difusividad hidraulica es considerada constante y la conductividad hidraulica es una combinacion de una funcion lineal y una cuadratica del contenido volumetrico de agua. Esta solucion cuasi-lineal de la infiltracion contiene, como casos particulares, la solucion clasica conocida como suelo lineal y la solucion de Knight. La lamina infiltrada acumulada en funcion del tiempo proporcionada por la solucion cuasi-lineal se ha comparado con la lamina infiltrada proporcionada por la solucion numerica de la ecuacion de Richards en tres suelos de propiedades hidrodinamicas contrastantes. El buen acuerdo entre las laminas infiltradas ha mostrado que la solucion cuasi-lineal puede utilizarse en suelos donde la difusividad y la conductividad hidraulicas no satisfacen los supuestos de la deduccion.

  20. Operational exposition and analysis of the inverse problem electroencephalographic; Planteamiento operacional y analisis del problema inverso electroencefalografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraguela Collar, Andres; Oliveros Oliveros, Jose J.; Ivanovich Grebennikov, Alexandre [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Techniques of the potential theory have been used to analyze the properties of the operator where the sources of current produced by electric activity in the cerebral cortex is associated with the measurements on the scalp of the electric potential generated by these sources. A medium conductor model which take in account the circle convolution of the brain has been used to prove the uniqueness of solution of the inverse problem of recuperation of activity cortical sources from electroencephalographic measurement on the scalp. This result of uniqueness is very important because we can to use algorithms of regularization. An other state the problem is presented to elaborate numerical solutions of the inverse problem using a set of discrete measurement. The stability of algorithms is showed in some examples. [Spanish] Tecnicas de la teoria de potencial han sido utilizadas para analizar las propiedades del operador que a las fuentes de corriente asociadas a la actividad electrica de las neuronas en la corteza cerebral, le hace corresponder la medicion de potencial electrico generado por dichas fuentes sobre el cuero cabelludo. Un modelo de medio conductor que toma en consideracion las circonvoluciones del cerebro ha sido utilizado para probar la unidad de solucion del problema inverso de recuperacion de las fuentes de actividad cortical a partir de las mediciones electroencefalograficas. Este resultado de unidad es fundamental ya que nos permite aplicar los metodos de regularizacion. Es presentado otro planteamiento del problema que nos permite construir soluciones numericas del problema inverso usando los datos de entrada discretos. La estabilidad de los algoritmos es ilustrada en algunos ejemplos numericos.

  1. Development of a pregnant woman phantom using polygonal mesh, for dosimetric evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Manuela O.M.; Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: manuela.omc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Leal Neto, Viriato, E-mail: viriatoleal@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the embryo/fetus radiosensitivity the accurate estimation of the absorbed dose distribution in the abdominal area is an additional problem caused by the exposure of pregnant women to ionizing radiation in medical applications. This paper reports the construction and insertion of a fetal representation in a female geometry by means of 3D modeling techniques. In order to characterize an ECM the Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica (GDN) is using, mainly, simulators emitting gamma sources and voxel phantoms coupled to a MC code. The phantoms are predominantly constructed from stacks of magnetic resonance images (MRI), computed tomography (CT) (obtained from scans of real patients) or from 3D modeling techniques. Due to the difficulty of obtaining medical images of pregnant women, 3D objects in several formats (.obj, .max, .blend, etc.) were acquired for anatomical representation of a non-pregnant adult. To construct a fetal representation, the 3D modeling technique called Poly Modeling (polygon mesh) was used inside of the software Autodesk 3ds Max 2014 (free student version). Information about the radiosensibility of organs included in the abdominal area will be used to fit and use the pregnant phantom in numerical dosimetry. For this, the phantom will be voxelized and the masses of organs of interest will be adjusted according to data provided by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Finally, the phantom will be coupled to a MC code creating a MCE that will serve as base for the construction of several other models involving pregnant women submitted to ionizing radiation. (author)

  2. Determinacion de periodos fundamentales del suelo mediante vibraciones ambientales en el municipio de Humacao, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron Aponte, Rommel

    La tecnica de Nakamura ha sido utilizada a nivel mundial para determinar periodos fundamentales del suelo. La tecnica consiste en calcular y graficar cocientes espectrales H/V de vibraciones ambientales registradas sobre el suelo. Mediciones de vibraciones ambientales fueron tomadas en 151 lugares dentro del municipio de Humacao, localizado al este de Puerto Rico. Los datos se procesaron utilizando espectros de Fourier y espectros de potencia. La tecnica fue validada al compararla con los resultados de cocientes espectrales H/V de registros de sismos debiles y tambien con una modelacion numerica realizada con datos de un ensayo "downhole". Las graficas de los cocientes espectrales H/V fueron divididas en casos y grupos, los cuales dependen de la facilidad para identificar el periodo fundamental pico y amplitudes en frecuencias menores de 1 Hz, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos con ambos espectros fueron comparados y se concluye que los mismos se complementan para proveer resultados mas confiables. Se crearon mapas de periodos fundamentales, factores de amplitud, isoperiodos y clasificacion sismica de sitio. Los mapas de isoperiodos fueron realizados en las zonas mas pobladas sobre depositos de suelo. El mapa de periodos fundamentales del suelo mostro buena correlacion con la geologia local. El mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de periodos de sitio fue comparado con el mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de barrenos geotecnicos. El mapa de clasificacion obtenido de periodos puede sobreestimar un poco algunas clasificaciones del suelo. Sin embargo, este mapa puede proveer un estimado aproximado de la velocidad de onda de corte promedio del suelo hasta una profundidad de 100 pies (30 metros).

  3. Semiactive balancing control scheme in a rotor - bearing system supported on Mr. Dampers: design and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Navarro, Gerardo; Cabrera Amado, Alvaro [Cinvestav, IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper deals with the problem of semiactive balancing control of a rotor-bearing system, where one journal bearings is supported on two radial Magneto-Rheological (MR) dampers. The mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system results from an orthotropic Jeffcott-like model and the dynamics associated to the MR dampers, whose rheological properties depend on the current inputs. For control purposes we use the Choi-Lee-Park polynomial for the MR dampers, which is quite consistent with the tpical nonlinear and complex hysteresis behavior and also simplifies the physical implementation on an experimental setup. The semiactive control scheme for the unbalance reponse of the rotor-bearing system is synthesized using sliding-mode control techniques. Some numerical and experimental results are included to illustrate the dynamic performance and robustness of the overall system. [Spanish] En este trabajo se abora el problema de control semiactivo del desbalance en un sistema rotor-chumacera, donde una de las chumaceras convencionales se monta sobre una suspension con dos amortiguadores Magneto-Reologicos (MR) radiales. El modelo matematico del sistema rotorchumacera se obtiene de un modelo tipo Jefcott ortotropico y la dinamica de los amortiguadores MR, cuyas propiedades reologicas dependen de las corrientes electricas de alimentacion. Para propositos de control se emplea el modelo polinomial de Choi-Lee-Park para los dos amortiguadores MR, el cual es consistente con el tipico comportamiento no-lineal y de histeresis, permitiendo simplificar su implementacion fisica en una plataforma experimental. El esquema de control semiactivo de la respuesta al desbalance, en el sistema rotor-chumacera, se basa en las tecnicas de control por modos deslizantes. Se presentan algunos resultados de simulacion numerica y experimentos que utilizan el funcionamiento y robustez del sistema completo.

  4. Using a method based on Potts Model to segment a micro-CT image stack of trabecular bones of femoral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Pedro H.A. de; Cabral, Manuela O.M.; Lima, Fernando R. De A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure Computational Models are composed basically of an anthropomorphic phantom, a Monte Carlo (MC) code, and an algorithm simulator of the radioactive source. Tomographic phantoms are developed from medical images and must be pre-processed and segmented before being coupled to a MC code (which simulates the interaction of radiation with matter). This work presents a methodology used for treatment of micro-CT images stack of a femur, obtained from a 30 year old female skeleton provided by the Imaging Laboratory for Anthropology of the University of Bristol, UK. These images contain resolution of 60 micrometers and from these a block containing only 160 x 60 x 160 pixels of trabecular tissues and bone marrow was cut and saved as ⁎.sgi file (header + ⁎.raw file). The Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica (Recife-PE, Brazil) developed a software named Digital Image Processing (DIP), in which a method for segmentation based on a physical model for particle interaction known as Potts Model (or q-Ising) was implemented. This model analyzes the statistical dependence between sites in a network. In Potts Model, when the values of spin variables at neighboring sites are identical, it is assigned an 'energy of interaction' between them. Otherwise, it is said that the sites do not interact. Making an analogy between network sites and the pixels of a digital image and, moreover, between the spins variables and the intensity of the gray scale, it was possible to apply this model to obtain texture descriptors and segment the image. (author)

  5. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  6. Numerical simulation of TIG welding with filler of steel pieces of high thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmignani, B.; Toselli, G. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The problem of the numerical simulation of welding process with filler, in particular TIG (tungsten inert gas) with cold filler, has been approached with ABAQUS/S code. Reference has been made to some experimental models studied and prepared ad hoc in order to better know the physical phenomena involved in the TIG welding technique and to validate the computation methodologies and results obtained. This numerical simulation has been required in order to assist the fabrication development and QA for TF (toroidal field) coil case, an important component of ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) machine. [Italian] Con il codice di analisi termo-strutturale non lineare agli EF, ABAQUS/S, viene affrontato per la prima volta il problema della simulazione numerica di un processo di saldatura con materiale d'apporto, in particolare il processo di saldatura TIG (tungsten inert gas) a filo freddo. Si e' fatto riferimento ad alcuni modelli sperimentali studiati e preparati ad hoc per conoscere meglio e valutare le metodologie di calcolo adottate ed i corrispondenti risultati ottenuti. Questo tipo di simulazione e' stato richiesto per fornire alcune conoscenze preliminari, che potessero essere di aiuto e guida nelle scelte di saldatura da eseguire per la fabbricazione e la quality assurance delle casse che dovranno contenere le bobine per la creazione del campo magnetico toroidale nella macchina ITER (international thermonuclear experiemental reactor) per la fusione nucleare. In questo lavoro, sono presentati, analizzati, discussi e confrontati con le corrispondenti misure sperimentali i primi risultati ottenuti. Sono descritte e discusse anche le difficolta' incontrate, le approssimazioni fatte e la ricerca di procedure di calcolo piu' semplificate.

  7. Discussion on the parameters and events of interest for the projections (Chapter 5 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Discusion de los parametros y eventos de interes para las proyecciones (Capitulo 5 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter it is described how it was decided to analyze the problems to 25 years. Considering that the Secretaria de Energia (SENER) through the Secretaria de Palaeocene y Desarrollo Tecnologico makes an annual exercise of the prospective to ten years for the electrical sector, the natural gas sector and the oil derivatives sector, with the last one publishing the 2004-2013 period, it was decided that the projections for year 2013 were taken as facts and that the exercise to develop a vision be limited to the 2014 - 2030 period. The assumptions used to make the numerical simulations with the LEAP system are detailed in Annex 10, with the information gathered by the approach group on the parameters to be used in this task, as well as in Annex 14, that contains the specific information used together with the results obtained in the period the 2004-2013 and in the second period of 2014-2030. [Spanish] En este capitulo se describe como se decidio analizar la problematica a 25 anos. Considerando que la Secretaria de Energia (SENER) a traves de la Subsecretaria de Planeacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico realiza un ejercicio anual de prospectiva a diez anos para el sector electrico, el sector de gas natural y el sector de petroliferos, siendo el ultimo publicado el 2004-2013, se decidio que las proyecciones al 2013 se tomaran como hechos y que el ejercicio para desarrollar una vision se concretara al periodo del 2014 al 2030. Los supuestos utilizados para realizar las simulaciones numericas con el sistema LEAP se detallan tanto en el anexo 10 con la informacion recabada del grupo de enfoque sobre los parametros a usarse en esta tarea, como en el anexo 14 que contiene la informacion especifica utilizada asi como los resultados obtenidos en los periodos 2004-2013 y el segundo periodo del 2014-2030.

  8. Use of correlation and linear regression to increase annual stream flow records; Uso de la correlacion y la regresion lineal para ampliar registros de volumenes escurridos anuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Aranda, D.F. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-03-01

    Firstly, the estimates of standard deviation and arithmetic mean as basic statistical parameters are emphasised, which point out the variability and magnitude of annual streamflow records in the hydrological studies of planning water-resource developments inside a region. Then the equations for quantitative evaluations of statistical convenience of extending a short stream flow record are described in detail. The previous makes use of additional and common data in one or two closer hydrometric stations, with this the short observed record has a certain correlation (dependence or association). Later two numerical applications to real problems are given, the first one for the two dimensional model, which uses a closed hydrometric station in order to extend the short record, and the second application for the three dimensional model which makes use of two auxiliary hydrometric stations. Lastly, three general observations about the paper are cited. [Spanish] Inicialmente se destaca la importancia de las estimaciones de la medida y la desviacion estandar como parametros estadisticos basicos, los cuales caracterizan la magnitud y la variabilidad de los volumenes escurridos anuales en los estudios hidrologicos de planeacion del aprovechamiento de los recursos hidraulicos de una region. Enseguida, se describen con detalle las ecuaciones que permiten evaluar cuantitativamente si es conveniente o no, desde un punto de vista estadistico, ampliar el registro corto de escurrimientos, con base en datos comunes, adicionales y disponibles; esto en una o dos estaciones hidrometricas cercanas, con las cuales, el registro reducido guarda cierta correlacion (dependencia o asociacion). Lo anterior, significa evaluar si con base en el registro ampliado, las estimaciones de la medida y la variancia mejoran estadisticamente. Posteriormente, se realizan dos aplicaciones numericas a casos reales; una, para el modelo bidimensional que utiliza una estacion hidrometrica cercana para ampliar el

  9. PID - 3D: a software to develop mathematical human phantoms for use in computational dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Filho, Jose de Melo; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Lima, Vanildo Junior de Melo; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2009-01-01

    The PID-3D software, written in Visual C++, contains tools developed for building and editing of three-dimensional geometric figures formed of voxels (volume pixels). These tools were projected to be used, together with those already developed by the Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq), such as the FANTOMAS and DIP software, in computational dosimetry of ionizing radiation. The main objective of this paper is to develop various voxel-based geometric solids to build voxel phantoms (meaning models), anthropomorphic or not. The domain of this technique of development of geometric solids is important for the GDN/CNPq, because it allows the use of just one Monte Carlo code to simulate the transportation, interaction and deposition of radiation in tomographic and mathematical phantoms. Building a particular geometric solid the user needs to inform to the PID-3D software, the location and the size of the parallelepiped that involves it. Each built solid can be saved in a binary file of the type SGI (file containing the size and the numeric values that constitutes the 3D matrix that represents the solid, commonly used by GDN/CNPq). The final mathematical phantom is built starting from these SGI files and the SGI file resulting constitutes a voxel phantom. With this approach the software's user does not have to manipulate the equations and inequalities of the solids that represent the organs and tissues of the phantom. The 3D-PID software, associated with the FANTOMAS and DIP software are tools produced by GDN/CNPq, providing a new technique for building of 3D scenes in dosimetric evaluations using voxel phantoms. To validate the PID-3D software one built, step by step, a phantom similar to the MIRD-5 stylized phantom. (author)

  10. Using a method based on Potts Model to segment a micro-CT image stack of trabecular bones of femoral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Pedro H.A. de; Cabral, Manuela O.M., E-mail: andrade.pha@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Vieira, Jose W.; Correia, Filipe L. de B., E-mail: jose.wilson59@uol.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R. De A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Exposure Computational Models are composed basically of an anthropomorphic phantom, a Monte Carlo (MC) code, and an algorithm simulator of the radioactive source. Tomographic phantoms are developed from medical images and must be pre-processed and segmented before being coupled to a MC code (which simulates the interaction of radiation with matter). This work presents a methodology used for treatment of micro-CT images stack of a femur, obtained from a 30 year old female skeleton provided by the Imaging Laboratory for Anthropology of the University of Bristol, UK. These images contain resolution of 60 micrometers and from these a block containing only 160 x 60 x 160 pixels of trabecular tissues and bone marrow was cut and saved as ⁎.sgi file (header + ⁎.raw file). The Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica (Recife-PE, Brazil) developed a software named Digital Image Processing (DIP), in which a method for segmentation based on a physical model for particle interaction known as Potts Model (or q-Ising) was implemented. This model analyzes the statistical dependence between sites in a network. In Potts Model, when the values of spin variables at neighboring sites are identical, it is assigned an 'energy of interaction' between them. Otherwise, it is said that the sites do not interact. Making an analogy between network sites and the pixels of a digital image and, moreover, between the spins variables and the intensity of the gray scale, it was possible to apply this model to obtain texture descriptors and segment the image. (author)

  11. Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

  12. Diffusion and dispersion heat of hydrotermal discharge from power plant; Difusion y dispersion de calor de la descarga hidrotermal de una central termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Villalobos, J. Rodolfo

    1996-12-31

    numerica del comportamiento hidrodinamico de la descarga al mar del agua de enfriamiento de la central termoelectrica Tuxpan (CTT) bajo dos distintas condiciones ambientales meteorologicas y oceanograficas, a saber: Caso I, viento variable de direccion SW con intensidad promedio igual a 3 m s-1 y Caso II, viento variable del NW con intensidad promedio igual a 11.10 m s-1. Las simulaciones numericas se realizaron mediante un modelo tridimensional de circulacion costera y difusion y dispersion de calor. El analisis estadistico del banco de datos de intensidad y direccion del viento medido del 1 de enero de 1981 al 31 de diciembre de 1983, indica que el numero de valores de mayor ocurrencia se presento dentro del intervalo de 180 grados a 315 grados. Por lo mismo, el efecto del viento proveniente del sector sur genera un patron de circulacion superficial de flujo norte que alejan de la obra de toma el agua caliente descargada. En contraste, el viento que proviene del sector norte genera corrientes superficiales de flujo sur que impulsa el efluente hidrotermico hacia la obra de toma. Las comparaciones entre los resultados de las simulaciones numericas y los datos de campo indican que, para una variedad de condiciones ambientales meteorologicas y oceanograficas representativas del Sitio Tuxpan (ST), el modelo simula correctamente los patrones de difusion y dispersion superficial de los efluentes medidos los dias 19, 20 y 21 de agosto de 1992 (Caso I) y 26 de noviembre de 1992 (Caso II). La precision promedio con la cual el modelo predice las areas de impacto de los efluentes descargados en el ST es de {+-} 11%. Para todos los casos analizados, el tamano real del area de impacto termico que podria alterar substancialmente el ecosistema marino no fue mayor a 0.1 Km{sup 2}. Los posibles efectos ecologicos que podrian resultar como consecuencia de los gradientes termicos inducidos por la descarga superficial de agua caliente solo podrian ser considerados de significancia local. Los

  13. Short-time effect of salvage harvesting on microbial soil properties in a Mediterranean area affected by a wildfire: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltó, Jorge; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Morugan, Alicia; Girona, Antonio; Garcia-orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    , aspect and soil. Soil samplings were done before the salvage logging work and three months later. Different physical, chemical and biological soil properties were analyzed in the laboratory, but in this work we show basal soil respiration (BSR), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil organic carbon (SOC) and bulk density (BD). The results showed a clear increase in the bulk density in the "harvest" plots in contrast to the "control" plots, meaning that the soil is being compacted due to the forestry treatment applied. No significant differences between treatments in the content of soil organic carbon have been observed. However, the analyzed microbial parameters (BSR and MBC) denote a clear decrease both in microbial activity and in the quantity of the microorganisms present in the "harvest" plots soil. This is presumably due to the compacting process that is going on, and the effects of the recovery of vegetation as these indicators (BSR and MBC) respond rapidly to any kind of soil perturbation. This study will continue monitoring with more soil samplings in order to study the effect of this type of treatment in the medium-term.

  14. Seismic amplitude processing and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Ashwani

    2008-10-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration requires reliable seismic amplitudes to identify oil and gas reservoirs. Erroneous seismic amplitude processing can potentially generate large economic losses. Correct seismic amplitude processing is pre-requisite for any amplitude dependent analysis. The accuracy of the subsurface image and estimation of the elastic properties of subsurface sediments depends upon the reliability of the amplitudes. Geophone groups are wavenumber filters that change the seismic amplitudes because of a wavenumber dependent information loss. Numerically defined filters deconvolve the recording group response from horizontal and the vertical component seismic data recorded with groups of uniform and non-uniform geophone sensitivity, different group lengths and spacing, and noise. The filtering effect of an array increases as the group length increases, and only the wavenumber range defined by the group interval can be correctly compensated for the group effect. A rigorous, explicit spatial antialias filter is designed and applied by removing the energy above the first Nyquist wavenumber in the horizontal slowness-frequency domain. The filter removes the spatially aliased frequencies selectively at each slowness. The aliased energy is dispersive and present at both small and large horizontal slownesses. The filter can be explicitly applied to regularly spaced or irregularly spaced traces and is independent of any event linearity assumption. An integrative interpretation approach defines the effect of the structural setting on gas hydrate and free-gas accumulation at a site at the East Casey fault zone in the Gulf of Mexico. At a well location, hydrates are interpreted as fracture fillings with maximum saturation ˜30% of the available pore space. Two low acoustic impedance (Ip) free-gas features terminating at the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) are interpreted from the 3D seismic data and the derived Ip volumes. The 2D Ip profile shows a contrast in BSR

  15. Fate and transport of metals in H2S-rich waters at a treatment wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frandsen Angela K

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous geochemistry of Zn, Cu, Cd, Fe, Mn and As is discussed within the context of an anaerobic treatment wetland in Butte, Montana. The water being treated had a circum-neutral pH with high concentrations of trace metals and sulfate. Reducing conditions in the wetland substrate promoted bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR and precipitation of dissolved metal as sulfide minerals. ZnS was the most common sulfide phase found, and consisted of framboidal clusters of individual spheres with diameters in the submicron range. Some of the ZnS particles passed through the subsurface flow, anaerobic cells in suspended form. The concentration of "dissolved" trace metals (passing through a 0.45 μm filter was monitored as a function of H2S concentration, and compared to predicted solubilities based on experimental studies of aqueous metal complexation with dissolved sulfide. Whereas the theoretical predictions produce "U-shaped" solubility curves as a function of H2S, the field data show a flat dependence of metal concentration on H2S. Observed metal concentrations for Zn, Cu and Cd were greater than the predicted values, particularly at low H2S concentration, whereas Mn and As were undersaturated with their respective metal sulfides. Results from this study show that water treatment facilities employing BSR have the potential to mobilize arsenic out of mineral substrates at levels that may exceed regulatory criteria. Dissolved iron was close to equilibrium saturation with amorphous FeS at the higher range of sulfide concentrations observed (>0.1 mmol H2S, but was more likely constrained by goethite at lower H2S levels. Inconsistencies between our field results and theoretical predictions may be due to several problems, including: (i a lack of understanding of the form, valence, and thermodynamic stability of poorly crystalline metal sulfide precipitates; (ii the possible influence of metal sulfide colloids imparting an erroneously high "dissolved

  16. Construction and identification of helper plasmids of newcastle disease virus Italien strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen REN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Newcastle disease virus (NDV is a naturally oncolytic virus that has been shown to be safe and effective for cancer therapy. NDV virions possess a non-segmented negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome which contains six genes encoding the nucleocapsid protein (NP, phosphoprotein (P, large polymerase protein (L, matrix protein, fusion protein, and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. The ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex consisting of the genomic RNA and the three proteins NP, P, and L are the active template for transcription and replication of the viral genome. The purpose of this study was to construct the expression plasmids of NP, P and L genes of NDV Italien strain in which phage T7 promoter was a transcription promoter for the aim of generation of recombinant NDV. Methods NP, P and L genes were cloned from the genome RNA of NDV Italien followed by introduction into the downstream of T7 promoter and internal ribosome entry sites to construct the expression plasmids of NP, P and L, respectively. Expression of exogenous gene in BSR-T7/5 cells which constitutively express phage T7 RNA polymerase and transfected with plasmids of NP and P was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The function of NP, P and L proteins expressed by constructed plasmids to facilitate the genomic RNA to form RNP complex was tested using minigenome of NDV Italien carrying firefly luciferase as a reporter gene. Results The expression plasmids of NP, P and L genes were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Using the indirect immunofluorescence assay, we detected the expression of viral NP and P proteins in BSR-T7/5 cells. When the helper plasmids were co-transfected with NDV minigenome plasmid, the expression of firefly luciferase was more significant compared with the control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion The helper plasmids of NDV Italien strain using T7 promoter as a transcription promoter has been constructed successfully, and it provides a basis for the

  17. Nitrate retention capacity of milldam-impacted legacy sediments and relict A horizon soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Julie N.; Kaye, Jason P.

    2017-05-01

    While eutrophication is often attributed to contemporary nutrient pollution, there is growing evidence that past practices, like the accumulation of legacy sediment behind historic milldams, are also important. Given their prevalence, there is a critical need to understand how N flows through, and is retained in, legacy sediments to improve predictions and management of N transport from uplands to streams in the context of climatic variability and land-use change. Our goal was to determine how nitrate (NO3-) is cycled through the soil of a legacy-sediment-strewn stream before and after soil drying. We extracted 10.16 cm radius intact soil columns that extended 30 cm into each of the three significant soil horizons at Big Spring Run (BSR) in Lancaster, Pennsylvania: surface legacy sediment characterized by a newly developing mineral A horizon soil, mid-layer legacy sediment consisting of mineral B horizon soil and a dark, organic-rich, buried relict A horizon soil. Columns were first preincubated at field capacity and then isotopically labeled nitrate (15NO3-) was added and allowed to drain to estimate retention. The columns were then air-dried and subsequently rewet with N-free water and allowed to drain to quantify the drought-induced loss of 15NO3- from the different horizons. We found the highest initial 15N retention in the mid-layer legacy sediment (17 ± 4 %) and buried relict A soil (14 ± 3 %) horizons, with significantly lower retention in the surface legacy sediment (6 ± 1 %) horizon. As expected, rewetting dry soil resulted in 15N losses in all horizons, with the greatest losses in the buried relict A horizon soil, followed by the mid-layer legacy sediment and surface legacy sediment horizons. The 15N remaining in the soil following the post-drought leaching was highest in the mid-layer legacy sediment, intermediate in the surface legacy sediment, and lowest in the buried relict A horizon soil. Fluctuations in the water table at BSR which affect

  18. Evaluation of BLAST-based edge-weighting metrics used for homology inference with the Markov Clustering algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Theodore R; Mount, Stephen M; Cooper, Endymion D; Delwiche, Charles F

    2015-07-10

    Clustering protein sequences according to inferred homology is a fundamental step in the analysis of many large data sets. Since the publication of the Markov Clustering (MCL) algorithm in 2002, it has been the centerpiece of several popular applications. Each of these approaches generates an undirected graph that represents sequences as nodes connected to each other by edges weighted with a BLAST-based metric. MCL is then used to infer clusters of homologous proteins by analyzing these graphs. The various approaches differ only by how they weight the edges, yet there has been very little direct examination of the relative performance of alternative edge-weighting metrics. This study compares the performance of four BLAST-based edge-weighting metrics: the bit score, bit score ratio (BSR), bit score over anchored length (BAL), and negative common log of the expectation value (NLE). Performance is tested using the Extended CEGMA KOGs (ECK) database, which we introduce here. All metrics performed similarly when analyzing full-length sequences, but dramatic differences emerged as progressively larger fractions of the test sequences were split into fragments. The BSR and BAL successfully rescued subsets of clusters by strengthening certain types of alignments between fragmented sequences, but also shifted the largest correct scores down near the range of scores generated from spurious alignments. This penalty outweighed the benefits in most test cases, and was greatly exacerbated by increasing the MCL inflation parameter, making these metrics less robust than the bit score or the more popular NLE. Notably, the bit score performed as well or better than the other three metrics in all scenarios. The results provide a strong case for use of the bit score, which appears to offer equivalent or superior performance to the more popular NLE. The insight that MCL-based clustering methods can be improved using a more tractable edge-weighting metric will greatly simplify future

  19. From the 'Le Blayais NPP' flooding in 1999 to the review of French regulation for the protection of nuclear facilities against external flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.

    2011-01-01

    On 27 December 1999, a severe storm occurred in the vicinity of the 'Le Blayais' Nuclear Power Plant located on the banks of the Gironde estuary. The severe storm-driven waves coincident with high water levels in the Gironde estuary exceeded the worst-case scenario considered at the design of the site protection against flooding, resulting in the scram of three out of four units and severe nuclear island flooding. Several underground rooms sheltering equipment important to safety were flooded. This partial flooding incident has called into question the design bases defined in the French Basic Safety Rule (BSR) I.2.e for the protection of French NPPs against external flooding in particular in terms of flood events and combinations of flood events considered for the design. It has also revealed some weaknesses in the existing measures implemented, especially the site protection dykes, the protection of equipment important to safety, the warning systems and the emergency organization. Following this incident, in addition to the rush through protection measures undertaken on Le Blayais NPP, the utility Electricity De France (EDF) has launched a wide review of the protection of all French NPPs against external flooding. This review is based on a new and more comprehensive methodology for the protection of NPPs against external flooding (called 'REX Blayais methodology'), including a reassessment of flood events and their combinations and of all protection measures. This review has led EDF to carry out a large number of modifications and improvements at all NPP sites. 'REX Blayais methodology' and its application to all French NPPs were submitted to the approval of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) in 2001 and then in 2007 after being analyzed by its technical support IRSN (French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety). The methodology and the level of protection of the NPPs thanks to all the improvements and modifications performed by the utility were

  20. Geomechanical effects of stress shadow created by large-scale destress blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Vennes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine if large-scale choked panel destress blasting can provide sufficient beneficial stress reduction in highly-stressed remnant ore pillar that is planned for production. The orebody is divided into 20 stopes over 2 levels, and 2 panels are choke-blasted in the hanging wall to shield the ore pillar by creating a stress shadow around it. A linear-elastic model of the mining system is constructed with finite difference code FLAC3D. The effect of destress blasting in the panels is simulated by applying a fragmentation factor (α to the rock mass stiffness and a stress reduction factor (β to the current state of stress in the region occupied by the destress panels. As an extreme case, the destress panel is also modeled as a void to obtain the maximum possible beneficial effects of destressing and stress shadow. Four stopes are mined in the stress shadow of the panels in 6 lifts and then backfilled. The effect of destress blasting on the remnant ore pillar is quantified based on stress change and brittle shear ratio (BSR in the stress shadow zone compared to the base case without destress blasting. To establish realistic rock fragmentation and stress reduction factors, model results are compared to measured stress changes reported for case studies at Fraser and Brunswick mines. A 1.5 MPa immediate stress decrease was observed 20 m away from the panel at Fraser Mine, and a 4 MPa immediate stress decrease was observed 25 m away at Brunswick Mine. Comparable results are obtained from the current model with a rock fragmentation factor α of 0.2 and a stress reduction factor β of 0.8. It is shown that a destress blasting with these parameters reduces the major principal stress in the nearest stopes by 10–25 MPa. This yields an immediate reduction of BSR, which is deemed sufficient to reduce volume of ore at risk in the pillar.

  1. Nonlinear Propagation of Mag Waves Through the Transition Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Steinolfson, R. S.; Mahajan, S.; Tajima, T.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Una onda de gravitaci5n magneto acustica (GMA), se inicia en el regimen de alta beta cerca de la basa de fot5sfera solar y es segui- da, usando simulaciones numericas, mientras viaja radialmente a traves de la cromosfera, la regi5n de transici6n y dentro de la corona. Se ha' seleccionado parametros iniciales de manera que la beta resulte menor que uno cerca de la parte alta de la regi6n de transici6n. Nuestro interes maximo se concentra en la cantidad y forma del flujo de energia que puede ser llevada por la onda hasta la corona dados una atm6sfera inicial y amplitud de onda especificas. Segun los estudios a la fecha, el flujo de energ1a termico domina, aumentando linealmente con la ampli tud deonda y resulta de aproximadamente i05 ergs/cm2-s en una amplitud de 0.5. El flujo de energia cinetica siempre permanece despreciable, mientras que el flujo de energia magnetica depende de la orientaci5n inicial del campo. Un modo GMA rapido y casi paralelo, el cual es esen- cialmente un modo MHD en la corona se convierte a un modo rapido modificado y a uno lento, cuando la beta atmosferica disminuye a uno. ABSTRACT: A magneto-acoustic-gravity (MAG) wave is initiated in the high-beta regime near the base of the solar photosphere and followed, using numerical siriiulations, as it travels radially through the chromosphere, the transition region, and into the corona. Initial parameters are selected such that beta becomes less than one near the top of the transition region. Our primary interest is in the amount and form of energy flux that can be carried by the wave train into the corona for a specified initial atmosphere and wave amplitude. For the studies conducted to date, the thermal energy flux dominates, it about linearly with wave amplitude and becomes approximately 10 ergs/cm2-s at an amplitude of 0.5. The kinetic energy flux always remains negligible, while the magnetic energy flux depends on the inLtial field orientation. A nearly parallel fast MAG mode, which

  2. Violent Relaxation, Dynamical Instabilities and the Formation of Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, L. A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN: El problema de la formaci6n de galaxias elfpticas por medjo de colapso gravitacional sin disipaci6n de energfa es estudiado usando un gran numero de simulaciones numericas. Se muestra que este tipo de colapsos, partiendo de condiciones iniciales frfas donde la energfa cinetica inicial representa s6lo un 5%, 0 , de a potencial inicial, produce sistemas relajados de forma triaxial muy similares a las galaxias elfpticas reales en sus formas y perfiles de densidad en proyecci6i . La forina triaxial resulta de la acci6n de una inestabilidad dinamica que aparece en sistemas 'inicos dominados por movimientos radiales, mientras que el perfil de densidad final Cs debido al llamado relajamiento violento que tiende a producir una distribuci6n en espacio fase unica. Estos dos fen6menos tienden a borrar los detalles particulares sobre las condiciones iniciales y dan lugar a una evoluci6n convergente hacia sistemas realistas, esto innecesario el uso de condiciones iniciales especiales (excepto por Ia condici6i de que estas deben ser frfas). Las condiciones iniciales frfas producen los movimientos radiales y fluctuaciones de la energfa potencial requeridos por ambos fen6menos. ABSTRACT: The problem of formation of elliptical galaxies via dissipationless collapse is studied using a large set of numerical simulations. It is shown that dissipationless collapses from cold initial conditions, where the total initial kinetic energy is less than 5% ofthe initial potential energy, lead to relaxed triaxial systems ery similar to real elliptical galaxies ii projected shape and density profiles. The triaxial shape is due to the of a dynamical instability that appears on systems dominated by radial orbits, while final density profile is due to violent relaxation that tends to produce a unique distribution iii space. These two phenomena erase memory of the initial prodtice a convergent evolution toward realistic systems, thus making unnecessary use o[special initial conditions (other

  3. Opioid system manipulation during testicular development: results on sperm production and sertoli cells population = Manipulação do sistema opioidérgico durante o desenvolvimento testicular: consequência sobre a produção espermática e a população de células de sertoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mafra Cajú

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cell has fundamental importance to the development andmaintenance of spermatogenesis, as well as it has a directly proportional numerical relationship to sperm production. The proliferative period of this cell in rats occurs between 13 days pre-natal and 21 days pos-natal, when is established the final population in adult animals. The Leydig cell can modulate the Sertoli cell proliferation during fetal and neonatal periodƒn throughƒnƒnƒÒ-endorphin. The manipulation of opioidergic system can promote changes in parameters related to development of nervous, endocrine andreproductive systems. By the way, the main purpose of this present work was to compare the effects of the blockade of opioid receptor blocking in Sertoli cells using naltrexone (50 mg kg-1 during fetal and neonatal period in Wistar rats. According to the results, themanipulation of opioidergic system during pre-natal period reduced the total length of seminiferous tubule and Sertoli cell population in adult rats, but sperm production was normal because this cell has had a compensatory response for spermatozoids support capacity.As celulas de Sertoli tem fundamental importancia para o desenvolvimento e manutencao da espermatogenese, bem como possuem uma relacao numerica diretamente proporcional com a producao espermatica. O periodo proliferativo destas celulas em ratos ocorre entre 13 dias pre-natal e 21 dias pos-natal, resultando na definicao da populacao decelulas de Sertoli nos animais adultos. As celulas de Leydig podem modular a proliferacao das celulas de Sertoli durante o periodo fetal e neonatal por meio da ƒÒ-endorfina. A manipulacao do sistema opioidergico durante esta fase pode promover alteracoes em parametros relacionados com o desenvolvimento dos sistemas nervoso, endocrino ereprodutivo. Em virtude disto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar os efeitos do bloqueio de receptores opioides nas celulas de Sertoli, utilizando o naltrexone (50 mg kg

  4. Three-dimensional analysis of the airflow in an industrial nozzle; Analisis tridimensional del flujo de aire en tobera industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigueras Zuniga, M. O.; Santos Nunez, C.; Bolado Estandia, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    This work presents an estimation of the aerodynamics' effects produced by the air flow velocity in the inlet of an industrial oven. The research was based on a combustor chamber installed at the Laboratorio de Sistemas de Combustion del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Veracruz, Mexico. The results showed the numerical simulations of the three-dimensional effects of the air flow. The range of the velocity air flow (0 to 1.5 m/s) resulted that the flow behaviour and the recirculation zone were symmetric from the axial axis. On the other hand, the range of the velocity flow (1.5 to 3.8 m/s) resulted that the recirculation was not uniform and it was observed that the flow was directed to the top region of the chamber wall. This information was compared with experimental data recorded in a previous test. Finally, this work demonstrated that the flow velocity range of 1.5 to 3.8 m/s produced three-dimensional effects and changed the flame position. For that reason, it is important to correct this problem to improve the combustion process. [Spanish] El siguiente trabajo presenta una estimacion de los efectos aerodinamicos producidos por la velocidad del flujo de aire en la garganta de admision de un horno industrial. Para esta investigacion se considero la actual configuracion del horno instalado en el Laboratorio de Sistemas de Combustion del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo en Veracruz, Mexico. Los resultados fueron obtenidos a partir de la creacion de un modelo de simulacion numerica que permitio estudiar los efectos tridimensionales del flujo de aire. Basados en los resultados de la simulacion, se determino que el rango de 0 a 1.5 m/s (velocidad del flujo de aire) se comporta de forma simetrica respecto al eje axial central. Para un rango de velocidades mayor a 1.5 m/s el flujo de aire se comporta no uniforme con una tendencia de direccion a la parte superior de la camara de combustion. La informacion obtenida del modelo fue comparada con datos experimentales

  5. Solarscope, a method to analyze solar ambient application to the solar comparison of three streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follut, Dominique [Nantes (France)

    2000-07-01

    Amongst the various studies of urban forms, many are concerned with typo-morphological aspects, possibly combined with historical factors. Another way to analyze urban forms may consist in examining them as closely related to various environmental factors. This paper examines the incidence of sunlight on urban built-up forms and introduces the notion of Solarscope and the sun effects in relation to the morphology. Solarscope is a method that integrated human being, its position in the urban site and enables an environmental interpretation of the results obtained from the various numerical simulations. Only the solar part of the method will be presented here. This method aims to analyze results of simulation through specific descriptors relative to the spatial position of an observer. This is a new way to analyze the physical data of the urban space by positioning into the urban scene a user of this space that would observe the built environment. This method allows therefore to constitute a cartography of the urban void and not only the facets elements of the buildings and ground. Introducing the observer, it is therefore more a cartography of the perceived space than a cartography of a phenomenon in a space. [Spanish] Entre los diversos estudios de formas urbanas, muchas estan enfocadas a aspectos tipo-morfologicos, posiblemente combinados con factores historicos. Otra manera de analizar formas urbanas puede consistir en examinarlos como relacionadas muy de cerca con varios factores ambientales. Este articulo examina la incidencia de luz solar sobre formas urbanas integradas e introduce la nocion de Solarscope (Ambito Solar) y los efectos del sol con relacion a la morfologia. El Solarscope es un metodo que integra al ser humano, su posicion en el espacio urbano y posibilita una interpretacion ambiental de los resultados obtenidos de diversas simulaciones numericas. Solo la parte solar del metodo se presenta aqui. Este metodo se orienta a analizar los resultados de

  6. An advanced three-phase physical, experimental and numerical method for tsunami induced boulder transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    immersed boundary method we can compute the interactions between fluid, particles and arbitrary boulder shape. We are able to reproduce the exact physical experiment for calibration and verification of the tsunami boulder transport phenomena. First results of the study will be presented. Engel, M.; May, S.M.: Bonaire's boulder fields revisited: evidence for Holocene tsunami impact on the Leeward, Antilles. Quaternary Science Reviews 54, 126-141, 2012. Peskin, C.S.: The immersed boundary method. Acta Numerica, 479 - 517, 2002. Pudasaini, S. P.: A general two-phase debris flow model. J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf., 117, F03010, 2012. Westoby, M.J.; Brasington, J.; Glasser, N.F.; Hambrey, M.J.; Reynolds, J.M.: 'Structure-from-Motion' photogrammetry - a low-cost, effective tool for geoscience applications. Geomorphology 179, 300-314, 2012.

  7. Regular and chaotic motions in many-body quantum systems; Moti regolari e caotici in sistemi quantici a molti corpi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canetta, G.; Maino, G.; Magnani, M.; Visparelli, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The interacting boson model (IBM) is a realistic model of nuclear structure, since it allows to cut off in a suitable way the complete space of the shell model states. In such a way, it offers a great simplicity of the numerical computation of the eigenvalue problem for a many-body non-relativistic quantum system, like a nucleus. In particular, the analytical solutions obtained in the case of dynamical symmetries correspond, in the classical limit, to completely integrable systems showing a regular dynamic behaviour. In this report, a detailed analysis is performed of the IBM version 2 (IBM-2), which explicitly introduces the isospin degree of freedom. The different forms of the IBM-2 Hamiltonian usually considered in the literature, are discussed, and the explicit relations existing between them are deduced. Moreover, the semiclassical limit of the most general IBM-2 Hamiltonian is studied in the details. Finally, the expectation of chaotic dynamic behaviour near to regular dynamics, in the IBM, and, in particular, the fact that the latter ones persist more than expected a priori, is shown. Maybe, this behaviour is to adduce to the existence of partial dynamic symmetries. [Italian] Il modello a bosoni interagenti (IBM) rappresenta un modello realistico della struttura nucleare, premettendo di troncare opportunamente lo spazio completo degli stati di modello a shell, e percio' offre una notevole semplicita' computazionale nella risoluzione numerica del problema degli autovalori per un sistema quantico non relativistico a molti corpi, quale e' un nucleo. In particolare, le soluzioni analitiche ottenute nel caso di simmetrie dinamiche corrispondono, nel limite classico, a sistemi completamente integrabili che mostrano un comportamento dinamico regolare. In questo rapporto viene condotta un'analisi dettagliata del modello IBM nella versione (IBM-2), il quale introduce esplicitamente il grado di liberta' di isospin. In particolare, sono

  8. Biaxial seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete columns =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Hugo Filipe Pinheiro

    envolventes forca-deslocamento, mas foram encontradas algumas dificuldades na representacao da degradacao de resistencia e na evolucao da energia dissipada. Por fim, e proposto um modelo global para a representacao do comportamento nao-linear em flexao de elementos de betao armado sujeitos a acoes biaxiais ciclicas. Este modelo tem por base um modelo uniaxial conhecido, combinado com uma funcao de interacao desenvolvida com base no modelo de Bouc- Wen. Esta funcao de interacao foi calibrada com recurso a tecnicas de otimizacao e usando resultados de uma serie de analises numericas com um modelo refinado. E ainda demonstrada a capacidade do modelo simplificado em reproduzir os resultados experimentais de ensaios biaxiais de pilares.

  9. Test of numerical methods for the integration of kinetic equations in tropospheric chemistry; Confronto di metodi numerici per l'integrazione di sistemi di equazioni differenziali ordinarie di tipo STIFF inserite nel modello fotochimico Calgrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzini, R.; Passoni, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The integration of ordinary differential equations systems (ODEs) is of significant concern to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry modelers. The solution of the ODEs requires a large computational effort because of their stiff nature; in a three-dimensional photochemical model the solution of the ODEs required at least 70% of the total CPU time. Several numerical integration techniques exist which attempt to provide accurate and computationally efficient solutions. In this work it is presented a comparison of some of the techniques in terms of solution accuracy and required computational time. It has been compared the Hybrid Solver (Young and Boris, 1977), the Quasi Steady-State Approximation method (Hesstvedt et al., 1978) and the Chemical Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations (Aro, 1996), by using the CALGRID photochemical model. The accuracy is evaluated by comparing the results of every method with the solutions obtained by the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations (Hindmarsh, 1980). The comparison has been made varing the parameters of the error tolerances, and taking into account the trade-off between solution accuracy and computational efficiency. [Italian] L'integrazione di sistemi di equazioni differenziali ordinarie (ODEs), e' un problema significativo per i modellisti della chimica troposferica e stratosferica. A causa della loro natura stiff la soluzione degli ODEs richiese un notevole sforzo computazionale; in un modello fotochimico tridimensionale la soluzione degli ODEs richiede almeno il 70% del tempo totale di CPU. Esistono diverse tecniche di integrazione numerica che possono fornire soluzioni accurate e computazionalmente efficienti: in questo lavoro presentiamo un confronto fra alcune tecniche in termini di accuratezza della soluzione e tempo computazionale richiesto. Si sono confrontati il Solver Ibrido (Young and Boris, 1977), il metodo Quasi Steady-State Approximation (Hesstvedt et al., 1978) ed il Chemical

  10. Treatment of Severe Cancer Pain by Transdermal Fentanyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dženita Ljuca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of research was to determine the frequency, intensity, time of occurrence, duration and causes of breakthrough pain (BTP in patients whose carcinoma pain was treated by transdermal fentanyl. (TDF. A prospective study was conducted in a hospice for recumbent patients of the Centre for Palliative Care (hospice University Clinical Centre Tuzla from October 2009 to December 2010. 33 patients in terminal stage of carcinoma, who had been treated by transdermal fentanyl due to their excruciating pain (7-10 mark on numerica! scale with initial dosage of 25 μg as a strong opiate analgesic, were monitored within the time period of 10 days. In the statistics we used the even T - test, the Wilcox test and Mann -Whitney test. The difference was seen to be significant at p < 0,05. Treatment by transdermal fentanyl significantly reduces the intensity of strong carcinoma pain (p < 0.0001, with a frequent requirement for dose increase with bone metastasis. The intensity of BTP is higher compared to the pain experienced upon reception. The frequency and intensity of BTP are significantly reduced already in the second day of treatment by transdermal fentanyl (p = 0,0024. The BTP is most intense in patients with neck and head tumours (9,26 ± 0,66, and most frequent with abdomen and pelvic tumour. The biggest number of BTP (68.3 % occurs within first three days of treatment. BTP most frequently occurs in the evening or at night (between 18:00 and 06:00 h in 62,2 % of the cases, with the duration of usually less than 15 minutes (65,2% of the cases. In 61,6 % cases the occurrence of BTP is related to physical activities or psychosocial incidents, while the cause is undetermined in 38,4 % of examinees.BTP is most frequent within first three days of treatment by TDF. Using the optimal dosage a good control of carcinoma pain is enabled, regardless of the occurrence of bone metastasis, while it also helps reduce the frequency and intensity of BTP.

  11. Preliminary design and analysis of innovating bearing using lubricant pressurized injection; Diseno preliminar y analisis de chumacera innovadora utilizando inyeccion presurizada del lubricante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez Pantoja, Alfredo

    2003-07-01

    rigidez y amortiguamiento de la pelicula del lubricante. En la presente investigacion se calculan por primera vez los coeficientes lineales de rigidez (Kxx, Kxy, Kyx, Kyy) y de amortiguamiento (Cxx, Cxy, Cyx, Cyy) considerando presurizacion externa, estos coeficientes se calculan de forma numerica con el programa CHUMA para distintos valores de presion de inyeccion adimensional. Estos coeficientes son utilizados en el modelo Jeffcott con eje rigido y eje flexible para encontrar la velocidad umbral de estabilidad lineal y la amplitud maxima de vibracion ante el efecto del desbalance. En la parte final de este trabajo se presentan los resultados que comprueban el beneficio que ofrece este nuevo diseno de chumacera presurizada. Los resultados obtenidos se presentan en forma de curvas, tanto para el umbral de estabilidad lineal como para la respuesta al desbalance y sus analisis comparativos contra los casos convencionales.

  12. Innovazione tecnologica e sinergie tra soluzioni geospaziali Lo "scenario Intergraph"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fiduccia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni abbiamo potuto assistere all’espansione delle tecnologie per l’Informazione Geografica dall’originale ambito della cartografia numerica per la conoscenza del territorio (automated mapping o per la gestione delle infrastrutture e delle reti tecnologiche (facility management verso un dominio più ampio denominato "geospatial".Technological innovation and synergies between geospatial solutions. The "Intergraph's scenario".Geospatial  is  much  more  than  GIS.  We  can  understand  the evolution  of  Geographic  Information  considering  some  new working groups and OWS demonstrations of Open Geospa-tial Consortium: Sensor Web Enablement, Sensor Fusion Ena-blement, Feature & Decision Fusion, Aviation, Emergency and Disaster Management, etc. Another point of observation is to analyze some brand new products of a multinational enterprise committed to the innovation like Intergraph Corporation. Part of Hexagon AB, Intergraph, Leica Geosystems and ERDAS are working together to leverage joint strengths in geospatial in-novation.Intergraph’s Motion Video Exploitation solution leverages full motion video, giving analysts the ability to collect, analyze, and maximize the value of video assets.GeoMedia  3D  is  a  GeoMedia  add-on  product  that  extends the functionality of Intergraph’s geospatial solutions through an integrated 3D visualization and analysis environment. You can visualize, navigate, analyze, and interact with 3D data na-tively in GeoMedia.GeoMedia Smart Client delivers an enterprise geospatial plat-form engineered to support large numbers of users who are unable to operate full desktop products, but whose workflows need  advanced  geospatial  functionality  that  cannot  be  sup-ported by Web mapping tools.G/Technology Fiber Optic Works 1.0 streamlines the management  of  fiber  optic  infrastructure  for  utilities,  municipalities, agencies and

  13. Innovazione tecnologica e sinergie tra soluzioni geospaziali Lo "scenario Intergraph"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fiduccia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni abbiamo potuto assistere all’espansione delle tecnologie per l’Informazione Geografica dall’originale ambito della cartografia numerica per la conoscenza del territorio (automated mapping o per la gestione delle infrastrutture e delle reti tecnologiche (facility management verso un dominio più ampio denominato "geospatial". Technological innovation and synergies between geospatial solutions. The "Intergraph's scenario".Geospatial  is  much  more  than  GIS.  We  can  understand  the evolution  of  Geographic  Information  considering  some  new working groups and OWS demonstrations of Open Geospa-tial Consortium: Sensor Web Enablement, Sensor Fusion Ena-blement, Feature & Decision Fusion, Aviation, Emergency and Disaster Management, etc. Another point of observation is to analyze some brand new products of a multinational enterprise committed to the innovation like Intergraph Corporation. Part of Hexagon AB, Intergraph, Leica Geosystems and ERDAS are working together to leverage joint strengths in geospatial in-novation.Intergraph’s Motion Video Exploitation solution leverages full motion video, giving analysts the ability to collect, analyze, and maximize the value of video assets.GeoMedia  3D  is  a  GeoMedia  add-on  product  that  extends the functionality of Intergraph’s geospatial solutions through an integrated 3D visualization and analysis environment. You can visualize, navigate, analyze, and interact with 3D data na-tively in GeoMedia.GeoMedia Smart Client delivers an enterprise geospatial plat-form engineered to support large numbers of users who are unable to operate full desktop products, but whose workflows need  advanced  geospatial  functionality  that  cannot  be  sup-ported by Web mapping tools.G/Technology Fiber Optic Works 1.0 streamlines the management  of  fiber  optic  infrastructure  for  utilities,  municipalities, agencies and

  14. Modello predittivo di idoneità ambientale per il cervo nell'Appennino centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Opramolla

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In un?area di studio ampia ca. 250 km², situata tra il Parco Nazionale d?Abruzzo e quello della Majella, è stata studiata la densità del cervo in 84 unità di campionamento (ampiezza = 1 km² selezionate in maniera sistematica partendo dal reticolato geografico UTM. In ogni unità di campionamento sono stati individuati tre transetti paralleli orientati da Est a Ovest (lunghezza= 1 km/transetto e 33 plot circolari, ogni 100 m lungo i transetti. La presenza del cervo è stata rilevata tramite segni di presenza e avvistamenti. Sono stati effettuati tre campionamenti: giugno ? agosto 1999, settembre-ottobre 1999 e maggio - luglio 2000. Il cervo è risultato essere presente in 39 unità di campionamento e assente in 35. Sono state calcolate dalla cartografia numerica tramite GIS 69 variabili ambientali. La relazione tra variabili ambientali e presenza/assenza del cervo è stata analizzata con l?analisi della varianza univariata (anova e con l?analisi di regressione logistica dicotomica (rld. Sono state riscontrate differenze significative (anova tra le aree in cui è stata riscontrata la presenza del cervo ed aree in cui il cervo è risultato assente per le variabili relative alle attività antropiche, superficie delle radure, quota, esposizione, estensione delle colture, estensione e struttura del bosco e presenza di pecore al pascolo. Il modello di regressione logistica ha selezionato solo 3 variabili: superficie del bosco di latifoglie, indice medio della forma dei poligoni di bosco, superficie delle aree esposte a sud-ovest. Il modello spiega il 76% della varianza della variabile indipendente, e tutti i coefficienti di regressione sono correlati significativemente e positivamente alla probabilità di presenza del cervo. Il modello ha classificato correttamente il 91% dei casi in cui il cervo è risultato assente e il 92% dei casi in cui è risultato presente (percentuale media di classificazione= 91,9%. L?importanza del bosco nel condizionare

  15. Initial thermal state of the Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico, geothermal field; Estado termico inicial del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx

    2009-01-15

    The initial temperatures field is presented for 40 wells in the Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, along with an elevation curve based on the formation temperature or the most probable reservoir temperature. Stabilized temperatures were estimated using the Radial Spherical Heat Flow method, chosen over the Horner method based on the numerical simulation of the circulation and stop processes of well H-26. In this well, the last temperature log series was reproduced, considering circulation losses. The temperatures were used to produce isothermal curves over three geological sections of the field, which represent the initial distribution of temperatures in the reservoir and show the thermal characteristics and the relationships among thermal anomalies and faults in the reservoir. The elevation curve plotted against the initial temperature of the formation was generated based on detection of the main feed zones at each well, which in turn was developed using detailed analyses of diverse information, such as temperature logs, circulation losses, lithology, well completion, and heat velocities. Based on the results, two groups of wells may be distinguished: one between 1000 and 1600 masl with temperatures from 290 to 330 degrees Celsius, and one between 900 and 0 masl with temperatures from 300 to 400 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el campo de temperatura inicial del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros y una curva de elevacion contra la temperatura de formacion o temperatura mas probable del yacimiento, obtenida para 40 pozos del campo. Las temperaturas estabilizadas se estimaron mediante el metodo de Flujo de Calor Esferico Radial, y su eleccion sobre las temperaturas del metodo de Horner se soporta con simulacion numerica de los procesos de circulacion y paro del pozo H-26, en la cual la ultima serie de registros se reprodujo considerando perdidas de circulacion. Con estas temperaturas se generaron curvas isotermicas para tres secciones

  16. Seasonal variability of the temperature and heat fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavala Hidalgo, J.; Pares Sierra, A.; Ochoa, J. [Division de Oceanologia, CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2002-04-01

    Heat fluxes between the atmosphere and the sea surface in the Gulf of Mexico are computed using COADS climatology, bulk formulae, radiation estimations from satellite, and a numerical model. 9 W m{sup -}2 is the estimated mean surface heat flux into the ocean, this is higher than previous studies due to different bulk formulae and data sources. The annual cycle has an amplitude of 168 W m{sup -}2. The contribution of each term in the heat equation is computed, analyzed and compared to previous studies. A numerical model with thermodynamics is used to study the relative importance of heat advection and entrainment on the sea surface temperature. The results indicate that the entrainment is important in the winter cooling of surface waters. When entrainment, which depends on the buoyancy loss and the wind induced turbulent kinetic energy, is not included, temperatures in winter stay higher than observations, with a root mean square (RMS) difference from observations of 1.5 C. Including entrainment and detainment the RMS decreases to 1.0 C. [Spanish] Se estudian los flujos de calor entre la atmosfera y la superficie del mar en el Golfo de Mexico, utilizando los datos climatologicos de la base Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphera Data Set (COADS), formulas empiricas, estimaciones de la radiacion mediante satelite y con la ayuda de la modelacion numerica. Para los flujos superficiales de calor se obtuvo una media de 9 W m{sup -}2. Este valor es mas alto que el de estudios previos debido a que se utilizaron distintas fuentes de datos y formulas empiricas. Para el ciclo anual se obtuvo una amplitud de 168 W m{sup -}2. Se calcula y analiza la contribucion de cada termino en la ecuacion de calor comparando los valores obtenidos con los de estudios previos. Un modelo numerico con termodinamica es utilizado para estudiar la importancia relativa de la adveccion de calor y los flujos verticales asociados al aporte de agua de la capa intermedia a la superficial. Los resultados

  17. Operation of the matrix converter as energy sources link of variable voltage; Operacion del convertidor matricial como enlace de fuentes de energia de voltaje variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano-Garcia, J. M; Hernandez-Figueroa, M. A; Estrada Garcia, H. J; Martinez-Patino, J [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mails: jm.lozano@ugto.mx; mahf@ugto.mx; hestrada@ugto.mx; jesusmp23@ugto.mx

    2013-03-15

    viento. Para cumplir con los requerimientos energeticos en las terminales de entrada y salida del convertidor matricial se utiliza la estrategia de modulacion directa en el espacio vectorial modificada. Simulaciones numericas y resultados experimentales se presentan a fin de validar la proposicion.

  18. Prestack Waveform Inversion and Well Log Examination at GC955 and WR313 in the Gulf of Mexico for Estimation of Methane Hydrate Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, W.; Goldberg, D.; Kucuk, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    Gas hydrates are naturally occurring compounds, which, at a molecular scale, are lattice structures of ice embedded with various gas molecules in the lattice voids. Volumetric estimates of associated hydrocarbons vary greatly due to the difficulty in remotely estimating hydrate concentrations in marine sediments but embedded hydrocarbon stores are thought to represent a significant portion of global deposits. Inherent hydrate instabilities obscure our understanding of and complicates processes related to resource extraction and hydrate response to disturbances in the local environment. Understanding the spatial extent and variability of hydrate deposits have important implications for potential economic production, climate change, and assessing natural hazards risks. Seismic reflection techniques are capable of determining the extent of gas hydrate deposits, often through the observation of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). However, BSRs are not present everywhere gas hydrates exist. Using high resolution prestack time migrated seismic data and prestack waveform inversion (PWI) we produce highly resolved velocity models and compare them to co-located well logs. Coupling our PWI results with velocity-porosity relationships and nearby well control, we map hydrate properties at GC955 and WR313. Integrating small scale heterogeneities and variations along the velocity model with in-situ measurements, we develop a workflow aimed to quantify hydrate concentrations observed in seismic data over large areas in great detail regardless of the existence of a BSR.

  19. Morphological changes of Ganoderma boninense mycelia after challenged by Trichoderma and Bacillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Arnnyitte; Chong, Khim-Phin, E-mail: chongkp@ums.edu.my [Sustainable Palm Oil Research Unit (SPOR), Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Dayou, Jedol [Vibration and Sound Research Group (eVIBS), Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Ganoderma boninense is a fungal pathogen that causes Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. This deadly disease has caused major losses in the oil palm industry and no remedy is reported to date. The more promising control on G. boninense is the use of biological control agents (BCAs). Despite many attempts in using BCAs as a control agent but evidence on the colonization of BCAs and morphological changes of the pathogen is not well documented. We have investigated the effect of antagonist activity on the combination of Trichoderma spp. and Bacillus spp. on the morphology of G. boninense. The antagonist activity was evaluated using agar well diffusion assay. BCAs suppressed the mycelia growth of G. boninense up to 70%. Observation under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) shows these BCAs induced stripping of G. boninense hyphal structure by destroying the cellular structure. Highly disrupted, disaggerated, shrivelled and lysis of G. boninense hyphal were also observed. The antifungal activity of Trichoderma spp. and Bacillus spp. observed could be associated with the production of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes (CWDE)

  20. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment. PMID:22919345

  1. Morphological changes of Ganoderma boninense mycelia after challenged by Trichoderma and Bacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Arnnyitte; Dayou, Jedol; Chong, Khim-Phin

    2015-07-01

    Ganoderma boninense is a fungal pathogen that causes Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. This deadly disease has caused major losses in the oil palm industry and no remedy is reported to date. The more promising control on G. boninense is the use of biological control agents (BCAs). Despite many attempts in using BCAs as a control agent but evidence on the colonization of BCAs and morphological changes of the pathogen is not well documented. We have investigated the effect of antagonist activity on the combination of Trichoderma spp. and Bacillus spp. on the morphology of G. boninense. The antagonist activity was evaluated using agar well diffusion assay. BCAs suppressed the mycelia growth of G. boninense up to 70%. Observation under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) shows these BCAs induced stripping of G. boninense hyphal structure by destroying the cellular structure. Highly disrupted, disaggerated, shrivelled and lysis of G. boninense hyphal were also observed. The antifungal activity of Trichoderma spp. and Bacillus spp. observed could be associated with the production of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes (CWDE).

  2. Isolation and regeneration protoplast of an oil palm pathogen, Ganoderma boninense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene, Liza Isaac; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu; Idris, Abu Seman; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul

    2015-09-01

    Ganoderma boninense is a known cause for basal stem rot (BSR) in oil palm. Thus, to curb the infection towards oil palm, the establishment of protoplast isolation and regeneration protocol is crucial to be studied. This will provide information on the functional genes especially those which leads towards infection and pathogenicity. In this study, a method was outlined to isolated protoplast in G. boninense by manipulating parameters such as mycelium age, concentration of lysing enzyme, and duration of mycelia incubation in lytic solution. The results shows that from 0.1 g of wet weight mycelia, the highest protoplast yield obtained was 5.5 × 108 protoplast/ml using 5th day old culture in a lytic mixture containing 2.0 % of lysing enzyme incubated for 4 hours at 30 °C with agitation of 80-100 rpm. The highest percentage of protoplast regeneration obtained from this study was 0.2 % using CYM medium supplemented with 0.6 M sorbitol. To date, this is the first report of protoplast isolation and regeneration for this phytopathogen.

  3. Cloning of nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1) transcript from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and its expression during Ganoderma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Yee-Min; Meon, Sariah; Ho, Chai-Ling; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1) protein is implicated in plant disease resistance and nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. A full-length cDNA encoding of NOA1 protein from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was isolated and designated as EgNOA1. Sequence analysis suggested that EgNOA1 was a circular permutated GTPase with high similarity to the bacterial YqeH protein of the YawG/YlqF family. The gene expression of EgNOA1 and NO production in oil palm root tissues treated with Ganoderma boninense, the causal agent of basal stem rot (BSR) disease were profiled to investigate the involvement of EgNOA1 during fungal infection and association with NO biosynthesis. Real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that the transcript abundance of EgNOA1 in root tissues was increased by G. boninense treatment. NO burst in Ganoderma-treated root tissue was detected using Griess reagent, in advance of the up-regulation of the EgNOA1 transcript. This indicates that NO production was independent of EgNOA1. However, the induced expression of EgNOA1 in Ganoderma-treated root tissues implies that it might be involved in plant defense responses against pathogen infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphological changes of Ganoderma boninense mycelia after challenged by Trichoderma and Bacillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Arnnyitte; Chong, Khim-Phin; Dayou, Jedol

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma boninense is a fungal pathogen that causes Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. This deadly disease has caused major losses in the oil palm industry and no remedy is reported to date. The more promising control on G. boninense is the use of biological control agents (BCAs). Despite many attempts in using BCAs as a control agent but evidence on the colonization of BCAs and morphological changes of the pathogen is not well documented. We have investigated the effect of antagonist activity on the combination of Trichoderma spp. and Bacillus spp. on the morphology of G. boninense. The antagonist activity was evaluated using agar well diffusion assay. BCAs suppressed the mycelia growth of G. boninense up to 70%. Observation under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) shows these BCAs induced stripping of G. boninense hyphal structure by destroying the cellular structure. Highly disrupted, disaggerated, shrivelled and lysis of G. boninense hyphal were also observed. The antifungal activity of Trichoderma spp. and Bacillus spp. observed could be associated with the production of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes (CWDE)

  5. Gas hydrates of the Black sea sediment section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byakov, Y.A.; Kruglyakova, R.P.; Kruglyakova, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : This article shows how gas formation and its genesis in the Black sea sediments forms two types of gas hydrates. The first is diagenetic, formed from biochemical methane. The second type is thermogenic, formed from the thermogenic gases and represented not only by methane, but also by its light homologues, like ethane and propane. The most favourable area for formation of the gas hydrates of the first type in the Black sea is the foot of the continental slope and areas of underwater cones of paleorivers drift-over. Gas hydrates of the second type are accumulated in the areas of underwater mud volcanoes. In accordance with the results of seismic and seismoacoustic studies in deposited thickness of the Black sea the specific anomalies of the BSR and VAMP's types are revealed that associate with the foot of gas hydrate deposits. Two gas hydrates are distinguished according to sources of gas supply and genesis : type 1 - diagenetic, type 2 - thermogenic. When some critique is reached the gas hydrate trap breaks and volcanic eruption occurs. Thus, occurrence of underwater volcanism may testify the presence of deposits.

  6. Response of rhizosphere microbial community structure and diversity to heavy metal co-pollution in arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linjing; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng; Lu, Lunhui; Chen, Xunfeng; Chen, Ming; Wu, Haipeng; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to heavy metals, concern about the soil quality of farming lands near manufacturing district is increasing. Investigating the function of soil microorganisms exposed to long-term heavy metal contamination is meaningful and important for agricultural soil utilization. This article studied the potential influence of several heavy metals on microbial biomass, activity, abundance, and community composition in arable soil near industrial estate in Zhuzhou, Hunan province, China. The results showed that soil organic contents (SOC) were significantly positive correlated with heavy metals, whereas dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was greatly depressed by the heavy metal stress. Negative correlation was found between heavy metals and basal soil respiration (BSR), and no correlation was found between heavy metals and microbial biomass content (MBC). The quantitative PCR (QPCR) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis could suggest that heavy metal pollution has significantly decreased abundance of bacteria and fungi and also changed their community structure. The results could contribute to evaluate heavy metal pollution level in soil. By combining different environmental parameters, it would promote the better understanding of heavy metal effect on the size, structure, and activity of microbial community in arable soil.

  7. Relation between methane hydrate-bearing formations and geological phenomena on the seafloor in the eastern Nankai trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagakubo, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Inamori, T.; Saeki, T.; Shimoda, N.; Fujii, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technology Research Center; Morita, S.; Tanahashi, M. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan). Inst. for Geo-Resources and Environment

    2008-07-01

    Bathymetric and sea floor amplitude maps of the Tokai-Oki area, Daini-Atsumi Knoll, and Kumao-Nada areas were constructed using data obtained from 3-D seismic surveys. The study examined the control factors of fluid migration between methane hydrate formations and the sea floor. The aim of the study was to understand the relationship between methane hydrate-bearing formation and geological phenomena in the eastern Nankai trough. Sea floor geological features in the region include canyons, pockmarks, landslides, and undulations. The study identified methane seeps with biological colonies, bacteria mats and methane-enriched pore water. Strong sea floor amplitudes corresponded with distributions of carbonate outcrops and methane-bearing fluids around the BSR. The study showed that the principle geological control factors for fluid migration between methane hydrate-bearing formations and the sea floor are permeable sandy sediments; shallow faults; and natural hydraulic fractures. Significant shallow anomalies were observed in the Daini-Atsumi Knoll area. Sandy sediments derived from turbidites control the distributions of bottom simulating reflectors. It was concluded that permeable sandy sediments may play an important role in fluid migration between methane hydrate-bearing formations and the sea floor. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Delineation of methane hydrate concentrated zone using 3D seismic data in the eastern Nankai Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, T.; Fujii, T.; Inamori, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Hayashi, M.; Nagakubo, S.; Takano, O. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Mihama-ku, Chiba (Japan). Technology Research and Development Dept.

    2008-07-01

    Methane hydrates are ice-like material compounds consisting of methane and water molecules that are stable under low-temperature and high-pressure conditions. Underground storage of methane hydrate in deepwater and permafrost regions has been investigated as a future energy resource. The Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan has been conducting an exploration study in the eastern Nankai Trough since 2001. Seismic surveys, multi-well drilling campaigns and other geological surveys have shown that methane hydrate reserves were created by turbidite sand layers. The methane hydrate bearing zones have been categorized into (1) methane hydrate concentrated zones, and (2) methane hydrate bearing zones other than concentrated zones. An optimal interpretation workflow was developed to delineate methane hydrate concentrated zones. The workflow involved an evaluation and integration of 4 indicators, notably (1) a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), (2) a turbidite sequence, (3) a strong seismic reflector, and (4) a relatively higher interval velocity. More than 10 methane hydrate concentrated zones were identified and their rock volume was successfully evaluated. The results were used for the resource assessment of the study area. The authors noted that the methods introduced in this study could correspond to prospect extraction in conventional oil and gas exploration. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Study results of picking high amplitude reflectors in turbidite channel to reveal detail of methane hydrate concentrated zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, N.; Saeki, T.; Inamori, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Fujii, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Mihama-ku, Chiba (Japan). Technology Research Center

    2008-07-01

    Bottom simulating reflectors are found extensively in the eastern Nankai Trough. BSR is considered as a bottom of methane hydrate bearing sediments. High resolution three-dimensional seismic surveys were conducted in 2002 and a multi-well drilling campaign was executed in 2004. This paper discussed the resource potential of methane hydrate in this area. The paper discussed an evaluation of more than 10 methane hydrate concentrated zones in the Nankai Trough. Methane hydrated concentrated zones in this area are roughly classified into 2 types of turbidite sedimentary facies from the seismic geomorphological point of view known as lobe and channel. This paper attempted to interpret a detailed structure of a channel type methane hydrate concentrated zone. High amplitude reflector patches may indicate sand dominated bodies with high methane hydrate concentration. It was concluded that picked reflector patches demonstrated that the methane hydrate concentrated zone was biforked at a lower current area. Detailed observations also revealed that the methane hydrate concentrated zone was developed in a channel complex of which fluid migration was slowly shifted.

  10. 2D multi-component survey over methane hydrate deposits in the Nankai Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.; Asakawa, E.; Allawati, H. [JGI Inc., Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Saeki, T.; Inamori, T.; Shimoda, N. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Mihama-ku, Chiba (Japan). Technology Research Center

    2008-07-01

    A 2D real-time seismic cable system (RSCS) survey was conducted near the edge of the Nankai Trough offshore Japan in December 2006. The objectives were to obtain high quality P-wave seismic sections and S-wave characteristics of a methane hydrate deposit in the Nankai Trough. C-waves (PS converted waves) with multicomponent sensors were used to delineate the elastic properties. The 3 component data was acquired on the sea bed over 2 well locations and part of a conventional streamer 3D survey. Of the 3 receiver lines, the first intersected the 4 well locations with 4 deployments of RSCS, while the second and third lines crossed the first line at each well location with 1 and 2 deployments. A sea-surface airgun system was used as a source with a spacing of 25 m. P-wave OBS pre-stack migration was used to image the vertical component data. C-Wave OBS pre-stack migration was used to image the in-line horizontal component data. Amplitude anomalies at the BSR level were detected in the C-wave sections, which indicates S-wave anomaly. The authors suggested that this information may be useful in estimating the rock physics model of the methane hydrates in this area. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.

  12. Recombinant rabies virus expressing the H protein of canine distemper virus protects dogs from the lethal distemper challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Xue; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Yang, Yong; Sun, Na; Tan, Bin; Li, Zhen-Guang; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Fu, Zhen F; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2014-12-05

    The rabies virus (RV) vector LBNSE expressing foreign antigens have shown considerable promise as vaccines against viral and bacteria diseases, which is effective and safe. We produced a new RV-based vaccine vehicle expressing 1.824 kb hemagglutinin (H) gene of the canine distemper virus (CDV) by reverse genetics technology. The recombinant virus LBNSE-CDV-H retained growth properties similar to those of vector LBNSE both in BSR and mNA cell culture. The H gene of CDV was expressed and detected by immunostaining. To compare the immunogenicity of LBNSE-CDV-H, dogs were immunized with each of these recombinant viruses by intramuscular (i.m.). The dogs were bled at third weeks after the immunization for the measurement of virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) and then challenged with virulent virus (ZJ 7) at fourth weeks. The parent virus (LBNSE) without expression of any foreign molecules was included for comparison. Dogs inoculated with LBNSE-CDV-H showed no any signs of disease and exhibited seroconversion against both RV and CDV H protein. The LBNSE-CDV-H did not cause disease in dogs and conferred protection from challenge with a lethal wild type CDV strain, demonstrating its potential value for wildlife conservation efforts. Together, these studies suggest that recombinant RV expressing H protein from CDV stimulated high levels of adaptive immune responses (VNA), and protected all dogs challenge infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Relationship On Detection Of Ganoderma Disease On Oil Palm Tree System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, S. N. M.; Baharudin, F.; Ali, M. F.; Rahiman, M. H. F.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of fungal disease is the major issues in agricultural management and production. This disease would attack the plantation area and damaging the based root or the stem tissue of the trees. In oil palm industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) is the major disease in Malaysia that caused by a fungal named Ganoderma Boninense species. Since agricultural areas in Malaysia are the great factors that contribute in the economic sector, therefore the prevention and controlling this disease situation are needed to reduce the extent of the infection. These plant diseases are mostly being caused by the inflectional disease form such as viruses, viroids, bacteria, protozoa and even parasitic plants. It also could included mites and vertebrate or small insects that consume the plant tissues. Studies focused more on the breeding and relationship of the disease in the stumps, roots and soil system if oil palm trees by identifying the heavy metal; Phosphorus, copper, Iron, Manganese, Potassium and Zinc characteristic. Samples were taken from various types of physical appearance of the trees. It shows the relationship of the fungal disease breeding between oil palm trees and the heavy metals does affect the tree’s system.

  14. Neutrons in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Satoru; Niimura, Nobuo.

    1993-01-01

    The start of JRR-3M in 1990 was a great epoch to the neutron scattering research in Japan. Abundant neutron beam generated by the JRR-3M made it possible to widen the research field of neutron scattering in Japan. In the early days of neutron scattering, biological materials were too difficult object to be studied by neutrons not only because of their complexity but also because of the strong incoherent scattering by hydrogen. However, the remarkable development of the recent neutron scattering and its related sciences, as well as the availability of higher flux, has made the biological materials one of the most attractive subjects to be studied by neutrons. In early September 1992, an intensive workshop titled 'Neutrons in Biology' was held in Hitachi City by making use of the opportunity of the 4th International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation (BSR92) held in Tsukuba. The workshop was organized by volunteers who are eager to develop the researches in this field in Japan. Numbers of outstanding neutron scattering biologists from U.S., Europe and Asian countries met together and enthusiastic discussions were held all day long. The editors believe that the presentations at the workshop were so invaluable that it is absolutely adequate to put them on record as an issue of JAERI-M and to make them available for scientists to refer to in order to further promote the research in the future. (author)

  15. Sensitivity analysis of P-waves and S-waves to gas hydrate in the Shenhu area using OBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Liu, Xueqin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Huaishan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zizheng; Wang, Jianhua

    2018-02-01

    Compared to towed streamers, ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) obtain both S-wave data and richer wavefield information. In this paper, the induced polarization method is used to conduct wavefield separation on OBS data obtained from the Shenhu area in the South China Sea. A comparison of the changes in P- and S-waves, and a comprehensive analysis of geological factors within the area, enable analysis and description of the occurrence of natural gas hydrate in the study area. Results show an increase in P-wave velocity when natural gas hydrate exists in the formation, whereas the S-wave velocity remains almost constant, as S-waves can only propagate through the rock skeleton. Therefore, the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) response of the P-wave is better than that of the S-wave in the frequency analysis profile. In a wide-angle section, the refractive wave of the hydrate layer is evident when using P-wave components but identification is difficult with S-wave components. This velocity model illustrates the sensitivity of P- and S-wave components to gas hydrate. The use of this polarization method and results of analysis provide technical and theoretical support for research on hydrate deposits and other geological features in the Shenhu area.

  16. Thermo-hydraulics of the Peruvian accretionarycomplex at 12°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, Nina; Pecher, Ingo

    1999-02-01

    Coupled heat and fluid transport at the Peruvian convergent margin at 12°S wasstudied with finite element modelling. Structural information was available from two seismicreflection lines. Heat production in the oceanic plate, the metamorphic basement, and sedimentswas estimated from literature. Porosity, permeability, and thermal conductivity for the modelswere partly available from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 112; otherwise we used empiricalrelations. Our models accounted for a possible permeability anisotropy. The decollement was bestmodelled as a highly permeable zone (10 -13 m 2). Permeabilities of thePeruvian accretionary wedge adopted from the model calculations fall within the range of 2 to7×10 -16 m 2 at the ocean bottom to a few 10 -18 m 2 at the base and need to be anisotropic. Fluid expulsion at the sea floor decreases graduallywith distance from the deformation front and is structure controlled. Small scale variations of heatflux reflected by fluctuations of BSR depths across major faults could be modelled assuming highpermeability in the faults which allow for efficient advective transport along those faults. The models were constrained by the thermal gradient obtained from the depth of bottomsimulating reflectors (BSRs) at the lower slope and some conventional measurements. We foundthat significant frictional heating is required to explain the observed strong landward increase ofheat flux. This is consistent with results from sandbox modelling which predict strong basalfriction at this margin. A significantly higher heat source is needed to match the observed thermalgradient in the southern line.

  17. A predictive numerical model for potential mapping of the gas hydrate stability zone in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, R.; Somoza, L.

    2009-04-01

    This comunication presents a computational model for mapping the regional 3D distribution in which seafloor gas hydrates would be stable, that is carried out in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. The construction of the model is comprised of three primary steps, namely (1) the construction of surfaces for the various variables based on available 3D data (seafloor temperature, geothermal gradient and depth-pressure); (2) the calculation of the gas function equilibrium functions for the various hydrocarbon compositions reported from hydrate and sediment samples; and (3) the calculation of the thickness of the hydrate stability zone. The solution is based on a transcendental function, which is solved iteratively in a GIS environment. The model has been applied in the northernmost continental slope of the Gulf of Cadiz, an area where an abundant supply for hydrate formation, such as extensive hydrocarbon seeps, diapirs and fault structures, is combined with deep undercurrents and a complex seafloor morphology. In the Gulf of Cadiz, model depicts the distribution of the base of the gas hydrate stability zone for both biogenic and thermogenic gas compositions, and explains the geometry and distribution of geological structures derived from gas venting in the Tasyo Field (Gulf of Cadiz) and the generation of BSR levels on the upper continental slope.

  18. Identification of Nitrogen Consumption Genetic Variants in Yeast Through QTL Mapping and Bulk Segregant RNA-Seq Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Francisco A; Brice, Claire; Molinet, Jennifer; Tisné, Sebastién; Abarca, Valentina; Tapia, Sebastián M; Oporto, Christian; García, Verónica; Liti, Gianni; Martínez, Claudio

    2017-06-07

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is responsible for wine must fermentation. In this process, nitrogen represents a limiting nutrient and its scarcity results in important economic losses for the wine industry. Yeast isolates use different strategies to grow in poor nitrogen environments and their genomic plasticity enables adaptation to multiple habitats through improvements in nitrogen consumption. Here, we used a highly recombinant S. cerevisiae multi-parent population (SGRP-4X) derived from the intercross of four parental strains of different origins to identify new genetic variants responsible for nitrogen consumption differences during wine fermentation. Analysis of 165 fully sequenced F12 segregants allowed us to map 26 QTL in narrow intervals for 14 amino acid sources and ammonium, the majority of which represent genomic regions previously unmapped for these traits. To complement this strategy, we performed Bulk segregant RNA-seq (BSR-seq) analysis in segregants exhibiting extremely high and low ammonium consumption levels. This identified several QTL overlapping differentially expressed genes and refined the gene candidate search. Based on these approaches, we were able to validate ARO1 , PDC1 , CPS1 , ASI2 , LYP1 , and ALP1 allelic variants underlying nitrogen consumption differences between strains, providing evidence of many genes with small phenotypic effects. Altogether, these variants significantly shape yeast nitrogen consumption with important implications for evolution, ecological, and quantitative genomics. Copyright © 2017 Cubillos et al.

  19. Application of CRS-PCR-RFLP to identify CYP1A1 gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingcui; Duan, Xiaoran; Feng, Xiaolei; Wang, Pengpeng; Wang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 gene family and plays an important role in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous material. In recent research, it has been shown that its genetic polymorphisms are associated with many diseases. But the isoschizomers such as the BsrDI enzyme required for the detection of this polymorphism are expensive. The study used an improved PCR-RFLP method with mismatched base for detection of the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1048943. A new restriction enzyme cutting site was created by created restriction site PCR (CRS-PCR), and the restriction enzyme StyI for RFLP was cheaper than other enzymes. A total of 320 samples from Han Chinese were tested to evaluate this novel method. The PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. After detecting 320 Chinese Han individuals, the genotype frequencies were 63.74% for AA, 31.54% for AG, and 4.72% for GG. The allelic frequencies were 75.48% for A and 24.52% for G. The x 2 test showed the genotype and allele frequencies of CYP1A1 do not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and the sequences of amplified products were consistent with the one published in GenBank with the exception of mismatched base. Based on PCR with mismatched primers we designed, the CYP1A1 polymorphism could be identified effectively with low cost. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fluid flow, mixing and the origin of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S by bacterial sulphate reduction in the Mannville Group, southern Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, J.D.; Hutcheon, I.E. [University of Calgary (China). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Krouse, H.R. [University of Calgary (China). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1999-10-01

    Sandstone reservoirs of the Mannville Group in southern Alberta host petroleum and natural gas deposits with abnormally high amounts of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. Produced water and gas chemistry and isotopic composition suggests that bacterial sulphate reduction has taken place. Limited isotopic data for gas samples indicate that C{sub 2} is organic. with calcite dissolution accounting for intermediate ({delta}{sup 13}C values for bicarbonate. C{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are thought to be formed by bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR), the rate of which is dependent on the rate of supply of sulphate. H{sub 2}S has been precipitated as pyrite and removed from the system. CO{sub 2} from both bacterial sulphate reduction and resulting water-rock reactions, has accumulated in quartz-rich sandstone reservoir rocks causing the amount of CO{sub 2} in the gas to be much higher than H{sub 2}S. Anomalously high CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S concentrations are coincident with the Jurassic subcrop edge and are related to cross formational fluid flow. Sulphate-rich waters from Mississippian aquifer units that underlie the Jurassic aquitard mix with waters in Mannville sandstone at the subcrop edge. Organic acids ratios in Mannville waters suggest that coaly material, not petroleum hydrocarbons, may provide the organic food source required for sulphate reducing bacteria. (author)

  1. Structural features of a potential gas hydrate area in the Pointer Ridge off southwest Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Fen; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Chen, Song-Chuen; Liu, Char-Shine; Lin, Hsiao-Shan

    2015-04-01

    The offshore area of the southwest Taiwan is located in the oblique convergence zone between the northern continental margin of South China Sea and the Manila accretionary wedge. To the west of the deformation front offshore southwestern Taiwan, the Pointer Ridge is located in the passive South China Sea continental margin. The continental margin is compose of extensional horst-and-graben structures. There are numerous submarine channels and linear ridge, formed due to the submarine erosion across the continental slope region. According to geophysical research off SW Taiwan, abundant gas hydrate may exist. In this study, our purpose is to understand the relationship between the near-seafloor structures of the Pointer Ridge and the gas hydrate formation off SW Taiwan. The data we used include multi-beam echo sounder (MBES), side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP) and the multi-channel reflection seismic (MCS) data. Our results show the pockmark and gas seepage structures mainly appear in the place where the gradient of the BSR thickness is maximum. Those sites contain authigenic carbonate signature shown in the sub-bottom profiler. We also observe several folds and faults structures in this extensional background; however, these compressional features need further studies.

  2. Optimization of wave-guided luminescence for higher efficiency of bifacial thin-film microscale GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ling; Shen, Yifeng; Li, Feng

    2018-01-01

    In pursuit of capturing more wave-guided luminescence for surface-printed bifacial GaAs μ-cells, the pyramid structure has been incorporated with specular back side reflector (BSR) to change the direction of photon propagation. Based on ray tracing model, the calculated photon capturing efficiency of GaAs μ-cells from back side via pyramid, dependent on the parameters of pyramid structure, achieve the largest 1.7× increase for dye absorption peak of 480 nm compared to the case without pyramid. More significantly, the short circuit current in experiment has been improved from original 16.5 mA/cm2 to 23.75 mA/cm2 for the AM 1.5G solar spectrum. Further experiment demonstrates that the optimized pyramid structure enables the integrated luminescent intensity to reach ∼3× increase in a smaller distance of optical transport, which means the advantages in photon capturing efficiency for cells with higher aspect ratio. The calculation further confirms that the cells with higher aspect ratio, among all cells with the same area, realize the higher concentration ratio for the same geometric gain. This provides a guideline for design of cell geometries to guarantee a higher power output in terms of cell modules.

  3. Evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of Moroccan propolis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ait Mouse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor potential of a Moroccan propolis extracts. For in vitro assays, three mammalian tumor cell lines were used: BSR (hamster renal adenocarcinoma, Hep-2 (human laryngeal carcinoma and P815 (murin mastocytoma. The propolis ethanolic extract as well as the ethyl acetate extract, exert an in vitro cytotoxic activity in dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values were ranging from 15 µg/mL to 38 µg/mL. This activity depends not only on the extract's chemical composition (analysed by HPLC/ESI-MS, but also on the target tumor cells. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of these extracts on the normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was weak when compared to that induced on tumor cells. On the other hand, oral route treatment of P815 tumor-bearing mice (DBA2/P815 with propolis ethanolic extract (5 mg per mouse every fourth day, five times for group A, and 2.5 mg per mouse every fourth day, five times for group B significantly reduced the tumor volume (1.2 cm³ for group A and 2.7 cm³ for group B at the 22nd day after tumor graft. These effects are statistically significant as compared to those obtained with the control untreated mice (tumor volume 3.5 cm³ at day 22.

  4. Evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of Moroccan propolis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ait Mouse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor potential of a Moroccan propolis extracts. For in vitro assays, three mammalian tumor cell lines were used: BSR (hamster renal adenocarcinoma, Hep-2 (human laryngeal carcinoma and P815 (murin mastocytoma. The propolis ethanolic extract as well as the ethyl acetate extract, exert an in vitro cytotoxic activity in dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values were ranging from 15 µg/mL to 38 µg/mL. This activity depends not only on the extract's chemical composition (analysed by HPLC/ESI-MS, but also on the target tumor cells. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of these extracts on the normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was weak when compared to that induced on tumor cells. On the other hand, oral route treatment of P815 tumor-bearing mice (DBA2/P815 with propolis ethanolic extract (5 mg per mouse every fourth day, five times for group A, and 2.5 mg per mouse every fourth day, five times for group B significantly reduced the tumor volume (1.2 cm³ for group A and 2.7 cm³ for group B at the 22nd day after tumor graft. These effects are statistically significant as compared to those obtained with the control untreated mice (tumor volume 3.5 cm³ at day 22.

  5. Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Steven L; Kim, Eonho; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to vibration-stretching (VS; n = 8), vibration only (VO; n = 6), or stretching only (SO; n = 7) groups that trained 3 times per week for 3 weeks. All 3 groups performed 9 total sets of 30-second stretches. The VS group performed four 30-second upper-body vibration exercises and five 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. The VO group performed nine 30-second upper-body vibration exercises. The SO group performed nine 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. Shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder extension (SE), and shoulder transverse extension (STE) were assessed by a Leighton Flexometer and back scratch tests bilaterally (BSR, BSL) were measured via tape measure. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated groups at baseline and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA evaluated the interventions over time. At baseline, there were no group differences in age, height, or weight. There was a significant (p alone or combined with stretching, is a viable alternative to a standard stretching routine when attempting to increase shoulder flexibility. Adding vibration training to a flexibility regimen may improve the likelihood of regularly performing flexibility sessions because of increased variety.

  6. Final Scientific/Technical Report of Gas Hydrate Dynamics on the Alaskan Beaufort Continental Slope: Modeling and Field Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbach, Matthew J [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Colwell, Frederick S [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Harris, Robert [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Methane Hydrates, a solid form of methane and water, exist at high pressures and low temperatures, occurs on every continental margin on Earth, represents one of the largest reservoirs of carbon on the planet, and, if destabilized, may play an important role in both slope stability and climate change. For decades, researchers have studied methane hydrates with the hope of determining if methane hydrates are destabilizing, and if so, how this destabilization might impact slope stability and ocean/atmosphere carbon budgets. In the past ~5 years, it has become well established that the upper “feather-edge” of methane hydrate stability (intermediate water depths of ~200-500 meters below sea level) represents an important frontier for methane hydrates stability research, as this zone is most susceptible to destabilization due to minor fluctuations in ocean temperature in space and time. The Arctic Ocean—one of the fastest warming regions on Earth—is perhaps the best place to study possible changes to methane hydrate stability due to ocean warming. To address the stability of methane hydrates at intermediate ocean depths, Southern Methodist University in partnership with Oregon State University and The United State Geological Survey at Woods Hole began investigating methane hydrate stability in intermediate water depths below both the US Beaufort Sea and the Atlantic Margin, from 2012-2017. The work was funded by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The key goal of the SMU component of this study was to collect the first ever heat flow data in the Beaufort Sea and compare measured shallow (probe-based1) heat flow values with deeper (BSR-derived2) heat flow values, and from this, determine whether hydrates were in thermal equilibrium. In September 2016, SMU/OSU collected the first ever heat flow measurements in the US Beaufort Sea. Despite poor weather and rough seas, the cruise was a success, with 116 heat flow

  7. An evaluation of water deficit tolerance screening in pigmented indica rice genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutipaijit, S.; Sompornpailin, K.

    2011-01-01

    Eight pigmented genotypes of indica subspecies were geminated and then treated by mannitol-induced water deficit stress. A change of growth characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, DNA content, proline content and anthocyanin accumulation in stressed seedling (100 mM mannitol) and control plant (0 mM mannitol) were calculated. Growth performances, photosynthetic pigment concentrations , and DNA contents in all rice genotypes were dropped whereas proline, anthocyanin contents and the lipid peroxidation levels were enriched. The stabilization in total photosynthetic pigment concentrations of stressed-seedlings were positively correlated to the proline or anthocyanin accumulation. In contrast, MDA content, the increases in the percentages of drought-stressed seedlings were negatively correlated to the proline or anthocyanin accumulation. The changes in biochemical, physiological and growth parameters were subjected to Wards cluster analysis for water deficit tolerance. These cultivars could be classified into two groups, water deficit sensitive, SY, KD, KLD and TD49 and water deficit tolerance, KS, KK1, KK2 and BSR. (author)

  8. Identification of Nitrogen Consumption Genetic Variants in Yeast Through QTL Mapping and Bulk Segregant RNA-Seq Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Cubillos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is responsible for wine must fermentation. In this process, nitrogen represents a limiting nutrient and its scarcity results in important economic losses for the wine industry. Yeast isolates use different strategies to grow in poor nitrogen environments and their genomic plasticity enables adaptation to multiple habitats through improvements in nitrogen consumption. Here, we used a highly recombinant S. cerevisiae multi-parent population (SGRP-4X derived from the intercross of four parental strains of different origins to identify new genetic variants responsible for nitrogen consumption differences during wine fermentation. Analysis of 165 fully sequenced F12 segregants allowed us to map 26 QTL in narrow intervals for 14 amino acid sources and ammonium, the majority of which represent genomic regions previously unmapped for these traits. To complement this strategy, we performed Bulk segregant RNA-seq (BSR-seq analysis in segregants exhibiting extremely high and low ammonium consumption levels. This identified several QTL overlapping differentially expressed genes and refined the gene candidate search. Based on these approaches, we were able to validate ARO1, PDC1, CPS1, ASI2, LYP1, and ALP1 allelic variants underlying nitrogen consumption differences between strains, providing evidence of many genes with small phenotypic effects. Altogether, these variants significantly shape yeast nitrogen consumption with important implications for evolution, ecological, and quantitative genomics.

  9. Acoustic Investigations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Formations, Offshore Southwestern Black Sea*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, H. M.; Dondurur, D.; Ozel, O.; Atgin, O.; Sinayuc, C.; Merey, S.; Parlaktuna, M.; Cifci, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Black Sea is a large intercontinental back-arc basin with relatively high sedimentation rate. The basin was formed as two different sub-basins divided by Mid-Black Sea Ridge. The ridge is completely buried today and the Black Sea became a single basin in the early Miocene that is currently anoxic. Recent acoustic investigations in the Black Sea indicate potential for gas hydrate formation and gas venting. A total of 2500 km multichannel seismic, Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetry data were collected during three different expeditions in 2010 and 2012 along the southwestern margin of the Black Sea. Box core sediment samples were collected for gas cromatography analysis. Wide spread BSRs and multiple BSRs are observed in the seismic profiles and may be categorized into two different types: cross-cutting BSRs (transecting sedimentary strata) and amplitude BSRs (enhanced reflections). Both types mimic the seabed reflection with polarity reversal. Some undulations of the BSR are observed along seismic profiles probably caused by local pressure and/or temperature changes. Shallow gas sources and chimney vents are clearly indicated by bright reflection anomalies in the seismic data. Gas cromatography results indicate the presence of methane and various components of heavy hydrocarbons, including Hexane. These observations suggest that the gas forming hydrate in the southwestern Black Sea may originate from deeper thermogenic hydrocarbon sources. * This study is supported by 2214-A programme of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK).

  10. CLIMATE CHANGES AND ADAPTATION POLICIES IN THE BALTIC AND THE ADRIATIC REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bosnjakovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of differences and similarities of the current climate changes in the Baltic and Adriatic coastal regions and appropriate adaptation policies on national, regional and European level. All reparian countries are at different stages of developing and implementing national adaptation strategies. The proposal for an overall BSR wide Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan has been launched with the aim to recommend actions for climate change adaptation in the Baltic region. No similar agreement has been concluded yet on the protection of the semi-closed Adriatic Sea, the surface of which is about 1/2 of that of the Baltic Sea, and whose coastal region is home to about 1/4 of that of the Baltic Sea. The differences in the socio-economic characteristics and indicators may be partly responsible for the differring attitudes, actions and reporting concerning the adaptation to climate change, both between individual countries, as well as between the two regions as a whole

  11. Comparative efficacy of immunization with inactivated whole tachyzoites versus a tachyzoite-bradyzoite mixture against neosporosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Montejo, S; Collantes-Fernández, E; Rodríguez-Marcos, S; Pérez-Zaballos, F; López-Pérez, I; Prenafeta, A; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2011-09-01

    The worldwide economic impact of Neospora caninum infection has caused the development of effective vaccines to become one of the main goals in the field of neosporosis research. In this study, the protection conferred by antigens from inactivated whole tachyzoites (TZ) and a tachyzoite-bradyzoite mixture (TZ-BZ) of N. caninum (Nc-Spain7 isolate) incorporated into a water-in-oil emulsion (W/O) and aluminium hydroxide-ginseng extract (Al/G) was evaluated in mouse models of congenital and cerebral N. caninum infection. Immunization with TZ-BZ induced congenital and cerebral neosporosis exacerbation that was mainly characterized by reduced neonatal median survival time and increased parasite presence in adult mouse brains. The immune response of mice immunized with TZ-BZ was characterized by an increase in IFN-γ expression prior to challenge and an increase in IL-4 expression accompanied with significantly higher levels of antibodies against 2 recombinant bradyzoite-specific proteins (rNcSAG4 and rNcBSR4) after challenge. Immunization with TZ in W/O significantly reduced neonatal mortality, vertical transmission as well as parasite presence in adult mouse brains and induced a strong humoral immune response. The current study demonstrates the critical role of stage-specific antigens and adjuvants on the development of effective inactivated vaccines for the prevention of N. caninum infection.

  12. Prospective molecular markers for the identification of illegally traded angelsharks (Squatina) and dolphin (Sotalia guianensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, L H O; Furtado-Neto, M A A; Maggioni, R; Faria, V V

    2014-11-24

    Endangered angelsharks and a protected dolphin species are illegally traded in Brazil. In this study, we determined prospective molecular markers for detecting these species in the trade of angelshark carcasses and 'dolphin' eyeball amulets. We compiled publicly available as well as new and unpublished cytochrome b (cyt b) DNA sequences for species involved in these trades. These sequences were digested in silico using restriction enzymes. We then described prospective polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers for distinguishing between protected species and the species whose trade was legally allowed in these two trade groups. The prospective marker for identifying angelshark carcasses consists of cyt b PCR and digestion by BstXI, BsgI, BspMI, BsrDI, and HaeII restriction enzymes. The prospective marker for identifying eyeball amulets consists of cyt b PCR and digestion by ApoI, BtsI, HindII, BsaAI, BplI, and SspI restriction enzymes. This is the first study to deposit in GenBank cyt b sequences for the angelshark species Squatina argentina, Squatina guggenheim, and Squatina occulta. Moreover, the S. argentina haplotype is the first DNA sequence for this species deposited in GenBank.

  13. Delineation, Characterization and Assessment of Gas-hydrates: Examples from Indian Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, K.

    2017-12-01

    Successful test productions in McKenzie delta, Alaska, Nankai Trough and more recently in South China Sea have provided great hopes for production of gas-hydrates in near future, and boosted national programs of many countries including India. It has been imperative to map the prospective zones of gas-hydrates and evaluate their resource potential. Hence, we have adopted a systematic strategy for the delineation, characterization and quantification of gas-hydrates based on seismic traveltime tomography, full-waveform inversion, impedance inversion, attributes computation and rock-physical modeling. The bathymetry, seafloor temperature, total organic carbon content, sediment-thickness, rate of sedimentation, geothermal gradient imply that shallow sediments of Indian deep water are good hosts for occurrences of gas-hydrates. From the analysis of multi-channel seismic (MCS) data, we have identified the Krishna-Godavari (KG), Mahanadi and Andaman basins as prospective for gas-hydrates, and their presence has been validated by drilling and coring of Indian Expeditions-01 and -02. The MCS data also shows BSR-like features in the Cauvery, Kerala-Konkan and Saurashtra basins indicating that gas-hydrates cannot be ruled out from these basins also. We shall present several approaches that have been applied to field seismic and well-log data for the detection, characterization and quantification of gas-hydrates along the Indian margin.

  14. Reversible changes in cranial CT findings due to ACTH therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojo, H.; Nakano, S.; Kataoka, K. (Shizuoka Prefectural Children' s Hospital (Japan))

    1981-05-01

    A total of 37 courses of ACTH therapy was given to 29 patients with infantile spasms and 5 patients with Lennox syndrome. Pre- and post treatment, and follow-up cranial computed tomography (CT) was performed and degree or cerebral atrophy, time to recovery, and factors which determines the severeness of cerebral atrophy were evaluated. The follow-up period was from 2 months to 2 years and 4 months, mean 15.1 months. 1. The brain/skull ratio (BSR) determined by a planimeter was 92.5% (sigma = +-4.8) before the treatment, 87.5% (sigma = +-5.4) immediately after the treatment, and 92.5% (sigma = +-4.1) 4 - 6 months after the treatment. The actual cut surface area of the brain gave similar results. 2. The maximal width of the 3rd ventricle was 2.1 mm (sigma = +-1.1) before therapy, 2.7 mm (sigma = +-1.2) immediately after the therapy and recovered to 2.1 mm (sigma = +-0.5) 4 - 6 months after the therapy. The maximal interuncinal distance had a similar tendency. 3. The degree of cerebral atrophy correlated with the total amount of ACTH. Atrophy tended to be marked in the younger patients. 4. No subdural effusion was found. 5. ACTH therapy is useful for treatment of infantile spasms.

  15. Research on Control-Oriented Modeling for Turbocharged SI and DI Gasoline Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feitie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze system performance and develop model-based control algorithms for turbocharged spark ignition and direct injection (SIDI gasoline engines, a control oriented mean value model is developed and validated. The model is constructed based on theoretical analysis for the different components, including the compressor, turbine, air filter, intercooler, throttle, manifold, and combustion chamber. Compressor mass flow and efficiency are modeled as parameterized functions. A standard nozzle model is used to approximate the mass flow through the turbine, and the turbine efficiency is modeled as a function of blade speed ratio (BSR. The air filter is modeled as a tube for capturing its pressure drop feature. The effectiveness number of transfer units (NTU modeling method is utilized for the intercooler. The throttle model consists of the standard nozzle model with an effective area regressed to throttle position. Manifolds are modeled for their dynamically varying pressure state. For the cylinder, the air mass flow into cylinders, fuel mass, torque, and exhaust temperature are modeled. Compared to the conventional lookup table approach, transient dynamics error can be improved significantly through using the model from this work.

  16. Model to predict the flow of tracers in naturally fractured geothermal reservoirs; Modelo para predecir el flujo de trazadores en yacimientos geotermicos naturalmente fracturados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Sabag, Jetzabeth

    1988-02-01

    {sub e1} fixes the characteristic of the family of curves. Also it was found that the irruption time for a given concentration depends strongly on {alpha}. [Spanish] El modelo propuesto ha sido desarrollado para estudiar el flujo de trazadores a traves de yacimientos geotermicos naturalmente fracturados. El sistema idealizado del yacimiento esta compuesto por dos regiones: Una region movil donde mecanismos de difusion y conveccion estan presentes y una region estancada o inmovil donde se consideran los mecanismos de difusion y adsorcion: en ambas regiones se considera la perdida de masa por decaimiento radioactivo. Las soluciones de las ecuaciones basicas de flujo estan en el espacio de Laplace y se utilizo el algoritmo de Stehfest para su inversion numerica. A pesar de la dispersion numerica que presentan estas soluciones, se encontro una tendencia bien definida para inferir el comportamiento del sistema bajo diferentes condiciones de flujo. Se encontro que, para propositos practicos el tamano de los bloques de matriz no tiene influencia sobre la respuesta de la concentracion, y la solucion se reduce a la presentada por Tang y asociados. Bajo estas condiciones, el comportamiento del sistema puede ser descrito por dos parametros adimensionales: El numero de Peclet en las fracturas y un parametro. Se derivo tambien la respuesta del trazador para la solucion pico. Se encontro una solucion analitica limite para el caso en que {alpha} tienda a cero, el cual corresponde al caso de un sistema homogeneo. Se comprobo que esta solucion limite es valida, para {alpha}<0.01. Para el caso de inyeccion continua esta solucion se reduce a la presentada por Coasts y Smith. Para la solucion pico, se encontro que el tiempo de irrupcion correspondiente a la maxima concentracion esta relacionada directamente con el grupo adimensional. Por lo tanto, es posible obtener el valor de P{sub e1} para una X{sub D} dada, o viceversa. Un grupo de graficas de concentracion adimensional en la fractura

  17. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  18. 900-m high gas plumes rising from marine sediments containing structure II hydrates at Vestnesa Ridge, offshore W-Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J.; Mienert, Jürgen; Bünz, Stefan; Greinert, Jens; Rasmussen, Tine L.

    2013-04-01

    We study an arctic sediment drift in ~1200 m water depth at Vestnesa Ridge, offshore western Svalbard. The ridge is spotted with pockmarks that range in size from a few meters to hundreds of meters in diameter and centimeters to tens of meters in height (e.g. Vogt et al., 1994). There is a strong negative-polarity seismic reflection below the ridge that is interpreted to record a negative impedance contrast marking the boundary between gas hydrate and water above and free gas and water below: it is the bottom-simulating reflector (BSR). Seismically transparent zones, interpreted as gas chimneys, extend from pockmarks at the seafloor to depths below the BSR (180-220 meters below the seafloor) (Bünz et al., 2012). Gas flares, gas hydrate, and methane-seep-specific biological communities (pogonphora and begiatoa bacterial mats) have been observed adjacent to pockmarks at the ridge (Bünz et al., 2012). We present new single-beam echosounding data that were acquired during 2010 and 2012 cruises on the R/V Helmer Hanssen at Vestnesa Ridge using a Simrad EK60 system that operates at frequencies of 18 and 38 kHz. During both cruises which lasted 3-5 days, we detected continuous bubble release from 4 separate pockmarks in 2010 and 6 separate pockmarks in 2012. There were no noticeable, short-term (hourly or daily) variations in the bubble release from the pockmarks, indicating that the venting from the pockmarks does not undergo rapid changes. Plumes from the pockmarks rise between 875 to 925m above the seafloor to a final water depth of 325 to 275m, respectively. This depth is in excellent agreement with the top of the hydrate stability zone (275 meters below sea level) for the gas composition of hydrate sampled at the ridge (96.31% C1; 3.36% C2; 0.21% C3; 0.11% IC4; 0.01% NC4). This suggests that hydrate skins are forming around the gas bubbles, inhibiting the dissolution of gas, and allowing the bubbles to rise to such great heights in the water column. Our results

  19. Machine learning for the automatic detection of anomalous events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wendy D.

    .3% overall accuracy and less than 1.4% false negatives in anomaly detection. In Chapter 4, we research using two-class and one-class support vector machines (SVMs) for an effective anomaly detection system. We again use the two different EDL data sets from experimental laboratory earth embankments (each having approximately 80% normal and 20% anomalies) to ensure our workflow is robust enough to work with multiple data sets and different types of anomalous events (e.g., cracks and piping). We apply Haar wavelet-denoising techniques and extract nine spectral features from decomposed segments of the time series data. The two-class SVM with 10-fold cross validation achieved over 94% overall accuracy and 96% F1-score. Our approach provides a means for automatically identifying anomalous events using various machine learning techniques. Detecting internal erosion events in aging EDLs, earlier than is currently possible, can allow more time to prevent or mitigate catastrophic failures. Results show that we can successfully separate normal from anomalous data observations in passive seismic data, and provide a step towards techniques for continuous real-time monitoring of EDL health. Our lightweight non-commercial BSR detection system also has promise in separating commercial from non-commercial BSR scans without the need for prior geographic location information, extensive time-lapse surveys, or a database of known commercial carriers. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  20. Utilizarea aditivului nutriţional în hrana stimulatoare a albinelor în perioada de primăvară

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae EREMIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studying the influence of nutritional feed additive Vitacorm BSR (biogenic stimulator obtained from plant raw material through anaerobic bacterial fermentation on queens’ prolificacy, development degree and productivity of bee colonies. Three groups of bee colonies (Carpathian breed received with sugar syrup different doses of additive (1, 2 and 3 ml, administered every 10-12 days, from April 22 until the beginning of the main honey flow on black locust. Obtained data show that the optimum dose of the nutritional additive is 2.0 ml/l of sugar syrup in a concentration of 1:1. After the main honey flow on black locust (May 25 it was determined that the nutritional additive provided an increase of bee families power by 5.7 to 10.7 spaces among the combs populated by bees and an increase of honey production of 29.9 - 50.6%. The oviposition of the queens from the experimental groups was of 1069-1314 eggs in 24 hours or by 26.66-55.69 % more compared to the control group, which was fed only with sugar syrup (844 eggs. Rezumat. Lucrarea prezintă rezultatele studiului privind influenţa aditivului nutriţional Vitacorm BSR (stimulator biogen obţinut din materie primă vegetală prin fermentare bacteriană anaerobă asupra prolificităţii mătcilor, gradului de dezvoltare şi productivităţii familiilor de albine. Trei loturi de familii de albine (rasa Carpatică au primit împreună cu siropul de zahăr diferite doze de aditiv (1, 2 şi 3 ml, administrate odată la 10-12 zile, începând cu data de 22 aprilie şi până la începutul culesului principal de la salcâmul alb. Datele obţinute demonstrează că doza optimală a aditivului nutriţional este de 2,0 ml/l de sirop de zahăr în concentraţie de 1:1. După culesul de la salcâmul alb (25 mai s-a constatat că aditivul nutriţional a asigurat o creştere a puterii familiilor de albine cu 5,7-10,7 spaţii dintre faguri populaţi cu albine şi o majorare a

  1. Salvage logging effect on soil properties in a fire-affected Mediterranean forest: a two years monitoring research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Moltó, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Chrenkovà, Katerina; Torres, Pilar; Jara-Navarro, Ana B.; Díaz, Gisela; Izquierdo, Ezequiel

    2015-04-01

    In the Mediterranean countries, forest fires are common and must be considered as an ecological factor, but changes in land use, especially in the last five decades have provoked a modification in their natural regime. Moreover, post-fire management can have an additional impact on the ecosystem; in some cases, even more severe than the fire. Salvage logging is a traditional management in most fire-affected areas. In some cases, the way of doing it, using heavy machinery, and the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation make this management potentially very agresive to soil, and therefore to the ecosystem. Very little research has been done to study how this treatment could affect soil health. In this research we show 2 years of monitoring of some soil properties in an area affected by a forest fire, where some months later this treatment was applied. The study area is located in 'Sierra de Mariola Natural Park' in Alcoi, Alicante (E Spain). A big forest fire (>500 has) occurred in July 2012. The forest is composed mainly of Pinus halepensis trees with an understory of typical Mediterranean shrubs species such as Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Brachypodium retusum, etc. Soil is classified as a Typic Xerorthent (Soil Survey Staff, 2014) developed over marls. In February 2013, salvage logging (SL) treatment consisting in a complete extraction of the burned wood using heavy machinery was applied in a part of the affected forest. Plots for monitoring this effect were installed in this area and in a similar nearby area where no treatment was done, and then used as control (C) for comparison. Soil samplings were done immediately after treatment and every 6 months. Some soil properties were analysed, including soil organic matter (SOM) content, basal soil respiration (BSR), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), bulk density (BD), soil water repellency (SWR), aggregate stability (AS), field capacity, nitrogen, etc. After two years of

  2. USGS science for a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deborah R. Hutchinson

    2006-04-01

    This final report to the Department of Energy for Task DE-AT26-97FT34343 covers the period from 1997 to April, 2005 and summarizes the larger research accomplishments, which can be divided in field and laboratory experiments. The geophysical and sampling field programs include 5 experiments conducted between 1998 and 2003 in the Gulf of Mexico (four cruises) and on the Blake Ridge (one cruise). Significant results from the Gulf of Mexico include advancing knowledge of gas hydrate as a potential hazard to drilling at a time when petroleum exploration and production move into deeper water on the continental slope. Anomalous bright reflections called high-reflectivity zones (HRZ's) were identified as possible seismic indicators of gas hydrate. Subsequent sampling through coring identified how methane flux changes from vent regions into mini-basins, and could explain the lack of a known Bottom Simulating Reflection (BSR) in much of the Gulf. In conjunction with the Chevron Gulf of Mexico JIP project, two site surveys were run to characterize gas hydrate prior to drilling in 2005, including detailed analysis of a BSR reflection at one of the sites. The one cruise to the Blake Ridge collected core samples to test the origin and age of the Blake Ridge collapse feature. While the cruise results were equivocal, they results raised new questions about the timing of methane release from hydrate in this well-studied natural laboratory field site. These field programs, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico, helped further DOE goals of understanding gas hydrates in areas where deep-water drilling and production were likely to penetrate the gas hydrate stability zone. Laboratory experiments were generally integrated with field studies but addressed specific questions about methane hydrate behavior and properties. Studies in the Gas Hydrate and Sediment Testing Laboratory Instrument (GHASTLI) performed some of the first physical property measurements on hydrate-sediment mixtures

  3. Nitrate retention capacity of milldam-impacted legacy sediments and relict A horizon soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Weitzman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While eutrophication is often attributed to contemporary nutrient pollution, there is growing evidence that past practices, like the accumulation of legacy sediment behind historic milldams, are also important. Given their prevalence, there is a critical need to understand how N flows through, and is retained in, legacy sediments to improve predictions and management of N transport from uplands to streams in the context of climatic variability and land-use change. Our goal was to determine how nitrate (NO3− is cycled through the soil of a legacy-sediment-strewn stream before and after soil drying. We extracted 10.16 cm radius intact soil columns that extended 30 cm into each of the three significant soil horizons at Big Spring Run (BSR in Lancaster, Pennsylvania: surface legacy sediment characterized by a newly developing mineral A horizon soil, mid-layer legacy sediment consisting of mineral B horizon soil and a dark, organic-rich, buried relict A horizon soil. Columns were first preincubated at field capacity and then isotopically labeled nitrate (15NO3− was added and allowed to drain to estimate retention. The columns were then air-dried and subsequently rewet with N-free water and allowed to drain to quantify the drought-induced loss of 15NO3− from the different horizons. We found the highest initial 15N retention in the mid-layer legacy sediment (17 ± 4 % and buried relict A soil (14 ± 3 % horizons, with significantly lower retention in the surface legacy sediment (6 ± 1 % horizon. As expected, rewetting dry soil resulted in 15N losses in all horizons, with the greatest losses in the buried relict A horizon soil, followed by the mid-layer legacy sediment and surface legacy sediment horizons. The 15N remaining in the soil following the post-drought leaching was highest in the mid-layer legacy sediment, intermediate in the surface legacy sediment, and lowest in the buried relict A horizon soil. Fluctuations

  4. Implications of CI therapy for Visual Deficit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward eTaub

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We address here the question of whether the techniques of CI therapy, a family of treatments that has been employed in the rehabilitation of movement and language after brain damage might apply to the rehabilitation of such visual deficits as unilateral spatial neglect and visual field deficits. CI therapy has been used successfully for the upper and lower extremities after chronic stroke, cerebral palsy (CP, multiple sclerosis (MS, other CNS degenerative conditions, resection of motor areas of the brain, focal hand dystonia, and aphasia. Treatments making use of similar methods have proven efficacious for amblyopia.The CI therapy approach consists of four major components: intensive training, training by shaping, a transfer package to facilitate the transfer of gains from the treatment setting to everyday activities, and strong discouragement of compensatory strategies.CI therapy is said to be effective because it overcomes learned nonuse, a learned inhibition of movement that follows injury to the CNS. In addition, CI therapy produces substantial increases in the grey matter of motor areas on both sides of the brain. We propose here that these mechanisms are examples of more general processes: learned nonuse being considered parallel to sensory nonuse following damage to sensory areas of the brain, with both having in common diminished neural connections (DNC in the nervous system as an underlying mechanism. CI therapy would achieve its therapeutic effect by strengthening the diminished neural connections. Use-dependent cortical reorganization is considered to be an example of the more general neuroplastic mechanism of brain structure repurposing (BSR. If the mechanisms involved in these broader categories are involved in each of the deficits being considered, then it may be the principles underlying efficacious treatment in each case may be similar. The lessons learned during CI therapy research might then prove useful for the treatment of

  5. An in vitro study of the antifungal activity of Trichoderma virens 7b and a profile of its non-polar antifungal components released against Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lee Pei Lee; Yusof, Mohd Termizi; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Ping, Bonnie Tay Yen; Mohamed Azni, Intan Nur Ainni; Kamarudin, Norman Hj; Sundram, Shamala

    2016-11-01

    Ganoderma boninense is the causal agent of a devastating disease affecting oil palm in Southeast Asian countries. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease slowly rots the base of palms, which radically reduces productive lifespan of this lucrative crop. Previous reports have indicated the successful use of Trichoderma as biological control agent (BCA) against G. boninense and isolate T. virens 7b was selected based on its initial screening. This study attempts to decipher the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of G. boninense by identifying and characterizing the chemical compounds as well as the physical mechanisms by T. virens 7b. Hexane extract of the isolate gave 62.60% ± 6.41 inhibition against G. boninense and observation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) detected severe mycelial deformation of the pathogen at the region of inhibition. Similar mycelia deformation of G. boninense was observed with a fungicide treatment, Benlate ® indicating comparable fungicidal effect by T. virens 7b. Fraction 4 and 5 of hexane active fractions through preparative thin layer chromatography (P-TLC) was identified giving the best inhibition of the pathogen. These fractions comprised of ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, lactones, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, sulphides, and free fatty acids profiled through gas chromatography mass spectrometry detector (GC/MSD). A novel antifungal compound discovery of phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) by T. virens 7b is reported through this study. T. virens 7b also proved to be an active siderophore producer through chrome azurol S (CAS) agar assay. The study demonstrated the possible mechanisms involved and responsible in the successful inhibition of G. boninense.

  6. Rapid detection of Ganoderma-infected oil palms by microwave ergosterol extraction with HPLC and TLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniroh, M S; Sariah, M; Zainal Abidin, M A; Lima, N; Paterson, R R M

    2014-05-01

    Detection of basal stem rot (BSR) by Ganoderma of oil palms was based on foliar symptoms and production of basidiomata. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays-Polyclonal Antibody (ELISA-PAB) and PCR have been proposed as early detection methods for the disease. These techniques are complex, time consuming and have accuracy limitations. An ergosterol method was developed which correlated well with the degree of infection in oil palms, including samples growing in plantations. However, the method was capable of being optimised. This current study was designed to develop a simpler, more rapid and efficient ergosterol method with utility in the field that involved the use of microwave extraction. The optimised procedure involved extracting a small amount of Ganoderma, or Ganoderma-infected oil palm suspended in low volumes of solvent followed by irradiation in a conventional microwave oven at 70°C and medium high power for 30s, resulting in simultaneous extraction and saponification. Ergosterol was detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The TLC method was novel and provided a simple, inexpensive method with utility in the field. The new method was particularly effective at extracting high yields of ergosterol from infected oil palm and enables rapid analysis of field samples on site, allowing infected oil palms to be treated or culled very rapidly. Some limitations of the method are discussed herein. The procedures lend themselves to controlling the disease more effectively and allowing more effective use of land currently employed to grow oil palms, thereby reducing pressure to develop new plantations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High Performance InGaAsSb TPV Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZA Shellengarger; GC Taylor; RU Martinelli; JM Carpinelli

    2004-06-09

    Lattice-matched 0.52 eV InGaAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells are grown using a multi-wafer metal-organic-chemical-vapor-deposition (MOCVD) system. MOCVD growth series of P/N junction epitaxial structures consisting of as many as 30 wafers demonstrate good run-to-run reproducibility, good uniformity across the wafer and exhibit high performance with open circuit voltages of {approx}300mV and fill factors of 70% at 25 C. Growth parameters, including temperature, surface preparation and substrate orientation, that directly affect growth have been optimized for the active 0.52 eV InGaAsSb region and GaSb confinement layers. Focus is on increasing TPV diode performance through architectural improvements, specifically by reducing the minority carrier recombination velocity at the emitter and base front and back interfaces. Work in support of incorporating a back surface reflector (BSR) including the growth of N/P diode architectures and the addition of a lattice-matched InAsSb etch stop layer for substrate removal and wafer bonding, is reported. The lattice matched InAsSb stop etch exhibits resiliency to the substrate removal and wafer bonding processes. Substantial improvement in carrier lifetime on test structures with P-type AlGaAsSb layers indicated incorporation of these layers into the TPV cell structure should provide significant improvement in open-circuit voltage. Addition of AlGaAsSb confinement layers to the standard P/N cell structure gave some of the best InGaAsSb TPV cell results to date.

  8. Diapiric activities and intraslope basin development offshore of SW Taiwan: A case study of the Lower Fangliao Basin gas hydrate prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ho-Han; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Ko, Chia-Chun; Chiu, Shye-Donq; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2017-11-01

    The architecture and distribution of mud diapirs are shaped by tectonic activity, sediment filling and unbalanced loading characteristics. Mud diapir development also controls spatial variations of intraslope basins in slope areas and can spur upward fluid migration with diapiric intrusion. The offshore area of southwestern Taiwan is an incipient collision zone in which thick sequences of deep marine sediments filled a rapidly subsided foredeep basin during the Pliocene. Large volumes of deposited sediment serve as source materials of diapiric ridges that extend NNE-SSW, and some mud diapirs even extend to on land SW Taiwan with subsurface signatures of gas. This study examines relationships between mud diapir and intraslope basin development in convergent tectonics through seismic and bathymetry data analyses. Four types of mud diapirs are identified: (1) buried symmetrical diapirs; (2) symmetrical diapirs extruded above the seafloor; (3) asymmetric and irregular diapirs; and (4) small individual diapirs manifested as mud intrusions found in local areas. A 3-stage model is proposed as a tool for describing the development and distribution of these types of diapirs. We further examine the relationship between mud diapirs and intraslope basin development patterns by analyzing 2D and 3D seismic images to reveal structural and sedimentary processes occurring in the Lower Fangliao Basin. This basin is characterized by BSR and amplitude anomalies of seismic profiles and is a prospect of the Taiwanese gas hydrate investigation project. An 8-stage development model with six depositional units is proposed as a means to explain the evolution of diapirs, submarine canyons, and fold and fault activities in the Lower Fangliao Basin, in turn revealing the relationship between mud diapir formation and intraslope basin development offshore of southwestern Taiwan.

  9. Preliminary Studies on the Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Mycelia of Ganoderma boninense, the Causal Pathogen of Basal Stem Rot of Oil Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamala, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to raise specific MAbs against G. boninense, the causal pathogen of basal stem rot (BSR of oil palm. Crude mycelium extract of G. boninense was used as immunogen to generate MAbs. Mycelium was harvested from liquid culture and freeze-dried followed by re-suspension in phosphate buffer saline (PBS. Two 10-week old BALB-C mice were immunized with the mycelial extract. The mice were boosted once before harvesting their spleens for fusion. The MAbs were fused with myeloma cells from BALB-C mice. Initial screening was carried out using plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA with mycelial immunogen of G. boninense. The MAbs with positive signals were verified via secondary screening and cloned for cross-reactivity test. Cross-reactivity testing was carried out with 2 other fungi namely; Trichoderma and Botrytis along with 2 different species of Ganoderma commonly found in oil palm plantations namely; G. zonatum, and G. miniatocinctum. This study found that the MAbs raised against G. boninense were not specific as the MAbs gave positive signals through the cross-reactivity test with all fungi tested in the cross-reactivity. Future work would be using these MAbs in a co-immunization program whereby the generated Ganoderma sp generic monoclonal antibody will be pre-mixed with the G. boninense mycelium immunogen to allow reduction in the potential cross-reactivity of newly generated antibodies with Ganoderma sp. Our efforts are also currently directed at optimizing the immunogen preparation for the production of MAbs specific to G. boninense.

  10. Imaging the Seismic Crustal Structure of the Western Mexican Margin between 19°N and 21°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, Rafael; Dañobeitia, Juanjo; Michaud, François; Córdoba, Diego; Delgado-Argote, Luis A.

    2011-08-01

    Three thousand kilometres of multichannel (MCS) and wide-angle seismic profiles, gravity and magnetic, multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data were recorded in the offshore area of the west coast of Mexico and the Gulf of California during the spring 1996 (CORTES survey). The seismic images obtained off Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, in the Jalisco subduction zone extend from the oceanic domain up to the continental shelf, and significantly improve the knowledge of the internal crustal structure of the subduction zone between the Rivera and North American (NA) Plates. Analyzing the crustal images, we differentiate: (1) An oceanic domain with an important variation in sediment thickness ranging from 2.5 to 1 km southwards; (2) an accretionary prism comprised of highly deformed sediments, extending for a maximum width of 15 km; (3) a deformed forearc basin domain which is 25 km wide in the northern section, and is not seen towards the south where the continental slope connects directly with the accretionary prism and trench, thus suggesting a different deformational process; and (4) a continental domain consisting of a continental slope and a mid slope terrace, with a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) identified in the first second of the MCS profiles. The existence of a developed accretionary prism suggests a subduction-accretion type tectonic regime. Detailed analysis of the seismic reflection data in the oceanic domain reveals high amplitude reflections at around 6 s [two way travel time (twtt)] that clearly define the subduction plane. At 2 s (twtt) depth we identify a strong reflection which we interpret as the Moho discontinuity. We have measured a mean dip angle of 7° ± 1° at the subduction zone where the Rivera Plate begins to subduct, with the dip angle gently increasing towards the south. The oceanic crust has a mean crustal thickness of 6.0-6.5 km. We also find evidence indicating that the Rivera Plate possibly subducts at very low angles beneath the Tres

  11. A Ranking Approach to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, Mathieu; Onogi, Akio; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Ueda, Naonori

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a recent selective breeding method which uses predictive models based on whole-genome molecular markers. Until now, existing studies formulated GS as the problem of modeling an individual's breeding value for a particular trait of interest, i.e., as a regression problem. To assess predictive accuracy of the model, the Pearson correlation between observed and predicted trait values was used. In this paper, we propose to formulate GS as the problem of ranking individuals according to their breeding value. Our proposed framework allows us to employ machine learning methods for ranking which had previously not been considered in the GS literature. To assess ranking accuracy of a model, we introduce a new measure originating from the information retrieval literature called normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG). NDCG rewards more strongly models which assign a high rank to individuals with high breeding value. Therefore, NDCG reflects a prerequisite objective in selective breeding: accurate selection of individuals with high breeding value. We conducted a comparison of 10 existing regression methods and 3 new ranking methods on 6 datasets, consisting of 4 plant species and 25 traits. Our experimental results suggest that tree-based ensemble methods including McRank, Random Forests and Gradient Boosting Regression Trees achieve excellent ranking accuracy. RKHS regression and RankSVM also achieve good accuracy when used with an RBF kernel. Traditional regression methods such as Bayesian lasso, wBSR and BayesC were found less suitable for ranking. Pearson correlation was found to correlate poorly with NDCG. Our study suggests two important messages. First, ranking methods are a promising research direction in GS. Second, NDCG can be a useful evaluation measure for GS.

  12. Genetic and clinical predictors of ovarian response in assisted reproductive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiweko, B.; Damayanti, I.; Suryandari, D.; Natadisastra, M.; Pratama, G.; Sumapraja, K.; Meutia, K.; Iffanolia, P.; Harzief, A. K.; Hestiantoro, A.

    2017-08-01

    Several factors are known to influence ovarian response to rFSH stimulation such as age, antral follicle count (AFC), and basal FSH level, Mutation of allele Ser680Asn in FSHR gene was responsible to ovarian resistance toward exogenous FSH. The aim of this study is to develop a prediction model of ovarian response to COS in IVF. This study was a prospective cohort study. One hundred and thirteen women undergoing their first cycle of IVF in Yasmin IVF Clinic Jakarta were recruited to this study. Clinical datas included were age, BMI, and AFC. Basal FSH and E2 as well as serum AMH was measured from peripheral blood taken at second day of cycle. Bsr-1 enzyme is used to identify the polymorphism in exon 10 position 680 with RFLP technique. Three genotype polymorphism, Asn/Asn (255 bp ribbon), Asn/Ser (97 bp and 158 bp), and Ser/Ser (97 bp, 158 bp, and 255 bp). AFC has the highest predictor for ovarian response with AUC 0.922 (CI 95% 0.833-1.000). AMH also showed high predicting value (AUC 0.843 CI 95% 0.663-1.000). The multivariate analysis revealed combination of AFC, AMH, age, and basal FSH is a good model for ovarian response prediction (AUC=0.97). No significant relation between Asn/Asn, Asn/Ser, or Ser/Ser genotype FSHR polymorphism with ovarian response (p = 0.866) and total dose of rRSH (p = 0.08). This study showed that model combination of AFC, AMH, patient’s age and basal FSH are very good to predict number of mature oocytes.

  13. Diagenetic sulfurization of reactive compounds in late Paleozoic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, E. A.; Strauss, H.

    2003-04-01

    New sulfur isotope data for pairs of organic (OBS: organically bound sulfur from kerogen) and inorganic sulfur (CRS: chromium reducible sulfur, mostly pyrite) compounds of late Palaeozoic sediments (n=145) facilitate an improved insight into diagenetic reactions between bacterially formed hydrogen sulfide and reactive phases in the sediment (i.e. iron and organic matter). Most informative is a very strong correlation between the sulfur isotopic compositions of CRS and OBS (r=0.95), that indicates their mutual origin via bacterial sulfate reduction. Isotopic differences between OBS and CRS (begin{math}Δ34S = begin{math}δ34Sbegin{math}OBS - δ34Sbegin{math}CRS) range between -11 and +21 per mil. The abundance of more negative begin{math}δ34Sbegin{math}OBS values compared to begin{math}δ34Sbegin{math}CRS is relatively high (20% in our dataset). 30% of all samples show similar isotopic compositions. The remaining half displays the expected positive isotopic difference. Iron availability appears to be the key factor for preferential reaction with hydrogen sulfide an expected feature. Although a surprisingly high number of samples (20%) with sulfur isotope values of OBS more negative than CRS, we cannot necessarily state a higher reactivity of organic compounds towards hydrogen sulfide in comparison to iron. Instead we suggest a more likely reaction of organic compounds with hydrogen sulfide derived from further disproportionation reactions. This implies that highly reactive iron has already been exhausted during the earliest stages of diagenesis. Our data further suggest a causal relation between high TOCbegin{math}BSR (i.e. organic carbon used for bacterial sulfate reduction) values and high apparent isotope fractionation between sulfate and sulfide. This indicates a very efficient and fast turnover of metabolizable organic matter during early diagenesis.

  14. Development of biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test for sulfidogenic biotechnology application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Tsui, To-Hung; Ekama, George A; Mackey, Hamish R; Hao, Tianwei; Chen, Guanghao

    2018-05-15

    The determination of organics biodegradability and corresponding biodegradation kinetics provides valuable information on the optimal design and operation of anaerobic biotechnology especially for sulfidogenesis. This study proposes a deterministic method, i.e. a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test, and compares it to the conventional biochemical methane potential (BMP) test in terms of their ability to characterize sulfate-laden organic waste biodegradability. It demonstrated 1.48 times higher degradation of volatile suspended solids (VSS) and 2.60 times more chemical oxygen demand (COD) conversion in its major metabolites than the BMP test. Moreover, it required only four days to complete, compared to the 35 days required by the BMP test. Through the two-substrate first-order hydrolysis model, it was revealed that the shortened time was attributed to the enhanced degradation rates from both readily (eight times) and slowly (nearly 10 times) biodegradable organic substrates in the BSP test compared with the BMP test for the same sulfate-laden organic waste. The findings highlight the inappropriateness of the BMP test to sulfidogenic applications due to the underestimated predictions of organic waste biodegradability and excessive time requirements. Furthermore, the ability of the BSP test to identify the average elemental composition (C x H y O z N a P b S c ) of substrate biodegradable particulate organics (BPO) is explored and verified using a casein-based validation test. Using BPO elemental composition as the input variable, a BSP biochemical kinetic model is thereby developed to predict BSR performance and possible dynamic process control. Overall, this study demonstrates the applicability and advantages of the BSP test in sulfidogenic applications for characterization of organics biodegradability and identification of BPO average elemental composition, furthermore develops a process model utilizing the derived BPO average elemental composition to

  15. 3D Finite Element Modeling for Possible Creeping Behavior of Gas Hydrate-related Slipstream Submarine Slide, offshore Vancouver Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, S.; He, T.; Lan, K.; Spence, G.; Yelisetti, S.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas hydrate-related submarine landslides have been identified on worldwide continental slope. Being a potential risk for marine environment and engineering projects, it has been a hot topic of hydrate research in recent decades. The study target is Slipstream submarine landslide, one of the slope failures on the frontal ridges of the Northern Cascadia accretionary margin, off Vancouver Island, Canada. The previous studies of P- & S-wave velocity structure based on OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) data of SeaJade (Seafloor Earthquake Array - Japan Canada