WorldWideScience

Sample records for bso-induced glutathione deprivation

  1. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA- ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: February 22, 2012 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  2. Sleep deprivation in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doongaji D

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten patients diagnosed as suffering from depressive illness were treated with 2 consecutive nights of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was effective in both types of depression viz. endoge-nous and reactive. The improvement was greater and seemed to last longer in endogenous depression as compared to reactive depression at the time of evaluation, 7 days after completion of sleep deprivation. Depressed mood, suicidal tendencies and retard-ation seemed to show the greatest improvement while insight and gastro-intestinal and somatic symptoms, improved the least.

  3. Measuring deprivation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Mayo, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the deprivation in Spain based on ECHP data for 1996. Usually, an indirect approach for measuring deprivation or poverty is used with poverty lines. That is, income is used as a proxy for analysing living conditions. However, some studies have used a direct approach to measure deprivation or poverty (Townsend 1988, Mayer and Jencks 1988, Muffels 1993, Callan et al 1993, Dirven and Fouarge 1995, Layte et al 1999, Whelan et al 2000). The aim of this paper is improving the id...

  4. Glutathione in cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudes, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of light and O2 on glutathione production were determined. Results of light and dark studies under normal and reduced oxygen tensions were compared to determine the effect of reduction in oxygen tension on glutathione levels. The growth rate of Anacystis nidulans and concurrent production of glutathione is presented. The generation of time of Anacystis nidulans was approximately 12 hours. Results of light and dark incubation of Aphanothece halophytica dominated planktonic microbial community from Pond 4 and Anacystis nidulans under high and low oxygen tension is also presented. It appears that light grown Anacystis nidulans cells have equal amounts of glutathione while dark grown cells produce more glutathione in the presence of increased O2.

  5. Sulbutiamine counteracts trophic factor deprivation induced apoptotic cell death in transformed retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kui Dong; Majid, Aman Shah Abdul; Kim, Kyung-A; Kang, Kyungsu; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Nho, Chu Won; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2010-11-01

    Sulbutiamine is a highly lipid soluble synthetic analogue of vitamin B(1) and is used clinically for the treatment of asthenia. The aim of our study was to demonstrate whether sulbutiamine is able to attenuate trophic factor deprivation induced cell death to transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). Cells were subjected to serum deprivation for defined periods and sulbutiamine at different concentrations was added to the cultures. Various procedures (e.g. cell viability assays, apoptosis assay, reactive oxygen species analysis, Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis, glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) measurement) were used to demonstrate the effect of sulbutiamine. Sulbutiamine dose-dependently attenuated apoptotic cell death induced by serum deprivation and stimulated GSH and GST activity. Moreover, sulbutiamine decreased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and AIF. This study demonstrates for the first time that sulbutiamine is able to attenuate trophic factor deprivation induced apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells in culture. PMID:20809085

  6. Membrane accessibility of glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Alvaro; Eljack, Nasma D; Sani, Marc-Antoine;

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of the ion pumping activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is crucial to the survival of animal cells. Recent evidence has suggested that the activity of the enzyme could be controlled by glutathionylation of cysteine residue 45 of the β-subunit. Crystal structures so far available indicate...... that this cysteine is in a transmembrane domain of the protein. Here we have analysed via fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulations whether glutathione is able to penetrate into the interior of a lipid membrane. No evidence for any penetration of glutathione into the...... membrane was found. Therefore, the most likely mechanism whereby the cysteine residue could become glutathionylated is via a loosening of the α-β subunit association, creating a hydrophilic passageway between them to allow access of glutathione to the cysteine residue. By such a mechanism...

  7. Sleep deprivation and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had antidepressant effects. A large number of studies have followed these observations. The purpose of the studies presented in this thesis was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of TSD and related procedures for ...

  8. Glutathione and mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Vicent; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C.

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in cells whose functions are dependent on the redox-active thiol of its cysteine moiety that serves as a cofactor for a number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. While synthesized exclusively in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, GSH is distributed in different compartments, including mitochondria where its concentration in the matrix equals that of the cytosol. This feature and its negative charge at physiological pH imply the e...

  9. Sleep Deprivation and False Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Frenda, SJ; Patihis, L; Loftus, EF; Lewis, HC; Fenn, KM

    2014-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2014. Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions,...

  10. Possible role of trazodone and imipramine in sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Garg, R

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is one of the key regulators for maintaining physical, mental and emotional health. Nonrefreshing sleep and depression are common problems nowadays. The present study was designed to explore the protective effects of trazodone and imipramine on 72-h sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage in mice. Albino mice were sleep-deprived for a period of 72 h using the grid suspended over water method. Animals were divided into different groups, each consisting of six animals. Trazodone (5 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg i.p.) were administered for 5 days starting 2 days before 72-h sleep deprivation. Various behavioral tests (elevated plus maze, zero maze, mirror chamber for anxiety and actophotometer), followed by oxidative parameter tests (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein), were assessed in sleep-deprived animals. Treatment with trazodone and imipramine significantly improved locomotor activity and exerted anxiolytic-like effects in all paradigm tasks (mirror chamber, elevated plus maze, zero maze) as compared to untreated 72-h sleep-deprived animals (P < 0.05). Biochemically, both trazodone and imipramine significantly restored depleted reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase activity and attenuated raised lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentrations as compared to untreated sleep-deprived animals. The results of the present study suggest a protective effect for trazodone and imipramine on sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage in mice. PMID:19798453

  11. A role of nitric oxide mechanism involved in the protective effects of venlafaxine in sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Garg, Ruchika

    2008-12-12

    The present study was designed to explore the possible nitric oxide mechanism in protective effect of venlafaxine in sleep deprivation in mice. Laca mice were sleep deprived for period of 72 h using grid suspended over water method. Venlafaxine (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg, ip), l-arginine (50mg/kg, ip), l-NAME (10mg/kg, ip) and methylene blue (10mg/kg, ip) were administered for 5 days, starting 2 days before 72-h sleep deprivation. Various behavioral tests (plus maze, zero maze, mirror chamber tests for anxiety, and actophotometer test) followed by oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde level, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein) were assessed. The present study showed that venlafaxine (5 and 10mg/kg, ip) drug treatment significantly reversed 72-h sleep deprivation caused anxiety like behavior, impairment in locomotor activity and oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and depleted reduced glutathione and catalase activity) as compared to control. l-NAME (10mg/kg) and methylene blue (10mg/kg) pretreatment with lower dose of venlafaxine (5mg/kg) potentiated the protective effect of venlafaxine (5mg/kg). However, l-arginine (50mg/kg) pretreatment with venlafaxine (5mg/kg) reversed the protective effect of venlafaxine. Results of present study suggest that nitric oxide mechanism is involved in the protective effect of venlafaxine against sleep-deprivation-induced behavior alteration and oxidative damage in mice. PMID:18674568

  12. Sleep Deprivation and Neurobehavioral Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyles involving sleep deprivation are common, despite mounting evidence that both acute total sleep deprivation and chronically restricted sleep degrade neurobehavioral functions associated with arousal, attention, memory and state stability. Current research suggests dynamic differences in the way the central nervous system responds to acute versus chronic sleep restriction, which is reflected in new models of sleep-wake regulation. Chronic sleep restriction likely induces long-term neu...

  13. THz spectrum of reduced glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Weining; YAN; Haitao; YUE; Weiwei; ZHAO; Guozhong; Z

    2005-01-01

    The optical characteristics of reduced glutathione molecules between 0.2 THz and 2.4 THz have been investigated by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption characteristics and optical parameters of the reduced glutathione purged with Nitrogen at room temperature were obtained experimentally. The measured results were fitted well with the theoretical results computed by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) in far-infrared range. Also the conformation of the reduced glutathione molecule was simulated by Gaussian 03. This work has demonstrated significantly that THz-TDS spectroscopy can further be used to study other biological molecules in biological and biomedical engineering.

  14. MIF proteins are not glutathione transferase homologs.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, W R

    1994-01-01

    Although macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) proteins conjugate glutathione, sequence analysis does not support their homology to other glutathione transferases. Glutathione transferases are not detected with MIF proteins in searches of protein sequence databases, and MIF proteins do not share significant sequence similarity with glutathione transferases. Homology cannot be demonstrated by multiple sequence alignment or evolutionary tree construction; such methods assume that the pro...

  15. Women in prison: Deprivations of prison life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špadijer-Džinić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an empirical study of prison deprivations suffered by women, conducted at the Female Department of Correctional Facility in Požarevac within the scope of a wider study of women's prison system. It was supposed that female prisoners in this penal institution face similar prison experience and suffer the same or similar deprivations as women in other penal institutions do. The research sample included female prisoners sentenced to more than one year, staying in prison for more than a year (54 female prisoners, i.e. more than 50% prisoners sentenced to long prison terms. Prisoners were interviewed employing a questionnaire measuring different types of deprivations using 26 indicators. Using the method of factor analysis - which was here used for the first time to study prison deprivations - six factors of women's prison deprivations were extracted: deprivation of maternity; deprivation of autonomy; deprivation of individuality; deprivation of human kindness and empathy; deprivation of a key role - a woman's role, and deprivation of friendship relations. The outcomes of this research, together with the findings of other researchers, affirm the assumption that these types of deprivations are realistic and dominant types of women's prison deprivations.

  16. PKLR promotes colorectal cancer liver colonization through induction of glutathione synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Alexander; Loo, Jia Min; Mital, Rohit; Weinberg, Ethan M; Man, Fung Ying; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Paty, Philip B; Saltz, Leonard; Janjigian, Yelena Y; de Stanchina, Elisa; Tavazoie, Sohail F

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver is a major cause of cancer-related death; however, the genes and pathways that govern this metastatic colonization event remain poorly characterized. Here, using a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen, we identified liver and red blood cell pyruvate kinase (PKLR) as a driver of metastatic liver colonization. PKLR expression was increased in liver metastases as well as in primary colorectal tumors of patients with metastatic disease. Evaluation of a murine liver colonization model revealed that PKLR promotes cell survival in the tumor core during conditions of high cell density and oxygen deprivation by increasing glutathione, the primary endogenous antioxidant. PKLR negatively regulated the glycolytic activity of PKM2, the major pyruvate kinase isoenzyme known to regulate cellular glutathione levels. Glutathione is critical for metastasis, and we determined that the rate-limiting enzyme of glutathione synthesis, GCLC, becomes overexpressed in patient liver metastases, promotes cell survival under hypoxic and cell-dense conditions, and mediates metastatic liver colonization. RNAi-mediated inhibition of glutathione synthesis impaired survival of multiple colon cancer cell lines, and pharmacological targeting of this metabolic pathway reduced colonization in a primary patient-derived xenograft model. Our findings highlight the impact of metabolic reprogramming within the niche as metastases progress and suggest clinical potential for targeting this pathway in colorectal cancer. PMID:26784545

  17. Oxidative metabolism, ROS and NO under oxygen deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhina, Olga; Fagerstedt, Kurt V

    2010-05-01

    Oxygen deprivation, in line with other stress conditions, is accompanied by reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) formation and is characterised by a set of metabolic changes collectively named as the 'oxidative stress response'. The controversial induction of oxidative metabolism under the lack of oxygen is necessitated by ROS and RNS signaling in the induction of adaptive responses, and inevitably results in oxidative damage. To prevent detrimental effects of oxidative stress, the levels of ROS and NO are tightly controlled on transcriptional, translational and metabolic levels. Hypoxia triggers the induction of genes responsible for ROS and NO handling and utilization (respiratory burst oxidase, non-symbiotic hemoglobins, several cytochromes P450, mitochondrial dehydrogenases, and antioxidant-related transcripts). The level of oxygen in the tissue is also under metabolic control via multiple mechanisms: Regulation of glycolytic and fermentation pathways to manage pyruvate availability for respiration, and adjustment of mitochondrial electron flow through NO and ROS balance. Both adaptive strategies are controlled by energy status and aim to decrease the respiratory capacity and to postpone complete anoxia. Besides local oxygen concentration, ROS and RNS formation is controlled by an array of antioxidants. Hypoxic treatment leads to the upregulation of multiple transcripts associated with ascorbate, glutathione and thioredoxin metabolism. The production of ROS and NO is an integral part of the response to oxygen deprivation which encompasses several levels of metabolic regulation to sustain redox signaling and to prevent oxidative damage. PMID:20303775

  18. Glutathione protects Lactococcus lactis against oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.; Hugenholtz, J.; Abee, T.; Molenaar, D

    2003-01-01

    Glutathione was found in several dairy Lactococcus lactis strains grown in M17 medium. None of these strains was able to synthesize glutathione. In chemically defined medium, L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain SK11 was able to accumulate up to similar to60 mM glutathione when this compound was added to the medium. Stationary-phase cells of strain SK11 grown in chemically defined medium supplemented with glutathione showed significantly increased resistance (up to fivefold increased resistance) ...

  19. Glutathione Protects Lactococcus lactis against Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Glutathione was found in several dairy Lactococcus lactis strains grown in M17 medium. None of these strains was able to synthesize glutathione. In chemically defined medium, L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain SK11 was able to accumulate up to ∼60 mM glutathione when this compound was added to the medium. Stationary-phase cells of strain SK11 grown in chemically defined medium supplemented with glutathione showed significantly increased resistance (up to fivefold increased resistance) to treatm...

  20. Glutathione protects Lactococcus lactis against oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Hugenholtz, J.; Abee, T.; Molenaar, D.

    2003-01-01

    Glutathione was found in several dairy Lactococcus lactis strains grown in M17 medium. None of these strains was able to synthesize glutathione. In chemically defined medium, L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain SK11 was able to accumulate up to similar to60 mM glutathione when this compound was added t

  1. "Shock and kill" effects of class I-selective histone deacetylase inhibitors in combination with the glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine in cell line models for HIV-1 quiescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altucci Lucia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Latently infected, resting memory CD4+ T cells and macrophages represent a major obstacle to the eradication of HIV-1. For this purpose, "shock and kill" strategies have been proposed (activation of HIV-1 followed by stimuli leading to cell death. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs induce HIV-1 activation from quiescence, yet class/isoform-selective HDACIs are needed to specifically target HIV-1 latency. We tested 32 small molecule HDACIs for their ability to induce HIV-1 activation in the ACH-2 and U1 cell line models. In general, potent activators of HIV-1 replication were found among non-class selective and class I-selective HDACIs. However, class I selectivity did not reduce the toxicity of most of the molecules for uninfected cells, which is a major concern for possible HDACI-based therapies. To overcome this problem, complementary strategies using lower HDACI concentrations have been explored. We added to class I HDACIs the glutathione-synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, in an attempt to create an intracellular environment that would facilitate HIV-1 activation. The basis for this strategy was that HIV-1 replication decreases the intracellular levels of reduced glutathione, creating a pro-oxidant environment which in turn stimulates HIV-1 transcription. We found that BSO increased the ability of class I HDACIs to activate HIV-1. This interaction allowed the use of both types of drugs at concentrations that were non-toxic for uninfected cells, whereas the infected cell cultures succumbed more readily to the drug combination. These effects were associated with BSO-induced recruitment of HDACI-insensitive cells into the responding cell population, as shown in Jurkat cell models for HIV-1 quiescence. The results of the present study may contribute to the future design of class I HDACIs for treating HIV-1. Moreover, the combined effects of class I-selective HDACIs and the glutathione synthesis inhibitor BSO suggest the

  2. Race, Poverty, and Deprivation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Gradín

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why poverty and material deprivation in South Africa are significantly higher among those of African descent than among whites. To do so, we estimate the conditional levels of poverty and deprivation Africans would experience had they the same characteristics as whites. By comparing the actual and counterfactual distributions, we show that the racial gap in poverty and deprivation can be attributed to the cumulative disadvantaged characteristics of Africans...

  3. Proximity-sensitive individual deprivation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Bossert; Conhita D’Ambrosio

    2012-01-01

    We propose and characterize a generalization of the classical linear index of individual deprivation based on income shortfalls. Unlike the original measure, our class allows for increases in the income of a higher-income individual to have a stronger impact on a person’s deprivation the closer they occur to the income of the individual whose deprivation is being assessed. The subclass of our measures with this property is axiomatized in our second result.

  4. Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety and Anaerobic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Arzu Vardar; Levent Öztürk; Cem Kurt; Erdogan Bulut; Necdet Sut; Erdal Vardar

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1) following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements), (2) following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3) following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before ...

  5. SLEEP DEPRIVATION INDUCED ANXIETY AND ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Arzu Vardar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1 following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements, (2 following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3 following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02 whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance

  6. Sleep deprivation and antidepressant treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    The mood-improving effect of sleep deprivation (SD) in depression is even today still not fully understood. Despite the fact that mood and cognitive functions are lowered by prolonged sleep loss and despite convincing data that insomnia is a strong risk factor for subsequent depression, 1 acute SD for one night or even partial SD in the second half of the night improves mood in about 60% of depressed patients the day after. 2,3 In this respect, among alt types of antidepressant treatments, SD...

  7. Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  8. Protective effect of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) extract on 72-hour sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Singh, Anant

    2007-10-01

    Sleep disruption or poor quality of sleep is a common problem associated with depression. Antidepressant drugs have been reported to improve the quality of sleep and behavior. The present study was undertaken to explore the therapeutic potential of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) on behavioral alterations and oxidative damage induced by sleep deprivation in mice. Male laca mice (n = 6 - 10 in each group) were sleep deprived for 72 hours using the grid suspended over water method. Standardized Hypericum perforatum extract and imipramine were administered for five days, starting two days before sleep deprivation. Alterations in body weight, motor activity, anxiety like behavior (mirror chamber, plus maze, zero maze) and oxidative stress parameters (reduced glutathione, catalase, lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels) were observed after drug treatment in sleep-deprived animals. 72-hour sleep deprivation significantly altered body weight, locomotor activity and produced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage (depleted reduced glutathione, catalase activity and increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite activity) as compared to the naïve (placed on sawdust) animals (P < 0.05). Treatment with either St. John's wort (200 and 400 mg/kg, P. O.) or with imipramine (10 mg/kg, I. P.) significantly improved body weight, locomotor activity, antianxiety and antioxidant effect as compared to the control group (sleep deprived) (P < 0.05). Co-administration of John's wort (200 mg/kg, P. O.) with imipramine (10 mg/kg, I. P.) further improved body weight, locomotor activity, antianxiety effect as well as reduced oxidative damage in sleep-deprived animal as compared to their effect per se (P < 0.05). The present study suggests that there is therapeutic potential of St. John's wort in the management of sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage. PMID:17918039

  9. Effects of glutamine supplementation on gut barrier,glutathione content and acute phase response in malnourished rats during inflammatory shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana Belmonte; Philippe Ducrotté; Pierre Déchelotte; Mo(i)se Co(e)ffier; Florence Le Pessot; Olga Miralles-Barrachina; Martine Hiron; Antony Leplingard; Jean-Fran(c)ois Lemeland; Bernadette Hecketsweiler; Maryvonne Daveau

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effect of glutamine on intestinal mucosa integrity, glutathione stores and acute phase response in protein-depleted rats during an inflammatory shock.METHODS: Plasma acute phase proteins (APP),jejunal APP mRNA levels, liver and jejunal glutathione concentrations were measured before and one, three and seven days after turpentine injection in 4 groups of control, protein-restricted, protein-restricted rats supplemented with glutamine or protein powder.Bacterial translocation in mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal morphology were also assessed.RESULTS: Protein deprivation and turpentine injection significantly reduced jejunal villus height, and crypt depths. Mucosal glutathione concentration significantly decreased in protein-restricted rats. Before turpentine oil, glutamine supplementation restored villus heights and glutathione concentration (3.24 ± 1.05 vs 1.72 ±0.46 μmol/g tissue, P < 0.05) in the jejunum, whereas in the liver glutathione remained low. Glutamine markedly increased jejunal α1-acid glycoprotein mRNA level after turpentine oil but did not affect its plasma concentration. Bacterial translocation in protein-restricted rats was not prevented by glutamine or protein powder supplementation.CONCLUSION: Glutamine restored gut glutathione stores and villus heights in malnourished rats but had no preventive effect on bacterial translocation in our model.

  10. Paradoxical sleep deprivation increases plasma endothelin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Palma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelins (ET-1, 2 and 3 constitute a family of 21 amino acid peptides with potent biological activities. ET-1 is one of the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictors so far identified and its increased concentration in plasma appears to be closely related to the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension as well as to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. OSA patients exhibit repetitive episodes of apnea and hypopnea that result in hypoxia and consecutive arousals. These patients are chronically sleep deprived, which may aggravate the hypertensive features, since literature data show that sleep deprivation results in hypertension both in humans and in animals. Based on the reported relationship between ET-1, hypertension and sleep deprivation consequences, the purpose of the present study was to determine plasma ET concentrations in paradoxical sleep-deprived animals. Male Wistar rats, 3 to 4 months old (N = 10 per group, were deprived of sleep for 24 and 96 h by the platform technique and plasma ET-1/2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of plasma revealed that 96 h of sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in ET-1/2 release (6.58 fmol/ml compared to control (5.07 fmol/ml. These data show that sleep deprivation altered plasma ET-1/2 concentrations, suggesting that such an increase may participate in the genesis of arterial hypertension and cardiorespiratory changes observed after sleep deprivation.

  11. Transport of glutathione diethyl ester into human cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, E J; Anderson, M E; Meister, A.

    1993-01-01

    Glutathione monoesters in which the carboxyl group of the glycine residue is esterified were previously found, in contrast to glutathione itself, to be effectively transported into various types of cells and to be converted intracellularly into glutathione. Glutathione monoesters are thus useful for prevention of oxidative stress, certain toxicities, and for treatment of glutathione deficiency. Glutathione diethyl ester is rapidly split to the glutathione monoethyl ester by mouse plasma gluta...

  12. A regulatory review for products containing glutathione

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hidayah Abd Rahim; Long Chiau Ming; Yaser Mohammed Ali Al-Worafi; Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione is a potent antioxidant as well as has important role for DNA synthesis and repair, protein synthesis, amino acid transport, and enzyme activation. Besides this, Glutathione products are now mainly selling as whitening agent which are mainly marketing through social media (Facebook) and different websites. Information is not available whether glutathione product are following the regulatory guidelines of National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau of Malaysia (NPCB) for selling, advert...

  13. Protein phosphatase 1α is a Ras-activated Bad phosphatase that regulates interleukin-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Verónica; Martínez-A, Carlos; García, Alphonse; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita

    2000-01-01

    Growth factor deprivation is a physiological mechanism to regulate cell death. We utilize an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent murine T-cell line to identify proteins that interact with Bad upon IL-2 stimulation or deprivation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we found that Bad interacts with protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α). Serine phosphorylation of Bad is induced by IL-2 and its dephosphorylation correlates with appearance of apoptosis. IL-2 deprivation induces Bad dephosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of a serine phosphatase. A serine/threonine phosphatase activity, sensitive to the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, was detected in Bad immunoprecipitates from IL-2-stimulated cells, increasing after IL-2 deprivation. This enzymatic activity also dephosphorylates in vivo 32P-labeled Bad. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid blocks Bad dephosphorylation and prevents cell death. Finally, Ras activation controls the catalytic activity of PP1α. These results strongly suggest that Bad is an in vitro and in vivo substrate for PP1α phosphatase and that IL-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis may operate by regulating Bad phosphorylation through PP1α phosphatase, whose enzymatic activity is regulated by Ras. PMID:10811615

  14. Sleep deprivation therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is the most widely documented rapid-onset antidepressant therapy, targeting the broadly defined depressive syndrome. Although SD responses are transient, its effects can be sustained by concomitant medications (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and lithium) and circadian-related interventions (e.g., bright light and sleep phase advance). Thus, considering its safety, this technique can now be considered among the first-line antidepressant treatment strategies for patients affected by mood disorders. SD is a complex intervention and it should be considered multi-target in nature. Thus, the mechanisms explaining its antidepressant effect can be looked for on many levels, involving not only monoaminergic mechanisms but also sleep homeostatic and circadian mechanisms, glutamatergic mechanisms and synaptic plasticity. PMID:25549913

  15. Sleep deprivation: consequences for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhefka, Julie King

    2011-09-01

    During the adolescent years, a delayed pattern of the sleep-wake cycle occurs. Many parents and health care providers are not aware that once established, these poor sleep habits can continue into adulthood. Early school hours start a pattern of sleep loss that begins a cycle of daytime sleepiness, which may affect mood, behavior, and increase risk for accidents or injury. These sleep-deprived habits established in adolescence can often lead to problems during college years. Sleep hygiene can be initiated to help break the cycle, along with education and implementation of a strict regimen. Monitoring all adolescents and college-aged students for sleep insufficiency is imperative to improve both academic and emotional well-being. PMID:21846079

  16. A regulatory review for products containing glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayah Abd Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is a potent antioxidant as well as has important role for DNA synthesis and repair, protein synthesis, amino acid transport, and enzyme activation. Besides this, Glutathione products are now mainly selling as whitening agent which are mainly marketing through social media (Facebook and different websites. Information is not available whether glutathione product are following the regulatory guidelines of National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau of Malaysia (NPCB for selling, advertisement and promotion. This review was carried out by extracting information about glutathione from scientific database using PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Analysis of the available information, case example of glutathione products showed that a brand of glutathione (Glutacaps HQ did not show the product's registration number from NPCB, and also did not show the name, address, contact number of the advertiser, and even not found the name of the manufacture. Without providing the above mentioned information, the product is selling and promoting through social media (fb which is not allowed by the NPCB guidelines part 4.14. So far, only two clinical trials were conducted on glutathione supplementation for 4 weeks duration. There was no serious or systematic adverse effects reported in clinical trials. As the two clinic trials resulted contradictory outcomes, further studies needed for conformation of the clinic benefits of glutathione. Otherwise, random use of glutathione may be risk for the health of the people. Besides, the marketer mainly promoting glutathione as the skin whitening beauty product instead of using as health supplement, it may cause additional and serious risk to the users as the manufacturer not providing sufficient information about the product, its registration number, manufacturing company, etc.

  17. Management of Hormone Deprivation Symptoms After Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Loprinzi, Charles L; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-08-01

    Cancer survivors often experience symptoms related to hormone deprivation, including vasomotor symptoms, genitourinary symptoms, and sexual health concerns. These symptoms can occur due to natural menopause in midlife women, or they can be brought on by oncologic therapies in younger women or men. We searched PubMed for English-language studies from January 1990 through January 2016 to identify relevant articles on the management of hormone deprivation symptoms, including vasomotor, genitourinary, and sexual symptoms in patients with cancer. The search terms used included hormone deprivation, vasomotor symptoms, hot flash, vaginal dryness, sexual dysfunction, and breast cancer. This manuscript provides a comprehensive description of data supporting the treatment of symptoms associated with hormone deprivation. PMID:27492917

  18. Child Deprivation, Multidimensional Poverty and Monetary Poverty in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Menchini; Yekaterina Chzhen; Gill Main; Bruno Martorano; Chris De Neubourg; Jonathan Bradshaw

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on child deprivation in Europe and studies the degree to which it is experienced by children in 29 countries using a child specific deprivation scale. The paper discusses the construction of a child deprivation scale and estimates a European Child Deprivation Index for the 29 countries using 14 specific child related variables made available by the child module of the EU-SILC 2009 survey. The 29 countries are ranked according to the degree of child deprivation: the results s...

  19. Deprived or not deprived? Comparing the measured extent of material deprivation using the UK government's and the Poverty and Social Exclusion surveys' method of calculating material deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Treanor, Morag C.

    2014-01-01

    Poverty can either be measured directly, through standards of living such as material deprivation, or indirectly through resources available, usually income. Research shows that the optimum measure of poverty combines these methods, a fact that the UK government took cognisance of in its tripartite measure of child poverty. For use in a birth cohort study, two methods of calculating material deprivation were tested: the method used by the UK government taken from the Family Resources Survey (...

  20. Nursing diagnoses in women deprived of freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Izabelle de Freitas Ferreira; Tatiane Gomes Guedes; Sheila Coelho Ramalho Vasconcelos Morais; José Cristovam Martins Vieira; Marcelle Guimarães de Mello; Francisca Márcia Pereira Linhares

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the nursing diagnoses profile of women deprived of freedom, using the International Classification for Nursing® Practice version 1.0. Methods: a descriptive study, conducted with 186 women deprived of freedom. Nursing Diagnoses were extrapolated based on the clinical data of the participants, collected through a structured form and clinical reasoning. Results: there were 44 nursing diagnostic statements, among the most common, there were: infection risk (70.9%); fluid in...

  1. Women in prison: Deprivations of prison life

    OpenAIRE

    Špadijer-Džinić Jelena; Pavićević Olivera; Simeunović-Patić Biljana

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an empirical study of prison deprivations suffered by women, conducted at the Female Department of Correctional Facility in Požarevac within the scope of a wider study of women's prison system. It was supposed that female prisoners in this penal institution face similar prison experience and suffer the same or similar deprivations as women in other penal institutions do. The research sample included female prisoners sentenced to more than one year, staying in...

  2. Income satisfaction and deprivation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Labeaga, José María; Molina, José Alberto; Navarro, María

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of our paper is to identify the determinants of income satisfaction in Spain, with one of these being relative deprivation, and the second is to measure this relative deprivation, in both monetary and satisfaction terms. To that end, we use data from the eight waves of the Spanish section of the European Community Household Panel (1994-2001). With respect to the first objective, we estimate models for categorical variables in order to test whether subjective satisfaction m...

  3. Material deprivation as marker of health need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Grisotto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between socio-economic status and health has been widely documented both by individual-level and ecological regression studies. We addressed the problem known in the literature as using a material deprivation index as predictor of health needs and comparing results when adjusting or not the health outcome and the deprivation index for the same confounding variables. We focus on non-linear hierarchical models. We take as example the the issue of introducing socio-economic indicators in national or regional resources allocation formulas. We fitted a series of models with different data hierarchies to evaluate both the individual effect and the aggregate (census block effect of material deprivation on heath status, disentagling the individual from the contextual effects. Individual mortality records came from the Florence census cohort 1991-1995 which is part of the Tuscan Longitudinal Study. Data on socio-economic factors derived from individual records of the 1991 census. Our results suggested that after adjusting for age, material deprivation is a good predictor of health needs both at individual and at aggregate level (census block. The presence of a contextual effect increases the interest in using deprivatin in the allocation formula, since it would permit a better distribution of resources to disadvantaged micro-areas. In the present paper, we stress the need to estimate the association between deprivation and health appropriately adjusting for age. The ideal goal would be having information at small geographical level on the joint distribution of age and deprivation to age-standardize both the response and the predictor. A temporary solution should be to regress crude mortality rates on deprivation and age. The current common practice, in absence of individual data, to regress standardized mortality on material deprivation may be inappropriate.

  4. A mathematical model of glutathione metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S Jill

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione (GSH plays an important role in anti-oxidant defense and detoxification reactions. It is primarily synthesized in the liver by the transsulfuration pathway and exported to provide precursors for in situ GSH synthesis by other tissues. Deficits in glutathione have been implicated in aging and a host of diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, Down syndrome and autism. Approach We explore the properties of glutathione metabolism in the liver by experimenting with a mathematical model of one-carbon metabolism, the transsulfuration pathway, and glutathione synthesis, transport, and breakdown. The model is based on known properties of the enzymes and the regulation of those enzymes by oxidative stress. We explore the half-life of glutathione, the regulation of glutathione synthesis, and its sensitivity to fluctuations in amino acid input. We use the model to simulate the metabolic profiles previously observed in Down syndrome and autism and compare the model results to clinical data. Conclusion We show that the glutathione pools in hepatic cells and in the blood are quite insensitive to fluctuations in amino acid input and offer an explanation based on model predictions. In contrast, we show that hepatic glutathione pools are highly sensitive to the level of oxidative stress. The model shows that overexpression of genes on chromosome 21 and an increase in oxidative stress can explain the metabolic profile of Down syndrome. The model also correctly simulates the metabolic profile of autism when oxidative stress is substantially increased and the adenosine concentration is raised. Finally, we discuss how individual variation arises and its consequences for one-carbon and glutathione metabolism.

  5. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO, is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials.

  6. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy

  7. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Angel L. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Mena, Salvador [Green Molecular SL, Pol. Ind. La Coma-Parc Cientific, 46190 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Estrela, Jose M., E-mail: jose.m.estrela@uv.es [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-03-11

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy.

  8. Possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in protective effect of melatonin against sleep deprivation-induced behaviour modification and oxidative damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Singh, Anant

    2009-08-01

    Sleep is an important physiological process responsible for the maintenance of physical, mental and emotional health of a living being. Sleep deprivation is considered risky for several pathological diseases such as anxiety and motor and cognitive dysfunctions. Sleep deprivation has recently been reported to cause oxidative damage. This study has been designed to explore the possible involvement of the GABAergic mechanism in protective effects of melatonin against 72-h sleep deprivation-induced behaviour modification and oxidative damage in mice. Mice were sleep-deprived for a period of 72 h using the grid over water suspended method. Animals were divided into groups of 6-8 animals each. Melatonin (5 and 10 mg/kg), flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg), picrotoxin (0.5 mg/kg) and muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) were administered for 5 days starting 2 days before 72-h sleep deprivation. Various behavioural tests (plus maze, zero maze, mirror chamber, actophotometer) and body weight assessment followed by oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde level, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein) were carried out. The 72-h sleep deprivation caused significant anxiety-like behaviour, weight loss, impaired locomotor activity and oxidative damage as compared with naïve (without sleep deprivation). Treatment with melatonin (5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, ip) significantly improved locomotor activity, weight loss and antianxiety effect as compared with control (sleep-deprived). Biochemically, melatonin treatment significantly restored reduced glutathione, catalase activity, attenuated lipid peroxidation and nitrite level as compared with control animals (72-h sleep-deprived). Flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg) and picrotoxin (0.5 mg/kg) pretreatments with a lower dose of melatonin (5 mg/kg) significantly antagonized the protective effect of melatonin. However, muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) pretreatment with melatonin (5 mg/kg, ip) potentiated the protective effect of melatonin which was significant as compared with their

  9. Disentangling Area Effects: Evidence from Deprived and Non-Deprived Neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Rowland; Kintrea, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether living in a deprived area compounded residents' disadvantaged status and whether area effects contributed to social exclusion. Data from surveys conducted in deprived and socially mixed neighborhoods indicated that both structure and agency were important in influencing neighborhood problems, though living in areas of…

  10. Health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algren, Maria Holst; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele;

    2015-01-01

    Med, Embase, Web of Science and Sociological Abstracts using relevant search terms, Boolean operators, and truncation, and reference lists were scanned. Quantitative observational studies that examined health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods were eligible for...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: glutathione synthetase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... elevated acidity in the blood and tissues (metabolic acidosis). In addition to the features present in moderate ... Kaabachi N, Hachicha M. Hemolytic anemia and metabolic acidosis: think about glutathione synthetase deficiency. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. ...

  12. Effects of fraxetin on glutathione redox status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Aragón, S; Benedí, J M; Villar, A M

    1997-01-01

    We have evaluated the effects of an oral treatment of mice with fraxetin (25 mg/kg for 30 days) on the glutathione system (GSH, GSSG, and GSSG/GSH ratio as stress index), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver supernatants from male C57BL/6J mice (18-month old). A significant antioxidant effect in vivo was found under this treatment by a decrease in the GSSG/GSH ratio and an increased activity of GR compared with the control mice. GSSG rate and GSSG/GSH ratio were correlated with the decline of GPx++ activity. Our results of increased GR activity could be considered as a supercompensation in glutathione redox status that involves a decrease in the accumulation of GSSG, as well as, in GSSG/GSH ratio. Finally, we suggest that this possible mechanism of supercompensation could lead to an enhancement in the average life span. PMID:9162171

  13. Induction of Glutathione Synthesis and Glutathione Reductase Activity by Abiotic Stresses in Maize and Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Gabor Kocsy; Gabriella Szalai; Gabor Galiba

    2002-01-01

    The effect of different abiotic stresses (extreme temperatures and osmotic stress) on the synthesis of glutathione and hydroxymethylglutathione, on the ratio of the reduced to oxidised forms of these thiols (GSH/GSSG, hmGSH/hmGSSG), and on the glutathione reductase (GR) activity was studied in maize and wheat genotypes having different sensitivity to low temperature stress. Cold treatment induced a greater increase in total glutathione (TG) content and in GR activity in tolerant genotypes of ...

  14. Glutathione Transferase (GST)-Activated Prodrugs

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Calderan; Paolo Ruzza

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione transferase (formerly GST) catalyzes the inactivation of various electrophile-producing anticancer agents via conjugation to the tripeptide glutathione. Moreover, several data link the overexpression of some GSTs, in particular GSTP1-1, to both natural and acquired resistance to various structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. Tumor overexpression of these proteins has provided a rationale for the search of GST inhibitors and GST activated cytotoxic prodrugs. In the present review...

  15. Abnormal glutathione conjugation in patients with tyrosinaemia type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, DJW; PollThe, BT; Smit, GPA; Breimer, DD; Duran, M; Smeitink, JAM

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that tyrosinaemia type I may be associated with reduced glutathione availability due to conjugation of tyrosinaemia-associated reactive intermediates with glutathione. In the present study, the glutathione/glutathione S-transferase system of two tyrosinaemia patients

  16. Inborn errors in the metabolism of glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Agne

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine and glycine. Glutathione is present in millimolar concentrations in most mammalian cells and it is involved in several fundamental biological functions, including free radical scavenging, detoxification of xenobiotics and carcinogens, redox reactions, biosynthesis of DNA, proteins and leukotrienes, as well as neurotransmission/neuromodulation. Glutathione is metabolised via the gamma-glutamyl cycle, which is catalyzed by six enzymes. In man, hereditary deficiencies have been found in five of the six enzymes. Glutathione synthetase deficiency is the most frequently recognized disorder and, in its severe form, it is associated with hemolytic anemia, metabolic acidosis, 5-oxoprolinuria, central nervous system (CNS damage and recurrent bacterial infections. Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase deficiency is also associated with hemolytic anemia, and some patients with this disorder show defects of neuromuscular function and generalized aminoaciduria. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency has been found in patients with CNS involvement and glutathionuria. 5-Oxoprolinase deficiency is associated with 5-oxoprolinuria but without a clear association with other symptoms. Dipeptidase deficiency has been described in one patient. All disorders are very rare and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Most of the mutations are leaky so that many patients have residual enzyme activity. Diagnosis is made by measuring the concentration of different metabolites in the gamma-glutamyl cycle, enzyme activity and in glutathione synthetase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase deficiency, also by mutation analysis. Prenatal diagnosis has been preformed in glutathione synthetase deficiency. The prognosis is difficult to predict, as few patients are known, but seems to vary significantly between different patients. The aims of the treatment of glutathione synthesis defects are to avoid hemolytic

  17. Deprivation of Dignity in Nursing Home Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2012-01-01

    deepened knowledge in how to maintain and promote dignity in nursing home residents. The purpose of this paper is to present results concerning the question: How is nursing home residents’ dignity maintained or deprived from the perspective of close family caregivers? In this presentation we only focus...... on deprivation of dignity. Methodology: The overall design of this study is modified clinical application research. The study took place at six different nursing home residences in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Data collection methods were individual research interviews. All together the sample consisted of 28...

  18. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    OpenAIRE

    Liberalesso Paulo Breno; D’Andrea Karlin Fabianne; Cordeiro Mara L; Zeigelboim Bianca; Marques Jair; Jurkiewicz Ari

    2012-01-01

    AbstractBackgroundSleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP). Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse informat...

  19. IMPACT OF DEPRIVATION ON EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Revanasiddappa; , Venkat Reddy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to impact of the emotional intelligence of high and low deprivation students. Objectives: To find out the impact of deprivation on emotional intelligence among college students. The sample consisted of 600 students; among 300 were high deprived and 300 were low deprived students. Selected students were measured on emotional intelligence scale developed by Anukool Hyde, Sanjyot Pathe and Upinder Dhar (2005). Results indicated that High and low level...

  20. Health-Risk Behaviour in Deprived Neighbourhoods Compared with Non-Deprived Neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algren, Maria Holst; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2015-01-01

    Med, Embase, Web of Science and Sociological Abstracts using relevant search terms, Boolean operators, and truncation, and reference lists were scanned. Quantitative observational studies that examined health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods were eligible for......BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in neighbourhoods' influence on individuals' health-risk behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. The aim of this review was to systematically review recent studies on health-risk behaviour among adults who live in...... consumption, the results were ambiguous, and no clear differences were found. Numerous different operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation were used in the studies. CONCLUSION: Substantial evidence indicates that future health interventions in deprived neighbourhoods should focus on smoking and...

  1. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  2. Relative Deprivation, Rising Expectations, and Black Militancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Ronald P.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the role of relative deprivation (RD) and rising expectations (RE) as mediating variables between social structure and black militancy through secondary analyses of survey data of blacks living in Cleveland and Miami in the late 1960s. Alternative explanations and implications derived from the present data and the theories for the…

  3. Binocular form deprivation influences the visual cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingming Liu; Chuanhuang Weng; Hanping Xie; Wei Qin

    2012-01-01

    1a-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors are considered to play a crucial role in synaptic plasticity in the developing visual cortex. In this study, we established a rat model of binocular form deprivation by suturing the rat binocular eyelids before eye-opening at postnatal day 14. During development, the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by 1a-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors of normal rats became longer after eyeopening; however, the decay time did not change significantly in binocular form deprivation rats. The peak value in the normal group became gradually larger with age, but there was no significant change in the binocular form deprivation group. These findings indicate that binocular form deprivation influences the properties of excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by β-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors in the rat visual cortex around the end of the critical period, indicating that form stimulation is associated with the experience-dependent modification of neuronal synapses in the visual cortex.

  4. Economic Deprivation and Early-Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; And Others

    This study used longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) to examine three issues regarding effects of economic deprivation on child development: (1) the effects on children's developmental outcomes of poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education; (2) the developmental…

  5. Socioeconomic deprivation and accident and emergency attendances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scantlebury, Rachel; Rowlands, Gillian; Durbaba, Stevo;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Demand for England's accident and emergency (A&E) services is increasing and is particularly concentrated in areas of high deprivation. The extent to which primary care services, relative to population characteristics, can impact on A&E is not fully understood. AIM: To conduct...

  6. Elevation of intracellular glutathione content associated with mitogenic stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between total glutathione (GSH) content and cell growth was examined in 3T3 fibroblasts. The intracellular GSH level of actively growing cultures gradually decreases as these cells become quiescent by either serum deprivation or high cell density. Upon mitogenic stimulation of sparse, quiescent (G0/G1) cultures with serum, there is a rapid 2.3-fold elevation in intracellular GSH levels which is maximal by 1 h and returns to baseline by 2 h. This is followed by a more gradual increase in GSH content as cells enter the S phase. In addition, the elevation in GSH content is required for maximum induction of DNA synthesis. Treatments that prevent the early increase in intracellular GSH levels do not affect protein synthesis but result in a reversible dose-dependent decrease in the percent of cells capable of entering S phase. These results indicate that GSH may be important in the regulation of cellular proliferation

  7. Glutathione conjugation as a bioactivation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladeren, P.J. van

    2000-01-01

    In general, glutathione conjugation is regarded as a detoxication reaction. However, depending on the properties of the substrate, bioactivation is also possible. Four types of activation reaction have been recognized: direct-acting compounds, conjugates that are activated through cysteine conjugate

  8. Glutathione-Dependent Detoxification Processes in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dringen, Ralf; Brandmann, Maria; Hohnholt, Michaela C;

    2015-01-01

    component in many of the astrocytic detoxification processes is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) which serves as electron donor in the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed reduction of peroxides. In addition, GSH is substrate in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by GSH-S-transferases which...

  9. Glutathione and gamma-glutamyl transferases are involved in the formation of cadmium-glutathione complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamis, Paula Daniela Braga; Mannarino, Sérgio Cantú; Eleutherio, Elis Cristina Araújo

    2009-05-01

    In a wild-type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cadmium induces the activities of both gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) and glutathione transferase 2 (Gtt2). However, Gtt2 activity did not increase under gamma-GT or Ycf1 deficiencies, suggesting that the accumulation of glutathione-cadmium in the cytosol inhibits Gtt2. On the other hand, the balance between the cytoplasmic and vacuolar level of glutathione seems to regulate gamma-GT activity, since this enzyme was not activated in a gtt2 strain. Taken together, these results suggest that gamma-GT and Gtt2 work together to remove cadmium from the cytoplasm, a crucial mechanism for metal detoxification that is dependent on glutathione. PMID:19345220

  10. Differential effects of iodoacetamide and iodoacetate on glycolysis and glutathione metabolism of cultured astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Schmidt

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodoacetamide (IAA and iodoacetate (IA have frequently been used to inhibit glycolysis, since these compounds are known for their ability to irreversibly inhibit the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH. However, the consequences of a treatment with such thiol reagents on the glutathione (GSH metabolism of brain cells have not been explored. Exposure of astroglia-rich primary cultures to IAA or IA in concentrations of up to 1 mM deprived the cells of GSH, inhibited cellular GAPDH activity, lowered cellular lactate production, and caused a delayed cell death that was detectable after 90 min of incubation. However, the two thiol reagents differed substantially in their potential to deprive cellular GSH and to inhibit astrocytic glycolysis. IAA depleted the cellular GSH content more efficiently than IA as demonstrated by half-maximal effects for IAA and IA that were observed at concentrations of about 10 µM and 100 µM, respectively. In contrast, IA was highly efficient in inactivating GAPDH and lactate production with half-maximal effects observed already at a concentration below 100 µM, whereas IAA had to be applied in 10 times higher concentration to inhibit lactate production by 50%. These substantial differences of IAA and IA to affect GSH content and glycolysis of cultured astrocytes suggests that in order to inhibit astrocytic glycolysis without substantially compromising the cellular GSH metabolism, IA – and not IAA - should be used in low concentrations and/or for short incubation periods.

  11. Glutathione Reductase/Glutathione Is Responsible for Cytotoxic Elemental Sulfur Tolerance via Polysulfide Shuttle in Fungi*

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Ikuo; Shimatani, Kanami; Fujita, Kensaku; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Fungi that can reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide are widely distributed, but the mechanism and physiological significance of the reaction have been poorly characterized. Here, we purified elemental sulfur-reductase (SR) and cloned its gene from the elemental sulfur-reducing fungus Fusarium oxysporum. We found that NADPH-glutathione reductase (GR) reduces elemental sulfur via glutathione as an intermediate. A loss-of-function mutant of the SR/GR gene generated less sulfide from elemental sulf...

  12. Occupational deprivation in an asylum centre:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of three asylum-seeking men from Iran and Afghanistan. It aimed to explore how and if they experienced occupations as occupations in a Danish asylum centre and how their life experience shaped their choice and value of current occupations. In-depth narrative interviews...... explored the participants’ occupational history and its influence on their occupations in the asylum centre. A thematic analysis showed that the participants had been subjected to occupational disruption and deprivation by politically oppressive systems even before their flight. Their occupations in...... Denmark were to a certain extent influenced by their earlier occupations and the current occupational deprivation they all experienced was due to limited possibilities in the centre. Although they tried their best to fill their days and create structure, there was a loss of valued occupations and a...

  13. Glutathione Dynamics in Arabidopsis Seed Development and Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Sumugat, Mae Rose S.

    2004-01-01

    Seed desiccation and germination have great potential for oxidative stress. Glutathione, one of the most abundant antioxidants in plant cells, is a crucial to the plant's defense mechanisms. To better understand glutathione's responses during these two stages, we examined its dynamics in wildtype Arabidopsis seeds and in a transgenic line containing an antisense glutathione reductase2 (anGR2) cDNA insert. Seeds from the two genotypes were compared morphologically. Glutathione levels in maturi...

  14. Novel interaction of diethyldithiocarbamate with the glutathione/glutathione peroxidase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) exhibits a variety of pharmacologic activities, including both radioprotective and sensitizing properties. Since the glutathione/glutathione peroxidase system may be a significant factor in determining radiation sensitivity, the potential mechanisms of action of DDC in relation to this system were examined in vitro. The interaction of DDC with reduced glutathione (GSH) was tested using a simple system based on the reduction of cytochrome c. When DDC (0.005 mM) was incubated with GSH (0.5 mM), the reduction of cytochrome c was eightfold greater than that expected from an additive effect of DDC and GSH. GSH could be replaced by oxidized glutathione and glutathione reductase. Cytochrome c reduced by DDC was oxidized by mitochondria. The interaction of DDC with both the hexosemonophosphate shunt pathway and the mitochondrial respiratory chain suggests the possibility of linking these two pathways through DDC. Oxidation of DDC by peroxide and reversal by GSH indicated that the drug can engage in a cyclic reaction with peroxide and GSH. This was confirmed when DDC was used in the assay system for glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) without GSHPx. DDC at a concentration of 0.25 mM was more active than 0.01 unit of pure GSHPx in eliminating peroxide, and much more active than the other sulfhydryl compounds tested. These studies indicate that DDC can supplement GSHPx activity or substitute for it in detoxifying peroxides, and suggests a unique role in the chemical modification of radiation sensitivity

  15. Mapping the Spatial Deprivation of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Jamal; Amir Jahan Khan; Imran Ashraf Toor; Naveed Amir

    2003-01-01

    Geographical targeting may be a viable way to allocate resources for poverty alleviation in developing countries. Efficiency can be increased, and leakages to the nonpoor reduced substantially, by targeting needy areas. A national and regional database of substantial poverty maps or deprivation indices are not readily available in Pakistan. Further, existing activities of poverty alleviation are carried out on ad hoc basis in the absence of identified pockets of poverty. This paper presents i...

  16. Creating small area measures of urban deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard J; Longley, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, the scale and pace of urban change have been associated with fine-scale fragmentation of the lifestyles of urban populations. One manifestation of this is that households of diverse means and circumstances may be found living in proximity to one another, particularly in urban areas. In this paper we argue that in these changed circumstances conventional deprivation indicators fail adequately to detect within and between small area variations in socioeconomic and environmental...

  17. Glutathione-independent maleylacetoacetate isomerase in gram-positive bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Hagedorn, S R; Chapman, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Nocardia globerula CL1 produced a glutathione-independent maleylacetoacetate isomerase after growth on L-tyrosine. Partial purification of this isomerase demonstrated its independence of low-molecular-weight cofactors such as glutathione. Similar glutathione-independent maleylacetoacetate isomerases were present in three other gram-positive bacteria grown on tyrosine.

  18. Subcellular Distribution of Glutathione Precursors in Arabidopsis thafiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Eva Koffier; Romana Maier; Bernd Zechmann

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione is an important antioxidant and has many important functions in plant development,growth and defense.Glutathione synthesis and degradation is highly compartment-specific and relies on the subcellular availability of its precursors,cysteine,glutamate,glycine and y-glutamylcysteine especially in plastids and the cytosol which are considered as the main centers for glutathione synthesis.The availability of glutathione precursors within these cell compartments is therefore of great importance for successful plant development and defense.The aim of this study was to investigate the compartmentspecific importance of glutathione precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana.The subcellular distribution was compared between wild type plants (Col-0),plants with impaired glutathione synthesis (glutathione deficient pad2-1 mutant,wild type plants treated with buthionine sulfoximine),and one complemented line (OE3) with restored glutathione synthesis.Immunocytohistochemistry revealed that the inhibition of glutathione synthesis induced the accumulation of the glutathione precursors cysteine,glutamate and glycine in most cell compartments including plastids and the cytosol.A strong decrease could be observed in γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-EC) contents in these cell compartments.These experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of y-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) - the first enzyme of glutathione synthesis - causes a reduction of γ-EC levels and an accumulation of all other glutathione precursors within the cells.

  19. Economic deprivation and early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, G J; Brooks-Gunn, J; Klebanov, P K

    1994-04-01

    We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences--in particular family structure and maternal schooling--between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems. PMID:7516849

  20. Maximal aerobic exercise following prolonged sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J; Radomski, M; Hart, L; Plyley, M; Shephard, R J

    1989-12-01

    The effect of 60 h without sleep upon maximal oxygen intake was examined in 12 young women, using a cycle ergometer protocol. The arousal of the subjects was maintained by requiring the performance of a sequence of cognitive tasks throughout the experimental period. Well-defined oxygen intake plateaus were obtained both before and after sleep deprivation, and no change of maximal oxygen intake was observed immediately following sleep deprivation. The endurance time for exhausting exercise also remained unchanged, as did such markers of aerobic performance as peak exercise ventilation, peak heart rate, peak respiratory gas exchange ratio, and peak blood lactate. However, as in an earlier study of sleep deprivation with male subjects (in which a decrease of treadmill maximal oxygen intake was observed), the formula of Dill and Costill (4) indicated the development of a substantial (11.6%) increase of estimated plasma volume percentage with corresponding decreases in hematocrit and red cell count. Possible factors sustaining maximal oxygen intake under the conditions of the present experiment include (1) maintained arousal of the subjects with no decrease in peak exercise ventilation or the related respiratory work and (2) use of a cycle ergometer rather than a treadmill test with possible concurrent differences in the impact of hematocrit levels and plasma volume expansion upon peak cardiac output and thus oxygen delivery to the working muscles. PMID:2628360

  1. No Net Splanchnic Release of Glutathione in Man during N-Acetylcysteine Infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E.; Vilstrup, H.; Almdal, Thomas Peter;

    1994-01-01

    Farmakologi, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, indocyanine green, amino acid analysis, glutathione synthesis, liver/liver vein catheterization......Farmakologi, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, indocyanine green, amino acid analysis, glutathione synthesis, liver/liver vein catheterization...

  2. The effect of oxidative stress on human red cells glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase level, and prevalence of anemia among diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Waggiallah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oxidative stress is considered as major consequence of diabetes mellitus affecting red cell antioxidant enzymes. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the impact of oxidative stress (reduced glutathione on glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductse and prevalence of anemia among diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: The study involved 100 adult patients attending Buraidah Central Hospital and 30 healthy controls. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for glutathione (GSH concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPO, glutathione reductase (GR, fasting blood sugar (RBS, hemoglobin (HGB, red cell count (RBCs hematocrit (HCT mean cell volume (MCV mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and hemoglobin A1c. Blood urea, serum creatinine, and microalbuminuria were measured to exclude diabetes mellitus nephropathy. Results : were obtained showed significant correlation between deficiency of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and deficient of glutathione among diabetics, which has significant correlation between low hemoglobin concentration (females <120 g/L, males <130 g/L, also there is low concentration of red cell count and red cell indices (MCV, MCH and MCHC. The prevalence of anemia was 22% in diabetes patients. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is strong significant effect of oxidative stress (reduced glutathione on glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase level these may reduce hemoglobin concentration in diabetic patients. This means oxidative stress of diabetes mellitus is the possible cause of anemia in diabetics without nephropathy.

  3. Glutathione and redox signaling in substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Joachim D; Mulholland, Patrick J; Townsend, Danyelle M

    2014-07-01

    Throughout the last couple decades, the cause and consequences of substance abuse has expanded to identify the underlying neurobiological signaling mechanisms associated with addictive behavior. Chronic use of drugs, such as cocaine, methamphetamine and alcohol leads to the formation of oxidative or nitrosative stress (ROS/RNS) and changes in glutathione and redox homeostasis. Of importance, redox-sensitive post-translational modifications on cysteine residues, such as S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation could impact on the structure and function of addiction related signaling proteins. In this commentary, we evaluate the role of glutathione and redox signaling in cocaine-, methamphetamine- and alcohol addiction and conclude by discussing the possibility of targeting redox pathways for the therapeutic intervention of these substance abuse disorders. PMID:25027386

  4. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions. PMID:26780802

  5. Cellular glutathione prevents cytolethality of monomethylarsonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenicals are clearly toxicants and carcinogens in humans. In mammals, including humans, inorganic arsenic often undergoes methylation, forming compounds such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMAsV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAsV). However, much less information is available on the in vitro toxic potential or mechanisms of these methylated arsenicals, especially MMAsV. We studied the molecular mechanisms of in vitro cytolethality of MMAsV using a rat liver epithelial cell line (TRL 1215). MMAsV was not cytotoxic in TRL 1215 cells even at concentrations exceeding 10 mM, but it became weakly cytotoxic and induced both necrotic and apoptotic cell death when cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted with the glutathione synthase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO), or the glutathione reductase inhibitor, carmustine. Similar results were observed in the other mammalian cells, such as human skin TIG-112 cells, chimpanzee skin CRT-1609 cells, and mouse metallothionein (MT) positive and MT negative embryonic cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA), an inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase (GST) that catalyses GSH-substrate conjugation, also enhanced the cytolethality of MMAsV, but aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of β-lyase that catalyses the final breakdown of GSH-substrate conjugates, had no effect. Both the cellular GSH levels and the cellular GST activity were increased by the exposure to MMAsV in TRL 1215 cells. On the other hand, the addition of exogenous extracellular GSH enhanced the cytolethality of MMAsV, although cellular GSH levels actually prevented the cytolethality of combined MMAsV and exogenous GSH. These findings indicate that human arsenic metabolite MMAsV is not a highly toxic compound in mammalian cells, and the level of cellular GSH is critical to its eventual toxic effects

  6. Sleep Deprivation Attenuates Inflammatory Responses and Ischemic Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, Zachary M.; Norman, Greg J.; Karelina, Kate; Morris, John S.; Barker, Jacqueline M.; Su, Alan J.; Walton, James C.; Bohinc, Steven; Nelson, Randy J.; DeVries, A. Courtney

    2009-01-01

    Although the biological function of sleep remains uncertain, the consequences of sleep deprivation are well-described and are reported to be detrimental to cognitive function and affective well-being. Sleep deprivation also is strongly associated with elevated risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We used a mouse model of cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation to test the hypothesis that acute sleep deprivation would exacerbate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration after global isc...

  7. Child income poverty and child deprivation: an essay on measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia Bastos; Graca Leao Fernandes,; Jose Passos

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study on child poverty from two perspectives: child income poverty (derived from family income) and child deprivation (evaluated by non-monetary indicators). On the one hand, empirical evidence supports the thesis that income-based poverty measures and deprivation measures do not overlap. On the other hand, the relationship between poverty and the child's living conditions is not linear. Uses micro-econometric techniques to analyse child income poverty and present deprivation ...

  8. MULTIDIMENSIONAL HOUSING DEPRIVATION INDICES WITH APPLICATION TO SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Ruiz, Carolina; Ayala, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The main aim of this paper is to defining a multidimensional housing deprivation index and identifying the main determining characteristics of this phenomenon, using Spain as reference. A latent variable model is used in order to overcome some of the traditional difficulties encountered in multidimensional deprivation studies. The construction of a latent structure model has allowed a set of partial housing deprivation indices to be grouped together under a single index. ...

  9. Total sleep deprivation decreases flow experience and mood status

    OpenAIRE

    Kaida K; Niki K

    2013-01-01

    Kosuke Kaida, Kazuhisa NikiHuman Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sleep deprivation on flow experience.Methods: Sixteen healthy male volunteers of mean age 21.4±1.59 (21–24) years participated in two experimental conditions, ie, sleep-deprivation and normal sleep. In the sleep-deprived condition, participants stayed awake at home for 36 ...

  10. Total sleep deprivation decreases flow experience and mood status

    OpenAIRE

    Kaida, Kosuke

    2013-01-01

    Kosuke Kaida, Kazuhisa NikiHuman Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sleep deprivation on flow experience.Methods: Sixteen healthy male volunteers of mean age 21.4±1.59 (21–24) years participated in two experimental conditions, ie, sleep-deprivation and normal sleep. In the sleep-deprived condition, participants stayed awake at home...

  11. 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced glutathione alteration occurs via glutathione enzyme system in primary cultured astrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji ZHANG; Jun HU; Jian-hua DING; Hong-hong YAO; Gang HU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To define the role of enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced glutathione alteration in primary cultured astrocytes.Methods: Total glutathione (GSx) levels were determined using the modified enzymatic microtiter plate assay.The mRNA levels ofγ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γGCS), γ-glutamyltransferase (γGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), GR (glutathione reductase), and glutathione transferases (GST) were determined using RT-PCR.γGT activity was determined using γGT assay kits.Results: In primary cultured astrocytes, 6-OHDA induced a significant elevation of cellular GSx levels after treatment for 24 h.However, the GSx levels decreased after 24 h and the values were even lower than the value in the control group without 6-OHDA at 48 h.RT-PCR data showed that the mRNA levels of γGCS, the ratelimiting enzyme of γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (GSH) synthesis, were increased by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; the mRNA levels of GPx, GR, and GST did not alter in 6-OHDA-treated astrocytes after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; and 6-OHDA increased the mRNA levels and the activity of γGT after treatment for 48 h,which induced a decrease in GSx levels, despite the up-regulation of γGCS after exposure to 6-OHDA for 48 h.Conclusion: The change in γGCS correlated with the increase in GSH levels induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h.GSx levels decreased because of increased γGT mRNA levels and γGT activity induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 48 h.

  12. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase. PMID:26758201

  13. Relative Deprivation and Adolescent Outcomes in Iceland: A Multilevel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relative deprivation emphasizes that social comparisons contextualize how people experience impoverishment. An important application of this theory argues that relative deprivation that stems from unfavorable social comparisons can result in anger, normlessness and an increased likelihood of deviant behavior. We test this theory in a…

  14. Sleep deprivation and spike-wave discharges in epileptic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Vossen, J.M.H.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation were studied on the occurrence of spike-wave discharges in the electroencephalogram of rats of the epileptic WAG/Rij strain, a model for absence epilepsy. This was done before, during and after a period of 12 hours of near total sleep deprivation. A substantial incre

  15. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  16. Deprivation, ethnicity and the prevalence of intellectual and developmental disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Background Social gradients and ethnic disparities have been reported in some forms of intellectual and developmental disabilities. However, information on the association between area deprivation, ethnicity and other forms of intellectual and developmental disabilities are inconclusive. Aim To estimate the independent association between household disadvantage, local area deprivation, ethnicity and the identification of intellectual and developmental disability. Methods Cross-sectional surve...

  17. The Determinants of Deprivation in Jordan: Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I. Shahateet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and explain the factors that affect deprivation in Jordan. To do so, this study constructs and tests a model that determines the factors, which affect deprivation. It employs an econometric analysis to examine the relationship between some main socioeconomic variables and the status of deprivation in Jordan. It looks at how changes in income, unemployment, education, health, housing conditions and access to services, as well as pollution, will affect the status of deprivation. The study uses the raw data of the national Household Income and Expenditure Survey HIES, which was conducted by the Jordanian Department of Statistics during 2002/2003 and covered 12,792 households. The study concludes that deprivation was caused by low income, unemployment, low educational attainment, bad type of housing, barriers to essential services, poor health and pollution. However, the effect of these factors varies. Simulation results of the model predicts that if income deprivation, unemployment and education deprivation are reduced by 1% the overall deprivation index will decrease by 0.7%, holding other variables without change. Realizing such reductions, however, will require policies to further increase wages and salaries, encourage investment in human capital and job creation.

  18. Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick T. Guilford

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of mycotoxin-related illness is increasing. The glutathione antioxidant and detoxification systems play a major role in the antioxidant function of cells. Exposure to mycotoxins in humans requires the production of glutathione on an “as needed” basis. Research suggests that mycotoxins can decrease the formation of glutathione due to decreased gene expression of the enzymes needed to form glutathione. Mycotoxin-related compromise of glutathione production can result in an excess of oxidative stress that leads to tissue damage and systemic illness. The review discusses the mechanisms by which mycotoxin-related deficiency of glutathione may lead to both acute and chronic illnesses.

  19. The regulation of gelation of Phloem exudate from cucurbita fruit by dilution, glutathione, and glutathione reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosi, M C; Melroy, D L; Park, R B

    1988-04-01

    The average glutathione equivalent concentration in phloem exudate collected from squash fruit (Cucurbita moschata [Duchesne] Poir. var Butternut) and pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita pepo [L.] var Jack-o-lattern) was 1.02 and 0.60 millimolar, respectively. Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) activity in phloem exudate from squash and pumpkin fruit averaged 0.48 and 1.74 micromole NADPH oxidized per minute per milliliter, respectively. Protein concentrations in fruit phloem exudates averaged 67 milligrams per milliliter for squash and 57 milligrams per milliliter for pumpkin. The phloem-specific P-proteins account for most of the protein content of exudate. Pure exudate from fruit does not gel for hours or days, but when diluted with neutral or alkaline aqueous solutions, exudate gels rapidly. Exudate solutions undergo biphasic pH changes with dilution. We suggest that P-protein undergoes conformational change upon dilution, exposing titratable groups and sulfhydryl residues. Oxidation of the latter forms the intermolecular disulfide bridges of the gel. The gelation of diluted exudate is regulated by factors (oxygen, pH, glutathione, NADPH) which affect the maintenance of reduced sulfhydryl residues and the activity of glutathione reductase. While these factors may also act in vivo to regulate redox conditions in phloem, their relationship to hypothetical sol/gel transitions or motile and nonmotile phases in the transport conduit is unknown. PMID:16666036

  20. A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Janet K; Geier, David A.; Adams, James B.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Audhya, Tapan; Geier, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Recent evidence shows that subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significantly lower levels of glutathione than typically developing children. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of two commonly used glutathione supplements in subjects diagnosed with an ASD to determine their efficacy in increasing blood glutathione levels in subjects diagnosed with an ASD. Material/Methods The study was an eight-week, open-label trial using oral lipoce...

  1. [The different aspects of the biological role of glutathione].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska, Anna; Kryczyk, Agata; Włodek, Lidia

    2007-01-01

    Glutathione plays a key role in maintaining a physiological balance between prooxidants and antioxidants, crucial for the life and death of a cell. Glutathione occurs in the human body in several redox forms, of which reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and mixed disulfides of glutathione with proteins are the most important. There is a clear relationship between the levels of different redox forms of glutathione and the regulation of cellular metabolism in a broad sense. Therefore, each of these forms of glutathione can be beneficial or harmful to the organism depending on the cell type and its metabolic status. In such a situation, elevation of GSH level can constitute a very important factor aiding treatment. A rise in GSH level is beneficial in all pathological states, accompanied by lowered GSH content, while a lowering of GSH level is an indication to induce short-term immunosuppression required in organ transplantation and in tumor cells to selectively increase their sensitivity to chemo- and radiotherapy. GSH itself cannot be used as a therapeutic since it is not transported through plasma membranes. Cysteine, an amino acid which limits glutathione biosynthesis, also cannot be used in therapy due to its high neurotoxicity. For this reason, there is currently an intensive search for possibilities of modulating cellular glutathione and cysteine levels, and this problem can be the subject of interdisciplinary studies combining such scientific fields as biology, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine. PMID:17679914

  2. Plasma cysteine, cystine, and glutathione in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, R K; Lewis, F W; Kutner, M H; Bate, D M; Roy, R G; Rudman, D

    1984-10-01

    Plasma contains three forms of cyst(e)ine: cysteine, cystine, and protein-bound cysteine. The former is a thiol and the latter two are disulfides. The levels of all three types of cyst(e)ine, as well as the cysteinyl tripeptide glutathione, were measured in the plasma of 14 normal and 10 cirrhotic individuals. All subjects ate mixed foods. Some cirrhotic patients were studied during nasogastric hyperalimentation with Vivonex (Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Norwich, N.Y.) as well as during total parenteral nutrition with FreAmine III (American McGaw, Irvine, Calif.); neither formula contains cyst(e)ine. Regardless of the nature of the diet, cirrhotic patients had significantly subnormal values for cysteine, glutathione, and albumin. In addition, the following significant changes were found to be diet-dependent: (a) elevated methionine during Vivonex, (b) subnormal taurine during mixed foods and total parenteral nutrition, (c) depressed protein-bound cysteine during total parenteral nutrition, (d) depressed cyst(e)ine thiol/disulfide ratio during mixed foods, and (e) depressed total thiol during Vivonex and total parenteral nutrition. The data indicate multiple abnormalities in sulfur metabolism in cirrhosis. PMID:6468868

  3. Nomenclature for mammalian soluble glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannervik, Bengt; Board, Philip G; Hayes, John D; Listowsky, Irving; Pearson, William R

    2005-01-01

    The nomenclature for human soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs) is extended to include new members of the GST superfamily that have been discovered, sequenced, and shown to be expressed. The GST nomenclature is based on primary structure similarities and the division of GSTs into classes of more closely related sequences. The classes are designated by the names of the Greek letters: Alpha, Mu, Pi, etc., abbreviated in Roman capitals: A, M, P, and so on. (The Greek characters should not be used.) Class members are distinguished by Arabic numerals and the native dimeric protein structures are named according to their subunit composition (e.g., GST A1-2 is the enzyme composed of subunits 1 and 2 in the Alpha class). Soluble GSTs from other mammalian species can be classified in the same manner as the human enzymes, and this chapter presents the application of the nomenclature to the rat and mouse GSTs. PMID:16399376

  4. Sleep deprivation increases oleoylethanolamide in human cerebrospinal fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Koethe, Dagmar; Schreiber, Daniela; Giuffrida, Andrea; Mauss, Christian; Faulhaber, Johannes; Heydenreich, Bernd; Hellmich, Martin; Graf, Rudolf; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Piomelli, Daniele; Leweke, F. Markus

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of two fatty acid ethanolamides, the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and its structural analog oleoylethanolamide in sleep deprivation of human volunteers. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained from 20 healthy volunteers before and after a night of sleep deprivation with an interval of about 12 months. We found increased levels of oleoylethanolamide in CSF (P = 0.011) but not in serum (P = 0.068) after 24 h of sleep deprivation. Oleoyleth...

  5. Deprivation-induced cortical reorganization in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Gilley, Phillip M; Dorman, Michael F; Baldwin, Robert

    2007-09-01

    A basic finding in developmental neurophysiology is that some areas of the cortex cortical areas will reorganize following a period of stimulus deprivation. In this review, we discuss mainly electroencephalography (EEG) studies of normal and deprivation-induced abnormal development of the central auditory pathways in children and in animal models. We describe age cut-off for sensitive periods for central auditory development in congenitally deaf children who are fitted with a cochlear implant. We speculate on mechanisms of decoupling and reorganization which may underlie the end of the sensitive period. Finally, we describe new magentoencephalography (MEG) evidence of somatosensory cross-modal plasticity following long-term auditory deprivation. PMID:17828665

  6. Glutathione S-transferases as risk factors in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Judith; Thomassen, L.H.; Olsen, J.H.;

    1999-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases are enzymes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens and in the defence against reactive oxygen species. Genetic polymorphisms have been detected in glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 and P1, and some of these polymorphisms have been associated with an increased risk of...

  7. Study of Oxidation of Glutathione by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for the separation and quantification of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was developed. A baseline separation was achieved within five minutes. The effects of time and the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the oxidation of GSH were investigated.

  8. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864... reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used to determine the... fluorescence and photometry. The results of this assay are used in the diagnosis of liver disease,...

  9. Glutathione Redox System in β-Thalassemia/Hb E Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchaneekorn W. Kalpravidh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available β-thalassemia/Hb E is known to cause oxidative stress induced by iron overload. The glutathione system is the major endogenous antioxidant that protects animal cells from oxidative damage. This study aimed to determine the effect of disease state and splenectomy on redox status expressed by whole blood glutathione (GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG and also to evaluate glutathione-related responses to oxidation in β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Twenty-seven normal subjects and 25 β-thalassemia/Hb E patients were recruited and blood was collected. The GSH/GSSG ratio, activities of glutathione-related enzymes, hematological parameters, and serum ferritin levels were determined in individuals. Patients had high iron-induced oxidative stress, shown as significantly increased serum ferritin, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and increased activities of glutathione-related enzymes. Splenectomy increased serum ferritin levels and decreased GSH levels concomitant with unchanged glutathione-related enzyme activities. The redox ratio had a positive correlation with hemoglobin levels and negative correlation with levels of serum ferritin. The glutathione system may be the body’s first-line defense used against oxidative stress and to maintain redox homeostasis in thalassemic patients based on the significant correlations between the GSH/GSSH ratio and degree of anemia or body iron stores.

  10. Compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eZechmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

  11. Response of Glutathione and Glutathione S-transferase in Rice Seedlings Exposed to Cadmium Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-hua; GE Ying

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic culture experiment was done to investigate the effect of Cd stress on glutathione content(GSH)and glutathione S-transferase(GST,EC 2.5.1.18)activity in rice seedlings.The rice growth was severely inhibited when Cd level in the solution was higher than 10 mg/L.In rice shoots,GSH content and GST activity increased with the increasing Cd level,while in roots,GST was obviously inhibited by Cd treatments.Compared with shoots,the rice roots had higher GSH content and GST activity,indicating the ability of Cd detoxification was much higher in roots than in shoots.There was a significant correlation between Cd level and GSH content or GST activity,suggesting that both parameters may be used as biomarkers of Cd stress in rice.

  12. Age-related changes in glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yuangui; Carvey, Paul M.; Ling, Zaodung

    2006-01-01

    The most reliable and robust risk factor for some neurodegenerative diseases is aging. It has been proposed that processes of aging are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species and a disturbance of glutathione homeostasis in the brain. Yet, aged animals have rarely been used to model the diseases that are considered to be age-related such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. This suggests that the results from these studies would be more valuable if aged animals were used. ...

  13. Induction of Glutathione Synthesis and Glutathione Reductase Activity by Abiotic Stresses in Maize and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kocsy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different abiotic stresses (extreme temperatures and osmotic stress on the synthesis of glutathione and hydroxymethylglutathione, on the ratio of the reduced to oxidised forms of these thiols (GSH/GSSG, hmGSH/hmGSSG, and on the glutathione reductase (GR activity was studied in maize and wheat genotypes having different sensitivity to low temperature stress. Cold treatment induced a greater increase in total glutathione (TG content and in GR activity in tolerant genotypes of both species than in sensitive ones. The GSH/GSSG and hmGSH/hmGSSG ratios were increased by this treatment only in the frost-tolerant wheat variety. High-temperature stress increased the TG content and the GSH/GSSG ratio only in the chilling-sensitive maize genotype, but GR activity was greater after this treatment in both maize genotypes. Osmotic stress resulted in a great increase in the TG content in wheat and the GR activity in maize. The amount of total hydroxymethylglutathione increased following all stress treatments. These results indicate the involvement of these antioxidants in the stress responses of wheat and maize.

  14. Human glutathione S-transferase-mediated glutathione conjugation of curcumin and efflux of these conjugates in caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usta, M.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Vervoort, J.; Boersma, M.G.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Cnubben, N.H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound, reacts with glutathione, leading to the formation of two monoglutathionyl curcumin conjugates. In the present study, the structures of both glutathione conjugates of curcumin were identified by LC-MS and one- and two-dimensional 1H NMR analysis, and th

  15. Human glutathione S-transferase-mediated glutathione conjugation of curcumin and efflux of these conjugates in Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usta, M.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Cnubben, N.H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compound, reacts with glutathione, leading to the formation of two monoglutathionyl curcumin conjugates. In the present study, the structures of both glutathione conjugates of curcumin were identified by LC-MS and one- and two-dimensional H-1 NMR analysis

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase in adult Syrian hamster tissues and during kidney development.

    OpenAIRE

    Oberley, T. D.; Oberley, L. W.; Slattery, A. F.; Elwell, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Tissues from adult Syrian hamsters were studied with immunoperoxidase techniques using polyclonal antibodies to glutathione-S-transferase (rat liver and human placental enzymes) and human erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Most tissues immunostained similarly with these antibodies. Most notable was the cytoplasmic staining of mesenchyme tissues, especially smooth muscle, by all three antibodies. Epithelial cells stained distinctively, but usually less intensely than mesenchyme. Epithelial ce...

  17. Is maternal deprivation the root of all evil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn B. Purvis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seriously entertain the question, “Is maternal deprivation the root of all evil?” Our consideration of this question is broken down into three parts. In the fi rst part, we discuss the nature of evil, focusing in particular on the legal concept of depravity. In the second part, we discuss the nurture of evil, focusing in particular on the common developmental trajectory seen in those who are depraved. In the third part, we discuss the roots of evil, focusing in particular on the animal and human research regarding maternal deprivation. Our conclusion is that maternal deprivation may actually be the root of all evil, but only because depraved individuals have been deprived of normative maternal care, which is the cradle of our humanity.

  18. Stress, social support and psychosomatic symptoms in a deprived neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bancila, Delia; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Kronborg Bak, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    From a transactional perspective on stress, the study aimed to examine if the relationships of social support with perceived stress and psychosomatic symptoms are equivalent in deprived and wealthier neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were randomly collected from 2906 inhabitants in a deprived...... neighbourhood (851) and wealthier communities (2055), in Esbjerg, Denmark. A model that included psychosomatic symptoms as outcome, and daily worries, economic deprivation, perceived stress and social support as predictors was tested with structural equation modelling in two-group analyses. The findings showed...... significant differences (D2 (6)¼16.66, p.¼0.011) between neighbourhoods, and the fit statistics (CFI¼0.930, RMSEA¼0.034, R2¼0.48) showed good fit. Under an increased perceived stress’ effect, the social support’s impact on psychosomatic symptoms decreased in the deprived neighbourhood compared with the other...

  19. Comparison of plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, hydroxyproline and selenium levels in patients with vitiligo and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk I

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology and pathophysiologic mechanism of vitiligo are still unclear. The relationship between increased oxidative stress due to the accumulation of radicals and reactive oxygen species and the associated changes in blood and epidermal component of vitiliginous skin have been reported many times. We investigated the possible changes of plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione, selenium, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels in patients with vitiligo in order to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress and etiopathogenesis of vitiligo. Materials and Methods: Plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels were measured by spectrophotometric methods, and HPLC was used for measurement of selenium concentrations. Results: Our results showed increased malondialdehyde, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels in plasma of vitiligo group ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Support of antioxidant system via nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant enzymes may be useful to prevent of melanocyte degeneration which occur due to oxidative damage in vitiligo.

  20. Effect of Food Deprivation on a Delayed Nonmatch-to-place T-maze Task

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Eun-Hae; Ahn, Seo-Hee; Lee, Ye-Seul; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2013-01-01

    Food deprivation can affect performance on difficult cognitive task, such as the delayed nonmatch-to-place T-maze task (DNMT). The importance of food deprivation on maintaining high motivation for DNMT task has been emphasized, but not many studies have investigated the optimal conditions for depriving rodents to maximize performance. Establishing appropriate conditions for food deprivation is necessary to maintain DNMT task motivation. We applied different conditions of food deprivation (1-h...

  1. Social Deprivation and the HPA Axis in Early Development

    OpenAIRE

    Koss, Kalsea J; Hostinar, Camelia E.; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that early social deprivation impacts the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Early adverse care in the form of institutional or orphanage care provides a human model for early social deprivation. The present study examined changes in diurnal cortisol during the transition to family care in the first two years post-adoption. Children adopted between 15 and 36 months from institutional care were examined four times during thei...

  2. Partial Sleep Deprivation Reduces Phase Advances to Light in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Helen J.

    2010-01-01

    Partial sleep deprivation is increasingly common in modern society. This study examined for the first time if partial sleep deprivation alters circadian phase shifts to bright light in humans. Thirteen young healthy subjects participated in a repeated-measures counterbalanced design with 2 conditions. Each condition had baseline sleep, a dim-light circadian phase assessment, a 3-day phase-advancing protocol with morning bright light, then another phase assessment. In one condition (no sleep d...

  3. Is fuel poverty in Ireland a distinct type of deprivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Dorothy; Maitre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on the Central Statistics Office SILC data for Ireland to ask whether fuel poverty is a distinctive type of deprivation that warrants a fundamentally different policy response than poverty in general. We examine the overlap between fuel poverty (based on three self-report items) and poverty in general – with a particular emphasis on the national indicator of basic deprivation which is used in the measurement of poverty for policy purposes in Ireland. We examine changes ...

  4. Lipidomic Analysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under Nitrogen and Sulfur Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dawei Yang; Donghui Song; Tobias Kind; Yan Ma; Jens Hoefkens; Oliver Fiehn

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii accumulates lipids under complete nutrient starvation conditions while overall growth in biomass stops. In order to better understand biochemical changes under nutrient deprivation that maintain production of algal biomass, we used a lipidomic assay for analyzing the temporal regulation of the composition of complex lipids in C. reinhardtii in response to nitrogen and sulfur deprivation. Using a chip-based nanoelectrospray direct infusion into an ion trap mass spectr...

  5. Sleep Deprivation Selectively Impairs Memory Consolidation for Contextual Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Laurel A.; Heller, Elizabeth A.; Pack, Allan I.; Abel, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Many behavioral and electrophysiological studies in animals and humans have suggested that sleep and circadian rhythms influence memory consolidation. In rodents, hippocampus-dependent memory may be particularly sensitive to sleep deprivation after training, as spatial memory in the Morris water maze is impaired by rapid eye movement sleep deprivation following training. Spatial learning in the Morris water maze, however, requires multiple training trials and performan...

  6. Relationships between affect, vigilance, and sleepiness following sleep deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Franzen, Peter L.; Siegle, Greg J.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study examined the relationships between the effects of sleep deprivation on subjective and objective measures of sleepiness and affect, and psychomotor vigilance performance. Following an adaptation night in the laboratory, healthy young adults were randomly assigned to either a night of total sleep deprivation (SD group; n = 15) or to a night of normal sleep (non-SD group; n = 14) under controlled laboratory conditions. The following day, subjective reports of mood and sleepiness...

  7. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberalesso Paulo Breno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP. Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT, and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT. Baseline (BSL performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005, for males (p = 0.0066, and for females (p = 0.0208. Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p  Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  8. Metabolic, Endocrine, and Immune Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    AlDabal, Laila; BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last three to four decades, it has been observed that the average total hours of sleep have decreased to less than seven hours per person per night. Concomitantly, global figures relating to obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased in an alarming fashion in adults and children, and it has been hypothesized that neuro-hormonal changes accompanying this behavioral sleep deprivation may lead to insulin resistance and, subsequently, to diabetes mellitus. Sleep deprivation has been as...

  9. Emotional Expressiveness in Sleep-Deprived Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Minkel, Jared; Htaik, Oo; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of sleep deprivation on emotional expression and subjective emotional experience in a highly controlled, laboratory setting. Twenty-three healthy adult participants watched positive (amusing) and negative (sad) film clips before and after they were randomly assigned to a night of sleep deprivation or a normal sleep control condition. The intensity of their facial expressiveness while viewing the films was coded by human judges and compar...

  10. Labour Migration as a Response to Relative Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded; Yitzhaki, Shlomo

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we define the relative deprivation of a person with income y as an increasing function of the percentage of individuals in the person's reference group whose income is larger than y. We obtain his satisfaction by adding up the marginal utilities of income over the range of income a person possesses. We model migration from one reference group to another as a response to relative deprivation and satisfaction: We say that a strong incentive to migrate exists if relative deprivatio...

  11. Wnt Signaling in Form Deprivation Myopia of the Mice Retina

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Mingming; ZHANG, ZHENGWEI; Du, Ergang; Zheng, Wenjing; Gu, Qing; Xu, Xun; Ke, Bilian

    2014-01-01

    Background The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays important roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation, axonal outgrowth, cellular maintenance in retinas. Here we test the hypothesis that elements of the Wnt signaling pathway are involved in the regulation of eye growth and prevention of myopia, in the mouse form-deprivation myopia model. Methodology/Principal Findings (1) One hundred twenty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into form-deprivation myopia and control group...

  12. Global analysis of gene expression in response to L-Cysteine deprivation in the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeelani Ghulam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric protozoan parasite, causes amebic colitis and extra intestinal abscesses in millions of inhabitants of endemic areas. E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione metabolism but possesses L-cysteine as the principle low molecular weight thiol. L-Cysteine is essential for the structure, stability, and various protein functions, including catalysis, electron transfer, redox regulation, nitrogen fixation, and sensing for regulatory processes. Recently, we demonstrated that in E. histolytica, L-cysteine regulates various metabolic pathways including energy, amino acid, and phospholipid metabolism. Results In this study, employing custom-made Affymetrix microarrays, we performed time course (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h gene expression analysis upon L-cysteine deprivation. We identified that out of 9,327 genes represented on the array, 290 genes encoding proteins with functions in metabolism, signalling, DNA/RNA regulation, electron transport, stress response, membrane transport, vesicular trafficking/secretion, and cytoskeleton were differentially expressed (≥3 fold at one or more time points upon L-cysteine deprivation. Approximately 60% of these modulated genes encoded proteins of no known function and annotated as hypothetical proteins. We also attempted further functional analysis of some of the most highly modulated genes by L-cysteine depletion. Conclusions To our surprise, L-cysteine depletion caused only limited changes in the expression of genes involved in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress defense. In contrast, we observed significant changes in the expression of several genes encoding iron sulfur flavoproteins, a major facilitator super-family transporter, regulator of nonsense transcripts, NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase, short chain dehydrogenase, acetyltransferases, and various other genes involved in diverse cellular functions. This study represents the first

  13. GABA-BZD Receptor Modulating Mechanism of Panax quinquefolius against 72-hours Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety like Behavior: Possible Roles of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eChanana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTRationale- Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng is known for its therapeutic potential against various neurological disorders, but its plausible mechanism of action still remains undeciphered. GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid plays an important role in sleep wake cycle homeostasis. Thus there exists rationale in exploring the GABA-ergic potential of Panax quinquefolius as neuroprotective strategy in sleep deprivation induced secondary neurological problems.Objective- The present study was designed to explore the possible GABA-ergic mechanism in the neuro-protective effect of Panax quinquefolius against 72-hours sleep deprivation induced anxiety like behaviour, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, HPA-axis activation and neuroinflammation.Materials and Methods- Male laca mice were sleep deprived for 72-hours by using Grid suspended over water method. Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered alone and in combination with GABA modulators (GABA Cl- channel inhibitor, GABA-benzodiazepine receptor inhibitor and GABAA agonist for 8 days, starting five days prior to 72-hours sleep deprivation period. Various behavioural (locomotor activity, mirror chamber test, biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite levels, mitochondrial complexes, neuroinflammation marker (Tumour Necrosis Factor, TNF-alpha, serum corticosterone, and histopathological sections of brains were assessed. Results- 72-hours sleep deprivation significantly impaired locomotor activity, caused anxiety-like behaviour, conditions of oxidative stress, alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complex activities, raised serum corticosterone levels, brain TNFα levels and led to neuroinflammation like signs in discrete brain areas as compared to naive group. Panax quinquefolius (100 and 200 mg/kg treatment restored the behavioural, biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological alterations. Pre-treatment of

  14. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Chouchou

    Full Text Available The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers. Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1 placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2 pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3 REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  15. Reduced visual processing capacity in sleep deprived persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Danyang; Soon, Chun Siong; Chee, Michael W L

    2011-03-15

    Multiple experiments have found sleep deprivation to lower task-related parietal and extrastriate visual activation, suggesting a reduction of visual processing capacity in this state. The perceptual load theory of attention (Lavie, 1995) predicts that our capacity to process unattended distractors will be reduced by increasing perceptual difficulty of task-relevant stimuli. Here, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation and perceptual load on visual processing capacity by measuring neural repetition-suppression to unattended scenes while healthy volunteers attended to faces embedded in face-scene pictures. Perceptual load did not affect repetition suppression after a normal night of sleep. Sleep deprivation reduced repetition suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) in the high but not low perceptual load condition. Additionally, the extent to which task-related fusiform face area (FFA) activation was reduced after sleep deprivation correlated with behavioral performance and lowered repetition suppression in the PPA. The findings concerning correct responses indicate that a portion of stimulus related activation following a normal night of sleep contributes to potentially useful visual processing capacity that is attenuated following sleep deprivation. Finally, when unattended stimuli are not highly intrusive, sleep deprivation does not appear to increase distractibility. PMID:21195190

  16. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh Dang-Vu

    Full Text Available Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD, during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation.Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers.During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls.Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness.

  17. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms and self-administration following caffeine deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S H; de Wit, H; Zacny, J P

    1995-08-01

    This study examined the effects of complete or partial caffeine deprivation on withdrawal symptomatology and self-administration of coffee in caffeine-dependent coffee drinkers. Nine habitual coffee drinkers abstained from dietary sources of caffeine for 33.5 h. Caffeine deprivation was manipulated by administering capsules containing 0%, 50%, or 100% of each subject's daily caffeine intake (complete, partial, and no deprivation conditions). Caffeine withdrawal symptomatology was measured using self-report questionnaires. Caffeine self-administration was measured using: i) the amount of coffee subjects earned on a series of concurrent random-ratio schedules that yielded coffee and money reinforcers; ii) the amount of earned coffee they consumed. Saliva samples revealed that subjects complied with the caffeine abstinence instructions. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms occurred reliably following complete caffeine deprivation, though not in the partial deprivation condition. Caffeine self-administration was not related to deprivation condition. We conclude that caffeine withdrawal symptomatology is not necessarily associated with increased caffeine consumption. PMID:7675881

  18. Total sleep deprivation decreases flow experience and mood status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaida K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosuke Kaida, Kazuhisa NikiHuman Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sleep deprivation on flow experience.Methods: Sixteen healthy male volunteers of mean age 21.4±1.59 (21–24 years participated in two experimental conditions, ie, sleep-deprivation and normal sleep. In the sleep-deprived condition, participants stayed awake at home for 36 hours (from 8 am until 10 pm the next day beginning on the day prior to an experimental day. In both conditions, participants carried out a simple reaction time (psychomotor vigilance task and responded to a questionnaire measuring flow experience and mood status.Results: Flow experience was reduced after one night of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss also decreased positive mood, increased negative mood, and decreased psychomotor performance.Conclusion: Sleep deprivation has a strong impact on mental and behavioral states associated with the maintenance of flow, namely subjective well-being.Keywords: sleep deprivation, sleepiness, flow, mood, vigilance

  19. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Christopher M.; Melanson, Edward L.; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep s...

  20. Protective role of intracellular glutathione against ethanol-induced damage in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated whether intracellular glutathione is cytoprotective against ethanol-induced injury to cultured rat gastric mucosal cells in vitro. Secondly, it investigated whether reduced glutathione or oxidized glutathione is responsible for this cytoprotection. Cytolysis was quantified by measuring 51Cr release from prelabeled cells. Concentrations of ethanol greater than 12% caused cell damage and increased 51Cr release in a dose-dependent and time-related fashion. When a substrate for glutathione synthesis, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, was provided to cultured cells for 4 h before challenge with ethanol, cytolysis was significantly decreased corresponding with an increase in cellular glutathione content. Pretreatment with diethyl maleate, which depletes reduced glutathione without forming oxidized glutathione, potentiated ethanol-induced cell damage in a dose-dependent manner with the decrease of cellular glutathione content. The administration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (which is specifically reduced by glutathione peroxidase to generate oxidized glutathione from reduced glutathione) or diamide (which nonenzymatically oxidizes reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione) enhanced ethanol injury. We conclude that in cultured gastric mucosal cells, (a) intracellular glutathione maintains integrity of gastric mucosal cells against ethanol in vitro; and (b) reduced glutathione rather than oxidized glutathione is responsible for this cytoprotection. We postulate that the presence of reduced glutathione is essential to allow glutathione peroxidase to catalyze the ethanol-generated toxic oxygen radical, hydrogen peroxide

  1. Hematological changes during androgen deprivation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathis Grossmann; Jeffrey D Zajac

    2012-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been associated with a plethora of adverse effects,consistent with the androgen dependency of multiple reproductive and somatic tissues.One such tissue is the hemopoietic system,and one of the most predictable consequences of ADT is the development of anemia.Although anemia caused by ADT is rarely severe,ADT is often given to frail,elderly men with increased susceptibility to anemia due to multiple other causes.ADT-associated anemia may contribute to fatigue and reduced quality of life (QoL) in such men,although this requires further study.While anemia is an independent risk factor of mortality in men with prostate cancer,it is not known whether treatment of ADT-associated anemia alters clinically important outcomes,or whether treatment affects mortality.Awareness of the phenomenon of ADT-induced anemia should avoid unnecessary work-up in mild cases of normocytic normochromic anemia.However,assessment and treatment of more severe anemia may be required.This should be determined on an individual basis.In contrast to the well-described actions of ADT on erythrepoiesis,its effect on other hemopoietic lineages has been less well elucidated.While preclinical studies have found roles for androgens in maturation and differentiated function of neutrophils,lymphocytes and platelets,the implications of these findings for men with prostate cancer receiving ADT require further studies.

  2. Serine deprivation enhances antineoplastic activity of biguanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Hulea, Laura; Toban, Nader; Birman, Elena; Blouin, Marie-José; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Zhao, Yunhua; Topisirovic, Ivan; St-Pierre, Julie; Pollak, Michael

    2014-12-15

    Metformin, a biguanide widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes, clearly exhibits antineoplastic activity in experimental models and has been reported to reduce cancer incidence in diabetics. There are ongoing clinical trials to evaluate its antitumor properties, which may relate to its fundamental activity as an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we show that serine withdrawal increases the antineoplastic effects of phenformin (a potent biguanide structurally related to metformin). Serine synthesis was not inhibited by biguanides. Instead, metabolic studies indicated a requirement for serine to allow cells to compensate for biguanide-induced decrease in oxidative phosphorylation by upregulating glycolysis. Furthermore, serine deprivation modified the impact of metformin on the relative abundance of metabolites within the citric acid cycle. In mice, a serine-deficient diet reduced serine levels in tumors and significantly enhanced the tumor growth-inhibitory actions of biguanide treatment. Our results define a dietary manipulation that can enhance the efficacy of biguanides as antineoplastic agents that target cancer cell energy metabolism. PMID:25377470

  3. Biochemical genetics of glutathione-S-transferase in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Board, P G

    1981-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases from liver and erythrocytes have been separated by starch gel electrophoresis and localized by a specific staining procedure. The data suggest that the most active glutathione-S-transferases in liver are the products of two autosomal loci, GST1 and GST2. Both these loci are polymorphic, and there is evidence that a common null allele exists at the GST1 locus. The glutathione-S-transferase expressed in erythrocytes is the product of a third locus, GST3, and is not po...

  4. The Genetic Architecture of Murine Glutathione Transferases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferase (GST genes play a protective role against oxidative stress and may influence disease risk and drug pharmacokinetics. In this study, massive multiscalar trait profiling across a large population of mice derived from a cross between C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA2/J (D2--the BXD family--was combined with linkage and bioinformatic analyses to characterize mechanisms controlling GST expression and to identify downstream consequences of this variation. Similar to humans, mice show a wide range in expression of GST family members. Variation in the expression of Gsta4, Gstt2, Gstz1, Gsto1, and Mgst3 is modulated by local expression QTLs (eQTLs in several tissues. Higher expression of Gsto1 in brain and liver of BXD strains is strongly associated (P < 0.01 with inheritance of the B6 parental allele whereas higher expression of Gsta4 and Mgst3 in brain and liver, and Gstt2 and Gstz1 in brain is strongly associated with inheritance of the D2 parental allele. Allele-specific assays confirmed that expression of Gsto1, Gsta4, and Mgst3 are modulated by sequence variants within or near each gene locus. We exploited this endogenous variation to identify coexpression networks and downstream targets in mouse and human. Through a combined systems genetics approach, we provide new insight into the biological role of naturally occurring variants in GST genes.

  5. Status of glutathione in nasal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During inhalation exposure to air-born toxicants, the nasal epithelium may be subjected to local toxicity. Since glutathione (GSH) is often involved in xenobiotic metabolism, GSH status in these tissues has been examined. GSH content and apparent first-order rate constants for GSH content and apparent first-order rate constants for GSH turnover and synthesis were determined for respiratory epithelium covering the anterior ventral septum, olfactory epithelium covering the dorsal posterior septum, olfactory epithelium covering the dorsal meatus from male Fischer rats. The three tissues had similar concentrations of GSH (approximately 3-3.4 umol/g tissue) as determined by the Ellman's assay or by HPLC equipped with an electrochemical detector. Animals were administered [35S]Cysteine (Cys) by tail vein injection and rate constants were estimated, after incorporation of Cys into tissue GSH pools, by the decrease in GSH specific activity 1-102 hr after administration. Total [35S]GSH was analyzed by HPLC with a flow-through radioactivity detector. The three nasal epithelial tissues had similar apparent biphasic rates of GSH turnover, with rapid-phase half-lives of less than 10 hr and slow-phase half-lives of approximately 30 hr. The high GSH concentrations and the apparent rapid GSH turnover may facilitate the GSH-mediated detoxification within nasal tissue

  6. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétane Deliens

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15 or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15, participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1 sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic, (2 sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm or (3 sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep

  7. Intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higano, Celestia S

    2014-05-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer for decades; however, the choice of continuous or intermittent administration is a matter of debate. Two large phase III trials have reported results comparing these 2 forms of ADT administration. The National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) PR-7 trial studied men with an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and no evidence of metastatic disease after definitive or salvage radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy. The Southwest Oncology Group 9346 trial studied men with newly diagnosed hormone-sensitive metastatic disease. The primary end point in both trials was overall survival with a noninferiority design. The NCIC trial showed that the overall survival in men treated with intermittent ADT was not inferior to that of men treated with continuous ADT, but the SWOG trial was inconclusive regarding noninferiority. Certain domains of quality of life were better in the intermittent arms of both trials. If using ADT in the setting of biochemical relapse, intermittent ADT should be strongly considered over continuous ADT, except perhaps in patients with Gleason score of 8 or higher. In men with metastatic disease, continuous ADT remains the standard of care, because the SWOG trial did not establish noninferiority of intermittent ADT with respect to survival. However, for those with significant side effects from ADT, establishing the risk group, as determined by PSA value after 7 months of ADT or the presence of pain at diagnosis, may help guide the choice of intermittent versus continuous ADT in men with metastatic disease. PMID:24812139

  8. Thiol-Disulfide Exchange between Glutaredoxin and Glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rasmus; Andersen, Peter Anders; Jensen, Kristine Steen;

    2010-01-01

    Glutaredoxins are ubiquitous thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases which catalyze the reduction of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides. Belonging to the thioredoxin family, they contain a conserved active site CXXC motif. The N-proximal active site cysteine can form a mixed disulfide with glutathione or...... an intramolecular disulfide with the C-proximal cysteine. The C-proximal cysteine is not known to be involved in the catalytic mechanism. The stability of the mixed disulfide with glutathione has been investigated in detail using a mutant variant of yeast glutaredoxin 1, in which the C......-proximal active site cysteine has been replaced with serine. The exchange reaction between the reduced protein and oxidized glutathione leading to formation of the mixed disulfide could readily be monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) due to the enthalpic contributions from the noncovalent...

  9. Hemoglobin-catalyzed fluorometric method for the determination of glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Lin; Li, Hua; Wang, Yi; Gou, Rong; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fang, Yudong; Chen, Fengmei

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrofluorometric method for the determination of glutathione based on the reaction catalyzed by hemoglobin was reported. The reaction product gave a highly fluorescent intensity with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 320.0 nm and 413.0 nm, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions were investigated. Results showed that low concentration glutathione enhanced the fluorescence intensity significantly. The line ranges were 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 of glutathione and 6.0 × 10-10 mol L-1-1.0 × 10-8 mol L-1, respectively. The detection limit was calculated to be 1.1 × 10-11 mol L-1. The recovery test by the standard addition method gave values in the range of 90.78%-102.20%. This method was used for the determination of glutathione in synthetic and real samples with satisfactory results.

  10. Application Of Chitosan/Cyclodextrin Nanoparticles for Tissue Glutathione Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Rotar O.V.; Rotar V.I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate an ability of chitosan nanoparticles for tissue delivery of the peptide glutathione. Formulations composed of chitosan or chitosan plus cyclodextrin-beta comlex were prepared. Reduced glutathione was loaded and delivered to mucosal layer of small intestine after ischemia-reperfusion injury more efficiently in chitosan/cyclodextrin-beta nanoparticles. From the data obtained, we believe that chitosan/cyclodextrin nanoparticles can be used for the oral adm...

  11. Nanofiltration concentration of extracellular glutathione produced by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize extracellular glutathione production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered strain and to concentrate the extracellular glutathione by membrane separation processes, including ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF). Synthetic defined (SD) medium containing 20 g L(-1) glucose was fermented for 48 h; the fermentation liquid was passed through an UF membrane to remove macromolecules. Glutathione in this permeate was concentrated for 48 h to 545.1 ± 33.6 mg L(-1) using the NF membrane; this was a significantly higher concentration than that obtained with yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) medium following 96 h NF concentration (217.9 ± 57.4 mg L(-1)). This higher glutathione concentration results from lower cellular growth in SD medium (final OD600 = 6.9 ± 0.1) than in YPD medium (final OD600 = 11.0 ± 0.6) and thus higher production of extracellular glutathione (16.0 ± 1.3 compared to 9.2 ± 2.1 mg L(-1) in YPD medium, respectively). Similar fermentation and membrane processing of sweet sorghum juice containing 20 g L(-1) total sugars provided 240.3 ± 60.6 mg L(-1) glutathione. Increased extracellular production of glutathione by this engineered strain in SD medium and subsequent UF permeation and NF concentration in shortend time may help realize industrial recovery of extracellular glutathione. PMID:26105794

  12. Analysis of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family

    OpenAIRE

    Nebert Daniel W; Vasiliou Vasilis

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family encodes genes that are critical for certain life processes, as well as for detoxication and toxification mechanisms, via conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH) with numerous substrates such as pharmaceuticals and environmental pollutants. The GST genes are upregulated in response to oxidative stress and are inexplicably overexpressed in many tumours, leading to problems during cancer chemotherapy. An analysis of the GST gene family in...

  13. Glutathione synthesis is essential for pollen germination in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Koffler Barbara E; Zechmann Bernd; Russell Scott D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The antioxidant glutathione fulfills many important roles during plant development, growth and defense in the sporophyte, however the role of this important molecule in the gametophyte generation is largely unclear. Bioinformatic data indicate that critical control enzymes are negligibly transcribed in pollen and sperm cells. Therefore, we decided to investigate the role of glutathione synthesis for pollen germination in vitro in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 and in...

  14. Evaluation of the antibiotic properties of glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, David O; Chouake, Jason S; Kutner, Allison J; Makdisi, Joy; Nosanchuk, Josh D; Friedman, Adam J

    2013-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are growing in prevalence in both the outpatient and inpatient settings and are some of the most common diseases seen by dermatologists, who are often the first point of care for these patients. Microbial resistance to antibiotics continues to rise as more virulent strains evolve, and strains predominantly found in the hospital setting are now being seen in the community. Therefore, innovative approaches to combat this trend are needed. Glutathione (GSH) is a well-described and established antioxidant. It participates in detoxification of xenobiotics, regulation of cellular growth, modulation of immune response, and maintenance of the thiol status of proteins and cellular cysteine levels. GSH is also known to have a regulatory effect on immune cells and even inherent antibacterial properties have been reported. To this end, the value of GSH as an antibiotic was evaluated by growing methicillin resistant S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa strains isolated from human skin and soft tissue infection in the presence of GSH. At a physiologic concentration of 10 mM, GSH had no effect on bacterial growth. At concentrations above 50 mM, which created acidic conditions (pH < 4), bacterial growth was completely inhibited. When adjusted to physiologic pH, GSH exhibited a bacteriostatic effect in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of GSH was evaluated in a murine cell line. GSH was relatively non-toxic to murine macrophages, even at the highest concentration tested (160 mM). These results suggest the potential utility of GSH for the prevention and/or as adjunctive treatment of infection, most significantly in disease states associated with GSH deficiency. PMID:24196336

  15. Identification of Small-Molecule Frequent Hitters of Glutathione S-Transferase-Glutathione Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenke, Jara K; Salmina, Elena S; Ringelstetter, Larissa; Dornauer, Scarlett; Kuzikov, Maria; Rothenaigner, Ina; Schorpp, Kenji; Giehler, Fabian; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Kieser, Arnd; Gul, Sheraz; Tetko, Igor V; Hadian, Kamyar

    2016-07-01

    In high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns, the binding of glutathione S-transferase (GST) to glutathione (GSH) is used for detection of GST-tagged proteins in protein-protein interactions or enzyme assays. However, many false-positives, so-called frequent hitters (FH), arise that either prevent GST/GSH interaction or interfere with assay signal generation or detection. To identify GST-FH compounds, we analyzed the data of five independent AlphaScreen-based screening campaigns to classify compounds that inhibit the GST/GSH interaction. We identified 53 compounds affecting GST/GSH binding but not influencing His-tag/Ni(2+)-NTA interaction and general AlphaScreen signals. The structures of these 53 experimentally identified GST-FHs were analyzed in chemoinformatic studies to categorize substructural features that promote interference with GST/GSH binding. Here, we confirmed several existing chemoinformatic filters and more importantly extended them as well as added novel filters that specify compounds with anti-GST/GSH activity. Selected compounds were also tested using different antibody-based GST detection technologies and exhibited no interference clearly demonstrating specificity toward their GST/GSH interaction. Thus, these newly described GST-FH will further contribute to the identification of FH compounds containing promiscuous substructures. The developed filters were uploaded to the OCHEM website (http://ochem.eu) and are publicly accessible for analysis of future HTS results. PMID:27044684

  16. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E

    2016-03-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. PMID:26851410

  17. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis. PMID:27413249

  18. Reduced glutathione as a persistence indicator of alien plants of the Amelancheir family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Dolgova

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It was proved that glutathione is an important indicator of the vegetation condition and persistence. According to the amount of glutathione the studied mespilus species are adapted to the environmental conditions. Increase of the glutathione amount is caused by some abiotic factors, e.g. temperature. Some differences of the glutathione content may be explained by the plants species patterns.

  19. Protective effects of exogenous glutathione and related thiol compounds against drug-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masubuchi, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Junpei; Sadakata, Yuka

    2011-01-01

    An overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver injury both in experimental animals and humans. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is clinically used as an antidote for APAP intoxication, and it is thought to act by providing cysteine as a precursor of glutathione, which traps a reactive metabolite of APAP. Other hepatoprotective mechanisms of NAC have also been suggested. Here, we examined the effects of thiol compounds with different abilities to restore hepatic glutathione, on hepatotoxicity of APAP and furosemide in mice. Overnight-fasted male CD-1 mice were given APAP or furosemide intraperitoneally. NAC, cysteine, glutathione, or glutathione-monoethyl ester was administered concomitantly with APAP or furosemide. All thiol compounds used in this study effectively protected mice against APAP-induced liver injury. Only glutathione-monoethyl ester completely prevented APAP-induced early hepatic glutathione depletion. Cysteine also significantly restored hepatic glutathione levels. NAC partially restored glutathione levels. Exogenous glutathione had no effect on hepatic glutathione loss. NAC and glutathione highly stimulated the hepatic expression of cytokines, particularly interleukin-6, which might be involved in the alleviation of APAP hepatotoxicity. Furosemide-induced liver injury, which does not accompany hepatic glutathione depletion, was also attenuated by NAC and exogenous glutathione, supporting their protective mechanisms other than replenishment of glutathione. In conclusion, exogenous thiols could alleviate drug-induced liver injury. NAC and glutathione might exert their effects, at least partially, via mechanisms that are independent of increasing hepatic glutathione, but probably act through cytokine-mediated and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:21372386

  20. Methylmercury alters glutathione homeostasis by inhibiting glutaredoxin 1 and enhancing glutathione biosynthesis in cultured human astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Stephan; Mailloux, Ryan J; Chan, Hing Man

    2016-08-10

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin that binds strongly to thiol residues on protein and low molecular weight molecules like reduced glutathione (GSH). The mechanism of its effects on GSH homeostasis particularly at environmentally relevant low doses is not fully known. We hypothesized that exposure to MeHg would lead to a depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and an accumulation of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) leading to alterations in S-glutathionylation of proteins. Our results showed exposure to low concentrations of MeHg (1μM) did not significantly alter GSH levels but increased GSSG levels by ∼12-fold. This effect was associated with a significant increase in total cellular glutathione content and a decrease in GSH/GSSG. Immunoblot analyses revealed that proteins involved in glutathione synthesis were upregulated accounting for the increase in cellular glutathione. This was associated an increase in cellular Nrf2 protein levels which is required to induce the expression of antioxidant genes in response to cellular stress. Intriguingly, we noted that a key enzyme involved in reversing protein S-glutathionylation and maintaining glutathione homeostasis, glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1), was inhibited by ∼50%. MeHg treatment also increased the S-glutathionylation of a high molecular weight protein. This observation is consistent with the inhibition of Grx1 and elevated H2O2 production however; contrary to our original hypothesis we found few S-glutathionylated proteins in the astrocytoma cells. Collectively, MeHg affects multiple arms of glutathione homeostasis ranging from pool management to protein S-glutathionylation and Grx1 activity. PMID:27180086

  1. Sleep Deprivation Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattasali, Tapalina; Sanyal, Sugata; 10.5120/5056-7374 10.5120/5056-7374 10.5120/5056-7374 10.5120/5056-7374

    2012-01-01

    Deployment of sensor network in hostile environment makes it mainly vulnerable to battery drainage attacks because it is impossible to recharge or replace the battery power of sensor nodes. Among different types of security threats, low power sensor nodes are immensely affected by the attacks which cause random drainage of the energy level of sensors, leading to death of the nodes. The most dangerous type of attack in this category is sleep deprivation, where target of the intruder is to maximize the power consumption of sensor nodes, so that their lifetime is minimized. Most of the existing works on sleep deprivation attack detection involve a lot of overhead, leading to poor throughput. The need of the day is to design a model for detecting intrusions accurately in an energy efficient manner. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework based on distributed collaborative mechanism for detecting sleep deprivation torture in wireless sensor network efficiently. Proposed model uses anomaly detection technique ...

  2. Cadmium(II) complex formation with glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Vicky; Jalilehvand, Farideh

    2010-03-01

    Complex formation between heavy metal ions and glutathione (GSH) is considered as the initial step in many detoxification processes in living organisms. In this study the structure and coordination between the cadmium(II) ion and GSH were investigated in aqueous solutions (pH 7.5 and 11.0) and in the solid state, using a combination of spectroscopic techniques. The similarity of the Cd K-edge and L(3)-edge X-ray absorption spectra of the solid compound [Cd(GS)(GSH)]ClO(4).3H(2)O, precipitating at pH 3.0, with the previously studied cysteine compound {Cd(HCys)(2).H(2)O}(2).H(3)O(+).ClO(4) (-) corresponds to Cd(S-GS)(3)O (dominating) and Cd(S-GS)(4) four-coordination within oligomeric complexes with mean bond distances of 2.51 +/- 0.02 A for Cd-S and 2.24 +/- 0.04 A for Cd-O. For cadmium(II) solutions (C (Cd(II)) approximately 0.05 M) at pH 7.5 with moderate excess of GSH (C (GSH)/C (Cd(II)) = 3.0-5.0), a mix of Cd(S-GS)(3)O (dominating) and Cd(S-GS)(4) species is consistent with the broad (113)Cd NMR resonances in the range 632-658 ppm. In alkaline solutions (pH 11.0 and C (GSH)/C (Cd(II)) = 2.0 or 3.0), two distinct peaks at 322 and 674 ppm are obtained. The first peak indicates six-coordinated mononuclear and dinuclear complexes with CdS(2)N(2)(N/O)(2) and CdSN(3)O(2) coordination in fast exchange, whereas the second corresponds to Cd(S-GS)(4) sites. At high ligand excess the tetrathiolate complex, Cd(S-GS)(4), characterized by a sharp delta((113)Cd) NMR signal at 677 ppm, predominates. The average Cd-S distance, obtained from the X-ray absorption spectra, varied within a narrow range, 2.49-2.53 A, for all solutions (pH 7.5 and 11.0) regardless of the coordination geometry. PMID:20035360

  3. The influence of social deprivation on length of hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Engin; Raynaud, Denis

    2013-04-01

    The implementation of activity-based payment system named T2A-tarification à l'activité-in 2004 profoundly modified the financing of French hospitals. Presently applied to activities concerning medicine, surgery and obstetrics, the pricing for these activities was developed using the National Costs Study. The considerable differences observed between costs in the private sector and those in the public sector are in part justified, by the latter, by caring for patients with social deprivation. The goal of this study is to measure the influence of social deprivation on the length of hospitalisation. A survey on inpatient social deprivation was carried out from November to December 2008 by the French Ministry of Health (Department of Research, Study, Evaluation and Statistics-DREES, and technical agency of Hospital information-ATIH). Four dimensions of social deprivation were taken into consideration after a previous qualitative study: social isolation, quality of housing, level of income and access to rights. The sample is based on 27 hospitals, including public and private (for-profit and not-for-profit), representing 57,175 stays, 6,800 of which were patients with social deprivation. After multivariate analyses adjusted for age, severity of illness and DRG, we found that there was a longer length of stay for inpatients with social deprivation (+16%), and in particular for patients living in social isolation (+17%) and for patients with inadequate housing (+17%). The impact of low income on the length of stay is less important. However, low income associated with inadequate housing significantly increases lengths of stay (+24%). PMID:22095444

  4. Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Disruption: Stress, Allostasis, and Allostatic Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S; Karatsoreos, Ilia N

    2015-03-01

    Sleep has important homeostatic functions, and circadian rhythms organize physiology and behavior on a daily basis to insure optimal function. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption can be stressors, enhancers of other stressors that have consequences for the brain and many body systems. Whether the origins of circadian disruption and sleep disruption and deprivation are from anxiety, depression, shift work, long-distance air travel, or a hectic lifestyle, there are consequences that impair brain functions and contribute to the cumulative wear and tear on body systems caused by too much stress and/or inefficient management of the systems that promote adaptation. PMID:26055668

  5. Sleep deprivation attenuates experimental stroke severity in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Constantinescu, Alexandra Oana; Balseanu, Adrian;

    2010-01-01

    Indirect epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that the severity of injury during stroke is influenced by prior sleep history. The aim of our study was to test the effect of acute sleep deprivation on early outcome following experimental stroke. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20......) were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia by reversible right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min. In 10 rats, MCAO was performed just after 6-h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) by "gentle handling", whereas the other rats served as controls. Neurological function during the first week...

  6. Reindeer & Wolves: Exploring Sensory Deprivation in Multiplayer Digital Bodily Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Velloso, Eduardo; Mitchell, Robb;

    2014-01-01

    Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer & W...... & Wolves, a role-playing game where blindfolded players capture other players relying on their hearing alone. Based on our design and play testing, we devised four strategies for designing games that incorporate sensory deprivation as an element of the core mechanic....

  7. “AN ANALYTICAL STUDY ON DEPRIVATION OF PUNE CITY SLUMS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAWARE SURENDRA J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 65 years of Independence, deprivation is a long awaited issue in India. Deprivation is one of the hard tasks in front of the governments to get resolved. Deprivation has multi-dimensions in the form of opportunity, access and availability. The effect of deprivation is on education, health, food, income, employment, houses, water, sanitation, social infrastructure and basic human rights of the common man. According to the World Development Report 2011, UNDP Indian deprivation is more than 40%. It shows how poor and low standard of living exists in India. Deprivation was brought to limelight by Nobel Laureate, Amartya Sen. He had described poverty as capability deprivation, where capability is defined as the freedom or ability to lead a life of value in terms of what a person chooses to be or to do. Capability poverty then means 1deprivation of basic capabilities .

  8. Induction of Glutathione and Glutathione S-transferase in Several Crops with the Treatment of Acetochlor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Gang; TAO Bo; WANG Yu-li; WANG Qiu-xia; LIU Hui

    2003-01-01

    The response of glutathione(GSH) content and glutathione S-transferease(GST) activity to the acetochlor in roots and shoots of the maize ‘Dongnong248',the sorghum ‘Aoza No.2' and millet‘Yugu' was evaluated.The concentrations of pre-emergence acetochlor causing a 50% inhibition of plant shoot height were 25 μmol*L-1 for the tolerant‘Dongnong248' maize,5 μmol*L-1 for the sensitive ‘Aoza No.2' sorghum and 0.5 μmol*L-1 for the very sensitive ‘Yugu'millet.Pre-treatment with 10 μmol*L-1 of acetochlor induced the root GST activities and nonprotein thiol content of all three cultivars.The induction of root GST activities and nonprotein thiol content compared to controls are observed on the fourth day after acetochlor treatment,The extents of activity and content increase from the higher to the lower were:tolerant maize cultivar ‘Dongnong248'>sorghum cultivar‘Aoza No.2'>millet cultivar ‘Yugu'.The activities and contents induced in shoots were similar to that in roots,but the degrees of increase were less.Under different concentration treatment,the thiol content and GST activities increased with the herbicide concentration rising,then reached their peaks and began to decrease in all tested crop seedlings.The extent of induced GST activities and thiol content correlated well with differential cultivar resistance to acetochlor,so their protective mechanism appears to be strongly dependent on the endogenous levels of GSH and activities of GST.

  9. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Silke Dietze; Lees, Katarina R.; Heidrun Fink; Jan Brosda; Jörg-Peter Voigt

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Food deprivation protocols are frequently used in behavioral studies. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. Regarding the refinement of experiments involving animals, this study investigated the effects of food deprivation on body weight loss and behavior in male and female rats. Sex difference in behavior and motivational state after food deprivation is the main finding of the study. The data highlights the need for tailored...

  10. Can Economic Deprivation Protect Health? Paradoxical Multilevel Effects of Poverty on Hispanic Children’s Wheezing

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy W. Collins; Young-an Kim; Grineski, Sara E.; Stephanie Clark-Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that economic deprivation has a generally negative influence on residents’ health. We employ hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test if economic deprivation presents respiratory health risks or benefits to Hispanic children living in the City of El Paso (Texas, USA) at neighborhood- and individual-levels, and whether individual-level health effects of economic deprivation vary based on neighborhood-level economic deprivation. Data come from the US Census Bure...

  11. Dynamics of caste-based deprivation in child under-nutrition in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra Narayan Mishra

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional deprivation among Indian children is one of the parameters of underdevelopment mentioned in development discourse in recent times. And such deprivation is more often associated with well known socio-economic indicators of deprivation; prominent among them is caste, which ranks the society into a hierarchy in terms of benefit and welfare. Though caste dimension has been frequently considered as a category of understanding deprivation, it is rare to find explicit disadvantage of cas...

  12. Glutathione-dependent responses of plants to drought: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Labudda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water is a renewable resource. However, with the human population growth, economic development and improved living standards, the world’s supply of fresh water is steadily decreasing and consequently water resources for agricultural production are limited and diminishing. Water deficiency is a significant problem in agriculture and increasing efforts are currently being made to understand plant tolerance mechanisms and to develop new tools (especially molecular that could underpin plant breeding and cultivation. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of plant water deficit tolerance are not fully understood, and the data available is incomplete. Here, we review the significance of glutathione and its related enzymes in plant responses to drought. Firstly, the roles of reduced glutathione and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio, are discussed, followed by an extensive discussion of glutathione related enzymes, which play an important role in plant responses to drought. Special attention is given to the S-glutathionylation of proteins, which is involved in cell metabolism regulation and redox signaling in photosynthetic organisms subjected to abiotic stress. The review concludes with a brief overview of future perspectives for the involvement of glutathione and related enzymes in drought stress responses.

  13. Socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Barrington, Wendy E.; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Shirley A A Beresford; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteri...

  14. FEATURES OF DISPLAY EMOTIONAL DEPRIVATION IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AT CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Yakubova, Guzal

    2015-01-01

    Article is devoted to the content of deprivation. The emergence of deprivation considered in psychological research. And also article about results of the scientifically research influence emotional deprivation to development of child under school age as subject of the social relations.

  15. Aging worsens the effects of sleep deprivation on postural control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rébecca Robillard

    Full Text Available Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o. and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o. stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly.

  16. Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer:not so simple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicholas N Tadros; Mark Garzotto

    2011-01-01

    @@ Prostate cancer(PC)is the second most diagnosed visceral malignancy in men worldwide, with over 900 000 new diagnoses each year.1 Approximately 50% of patients treated in industrialized nations will receive androgen deprivation therapy(ADT)at some point in their lifetimes.2

  17. Androgen deprivation modulates the inflammatory response induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether radiation (RT)-induced inflammatory responses and organ damage might be modulated by androgen deprivation therapies. The mRNA and tissue sections obtained from the lungs, intestines and livers of irradiated mice with or without androgen deprivation were analyzed by real-time PCR and histological analysis. Activation of NF-kappa B was examined by measuring nuclear protein levels in the intestine and lung 24 h after irradiation. We also examined the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TGF-β1 and p-AKT to elucidate the related pathway responsible to irradiation (RT) -induced fibrosis. We found androgen deprivation by castration significantly augmented RT-induced inflammation, associated with the increase NF-κB activation and COX-2 expression. However, administration of flutamide had no obvious effect on the radiation-induced inflammation response in the lung and intestine. These different responses were probably due to the increase of RT-induced NF-κB activation and COX-2 expression by castration or lupron treatment. In addition, our data suggest that TGF-β1 and the induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may contribute to RT-induced fibrosis. When irradiation was given to patients with total androgen deprivation, the augmenting effects on the RT-induced inflammation and fibrosis should take into consideration for complications associated with radiotherapy

  18. Differentiation of stem cells upon deprivation of exogenous FGF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Gabrielsen, Anette; Reda, Ahmed;

    2012-01-01

    fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is supporting spontaneous differentiation of hESCs cultured on human foreskin fibroblast (hFF) monolayers towards germ cell lineage. Additionally to depriving the hESCs of exogenous FGF2, cells were stimulated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To get a more comprehensive...

  19. Early maternal deprivation retards neurodevelopment in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, B.A.; Derks, N.M.; Park, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    A single 24 h period of maternal deprivation (MD) in rats has been shown to induce, in adulthood, a number of abnormalities in brain and behaviour that also occur in patients with schizophrenia. However, the short-term behavioural effects of MD have not been studied in detail. Since patients with sc

  20. Reindeer & Wolves: Exploring Sensory Deprivation in Multiplayer Digital Bodily Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Velloso, Eduardo; Mitchell, Robb;

    2014-01-01

    Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer...

  1. Androgen deprivation modulates the inflammatory response induced by irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Paul-Yang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether radiation (RT-induced inflammatory responses and organ damage might be modulated by androgen deprivation therapies. Methods The mRNA and tissue sections obtained from the lungs, intestines and livers of irradiated mice with or without androgen deprivation were analyzed by real-time PCR and histological analysis. Activation of NF-kappa B was examined by measuring nuclear protein levels in the intestine and lung 24 h after irradiation. We also examined the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, TGF-β1 and p-AKT to elucidate the related pathway responsible to irradiation (RT -induced fibrosis. Results We found androgen deprivation by castration significantly augmented RT-induced inflammation, associated with the increase NF-κB activation and COX-2 expression. However, administration of flutamide had no obvious effect on the radiation-induced inflammation response in the lung and intestine. These different responses were probably due to the increase of RT-induced NF-κB activation and COX-2 expression by castration or lupron treatment. In addition, our data suggest that TGF-β1 and the induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may contribute to RT-induced fibrosis. Conclusion When irradiation was given to patients with total androgen deprivation, the augmenting effects on the RT-induced inflammation and fibrosis should take into consideration for complications associated with radiotherapy.

  2. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and neighbourhood deprivation in an urban region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhabitants of deprived neighbourhoods are at higher risk of coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate the hypothesis that social inequalities at neighbourhood level become already manifest in subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, as defined by electron-beam computed tomography derived measures. Coronary artery calcification was assessed as a marker of atherosclerosis in a population based sample of 4301 men and women (45-75 years) without a history of coronary heart disease. Participants lived in three adjacent cities in Germany and were examined between 2000 and 2003 as part of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Individual level data was combined with neighbourhood level information about unemployment, welfare and living space per inhabitant. This dataset was analysed with descriptive and multilevel regression methods. An association between neighbourhood deprivation and subclinical coronary calcification was observed. After adjustment for age and individual socioeconomic status male inhabitants of high unemployment neighbourhoods had an odds ratio of 1.45 (1.11, 1.96) of exhibiting a high calcification score (>75th percentile) compared to men living in low unemployment areas. The respective odds for women was 1.29 (0.97, 1.70). Additional explorative analyses suggest that clustering of unhealthy lifestyles in deprived neighbourhoods contributes to the observed association. In conclusion, findings suggest that certain neighbourhood characteristics promote the emergence of coronary atherosclerosis. This might point to a pathway from neighbourhood deprivation to manifest coronary heart disease

  3. Regional vulnerability of the hippocampus to repeated motor activity deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Jamshid; Soltanpour, Nabiollah; Moeeini, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Abedin; Pakdel, Shiva; Moharrerie, Alireza; Arjang, Kaveh; Soltanpour, Nasrin; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-03-15

    Spontaneous vertical and horizontal exploratory movements are integral components of rodent behavior. Little is known, however, about the structural and functional consequences of restricted spontaneous exploration. Here, we report two experiments to probe whether restriction in vertical activity (rearing) in rats could induce neuro-hormonal and behavioral disturbances. Rearing movements in rats were deprived for 3h/day for 30 consecutive days by placing the animal into a circular tunnel task. Rats temporarily deprived of rearing behavior showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels but no detectable psychological distress and/or anxiety-related behavior within an elevated plus maze. However, rats emitted a greater number of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and spent significantly more time vocalizing than controls when deprived of their rearing behavior. Despite intact spatial performance within wet- and dry-land spatial tasks, rearing-deprived rats also exhibited a significant alteration in search strategies within both spatial tasks along with reduced volume and neuron number in the hippocampal subregion CA2. These data suggest a new approach to test the importance of free exploratory behavior in endocrine and structural manifestations. The results support a central role of the CA2 in spontaneous exploratory behavior and vulnerability to psychological stress. PMID:26723539

  4. Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath eVenketaraman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that the levels of enzymes responsible for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH such as glutathione synthase (GSS, glutamate-cysteine ligase-catalytic subunit (GCLC and glutathione reductase (GSR were significantly reduced in the red blood cells (RBCs isolated from individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and this reduction correlated with decreased levels of intracellular GSH. GSH content in RBCs can be used as a marker for increased overall oxidative stress and immune dysfunctions caused by HIV infection. Our data supports our hypothesis that compromised levels of GSH in HIV infected individuals’ is due to decreased levels of GSH-synthetic enzymes. The role of GSH in combating oxidative stress and improving the functions of immune cells in HIV patients’ indicates the benefit of an antioxidant supplement which can reduce the cellular damage and promote the functions of immune cells.

  5. Citicoline retards myopia progression following form deprivation in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junfeng; Liu, Shuangzhen; Fu, Chunyan

    2016-06-01

    The retinal dopaminergic system is involved in the myopic shift following form deprivation. Citicoline has been demonstrated to stimulate the dopaminergic system in the brain and retina. Furthermore, citicoline has been used in many neurogenic diseases, such as senile cognitive impairment, stroke and Parkinson's disease as well as in amblyopia and glaucoma. Our aim was to investigate the effect of citicoline on the refractive state and retinal dopamine level in form deprivation myopia of guinea pigs. Guinea pigs, at an age of four weeks, were randomly divided into normal control, deprivation, deprived + citicoline and deprived + vehicle groups. Form deprivation myopia was induced by a translucent eye shield covering the right eye. Citicoline was injected intraperitoneally twice a day (500 mg/kg, 9 am and 9 pm) for 10 days. In vitro, retinal explants were cultured with citicoline for 24 h, with a final citicoline concentration of 100 µmol/L. The ocular refractive parameters and retinal dopamine content were measured. After occlusion for 10 days, the form-deprived eyes became myopic with an increase in axial length and a decrease in retinal dopamine content. The intraperitoneal injection of citicoline reduced the myopic degree (from -3.25 ± 0.77D to -0.62 ± 0.47D, P < 0.001) and partially raised retinal dopamine levels (from 0.55 ± 0.21 ng to 0.81 ± 0.24 ng, P < 0.01) in the form-deprived eyes. After 24 h of culturing retinal explants with citicoline, retinal dopamine content increased significantly (from 0.42 ± 0.14 ng to 0.62 ± 0.21 ng, P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that an intraperitoneal injection of citicoline could retard the myopic shift induced by form deprivation in guinea pigs, which was mediated by an increase in the retinal dopamine levels. PMID:26979720

  6. Wnt signaling in form deprivation myopia of the mice retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays important roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation, axonal outgrowth, cellular maintenance in retinas. Here we test the hypothesis that elements of the Wnt signaling pathway are involved in the regulation of eye growth and prevention of myopia, in the mouse form-deprivation myopia model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1 One hundred twenty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into form-deprivation myopia and control groups. Form-deprivation myopia (FDM was induced by suturing the right eyelid, while the control group received no treatment. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment, eyes were assessed in vivo by cycloplegic retinoscopic refraction and axial length measurement by photography or A-scan ultrasonography. Levels of retinal Wnt2b, Fzd5 and β-catenin mRNA and protein were evaluated using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. (2 Another 96 mice were divided into three groups: control, drugs-only, and drugs+FDM (by diffuser. Experimentally treated eyes in the last two groups received intravitreal injections of vehicle or the proteins, DKK-1 (Wnt-pathway antagonist or Norrin (Wnt-pathway agonist, once every three days, for 4 injections total. Axial length and retinoscopic refraction were measured on the 14th day of form deprivation. Following form-deprivation for 1, 2, and 4 weeks, FDM eyes had a relatively myopic refractive error, compared with contralateral eyes. There were no significant differences in refractive error between right and left eye in control group. The amounts of Wnt2b, Fzd5 and β-catenin mRNA and protein were significantly greater in form-deprived myopia eyes than in control eyes.DKK-1 (antagonist reduced the myopic shift in refractive error and increase in axial elongation, whereas Norrin had the opposite effect in FDM eyes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies provide the first evidence that the Wnt2b signaling pathway may play a role in the

  7. Recurrent Isolated Neonatal Hemolytic Anemia: Think About Glutathione Synthetase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signolet, Isabelle; Chenouard, Rachel; Oca, Florine; Barth, Magalie; Reynier, Pascal; Denis, Marie-Christine; Simard, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    Hemolytic anemia (HA) of the newborn should be considered in cases of rapidly developing, severe, or persistent hyperbilirubinemia. Several causes of corpuscular hemolysis have been described, among which red blood cell enzyme defects are of particular concern. We report a rare case of red blood cell enzyme defect in a male infant, who presented during his first months of life with recurrent and isolated neonatal hemolysis. All main causes were ruled out. At 6.5 months of age, the patient presented with gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization; fortuitously, urine organic acid chromatography revealed a large peak of 5-oxoproline. Before the association between HA and 5-oxoprolinuria was noted, glutathione synthetase deficiency was suspected and confirmed by a low glutathione synthetase concentration and a collapse of glutathione synthetase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, molecular diagnosis revealed 2 mutations in the glutathione synthetase gene: a previously reported missense mutation (c.[656A>G]; p.[Asp219Gly]) and a mutation not yet described in the binding site of the enzyme (c.[902T>C]; p.[Leu301Pro]). However, 15 days later, a control sample revealed no signs of 5-oxoprolinuria and the clinical history discovered administration of acetaminophen in the 48 hours before hospitalization. Thus, in this patient, acetaminophen exposure allowed the diagnosis of a mild form of glutathione synthetase deficiency, characterized by isolated HA. Early diagnosis is important because treatment with bicarbonate, vitamins C and E, and elimination of trigger factors are recommended to improve long-term outcomes. Glutathione synthetase deficiency should be screened for in cases of unexplained newborn HA. PMID:27581854

  8. Analysis of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in whole cells and mitochondria by postcolumn derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography with ortho-phthalaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, K J; Therriault, H; Wagner, J R

    1999-10-01

    A method is described for the detection of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) based on a HPLC postcolumn reaction with ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPT) at pH 12 followed by fluorescence detection. Although similar methods have been reported, the high pH of the postcolumn reaction adds considerable selectivity and sensitivity to the measurement of GSH and glutathione disulfide. The limit of detection approaches 100 fmol, which is sufficient to detect whole-cell glutathione disulfide in 10,000 cells or mitochondrial glutathione disulfide in 20 million cells. Using this method, glutathione and glutathione disulfide were measured in human lymphocytes, granulocytes, and cultured Jurkat T cells, as well as in the corresponding samples of mitochondria. The percentage of glutathione disulfide to total glutathione in whole-cell extracts was approximately 1%. In contrast, the percentage was relatively high in mitochondria, with the mitochondria of granulocytes having the highest (25%) followed by those of lymphocytes (15%) and finally by cultured Jurkat T cells (9%). This method extends the analysis of glutathione and glutathione disulfide to mitochondria obtained from a relatively small number of cells. PMID:10527505

  9. Effects of Elevated Cytosolic Glutathione Reductase Activity on the Cellular Glutathione Pool and Photosynthesis in Leaves under Normal and Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, C; Lelandais, M; Galap, C; Kunert, K J

    1991-11-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Samsun) was transformed using the bacterial gor gene coding for the enzyme glutathione reductase. Transgenic plants were selected by their kanamycin resistence and expression of the bacterial gor gene. After separation by isoelectric focusing techniques, leaf extracts from transgenic plants having both native and bacterial glutathione reductase activity gave, in addition to the six bands of the native enzyme, two further closely running isoenzymes. These additional bands originating from the expression of the bacterial gor gene were nonchloroplastic. Leaves from transgenic plants had two- to 10-fold higher glutathione reductase activity than non-transgenic controls. The amount of extractable glutathione reductase activity obtained in transgenic plants was dependent on leaf age and the conditions to which leaves were exposed. Both light and exposure to methylviologen increased leaf glutathione reductase activity. Elevated levels of cytosolic glutathione reductase activity in transgenic plants had no effect on the amount or reduction state of the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione pool under optimal conditions or oxidative conditions induced by methylviologen. The glutathione pool was unaltered despite the oxidation-dependent loss of CO(2) assimilation and oxidation of enzymes involved in photosynthesis. However, the reduction state of the ascorbate pool was greater in transgenic plants relative to nontransgenic controls following illumination of methylviologen-treated leaf discs. Therefore, we conclude that in the natural state glutathione reductase is present in tobacco at levels above those required for maximal operation of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway. PMID:16668524

  10. Glutathione, glutathione disulfide, and S-glutathionylated proteins in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustarini, Daniela; Galvagni, Federico; Tesei, Anna; Farolfi, Alberto; Zanoni, Michele; Pignatta, Sara; Milzani, Aldo; Marone, Ilaria M; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Nassini, Romina; Rossi, Ranieri

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of the global thiol-disulfide redox status in tissues and cells is a challenging task since thiols and disulfides can undergo artificial oxido-reductions during sample manipulation. Because of this, the measured values, in particular for disulfides, can have a significant bias. Whereas this methodological problem has already been addressed in samples of red blood cells and solid tissues, a reliable method to measure thiols and disulfides in cell cultures has not been previously reported. Here, we demonstrate that the major artifact occurring during thiol and disulfide analysis in cultured cells is represented by glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and S-glutathionylated proteins (PSSG) overestimation, due to artificial oxidation of glutathione (GSH) during sample manipulation, and that this methodological problem can be solved by the addition of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) immediately after culture medium removal. Basal levels of GSSG and PSSG in different lines of cultured cells were 3-5 and 10-20 folds higher, respectively, when the cells were processed without NEM. NEM pre-treatment also prevented the artificial reduction of disulfides that occurs during the pre-analytical phase when cells are exposed to an oxidant stimulus. In fact, in the absence of NEM, after medium removal, GSH, GSSG and PSSG levels restored their initial values within 15-30 min, due to the activity of reductases and the lack of the oxidant. The newly developed protocol was used to measure the thiol-disulfide redox status in 16 different line cells routinely used for biomedical research both under basal conditions and after treatment with disulfiram, a thiol-specific oxidant (0-200 μM concentration range). Our data indicate that, in most cell lines, treatment with disulfiram affected the levels of GSH and GSSG only at the highest concentration. On the other hand, PSSG levels increased significantly also at the lower concentrations of the drug, and the rise was remarkable (from 100 to 1000

  11. Latent deprivation among people who are employed, unemployed, or out of the labor force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Karsten I; Geithner, Eva; Moser, Klaus

    2009-10-01

    Using a Web-based survey, the authors tested M. Jahoda's (1981, 1982, 1997) latent deprivation model among employed, unemployed, and out-of-the-labor-force (OLF) people. The model predicted that employment is the main provider of 5 specific subconstructs of experience important to mental health: time structure, social contact, collective purpose, status, and activity. As expected, deprivation of these latent functions correlated with distress not only among employed and unemployed people, but also among OLF people. OLF people reported significantly more latent deprivation than did employed people, but they reported significantly less latent deprivation than did unemployed people. Furthermore, latent deprivation mediated the negative effects of unemployment and OLF status on mental health. When the authors statistically controlled the influence of manifest deprivation, the effect of latent deprivation on mental health remained stable. PMID:19943399

  12. Effects of sleep deprivation on rat myocardial damage%睡眠剥夺对大鼠心肌损伤效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方舟; 李泱; 卢才义

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the severity of myocardial damage after sleep deprivation and to explore its mechanism. METHODS; Sixty rats were randomized into six groups (ten in each group) and sleep deprivation rat models were established by "multi-platform method" ( MMPM). Effects of sleep deprivation on the contents of ischemia modified albumin (IMA ) , high-sensitivity C-reactive prolein ( hs-CRP) , glutathione (GSH) , superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat myocardium were evaluated. RESULTS; Compared with those in the normal cage control ( CC) and tank control ( TC) group, the contents of IMA, hs-CRP, GSH and MDA increased (P < 0. 05). With the elongation of sleep deprivation time, the eontents of these markers increased, but the activity of SOD showed a decreasing tendency. CONCLUSION; Sleep deprivation contributes to rat myocardial oxidative stress and inflammation. With the aggravating oxidative stress and inflammation, the damaging effects of ischemia and hypoxia on myocardium become more serious.%目的:评估睡眠剥夺(SD)后大鼠心肌组织损伤程度并探讨其机制.方法:将60只实验大鼠随机分为6组,每组10只.采用改良的多平台SD法(MMPM)建立SD模型,观察SD对心肌组织中缺血修饰白蛋白(IMA)、高敏C反应蛋白( hs-CRP)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)、丙二醛(MDA)、超氧化物酶(SOD)含量的影响.结果:与笼养组(CC组)和大平台组(TC组)相比,SD后大鼠心肌组织中IMA、hs-CRP、GSH及MDA的含量明显升高(P<0.05),且随着SD时间的延长有明显上升的趋势;而SOD的活性随着SD时间的延长有降低的趋势.结论:SD可引起大鼠心肌发生明显的氧化应激和炎症反应,且随着氧化应激和炎症反应的加重,心肌发生进行性缺血缺氧损害.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section 862.1365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  14. Glutathione S-Transferase Isoenzymes from Streptomyces griseus

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Kajari; Dhar, Alok; Rosazza, John P. N.

    2003-01-01

    An inducible, cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) was purified from Streptomyces griseus. GST isoenzymes with pI values of 6.8 and 7.9 used standard GST substrates including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. GST had subunit and native Mrs of 24 and 48, respectively, and the N-terminal sequence SMILXYWDIIRGLPAH.

  15. METAL-INDUCED INHIBITION OF GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glutathione S-transferases comprise a group of multi-functional enzymes involved in the biotransformation/detoxication of a broad spectrum of hydrophobic compounds bearing an electrophilic center. The enzymes facilitate the nucleophilic attack of the -SH group of reduced glut...

  16. Glutathione peroxidases of the potato cyst nematode Globodera Rostochiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, J.T.; Reavy, B.; Smant, G.; Prior, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterisation of full-length DNAs complementary to RNA (cDNAs) encoding two glutathione peroxidases (GpXs) from a plant parasitic nematode, the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis. One protein has a functional signal peptide that targets the protein for se

  17. Cystamine induces AIF-mediated apoptosis through glutathione depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Yup; Lee, Jin-Haeng; Ju, Mi-kyeong; Jeong, Eui Man; Kim, Hyo-Jun; Lim, Jisun; Lee, Seungun; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Park, Hyun Ho; Choi, Kihang; Jeon, Ju-Hong; Kim, In-Gyu

    2015-03-01

    Cystamine and its reduced form cysteamine showed protective effects in various models of neurodegenerative disease, including Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Other lines of evidence demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of cysteamine on duodenal mucosa leading to ulcer development. However, the mechanism for cystamine cytotoxicity remains poorly understood. Here, we report a new pathway in which cystamine induces apoptosis by targeting apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). By screening of various cell lines, we observed that cystamine and cysteamine induce cell death in a cell type-specific manner. Comparison between cystamine-sensitive and cystamine-resistant cell lines revealed that cystamine cytotoxicity is not associated with unfolded protein response, reactive oxygen species generation and transglutaminase or caspase activity; rather, it is associated with the ability of cystamine to trigger AIF nuclear translocation. In cystamine-sensitive cells, cystamine suppresses the levels of intracellular glutathione by inhibiting γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression that triggers AIF translocation. Conversely, glutathione supplementation completely prevents cystamine-induced AIF translocation and apoptosis. In rats, cysteamine administration induces glutathione depletion and AIF translocation leading to apoptosis of duodenal epithelium. These results indicate that AIF translocation through glutathione depletion is the molecular mechanism of cystamine toxicity, and provide important implications for cystamine in the neurodegenerative disease therapeutics as well as in the regulation of AIF-mediated cell death. PMID:25549939

  18. Role and Regulation of Glutathione Metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylke Müller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in humans is caused by one of five species of obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. P. falciparum causes the most severe disease and is responsible for 600,000 deaths annually, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has long been suggested that during their development, malaria parasites are exposed to environmental and metabolic stresses. One strategy to drug discovery was to increase these stresses by interfering with the parasites’ antioxidant and redox systems, which may be a valuable approach to disease intervention. Plasmodium possesses two redox systems—the thioredoxin and the glutathione system—with overlapping but also distinct functions. Glutathione is the most abundant low molecular weight redox active thiol in the parasites existing primarily in its reduced form representing an excellent thiol redox buffer. This allows for an efficient maintenance of the intracellular reducing environment of the parasite cytoplasm and its organelles. This review will highlight the mechanisms that are responsible for sustaining an adequate concentration of glutathione and maintaining its redox state in Plasmodium. It will provide a summary of the functions of the tripeptide and will discuss the potential of glutathione metabolism for drug discovery against human malaria parasites.

  19. State of the glutathione system at different periods after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the 3-fold irradiation on the glutatione system was studied. Activation of these system was shown to take place at early terms (1 hour) after irradiation, then it was exhausted that resulted in accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in blood. This phase changes in glutathione system could be correspond to certain stages of stress-syndrome. (author)

  20. Health-Risk Behaviour in Deprived Neighbourhoods Compared with Non-Deprived Neighbourhoods: A Systematic Literature Review of Quantitative Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Holst Algren

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in neighbourhoods' influence on individuals' health-risk behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. The aim of this review was to systematically review recent studies on health-risk behaviour among adults who live in deprived neighbourhoods compared with those who live in non-deprived neighbourhoods and to summarise what kind of operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation that were used in the studies.PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Sociological Abstracts using relevant search terms, Boolean operators, and truncation, and reference lists were scanned. Quantitative observational studies that examined health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods were eligible for inclusion.The inclusion criteria were met by 22 studies. The available literature showed a positive association between smoking and physical inactivity and living in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods. In regard to low fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol consumption, the results were ambiguous, and no clear differences were found. Numerous different operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation were used in the studies.Substantial evidence indicates that future health interventions in deprived neighbourhoods should focus on smoking and physical inactivity. We suggest that alcohol interventions should be population based rather than based on the specific needs of deprived neighbourhoods. More research is needed on fruit and vegetable consumption. In future studies, the lack of a uniform operationalisation of neighbourhood deprivation must be addressed.

  1. Glutathione reductase: solvent equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutathione reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The kinetic mechanism is ping-pong, and we have investigated the rate-limiting nature of proton-transfer steps in the reactions catalyzed by the spinach, yeast, and human erythrocyte glutathione reductases using a combination of alternate substrate and solvent kinetic isotope effects. With NADPH or GSSG as the variable substrate, at a fixed, saturating concentration of the other substrate, solvent kinetic isotope effects were observed on V but not V/K. Plots of Vm vs mole fraction of D2O (proton inventories) were linear in both cases for the yeast, spinach, and human erythrocyte enzymes. When solvent kinetic isotope effect studies were performed with DTNB instead of GSSG as an alternate substrate, a solvent kinetic isotope effect of 1.0 was observed. Solvent kinetic isotope effect measurements were also performed on the asymmetric disulfides GSSNB and GSSNP by using human erythrocyte glutathione reductase. The Km values for GSSNB and GSSNP were 70 microM and 13 microM, respectively, and V values were 62 and 57% of the one calculated for GSSG, respectively. Both of these substrates yield solvent kinetic isotope effects greater than 1.0 on both V and V/K and linear proton inventories, indicating that a single proton-transfer step is still rate limiting. These data are discussed in relationship to the chemical mechanism of GSSG reduction and the identity of the proton-transfer step whose rate is sensitive to solvent isotopic composition. Finally, the solvent equilibrium isotope effect measured with yeast glutathione reductase is 4.98, which allows us to calculate a fractionation factor for the thiol moiety of GSH of 0.456

  2. Mechanisms of radiosensitization and protection studied with glutathione-deficient human cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutathione-deficient fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cells, derived from patients with an inborn error of glutathione synthetase activity, and glutathione-proficient cells, derived from clinically healthy individuals, were used to investigate the importance of glutathione for radiosensitization by misonidazole. With single-strand DNA breaks as an end point, misonidazole as well as oxygen was found to lack any sensitizing effect on cells deficient in glutathione. The post-irradiation repair of single-strand breaks induced by hypoxic irradiation of misonidazole treated cells was found to be a great extent glutathione dependent, like the repair of breaks induced by oxic irradiation. Naturally occurring aminothiols in glutathione-deficient cells appeared to be in efficient as substitutes for glutatione. Artificial aminothiols, such as cysteamine or dithiothreitol, were found to effectively replace glutathione

  3. A socioeconomic deprivation index for small areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Engholm, Gerda; Grittner, Ulrike;

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To describe the development of a deprivation index for Danish parishes and to investigate its association with all-cause mortality compared with the Townsend index and individual-level factors. Methods: Nine socioeconomic factors were aggregated to the parish level from individual...... parishes. Results were compared with the Townsend index and a possible modifying effect of population density was investigated. Sensitivity of the index was investigated with multilevel survival analyses evaluating the association between all-cause mortality and DANDEX, the Townsend Index, individual......-parish variation in all-cause mortality, while the Townsend index and individual socioeconomic factors accounted for 71 and 76%, respectively. Conclusions: The index can be used to identify Danish parishes by their levels of deprivation and it provides municipalities with a tool to allocate resources to the...

  4. Monocular Visual Deprivation Suppresses Excitability in Adult Human Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Astrid Rosenstand; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne;

    2011-01-01

    The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... employed TMS to trace plastic changes in adult visual cortex before, during, and after 48 h of monocular deprivation (MD) of the right dominant eye. In healthy adult volunteers, MD-induced changes in visual cortex excitability were probed with paired-pulse TMS applied to the left and right occipital cortex....... Stimulus–response curves were constructed by recording the intensity of the reported phosphenes evoked in the contralateral visual field at range of TMS intensities. Phosphene measurements revealed that MD produced a rapid and robust decrease in cortical excitability relative to a control condition without...

  5. Impact of Temporary Nitrogen Deprivation on Tomato Leaf Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Gautier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the use of pesticides represents a major challenge of modern agriculture. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that participate in the resistance to parasites. The aim of this study was to test: (1 the impact of nitrogen deficiency on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum leaf composition and more particularly on two phenolic molecules (chlorogenic acid and rutin as well as on the general plant biomass; and (2 whether this effect continued after a return to normal nitrogen nutrition. Our results showed that plants deprived of nitrogen for 10 or 19 days contained higher levels of chlorogenic acid and rutin than control plants. In addition, this difference persisted when the plants were once again cultivated on a nitrogen-rich medium. These findings offer interesting perspectives on the use of a short period of deprivation to modulate the levels of compounds of interest in a plant.

  6. Octopamine connects nutrient cues to lipid metabolism upon nutrient deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Zhong-Shan; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Starvation is probably the most common stressful situation in nature. In vertebrates, elevation of the biogenic amine norepinephrine levels is common during starvation. However, the precise role of norepinephrine in nutrient deprivation remains largely unknown. We report that in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up-regulation of the biosynthesis of octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, serves as a mechanism to adapt to starvation. During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. Octopamine induces the expression of the lipase gene lips-6 via its receptor SER-3 in the intestine. LIPS-6, in turn, elicits lipid mobilization. Our findings reveal that octopamine acts as an endocrine regulator linking nutrient cues to lipolysis to maintain energy homeostasis, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved in diverse organisms. PMID:27386520

  7. Effects of Extreme Sleep Deprivation on Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Tran; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Elizabeth T. Cady; Bradford Amstutz; Pete D. Elgin; Christopher Vowels; Gerald Deehan

    2007-04-01

    Sleep is a fundamental recuperative process for the nervous system. Disruption of this homeostatic drive can lead to severe impairments of the operator’s ability to perceive, recognize, and respond to emergencies and/or unanticipated events, putting the operator at risk. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive understanding of how sleep deprivation influences human performance is essential in order to counter fatigue or to develop mitigation strategies. The goal of the present study was to examine the psychological effects of prolonged sleep deprivation (approx. 75 hrs) over a four-day span on a general aviation pilot flying a fixed-based flight simulator. During the study, a series of tasks were employed every four hours in order to examine the pilot’s perceptual and higher level cognitive abilities. Overall, results suggest that the majority of cognitive and perceptual degradation occurs between 30-40 hours into the flight. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.

  8. Glutathione supplementation suppresses muscle fatigue induced by prolonged exercise via improved aerobic metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    AOI, WATARU; Ogaya, Yumi; Takami, Maki; Konishi, Toru; Sauchi, Yusuke; Park, Eun Young; Wada, Sayori; Sato, Kenji; Higashi, Akane

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Glutathione is an endogenous redox couple in animal cells and plays important roles in antioxidant defense and detoxification, although it is unknown if oral glutathione supplementation affects exercise-induced physiological changes. The present study investigated the effect of glutathione intake on exercise-induced muscle metabolism and fatigue in mice and humans. Methods ICR mice were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control, sedentary supplemented with glutathione (2.0%, 5 μL/g...

  9. Glutathione supplementation suppresses muscle fatigue induced by prolonged exercise via improved aerobic metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    AOI, WATARU; Ogaya, Yumi; Takami, Maki; Konishi, Toru; Sauchi, Yusuke; Park, Young Y.; Wada, Sayori; Sato, Kenji; Higashi, Akane

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: Glutathione is an endogenous redox couple in animal cells and plays important roles in antioxidant defense and detoxification, although it is unknown if oral glutathione supplementation affects exercise-induced physiological changes. The present study investigated the effect of glutathione intake on exercise-induced muscle metabolism and fatigue in mice and humans. Methods: ICR mice were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control, sedentary supplemented with glutathione (2.0%, 5μL/...

  10. Developing a new small-area measure of deprivation using 2001 and 2011 census data from Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Allik, Mirjam; Brown, Denise; Dundas, Ruth; Leyland, Alastair H

    2016-01-01

    Material deprivation contributes to inequalities in health; areas of high deprivation have higher rates of ill-health. How deprivation is measured has a great impact on its explanatory power with respect to health. We compare previous deprivation measures used in Scotland and propose a new deprivation measure using the 2001 and 2011 Scottish census data. We calculate the relative index of inequality (RII) for self-reported health and mortality. While across all age groups different deprivatio...

  11. Developing a new small-area measure of deprivation using 2001 and 2011 census data from Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Allik, Mirjam; Brown, Denise; Dundas, Ruth; Leyland, Alastair H.

    2016-01-01

    Material deprivation contributes to inequalities in health; areas of high deprivation have higher rates of ill-health. How deprivation is measured has a great impact on its explanatory power with respect to health. We compare previous deprivation measures used in Scotland and proposes a new deprivation measure using the 2001 and 2011 Scottish census data. We calculate the relative index of inequality (RII) for self-reported health and mortality. While across all age groups different deprivati...

  12. Organizational and economic aspects of housing management in deprived areas

    OpenAIRE

    Blomé, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation consists of five papers with different objectives. The overall objective is to improve knowledge of effective policies regarding socially deprived large housing estates. All studies deal with the real estate context from a housing company decision-making perspective. The first two papers focus on organisational issues and the following three papers deal with economic issues related to the development of a specific housing area. The research is based on case studies which inv...

  13. Modafinil as an adjunctive treatment to sleep deprivation in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Even, Christian; Thuile, Jacques; Santos, Johana; Bourgin, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is a rapid-acting treatment for depression, but its clinical efficacy is hampered by high relapse rates after recovery sleep, and its effectiveness is reduced by the demanding effort needed for the patient to stay awake. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a successful treatment of depression with the combination of SD and the wakefulness-promoting agent modafinil. We suggest that modafinil may reinforce the action of SD, possibly by preventing daytime ...

  14. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F.; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview o...

  15. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Fernandes; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F.; Susana Rocha; José M Salas-Pacheco; Fabio Garcia-Garcia; Eric Murillo-Rodriguez; Ti-Fei Yuan; Sergio Machado; Oscar Arias-Carrión

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythm...

  16. Sleep deprivation induces abnormal bone metabolism in temporomandibular joint

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Wei; Wu, Gaoyi; Huang, Fei; Zhu, Yong; Nie, Jia; He, Yuhong; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of experimental sleep deprivation (SD) on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats and the possible mechanism related to abnormal bone metabolism. Material and methods: SD was induced by a modified multiple platform method and assessed by serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. TMJs were detached and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), osteo...

  17. Neural mechanisms of recovery following early visual deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Donald E.; Sengpiel, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Natural patterned early visual input is essential for the normal development of the central visual pathways and the visual capacities they sustain. Without visual input, the functional development of the visual system stalls not far from the state at birth, and if input is distorted or biased the visual system develops in an abnormal fashion resulting in specific visual deficits. Monocular deprivation, an extreme form of biased exposure, results in large anatomical and physiological changes i...

  18. Human Deprivation Index: A Measure of Multidimensional Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu; Sarvalingam, A

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is multidimensional in nature. Poverty is associated not only with insufficient income or consumption but also with insufficient outcomes with respect to health, nutrition, and literacy and deficient social relations, insecurity, and low self-esteem and powerlessness. Since poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon, measurement of poverty must cover many dimensions. So far, the income and/or consumption indicator has received most attention. But, now the focus is shifted towards depriv...

  19. Shrinking areas and mortality: an artefact of deprivation effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Exeter, D; Feng, Z.; R Flowerdew; Boyle, P.

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that mortality rates are highest in areas that are experiencing population decline, and researchers have recommended that this should be accounted for in health resource allocation. This research finds a significant negative association between population change and mortality for small areas in Scotland, which remains when low social class is accounted for. However, this relation disappears when the area deprivation is accounted for. It is suggested that it is more important...

  20. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James W.A.; Richmond, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2) < 2 mg/L) occurring underneath algal mats at night, and concurrent bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chroni...

  1. Social Deprivation and Exclusion of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Haisken-DeNew, John P.; Sinning, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at providing empirical evidence on social exclusion of immigrants in Germany.We demonstrate that when using a conventional definition of the social inclusion index typically applied in the literature, immigrants appear to experience a significant degree of social deprivation and exclusion, confirming much of the economic literature examining the economic assimilation of immigrants in Germany.We propose a weighting scheme that weights components of social inclusion by their sub...

  2. White adipose tissue resilience to insulin deprivation and replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilas Hadji

    Full Text Available Adipocyte size and body fat distribution are strongly linked to the metabolic complications of obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the plasticity of white adipose tissue in response to insulin deprivation and replacement. We have characterized the changes of adipose cell size repartition and gene expressions in type 1 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rats and type 1 diabetic supplemented with insulin.Using streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes, we induced rapid changes in rat adipose tissue weights to study the changes in the distribution of adipose cell sizes in retroperitoneal (rWAT, epididymal (eWAT and subcutaneous adipose tissues (scWAT. Adipose tissue weights of type 1 diabetic rats were then rapidly restored by insulin supplementation. Cell size distributions were analyzed using multisizer IV (Beckman Coulter. Cell size changes were correlated to transcriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in lipid and glucose metabolisms and adipocytokines.The initial body weight of the rats was 465±5.2 g. Insulin privation was stopped when rats lost 100 g which induced reductions in fat mass of 68% for rWAT, 42% for eWAT and 59% for scWAT corresponding to decreased mode cell diameters by 31.1%, 20%, 25.3%, respectively. The most affected size distribution by insulin deprivation was observed in rWAT. The bimodal distribution of adipose cell sizes disappeared in response to insulin deprivation in rWAT and scWAT. The most important observation is that cell size distribution returned close to control values in response to insulin treatment. mRNAs coding for adiponectin, leptin and apelin were more stimulated in scWAT compared to other depots in diabetic plus insulin group.Fat depots have specific responses to insulin deprivation and supplementation. The results show that insulin is a major determinant of bimodal cell repartition in adipose tissues.

  3. White adipose tissue resilience to insulin deprivation and replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Lilas Hadji; Emmanuelle Berger; Hédi Soula; Hubert Vidal; Alain Géloën

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adipocyte size and body fat distribution are strongly linked to the metabolic complications of obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the plasticity of white adipose tissue in response to insulin deprivation and replacement. We have characterized the changes of adipose cell size repartition and gene expressions in type 1 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rats and type 1 diabetic supplemented with insulin. Methods: Using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, we induced rapi...

  4. Detection of Driver Fatigue Caused by Sleep Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ji Hyun; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Tijerina, Louis; Pilutti, Tom; Coughlin, Joseph F.; Feron, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to provide reliable indications of driver drowsiness based on the characteristics of driver–vehicle interaction. A test bed was built under a simulated driving environment, and a total of 12 subjects participated in two experiment sessions requiring different levels of sleep (partial sleepdeprivation versus no sleep-deprivation) before the experiment. The performance of the subjects was analyzed in a series of stimulus-response and routine driving tasks, w...

  5. Relation between parasuicide, suicide, psychiatric admissions, and socioeconomic deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnell, D. J.; Peters, T. J.; Kammerling, R M; Brooks, J.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relations between parasuicide, suicide, psychiatric inpatient admissions, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN--Ecological analysis with data from routine information systems and the 1991 census. SETTING--24 localities in the area covered by the Bristol and District Health Authority (population 817,000), consisting of aggregations of neighbouring wards, with an average population of 34,000. SUBJECTS--6089 subjects aged over 10 years admitted to hospital after parasu...

  6. Health effects of sleep deprivation on nurses working shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Čedomirka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atypical work schedules cause reduced sleep, leading to drowsiness, fatigue, decline of cognitive performance and health problems among the members of the nursing staff. The study was aimed at reviewing current knowledge and attitudes concerning the impact of sleep disorders on health and cognitive functions among the members of the nursing staff. Sleep and Interpersonal Relations in Modern Society. The modern 24-hour society involves more and more employees (health services, police departments, public transport in non-standard forms of work. In European Union countries, over 50% of the nursing staff work night shifts, while in the United States of America 55% of nursing staff work more than 40 hours a week, and 30-70% of nurses sleep less than six hours before their shift. Cognitive Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Sleep deprivation impairs the performance of tasks that require intensive and prolonged attention which increases the number of errors in patients care, and nurses are subject to increased risk of traffic accidents. Sleep Deprivation and Health Disorders. Sleep deprived members of the nursing staff are at risk of obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and cardio­vascular disease. The risk factors for breast cancer are increased by 1.79 times, and there is a significantly higher risk for colorectal carcinoma. Conclusion. Too long or repeated shifts reduce the opportunity for sleep, shorten recovery time in nurses, thus endangering their safety and health as well as the quality of care and patients’ safety. Bearing in mind the significance of the problem it is necessary to conduct the surveys of sleep quality and health of nurses in the Republic of Serbia as well in order to tackle this issue which is insufficiently recognized.

  7. Astrocytic mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization following extended oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Korenić

    Full Text Available Astrocytes can tolerate longer periods of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD as compared to neurons. The reasons for this reduced vulnerability are not well understood. Particularly, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m in astrocytes, an indicator of the cellular redox state, have not been investigated during reperfusion after extended OGD exposure. Here, we subjected primary mouse astrocytes to glucose deprivation (GD, OGD and combinations of both conditions varying in duration and sequence. Changes in Δψ(m, visualized by change in the fluorescence of JC-1, were investigated within one hour after reconstitution of oxygen and glucose supply, intended to model in vivo reperfusion. In all experiments, astrocytes showed resilience to extended periods of OGD, which had little effect on Δψ(m during reperfusion, whereas GD caused a robust Δψ(m negativation. In case no Δψ(m negativation was observed after OGD, subsequent chemical oxygen deprivation (OD induced by sodium azide caused depolarization, which, however, was significantly delayed as compared to normoxic group. When GD preceded OD for 12 h, Δψ(m hyperpolarization was induced by both GD and subsequent OD, but significant interaction between these conditions was not detected. However, when GD was extended to 48 h preceding OGD, hyperpolarization enhanced during reperfusion. This implicates synergistic effects of both conditions in that sequence. These findings provide novel information regarding the role of the two main substrates of electron transport chain (glucose and oxygen and their hyperpolarizing effect on Δψ(m during substrate deprivation, thus shedding new light on mechanisms of astrocyte resilience to prolonged ischemic injury.

  8. Deprivation of Liberty: Collected Guidance Various authors Deprivation of Liberty: Collected Guidance 400pp £29.95 Law Society Publishing 9781784460433 1784460435 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Deprivation of liberty can be a confusing subject for lawyers and healthcare professionals alike. Part of the difficulty in understanding and applying deprivation of liberty safeguards is that there is a complex set of regulations and it can be challenging to find specific information from the various sources of published guidance. PMID:27097198

  9. Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation on Auditory and Linguistic Perception: A Comparison among Young Controls, Sleep-Deprived Participants, Dyslexic Readers, and Aging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Method: Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29…

  10. Visual discrimination learning under switching procedure in visually deprived cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicki, B

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that fine visual discrimination learning is severely impaired in cats binocularly deprived in the early period of life (BD cats) and also somewhat in control cats reared with open eyes in the limited laboratory environment (C cats) compared with cats reared in a normal rural environment (N cats). It was concluded that visual deprivation impairs perceptual learning. In the present study discriminative stimuli were dissimilar and so the task was perceptually easy, but using a switching procedure made it associatively difficult. In regular trials a gate with a grating pattern was positive and a blank gate negative, whereas in switching trials the meaning of the gates was reversed. The switching stimulus was intermittent light in some stages of training and intermittent tone in others. Learning was severely impaired in BD cats and somewhat in C cats and the deficit was similar under visual and auditory switching. Thus, early visual deprivation impairs associative learning. The impairment probably includes associations between switching stimulus and instrumental responses and configural associations between switching stimulus and discriminative stimuli. PMID:10212071

  11. Short-term visual deprivation improves the perception of harmonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Simon P; Shiller, Douglas M; Champoux, François

    2013-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that the perception of auditory stimuli involves occipital cortical regions traditionally associated with visual processing, even in the absence of any overt visual component to the task. Analogous behavioral evidence of an interaction between visual and auditory processing during purely auditory tasks comes from studies of short-term visual deprivation on the perception of auditory cues, however, the results of such studies remain equivocal. Although some data have suggested that visual deprivation significantly increases loudness and pitch discrimination and reduces spatial localization inaccuracies, it is still unclear whether such improvement extends to the perception of spectrally complex cues, such as those involved in speech and music perception. We present data demonstrating that a 90-min period of visual deprivation causes a transient improvement in the perception of harmonicity: a spectrally complex cue that plays a key role in music and speech perception. The results provide clear behavioral evidence supporting a role for the visual system in the processing of complex auditory stimuli, even in the absence of any visual component to the task. PMID:23957309

  12. Lipidomic Analysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under Nitrogen and Sulfur Deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Yang

    Full Text Available Chlamydomonas reinhardtii accumulates lipids under complete nutrient starvation conditions while overall growth in biomass stops. In order to better understand biochemical changes under nutrient deprivation that maintain production of algal biomass, we used a lipidomic assay for analyzing the temporal regulation of the composition of complex lipids in C. reinhardtii in response to nitrogen and sulfur deprivation. Using a chip-based nanoelectrospray direct infusion into an ion trap mass spectrometer, we measured a diversity of lipid species reported for C. reinhardtii, including PG phosphatidylglycerols, PI Phosphatidylinositols, MGDG monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, DGDG digalactosyldiacylglycerols, SQDG sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols, DGTS homoserine ether lipids and TAG triacylglycerols. Individual lipid species were annotated by matching mass precursors and MS/MS fragmentations to the in-house LipidBlast mass spectral database and MS2Analyzer. Multivariate statistics showed a clear impact on overall lipidomic phenotypes on both the temporal and the nutrition stress level. Homoserine-lipids were found up-regulated at late growth time points and higher cell density, while triacyclglycerols showed opposite regulation of unsaturated and saturated fatty acyl chains under nutritional deprivation.

  13. Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control during wakefulness in adult sleepwalkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Petit, Dominique; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Sleepwalkers often complain of excessive daytime somnolence. Although excessive daytime somnolence has been associated with cognitive impairment in several sleep disorders, very few data exist concerning sleepwalking. This study aimed to investigate daytime cognitive functioning in adults diagnosed with idiopathic sleepwalking. Fifteen sleepwalkers and 15 matched controls were administered the Continuous Performance Test and Stroop Colour-Word Test in the morning after an overnight polysomnographic assessment. Participants were tested a week later on the same neuropsychological battery, but after 25 h of sleep deprivation, a procedure known to precipitate sleepwalking episodes during subsequent recovery sleep. There were no significant differences between sleepwalkers and controls on any of the cognitive tests administered under normal waking conditions. Testing following sleep deprivation revealed significant impairment in sleepwalkers' executive functions related to inhibitory control, as they made more errors than controls on the Stroop Colour-Word Test and more commission errors on the Continuous Performance Test. Sleepwalkers' scores on measures of executive functions were not associated with self-reported sleepiness or indices of sleep fragmentation from baseline polysomnographic recordings. The results support the idea that sleepwalking involves daytime consequences and suggest that these may also include cognitive impairments in the form of disrupted inhibitory control following sleep deprivation. These disruptions may represent a daytime expression of sleepwalking's pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:26087833

  14. Age-related changes of the redox state of glutathione in plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiu-lin; WANG Shu-ren; DING Yi; PENG Ke-jun; LIN Xia; QIAO Xiao-rong; LIU Yi-lun; WU Chen-heng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Glutathione (GSH) is the principal non-protein thiol responsible for maintaining intracellular redox status and protecting cells against oxidative/nitrosative stresses. In the biological system, some GSH is bound to proteins, and others exist freely, including the reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione (GSSG).

  15. Study of Oxidation of Glutathione Treated with Hypochlorous Acid by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for the separation and quantification of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and glutathione sulphonic acid (GSO3H). Baseline separation was obtained within five minutes. The effects of reaction time and molar ratio of hypochlorous acid (HOCI) to GSH on the oxidation of GSH were investigated.

  16. Analysis of the Physiological and Molecular Responses of Dunaliella salina to Macronutrient Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hexin; Cui, Xianggan; Wahid, Fazli; Xia, Feng; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    The halotolerant chlorophyte Dunaliella salina can accumulate up to 10% of its dry weight as β-carotene in chloroplasts when subjected to adverse conditions, including nutrient deprivation. However, the mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis are poorly understood. Here, the physiological and molecular responses to the deprivation of nitrogen (-N), sulfur (-S), phosphorus (-P) and different combinations of those nutrients (-N-P, -N-S, -P-S and -N-P-S) were compared to gain insights into the underlying regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis. The results showed that both the growth and photosynthetic rates of cells were decreased during nutrient deprivation, accompanied by lipid globule accumulation and reduced chlorophyll levels. The SOD and CAT activities of the cells were altered during nutrient deprivation, but their responses were different. The total carotenoid contents of cells subjected to multiple nutrient deprivation were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation and non-stressed cells. The β-carotene contents of cells subjected to -N-P, -N-S and -N-P-S were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation. Cells subjected to sulfur deprivation accumulated more lutein than cells subjected to nitrogen and phosphorous deprivation. In contrast, no cumulative effects of nutrient deprivation on the transcription of genes in the carotenogenic pathway were observed because MEP and carotenogenic pathway genes were up-regulated during single nutrient deprivation but were downregulated during multiple nutrient deprivation. Therefore, we proposed that the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of D. salina is regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels and that a complex crosstalk occurs at the physiological and molecular levels in response to the deprivation of different nutrients. PMID:27023397

  17. Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases——A highlight of the role of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase in protection against oxidative damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Since the discovery that selenium is an integral component of the active site of the mammalian glu-tathione peroxidase, four members of the glutathione peroxidase family have been characterised: classical cellular glu-tathione peroxidase, gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase; plasma glutathione peroxidase and phospholipid hydroperox-ide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx). They are products of different genes and have different specificities on hydrogenperoxide and lipid hydroperoxides, the latter are generated by free radicals and can damage cell membranes and disruptcellular functions. Interestingly, PHGPx is not only active on phospholipid hydroperoxide, but also active on thyminehydroperoxide (a model compound for DNA damage) and protein hydroperoxides. This review highlights the role ofPHGPx in protection against peroxidative damage of lipids, protein and DNA.

  18. Sleep Deprivation and Stressors: Evidence for Elevated Negative Affect in Response to Mild Stressors When Sleep Deprived

    OpenAIRE

    Minkel, Jared D; Banks, Siobhan; Htaik, Oo; Moreta, Marisa C.; Jones, Christopher W.; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Simpson, Norah S.; Dinges, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Stress often co-occurs with inadequate sleep duration, and both are believed to impact mood and emotion. It is not yet known whether inadequate sleep simply increases the intensity of subsequent stress responses or interacts with stressors in more complicated ways. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation on subjective stress and mood in response to low-stress and high-stress cognitive testing conditions in healthy adult volunteers in two sepa...

  19. Monoclonal antibodies against human placental glutathione transferase (class pi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, R; Lo Bello, M; De Stefano, E; Molino, A; Zelaschi, D; Federici, G

    1991-02-01

    Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced in a mouse hybridoma system against human placental glutathione transferase (GST pi). Four of these monoclonal antibodies, named 461 to 464, were of immunoglobulin G class, whereas the monoclonal antibody 465 was of IgA class. All these MAbs specifically recognized the glutathione transferase from human placenta (class pi) showing no cross reactivity against the basic and the neutral forms of GST from human liver. When each MAb was incubated with the GST pi, no inhibition of enzymatic activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was observed except for MAb 465 which showed a slight inhibition to a serial dilution of 1:128. PMID:1709614

  20. The effects of food deprivation and incentive motivation on blood glucose levels and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W; Elliman, N A; Rogers, P J

    1997-11-01

    The current study investigated the relationships between blood glucose levels, mild food deprivation, sympathetic arousal, and cognitive processing efficiency. Subjects (n = 82) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, comprising combined manipulations of food deprivation and incentive motivation. Baseline and mid-session measurements of blood glucose, blood pressure and pulse rate were taken. Subjects completed a number of measures of cognitive processing efficiency and self report measures of affective and somatic state. Although glucose levels were lowered following food deprivation, there was no significant detrimental effect of food deprivation on task performance. However, improved recognition memory processing times were associated with deprivation. Incentive motivation was associated with faster simple reaction times and higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant relationships between glucose levels and task performance, further supporting the hypothesis that the brain is relatively invulnerable to short food deprivation. PMID:9399371

  1. The dual effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation on murine immune functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Bizzarro, Bruna; Egydio, Flávia; Barros, Michele S; Sesti-Costa, Renata; Soares, Elyara M; Pina, Adriana; Russo, Momtchilo; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2016-01-15

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation on the cellular migration during inflammation, the peritoneal macrophage phenotype and the infectious stimulus outcomes. A/J mice were inoculated with thioglycollate and exposed to paradoxical sleep deprivation. Sleep-deprived animals presented decreased cell migration compared to controls. Nitric oxide production was reduced in macrophages from sleep-deprived mice compared to controls. Cell surface analysis showed that sleep deprivation reduced F4/80(+)/CD80(low) peritoneal cell population induced by thioglycollate injection. Sleep-deprived mice were not more susceptible to infection than control mice. Our findings challenge the general perception that sleep loss always increases infection susceptibility. PMID:26711562

  2. Beta-amyloidolysis and glutathione in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lasierra-Cirujeda, J; Coronel, P.; Aza, MJ; Gimeno, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we hypothesized the importance of the interaction between the brain glutathione (GSH) system, the proteolytic tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)/plasminogen/ plasmin system, regulated by plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and neuroserpin in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. The histopathological characteristic hallmark that gives personality to the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease is the accumulation of neurofibroid tangles located intracellularly in the brain, s...

  3. Glutathione S-transferases in human liver cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, P C; May, L.; Hayes, J. D.; Harrison, D J

    1991-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of glutathione S-transferase (GST) expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma is described. Unlike most animal models of hepatic malignancy pi class GST was not consistently overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma. This tumour type either predominantly expressed alpha class GST or failed to express GST. By contrast, cholangiocarcinoma always expressed pi class GST, presumably reflecting the tissue of origin, since in human biliary epithelium p...

  4. Reaction of the nitroxyl radical TAN with glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence for a stoichiometric reaction between 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl (TAN) and glutathione (GSH) in vitro has been provided by the results of e.s.r., spectrophotometric and enzymatic measurements. The addition of TAN to a suspension of isolated hepatocytes resulted in a rapid reduction in cellular GSH. Possible mechanisms are discussed. The results are in accordance with the rapid in vivo degradation of TAN. (U.K.)

  5. The role of glutathione reductase and related enzymes on cellular redox homoeostasis network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Narciso; Wood, Jennifer; Barber, Jill

    2016-06-01

    In this review article we examine the role of glutathione reductase in the regulation, modulation and maintenance of cellular redox homoeostasis. Glutathione reductase is responsible for maintaining the supply of reduced glutathione; one of the most abundant reducing thiols in the majority of cells. In its reduced form, glutathione plays key roles in the cellular control of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species act as intracellular and extracellular signalling molecules and complex cross talk between levels of reactive oxygen species, levels of oxidised and reduced glutathione and other thiols, and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase determine the most suitable conditions for redox control within a cell or for activation of programmed cell death. Additionally, we discuss the translation and expression of glutathione reductase in a number of organisms including yeast and humans. In yeast and human cells, a single gene expresses more than one form of glutathione reductase, destined for residence in the cytoplasm or for translocation to different organelles; in plants, however, two genes encoding this protein have been described. In general, insects and kinetoplastids (a group of protozoa, including Plasmodia and Trypanosoma) do not express glutathione reductase or glutathione biosynthetic enzymes. Instead, they express either the thioredoxin system or the trypanothione system. The thioredoxin system is also present in organisms that have the glutathione system and there may be overlapping functions with cross-talk between the two systems. Finally we evaluate therapeutic targets to overcome oxidative stress associated cellular disorders. PMID:26923386

  6. Some aspects of glutathione metabolism in ataxia-telangiectasia fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of glutathione (GSH) and two enzymes involved in GSH metabolism, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase(s) (GST), were measured in four SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell lines. MRC5-V1 and GM0637, derived from normal individuals, had mean GSH levels of 4.2 and 6.5 nmoles/106 cells, respectively. TAT2SF and AT5BIVA, both from ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients, respectively had 6.5 and 4.2 nmol/106 cells, indicating that basal GSH levels were similar in A-T and normal cells. There was some variation in GST activity among the four cell lines but deficiency in this enzyme cannot be associated with radiosensitivity in A-T. When GR activity was measured, A-T cells had approximately 82 per cent of the mean normal activity. Though statistically significant, (P = 0.05), this small deficiency could be due to chance and is unlikely to be responsible for the radiosensitive phenotype of A-T. (author)

  7. Glutamine: a precursor of glutathione and its effect on liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between alanyl-glutamine (ALA-GLN) and glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis in hepatic protection.METHODS Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: one receiving standard parenteral nutrition (STD) and the other supplemented with or without ALA-GLN for 7 days. The blood and liver tissue samples were examined after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was injected peritoneally.RESULTS The concentration measurements were significantly higher in ALA-GLN group than in STD group in serum GLN (687 μmol/ L±50 μmol/ L vs 505 μmol/ L±39 μmol/ L, P<0.05), serum GSH (14 μmol/ L±5 μmol/ L vs 7 μmol/ L±3 μmol/ L, P<0.01) and in liver GSH content (6.9 μmol/ g±2.5 μmol/ g vs 4.4 μmol/ g±1.6 μmol/ g liver tissue, P<0.05). Rats in ALA-GLN group had lesser elevations in hepatic enzymes after 5-FU administration.CONCLUSION The supplemented nutrition ALA-GLN can protect the liver function through increasing the glutathione biosynthesis and preserving the glutathione stores in hepatic tissue.

  8. Modulation of Sleep Homeostasis by Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in REM Sleep-Deprived Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Borges Machado; Sergio Tufik; Deborah Suchecki

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that sleep recovery following different protocols of forced waking varies according to the level of stress inherent to each method. Sleep deprivation activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) impairs sleep. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how manipulations of the CRH system during the sleep deprivation period interferes with subsequent sleep rebound. Throughout 96 hours of sleep deprivation, separa...

  9. Androgen deprivation therapy: progress in understanding mechanisms of resistance and optimizing androgen depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William P.; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Peter S Nelson; Montgomery, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy remains a critical component of treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer, and data supports its use in metastatic disease and in conjunction with surgery or radiation in specific settings. Alternatives to standard androgen deprivation therapy, such as intermittent androgen suppression and estrogen therapy, hold the potential to improve toxicity profiles while maintaining clinical benefit. Current androgen deprivation strategies seem to incompletely suppress...

  10. Healthy life expectancy by area deprivation: magnitude and trends in England, 1994-1999.

    OpenAIRE

    Bajekal, M.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the magnitude of inequalities in health by area deprivation using two composite indices of health expectancy, one based on a subjective assessment of general health status (healthy life expectancy) and the second on reported limiting longstanding illness (disability-free life expectancy). Trends in healthy life expectancy by deprivation for the period 1994-1999 were also examined. Results show that males and females living in the most deprived wards spend twice as many y...

  11. Effect of social deprivation on disease severity and outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    McEntegart, A; Morrison, E; Capell, H; M. Duncan; Porter, D.; Madhok, R; Thomson, E.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Social deprivation is now recognised to have an important impact on morbidity and mortality. This study sought to ascertain the effect of deprivation, if any, on disease severity, functional disability, and outcome in rheumatoid patients in Glasgow.
METHODS—814 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were assessed for clinical, functional, and laboratory indices of disease activity. Deprivation categories for individual patients were determined using the Carstairs index. Five year f...

  12. Early developmental emergence of human amygdala–prefrontal connectivity after maternal deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, DG; Gabard-Durnam, LJ; Flannery, J; Goff, B.; Humphreys, KL; Telzer, EH; Hare, TA; Bookheimer, SY; Tottenham, N.

    2013-01-01

    Under typical conditions, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) connections with the amygdala are immature during childhood and become adult-like during adolescence. Rodent models show that maternal deprivation accelerates this development, prompting examination of human amygdala-mPFC phenotypes following maternal deprivation. Previously institutionalized youths, who experienced early maternal deprivation, exhibited atypical amygdala- mPFC connectivity. Specifically, unlike the immature connectivit...

  13. Toward an integrated explanation of female criminality :the deprivation-compensation model

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara H. Zaitzow

    1990-01-01

    Conceptual work on the study of crime argues the need for new approaches to understanding the incidence and etiology of that social phenomenon. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the explanatory power of the deprivation-compensation model of criminality. This new model of crime commission incorporates two social psycholoical constructs - relative deprivation and limited rationality - which partially mediate the relationship between structural and interpersonal deprivation and...

  14. Risk of Diabetes among Patients Receiving Primary Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Huei-Ting; Keating, Nancy L.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Haque, Reina; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Smith, Matthew R.; Potosky, Arnold L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Androgen deprivation therapy may increase diabetes risk. As the benefits of primary androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer are controversial, and most prostate cancer survivors are of advanced age with comorbidities, it is important to determine if primary androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of diabetes and to determine the susceptibility factors. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 12,191 men diagnosed with incident localized prostate cancer during 1995 to 2008, age 35 to 100 years, and without diabetes or receipt of prostatectomy or radiation 1 year after diagnosis. Patients were enrolled in 1 of 3 managed health plans and followed through 2010. Primary androgen deprivation therapy was defined as androgen deprivation therapy within 1 year after diagnosis. Incident diabetes was ascertained using inpatient and outpatient diagnosis codes, diabetes medications and hemoglobin A1c values. We estimated primary androgen deprivation therapy associated diabetes risk using Cox proportional hazard models in conventional and propensity score analyses. Results Diabetes developed in 1,203 (9.9%) patients during followup (median 4.8 years) with incidence rates of 2.5 and 1.6 events per 100 person-years in the primary androgen deprivation therapy and nonprimary androgen deprivation therapy groups, respectively. Primary androgen deprivation therapy was associated with a 1.61-fold increased diabetes risk (95% CI 1.38–1.88). The number needed to harm was 29. The association was stronger in men age 70 or younger than in older men (HR 2.25 vs 1.40, p value for interaction = 0.008). Conclusions Primary androgen deprivation therapy may increase diabetes risk by 60% and should be used with caution when managing localized prostate cancer. Because of the consistent association between androgen deprivation therapy and greater diabetes risk across disease states, we recommend routine screening and lifestyle

  15. Cumulative disadvantage? Exploring relationships between neighbourhood deprivation trends (1991 to 2006) and mortality in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Amber L. Pearson; Apparicio, Philippe; Riva, Mylène

    2013-01-01

    Background Area-level socioeconomic deprivation has been shown to exert an independent effect on both individual and population health outcomes and health-related behaviours. Evidence also suggests that health and economic inequalities in many countries are increasing in some areas but may be on the decline in others. While area-level deprivation at a single point in time is known to influence health, the literature relating to longitudinal deprivation of communities and associated health imp...

  16. Caffeine/sleep-deprivation interaction in mice produces complex memory effects

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Akanmu, Moses A; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation negatively impacts memory, causing deficits in memory processes. Of interest is any agent that can offset such deficits. Mice were given varying doses of caffeine for 14 days and then deprived of sleep for 6 hours by the ‘gentle handling’ method. Memory was assessed using the Novel Object Recognition Test and Y maze alternation. Purpose The study was designed to ascertain the impact of varying doses of caffeine combined with total sleep-deprivation on spatial and ...

  17. Effect of on-call-related sleep deprivation on physicians’ mood and alertness

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background And Objective: Physicians may experience periods of acute sleep deprivation while on-call, in addition to baseline chronic sleep deprivation which may affect physicians′ performance and patients′ safety. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute sleep deprivation due to working long on-call shifts on mood and alertness, both of which may impair physicians′ performance. Methods: Eighty-eight junior physicians working in one university hospital completed a que...

  18. Effect of glutathione on phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendum, M.L.; Gupta, S.C.; Goldsbrough, P.B. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Growth of cell suspension cultures of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv VFNT-Cherry, in the presence of cadmium is inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Cell growth and phytochelatin synthesis are restored to cells treated with buthionine sulfoximine by the addition of glutathione to the medium. Glutathione stimulates the accumulation of phytochelatins in cadmium treated cells, indicating that availability of glutathione can limit synthesis of these peptides. Exogenous glutathione causes a disproportionate increase in the level of smaller phytochelatins, notably ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 2}-Gly. In the presence of buthionine sulfoximine and glutathione, phytochelatins that are produced upon exposure to cadmium incorporate little ({sup 35}S)cysteine, indicating that these peptides are probably not synthesized by sequential addition of cysteine and glutamate to glutathione.

  19. Hemin-mediated Hemolysis in Erythrocytes: Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-De LI; Yan-Dan SU; Ming LI; Cheng-Gang ZOU

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the effect of ascorbic acid and glutathione on hemolysis induced by hemin in erythrocytes. Ascorbic acid not only enhanced hemolysis, but also induced formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the presence of hemin. It has been shown that glutathione inhibits hemin-induced hemolysis by mediating hemin degradation. Erythrocytes depleted of glutathione became very sensitive to oxidative stress induced by hemin and ascorbic acid. H2O2 was involved in heminmediated hemolysis in the presence of ascorbic acid. However, a combination of glutathione and ascorbic acid was more effective in inhibiting hemolysis induced by hemin than glutathione alone. Extracellular and intracellular ascorbic acid exhibited a similar effect on hemin-induced hemolysis or inhibition of hemininduced hemolysis by glutathione. The current study indicates that ascorbic acid might function as an antioxidant or prooxidant in hemin-mediated hemolysis, depending on whether glutathione is available.

  20. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO, while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with glutathione showed no browning during hot air drying. These results indicate that application of glutathione is a promising method of Anti-browning of mushroom by glutathione during hot air drying.

  1. Application of superparamagnetic microspheres for affinity adsorption and purification of glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Guan, Yueping; Yang, Mingzhu

    2012-10-01

    The superparamagnetic poly-(MA-DVB) microspheres with micron size were synthesized by the modified suspension polymerization method. Adsorption of glutathione by magnetic poly-(MA-DVB) microspheres with IDA-copper was investigated. The effect of solution pH value, affinity adsorption and desorption of glutathione was studied. The results showed that the optimum pH value for glutathione adsorption was found at pH=3.5, the maximum capacity for glutathione of magnetic poly-(MA-DVB) microspheres was estimated at 42.4 mg/g by fitting the experimental data to the Langmuir equation. The adsorption equilibrium of glutathione was obtained in about 10 min and the adsorbed glutathione was desorbed from the magnetic microspheres in about 30 min using NaCl buffer solution. The magnetic microspheres could be repeatedly utilized for the affinity adsorption of glutathione.

  2. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work) and individual socioeconomic...... income deprivation remained statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Neighborhood deprivation was associated with participation in a population-based health check in a dose-response manner, in which increasing neighborhood deprivation was associated with decreasing participation. This suggests the need to...

  3. Characterization of a Novel Dithiocarbamate Glutathione Reductase Inhibitor and Its Use as a Tool to Modulate Intracellular Glutathione*

    OpenAIRE

    Seefeldt, Teresa; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Wei; Raza, Ashraf S.; Carlson, Laura; Herman, Jocqueline; Stoebner, Adam; Hanson, Sarah; Foll, Ryan; Guan, Xiangming

    2009-01-01

    Thiol redox state (TRS) is an important parameter to reflect intracellular oxidative stress and is associated with various normal and abnormal biochemical processes. Agents that can be used to increase intracellular TRS will be valuable tools in TRS-related research. Glutathione reductase (GR) is a critical enzyme in the homeostasis of TRS. The enzyme catalyzes the reduction of GSSG to GSH to maintain a high GSH:GSSG ratio. Inhibition of the enzyme can be used to incre...

  4. 睡眠剥夺对大鼠动脉粥样硬化的影响%Effects of sleep deprivation on atherosclerosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许耘红; 李志梁; 吴沃栋; 黄焕亮

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of sleep deprivation on the atherosclerotic process and its mechanism in rats.Methods Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups(10 each): AS group, SDld group, SD3d group,SD5d group and SD7d group.After five groups were established AS model, four groups were established sleep deprivation model, the aortic tissue was prepared, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and then observed by light microscopy.The contents of GSH, MDA and the activity of GSH-Px, SOD in aortic tissue were detected.The levels of TNF-α hsCRP and IL-6 in serum were detected.Results With the time of sleep deprivation in rats, the lesions progressively became worsened.As the content of MDA was gradually increased, GSH content, GSH-Px and SOD activity were gradually decreased, serum TNF-α, hsCRP, IL-6 activity were also increased gradually.Conclusion Sleep deprivation can cause oxidative stress in the body and accelerate the development of inflammation,thus contributing to the process of atherosclerosis.%目的 探讨睡眠剥夺(sleep deprivation,SD)对动脉粥样硬化(atherosclerosis,AS)进程的影响及其机制.方法 50只Wistar AS雄性大鼠随机分为5组(每组10只):AS组、SD1d组、SD3d组、SD5d组、SD7d组.建立 AS大鼠SD模型,制备主动脉组织标本,苏木精伊红(hematoxylin and eosin,HE)染色,光镜观察切片.检测主动脉组织还原型谷胱甘肽(glutathione,GSH)及脂质过氧化物丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)含量、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(glutathione peroxidase,GSH-Px)及超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)活性.检测血清肿瘤坏死因子α(tumor necrosis factor-α,TNF-α)、高敏C反应蛋白(hypersensitivity-C reactive protein,hsCRP)、白细胞介素6(interleukin-6,IL-6)水平.结果 随着睡眠剥夺时间的延长,大鼠AS病变进展逐渐加重.主动脉组织GSH含量逐渐降低,MDA含量逐渐增高,GSH-Px及SOD活性逐渐降低.血清中TNF-α、hsCRP、IL-6水

  5. Testosterone deprivation accelerates cardiac dysfunction in obese male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pintana, Hiranya; Sivasinprasasn, Sivaporn; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-06-01

    Low testosterone level is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. As obese-insulin-resistant condition could impair cardiac function and that the incidence of obesity is increased in aging men, a condition of testosterone deprivation could aggravate the cardiac dysfunction in obese-insulin-resistant subjects. However, the mechanism underlying this adverse effect is unclear. This study investigated the effects of obesity on metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), left ventricular (LV) function, and cardiac mitochondrial function in testosterone-deprived rats. Orchiectomized or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n=36per group) were randomly divided into groups and were given either a normal diet (ND, 19.77% of energy fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 57.60% of energy fat) for 12weeks. Metabolic parameters, HRV, LV function, and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined at 4, 8, and 12weeks after starting each feeding program. We found that insulin resistance was observed after 8weeks of the consumption of a HFD in both sham (HFS) and orchiectomized (HFO) rats. Neither the ND sham (NDS) group nor ND orchiectomized (NDO) rats developed insulin resistance. The development of depressed HRV, LV contractile dysfunction, and increased cardiac mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production was observed earlier in orchiectomized (NDO and HFO) rats at week 4, whereas HFS rats exhibited these impairments later at week 8. These findings suggest that testosterone deprivation accelerates the impairment of cardiac autonomic regulation and LV function via increased oxidative stress and impaired cardiac mitochondrial function in obese-orchiectomized male rats. PMID:27000685

  6. Sleep deprivation affects inflammatory marker expression in adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ronaldo VT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation has been shown to increase inflammatory markers in rat sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inflammation is a condition associated with pathologies such as obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated changes in the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in different depots of white adipose tissue in rats. We also assessed lipid profiles and serum levels of corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin after 96 hours of sleep deprivation. Methods The study consisted of two groups: a control (C group and a paradoxical sleep deprivation by 96 h (PSD group. Ten rats were randomly assigned to either the control group (C or the PSD. Mesenteric (MEAT and retroperitoneal (RPAT adipose tissue, liver and serum were collected following completion of the PSD protocol. Levels of interleukin (IL-6, interleukin (IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α were analysed in MEAT and RPAT, and leptin, adiponectin, glucose, corticosterone and lipid profile levels were analysed in serum. Results IL-6 levels were elevated in RPAT but remained unchanged in MEAT after PSD. IL-10 protein concentration was not altered in either depot, and TNF-α levels decreased in MEAT. Glucose, triglycerides (TG, VLDL and leptin decreased in serum after 96 hours of PSD; adiponectin was not altered and corticosterone was increased. Conclusion PSD decreased fat mass and may modulate the cytokine content in different depots of adipose tissue. The inflammatory response was diminished in both depots of adipose tissue, with increased IL-6 levels in RPAT and decreased TNF-α protein concentrations in MEAT and increased levels of corticosterone in serum.

  7. Conjugation of isoprene monoepoxides with glutathione, catalyzed by α, μ, π and θ-class glutathione S-transferases of rat and man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaards, J.J.P.; Venekamp, J.C.; Salmon, F.G.C.; Bladeren, P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, the enzymatic conjugation of the isoprene monoepoxides 3,4 epoxy-3-methyl-1-butene (EPOX-I) and 3,4-epoxy-2-methyl-1-butene (EPOX-II) with glutathione was investigated, using purified glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of the α, μ, π and θ-class of rat and man. HPLC analysis of

  8. Purification of a glutathione S-transferase and a glutathione conjugate-specific dehydrogenase involved in isoprene metabolism in Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E.T. van; Kingma, Jaap; Kruizinga, Wim; Janssen, Dick B.

    1999-01-01

    A glutathione S transferase (GST) with activity toward 1,2-eposy-2-methyl-3-butene (isoprene monoxide) and cis-1,2-dichloroepoxyethane was purified from the isoprene-utilizing bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45, The homodimeric enzyme (two subunits of 27 kDa each) catalyzed the glutathione (GSH)-

  9. Sleep Deficiency and Deprivation Leading to Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Kohansieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays a vital role in an individual’s mental, emotional, and physiological well-being. Not only does sleep deficiency lead to neurological and psychological disorders, but also the literature has explored the adverse effects of sleep deficiency on the cardiovascular system. Decreased quantity and quality of sleep have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We explore the literature correlating primary sleep deficiency and deprivation as a cause for cardiovascular disease and cite endothelial dysfunction as a common underlying mechanism.

  10. Effects of food deprivation on host feeding and parasitism of whitefly parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Lian-Sheng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2010-06-01

    Most whitefly parasitoids kill whiteflies in one of two ways, by piercing the whitefly body with the ovipositor and laying an egg or by piercing the body and feeding on host fluids. The effects of food deprivation on host-feeding and parasitizing capacity of the whitefly parasitoids Eretmocerus melanoscutus and Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were determined in this study. We investigated the effects of various food-deprivation durations (0, 3, 6, 10, and 24 h, and 20% honey solution offered) before being released on the host mortality and parasitism by these species, using fourth-instar Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) nymphs as test hosts. Er. melanoscutus that were food deprived for 6 h fed on more hosts than those that were food deprived for 0 and 10 h and those that were fed only on honey solution. En. formosa was less sensitive to food deprivation, there being no significant changes in host feeding and parasitism. These species' differences were further confirmed by using third instars of B. tabaci, and both parasitoid species that were food deprived for 6 h fed on more hosts and parasitized similar or more hosts than those that were not food deprived. We also confirmed that Er. melanoscutus that were food deprived for 6 h killed significantly more whiteflies by host feeding and parasitism combined than the nonfood-deprived Er. melanoscutus. However, there were no significant differences in longevity between food-deprived and nonfood-deprived parasitoids of either species. We concluded that the effectiveness of Er. melanoscutus to biological control whitefly nymphs could be improved by starving them for 6 h prior to release. PMID:20550806

  11. Characterization and differential expression of microRNAs elicited by sulfur deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Longfei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs have been found to play an essential role in the modulation of numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for the study of many metabolic processes including responses to sulfur-deprivation. We used a deep sequencing platform to extensively profile and identify changes in the miRNAs expression that occurred under sulfur-replete and sulfur-deprived conditions. The aim of our research was to characterize the differential expression of Chlamydomonas miRNAs under sulfur-deprived conditions, and subsequently, the target genes of miRNA involved in sulfur-deprivation were further predicted and analyzed. Results By using high-throughput sequencing, we characterized the microRNA transcriptomes under sulphur-replete and sulfur-deprived conditions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We predicted a total of 310 miRNAs which included 85 known miRNAs and 225 novel miRNAs. 13 miRNAs were the specific to the sulfur-deprived conditions. 47 miRNAs showed significantly differential expressions responding to sulfur-deprivation, and most were up-regulated in the small RNA libraries with sulfur-deprivation. Using a web-based integrated system (Web MicroRNAs Designer 3 and combing the former information from a transcriptome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 22 miRNAs and their targets involved in metabolism regulation with sulfur-deprivation were verified. Conclusions Our results indicate that sulfur-deprivation may have a significant influence on small RNA expression patterns, and the differential expressions of miRNAs and interactions between miRNA and its targets might further reveal the molecular mechanism responding to sulfur-deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  12. Sustainable Hydrogen Photoproduction by Phosphorus-Deprived Marine Green Microalgae Chlorella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorcheska Batyrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously it has been shown that green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of prolonged H2 photoproduction when deprived of sulfur. In addition to sulfur deprivation (-S, sustained H2 photoproduction in C. reinhardtii cultures can be achieved under phosphorus-deprived (-P conditions. Similar to sulfur deprivation, phosphorus deprivation limits O2 evolving activity in algal cells and causes other metabolic changes that are favorable for H2 photoproduction. Although significant advances in H2 photoproduction have recently been realized in fresh water microalgae, relatively few studies have focused on H2 production in marine green microalgae. In the present study phosphorus deprivation was applied for hydrogen production in marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., where sulfur deprivation is impossible due to a high concentration of sulfates in the sea water. Since resources of fresh water on earth are limited, the possibility of hydrogen production in seawater is more attractive. In order to achieve H2 photoproduction in P-deprived marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., the dilution approach was applied. Cultures diluted to about 0.5–1.8 mg Chl·L−1 in the beginning of P-deprivation were able to establish anaerobiosis, after the initial growth period, where cells utilize intracellular phosphorus, with subsequent transition to H2 photoproduction stage. It appears that marine microalgae during P-deprivation passed the same stages of adaptation as fresh water microalgae. The presence of inorganic carbon was essential for starch accumulation and subsequent hydrogen production by microalgae. The H2 accumulation was up to 40 mL H2 gas per 1iter of the culture, which is comparable to that obtained in P-deprived C. reinhardtii culture.

  13. Sustainable hydrogen photoproduction by phosphorus-deprived marine green microalgae Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyrova, Khorcheska; Gavrisheva, Anastasia; Ivanova, Elena; Liu, Jianguo; Tsygankov, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of prolonged H2 photoproduction when deprived of sulfur. In addition to sulfur deprivation (-S), sustained H2 photoproduction in C. reinhardtii cultures can be achieved under phosphorus-deprived (-P) conditions. Similar to sulfur deprivation, phosphorus deprivation limits O2 evolving activity in algal cells and causes other metabolic changes that are favorable for H2 photoproduction. Although significant advances in H2 photoproduction have recently been realized in fresh water microalgae, relatively few studies have focused on H2 production in marine green microalgae. In the present study phosphorus deprivation was applied for hydrogen production in marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., where sulfur deprivation is impossible due to a high concentration of sulfates in the sea water. Since resources of fresh water on earth are limited, the possibility of hydrogen production in seawater is more attractive. In order to achieve H2 photoproduction in P-deprived marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., the dilution approach was applied. Cultures diluted to about 0.5-1.8 mg Chl·L-1 in the beginning of P-deprivation were able to establish anaerobiosis, after the initial growth period, where cells utilize intracellular phosphorus, with subsequent transition to H2 photoproduction stage. It appears that marine microalgae during P-deprivation passed the same stages of adaptation as fresh water microalgae. The presence of inorganic carbon was essential for starch accumulation and subsequent hydrogen production by microalgae. The H2 accumulation was up to 40 mL H2 gas per 1iter of the culture, which is comparable to that obtained in P-deprived C. reinhardtii culture. PMID:25629229

  14. Targeting aberrant glutathione metabolism to eradicate human acute myelogenous leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Shanshan; Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Callahan, Kevin P; Balys, Marlene; Ashton, John M; Neering, Sarah J; Lagadinou, Eleni D; Corbett, Cheryl; Ye, Haobin; Liesveld, Jane L; O'Dwyer, Kristen M; Li, Zheng; Shi, Lei; Greninger, Patricia; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril; Hagen, Fred K; Munger, Joshua; Crooks, Peter A; Becker, Michael W; Jordan, Craig T

    2013-11-22

    The development of strategies to eradicate primary human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells is a major challenge to the leukemia research field. In particular, primitive leukemia cells, often termed leukemia stem cells, are typically refractory to many forms of therapy. To investigate improved strategies for targeting of human AML cells we compared the molecular mechanisms regulating oxidative state in primitive (CD34(+)) leukemic versus normal specimens. Our data indicate that CD34(+) AML cells have elevated expression of multiple glutathione pathway regulatory proteins, presumably as a mechanism to compensate for increased oxidative stress in leukemic cells. Consistent with this observation, CD34(+) AML cells have lower levels of reduced glutathione and increased levels of oxidized glutathione compared with normal CD34(+) cells. These findings led us to hypothesize that AML cells will be hypersensitive to inhibition of glutathione metabolism. To test this premise, we identified compounds such as parthenolide (PTL) or piperlongumine that induce almost complete glutathione depletion and severe cell death in CD34(+) AML cells. Importantly, these compounds only induce limited and transient glutathione depletion as well as significantly less toxicity in normal CD34(+) cells. We further determined that PTL perturbs glutathione homeostasis by a multifactorial mechanism, which includes inhibiting key glutathione metabolic enzymes (GCLC and GPX1), as well as direct depletion of glutathione. These findings demonstrate that primitive leukemia cells are uniquely sensitive to agents that target aberrant glutathione metabolism, an intrinsic property of primary human AML cells. PMID:24089526

  15. Plasmodium spp. membrane glutathione S-transferases: detoxification units and drug targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Martin Lisewski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane glutathione S-transferases from the class of membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG form a superfamily of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH to a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and hydrophobic electrophiles. Evolutionarily unrelated to the cytosolic glutathione S-transferases, they are found across bacterial and eukaryotic domains, for example in mammals, plants, fungi and bacteria in which significant levels of glutathione are maintained. Species of genus Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoa that are commonly known as malaria parasites, do actively support glutathione homeostasis and maintain its metabolism throughout their complex parasitic life cycle. In humans and in other mammals, the asexual intraerythrocytic stage of malaria, when the parasite feeds on hemoglobin, grows and eventually asexually replicates inside infected red blood cells (RBCs, is directly associated with host disease symptoms and during this critical stage GSH protects the host RBC and the parasite against oxidative stress from parasite-induced hemoglobin catabolism. In line with these observations, several GSH-dependent Plasmodium enzymes have been characterized including glutathione reductases, thioredoxins, glyoxalases, glutaredoxins and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; furthermore, GSH itself have been found to associate spontaneously and to degrade free heme and its hydroxide, hematin, which are the main cytotoxic byproducts of hemoglobin catabolism. However, despite the apparent importance of glutathione metabolism for the parasite, no membrane associated glutathione S-transferases of genus Plasmodium have been previously described. We recently reported the first examples of MAPEG members among Plasmodium spp.

  16. Noise and social deprivation in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Bridget; Dockrell, Julie

    2001-05-01

    Noise levels have been measured inside and outside approximately 170 schools in London, England, as part of a project to investigate the effects of noise on the cognitive performance and academic attainments of children of primary school age in London. As well as providing data on individual schools the survey has provided a portrait of the noise climate across London. In addition to noise levels, the external noise sources present at each measurement location have been identified. The locations in which external schools noise levels were measured include areas where road traffic is the predominant noise source and areas near Heathrow Airport where aircraft are the major source. In addition to noise data, the following socioeconomic information has been obtained for a majority of the schools: percentages of children at each school having free school meals and the numbers for whom English is not the first language. The first of these is known to be a reliable indicator of social deprivation in an area. The relationship between noise and these socioeconomic factors has been established, which shows that, as might be expected, the higher noise levels in London are associated with the areas of greater social deprivation.

  17. LATERAL PSYCHOCORRECTION OF ANXIETY IN CHILDREN LIVING IN DEPRIVATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Valerievna Markova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of anxiety - one of the most pressing problems in today's society. Especially important is the development of this problem in relation to teenage children, reared without parental care. Urgency of the problem stems from the fact that the number of disadvantaged children suffering from anxiety, catastrophic increases. Guidelines on child-rearing and training on management of anxiety, as a rule, do not take into account the child's psycho-physiological characteristics; intervention programs have low efficiency, which ultimately affects the mental health of the child.The purpose of the study was the development and testing of the original program of the lateral psychocorrection,  aimed at reducing anxiety in children, brought up in the deprivation conditions.Methods: The study included 27 teenage boys from children's community. The children were divided into two groups in accordance with their lateral phenotype. Psychocorrection on the original program that takes into account the lateral organization of the brain was provided. Before and after psychocorrection assessed the level of anxietyResults:  It was shown the effectiveness of the original lateral psychocorrection program of anxiety in teenagers, brought up in the deprivation conditions.  Because the program is aimed mainly at the right hemisphere of the brain, the most pronounced effect was registered in children – ambidextrous.Conclusion: Presented results suggest the need for a differentiated approach to the correction of anxiety depending on the functional asymmetry of the brain.

  18. Deprivation, immigration and tuberculosis incidence in Naples, 1996-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponticiello, Antonio; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Simonetti, Andrea; Ortolani, Rosanna; Malerba, Mario; Sanduzzi, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    Most of the tuberculosis cases in Campania occur in Naples, the biggest city in the South of Italy with the highest unemployment and immigration rates. However, the occurrence of tuberculosis differs between the different neighbourhoods and it is not known whether these differences are associated with poverty or with immigration. We describe tuberculosis incidence and its association with socio-economic status and immigration in the city of Naples during the period 1996-2000. The basic design was an ecological study, correlating the incidence of tuberculosis which was calculated on the basis of notified tuberculosis cases to census data on immigration and socio-economic deprivation per neighbourhood. Immigrants had a high risk for tuberculosis (RR=34 for Africans) but the incidence of TB varied largely by districts and seemed independent of immigration. All socioeconomic factors increased the incidence of TB significantly. In a multivariate Poisson regression analysis only the rate of unemployment (p=0.02) and the population density (p=0.002) remained independently associated with tuberculosis incidence. In this study we showed that deprivation explained differences in tuberculosis incidence in Naples to a greater extent than immigration. PMID:16151887

  19. Androgen deprivation therapy (castration therapy) and pedophilia: What's new.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, Mauro; Mondaini, Nicola; Zucchi, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Andrology is a constantly evolving discipline, embracing social problems like pedophilia and its pharmacological treatment. With regard to chemical castration, the andrologist may perform an important role as part of a team of specialists. At present, no knowledge is available regarding hormonal, chromosomal or genetic alterations involved in pedophilia. International legislation primarily aims to defend childhood, but does not provide for compulsory treatment. We reviewed international literature that, at present, only comprises a few reports on research concerning androgen deprivation. Most of these refer to the use of leuprolide acetate, rather than medroxyprogesterone and cyproterone acetate, which present a larger number of side effects. Current opinions on chemical castration for pedophilia are discordant. Some surveys confirm that therapy reduces sexual thoughts and fantasies, especially in recidivism. On the other hand, some authors report that chemical castration does not modify the pedophile's personality. In our opinion, once existing legislation has changed, andrologists could play a significant role in the selection of patients to receive androgen deprivation therapy, due in part to their knowledge about its action and side effects. PMID:26428645

  20. Iron in intracellular infection: to provide or to deprive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eSilva-Gomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their chemical versatility, transition metals were incorporated as cofactors for several basic metabolic pathways in living organisms. This same characteristic makes them potentially harmful, since they can be engaged in deleterious reactions like Fenton chemistry. As such, organisms have evolved highly specialized mechanisms to supply their own metal needs while keeping their toxic potential in check.This dual character comes into play in host-pathogen interactions, given that the host can either deprive the pathogen of these key nutrients or exploit them to induce toxicity towards the invading agent. Iron stands as the prototypic example of how a metal can be used to limit the growth of pathogens by nutrient deprivation, a mechanism widely studied in Mycobacterium infections. However, the host can also take advantage of iron-induced toxicity to control pathogen proliferation, as observed in infections caused by Leishmania. Whether we may harness either of the two pathways for therapeutical purposes is still ill-defined.In this review, we discuss how modulation of the host iron availability impacts the course of infections, focusing on those caused by two relevant intracellular pathogens, Mycobacterium and Leishmania.

  1. Preclinical pharmacokinetic analysis of NOV-002, a glutathione disulfide mimetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, J D; Manevich, Y; Devane, L C; He, L; Garret, T E; Pazoles, C J; Tew, K D; Townsend, D M

    2010-09-01

    NOV-002 is a glutathione disulfide (GSSG) mimetic that is the subject of clinical investigation in oncology indications. GSSG is reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) to form glutathione (GSH), thereby maintaining redox homeostasis. The purpose of the study was to report the pharmacokinetic properties of NOV-002 and evaluate the effect that NOV-002 elicits in redox homeostasis. The pharmacokinetic analysis and tissue distribution of NOV-002 and GSH was evaluated in mice following a dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. The redox potential and total protein thiol status was calculated. Here we show that NOV-002 is a substrate for GR and that GSH is a primary metabolite. Non-linear pharmacokinetic modeling predicted that the estimated absorption and elimination rate constants correspond to a half-life of approximately 13 min with an AUC of 1.18 μgh/mL, a C(max) of 2.16 μg/ml and a volume of distribution of 42.61 L/kg. In addition, measurement of the redox potential and total protein thiol status indicated the generation of a transient oxidative signal in the plasma compartment after administration of NOV-002. These results indicate that NOV-002 exerts kinetic and dynamic effects in mice consistent with the GSSG component as the active pharmacological constituent of the drug. A longer-lasting decrease in total plasma free thiol content was also seen, suggesting that the oxidative effect of the GSSG from NOV-002 was impacting redox homeostasis. PMID:20359856

  2. In situ activated nanostructured platform for oxidized glutathione biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► New nanostructured platform for GSSG determination based on multi walled carbon nanotubes and chitosan. ► The redox mediator activated in situ showed a high electrocatalytic constant for NADH electrooxidation. ► An amperometric method for GSSG determination based on NADH consumption has been presented for the first time. -- Abstract: This work describes the construction of a biosensor for glutathione disulfide (GSSG) based on a nanostructured platform composed by MWCNTs, chitosan (CHIT) and the redox mediator 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid. The dispersion of MWCNTs and CHIT showed a good stability and was used to modify the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The nanostructured platform was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical techniques. The R-NO/R-NHOH redox couple was electrogenerated in situ by cycling the potential between 0.2 and −0.4 V vs. SCE. After activating the nanostructured platform, glutathione reductase was easily immobilized on the electrode surface by using glutaraldehyde as functional linker. The biosensor performance was optimized in terms of amount of enzyme, effect of CHIT concentration and NADH amount. Under optimized conditions, the biosensor response for GSSG sensing was linear from 2.0 up to 35 μmol L−1 with detection and quantification limits achieving values of 0.6 and 2.0 μmol L−1, respectively and sensitivity of 6.24 mA L mol−1. The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (KMapp) obtained by amperometry for the immobilized glutathione reductase on the nanostructured platform was 60 μmol L−1

  3. The glutathione system: a new drug target in neuroimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Anderson, George; Dean, Olivia; Berk, Michael; Galecki, Piotr; Martin-Subero, Marta; Maes, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Glutathione (GSH) has a crucial role in cellular signaling and antioxidant defenses either by reacting directly with reactive oxygen or nitrogen species or by acting as an essential cofactor for GSH S-transferases and glutathione peroxidases. GSH acting in concert with its dependent enzymes, known as the glutathione system, is responsible for the detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and electrophiles produced by xenobiotics. Adequate levels of GSH are essential for the optimal functioning of the immune system in general and T cell activation and differentiation in particular. GSH is a ubiquitous regulator of the cell cycle per se. GSH also has crucial functions in the brain as an antioxidant, neuromodulator, neurotransmitter, and enabler of neuron survival. Depletion of GSH leads to exacerbation of damage by oxidative and nitrosative stress; hypernitrosylation; increased levels of proinflammatory mediators and inflammatory potential; dysfunctions of intracellular signaling networks, e.g., p53, nuclear factor-κB, and Janus kinases; decreased cell proliferation and DNA synthesis; inactivation of complex I of the electron transport chain; activation of cytochrome c and the apoptotic machinery; blockade of the methionine cycle; and compromised epigenetic regulation of gene expression. As such, GSH depletion has marked consequences for the homeostatic control of the immune system, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways, regulation of energy production, and mitochondrial survival as well. GSH depletion and concomitant increase in O&NS and mitochondrial dysfunctions play a role in the pathophysiology of diverse neuroimmune disorders, including depression, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and Parkinson's disease, suggesting that depleted GSH is an integral part of these diseases. Therapeutical interventions that aim to increase GSH concentrations in vivo include N-acetyl cysteine; Nrf-2 activation via hyperbaric

  4. Survival and Success at Secondary School Stage: Looking beyond the Explanation of Socio-Cultural Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Dibakar; Panda, Smita Rani

    2013-01-01

    A wide spectrum of research literature pointed out socio-cultural deprivation as the dominant explanation for student survival and success in schools. This paper, contending socio-cultural deprivation as inadequate explanation for dropout and detention at secondary level, probed into the role of pupils' foundation knowledge in their survival…

  5. The incidence of biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy is associated with multiple socioeconomic deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Mackinnon, Bruce; McNeice, Valerie; Fox, Jonathan G; Geddes, Colin C

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is more common in areas of socioeconomic deprivation, but the relationship with the incidence and diagnosis of biopsy-proven renal disease is unknown. In order to study this, all consecutive adult patients undergoing renal biopsy in West and Central Scotland over an 11-year period were prospectively analyzed for demographics, indication, and histologic diagnosis. Using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, 1555 eligible patients were separated into quintiles of socioeconomic deprivation according to postcode. Patients in the most deprived quintile were significantly more likely to undergo biopsy compared with patients from less deprived areas (109.5 compared to 95.9 per million population/year). Biopsy indications were significantly more likely to be nephrotic syndrome, or significant proteinuria without renal impairment. Patients in the most deprived quintile were significantly more likely to have glomerulonephritis. There was a significant twofold increase in the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy in the patients residing in the most compared with the least deprived postcodes not explained by the demographics of the underlying population. Thus, patients from areas of socioeconomic deprivation in West and Central Scotland are significantly more likely to undergo native renal biopsy and have a higher prevalence of IgA nephropathy. PMID:24025641

  6. Suicide by Oxygen Deprivation with Helium: A Preliminary Study of British Columbia Coroner Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Russel D.; Hassan, Shereen

    2011-01-01

    This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners…

  7. Adult Visual Experience Promotes Recovery of Primary Visual Cortex from Long-Term Monocular Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Quentin S.; Aleem, Salman; Zhou, Hongyi; Pham, Tony A.

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged visual deprivation from early childhood to maturity is believed to cause permanent visual impairment. However, there have been case reports of substantial improvement of binocular vision in human adults following lifelong visual impairment or deprivation. These observations, together with recent findings of adult ocular dominance…

  8. Decrease in monocular sleep after sleep deprivation in the domestic chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, AS; Riedstra, B; Strijkstra, AM

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the trade-off between sleep need and alertness, by challenging chickens to modify their monocular sleep. We sleep deprived domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to increase their sleep need. We found that in response to sleep deprivation the fraction of monocular sleep within sleep d

  9. Water deprivation increases maternal corticosterone levels and enhances offspring growth in the snake Vipera aspis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoué, Andréaz; Angelier, Frédéric; Brischoux, François; DeNardo, Dale F; Trouvé, Colette; Parenteau, Charline; Lourdais, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels may increase as a result of reproductive effort or in response to unpredictable events. However, GC secretion can vary with the availability of vital trophic resources such as energy. While water represents another critical resource, the impact of water deprivation on GC secretion during reproduction has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Here, we examined the effects of water deprivation on plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations of female aspic vipers (Vipera aspis), and determined the impacts of water deprivation on offspring traits. We exposed both pregnant and non-reproductive females to a 20-day water deprivation and compared their pre- and post-deprivation CORT levels with those of control females. At the end of the treatment, only water-deprived pregnant females showed a significant increase in CORT levels. In pregnant females, changes in baseline CORT level were correlated with changes in female hydration state. Changes in baseline CORT levels were also negatively influenced by maternal reproductive effort in pregnant control females, while such a relationship was not apparent in pregnant water-deprived females. Finally, we found that offspring from water-deprived females had higher growth rates than offspring from control females. Offspring growth was also positively correlated with changes in both maternal osmolality and baseline CORT levels. Together, our results suggest that dehydration increases maternal CORT levels, which may subsequently influence offspring development. Further long-term field studies are therefore required to assess whether there is an adaptive significance of this response. PMID:26747902

  10. Effects of one night of sleep deprivation on hormone profiles and performance efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, V H; Tong, T Y; Lim, C L; Low, E C; Lee, L K

    2001-05-01

    This study examined the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on melatonin and cortisol profiles, as well as performance efficiency of military service members. Sleep intervention consisted of total lack of sleep (N = 7) or 8 hours of sleep (control group; N = 7) during the night. All parameters were measured at selected time intervals before (day 1), during (only in sleep-deprived individuals), and after (day 2) sleep intervention. Rotary pursuit scores and handgrip strength data were used as indices of psychomotor and physical performance, respectively. In sleep-deprived individuals, more salivary melatonin, but not cortisol, was secreted than in subjects who slept adequately. Significant increases in melatonin and cortisol were noted, especially at 1:30 p.m. on the day after nighttime sleep deprivation. In contrast, the tracking scores for rotary pursuit and grip strength among sleep-deprived and rested individuals were comparable. Across a normal working day (day 1), all parameters studied revealed time-specific fluctuations in both control and sleep-deprived groups. Irrespective of nighttime sleep schedule, the patterns of performance on day 2 differed from those on day 1. The tracking performance improved on day 2, whereas grip strength worsened, which may reflect inherent learning and muscle fatigue, respectively. During the night of sleep deprivation, performance declined. In conclusion, the present study showed that one night of sleep deprivation (8 hours) resulted in significant hormonal changes on the next afternoon but did not modify tracking and muscular strength performance. PMID:11370208

  11. Social Competence of Adult Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with Severe Deprivation History: I. An Individual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl; Franz, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Early social deprivation in highly social mammals interferes with their varying needs for security and stimulation. Toleration of social stimulation was studied in 18 adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees, who had been deprived for 16 to 27 years, during their 1st year after resocialization into 1 of 3 social groups. For this, a model of social…

  12. Income Inequality Indices Interpreted as Measures of Relative Deprivation/Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imedio-Olmedo, Luis Jose; Parrado-Gallardo, Encarnacion M.; Barcena-Martin, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers different ways of making comparisons between individuals in terms of deprivation and/or satisfaction. This allows the Gini index, the Bonferroni index and the De Vergottini index to be interpreted as social deprivation measures as well as social satisfaction measures. The inequality measures that belong to the [beta] family,…

  13. Beyond Stimulus Deprivation: Iron Deficiency and Cognitive Deficits in Postinstitutionalized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Kroupina, Maria G.; Frenn, Kristin; Fuglestad, Anita J.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Children adopted from institutions have been studied as models of the impact of stimulus deprivation on cognitive development (Nelson, Bos, Gunnar, & Sonuga-Barke, 2011), but these children may also suffer from micronutrient deficiencies (Fuglestad et al., 2008). The contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation on…

  14. Glutathione and Transition-Metal Homeostasis in Escherichia coli▿

    OpenAIRE

    Helbig, Kerstin; Bleuel, Corinna; Krauss, Gerd J.; Nies, Dietrich H.

    2008-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) and its derivative phytochelatin are important binding factors in transition-metal homeostasis in many eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate that GSH is also involved in chromate, Zn(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II) homeostasis and resistance in Escherichia coli. While the loss of the ability to synthesize GSH influenced metal tolerance in wild-type cells only slightly, GSH was important for residual metal resistance in cells without metal efflux systems. In mutant cells without the P-typ...

  15. Beta-amyloidolysis and glutathione in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lasierra-Cirujeda, J

    2013-01-01

    J Lasierra-Cirujeda,1 P Coronel,2 MJ Aza,3 M Gimeno2 1CM Hematológico SC, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain; 2Tedec-Meiji Farma, SA, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; 3Pharmaceutical Act, Ministry of Health, Regional Government, La Rioja, Spain Abstract: In this review, we hypothesized the importance of the interaction between the brain glutathione (GSH) system, the proteolytic tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)/plasminogen/plasmin system, regulated by plasminogen ac...

  16. Beta-amyloidolysis and glutathione in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lasierra-Cirujeda J; Coronel P; Aza MJ; Gimeno M.

    2013-01-01

    J Lasierra-Cirujeda,1 P Coronel,2 MJ Aza,3 M Gimeno2 1CM Hematológico SC, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain; 2Tedec-Meiji Farma, SA, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; 3Pharmaceutical Act, Ministry of Health, Regional Government, La Rioja, Spain Abstract: In this review, we hypothesized the importance of the interaction between the brain glutathione (GSH) system, the proteolytic tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)/plasminogen/plasmin system, regulated by plasminogen activator inhib...

  17. Purification and properties of glutathione transferase from Issatchenkia orientalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaki, H.; Kumagai, H.; Tochikura, T

    1989-01-01

    Glutathione transferase (GST) (EC 2.5.1.18) was purified from a cell extract of Issatchenkia orientalis, and two GST isoenzymes were isolated. They had molecular weights of 37,500 and 40,000 and were designated GST Y-1 and GST Y-2, respectively. GST Y-1 and GST Y-2 gave single bands with molecular weights of 22,000 and 23,500, respectively, on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. GST Y-1 and GST Y-2 were immunologically distinguished from each other. GST Y-1 showed speci...

  18. Enhancement of Combined Umami and Salty Taste by Glutathione in the Human Tongue and Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tazuko K; Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ito, Yuki; Jung, Han-Sung; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-09-01

    Glutathione, a natural substance, acts on calcium receptors on the tongue and is known to enhance basic taste sensations. However, the effects of glutathione on brain activity associated with taste sensation on the tongue have not been determined under standardized taste delivery conditions. In this study, we investigated the sensory effect of glutathione on taste with no effect of the smell when glutathione added to a combined umami and salty taste stimulus. Twenty-six volunteers (12 women and 14 men; age 19-27 years) performed a sensory evaluation of taste of a solution of monosodium L-glutamate and sodium chloride, with and without glutathione. The addition of glutathione changed taste qualities and significantly increased taste intensity ratings under standardized taste delivery conditions (P tasting an umami and salty mixture. PMID:27353260

  19. Ageing-induced changes of reduced and oxidised glutathione in fragments of maize seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA D. DRAGICEVIC

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial with four maize inbred lines with the ability to have different durations of seed germination in the course of the accelerated ageing (AA treatment was set up. Changes of the content of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione (expressed as monomers were observed in the seeds and seedlings before and after the treatment. For the first time, changes of glutathione in whole seedlings, as well as in the rest of the seed, were analysed. It was noticed that maize inbreds with a smaller decrease of the total glutathione but with an increase of the oxidized form had the ability of prolonged germination. In the control seedlings, the amount of total glutathione was lower than in the treated ones. Maize seeds which lost germination faster had greater losses of total glutathione with an increased content of the oxidized form in seedlings. The ability of prolonged germination together with the possibility of glutathione synthesis in seedlings are genotypic traits.

  20. Rural Area Deprivation and Hospitalizations Among Children for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Nathan; Probst, Janice; Robertson, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the intersection of rurality and community area deprivation using a nine-state sample of inpatient hospitalizations among children (interaction of rurality and area deprivation. The study found rural counties are disproportionality represented among the most deprived. Within the least deprived counties, the likelihood of an ACSC hospitalization was significantly lower in rural than among their urban counterparts. However, this rural advantage declines as the level of deprivation increases, suggesting the effect of rurality becomes more important as social and economic advantage deteriorates. We also found ACSC hospitalization to be much higher among racial/ethnic minority children and those with Medicaid or self-pay as an anticipated source of payment. These findings further contribute to the existing body of evidence documenting racial/ethnic disparities in important health related outcomes. PMID:26516019

  1. Deprived children or deprived neighbourhoods? A public health approach to the investigation of links between deprivation and injury risk with specific reference to child road safety in Devon County, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewson Paul

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, injuries from road traffic collisions are a rapidly growing problem in terms of morbidity and mortality. The UK has amongst the worst records in Europe with regard to child pedestrian safety. A traditional view holds that resources should be directed towards training child pedestrians. In order to reduce socio-economic differentials in child pedestrian casualty rates it is suggested that these should be directed at deprived children. This paper seeks to question whether analysis of extant routinely collected data supports this view. Methods Routine administrative data on road collisions has been used. A deprivation measure has been assigned to the location where a collision was reported, and the home postcode of the casualty. Aggregate data was analysed using a number of epidemiological models, concentrating on the Generalised Linear Mixed Model. Results This study confirms evidence suggesting a link between increasing deprivation and increasing casualty involvement of child pedestrians. However, suggestions are made that it may be necessary to control for the urban nature of an area where collisions occur. More importantly, the question is raised as to whether the casualty rate is more closely associated with deprivation measures of the ward in which the collision occurred than with the deprivation measures of the home address of the child. Conclusion Conclusions have to be drawn with great caution. Limitations in the utility of the officially collected data are apparent, but the implication is that the deprivation measures of the area around the collision is a more important determinant of socio-economic differentials in casualty rates than the deprivation measures of the casualties' home location. Whilst this result must be treated with caution, if confirmed by individual level case-controlled studies this would have a strong implication for the most appropriate interventions.

  2. Sleep deprivation during a specific 3-hour time window post-training impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Wimmer, Mathieu; Choi, Jennifer; Havekes, Robbert; Aton, Sara; Abel, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts hippocampal function and plasticity. In particular, long-term memory consolidation is impaired by sleep deprivation, suggesting that a specific critical period exists following learning during which sleep is necessary. To elucidate the impact of sleep deprivation on long-term memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity, long-term memory was assessed when mice were sleep deprived following training in the hippocampus-dependent object place recognition task. We found...

  3. Maternal Deprivation Enhances Behavioral Vulnerability to Stress Associated with miR-504 Expression in Nucleus Accumbens of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zhang; Xiongzhao Zhu; Mei Bai; Li Zhang; Liang Xue; Jinyao Yi

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, the effect of maternal deprivation (MD) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in inducing depressive behaviors and associated molecular mechanism were investigated in rats. METHODS: Maternal deprivation was established by separating pups from their mothers for 6 hours daily from postnatal day 1 to day 14. Chronic unpredictable stress was established by water deprivation, elevated open platform, food deprivation, restraint stress and electric foot shock. The depressi...

  4. Glutathione Preservation during Storage of Rat Lenses in Optisol-GS and Castor Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif;

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels....... The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations....

  5. Determination of Glutathione and Its Redox Status in Isolated Vacuoles of Red Beetroot Cells

    OpenAIRE

    E.V. Pradedova; O.D. Nimaeva; T.E. Putilina; N. V. Semenova; A.M. Sobenin; R.K. Salyaev

    2016-01-01

    The glutathione of the red beetroot vacuoles (Beta vulgaris L.) was measured using three well-known methods: the spectrofluorimetric method with orthophthalic aldehyde (OPT); the spectrophotometric method with 5.5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB); the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The content of reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) differed depending on the research method. With OPT the concentration of glutathione was: GSH – 0.059 µmol /mg protein; GSSG – 0.019...

  6. Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in relation to their role in detoxification of xenobiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, R.M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a family of isoenzymes serving a major part in the biotransformation of many reactive compounds. The isoenzymes from rat, man and mouse are divided into three classes, alpha, mu and pi, on the basis of similar structural and enzymatic properties.The main function of the glutathione S-transferases isthe catalysisof the conjugation of electrophilic, hydrophobic compounds with the tripeptide glutathione (GSH). In addition, some of the isoenzymes are capab...

  7. Status of lipid peroxidation, glutathione, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and antioxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Surapaneni Krishna; Venkataramana G

    2007-01-01

    Background : The exact pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in osteoarthritis patients is still not clear. To add a new insight to the question, changes in the erythrocyte lipid peroxidation products (MDA), levels of glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid and plasma vitamin E (nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters); and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione - S - transferase (GST) were measured in pati...

  8. Role of glutathione in natural and modified radioresistance of yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the dependence of different natural and modified radioresistance upon glutathione content of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia guillierondii). It was shown that glutathione was only involved in the formation of natural radioresistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. It was also shown that the increase in the radioresistance of yeast cells under the effect of 2-amino-2-thiasoline was accompanied by the increase in the level of total glutathione in them

  9. Impact of glutathione supplementation of parenteral nutrition on hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wesam Elremaly; Ibrahim Mohamed; Thérèse Rouleau; Jean-Claude Lavoie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The oxidation of the methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) by the combined impact of peroxides contaminating parenteral nutrition (PN) and oxidized redox potential of glutathione is suspected to explain its inhibition observed in animals. A modification of MAT activity is suspected to be at origin of the PN-associated liver disease as observed in newborns. We hypothesized that the correction of redox potential of glutathione by adding glutathione in PN protects the MAT activity. ...

  10. Short-term monocular deprivation alters GABA in the adult human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Claudia; Emir, Uzay E; Morrone, Maria Concetta; Bridge, Holly

    2015-06-01

    Neuroplasticity is a fundamental property of the nervous system that is maximal early in life, within the critical period [1-3]. Resting GABAergic inhibition is necessary to trigger ocular dominance plasticity and to modulate the onset and offset of the critical period [4, 5]. GABAergic inhibition also plays a crucial role in neuroplasticity of adult animals: the balance between excitation and inhibition in the primary visual cortex (V1), measured at rest, modulates the susceptibility of ocular dominance to deprivation [6-10]. In adult humans, short-term monocular deprivation strongly modifies ocular balance, unexpectedly boosting the deprived eye, reflecting homeostatic plasticity [11, 12]. There is no direct evidence, however, to support resting GABAergic inhibition in homeostatic plasticity induced by visual deprivation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that GABAergic inhibition, measured at rest, is reduced by deprivation, as demonstrated by animal studies. GABA concentration in V1 of adult humans was measured using ultra-high-field 7T magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after short-term monocular deprivation. After monocular deprivation, resting GABA concentration decreased in V1 but was unaltered in a control parietal area. Importantly, across participants, the decrease in GABA strongly correlated with the deprived eye perceptual boost measured by binocular rivalry. Furthermore, after deprivation, GABA concentration measured during monocular stimulation correlated with the deprived eye dominance. We suggest that reduction in resting GABAergic inhibition triggers homeostatic plasticity in adult human V1 after a brief period of abnormal visual experience. These results are potentially useful for developing new therapeutic strategies that could exploit the intrinsic residual plasticity of the adult human visual cortex. PMID:26004760

  11. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [11C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([11C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [11C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  12. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals. PMID:26631601

  13. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  14. Reduced glutathione alleviates the toxic effect of 6-hydroxydopamine on bone marrow stromal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henghui Wang; Weifeng Luo; Xiaoxia Wang; Xiaoling Qin; Shiyao Bao

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of reduced glutathione on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which shows a toxic effect on dopaminergic neurons.The proliferation of BMSCs treated with 6-OHDA decreased, while that of BMSCs treated with reduced glutathione increased.The proliferation of BMSCs treated with both 6-OHDA and reduced glutathione was significantly higher compared with that treated with 6-OHDA alone.These findings indicate that reduced glutathione alleviates the toxic effect of 6-OHDA on BMSCs.

  15. Histochemical Localization of Glutathione Dependent NBT-Reductase in Mouse Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Localization of the glutathione dependent Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductase in fresh frozen sections of mouse skin and possible dependence of NBT reductase on tissue thiol levels has been investigated. Methods The fresh frozen tissue sections (8m thickness) were prepared and incubated in medium containing NBT, reduced glutathione (GSH) and phosphate buffer. The staining for GSH was performed with mercury orange. Results  The activity of the NBT-reductase in mouse skin has been found to be localized in the areas rich in glutathione and actively proliferating area of the skin. Conclusion The activity of the NBT-reductase seems to be dependent on the glutathione contents.

  16. Red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in female nulligravid and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Guglielmo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alterations of the glutathione peroxidase enzyme complex system occur in physiological conditions such as aging and oxidative stress consequent to strenuous exercise. Methods Authors optimize the spectrophotometric method to measure glutathione peroxidase activity in rat red blood cell membranes. Results The optimization, when applied to age paired rats, both nulligravid and pregnant, shows that pregnancy induces, at seventeen d of pregnancy, an increase of both reactive oxygen substance concentration in red blood cells and membrane glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusion The glutathione peroxidase increase in erythrocyte membranes is induced by systemic oxidative stress long lasting rat pregnancy.

  17. Effect of glutathione on brain nitric oxide levels in an experimental epilepsy mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aylin Akcali; Sadrettin Pence; Naciye Kurtul; Mehmet Bosnak; Munife Neyal

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Glutathione, known as one of the compounds of antioxidant defense, has been shown to inhibit convulsions. Nitric oxide has a proconvulsant effect on a pentylenetetrazole-induced animal model. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of glutathione administration on nitric oxide levels in brain regions of convulsive and kindling pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure models. DESIGN, TIME, AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment. The study was performed at the Department of Physiology, Gaziantep University and Department of Chemistry-Biochemistry, Kahramamaras Sutcu Imam University in 2006.MATERIALS: Pentylenetetrazole and glutathione were purchased from Sigma, USA. METHODS: A total of 80 mice were assigned to 8 groups (n=10): normal control, saline control (1 mL normal saline), convulsive pentylenetetrazole (single intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole, 60 mg/kg), convulsive pentylenetrazole plus glutathione (single administration of 60 mg/kg pentylenetetrazole and 200 mg/kg glutathione), five-dose glutathione (intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg glutathione respectively at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days), single-dose glutathione (single administration of 200 mg/kg glutathione), pentylenetetrazole kindling (intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole of 40 mg/kg at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days), and pentylenetetrazole kindling plus glutathione group (intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg pentylenetetrazole and 200 mg/kg glutathione respectively at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All mice were sacrificed 1 hour after the last administration. Brain nitric oxide levels were determined by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in nitric oxide levels between the normal control, saline control, five-dose glutathione, and single-dose glutathione groups (P>0.05). Nitric oxide levels in the cerebral hemisphere and

  18. Interaction of glutathione with bovine serum albumin: Spectroscopy and molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanban-Esfahlan, Ali; Panahi-Azar, Vahid

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the interaction between glutathione and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, fluorescence spectroscopies under simulated physiological conditions (pH 7.4) and molecular docking methods. The results of fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the fluorescence intensity of BSA was decreased considerably upon the addition of glutathione through a static quenching mechanism. The fluorescence quenching obtained was related to the formation of BSA-glutathione complex. The values of KSV, Ka and Kb for the glutathione and BSA interaction were in the order of 10(5). The thermodynamic parameters including enthalpy change (ΔH), entropy change (ΔS) and also Gibb's free energy (ΔG) were determined using Van't Hoff equation. These values showed that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces were the main interactions in the binding of glutathione to BSA and the stabilization of the complex. Also, the interaction of glutathione and BSA was spontaneous. The effects of glutathione on the BSA conformation were determined using UV-vis spectroscopy. Moreover, glutathione was docked in BSA using ArgusLab as a molecular docking program. It was recognized that glutathione binds within the sub-domain IIA pocket in domain II of BSA. PMID:26920314

  19. A glutathione s-transferase confers herbicide tolerance in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhang Hu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs have been a focus of attention due to their role in herbicide detoxification. OsGSTL2 is a glutathione S-transferase, lambda class gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.. Transgenic rice plants over-expressing OsGSTL2 were generated from rice calli by the use of an Agrobacterium transformation system, and were screened by a combination of hygromycin resistance, PCR and Southern blot analysis. In the vegetative tissues of transgenic rice plants, the over-expression of OsGSTL2 not only increased levels of OsGSTL2 transcripts, but also GST and GPX expression, while reduced superoxide. Transgenic rice plants also showed higher tolerance to glyphosate and chlorsulfuron, which often contaminate agricultural fields. The findings demonstrate the detoxification role of OsGSTL2 in the growth and development of rice plants. It should be possible to apply the present results to crops for developing herbicide tolerance and for limiting herbicide contamination in the food chain.

  20. Physical exercise intensity can be related to plasma glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, C; Rossi, R; Micheletti, A; Mariucci, G; Rufini, S

    2001-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different kinds of physical exercise on plasma glutathione levels. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: In walking group (W; n=6), rats were trained to walk 0.8 m/min for 45 min; slow running group (SR; n=6) were trained to run 4 m/min for 45 min; fast running group (FR; n=6) ran 8m/min for 60 min and control rats (C; n=6) remained in their home cages. All animals were sacrificed after exercise and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma samples determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescent detector. Compared to controls, exercise did not change GSH plasma levels of the W group. A tendency to decrease blood GSH was observed in plasma samples of the SR group and in the FR group, physical exercise resulted in a dramatic decrease in GSH plasma levels. These data suggest that during light physical exercise there is a low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a low request for antioxidant defence such as oxidation of GSH. The dramatic decrease observed in GSH levels in FR rats would indicate the presence of oxidative stress able to modify blood antioxidant profiles. Our results suggest that GSH plays a central antioxidant role in blood during intensive physical exercise and that its modifications are closely related to exercise intensity. PMID:11579999

  1. Glutathione synthesis and homeostasis in isolated type II alveolar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After isolation of Type II cells from neonatal rat lung, the glutathione (GSH) levels in these cells were greatly depressed. The total glutathione content could be increased 5-fold within 12-24 h by incubating the cells in media containing sulfur amino acids. Similarly, the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase was low immediately after isolation, but was increased 2-fold during the first 24 h culture. Addition of either GSH or GSSG to the culture media increased the GSH content of Type II cells 2-2.5-fold. Buthionine sulfoximine and NaF prevented this replenishment of GSH during 24 h culture. When the rates of de novo synthesis of GSH and GSSG from 35S-cysteine were measured, the amounts of newly formed GSH decreased to 80% in the presence of GSH or GSSG. This suggests that exogenous GSH/GSSG can be taken up by the Type II cells to replenish the intracellular pool of GSH. Methionine was not as effective as cysteine in the synthesis of GSH. These results suggest that GSH levels in the isolated Type II cell can be maintained by de novo synthesis or uptake of exogenous GSH. Most of the GSH synthesized from cysteine, however, was excreted into the media of the cultured cells indicative of a potential role for the type II cell in export of the non-protein thiol

  2. Glutathione Reductase of Vacuole. Comparison of Glutathione Reductase Activity of Vacuole and Tissue Extract of Red Beet Root (Beta vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    E.V. Pradedova; O.D. Nimaeva; Salyaev, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7) is the enzyme that reduces oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thus regulates the redox state of glutathione (GSH/GSSG). GR has been studied in most plants. This enzyme has been identified in chloroplasts and cytosol, so these cellular compartments are considered to be the main place of the enzyme localization. In the same time, just a little is known about GR vacuoles. There are no conclusive evidences to prove the presence or absence of this enzyme in the ...

  3. The Understanding of Right Depriving Jural Facts in Respect to the Reasons of Deprivation of Right of Property: Legal Civil Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostruba A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of approaches to understanding of jural facts is accomplished in the article. The definition of right depriving jural facts in civil law is brought. It’s researched the classical for Roman-Germany legal system reasons for deprivation of right of property and the concrete actions or events that deprive such a right are analyzed. All examined facts of property rights deprivation could be classified and arranged into four basic groups: cessation of the property existance (destruction of property, cessation of the owner existance (death of a natural person, liquidation of the legal entity, transaction on alienation (alienation of the property by the owner, requisition, administrative act (abandonement of the property by the owner, foreclosure on the property for the owner obligations, seizure. Such deprivation of property rights as termination of the right to property, which can not belong to the person, and the compulsory acquisition may occur through jural facts like seizure or administrative act. In the case of requisition termination of right takes place directly at the moment the relevant administrative act comes into force. In other words only destruction of property, death of a natural person or legal entity liquidation can be regarded totally as depriving jural facts. All jural facts of right of property deprivation can be grouped but can not be reduced to basic groups. The law model must determine the circumstances under which the model will lead to the desired legal result, otherwise the legal facts were too extensive and could take place even in undesirable cases. In this context these circumstances are conditions of jural fact o occurence. That is why, for example, "termination of the right to property, which can not belong to the person" is only a general name of right-depriving jural fact or even a specific mechanism of depriving the right itself, and therefore includes in its content as well as the actual jural fact and

  4. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on neurogenesis.

  5. The nature of consciousness in the visually deprived brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Pietrini, Pietro; Ricciardi, Emiliano;

    2011-01-01

    later in life, affects brain organization and the way the world is perceived and acted upon. In this paper, we address a number of issues on the nature of consciousness in people deprived of vision. Do brains from sighted and blind individuals differ, and how? How does the brain of someone who has never...... had any visual perception form an image of the external world? What is the subjective correlate of activity in the visual cortex of a subject who has never seen in life? More in general, what can we learn about the functional development of the human brain in physiological conditions by studying...... blindness? We discuss findings from animal research as well from recent psychophysical and functional brain imaging studies in sighted and blind individuals that shed some new light on the answers to these questions....

  6. Impact of androgen deprivation therapy on sexual function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clarisse R Mazzola; John P Mulhall

    2012-01-01

    Many patients with prostate cancer for whom androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is indicated are young and desire to remain sexually active.In such patients,the side effects of androgen therapy on sexual function can be a source of serious reduction in overall quality of life.Providing the appropriate treatment options in this patient population is therefore essential.Nevertheless,treating such patients is challenging and an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of sexual physiology and pathophysiology is crucial to optimal patient care.In this paper,we reviewed what was known regarding the effects of ADT on sexual function in animal models and we also provided a detailed review on the effects of ADT on sexual health in humans and its treatment.

  7. Health status of adolescents deprived of parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Jelena M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Children deprived of parental care are a vulnerable population with complex needs and health problems. The aim of our study was to assess health status of this population and compare it with children living in their biological families. Material and methods Our study included 41 adolescents living in foster families (22 boys and 19 girls, mean age 14.66±1.39 and 43 adolescents living in child foster homes (16 boys and 27 girls, mean age 14.99±1.3. The control group consisted of their classmates living with their biological families (45 adolescents, 20 boys and 25 girls, mean age 14.69±1.43. Health status was assessed by analyzing their medical records. Results There were no differences in regard to anthropometric characteristics (body weight, body height, body mass index and prevalence of body deformities in studied groups. Acute bronchitis was significantly more frequent in children living in foster families (41.5% than in other two groups (16.3% - foster homes; 17.8% - biological families. Headaches were significantly more common in groups living in foster families (31.7% and foster homes (25.6% than in children living with their biological families. The same was established for myopia (46.3% - foster families; 32.6% - foster homes; 17.8% - biological families. Conclusion Even though there were no differences in regard to characteristics which are indicators of general health, it is apparent that children deprived of parental care present with particularities of health status. Additional researches are necessary in order to get insight into the causality of these phenomena.

  8. Intravenous immunoglobulin transfusion in colostrum-deprived dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, A; Belloli, A; Biffani, S; Locatelli, V; Dall'Ara, P; Filipe, J; Restelli, I; Proverbio, D; Pravettoni, D

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin transfusion is employed in the management of the failure of passive transfer (FPT). The aim of this study was to investigate the dose of immunoglobulin G (IgG) needed to reach a protective concentration (>10 g/L) in colostrum-deprived dairy calves. Twenty-eight Holstein Friesian newborn male calves were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) or a treatment group (PG). Calves in the CG received 4 L of high quality colostrum within 12 h of birth. Calves in the PG received 62.7 ± 3.1 g of IgG IV in 2.6 ± 0.3 L of plasma within 6 h after birth. Serum immunoglobulin G (sIgG) and serum total protein (sTP) concentrations were assayed before and after (24 h, 72 h and 1 week after birth) plasma transfusion or colostrum ingestion. Serum (s) IgG and sTP concentrations increased in both groups throughout the period of observation. Mean sIgG and sTP concentrations after colostrum ingestion or plasma transfusion were higher in the CG than in the PG (P calves developed diarrhoea during the study and four were humanely euthanased due to progressive clinical deterioration. None of the calves in the CG showed signs of disease or died during the study. The dose of IgG used in this trial effectively provided an adequate sIgG concentration in colostrum-deprived calves (>10 g/L). Calves in the CG had significantly lower morbidity and mortality rates compared to those in the PG, suggesting that plasma transfusion alone is ineffective in providing complete protection against neonatal disease. PMID:26831168

  9. Different effects of nine clausenamide ennatiomers on liver glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione S-transferase activity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qun WU; Li-de LIU; Hua-ling WEI; Geng-tao LIU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of nine synthetic clausenamide with different stereo structures on liver glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in mice. Methods: The nine test compounds were racemic mixtures and their ennatiomers of clausenamide, neoclausenamide and epineoclausenamide. Mice were administered clausenamide 250 mg/kg once daily for 3 consecutive days, ig, and were killed 24 h after the last dosing. The mouse liver cytosol GSH and GST were determined with related biochemical methods. Results: Nine clausenamides exhibited different effects on liver GSH and GST. Of nine clausenamides, only (+) and (±)clausenamide markedly increased liver cytosol GSH content. The mechanism of increasing liver GSH content of (+)clausenamide is mainly due to stimulating the key limiting enzyme γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) activity for GSH biosynthesis. The other test clausenamides had no such effect on liver GSH. All of the nine clausenamides induced a significant increase of GST activity. Conclusion: The effects of clausenamide ennatiomers on liver GST and GSH varied with the alterations of their spatial structures. (+)Clausenamide stimulated liver GSH biosynthesis through enhancingγ-GCS activity.

  10. Income deprivation and mental well-being: the role of non-cognitive skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez Cuesta, Maite; Budría, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    We show that the positive relation between income deprivation and mental health is affected by an individual's non-cognitive skills. Income deprivation is operationalized as the Yitzhaki index, i.e., as a function of the sum of income differences between an individual and others in her reference group who are more affluent. Non-cognitive skills are extracted from a Locus of Control questionnaire and the Big Five Inventory, a self-report measurement of an individual in regard to five aspects of personality: conscientiousness, neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and open-mindedness. The results, based on the 2002-2010 waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel dataset (SOEP), show that deprivation is negative and significantly related with mental health. However, neurotic individuals are more deprivation-sensitive than are others. Compared to the mean effect, a one standard deviation rise in neuroticism is associated with a deprivation effect that is 36.6% and 51.9% larger among men and women, respectively. Although to a lesser extent, extraverted men and conscientious women are also found to be more deprivation-sensitive than are others, the corresponding figures being 31.1% and 45.9%, respectively. These findings suggest that personality differences should be taken into account in the design of policies, practices and initiatives aimed at alleviating the well-being costs of income deprivation. PMID:25590947

  11. Distribution of physical activity facilities in Scotland by small area measures of deprivation and urbanicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physical activity facilities by area-level deprivation in Scotland, adjusting for differences in urbanicity, and exploring differences between and within the four largest Scottish cities. Methods We obtained a list of all recreational physical activity facilities in Scotland. These were mapped and assigned to datazones. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities relative to population size and quintile of area-level deprivation. Results The results showed that prior to adjustment for urbanicity, the density of all facilities lessened with increasing deprivation from quintiles 2 to 5. After adjustment for urbanicity and local authority, the effect of deprivation remained significant but the pattern altered, with datazones in quintile 3 having the highest estimated mean density of facilities. Within-city associations were identified between the number of physical activity facilities and area-level deprivation in Aberdeen and Dundee, but not in Edinburgh or Glasgow. Conclusions In conclusion, area-level deprivation appears to have a significant association with the density of physical activity facilities and although overall no clear pattern was observed, affluent areas had fewer publicly owned facilities than more deprived areas but a greater number of privately owned facilities.

  12. Effects of sleep deprivation and exercise on cognitive, motor performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathon P R; McNaughton, Lars R; Polman, Remco C J

    2006-02-28

    This study examined the effect of 30 h of sleep deprivation and intermittent physical exercise, on both cognitive and psychomotor function as well subjective ratings of mood. Six subjects with the following physical characteristics participated in the study (Mean +/- S.D.): age 22 +/- 0.3 years, height 180 +/- 5 cm, body mass: 77 +/- 5 kg, VO2peak 44 +/- 5 ml kg(-1) min(-1). Three subjects engaged in normal sedentary activities while three others cycled on a cycle ergometer at 50% VO2peak for 20 min out of every 2 h during 30 h of sleep deprivation. One week later sleep deprivation was repeated with a cross over of subjects. Every 4 h, subjects completed simple and two-choice reaction time tasks at both rest and during exercise, a computerized tracking task, a number cancellation task, and an assessment of subjective mood state as measured by the POMS questionnaire. A 3 x 4 repeated measures ANOVA revealed that resting but not exercising reaction times were significantly slower with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was also associated with significantly greater negative disturbances to subjective vigour, fatigue and depression assessed by the Profile of Mood States questionnaire. Compared to those who have been deprived of sleep alone, individuals that performed 5 h of intermittent moderate exercise during 30 h of sleep deprivation appeared to be more vulnerable to negative mood disturbances and impairment in reaction times. This could result in greater risk of accident due to a reduced capacity to respond quickly. PMID:16403541

  13. Can Economic Deprivation Protect Health? Paradoxical Multilevel Effects of Poverty on Hispanic Children’s Wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy W. Collins

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior research suggests that economic deprivation has a generally negative influence on residents’ health. We employ hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test if economic deprivation presents respiratory health risks or benefits to Hispanic children living in the City of El Paso (Texas, USA at neighborhood- and individual-levels, and whether individual-level health effects of economic deprivation vary based on neighborhood-level economic deprivation. Data come from the US Census Bureau and a population-based survey of El Paso schoolchildren. The dependent variable is children’s current wheezing, an established respiratory morbidity measure, which is appropriate for use with economically-deprived children with an increased likelihood of not receiving a doctor’s asthma diagnosis. Results reveal that economic deprivation (measured based on poverty status at both neighborhood- and individual-levels is associated with reduced odds of wheezing for Hispanic children. A sensitivity analysis revealed similar significant effects of individual- and neighborhood-level poverty on the odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Neighborhood-level poverty did not significantly modify the observed association between individual-level poverty and Hispanic children’s wheezing; however, greater neighborhood poverty tends to be more protective for poor (as opposed to non-poor Hispanic children. These findings support a novel, multilevel understanding of seemingly paradoxical effects of economic deprivation on Hispanic health.

  14. Lipid peroxide, glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzyme (GST) in mixed zooplankton from the North-West Coast of India: Implication for the use of environmental monitoring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.; Patil, B.A.

    This work deals with an experiment on mixed zooplanktonic organisms collected from the shore water of Diu coast. The study analyzed and measured lipid peroxidation (LPX), as a marker of oxidative stress and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activity...

  15. Discriminant and criterion-related validity of a relative deprivation scale in a merger and acquisition context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongseop; Cho, Bongsoon; Seo, Jeongil; Lee, Khan-Pyo; Choi, Jang-Ho

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the discriminant and criterion-related validity of the Relative Deprivation Scale. The data were collected from 151 Korean employees who had recently experienced a merger and acquisition. The results of confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the two dimensions of relative deprivation (egoistic and fraternal relative deprivation) are clearly distinguishable from other conceptually related variables, such as negative affectivity, resistance to change, overall job dissatisfaction, and distributive justice. In addition, egoistic relative deprivation made a unique incremental contribution to explaining employee turnover intention beyond the contribution of conceptually related variables, while fraternal relative deprivation did not. PMID:24765711

  16. Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn and Tinospora cordifolia exert neuroprotection by modulating the antioxidant system in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Saibal K

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major damaging factor during and after the ischemic/hypoxic insult is the generation of free radicals, which leads to apoptosis, necrosis and ultimately cell death. Rubia cordifolia (RC, Fagonia cretica linn (FC and Tinospora cordifolia (TC have been reported to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and have been in use in the eastern system of medicine for various disorders. However, their mechanism of action was largely unknown. We therefore selected these herbs for the present study to test their neuroprotective ability and the associated mechanism in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. Methods Hippocampal Slices were subjected to OGD (oxygen glucose deprivation and divided into 3 groups: control, OGD and OGD + drug treated. Cytosolic Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, nitric oxide (NO was measured as nitrite (NO2 in the supernatant and protein assays were performed in the respective groups at various time intervals. EPR was used to establish the antioxidant effect of RC, FC and TC with respect to superoxide anion (O2.-, hydroxyl radicals (. OH, nitric oxide (NO radical and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO generated from pyrogallol, menadione, DETA-NO and Sin-1 respectively. RT-PCR was performed for the three groups for GCLC, iNOS, Cu-Zn SOD and GAPDH gene expression. Results All the three herbs were effective in elevating the GSH levels, expression of the gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase and Cu-Zn SOD genes. The herbs also exhibited strong free radical scavenging properties against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition all the three herbs significantly diminished the expression of iNOS gene after 48 hours which plays a major role in neuronal injury during hypoxia/ischemia. Conclusions RC, FC and TC therefore attenuate oxidative stress mediated cell injury during OGD

  17. Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: A 36-Hour Sleep Deprivation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jacqueline; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In space, astronauts may experience effects of cumulative sleep loss due to demanding work schedules that can result in cognitive performance impairments, mood state deteriorations, and sleep-wake cycle disruption. Individuals who experience sleep deprivation of six hours beyond normal sleep times experience detrimental changes in their mood and performance states. Hence, the potential for life threatening errors increases exponentially with sleep deprivation. We explored the effects of 36-hours of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance, mood states, and physiological responses to identify which metrics may best predict fatigue induced performance decrements of individuals.

  18. Glutamine deprivation enhances antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate through the stabilization of monocarboxylate transporter-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, Simone; Rizza, Salvatore; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Roberta; Bertocchi, Fabio; Mattei, Maurizio; Paci, Maurizio; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Anticancer drug efficacy might be leveraged by strategies to target certain biochemical adaptations of tumors. Here we show how depriving cancer cells of glutamine can enhance the anticancer properties of 3-bromopyruvate, a halogenated analog of pyruvic acid. Glutamine deprival potentiated 3-bromopyruvate chemotherapy by increasing the stability of the monocarboxylate transporter-1, an effect that sensitized cells to metabolic oxidative stress and autophagic cell death. We further elucidated mechanisms through which resistance to chemopotentiation by glutamine deprival could be circumvented. Overall, our findings offer a preclinical proof-of-concept for how to employ 3-bromopyruvate or other monocarboxylic-based drugs to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy. PMID:22773663

  19. The relationship of individual and neighbourhood deprivation with morbidity in older adults: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kelvin P; Hayward, Richard; Roberts, Eyitope; Edwards, John J; Kadam, Umesh T

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to determine the relative association of social class and neighbourhood deprivation with primary care consultation for eight morbidities. In 18,047 survey responders aged ≥50 years, living in more deprived neighbourhoods was independently associated with new consultation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, asthma and depression. Lower social class was associated with diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. No such associations were found with otitis media, osteoarthritis or upper respiratory tract infection. These findings suggest a role of social environment in certain morbidities and indicate the importance of identifying and acting on neighbourhood deprivation to reduce health inequalities. PMID:24148556

  20. GABAB Receptor Antagonist CGP46381 Inhibits Form-Deprivation Myopia Development in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Ying Cheng; Xu-Ping Wang; Schmid, Katrina L.; Yu-Fei Han; Xu-Guang Han; Hong-Wei Tang; Xin Tang

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP46381, on form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in guinea pigs. Twenty-four guinea pigs had monocular visual deprivation induced using a diffuser for 11 days (day 14 to 25). The deprived eyes were treated with daily subconjunctival injections (100 μl) of either 2% CGP46381, 0.2% CGP46381, or saline or received no injection. The fellow eyes were left untreated. Another six animals received no treatment. At the start and end of...

  1. Glutathione in metastases: From mechanisms to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, José M; Ortega, Angel; Mena, Salvador; Sirerol, J Antoni; Obrador, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Metastatic spread, not primary tumors, is the leading cause of cancer death. Glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH) is particularly relevant in cancer cells as it is involved in regulating carcinogenic mechanisms, growth and dissemination, and multidrug and radiation resistance. Upon interaction of metastatic cells with the vascular endothelium, a high percentage of metastatic cells with high GSH levels survive the combined nitrosative and oxidative stresses elicited by the vascular endothelium. GSH release from different organs, mainly the liver, and its interorgan transport through the blood circulation to metastatic foci, promote their growth. This review focuses on the relationship among GSH and different key mechanisms that facilitate metastatic cell survival and growth, i.e. adaptive responses to stress, cell death evasion and utilization of physiological neuroendocrine mechanisms. Different strategies that are aimed at sensitizing metastases to cancer therapy by depleting metastatic cell GSH are analyzed. PMID:26754151

  2. Cytotoxicity and glutathione depletion studies using CHOK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiosensitization characteristics of newly synthesized isoindole-4, 7-diones have been established in the authors' laboratories. Cytotoxicity studies of isoindole-4, 7-diones on chinese hamster ovary cell (CHOK) have been carried out. The effects that different concentrations of isoindole-4, 7-diones have on cell growth as a function of time after treatment on both systems (oxic and hypoxic) have been determined. Most of isoindole-4, 7-diones used in these studies show more cytotoxic effect under hypoxic conditions. Gluthathione depletion was also measured in both systems. Most of the quinones studied deplete the concentration of glutathione in the CHOK cells. The results will be compared with similar studies carried out with the well known radiosensitizers misonidazole. It is hoped that the isoindole-r, 7-diones are a new family of chemical radiosensitizers

  3. Recombinant baculovirus vectors expressing glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A H; Jowett, J B; Jones, I M

    1993-08-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses are a popular means of producing heterologous protein in eukaryotic cells. Purification of recombinant proteins away from the insect cell background can, however, remain an obstacle for many developments. Recently, prokaryotic fusion protein expression systems have been developed allowing single-step purification of the heterologous protein and specific proteolytic cleavage of the affinity tag moiety from the desired antigen. Here we report the introduction of these attributes to the baculovirus system. "Baculo-GEX" vectors enable baculovirus production of fusion proteins with the above advantages, but in a eukaryotic post-translational processing environment. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusions are stable cytoplasmic proteins in insect cells and may therefore be released by sonication alone, avoiding the solubility problems and detergent requirements of bacterial systems. Thus large amounts of authentic antigen may be purified in a single, non-denaturing step. PMID:7763917

  4. From glutathione transferase to pore in a CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Cromer, B A; Morton, C J; Parker, M W; 10.1007/s00249-002-0219-1

    2002-01-01

    Many plasma membrane chloride channels have been cloned and characterized in great detail. In contrast, very little is known about intracellular chloride channels. Members of a novel class of such channels, called the CLICs (chloride intracellular channels), have been identified over the last few years. A striking feature of the CLIC family of ion channels is that they can exist in a water- soluble state as well as a membrane-bound state. A major step forward in understanding the functioning of these channels has been the recent crystal structure determination of one family member, CLIC1. The structure confirms that CLICs are members of the glutathione S- transferase superfamily and provides clues as to how CLICs can insert into membranes to form chloride channels. (69 refs).

  5. Low activity of superoxide dismutase and high activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes from centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Jeune, B; Nybo, H;

    1998-01-01

    aged between 60 and 79 years. MEASUREMENTS: enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase (GR) in erythrocytes. Functional capacity among the centenarians was evaluated by Katz' index of activities of daily living, the Physical...

  6. The gut microbiota modulates host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Shoaie, Saeed; Bergentall, Mattias;

    2015-01-01

    , liver, and adipose tissues. We used these functional models to determine the global metabolic differences between CONV-R and GF mice. Based on gene expression data, we found that the gut microbiota affects the host amino acid (AA) metabolism, which leads to modifications in glutathione metabolism. To....... Our analyses revealed that the gut microbiota influences host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice....

  7. Interactions of prostaglandin A2 with the glutathione-mediated biotransformation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.P.L.S.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Smink, N.; Koeman, J.H.; Bladeren, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) is known to inhibit cell proliferation, and metabolism of this compound thus might be important in controlling its ultimate function. The glutathione-related metabolism of PGA2 was therefore investigated both with purified glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GS

  8. Application of superparamagnetic microspheres for affinity adsorption and purification of glutathione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Guan Yueping, E-mail: ypguan@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang Mingzhu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-10-15

    The superparamagnetic poly-(MA-DVB) microspheres with micron size were synthesized by the modified suspension polymerization method. Adsorption of glutathione by magnetic poly-(MA-DVB) microspheres with IDA-copper was investigated. The effect of solution pH value, affinity adsorption and desorption of glutathione was studied. The results showed that the optimum pH value for glutathione adsorption was found at pH=3.5, the maximum capacity for glutathione of magnetic poly-(MA-DVB) microspheres was estimated at 42.4 mg/g by fitting the experimental data to the Langmuir equation. The adsorption equilibrium of glutathione was obtained in about 10 min and the adsorbed glutathione was desorbed from the magnetic microspheres in about 30 min using NaCl buffer solution. The magnetic microspheres could be repeatedly utilized for the affinity adsorption of glutathione. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic microsphere with surface IDA-Cu groups was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic microspheres were applied for adsorption of GSH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption-desorption of glutathione was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum adsorption capacity of GSH was fitted at 42.4 mg/g.

  9. Application of superparamagnetic microspheres for affinity adsorption and purification of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superparamagnetic poly-(MA–DVB) microspheres with micron size were synthesized by the modified suspension polymerization method. Adsorption of glutathione by magnetic poly-(MA–DVB) microspheres with IDA-copper was investigated. The effect of solution pH value, affinity adsorption and desorption of glutathione was studied. The results showed that the optimum pH value for glutathione adsorption was found at pH=3.5, the maximum capacity for glutathione of magnetic poly-(MA–DVB) microspheres was estimated at 42.4 mg/g by fitting the experimental data to the Langmuir equation. The adsorption equilibrium of glutathione was obtained in about 10 min and the adsorbed glutathione was desorbed from the magnetic microspheres in about 30 min using NaCl buffer solution. The magnetic microspheres could be repeatedly utilized for the affinity adsorption of glutathione. - Highlights: ► The magnetic microsphere with surface IDA–Cu groups was synthesized. ► The magnetic microspheres were applied for adsorption of GSH. ► The adsorption–desorption of glutathione was investigated. ► The maximum adsorption capacity of GSH was fitted at 42.4 mg/g.

  10. Habitual consumption of fruits and vegetables: associations with human rectal glutathione S-transferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wark, P.A.; Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Peters, W.H.M.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kampman, E.; Kok, F.J.; Veer, van 't P.

    2004-01-01

    The glutathione (GSH)/glutathione S-transferase (GST) system is an important detoxification system in the gastrointestinal tract. A high activity of this system may benefit cancer prevention. The aim of the study was to assess whether habitual consumption of fruits and vegetables, especially citrus

  11. Beta-amyloidolysis and glutathione in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasierra-Cirujeda J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available J Lasierra-Cirujeda,1 P Coronel,2 MJ Aza,3 M Gimeno2 1CM Hematológico SC, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain; 2Tedec-Meiji Farma, SA, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; 3Pharmaceutical Act, Ministry of Health, Regional Government, La Rioja, Spain Abstract: In this review, we hypothesized the importance of the interaction between the brain glutathione (GSH system, the proteolytic tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA/plasminogen/plasmin system, regulated by plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, and neuroserpin in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The histopathological characteristic hallmark that gives personality to the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of neurofibroid tangles located intracellularly in the brain, such as the protein tau and extracellular senile plaques made primarily of amyloidal substance. These formations of complex etiology are intimately related to GSH, brain protective antioxidants, and the proteolytic system, in which t-PA plays a key role. There is scientific evidence that suggests a relationship between aging, a number of neurodegenerative disorders, and the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and accompanying decreased brain proteolysis. The plasminogen system in the brain is an essential proteolytic mechanism that effectively degrades amyloid peptides ("beta-amyloidolysis" through action of the plasmin, and this physiologic process may be considered to be a means of prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. In parallel to the decrease in GSH levels seen in aging, there is also a decrease in plasmin brain activity and a progressive decrease of t-PA activity, caused by a decrease in the expression of the t-PA together with an increase of the PAI-1 levels, which rise to an increment in the production of amyloid peptides and a lesser clearance of them. Better knowledge of the GSH mechanism and cerebral proteolysis will allow us to hypothesize about therapeutic practices. Keywords: glutathione

  12. Glutathione peroxidase-1 protects from CD95-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouaze, Valerie; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Cuvillier, Olivier; Malagarie-Cazenave, Sophie; Frisach, Marie-Francoise; Mirault, Marc-Edouard; Levade, Thierry

    2002-11-01

    Through the induction of apoptosis, CD95 plays a crucial role in the immune response and the elimination of cancer cells. Ligation of CD95 receptor activates a complex signaling network that appears to implicate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the place of ROS production in CD95-mediated apoptosis and the role of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1). Anti-CD95 antibodies triggered an early generation of ROS in human breast cancer T47D cells that was blocked by overexpression of GPx1 and inhibition of initiator caspase activation. Enforced expression of GPx1 also resulted in inhibition of CD95-induced effector caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic cell death. Resistance to CD95-mediated apoptosis was not due to an increased expression of anti-apoptotic molecules and could be reversed by glutathione-depleting agents. In addition, whereas the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL prevented CD95-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, it did not inhibit the early ROS production. Moreover, Bcl-xL but not GPx1 overexpression could suppress the staurosporine-induced late generation of ROS and subsequent cell death. Altogether, these findings suggest that GPx1 functions upstream of the mitochondrial events to inhibit the early ROS production and apoptosis induced by CD95 ligation. Finally, transgenic mice overexpressing GPx1 were partially protected from the lethal effect of anti-CD95, underlying the importance of peroxide formation (and GPx1) in CD95-triggered apoptosis. PMID:12221075

  13. Analysis of Arabidopsis glutathione-transferases in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Matthias P; Kanawati, Basem; Fekete, Agnes; Kowalski, Natalie; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Grill, Erwin

    2013-07-01

    The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 54 functional glutathione transferases (GSTs), classified in seven clades. Although plant GSTs have been implicated in the detoxification of xenobiotics, such as herbicides, extensive redundancy within this large gene family impedes a functional analysis in planta. In this study, a GST-deficient yeast strain was established as a system for analyzing plant GSTs that allows screening for GST substrates and identifying substrate preferences within the plant GST family. To this end, five yeast genes encoding GSTs and GST-related proteins were simultaneously disrupted. The resulting yeast quintuple mutant showed a strongly reduced conjugation of the GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl). Consistently, the quintuple mutant was hypersensitive to CDNB, and this phenotype was complemented by the inducible expression of Arabidopsis GSTs. The conjugating activity of the plant GSTs was assessed by in vitro enzymatic assays and via analysis of exposed yeast cells. The formation of glutathione adducts with dinitrobenzene was unequivocally verified by stable isotope labeling and subsequent accurate ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (ICR-FTMS). Analysis of Arabidopsis GSTs encompassing six clades and 42 members demonstrated functional expression in yeast by using CDNB and NBD-Cl as model substrates. Subsequently, the established yeast system was explored for its potential to screen the Arabidopsis GST family for conjugation of the fungicide anilazine. Thirty Arabidopsis GSTs were identified that conferred increased levels of glutathionylated anilazine. Efficient anilazine conjugation was observed in the presence of the phi, tau, and theta clade GSTs including AtGSTF2, AtGSTF4, AtGSTF6, AtGSTF8, AtGSTF10, and AtGSTT2, none of which had previously been known to contribute to fungicide detoxification. ICR-FTMS analysis of yeast extracts allowed the simultaneous detection and

  14. Glutathione S-transferase activity and glutathione S-transferase mu expression in subjects with risk for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarka, C E; Pfeiffer, G R; Hum, S T; Everley, L C; Balshem, A M; Moore, D F; Litwin, S; Goosenberg, E B; Frucht, H; Engstrom, P F

    1995-07-01

    The glutathione S-transferases (alpha, mu, and pi), a family of Phase II detoxication enzymes, play a critical role in protecting the colon mucosa by catalyzing the conjugation of dietary carcinogens with glutathione. We investigated the efficacy of using the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of blood lymphocytes and GST-mu expression as biomarkers of risk for colorectal cancer. GST activity was measured in the blood lymphocytes of control individuals (n = 67) and in the blood lymphocytes (n = 60) and colon tissue (n = 34) of individuals at increased risk for colon cancer. Total GST activity was determined spectrophotometrically with the use of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as a substrate. The ability to express the um subclass of GST was determined with the use of an ELISA. Although interindividual variability in the GST activity of blood lymphocytes was greater than 8-fold (range, 16.7-146.8 nmol/min/mg), the GST activity of blood lymphocytes and colon tissue within an individual was constant over time and was unrelated to sex, age, or race. The GST activity of blood lymphocytes from high-risk individuals was significantly lower than that of blood lymphocytes from control individuals (P GST-mu phenotype and risk for colorectal cancer. Blood lymphocytes from high-risk individuals unable to express GST-mu had lower levels of GST activity than did those from control subjects with the GST-mu null phenotype; however, this difference was significant in male subjects only (P GST activity of the two tissue types (Spearman's rank correlation, r = 0.87; P GST activity of blood lymphocytes may be used to identify high-risk individuals with decreased protection from this Phase II detoxication enzyme who may benefit from clinical trials evaluating GST modulators as chemopreventive agents for colorectal cancer. The GST activity of blood lymphocytes may also be used in colorectal cancer chemoprevention trials to monitor the responsiveness of colon tissue to regimens that

  15. Reproductive toxic effects and mechanism of 72h sleep deprivation on male mice%72 h睡眠剥夺对雄性小鼠的生殖毒性效应及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋超; 周冉; 夏聪聪; 冯健; 李丰功; 黄振遥; 崔涛

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨72 h睡眠剥夺对雄性小鼠的生殖毒性效应及机制.方法 24只雄性小鼠,随机分为对照组(n=12)、实验组(n=12),经改良多平台睡眠剥夺法睡眠剥夺72 h后,镜下观察精子活率、形态及睾丸病理结构,试剂盒测定丙二醛(MDA)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)、超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)值.结果 72 h睡眠剥夺后,小鼠精子活率降低,曲细精管上皮萎缩,MDA值、GSH值升高,SOD值降低.结论 72 h睡眠剥夺可引起雄性小鼠的生殖毒性效应,这一效应可能与睾丸组织内氧化应激反应增加、抗氧化能力下降并引起睾丸组织的过氧化损伤有关.%OBJECTIVE To investigate reproductive toxic effects and mechanism of 72h sleep deprivation on male mice. METHODS Total 24 male mice were randomly divided into the control group (n = 12) and the experimental group (n = 12). The mice in the experimental group were sleep deprived for 72h using improved multi -platform sleep deprivation method. The sperm motility, morphology and pathological structures of testis, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. RESULTS After 72h sleep deprivation, motility of mouse sperm decreased. The atrophy of seminiferous tubule epithele was observed. The levels of MDA and GSH were elevated. The activity of SOD decreased. CONCLUSION 72h sleep deprivation can induce acute reproductive toxic effects on the male mice. The effect may be related to testicular tissue peroxidation injury caused by increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant capacity.

  16. A novel plant glutathione S-transferase/peroxidase suppresses Bax lethality in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Damianova, R; Atallah, M;

    2000-01-01

    for the identification of plant genes, which inhibit either directly or indirectly the lethal phenotype of Bax. Using this method a number of cDNA clones were isolated, the more potent of which encodes a protein homologous to the class theta glutathione S-transferases. This Bax-inhibiting (BI) protein...... was expressed in Escherichia coli and found to possess glutathione S-transferase (GST) and weak glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Expression of Bax in yeast decreases the intracellular levels of total glutathione, causes a substantial reduction of total cellular phospholipids, diminishes the...... mitochondrial membrane potential, and alters the intracellular redox potential. Co-expression of the BI-GST/GPX protein brought the total glutathione levels back to normal and re-established the mitochondrial membrane potential but had no effect on the phospholipid alterations. Moreover, expression of BI...

  17. The glutathione response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg Jepsen, Helene; Posci, Istvan; Jensen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of glutathione in response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, the biomass and the intracellular pool of protein and the glutathione + glutathione disulphid (GSH + GSSG) was measured for four days in a medium with NaCl or KCl added...... and in the basal medium. Due to the osmotic and ionic stress imposed by the salts, the growth of T. lanuginosus was delayed and the inhibitory effect of KCl exceeded that of NaCl. Glutathione seemed to be involved in the response of T. lanuginosus towards high concentrations of salt, as the level of...... stress was negatively correlated with the amount of total glutathione. Salt stress did not result in an increased intracellular protein production. GSH accumulated while nutrients were abundant and were subsequently degraded later, suggesting that nutrients stored in GSH are used when the medium is...

  18. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of glutathione from urine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Renyuan, E-mail: songrenyuan0726@163.com; Hu, Xiaoling; Guan, Ping; Li, Ji; Zhao, Na; Wang, Qiaoli

    2014-11-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) particles for glutathione were synthesized through iniferter-controlled living radical precipitation polymerization (IRPP) under ultraviolet radiation at ambient temperature. Static adsorption, solid-phase extraction, and high-performance liquid chromatography were carried out to evaluate the adsorption properties and selective recognition characteristics of the polymers for glutathione and its structural analogs. The obtained IRPP-MIP particles exhibited a regularly spherical shape, rapid binding kinetics, high imprinting factor, and high selectivity compared with the MIP particles prepared using traditional free-radical precipitation polymerization. The selective separation and enrichment of glutathione from the mixture of glycyl-glycine and glutathione disulfide could be achieved on the IRPP-MIP cartridge. The recoveries of glutathione, glycyl-glycine, and glutathione disulfide were 95.6% ± 3.65%, 29.5% ± 1.26%, and 49.9% ± 1.71%, respectively. The detection limit (S/N = 3) of glutathione was 0.5 mg·L{sup −1}. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 10 replicate detections of 50 mg·L{sup −1} of glutathione were 5.76%, and the linear range of the calibration curve was 0.5 mg·L{sup −1} to 200 mg·L{sup −1} under optimized conditions. The proposed approach was successfully applied to determine glutathione in spiked human urine samples with recoveries of 90.24% to 96.20% and RSDs of 0.48% to 5.67%. - Highlights: • Imprinted polymer particles were prepared by IRPP at ambient temperature. • High imprinting factor, high selectivity, and rapid binding kinetics were achieved. • Selective solid-phase extraction of glutathione from human urine samples.

  19. Determination of Glutathione and Its Redox Status in Isolated Vacuoles of Red Beetroot Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione of the red beetroot vacuoles (Beta vulgaris L. was measured using three well-known methods: the spectrofluorimetric method with orthophthalic aldehyde (OPT; the spectrophotometric method with 5.5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB; the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The content of reduced (GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG differed depending on the research method. With OPT the concentration of glutathione was: GSH – 0.059 µmol /mg protein; GSSG – 0.019 µmol/mg protein and total glutathione (GSHtotal – 0.097 µmol/mg protein. In the case of determining with DTNB the concentration of glutathione was: GSH – 0.091 µmol/mg protein; GSSG – 0.031 µmol/mg protein; GSHtotal – 0.153 µmol/mg protein. HPLC-defined concentration of glutathione was lower: GSH – 0.039 µmol/mg protein; GSSG – 0.007 µmol/mg protein; GSHtotal – 0.053 µmol/mg protein. Redox ratio of GSH/GSSG was also dependent on the method of determination: with OPT – 3.11; with DTNB – 2.96 and HPLC – 5.57. Redox ratio of glutathione in vacuoles was much lower than the tissue extracts of red beetroot, which, depending on the method of determination, was: 7.23, 7.16 and 9.22. The results showed the vacuoles of red beetroot parenchyma cells contain glutathione. Despite the low value of the redox ratio GSH/GSSG, in vacuoles the pool of reduced glutathione prevailed over the pool of oxidized glutathione.

  20. Intestinal barrier function in response to abundant or depleted mucosal glutathione in Salmonella-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vink Carolien

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione, the main antioxidant of intestinal epithelial cells, is suggested to play an important role in gut barrier function and prevention of inflammation-related oxidative damage as induced by acute bacterial infection. Most studies on intestinal glutathione focus on oxidative stress reduction without considering functional disease outcome. Our aim was to determine whether depletion or maintenance of intestinal glutathione changes susceptibility of rats to Salmonella infection and associated inflammation. Rats were fed a control diet or the same diet supplemented with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO; glutathione depletion or cystine (glutathione maintenance. Inert chromium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (CrEDTA was added to the diets to quantify intestinal permeability. At day 4 after oral gavage with Salmonella enteritidis (or saline for non-infected controls, Salmonella translocation was determined by culturing extra-intestinal organs. Liver and ileal mucosa were collected for analyses of glutathione, inflammation markers and oxidative damage. Faeces was collected to quantify diarrhoea. Results Glutathione depletion aggravated ileal inflammation after infection as indicated by increased levels of mucosal myeloperoxidase and interleukin-1β. Remarkably, intestinal permeability and Salmonella translocation were not increased. Cystine supplementation maintained glutathione in the intestinal mucosa but inflammation and oxidative damage were not diminished. Nevertheless, cystine reduced intestinal permeability and Salmonella translocation. Conclusion Despite increased infection-induced mucosal inflammation upon glutathione depletion, this tripeptide does not play a role in intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and diarrhoea. On the other hand, cystine enhances gut barrier function by a mechanism unlikely to be related to glutathione.

  1. Functional analysis and localisation of a delta-class glutathione S-transferase from Sarcoptes scabiei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Eva U; Ljunggren, Erland L; Morrison, David A; Mattsson, Jens G

    2005-01-01

    The mite Sarcoptes scabiei causes sarcoptic mange, or scabies, a disease that affects both animals and humans worldwide. Our interest in S. scabiei led us to further characterise a glutathione S-transferase. This multifunctional enzyme is a target for vaccine and drug development in several parasitic diseases. The S. scabiei glutathione S-transferase open reading frame reported here is 684 nucleotides long and yields a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 26 kDa. Through phylogenetic analysis the enzyme was classified as a delta-class glutathione S-transferase, and our paper is the first to report that delta-class glutathione S-transferases occur in organisms other than insects. The recombinant S. scabiei glutathione S-transferase was expressed in Escherichia coli via three different constructs and purified for biochemical analysis. The S. scabiei glutathione S-transferase was active towards the substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, though the positioning of fusion partners influenced the kinetic activity of the enzyme. Polyclonal antibodies raised against S. scabiei glutathione S-transferase specifically localised the enzyme to the integument of the epidermis and cavities surrounding internal organs in adult parasites. However, some minor staining of parasite intestines was observed. No staining was seen in host tissues, nor could we detect any antibody response against S. scabiei glutathione S-transferase in sera from naturally S. scabiei infected dogs or pigs. Additionally, the polyclonal sera raised against recombinant S. scabiei glutathione S-transferase readily detected a protein from mites, corresponding to the predicted size of native glutathione S-transferase. PMID:15619514

  2. Glutathione, glutathione S-transferases, and related redox enzymes in Adriamycin-resistant cell lines with a multidrug resistant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisselbauer, J C; Crescimanno, M; D'Alessandro, N; Clapper, M; Toulmond, S; Tapiero, H; Tew, K D

    1989-01-01

    Friend erythroleukemia cells (FLC) selected by exposure to Adriamycin (doxorubicin) express an approximate 2.5-fold (ARN1) or 13-fold (ARN2) resistance to the drug with various degrees of cross-resistance to other anthracyclines, vinca alkaloids, and epipodophyllotoxins. Because the redox cycling of the quinone moiety of Adriamycin is known to produce oxidative stress, however, an analysis of glutathione (GSH) and related enzyme systems was undertaken in the wild-type and selected resistant cells. In ARN1 and ARN2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were slightly decreased, intracellular GSH and GSH reductase were essentially unchanged, and total GSH peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase (GST), and DT-diaphorase activities were slightly elevated. In each case there was no stoichiometric relationship between degree of resistance and level of activity. GST isozymes were purified from each cell line by HPLC GSH affinity column chromatography. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and western blot immunoreactivity against a battery of GST isozyme polyclonal antibodies determined that both the resistant and sensitive cells expressed isozymes of the alpha, pi, and mu classes (alternative murine nomenclature: M1, M2, M3). Of significance, both ARN1 and ARN2 cell lines expressed a unique alpha subunit which was absent from the parent FLC cell line. This isozyme presumably accounted for the increased GSH peroxidase activity (cumene hydroperoxide as substrate) found in ARN1 and ARN2 and may play a role in the small incremental resistance to melphalan found for both resistant lines. Expression of the isozyme was not stoichiometric with respect to degree of resistance. The presence of this isozyme may contribute to the resistant phenotype or may be the consequence of a more general cellular response to oxidative stress. PMID:2639724

  3. Characterization of bifunctional L-glutathione synthetases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Actinobacillus succinogenes for efficient glutathione biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Li, Wei; Wang, Dezheng; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Glutathione (GSH), an important bioactive substance, is widely applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. In this work, two bifunctional L-glutathione synthetases (GshF) from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (GshFAp) and Actinobacillus succinogenes (GshFAs) were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3). Similar to the GshF from Streptococcus thermophilus (GshFSt), GshFAp and GshFAs can be applied for high titer GSH production because they are less sensitive to end-product inhibition (Ki values 33 and 43 mM, respectively). The active catalytic forms of GshFAs and GshFAp are dimers, consistent with those of GshFPm (GshF from Pasteurella multocida) and GshFSa (GshF from Streptococcus agalactiae), but are different from GshFSt (GshF from S. thermophilus) which is an active monomer. The analysis of the protein sequences and three dimensional structures of GshFs suggested that the binding sites of GshFs for substrates, L-cysteine, L-glutamate, γ-glutamylcysteine, adenosine-triphosphate, and glycine are highly conserved with only very few differences. With sufficient supply of the precursors, the recombinant strains BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFas and BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFap were able to produce 36.6 and 34.1 mM GSH, with the molar yield of 0.92 and 0.85 mol/mol, respectively, based on the added L-cysteine. The results showed that GshFAp and GshFAs are potentially good candidates for industrial GSH production. PMID:26996628

  4. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  5. Radiation therapy and androgen deprivation in the management of high risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined use of radiation therapy (RT) and androgen deprivation for patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer is commonly accepted as the standard treatment among uro-oncologists. Preclinical studies have provided rationale for the use of this combination. Additionally, results of phase 3 studies using conventional doses of RT have supported the combined approach. Other phase 3 studies have also shown a benefit for using higher doses of RT; however, the role of androgen deprivation in this context is not clear. The optimal duration of the androgen deprivation, in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting, is still under investigation. This article critically reviews the data on the use of RT combined with androgen deprivation for the treatment of high-risk prostate cancer with emphasis on the results of phase 3 trials. (author)

  6. Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on choline PET/CT in recurrent prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dost, Rutger J.; Breeuwsma, Anthonius J.; Jong, Igle J. de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Urology, Groningen (Netherlands); Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Recurrent prostate cancer is usually treated by combining radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy. To stage the cancer, choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT can be performed. It is generally thought that androgen deprivation therapy does not influence choline PET/CT. In this article we focus on the molecular backgrounds of choline and androgens, and the results of preclinical and clinical studies performed using PET/CT. Using PubMed, we looked for the relevant articles about androgen deprivation therapy and choline PET/CT. During ADT, a tendency of decreased uptake of choline in prostate cancer was observed, in particular in hormone-naive patients. We conclude that in order to prevent false-negative choline PET/CT scans androgen deprivation should be withheld prior to scanning, especially in hormone-naive patients. (orig.)

  7. Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on choline PET/CT in recurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurrent prostate cancer is usually treated by combining radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy. To stage the cancer, choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT can be performed. It is generally thought that androgen deprivation therapy does not influence choline PET/CT. In this article we focus on the molecular backgrounds of choline and androgens, and the results of preclinical and clinical studies performed using PET/CT. Using PubMed, we looked for the relevant articles about androgen deprivation therapy and choline PET/CT. During ADT, a tendency of decreased uptake of choline in prostate cancer was observed, in particular in hormone-naive patients. We conclude that in order to prevent false-negative choline PET/CT scans androgen deprivation should be withheld prior to scanning, especially in hormone-naive patients. (orig.)

  8. Human Hippocampal Structure: A Novel Biomarker Predicting Mnemonic Vulnerability to, and Recovery from, Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletin, Jared M; Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Greer, Stephanie M; Stark, Shauna; Stark, Craig E; Walker, Matthew P

    2016-02-24

    Sleep deprivation impairs the formation of new memories. However, marked interindividual variability exists in the degree to which sleep loss compromises learning, the mechanistic reasons for which are unclear. Furthermore, which physiological sleep processes restore learning ability following sleep deprivation are similarly unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the structural morphology of human hippocampal subfields represents one factor determining vulnerability (and conversely, resilience) to the impact of sleep deprivation on memory formation. Moreover, this same measure of brain morphology was further associated with the quality of nonrapid eye movement slow wave oscillations during recovery sleep, and by way of such activity, determined the success of memory restoration. Such findings provide a novel human biomarker of cognitive susceptibility to, and recovery from, sleep deprivation. Moreover, this metric may be of special predictive utility for professions in which memory function is paramount yet insufficient sleep is pervasive (e.g., aviation, military, and medicine). PMID:26911684

  9. Deprivation and Social Support in Mental Health of Welfare Recipients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Takahiro; Mizutani, Seiko; Yamada, Soshiro

    2016-04-01

    Although many Western studies examining the mental health of welfare recipients exist, Japanese welfare recipients have been overlooked. This study investigated mental health among welfare recipients in Japan and relations with a sense of deprivation of life's necessities and social support. Participants (n = 305) completed the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Proportional Deprivation Index, and a social support scale. Participants' GHQ-12 scores exceeded those of the general public, as 54.9% scored above the cut-off, suggesting poorer mental health among welfare recipients than the general population. Proportional Deprivation Index and emotional support from relatives and friends were associated with GHQ-12 scores. These results suggest that while chronic deprivation is associated with poorer mental health among welfare recipients, receiving emotional support may help cope with distress and maintain mental health. PMID:27154369

  10. GABAB Receptor Antagonist CGP46381 Inhibits Form-Deprivation Myopia Development in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Ying Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate the effects of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP46381, on form-deprivation myopia (FDM in guinea pigs. Twenty-four guinea pigs had monocular visual deprivation induced using a diffuser for 11 days (day 14 to 25. The deprived eyes were treated with daily subconjunctival injections (100 μl of either 2% CGP46381, 0.2% CGP46381, or saline or received no injection. The fellow eyes were left untreated. Another six animals received no treatment. At the start and end of the treatment period, ocular refractions were measured using retinoscopy and vitreous chamber depth (VCD and axial length (AL using A-scan ultrasound. All of the deprived eyes developed relative myopia (treated versus untreated eyes, P0.05. Subconjunctival injections of CGP46381 inhibit FDM development in guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner.

  11. Vitamin B-6 restriction tends to reduce the red blood cell glutathione synthesis rate without affecting red blood cell or plasma glutathione concentrations in healthy men and women123

    OpenAIRE

    Lamers, Yvonne; O'Rourke, Bruce; Gilbert, Lesa R; Keeling, Christine; Matthews, Dwight E.; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Glutathione plays various protective roles in the human body. Vitamin B-6 as pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) is required as the coenzyme in the formation of glutathione precursors. Despite this obligatory role of PLP, previous studies from this laboratory showed that vitamin B-6 deficiency caused elevated glutathione concentrations in rat liver and human plasma.

  12. Effects of sleep deprivation with reference to military operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giam, G C

    1997-01-01

    This review discusses the need for sleep, effects of sleep deprivation on behaviour and performance in the military, and sleep management recommendations to optimise combat effectiveness. Most people, regardless of sex or race, prefer 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night. Sleeping during the day is less recuperative. Continuous sleep is more effective than multiple short naps-even when the total hours for naps is more. Ten to 20 minute naps are useful when continuous sleep is not possible. Sleep inertia is the 5 to 30 minute period of sluggishness after awakening and important military tasks should be avoided. Previously, continuous work episodes (CWEs) duration was restricted by limited night vision, unreliable equipment and reduced endurance of military personnel. With improved technology, CWEs are now restricted primarily by endurance which is affected by sleep deprivation. This was one of the experiences noted in recent conflicts (e.g. Desert Storm) by personnel in the air force, army and navy. Since there will be changes in operational requirements, several work-rest-sleep plans must be prepared. Sleeping the preferred 7 to 8 hours per 24 hours the week before an operation may help prepare for optimal performance. Personnel should be familiarised with conditions under which they may sleep. During combat, sleep management should ideally avoid situations where all personnel are exhausted at the same time. As sleep debt accumulates, a person's mood, motivation, attention, alertness, short-term memory, ability to complete routines, task performance (errors of omission more than errors of commission) and physical performance will become more negatively affected. Counter measures must then be taken (e.g. time for sleep or naps, changing routines or rotating jobs). Drugs like caffeine and amphetamine can help personnel stay awake. However, they may also keep them awake when they need to sleep- and on awakening, they could suffer from "hang-overs" and are less efficient

  13. Internal Spin Trapping of Thiyl Radical during the Complexation and Reduction of Cobalamin with Glutathione and Dithiothrietol

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Somasundaram; Kundu, Tapan Kumar; Antholine, William; Manoharan, Periakaruppan T.; Rifkind, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    The activation of cobalamin requires the reduction of Cbl(III) to Cbl(II). The reduction by glutathione and dithiothreitol was followed using visible spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance. In addition the oxidation of glutathione was monitored. Glutathione first reacts with oxidized Cbl(III). The binding of a second glutathione required for the reduction to Cbl(II) is presumably located in the dimethyl benzimidazole ribonucleotide ligand cavity. The reduction of Cbl(III) by dithiot...

  14. Sleep Deprivation Induces Changes in Immunity in Trichinella spiralis-Infected Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G.; Velazquéz-Moctezuma, Javier; Diaz, Daniel; Becerril-Villanueva, Luis Enrique; Pavón, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is considered an important predictor of immunity. A lack of sleep may reduce immunity, which increases susceptibility to any type of infection. Moreover, sleep deprivation in humans produces changes in both, the percent of circulating immune cells (T cells and NK cells) and cytokine levels (IL-1, IFNγ, TNΦ-αα, IL-6 and IL-17). The aim of our study was to investigate whether sleep deprivation produces deregulation on immune variables during the immune response generated against the helmi...

  15. Energy Stores Are Not Altered by Long-Term Partial Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Harbison, Susan T; Sehgal, Amita

    2009-01-01

    Recent human studies reveal a widespread association between short sleep and obesity. Two hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive, might explain this association. First, genetic factors that reduce endogenous sleep times might also impact energy stores, an assertion that we confirmed in a previous study. Second, metabolism may be altered by chronic partial sleep deprivation. Here we address the second assertion by measuring the impact of long-term partial sleep deprivation on energy stor...

  16. Effects of SWS deprivation on subsequent EEG power density and spontaneous sleep duration

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.

    1989-01-01

    In order to test predictions of the 2-process model of sleep regulation, the effects of slow wave sleep (SWS) deprivation by acoustic stimulation during the first part of the sleep period on EEG power density and sleep duration were investigated in 2 experiments. In the first experiment, 8 subjects were deprived of SWS during the first 5 h of a baseline nocturnal sleep period without awakening. Compared to the same interval of undisturbed sleep, power densities in the delta frequencies were a...

  17. Sleep deprivation increases dorsal nexus connectivity to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Oliver G; Rihm, Julia S.; Scheidegger, Milan; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Stämpfli, Philipp; Brakowski, Janis; Esposito, Fabrizio; Rasch, Björn; Seifritz, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease, affecting 350 million people according to an estimation of the World Health Organization. Today, no valid biomarkers of depression, which could predict the efficacy of a certain treatment in a certain group of patients, exist. Sleep deprivation is an effective and rapid-acting antidepressive treatment. However, the biomechanism of this effect is largely unknown. This study shows the effects of sleep depriv...

  18. Does amygdalar perfusion correlate with antidepressant response to partial sleep deprivation in major depression?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Camellia P.; Brown, Gregory G.; Archibald, Sarah L.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Braun, Deborah R.; Thomas, Linda S.; Sutherland, Ashley N.; Gillin, J. Christian

    2005-01-01

    This study used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the sites of brain activity associated with the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation (SD). We hypothesized: (1) baseline perfusion in right and left amygdalae will be greater in responders than in nonresponders; (2) following partial sleep deprivation (PSD), perfusion in responders’ right and left amygdalae would decrease. Seventeen unmedicated outpatients with current major depression and eight controls received perfusion-weighted fMRI ...

  19. Evidence that Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D.; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Benveniste, Helene; Kim, Ron; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Ferré, Sergi

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [11C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine if this reflected dopamine increases ([11C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases in...

  20. Partial sleep deprivation by environmental noise increases food intake and body weight in obesity resistant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Meth...

  1. Startling Sweet Temptations: Hedonic Chocolate Deprivation Modulates Experience, Eating Behavior, and Eyeblink Startle

    OpenAIRE

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M.; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, ...

  2. Leptin inhibits food-deprivation-induced increases in food intake and food hoarding

    OpenAIRE

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Food deprivation stimulates foraging and hoarding and to a much lesser extent, food intake in Siberian hamsters. Leptin, the anorexigenic hormone secreted primarily from adipocytes, may act in the periphery, the brain, or both to inhibit these ingestive behaviors. Therefore, we tested whether leptin given either intracerebroventricularly or intraperitoneally, would block food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding, foraging, and intake in animals with differing foraging requirements. ...

  3. Neighborhood deprivation and maternal psychological distress during pregnancy: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seungmi; Kestens, Yan; Dahhou, Mourad; Daniel, Mark; Kramer, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    Maternal psychosocial distress is conceptualized as an important factor underlying the association between neighborhood deprivation and pregnancy outcomes. However, empirical studies to examine effects of neighborhood deprivation on psychosocial distress during pregnancy are scant. Based on a large multicenter cohort of pregnant women in Montreal, we examined (1) the extent to which psychosocial distress is clustered at the neighborhood-level, (2) the extent to which the clustering is explained by neighborhood material or social deprivation, and (3) whether associations between neighborhood deprivation and psychosocial distress persist after accounting for neighborhood composition (individual-level characteristics) using multilevel analyses. For 5,218 women residing in 740 neighborhoods, a prenatal interview at 24-26 gestational weeks measured both general and pregnancy-related psychological distress using well-validated scales: perceived stress, social support, depressive symptoms, optimism, commitment to the pregnancy, pregnancy-related anxiety, and maternal locus-of-control. Neighborhood deprivation indices were linked to study participants by their residential postal code. Neighborhood-level clustering (intraclass correlation) ranged from 1 to 2 % for perceived stress (lowest), optimism, pregnancy-related anxiety, and commitment to pregnancy to 4-6 % for perceived social support, depressive symptoms, and maternal locus of control (highest). Neighborhood material deprivation explained far more of the clustering (23-75 %) than did social deprivation (no more than 4 %). Although both material and social deprivation were associated with psychological distress in unadjusted analyses, the associations disappeared after accounting for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics in studies of potential neighborhood effects on maternal mental health. PMID:25398620

  4. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Students of Deprived Areas in South Khorasan

    OpenAIRE

    kokab namakin; Gholamreza Sharifzade; Hasan Majnoni; Farzad Firozi; Majid Reza Latifi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Introduction: Malnutrition is one of the important health problems throughout the world, particularly in developing countries, which has undesirable effects on mental and physical health of children. Multiple research studies showed malnutrition is a problem in Iran but little research is available on the nutrition-status of children in deprived areas. Methods: This cross sectional and descriptive analytical study was done on 1211 school children aged 7-14 years in five deprived reg...

  5. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D.; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as w...

  6. Tinospora cordifolia ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and improves cognitive functions in acute sleep deprived rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rachana Mishra; Shaffi Manchanda; Muskan Gupta; Taranjeet Kaur; Vedangana Saini; Anuradha Sharma; Gurcharan Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to the spectrum of mood disorders like anxiety, cognitive dysfunctions and motor coordination impairment in many individuals. However, there is no effective pharmacological remedy to negate the effects of SD. The current study examined whether 50% ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) can attenuate these negative effects of SD. Three groups of adult Wistar female rats - (1) vehicle treated-sleep undisturbed (VUD), (2) vehicle treated-sleep deprived (VSD)...

  7. The cortical response to sensory deprivation in adult rats is affected by gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mowery, Todd M.; Elliott, Kevin S.; Preston E. Garraghty

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adult-onset sensory deprivation and gonadectomy. Adult male and female rats underwent unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve. Half of the subjects had been gonadectomized 1 week prior to the nerve injury. We found that the areas of deprived barrels were significantly reduced when compared to barrels in the contralateral control hemisphere, and that this shrinkage was independent of sex and gonadectomy. We also found significant reduction...

  8. Effects of sleep deprivation on extracellular serotonin in hippocampus and frontal cortex of the rat

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Sleep deprivation improves the mood of depressed patients, but the exact mechanism behind this effect is unclear. An enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission has been suggested. In this study, we used in vivo microdialysis to monitor extracellular serotonin in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex of rats during an 8 h sleep deprivation period. These brain regions were selected since both have been implicated in depression. The behavioral state of the animal was continuously monitored b...

  9. Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation require astrocyte-dependent adenosine mediated signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, D J; Schmitt, L I; Hines, R. M.; Moss, S J; Haydon, P. G.

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a debilitating condition with a lifetime risk of ten percent. Most treatments take several weeks to achieve clinical efficacy, limiting the ability to bring instant relief needed in psychiatric emergencies. One intervention that rapidly alleviates depressive symptoms is sleep deprivation; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Astrocytes regulate responses to sleep deprivation, raising the possibility that glial signaling mediates antidepressive-like actions...

  10. Impact of deprivation on occurrence, outcomes and health care costs of people with multiple morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, Judith; Rudisill, Caroline; Bhattarai, Nawaraj; Gulliford, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to estimate the impact of deprivation on the occurrence, health outcomes and health care costs of people with multiple morbidity in England. Methods Cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, using deprivation quintile (IMD2010) at individual postcode level. Incidence and mortality from diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke and colorectal cancer, and prevalence of depression, were used to define multidisease states. Costs of health care ...

  11. Low income scheme index: a new deprivation scale based on prescribing in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, D C; Harris, C. M.; Clucas, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To describe and validate a new deprivation index, based on the percentage of prescribed items exempt from the prescription charge under the low income scheme, at both family health services authority and practice level. DESIGN--Comparison of the index with three other deprivation indices and correlation of index values with the use of drugs given for conditions with known social class gradients. SETTING--All 90 family health services authorities and 7619/9289 practices in England....

  12. Prostate Cancer Survivorship: Prevention and Treatment of the Adverse Effects of Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Saylor, Philip J.; Keating, Nancy Lynn; Smith, Matthew Raymond

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND More than one-third of the estimated 2 million prostate cancer survivors in the United States receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). This population of mostly older men is medically vulnerable to a variety of treatment-associated adverse effects. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) causes loss of libido, vasomotor flushing, anemia, and fatigue. More recently, ADT has been shown to accelerate bone loss, increase fat mass, increase cholesterol an...

  13. Material Deprivation, Economic Stress and Reference Groups in Europe: An Analysis of EU-SILC2009

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Bertrand Maître

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we take advantage of the recent availability of data from the special module on material deprivation in the 2009 European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between material deprivation and economic stress, the mediating role played by cross-national differences in levels of income and income inequality and the implications for competing perspectives on the nature of reference groups in Eur...

  14. The relationship of individual and neighbourhood deprivation with morbidity in older adults: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Kelvin P; Hayward, Richard; Roberts, Eyitope; Edwards, John J; Kadam, Umesh T

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine the relative association of social class and neighbourhood deprivation with primary care consultation for eight morbidities. In 18 047 survey responders aged ≥50 years, living in more deprived neighbourhoods was independently associated with new consultation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, asthma and depression. Lower social class was associated with diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. No such associa...

  15. Neuroethologic differences in sleep deprivation induced by the single- and multiple-platform methods

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, R.; C. Lenneberg-Hoshino; K. Hoshino; Tufik, S.

    1998-01-01

    It has been proposed that the multiple-platform method (MP) for desynchronized sleep (DS) deprivation eliminates the stress induced by social isolation and by the restriction of locomotion in the single-platform (SP) method. MP, however, induces a higher increase in plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels than SP. Since deprivation is of heuristic value to identify the functional role of this state of sleep, the objective of the present study was to determine the behavioral differences exhibite...

  16. Is the 'New Man' dead? Tourism, self-perception and relative deprivation in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Halsør, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This study is about the relationship between the growth of tourism in Cuba and the sense of relative deprivation experienced by many Cubans, and about the results of this relationship in the society at large. I argue that by comparing themselves to their compatriots who have better access to CUC (Cuban convertible peso, one of the two official currencies in use in the country), and who thus enjoy a higher standard of living, many Cubans perceive themselves as relatively deprived. This thesis ...

  17. Mortality and socioeconomic deprivation in census tracts of an urban setting in Southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez-Berjón, M. Felícitas; Borrell, Carme; López, Rosario; Pastor, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    In southern European cities, research on deprivation and mortality inequalities using small-area analysis is recent. In many countries, the census tract (CT) is the smallest territorial unit for which population data are available. The aim of this study was to examine the association between mortality from all causes and socioeconomic deprivation in CTs in Barcelona (Spain). A cross-sectional ecologic study was carried out using mortality data for 1987–1995 and 1991 census variables. Mortalit...

  18. Initiation of Yeast Sporulation by Partial Carbon, Nitrogen, or Phosphate Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Freese, Elisabeth Bautz; Chu, Martha I.; Freese, Ernst

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we show that partial deprivation of a carbon source, a nitrogen source, or phosphate in the presence of all other nutrients needed for growth initiates meiosis and sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae homothallic strain Y55. For carbon deprivation experiments, cells were grown in synthetic medium (pH 5.5) containing an excess of one carbon source and then transferred to the same medium containing different concentrations of the same carbon source. In the case of transfer to d...

  19. The Effects of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Functions of Medical Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Samadzadeh; Hamed Ekhtiari; Hooman Safaei; Ghadami, Mohammad R.; Masoud Tahmasian; Habibolah Khazaie; Schwebel, David C.; Michael B. Russo

    2010-01-01

    "n  "n Objective:Because of on-call responsibilities, many medical residents are subjected to chronic partial sleep deprivation, a form of sleep restriction whereby individuals have chronic patterns of insufficient sleep. It is unclear whether deterioration in cognitive processing skills due to chronic partial sleep deprivation among medical residents would influence educational exposure or patient safety. Method: Twenty-six medical residents were recruited to participate in the study. P...

  20. Persistent behavioural blindness after early visual deprivation and active visual rehabilitation: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    S Carlson; Hyvärinen, L; Raninen, A.,

    1986-01-01

    Early long lasting binocular deprivation results in behavioural blindness in both man and experimental animals. However, few reported cases show that visual rehabilitation may improve visual behaviour. A 34-year-old man who had experienced 30 years of binocular deprivation due to bilateral cataracts received visual rehabilitation for one year. The rehabilitation included training in eye-hand co-ordination, recognition of objects, evaluation of distance and size, and mobility training. Despite...

  1. Beyond Stimulus Deprivation: Iron Deficiency and Cognitive Deficits in Post-Institutionalized Children

    OpenAIRE

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Kroupina, Maria G.; Frenn, Kristin; Fuglestad, Anita J.

    2014-01-01

    Children adopted from institutions have been studied as models of the impact of stimulus deprivation on cognitive development (Nelson et al., 2011), but these children may also suffer from micronutrient deficiencies (Fuglestad et al., 2008). The contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation on cognitive functioning in children adopted from institutions between 17 and 36 months of age were examined. ID was assessed in 55 children soon after adoption, and cognitive functioni...

  2. Relationships Between Deprivation and the Self-reported Health of Older People in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Doebler, Stefanie; Glasgow, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There are few studies on relationships between deprivation and the self-reported health of people aged over 64 years, and no studies fully representative of Northern Ireland’s older population. This paper addresses this gap. Methods: Deprivation of older people as reported in the 2001 and 2011 Censuses and the relationship with self-reported health are analyzed over a ten-year span using multilevel modeling. The data are from the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study (NILS) linked t...

  3. Tempol protects sleep-deprivation induced behavioral deficits in aggressive male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Asghar, Saman; Salim, Samina

    2016-01-26

    Earlier, we reported that elevated anxiety-like behavior and high aggression in aged retired breeder Long-Evans (L-E) rats was associated with increased plasma corticosterone and elevated oxidative stress levels. In the present study, we examined how this aged aggressive and anxious rat strain responds to acute sleep deprivation (24h) and whether their behaviors can be modulated via antioxidant tempol treatment. Four groups of L-E rats were utilized: naïve control (NC), tempol treated control (T+NC), sleep deprived (SD), tempol treated and sleep deprived (T+SD). Thus, two groups were treated with tempol (1mM in drinking water for 2 weeks) while the other two were not. Two groups were subjected to acute sleep deprivation (24h) using the columns-in-water model while the other two were not. Sleep deprivation induced anxiety-like behavior, led to significant depression-like behavior and short-term memory impairment in SD rats. And, decision-making behavior also was compromised in SD rats. These behavioral and cognitive impairments were prevented with tempol treatment in T+SD rats. Tempol treatment also reduced SD-induced increase in corticosterone and oxidative stress levels in T+SD rats. These results suggest potential involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms in regulation of sleep deprivation induced behavioral and cognitive deficits in male aged-aggressive rats. PMID:26724222

  4. THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON SERUM IGG RESPONSES TO AEROBIC ACTIVITY IN COLLEGE STUDENT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jamshidi Far

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Sleep is a restorative process for the immune system. There are many situations in which sleep is disturbed prior to an athletic event. However, the effect of sleep deprivation on immune indices in response to exercise remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum IgG responses to aerobic activity. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 10 male physical education students were voluntarily participated. Study was performed in two separate occasions; control and experimental within two weeks. In the control occasion, normal sleep and aerobic activity and in the experimental occasion, sleep deprivation and aerobic activity was applied. Aerobic activity was performed on bicycle ergometer for 30 minutes at intensity of 70 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. Changes in serum IgG concentrations in pre-test, before and after aerobic activity in both occasions were analyzed by the two repeated measures ANOVA and dependent T-test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that sleep deprivation not significantly effect on Serum IgG response to aerobic activity (p=0.130. Also, aerobic activity not significantly effect on Serum IgG concentration (p=0.357. But sleep deprivation caused a significantly increase in serum IgG concentration (p=0.035. Conclusion: No significant effect of sleep deprivation on serum IgG concentrations response to aerobic activity.

  5. Effect of Sleep Deprivation on the Male Reproductive System in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Shim, Ji Sung; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Young Sik; Shin, Chol

    2016-10-01

    There has been no study reporting on the influence of sleep deprivation on the male reproductive system including sperm quality. In this study, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation could lead to adverse effect on the male reproductive system. The rats were divided into three groups: 1) control (home-cage, n = 10); 2) SD4 (sleep deprivation for 4 days, n = 10); and 3) SD7 (sleep deprivation for 7 days, n = 10). Sleep deprivation was performed by a modified multiple platform method. Sperm quality (sperm motion parameters and counts), hormone levels (corticosterone and testosterone), and the histopathology of testis were evaluated and compared between the three groups. A statistically significant reduction (P = 0.018) was observed in sperm motility in the SD7 group compared to those of the control group. However, there were no significant differences in other sperm motion parameters, or in sperm counts of the testis and cauda epididymis between three groups. Compared with the control group, the SD4 (P = 0.033) and SD7 (P = 0.002) groups exhibited significant increases of corticosterone levels, but significant decreases of testosterone levels were found in the SD4 (P = 0.001) and SD7 (P Sleep deprivation may have an adverse effect on the male reproductive system in rats. PMID:27550492

  6. Early deprivation and home basal cortisol levels: a study of internationally adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Darlene A; Gunnar, Megan R; Madsen, Nicole J; Long, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that early deprivation impairs regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, potentially increasing vulnerability to stressors throughout life. To examine early deprivation effects on basal HPA axis activity in humans, basal cortisol levels were examined in 164 internationally adopted children who had experienced varying degrees of preadoption deprivation. Duration of institutional care, age at adoption, and parent ratings of preadoption neglect indexed a latent factor of Deprived Care. Adoption measures of height and weight standardized to World Health Organisation norms indexed a latent factor of Growth Delay that was viewed as another reflection of deprivation. Cortisol samples were collected 3.3-11.6 years postadoption (Md = 7.3 years) at home on 3 days approximately 30 min after wakeup and before bedtime. Both early a.m. levels and the decrease in cortisol across the day were examined. A structural equation model revealed that preadoption Deprived Care predicted Growth Delay at adoption and Growth Delay predicted higher morning cortisol levels and a larger diurnal cortisol decrease. PMID:18423090

  7. In vivo and in vitro assessment of the role of glutathione antioxidant system in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávrová, A.; Popelová, O.; Štěrba, M.; Jirkovský, E.; Hašková, P.; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Geršl, V.; Šimůnek, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 5 (2011), s. 525-535. ISSN 0340-5761 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : anthracycline cardiotoxicity * daunorubicin * glutathione * glutathione peroxidase * glutathione peroxidase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.674, year: 2011

  8. Food deprivation decreases vasopressin mRNA in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogasa,Takashi

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of food deprivation for three days on hypothalamic arginine vasopressin (AVP mRNA in rats. Simultaneously the effect of water deprivation for the same period was examined as a model of dehydration. Levels of AVP mRNA in the supraoptic nucleus (SON and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN were determined by semiquantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry. Water deprivation increased AVP mRNA in both nuclei as previously reported. In contrast, food deprivation decreased AVP mRNA in these nuclei. The changes in AVP mRNA levels in the PVN were observed in the magnocellular subdivision of the nucleus. Plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone were greatly increased in both treated groups of rats. Plasma AVP and osmolality levels were significantly elevated in water-deprived rats but not in food-deprived rats. These observations indicated that both food deprivation and water deprivation stimulated the pituitary-adrenal axis and that a reduction in AVP mRNA levels in food-deprived rats was caused by food deprivation but not by glucocorticoid feedback suppression nor by altered plasma osmolality.

  9. Protective role of glutathione reductase in paraquat induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Mirjana M; Jovanovic, Marina D; Ninkovic, Milica; Stevanovic, Ivana; Ilic, Katarina; Curcic, Marijana; Vekic, Jelena

    2012-08-30

    Paraquat (PQ), a widely used herbicide is a well-known free radical producing agent. The mechanistic pathways of PQ neurotoxicity were examined by assessing oxidative/nitrosative stress markers. Focus was on the role of glutathione (GSH) cycle and to examine whether the pre-treatment with enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) could protect the vulnerable brain regions (VBRs) against harmful oxidative effect of PQ. The study was conducted on Wistar rats, randomly divided in five groups: intact-control group, (n = 8) and four experimental groups (n = 24). All tested compounds were administered intrastriatally (i.s.) in one single dose. The following parameters of oxidative status were measured in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex, at 30 min, 24 h and 7 days post treatment: superoxide anion radical (O₂·⁻), nitrate (NO₃⁻), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total GSH (tGSH) and its oxidized, disulfide form (GSSG) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Results obtained from the intact and the sham operated groups were not statistically different, confirming that invasive i.s. route of administration would not influence the reliability of results. Also, similar pattern of changes were observed between ipsi- and contra- lateral side of examined VBRs, indicating rapid spatial spreading of oxidative stress. Mortality of the animals (10%), within 24h, along with symptoms of Parkinsonism, after awakening from anesthesia for 2-3 h, were observed in the PQ group, only. Increased levels of O₂·⁻, NO₃⁻ and MDA, increased ratio of GSSG/GSH and considerably high activity of GPx were measured at 30 min after the treatment. Cytotoxic effect of PQ was documented by drastic drop of all measured parameters and extremely high peak of the ratio GSSG/GSH at 24th hrs after the PQ i.s. injection. In the GR+PQ group, markedly low activity of GPx and low content of NO₃⁻ (in striatum and cortex) were measured during whole experiment, while increase value was

  10. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2) bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health. PMID:27114888

  11. Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lack of sleep (called "sleep deprivation") is common in modern societies with 24/7 availability of commodities. Accumulating evidence supports the role of reduced sleep as contributing to the current obesity epidemic in children and youth. Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and the development of obesity. Recent experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction leads to weight gain in humans. Increased food intake appears to be the main mechanism by which insufficient sleep results in weight gain. Voluntary sleep restriction has been shown to increase snacking, the number of meals eaten per day, and the preference for energy-dense foods. Although the causes of sleep loss in the pediatric population are numerous, more research looking at screen exposure before bedtime and its effects on sleep is needed given the pervasiveness of electronic media devices in today's environment. Health professionals should routinely ask questions about sleep and promote a good night's sleep because insufficient sleep impacts activity and eating behaviors. Future research should examine the clinical benefits of increasing sleep duration on eating behaviors and body weight control and determine the importance of adequate sleep to improve the treatment of obesity. PMID:26576804

  12. Behavior modification with culturally deprived school children: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, B H; Senn, K; Welch, R H; Cooper, B R

    1969-01-01

    Techniques of behavior modification were employed with two second-grade Negro girls in a demonstration school for culturally deprived children to increase the girls' appropriate classroom behaviors. A classification system that provided for continuous categorization of behavior was used to code the children's behavior in two classroom situations. Data were also taken on the type, duration, and frequency of the teachers' verbal interactions. The study included four conditions: Baseline, Modification I, Postmodification, and Modification II. The treatment variable was positive social reinforcement-attention and approval contingent upon desirable classroom behaviors-which was presented, withheld, or withdrawn (timeout from social reinforcement). Withholding of social reinforcement was contingent upon inappropriate attention-getting behaviors. Timeout from social reinforcement was contingent upon behaviors classified as aggressive and resistive. After 25 days of Modification I, desirable behavior increased markedly for each girl. The teachers were then asked to return to their Baseline level of performance. The resultant behaviors demonstrated that for one girl, behavior was still primarily under the control of the treatment contingencies. For the second child, many desirable behaviors that had increased in frequency during Modification I remained high, but inappropriate behaviors increased. When treatment was reinstated, the amount of time spent in desirable behaviors increased and remained high for both girls. Three checks during the three months following data collection showed that these behaviors continued to remain high. PMID:16795218

  13. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James W A; Richmond, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2) bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health. PMID:27114888

  14. CHANGES IN THE GLUTATHIONE SYSTEM IN P19 EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA CELLS UNDER HYPOXIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Orlov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to modern perceptions, tumor growth, along with oxidative stress formation, is accompanied by hypoxia. Nowadays studying the regulation of cellular molecular system functioning by conformational changes in proteins appears to be a topical issue. Research goal was to evaluate the state of the glutathione system and the level of protein glutathionylation in P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC cells under hypoxic conditions.Material and methods. P19 EC cells (mouse embryonal carcinoma cultured under normoxic and hypox-ic conditions served the research material.The concentration of total, oxidized, reduced and protein-bound glutathione, the reduced to oxidized thiol ratio as well as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity were determined by spectropho-tometry.Results. Glutathione imbalance was accompanied by a decrease in P19 EC cell redox status under hypox-ic conditions against the backdrop of a rise in protein-bound glutathione.Conclusions. As a result of the conducted study oxidative stress formation was identified when modeling hypoxia in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. The rise in the concentration of protein-bound glutathione may indicate the role of protein glutathionylation in regulation of P19 cell metabolism and functions un-der hypoxia. 

  15. ENDURANCE TRAINING AND GLUTATHIONE-DEPENDENT ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE MECHANISM IN HEART OF THE DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Atalay

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It did not affect glutathione level in heart tissue at rest and also after exercise. On the other hand, endurance training decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in heart, while glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were not affected either by acute exhaustive exercise or endurance training. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels in blood were not affected by either training or acute exercise. Conjugated dienes levels in heart tissue were increased by acute exhaustive exercise and also 8 weeks treadmill training. Longer duration of exhaustion in trained group may have contributed to the increased conjugated dienes levels in heart after acute exercise. Our results suggest that endurance type exercise may make heart more susceptible to oxidative stress. Therefore it may be wise to combine aerobic exercise with insulin treatment to prevent its adverse effects on antioxidant defense in heart in patients with diabetes mellitus

  16. Glutathione-Induced Calcium Shifts in Chick Retinal Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Hercules R; Ferraz, Gabriel; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Ribeiro-Resende, Victor T; Chiarini, Luciana B; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; Matos Oliveira, Karen Renata H; Pereira, Tiago de Lima; Ferreira, Leonardo G B; Kubrusly, Regina C; Faria, Robson X; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Reis, Ricardo A de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Neuroglia interactions are essential for the nervous system and in the retina Müller cells interact with most of the neurons in a symbiotic manner. Glutathione (GSH) is a low-molecular weight compound that undertakes major antioxidant roles in neurons and glia, however, whether this compound could act as a signaling molecule in neurons and/or glia is currently unknown. Here we used embryonic avian retina to obtain mixed retinal cells or purified Müller glia cells in culture to evaluate calcium shifts induced by GSH. A dose response curve (0.1-10 mM) showed that 5-10 mM GSH, induced calcium shifts exclusively in glial cells (later labeled and identified as 2M6 positive cells), while neurons responded to 50 mM KCl (labeled as βIII tubulin positive cells). BBG 100 nM, a P2X7 blocker, inhibited the effects of GSH on Müller glia. However, addition of DNQX 70 μM and MK-801 20 μM, non-NMDA and NMDA blockers, had no effect on GSH calcium induced shift. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) at 5 mM failed to induce calcium mobilization in glia cells, indicating that the antioxidant and/or structural features of GSH are essential to promote elevations in cytoplasmic calcium levels. Indeed, a short GSH pulse (60s) protects Müller glia from oxidative damage after 30 min of incubation with 0.1% H2O2. Finally, GSH induced GABA release from chick embryonic retina, mixed neuron-glia or from Müller cell cultures, which were inhibited by BBG or in the absence of sodium. GSH also induced propidium iodide uptake in Müller cells in culture in a P2X7 receptor dependent manner. Our data suggest that GSH, in addition to antioxidant effects, could act signaling calcium shifts at the millimolar range particularly in Müller glia, and could regulate the release of GABA, with additional protective effects on retinal neuron-glial circuit. PMID:27078878

  17. Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Holm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours.

  18. Effect of Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn, and Tinospora cordifolia on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Avinash; Muddeshwar, Manohar; Biswas, Saibal

    2004-11-12

    The major damaging factor during and after the ischemic/hypoxic insult is the generation of free radicals, which leads to apoptosis, necrosis, and ultimately cell death. Rubia cordifolia (RC), Fagonia cretica linn (FC), and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been reported to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and have been in use in the eastern system of medicine for various disorders. Hippocampal slices were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and divided into three groups, control, OGD, and OGD+drug treated. Cytosolic reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide [NO, measured as nitrite (NO2)]. EPR was used to establish the antioxidant effect of RC, FC, and TC with respect to superoxide anion (O*2-), hydroxyl radicals (*OH), nitric oxide (NO) radical, and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) generated from pyrogallol, menadione, DETA-NO, and Sin-1, respectively. RT-PCR was performed for the three herbs to assess their effect on the expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), iNOS, and GAPDH gene expression. All the three herbs were effective in elevating the GSH levels and expression of the GCLC. The herbs also exhibited strong free radical scavenging properties against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, diminishing the expression of iNOS gene. RC, FC, and TC therefore attenuate oxidative stress mediated cell injury during OGD and exert the above effects at both the cytosolic as well as at gene expression levels and may be effective therapeutic tool against ischemic brain damage. PMID:15474468

  19. Effect of Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn, and Tinospora cordifolia on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major damaging factor during and after the ischemic/hypoxic insult is the generation of free radicals, which leads to apoptosis, necrosis, and ultimately cell death. Rubia cordifolia (RC), Fagonia cretica linn (FC), and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been reported to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and have been in use in the eastern system of medicine for various disorders. Hippocampal slices were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and divided into three groups, control, OGD, and OGD+drug treated. Cytosolic reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide [NO, measured as nitrite (NO2)]. EPR was used to establish the antioxidant effect of RC, FC, and TC with respect to superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitric oxide (NO) radical, and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) generated from pyrogallol, menadione, DETA-NO, and Sin-1, respectively. RT-PCR was performed for the three herbs to assess their effect on the expression of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), iNOS, and GAPDH gene expression. All the three herbs were effective in elevating the GSH levels and expression of the GCLC. The herbs also exhibited strong free radical scavenging properties against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, diminishing the expression of iNOS gene. RC, FC, and TC therefore attenuate oxidative stress mediated cell injury during OGD and exert the above effects at both the cytosolic as well as at gene expression levels and may be effective therapeutic tool against ischemic brain damage

  20. Selenium metabolism in rats: synthesis of glutathione peroxidase and other selenocysteyl proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of glutathione peroxidase in rat liver slices was studied by measuring the incorporation of 75SeO32- into the enzyme under various conditions. The addition of 3 or 5 μM selenocystine respectively caused 50% and 89% inhibition of 75SeO32- incorporation into glutathione peroxidase. The expanded pool of selenocysteine was isolated via carboxymethylation and ion-exchange chromatography to determine if it became labelled during the incubation. Amino acid analysis showed exact co-elution of 75Se with authentic carboxymethylselenocysteine. Six times more 75Se was trapped in selenocysteine than could be accounted for by the 75Se incorporated into glutathione peroxidase

  1. Nuclear translocation of glutathione transferase omega is a progression marker in Barrett's esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piaggi, Simona; Marchi, Santino; Ciancia, Eugenio;

    2009-01-01

    fraction of BE patients. This study was aimed to investigate the possible role of glutathione-S-transferase-omega 1 (GSTO1), a recently discovered member of the glutathione-S-transferase family, as a progression marker in the Barrett's disease in order to improve the diagnosis of NiN in BE and to......N were equally divided between nuclear, cytoplasmic and diffuse staining (2 each, respectively). Experiments in vitro showed that in human HeLa cancer cells, GSTO1 translocates into the nucleus as a consequence of heath shock. These findings suggested that the nuclear translocation of glutathione...

  2. Glutathione Transferase GSTπ In Breast Tumors Evaluated By Three Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Molina

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione transferases are involved in intracellular detoxification reactions. One of these, GSTπ, is elevated in some breast cancer cells, particularly cells selected for resistance to anticancer agents. We evaluated GSTπ expression in 60 human breast tumors by three techniques, immunohistochemistry, Northern hybridization, and Western blot analysis. There was a significant positive correlation between the three methods, with complete concordance seen in 64% of the tumors. There was strong, inverse relationship between GSTπ expression and steroid receptor status with all of the techniques utili zed. [n addition, there was a trend toward higher GSTπ expression in poorly differentiated tumors, but no correlation was found between tumor GSTπ content and DNA ploidy or %S-phase. GSTπ expression was also detected in adjacent benign breast tissue as well as infiltrating lymphocytes; this expression may contribute to GSTπ measurements using either Northern hybridization or Western blot analysis. These re sults suggest that immunohistochemistry is the method of choice for measuring GSTπ in breast tumors.

  3. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, G

    2000-01-01

    The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system is foremost among the cellular protective mechanisms. Depletion of this small molecule is a common consequence of increased formation of reactive oxygen species during increased cellular activities. This phenomenon can occur in the lymphocytes during the development of the immune response and in the muscular cells during strenuous exercise. It is not surprising that so much research has been done, and is still being done on this small tripeptide molecule. Whey protein concentrate has been shown to represent an effective and safe cysteine donor for GSH replenishment during GSH depletion in immune deficiency states. Cysteine is the crucial limiting amino acid for intracellular GSH synthesis. Animal experiments showed that the concentrates of whey proteins also exhibit anti-carcinogenesis and anticancer activity. They do this via their effect on increasing GSH concentration in relevant tissues, and may have anti-tumor effect on low volume of tumor via stimulation of immunity through the GSH pathway. It is considered that oxygen radical generation is frequently a critical step in carcinogenesis, hence the effect of GSH on free radicals as well as carcinogen detoxification, could be important in inhibiting carcinogenesis induced by a number of different mechanisms. Case reports are presented which strongly suggest an anti-tumor effect of a whey protein dietary supplement in some urogenital cancers. This non toxic dietary intervention, which is not based on the principles of current cancer chemotherapy, will hopefully attract the attention of laboratory and clinical oncologists. PMID:11205219

  4. Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Reduced Glutathione Using Organic Nanoparticle Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Le-Yu(汪乐余); WANG,Lun(王伦); ZHU,Chang-Qing(朱昌青); DONG,Ling(董玲); XIA,Ting-Ting(夏婷婷); CHEN,Hong-Qi(陈红旗); BIAN,Gui-Rong(卞桂荣)

    2004-01-01

    Nanometer-sized fluorescent particles (poly-4-vinylaniline nanoparticles) have been prepared under ultrasonic radiation.The fluorescence of poly-4-vinylaniline nanoparticles (PVN) is ca.50 folds higher than that of 4-vinylaniline.In comparison with single organic fluorophores,these nanoparticle probes are brighter,more stable against photobleaching,and do not suffer from blinking of light emission.A new fluorimetric method for the determination of reduced glutathione (GSH) has been developed with poly-4-vinylaniline nanoparticles as a probe.The maximal fluorescence for the reagent occurs at excitation and emission wavelengths of 306 and 380 nm,respectively.Under optimal conditions,PVN reacts with GSH and o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) to give a highly fluorescent derivative in Na2CO3-HC1 buffer (pH=10.55).The fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths of the fluorescent derivative are located at 340 and 428 nm,respectively.The relative fluorescence intensity (RF) is linear in the range of the GSH concentration from 3.0×10 7 to 1.2×10 s mol/L.The method has been applied to the determination of GSH in synthetic samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Enhancement of misonidazole radiosensitization by an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A well known inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, buthione sulphoximine (S-n-butyl homocysteine sulphoximine, BSO) depletes non-protein sulphydryls (NPSH) in Chinese hamster cells in vitro, resulting in a marked increase in the radiosensitization efficiency of misonidazole. V79 379A Chinese hamster cells were maintained in suspension cultures and irradiated in monolayers using 250 kVp X-rays at a dose rate of 3.93 Gy/min. Radiosensitization by misonidazole alone gave results within 0.1 sensitizer enhancement ratio (s.e.r.) of the curve reported by Watts et al. (1980). GSH (2 mmol dm-3) added to the extracellular medium resulted in a marked decrease in the radiosensitization efficiency of misonidazole, eliminating the effect at 0.1 mmol dm-3 misonidazole (s.e.r. = 1.0 relative to nitrogen control). A marked enhancement of the radiosensitization by misonidazole was observed when the cells had been incubated with BSO (0.1 mmol dm-3). BSO alone at this concentration gave s.e.r. = 1.17; misonidazole alone (0.1 mmol dm-3) gave s.e.r. = 1.18 and misonidazole with BSO (both 0.1. mmol dm-3) gave s.e.r. = 1.9. The BSO treatment gave little effect in aerated cells. The concentration of BSO needed to produce these effects in vitro is ca. 40-fold lower than doses tolerated by mice in repeated administrations. (U.K.)

  6. Glutathione and malondialdehyde levels in patients with hydatid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to investigate the levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the sera of patients diagnosed with cyst hydatid. Forty-six hydatid cyst patients who were indirect hemaglutination (IHA) and indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test positive constituted our study group in 2007. Patients diagnosed with hydatid with hydatid cysts in the Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Parasitology were re-called for the study. Forty heath subjects who were negative for hydatid cysts by IHA and IFA methods and who did not have any parasites on stool inspection formed the control group. The MDA level was analyzed in the sera by Uchiyama and Mihara method. The GSH activity was measured by the Ellman method. The GSH level was 11.31 -+/+ 3.80 umol/L and the MDA level was 67.94- / + 106.70 umol/L in the study group, while they were 24.95-/+ 6.55 umol/L in the control group. An increase in MDA levels and decrease in GSH activity in patients with hydatid cysts was observed. (author)

  7. 77Se NMR studies on ovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To facilitate 77Se NMR observation of the endogenous active site selenium in ovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), lambs have been maintained on an artificial diet deficient in selenium and supplemented with 0.2 ppm 92atom% 77Se , as selenite. After 5 months, preparations of GSHPx showed that incorporation of selenium from the artificial diet represented 88% of the GSHPx selenium. Each monthly bleeding of two sheep routinely yielded 20mg of pure 77Se-enriched GSHPx. Limitations on the solubility of the enzyme have so far prevented observation of 77Se resonances from the intact enzyme. Upon denaturation, a broad resonance is observed at 277 ppm, indicating that the selenium is involved in mixed selenide sulfide bonds both inter and intramolecularly. Reduction of the SeS bonds with dithiothreitol resulted in an upfield shift of the 77Se resonance to -212 ppm at pH 8 and -55ppm at pH4.2, consistent with formation of Se- and SeH respectively. It is concluded that the selenium is most probably in the SeS or Se- form in the intact enzyme. Relaxation time measurements were made at field strengths of 4.7 and 9.4T, which demonstrated the dominance of chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) relaxation for the selenium in GSHPx. A value of ≤ 262 ppm was determined for the CSA of the iodoacetamide derivative of GSHPx

  8. Alteration of bleomycin cytotoxicity by glutathione depletion or elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In part, some of the cytotoxicity of bleomycin may be lessened or enhanced by modulation of glutathione (GSH) concentrations. Enhancement of bleomycin cytotoxicity was observed when GSH levels were low and protection was observed when GSH levels were elevated. Since H2O2 is one of the reactive species produced by bleomycin catalyzed oxygen activation, the authors studied the effects of H2O2 exposure after GSH depletion. H2O2, like bleomycin, shows enhanced cytotoxicity in GSH depleted cells. It has been proposed that bleomycin cytotoxicity requires reducing equivalents from non-protein bound thiols (such as GSH) to activate the bleomycin-metal complex, which in turn reacts with oxygen to generate free radicals and peroxides. The data suggest that either GSH is not required to cycle reducing equivalents to the oxidized bleomycin-metal complex, or the low levels of depleted GSH attained (less than 5% of control) were still sufficient to effect reduction. Further, the data shows that GSH in fact provides a means of protection and detoxification from the cytotoxic effects of bleomycin

  9. Primary Structural Characterization of Phospholipid Hydroperoxide Glutathione Peroxidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽斌; 杨晓东; 赵南明; 刘进元

    2002-01-01

    More than 20 sequences of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX) from a sequence database were analyzed. The analyses show that the primary structures of most PHGPX proteins have three highly conserved regions forming a catalytic center and have more than 50% amino acid sequence identity in common. However, two PHGPXs from bovine and swine with the same function have very low similarity with typical PHGPXs and do not have the three highly conserved regions. Thus, the PHGPX proteins are divided into two types: those with the three highly conserved regions, designated as PHGPX-I, and the others as PHGPX-II. In general, type I proteins are composed of ca.170 amino acid residues; a few of them have an extra signal peptide sequence at the N-terminal of the protein. The composition of plant and animal PHGPX amino acids is very different, with most plant PHGPXs being weak acidic, while most animal ones are alkaline. Another specific conservative motif is also found in plant PHGPX proteins. System evolution analysis shows that ortholog and paralog evolution models both exist in PHGPXs, with the plant PHGPX and the animal PHGPX diverging exclusively into two branches in PHGPX-I. The information revealed by the evolution tree agrees with the general species evolution process from low to advanced and from simple to complicated.

  10. Low blood glutathione levels in acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharb Simmi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although experimental studies have demonstrated that reduced glutathione (GSH is involved in cellular protection from deleterious effects of oxygen free radicals in ischaemia and reperfusion, there are controversial data on the correlation between levels of GSH and the ischaemic process. AIM: The present study was planned to evaluate erythrocyte GSH levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. SETTING & DESIGN: Erythrocyte GSH levels were determined in 22 patients with AMI and 15 age matched healthy volunteers served as control. MATERIAL & METHODS: Erythrocyte GSH levels were measured by using Bentler in AMI and control patients. Also lipid profile was analyzed enzymatically in these subject. STATISTICS: The values were expressed as means +/- standard deviation (SD and data from patients and controls was compared using student′s ′t′-test. Results and CONCLUSION: GSH levels were significantly decreased in AMI as compared to control (p<0.001. Also, total cholesterol and triglycerides were higher is AMI subjects (p<0.05. These finding suggest that depressed GSH levels may be associated with enhanced protective mechanism to oxidative stress in AMI.

  11. Role of glutathione in immunity and inflammation in the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Ghezzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pietro GhezziBrighton and Sussex Medical School, Trafford Centre, Falmer, Brighton, UKAbstract: Reactive oxygen species and thiol antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, regulate innate immunity at various levels. This review outlines the redox-sensitive steps of the cellular mechanisms implicated in inflammation and host defense against infection, and describes how GSH is not only important as an antioxidant but also as a signaling molecule. There is an extensive literature of the role of GSH in immunity. Most reviews are biased by an oversimplified picture where “bad” free radicals cause all sorts of diseases and “good” antioxidants protect from them and prevent oxidative stress. While this may be the case in certain fields (eg, toxicology, the role of thiols (the topic of this review in immunity certainly requires wearing scientist’s goggles and being prepared to accept a more complex picture. This review aims at describing the role of GSH in the lung in the context of immunity and inflammation. The first part summarizes the history and basic concepts of this picture. The second part focuses on GSH metabolism/levels in pathology, the third on the role of GSH in innate immunity and inflammation, and the fourth gives 4 examples describing the importance of GSH in the response to infections.Keywords: antioxidants, oxidative stress, sepsis, infection, cysteine

  12. Measuring glutathione-induced feeding response in hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ram; Galande, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Hydra is among the most primitive organisms possessing a nervous system and chemosensation for detecting reduced glutathione (GSH) for capturing the prey. The movement of prey organisms causes mechanosensory discharge of the stinging cells called nematocysts from hydra, which are inserted into the prey. The feeding response in hydra, which includes curling of the tentacles to bring the prey towards the mouth, opening of the mouth and consequent engulfing of the prey, is triggered by GSH present in the fluid released from the injured prey. To be able to identify the molecular mechanism of the feeding response in hydra which is unknown to date, it is necessary to establish an assay to measure the feeding response. Here, we describe a simple method for the quantitation of the feeding response in which the distance between the apical end of the tentacle and mouth of hydra is measured and the ratio of such distance before and after the addition of GSH is determined. The ratio, called the relative tentacle spread, was found to give a measure of the feeding response. This assay was validated using a starvation model in which starved hydra show an enhanced feeding response in comparison with daily fed hydra. PMID:25490534

  13. Regional modulation of the response to glutathione in Hydra vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Paola

    2015-07-01

    In the presence of prey, or upon exposure to reduced glutathione (GSH), Hydra polyps open a mouth to ingest the captured prey and close it after feeding; at rest the mouth is not evident. In previous papers we have shown that GABA, glycine and NMDA modulate the mechanisms of mouth closure through ligand-gated-ion-channel receptors that are similar to their mammalian analogues in terms of biochemical and pharmacological properties. In order to study the regional distribution of these receptors, we have applied the GSH assay to polyps amputated at different levels of the body column. The response to 1-10 µmol l(-1) GSH of polyps lacking either peduncle and foot or the entire body columns (heads) was not different from control, whole animals. In the presence of GABA or muscimol, duration of the response was significantly decreased in heads; the decrease was suppressed by the GABA antagonists gabazine and bicuculline. By contrast, in animals lacking peduncle and foot, duration of the response did not vary upon GABA administration. Conversely, in the presence of glycine, duration of the response in heads preparations was similar to control, whereas in footless polyps, it was significantly reduced. The decrease was mimicked by the glycine agonists taurine and β-alanine, and counteracted by strychnine. These results suggest a regional distribution of receptors to GABA and glycine in the neuromuscular circuitry modulating the feeding behaviour. PMID:25987735

  14. Perindopril May Improve the Hippocampal Reduced Glutathione Content in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mashhoody

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Oxidative stress and renin- angiotensin system are both involved in the pathophysiology of most of the systemic and central disorders as well as in aging. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, well known for their cardiovascular beneficial effects, have also shown antioxidant properties in pathologic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the central effect of ACE inhibitors on oxidative status under no pathologic condition. Methods: Adult male rats were divided into four groups of 9 rats each. Groups were treated orally by perindopril at the doses of 1, 2, 4 mg/kg/day or normal saline as the control for four consecutive weeks. At the end of the treatment period the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG respectively and malondialdehyde (MDA, the product of lipid peroxidation, were measured in the rats’ hippocampus. Results: The GSH increased dose dependently and was significantly higher in the 2 mg/kg perindopril treated group than the control group (p<0.05 while the GSSG level remained unchanged. As a consequent, the ratio of GSH to GSSG increased significantly in a dose dependent manner. There was not any significant change in MDA. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that ACE inhibition may cause an increase in GSH as an anti- oxidant defense in the hippocampus.

  15. Glyoxalase 1 and glutathione reductase 1 regulate anxiety in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovatta, Iiris; Tennant, Richard S; Helton, Robert; Marr, Robert A; Singer, Oded; Redwine, Jeffrey M; Ellison, Julie A; Schadt, Eric E; Verma, Inder M; Lockhart, David J; Barlow, Carrolee

    2005-12-01

    Anxiety and fear are normal emotional responses to threatening situations. In human anxiety disorders--such as panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobias and generalized anxiety disorder--these responses are exaggerated. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of normal and pathological anxiety are mostly unknown. However, the availability of different inbred strains of mice offers an excellent model system in which to study the genetics of certain behavioural phenotypes. Here we report, using a combination of behavioural analysis of six inbred mouse strains with quantitative gene expression profiling of several brain regions, the identification of 17 genes with expression patterns that correlate with anxiety-like behavioural phenotypes. To determine if two of the genes, glyoxalase 1 and glutathione reductase 1, have a causal role in the genesis of anxiety, we performed genetic manipulation using lentivirus-mediated gene transfer. Local overexpression of these genes in the mouse brain resulted in increased anxiety-like behaviour, while local inhibition of glyoxalase 1 expression by RNA interference decreased the anxiety-like behaviour. Both of these genes are involved in oxidative stress metabolism, linking this pathway with anxiety-related behaviour. PMID:16244648

  16. Deprivation of Liberty: Collected Guidance Various authors Deprivation of Liberty: Collected Guidance 400pp £29.95 Law Society Publishing 9781784460433 1784460435 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Deprivation of liberty is a complicated and confusing subject, which can be challenging for healthcare professionals. Understanding and applying its safeguards can be difficult because of the complex set of regulations, as well as various sources of guidance, and it can be a challenge to find practical information that will help. PMID:27577305

  17. Preparation of N-tBoc L-glutathione dimethyl and di-tert-butyl esters: versatile synthetic building blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Falck, J. R.; Sangras, Bhavani; Capdevila, Jorge H.

    2006-01-01

    The title L-glutathione derivatives, containing acid- and base-labile esters, respectively, were obtained in good overall yields. N-tBoc L-glutathione dimethyl ester was prepared via Fischer esterification of L-glutathione disulfide (GSSG) using HCl in dry methanol, protection of the amine with tBoc2O, and tributylphosphine cleavage of the disulfide in wet isopropanol. Alternatively, Fischer esterification and tBoc-protection of L-glutathione (GSH) also furnished N-tBoc glutathione dimethyl e...

  18. Histological subtype of lung cancer in relation to socio-economic deprivation in South East England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have found differences in the histological subtypes of lung cancers affecting males and females. Our objective was to investigate trends in the incidence of histological subtypes of lung cancer in males and females in relation to socio-economic deprivation in South East England. Data on 48,031 males and 30,454 females diagnosed with lung cancer between 1995 and 2004 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age-standardised incidence rates for histological subtypes were calculated for each year, using the European standard population. Using the Income Domain of the Multiple Index of Deprivation 2004, patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 were classified into quintiles of socio-economic deprivation based on their postcode of residence. Age-standardised rates for each histological subtype were then calculated for each deprivation quintile. A Poisson regression model was fitted to the data for males and females separately to test the hypothesis that the relationship between socio-economic deprivation and adenocarcinoma was less strong than for other subtypes. In males all specific histological subtypes except adenocarcinoma declined in incidence. Squamous cell carcinoma remained the most common specific subtype and large cell carcinoma the least common. In females squamous cell carcinoma was initially most common, but its incidence declined slightly and that for adenocarcinoma increased. In both sexes the overall age-standardised incidence rate of lung cancer increased with increasing deprivation. However, these trends were less strong for adenocarcinoma than for the other subtypes in both males (p < 0.001) and females (p = 0.003). The temporal trends and distribution of histological subtypes of lung cancer in males and females are similar to that reported from other western populations. In both males and females, adenocarcinoma was less strongly related to deprivation than other subtypes. This may be because its development is less

  19. Delayed maturation and altered proliferation within the rat rostral migratory stream following maternal deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lievajova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether stressful experience during early postnatal period may influence morphological characteristics of the rat neurogenic pathway – the rostral migratory stream (RMS and proliferation of neuronal precursors in three successive areas of the RMS: in the vertical arm, the elbow and the horizontal arm. To induce stress, the pups were subjected to repeated maternal deprivation during the first postnatal week after birth. Brains were analyzed at the seventh postnatal day. The controls matched the age of maternally deprived animals. Observation of hematoxylin-eosin stained sections showed that maternal deprivation did not affect the general morphological appearance of the RMS. The shape of the RMS of maternally deprived rats resembles the RMS of control animals. Maternal deprivation caused slight, not significant increase in the RMS thickness in comparison with control rats. Significant difference between the control and maternally deprived rats concerns the olfactory ventricle. While in seven days old control rats the olfactory ventricle is completely closed, in maternally deprived rats of the same age the olfactory ventricle was regularly visible as a narrow lumen at the axis of the RMS horizontal arm. This finding indicates delayed maturation of the migratory pathway as a consequence of stress. Proliferation activity has been assessed by immunoreactivity of the endogenous cell cycle protein Ki-67. The results of Ki-67 immunohistochemistry showed that seven days’ maternal separation for 3 h daily induces significant quantitative changes in the number of proliferating cells within the RMS. The response of Ki-67-positive cells to stress differed in individual part of the RMS, with a marked decrease in the vertical arm and a significant increase in the elbow, suggesting heterogeneity of neural stem cells along the RMS; while in the RMS vertical arm the number of dividing cells significantly decreased

  20. Gender differences in sleep deprivation effects on risk and inequality aversion: evidence from an economic experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ferrara

    Full Text Available Excessive working hours--even at night--are becoming increasingly common in our modern 24/7 society. The prefrontal cortex (PFC is particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss and, consequently, the specific behaviors subserved by the functional integrity of the PFC, such as risk-taking and pro-social behavior, may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects' risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics. This novel cross-over study employs thirty-two university students (gender-balanced participating to 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions in which they perform standard risk and social preference elicitation protocols. One session was after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, and the other was after one night of sleep deprivation in the laboratory. Sleep deprivation causes increased sleepiness and decreased alertness in all subjects. After sleep loss males make riskier decisions compared to the rested condition, while females do the opposite. Females likewise show decreased inequity aversion after sleep deprivation. As for the relationship between cognitive ability and economic decisions, sleep deprived individuals with higher cognitive reflection show lower risk aversion and more altruistic behavior. These results show that one night of sleep deprivation alters economic behavior in a gender-sensitive way. Females' reaction to sleep deprivation, characterized by reduced risky choices and increased egoism compared to males, may be related to intrinsic psychological gender differences, such as in the way men and women weigh up probabilities in their decision-making, and/or to the different neurofunctional substrate of their decision-making.

  1. Performance monitoring following total sleep deprivation: effects of task type and error rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Ryan P; Cote, Kimberly A

    2013-04-01

    There is a need to understand the neural basis of performance deficits that result from sleep deprivation. Performance monitoring tasks generate response-locked event-related potentials (ERPs), generated from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) located in the medial surface of the frontal lobe that reflect error processing. The outcome of previous research on performance monitoring during sleepiness has been mixed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance monitoring in a controlled study of experimental sleep deprivation using a traditional Flanker task, and to broaden this examination using a response inhibition task. Forty-nine young adults (24 male) were randomly assigned to a total sleep deprivation or rested control group. The sleep deprivation group was slower on the Flanker task and less accurate on a Go/NoGo task compared to controls. General attentional impairments were evident in stimulus-locked ERPs for the sleep deprived group: P300 was delayed on Flanker trials and smaller to Go-stimuli. Further, N2 was smaller to NoGo stimuli, and the response-locked ERN was smaller on both tasks, reflecting neurocognitive impairment during performance monitoring. In the Flanker task, higher error rate was associated with smaller ERN amplitudes for both groups. Examination of ERN amplitude over time showed that it attenuated in the rested control group as error rate increased, but such habituation was not apparent in the sleep deprived group. Poor performing sleep deprived individuals had a larger Pe response than controls, possibly indicating perseveration of errors. These data provide insight into the neural underpinnings of performance failure during sleepiness and have implications for workplace and driving safety. PMID:23384887

  2. Antidepressant Effects of Selective Slow Wave Sleep Deprivation in Major Depression: A High-Density EEG Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Landsness, Eric C.; Goldstein, Michael R; Peterson, Michael J.; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M

    2011-01-01

    Sleep deprivation can acutely reverse depressive symptoms in some patients with major depression. Because abnormalities in slow wave sleep are one of the most consistent biological markers of depression, it is plausible that the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation are due to the effects on slow wave homeostasis. This study tested the prediction that selectively reducing slow waves during sleep (slow wave deprivation; SWD), without disrupting total sleep time, will lead to an acute red...

  3. Prevalence of Sleep Deprivation and Relation with Depressive Symptoms among Medical Residents in King Fahd University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Esraa M. Al-Maddah; Al-Dabal, Badria K.; Khalil, Mohammad S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep deprivation is common among medical residents of all specialties. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms among medical residents in King Fahd University Hospital (KFUH) in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the association between sleep deprivation, sleepiness and depressive symptoms was examined. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between February and April 2012 and involved 171 KFUH medical residents of diff...

  4. From AR to c-Met: Androgen deprivation leads to a signaling pathway switch in prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tiancheng; Mendes, Desiree E.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the role of androgen deprivation in the transition from androgen-dependence to independence may enable the development of more specific therapeutic strategies against prostate cancer. Our previous in vitro model was employed to further assess the effects of continuous androgen-deprivation on prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) with respect to both androgen receptor (AR) and c-Met expression. The results indicated that long-term androgen deprivation resulted in a signaling pathway switch...

  5. Prolonged androgen deprivation leads to downregulation of androgen receptor and prostate-specific membrane antigen in prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tiancheng; Wu, Lisa Y.; Fulton, Melody D.; JOHNSON, JACQUELINE M.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2012-01-01

    Emergence of androgen-independent cancer cells during androgen deprivation therapy presents a significant challenge to successful treatment outcomes in prostate cancer. Elucidating the role of androgen deprivation in the transition from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent state may enable the development of more effective therapeutic strategies against prostate cancer. Herein, we describe an in vitro model for assessing the effects of continuous androgen-deprivation on prostate c...

  6. Population mobility, deprivation and self-reported limiting long-term illness in small areas across Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Denise; Alastair H Leyland

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates population mobility and its relationship with area level deprivation and health. Based on UK movement in the year preceding the 2001 census, small areas in Scotland were classified as being one of the following population types; decreasing, increasing or stable (with high or low turnover). In the most deprived areas, illness rates for those under 65 were significantly lower in stable populations with low turnover than in other areas of comparable deprivation. Decreasin...

  7. Morphology of Single Geniculocortical Afferents and Functional Recovery of the Visual Cortex after Reverse Monocular Deprivation in the Kitten

    OpenAIRE

    Antonini, Antonella; Gillespie, Deda C; Crair, Michael C.; Stryker, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the possible anatomical basis for the functional recovery of visual cortical responses after reverse monocular deprivation, we have studied the morphology of single geniculocortical afferents to area 17. In kittens reverse-sutured for 10 d after an initial week of monocular deprivation, single-unit and intrinsic signal optical recordings confirmed that the effects of the initial deprivation were largely reversed. Responses through the originally nondeprived (OND) eye were drast...

  8. Association Mechanism of S-Dinitrophenyl Glutathione with Two Glutathione Peroxidase Mimics: 2, 2¢-Ditelluro- and 2, 2¢-Diseleno-bridged b-cyclodextrins

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Ya-Qiong; Liu, Xing-Chen; Liu, Jun-Qiu; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2009-01-01

    Complex formation of the glutathione peroxidase mimics 2,2¢-ditelluro-bridged b-cyclodextrin (1) and 2,2¢-diseleno-bridged b-cyclodextrin (2), with S-substituted dinitrophenyl glutathione (3) were determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Molecular mechanics (MM2) modeling calculations were used to deduce a three-dimensional model for each complex. The dinitrophenyl (DNP) group of 3 appears to penetrate the cavity ...

  9. A novel glutathione-S transferase immunosensor based on horseradish peroxidase and double-layer gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dingqiang; Lu, Fuping; Pang, Guangchang

    2016-06-01

    GSTs, a biotransformation enzyme group, can perform metabolism, drug transfer and detoxification functions. Rapid detection of the GSTs with more sensitive approaches is of great importance. In the current study, a novel double-layer gold nanoparticles-electrochemical immunosensor electrode (DGN-EIE) immobilized with Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) antibody derived from Balb/c mice was developed. To increase the fixed quantity of antibodies and electrochemical signal, an electrochemical biosensing signal amplification system was utilized with gold nanoparticles-thionine-chitosan absorbing horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In addition, transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to characterize the nanogold solution. To evaluate the quality of DGN-EIE, the amperometric I-t curve method was applied to determine the GST in PBS. The results showed that the response current had a good linear correlation with the GST concentration ranged from 0.1-10(4) pg/mL. The lowest detection limit was found at 0.03 pg/mL(S/N = 3). The linear equation was deduced as △I/% = 7.386lgC + 22.36 (R(2) = 0.998). Moreover, it was validated with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Apparently, DGN-EIE may be a very useful tool for monitoring the GST. PMID:27220630

  10. A simple colorimetric assay for specific detection of glutathione-S transferase activity associated with DDT resistance in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Morou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insecticide-based methods represent the most effective means of blocking the transmission of vector borne diseases. However, insecticide resistance poses a serious threat and there is a need for tools, such as diagnostic tests for resistance detection, that will improve the sustainability of control interventions. The development of such tools for metabolism-based resistance in mosquito vectors lags behind those for target site resistance mutations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed and validated a simple colorimetric assay for the detection of Epsilon class Glutathione transferases (GST-based DDT resistance in mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue and yellow fever worldwide. The colorimetric assay is based on the specific alkyl transferase activity of Epsilon GSTs for the haloalkene substrate iodoethane, which produces a dark blue colour highly correlated with AaGSTE2-2-overexpression in individual mosquitoes. The colour can be measured visually and spectrophotometrically. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The novel assay is substantially more sensitive compared to the gold standard CDNB assay and allows the discrimination of moderate resistance phenotypes. We anticipate that it will have direct application in routine vector monitoring as a resistance indicator and possibly an important impact on disease vector control.

  11. Efficacy of free glutathione and niosomal glutathione in the treatment of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Denzoin Vulcano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP administration results in hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity in cats. The response to three different treatments against APAP poisoning was evaluated. Free glutathione (GSH (200mg/kg, niosomal GSH (14 mg/kg and free amino acids (180 mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine and 280 mg/kg of methionine were administered to cats that were intoxicated with APAP (a single dose of 150 mg/kg, p.o.. Serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase (ALT along with serum, liver and erythrocyte concentration of GSH and methemoglobin percentage were measured before and 4, 24 and 72 hours after APAP administration. Free GSH (200 mg/kg and niosomal GSH (14 mg/kg were effective in reducing hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity in cats intoxicated with a dose of 150 mg/kg APAP. We conclude that both types of treatments can protect the liver and haemoglobin against oxidative stress in APAP intoxicated cats. Furthermore, our results showed that treatment with niosomal GSH represents an effective therapeutic approach for APAP poisoning.

  12. A turn-on fluorescent sensor for the discrimination of cystein from homocystein and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li-Ya; Guan, Ying-Shi; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Yang, Qing-Zheng

    2013-02-14

    We report a turn-on fluorescent sensor based on nitrothiophenolate boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivatives for the discrimination of cystein (Cys) from homocystein (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH). The sensor was applied for detection of Cys in living cells. PMID:23295243

  13. Correction of glutathione metabolism in the liver of albino rats affected by low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external γ-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)

  14. Status of vitamin E and reduced glutathione in semen of oligozoospermic and azoospermic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Bhardwaj; A.Verma; S.Majumdar; K.L.Khanduja

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status of seminal plasma reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E in three different conditions of spennatogenesis: azoospennia, oligozoospennia and nonnospennia. Methods: Reduced glutathione was measured in the seminal plasma by the method of Moron et al (1979), and vitamin E estimation was performed by the method of Taylor et al ( 1976). Results. Vitamin E levels in seminal plasma of oligospermic and azoospelxnic sampies were significantly decreased to 65.54% and 66.04% respectively as compared to the nonnospermic group. Levels of reduced glutathione were also significantly decreased in oligospermic and azoospennic group, and the reduction in azoospermic group (76.73 % ) was more pronounced than oligozoospermic group (62.07 % ). Conclusion: The decrease in reduced glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant, levels in azoospermic and oligozoospermic conditions may cause disruption in the membrane integrity of spermatozoa as a consequence of increased oxidative stress.

  15. Activation of glutathione peroxidase via Nrf1 mediates genistein's protection against oxidative endothelial cell injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular actions of isoflavones may mediate the beneficial health effects associated with high soy consumption. We have investigated protection by genistein and daidzein against oxidative stress-induced endothelial injury. Genistein but not daidzein protected endothelial cells from damage induced by oxidative stress. This protection was accompanied by decreases in intracellular glutathione levels that could be explained by the generation of glutathionyl conjugates of the oxidised genistein metabolite, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone. Both isoflavones evoked increased protein expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase-heavy subunit (γ-GCS-HS) and increased cytosolic accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. However, only genistein led to increases in the cytosolic accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf1 and the increased expression of and activity of glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that genistein-induced protective effects depend primarily on the activation of glutathione peroxidase mediated by Nrf1 activation, and not on Nrf2 activation or increases in glutathione synthesis

  16. Glutathione mediation of papain inactivation by hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutathione reacts with papainCys25SOH, formed by the reaction of papain with hydrogen peroxide, to give papainCys25SSG. Subsequent reaction of this mixed disulfide with glutathione is slow (k -1 sec-1). However, at 300C it is readily cleaved by cysteine to form active papain, i.e., papainCys25SH. Glutathione resembles cysteine in protecting papain by the scavenging of .OH radicals, but, unlike cysteine, glutathione gave no evidence for the repair of enzyme radical lesions or for the conversion of papainCys25S. radicals to repairable derivatives. Its overall effectiveness for reducing the radiation inactivation of papain in aqueous solution is much less than that of cysteine

  17. Glutathione and growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in healthy and HIV infected subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linares Rafael

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intracellular levels of glutathione are depleted in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in whom the risk of tuberculosis, particularly disseminated disease is many times that of healthy individuals. In this study, we examined the role of glutathione in immunity against tuberculosis infection in samples derived from healthy and human immunodeficiency virus infected subjects. Our studies confirm that glutathione levels are reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in red blood cells isolated from human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects (CD4>400/cumm. Furthermore, treatment of blood cultures from human immunodeficiency virus infected subjects with N-acetyl cysteine, a glutathione precursor, caused improved control of intracellular M. tuberculosis infection. N-acetyl cysteine treatment decreased the levels of IL-1, TNF-α, and IL-6, and increased the levels of IFN-γ in blood cultures derived from human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects, promoting the host immune responses to contain M. tuberculosis infection successfully.

  18. Decreased expression of acetaminophen-metabolizing enzymes and glutathione in asthmatic children after acetaminophen exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Susan T.; Hadley, Graham; Brown, Lou Ann; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Children with moderate-to-severe asthma have decreased expression of acetaminophen metabolizing genes and glutathione that may account for the previously-reported risk of acetaminophen in this vulnerable population.

  19. Effect of a short period of phosphate deprivation on anti-oxidative enzymatic activities in bean plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Marco A; Malusa', Eligio; Verde, Elisabetta; Iacona, Riccardo; Bellomia, Laura; Belligno, Adalgisa

    2009-01-01

    We subjected bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ‘Bianco di Bagnasco’) to phosphate deprivation stress and studied the enzymatic activity of some major anti-oxidative enzymes in both leaves and roots extracts. P deprivation provoked a significant decrease of catalase activity in leaves of 14-day-old plants, but no differences were measured after prolonged P deprivation. The enzyme activity in roots was not affected by the withdrawal of P from the culture medium. The deprivation of P from the g...

  20. Social deprivation and exposure to health promotion. A study of the distribution of health promotion resources to schools in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidpath Daniel D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Area deprivation is a known determinant of health. It is also known that area deprivation is associated with lower impact health promotion. It is less well known, however, whether deprived areas are less responsive to health promotion, or whether they are less exposed. Using data from a national, school-based campaign to promote vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV, the relationship between area deprivation and exposure was examined. Methods Taking advantage of a health promotion campaign to provide information to schools about HPV vaccination, a cross sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship between area level, social deprivation, and take-up of (i.e., exposure to available health promotion material. The sample was 4,750 schools across England, including government maintained and independent schools. The relationship between area deprivation and exposure was examined using bi- and multivariate logistic regression. Results It was found that schools in the least deprived quintile had 1.32 times the odds of requesting health promotion materials than schools in the most deprived areas (p = .01. This effect was independent of the school size, the type of school, and the geographic region. Conclusion The relationship between area deprivation and the impact of health promotion may be due, at least in part, to differential levels of exposure. The study was limited in scope, pointing to the need for more research, but also points to potentially important policy implications.

  1. Formation of an adduct between fosfomycin and glutathione: a new mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Arca, P; Rico, M; Braña, A F; Villar, C J; Hardisson, C; Suárez, J E

    1988-01-01

    Plasmid-borne resistance to fosfomycin in bacteria is due to modification of the antibiotic molecule by a glutathione S-transferase that catalyzes the formation of a covalent bond between the sulfhydryl residue of the cysteine in glutathione and the C-1 of fosfomycin. This reaction results in opening of the epoxide ring of the antibiotic to form an inactive adduct, the structure of which was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Dialyzed extracts prepared from resistant Escherichia coli st...

  2. Characterisation of Dermanyssus gallinae glutathione S-transferases and their potential as acaricide detoxification proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Bartley, Kathryn; Wright, Harry W.; Bull, Robert S.; Huntley, John F; Nisbet, Alasdair J

    2015-01-01

    Background Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) facilitate detoxification of drugs by catalysing the conjugation of the reduced glutathione (GSH) to electrophilic xenobiotic substrates and therefore have a function in multi-drug resistance. As a result, knowledge of GSTs can inform both drug resistance in, and novel interventions for, the control of endo- and ectoparasite species. Acaricide resistance and the need for novel control methods are both pressing needs for Dermanyssus gallinae, a high...

  3. Hydrogen peroxide efflux from muscle mitochondria underestimates matrix superoxide production: a correction using glutathione depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Treberg, Jason R.; Quinlan, Casey L.; Brand, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    The production of H2O2 by isolated mitochondria is frequently used as a measure of mitochondrial superoxide formation. Matrix superoxide dismutase quantitatively converts matrix superoxide to H2O2. However, matrix enzymes such as the glutathione peroxidases can consume H2O2 and compete with efflux of H2O2, causing an underestimate of superoxide production. To assess this underestimate we depleted matrix glutathione in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria by more than 90% by pretreatment with 1-ch...

  4. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of menadione-glutathione conjugate export from yeast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mauzeroll, Janine; Bard, Allen J.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), which is toxic to yeast cells, and its expulsion as a glutathione complex were studied by scanning electrochemical microscopy. The progression of the in vitro reaction between menadione and glutathione was monitored electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry and correlated with the spectroscopic (UV–visible) behavior. By observing the scanning electrochemical microscope tip current of yeast cells suspended in a menadione-containing solution,...

  5. Studies on Human and Drosophila melanogaster Glutathione Transferases of Biomedical and Biotechnological Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Mazari, Aslam M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC.2.5.1.18) are multifunctional enzymes that are universally distributed in all cellular life forms. They play important roles in metabolism and detoxication of endogenously produced toxic compounds and xenobiotics. GSTs have gained considerable interest over the years for biomedical and biotechnological applications due to their involvement in the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) to a vast array of chemical species. Additionally, the emergence of non-detoxify...

  6. Isolation and Characterization of a Theta Glutathione S-transferase Gene from Panax ginseng Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ok Ran; Lee, Sungyoung; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Plants have versatile detoxification systems to encounter the phytotoxicity of the wide range of natural and synthetic compounds present in the environment. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is an enzyme that detoxifies natural and exogenous toxic compounds by conjugation with glutathione (GSH). Recently, several roles of GST giving stress tolerance in plants have demonstrated, but little is known about the role of ginseng GSTs. Therefore, this work aimed to provide further information on the G...

  7. Modeling analysis of GST (glutathione-S-transferases) from Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargavi, Rayavarapu; Vishwakarma, Siddharth; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana

    2005-01-01

    GST (glutathione S-transferases) are a family of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of reduced GSH (glutathione) to xenobiotic (endogenous electrophilic) compounds. GST from Wb (Wuchereria bancrofti) and Bm (Brugia malayi) are significantly different from human GST in sequence and structure. Thus, Wb-GST and Bm-GST are potential chemotherapeutic targets for anti-filarial treatment. Comparison of modeled Wb and Bm GST with human GST show structural difference between them. An...

  8. Long-term cysteine fortification impacts cysteine/glutathione homeostasis and food intake in ageing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Karine; Breuille, Denis; Serrant, Patrick; Denis, Philippe; Glomot, Francoise; Bechereau, Fabienne; PAPET, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Healthy ageing is associated with higher levels of glutathione. The study aimed to determine whether long-term dietary fortification with cysteine increases cysteine and glutathione pools, thus alleviating age-associated low-grade inflammation and resulting in global physiological benefits. The effect of a 14-week dietary fortification with cysteine was studied in non-inflamed (NI, healthy at baseline) and in spontaneously age-related low-grade inflamed (LGI, prefrail at baseline) 21-month-ol...

  9. Endurance Training and Glutathione-Dependent Antioxidant Defense Mechanism in Heart of the Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Atalay; Osmo Hanninen; Mustafa Gul

    2003-01-01

    Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozoto...

  10. The Nutritional, Glutathione and Oxidant Status of Elderly Subjects Admitted to a University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Alhamdan, Adel A.; Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: Malnutrition in elderly patients is common in hospitals, and many of the age associated chronic diseases have a common factor, which is oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status, glutathione, and oxidant status of elderly patients. Patients and Methods: The mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) was used to determine the nutritional status of elderly patients. Glutathione concentration in the whole blood, plasma albumin, and thiobarbituric acid-r...

  11. Pharmacogenetics of azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease: A role for glutathione-S-transferase?

    OpenAIRE

    Stocco, Gabriele; Pelin, Marco; Franca, Raffaella; De Iudicibus, Sara; Cuzzoni, Eva; Favretto, Diego; Martelossi, Stefano; Ventura, Alessandro; Decorti, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Azathioprine is a purine antimetabolite drug commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In vivo it is active after reaction with reduced glutathione (GSH) and conversion to mercaptopurine. Although this reaction may occur spontaneously, the presence of isoforms M and A of the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) may increase its speed. Indeed, in pediatric patients with IBD, deletion of GST-M1, which determines reduced enzymatic activity, was recently associated with reduced s...

  12. The Quest for Functional Quasi-Species in Glutathione Transferase Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Rúnarsdóttir, Arna

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are good candidates for investigations of enzyme evolution, due to their broad substrate specificities and structural homology. The primary role of GSTs is to act as phase II detoxifying enzymes protecting the cell from toxic compounds of both endo- and exogenous origins. The detoxification is conducted via conjugation with glutathione (GSH), which facilitates their removal from the body. The work presented in this thesis has supported a theory for enzyme evolu...

  13. A review of the evidence concerning hepatic glutathione depletion and susceptibility to hepatotoxicity after paracetamol overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Sarbjeet S; Dargan, Paul I; Waring, W Stephen; Wood, David M

    2011-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning is common throughout the world. The management of nonstaggered (acute) paracetamol overdose is based on the plasma paracetamol concentration plotted on a treatment nomogram. In the UK there are two treatment lines on this nomogram, with the lower treatment line used for individuals felt to be at ‘high risk’ of paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity either as a result of induction of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes or reduction of intrahepatic glutathione. In this article we review the risk factors that, in current guidelines, are felt to increase risk due to a reduction in intrahepatic glutathione concentrations. Based on our review of the published literature, we feel that cystic fibrosis, acute viral illness, malnutrition, and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa are likely to be associated with reduction in intrahepatic glutathione concentrations, and that this risk is likely to be related to malnutrition secondary to the disease. Chronic hepatitis C infection is also associated with reduced glutathione concentrations, although this appears to be independent of any associated malnutrition. Ageing and acute fasting are not associated with an increased risk of paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity due to reductions in glutathione concentrations. Finally, the evidence for HIV infection is inconclusive, particularly as the majority of studies were conducted in the pre-anti-viral treatment (HAART) era; however it is likely that patients with symptomatic HIV/AIDS have reduced glutathione concentrations due to associated malnutrition. Although there have been few studies which have specifically investigated whether there is an association between reduced intrahepatic glutathione concentrations and increased risk of paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity, in our opinion, it is likely that the above conditions that are associated with reduced glutathione concentrations, will be associated with an increased risk of paracetamol

  14. Glutathione transferase A4-4 resists adduction by 4-hydroxynonenal☆

    OpenAIRE

    Shireman, Laura M.; Kripps, Kimberly A.; Balogh, Larissa M.; Conner, Kip P.; Whittington, Dale; Atkins, William M.

    2010-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) is a lipid peroxidation product that contributes to the pathophysiology of several diseases with components of oxidative stress. The electrophilic nature of HNE results in covalent adduct formation with proteins, fatty acids and DNA. However, it remains unclear whether enzymes that metabolize HNE avoid inactivation by it. Glutathione transferase A4-4 (GST A4-4) plays a significant role in the elimination of HNE by conjugating it with glutathione (GSH), with cat...

  15. Characteristic of 99mTc-glutathione radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m glutathione labelled compound is a radiopharmaceutical which is used in nuclear medicine for cancer diagnoses by imaging method. The distribution and accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in the body depend on its physicochemical and biological characteristic. Therefore, the determination of its characteristic was carried out in order to assure the successful utilization of this radiopharmaceutical. The radiochemical purity was determined with thin layer chromatography (TLC-SG) using dried acetone and 0.9% of NaCl solution as a mobile phase. The charge of 99mTc-GSH was tested by electrophoresis method and its lipophilicity (P) was obtained by determination of octanol-water partition. The plasma binding protein of this radiopharmaceutical was in-vitro investigated with precipitation method using 5% of trichloro acetic acid solution. Beside that, studies on the effect of 99mTc radioactivity to the stability of 99mTc-GSH and its stability in plasma has been in-vitro carried out. From the experiment it was obtained that 99mTc-GSH has 99.08 ± 0.26% of radiochemical purity; neutral (no charge); the lipophilicity (P) = 0.03 ± 0.002; the plasma binding protein of 30.31 ± 0.04%. Utilization of 99mTc radioactivity concentration up to 21 mCi/2 mL resulted 99mTc-GSH radiopharmaceutical which was remained stable up to 5 hours with ≥ 95% of radiochemical purity. In-vitro stability test of 99mTc-GSH in plasma indicated that in the first hour of storage, the radiochemical purity drastically decreased and until 5 hours of storage, its radiochemical purity did not change significantly, that was about 50%. (author)

  16. Anti-amyloidogenic activity of glutathione-covered gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antosova, Andrea [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Science, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Moyzesova 11, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Gazova, Zuzana; Fedunova, Diana; Valusova, Eva [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Science, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Bystrenova, Eva; Valle, Francesco [Institute for Nanostructured Materials ISMN-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Daxnerova, Zuzana [Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P. J. Safarik University, Moyzesova 11, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Biscarini, Fabio [Institute for Nanostructured Materials ISMN-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Antalik, Marian, E-mail: antalik@saske.sk [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Science, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Moyzesova 11, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2012-12-01

    This study is an investigation of the effect of biocompatible glutathione-covered gold nanoparticles (AuSG{sub 7}) with an average size of 3 nm on the amyloid fibrils of hen egg-white lysozyme. The anti-amyloid activity of AuSG{sub 7} nanoparticles on this protein was monitored with thioflavin T assay, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The study found that AuSG{sub 7} nanoparticles in vitro depolymerize the amyloid aggregates and inhibit lysozyme aggregate formation. The ability to inhibit amyloid formation and promote amyloid disassembly has concentration-dependent characteristics: the concentration of nanoparticles at which inhibition is half maximal (IC{sub 50}) was found to be 6.19 {mu}g/mL, and the concentration at which depolymerization is half maximal (DC{sub 50}) was found to be 8.26 {mu}g/mL. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AuSG{sub 7} nanoparticles are able to interact with lysozyme amyloids at acidic pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These nanoparticles reduce the amyloid aggregates by promoting depolymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AuSG{sub 7} nanoparticles display inhibitory action on lysozyme amyloid aggregation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The half inhibition concentration (IC{sub 50}) for AuSG{sub 7} nanoparticles is 6.19 {mu}g/ml. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The half depolymerization nanoparticles concentration (DC{sub 50}) is 8.26 {mu}g/ml.

  17. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  18. Intact protein folding in the glutathione-depleted endoplasmic reticulum implicates alternative protein thiol reductants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Avezov, Edward; Zyryanova, Alisa; Konno, Tasuku; Mendes-Silva, Leonardo; Pinho Melo, Eduardo; Harding, Heather P; Ron, David

    2014-01-01

    Protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires efficient protein thiol oxidation, but also relies on a parallel reductive process to edit disulfides during the maturation or degradation of secreted proteins. To critically examine the widely held assumption that reduced ER glutathione fuels disulfide reduction, we expressed a modified form of a cytosolic glutathione-degrading enzyme, ChaC1, in the ER lumen. ChaC1(CtoS) purged the ER of glutathione eliciting the expected kinetic defect in oxidation of an ER-localized glutathione-coupled Grx1-roGFP2 optical probe, but had no effect on the disulfide editing-dependent maturation of the LDL receptor or the reduction-dependent degradation of misfolded alpha-1 antitrypsin. Furthermore, glutathione depletion had no measurable effect on induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR); a sensitive measure of ER protein folding homeostasis. These findings challenge the importance of reduced ER glutathione and suggest the existence of alternative electron donor(s) that maintain the reductive capacity of the ER.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03421.001. PMID:25073928

  19. A Glutathione-Nrf2-Thioredoxin Cross-Talk Ensures Keratinocyte Survival and Efficient Wound Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telorack, Michèle; Meyer, Michael; Ingold, Irina; Conrad, Marcus; Bloch, Wilhelm; Werner, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is the most abundant cellular antioxidant with high medical relevance, and it is also required as a co-factor for various enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and toxic compounds. However, its cell-type specific functions and its interaction with other cytoprotective molecules are largely unknown. Using a combination of mouse genetics, functional cell biology and pharmacology, we unraveled the function of glutathione in keratinocytes and its cross-talk with other antioxidant defense systems. Mice with keratinocyte-specific deficiency in glutamate cysteine ligase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glutathione biosynthesis, showed a strong reduction in keratinocyte viability in vitro and in the skin in vivo. The cells died predominantly by apoptosis, but also showed features of ferroptosis and necroptosis. The increased cell death was associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which caused DNA and mitochondrial damage. However, epidermal architecture, and even healing of excisional skin wounds were only mildly affected in the mutant mice. The cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2 was strongly activated in glutathione-deficient keratinocytes, but additional loss of Nrf2 did not aggravate the phenotype, demonstrating that the cytoprotective effect of Nrf2 is glutathione dependent. However, we show that deficiency in glutathione biosynthesis is efficiently compensated in keratinocytes by the cysteine/cystine and thioredoxin systems. Therefore, our study highlights a remarkable antioxidant capacity of the epidermis that ensures skin integrity and efficient wound healing. PMID:26808544

  20. The effects of sleep deprivation on brain functioning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almklov, Erin L; Drummond, Sean P A; Orff, Henry; Alhassoon, Omar M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on cognitive performance and brain activation using functional MRI (fMRI) in older adults. The current study examines blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in older adults and younger adults during the sustained attention (GO) and response inhibition (NOGO) portions of a GO-NOGO cognitive task following 36 hr of total sleep deprivation. No significant performance differences were observed between the groups on the behavioral outcome measures of total hits and false alarms. Neuroimaging results, however, revealed a significant interaction between age-group and sleep-deprivation status. Specifically, older adults showed greater BOLD activation as compared to younger adults after 36 hours total sleep deprivation in brain regions typically associated with attention and inhibitory processes. These results suggest in order for older adults to perform the GO-NOGO task effectively after sleep deprivation, they rely on compensatory recruitment of brain regions that aide in the maintenance of cognitive performance. PMID:24787041

  1. Sleep deprivation increase the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in rat gastric mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Zhong Shen1; Marcel W.L. Koo; Chi-Hin Cho

    2001-01-01

    AIM To .investigate if sleep deprivation is able to increase the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa and its possible role in mucosal defense. METHODS Rats for sleep disruption were placed inside a computerized rotating drum, gastric mucosa was taken from rats with 1, 3 and 7 d sleep deprivation. RT-PCR,immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of heat shock protein 70.Ethanol (500 mL@ L 1, I.g.) was used to induce gastric muceea damage. RESULTS RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunostaining confirmed that the sleep deprivation as a stress resulted in significantly greater expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa of rats. After the 500mL@ L-1 ethanol challenge, the ulcer area found in the rats with 7 d sleep deprivation (19.15 ± 4.2) mm2 was significantly lower (P<0.01) than the corresponding control (53.7 ± 8.1) mm2. CONCLUSION Sleep deprivation as a stress, in addition to lowering the gastric mucosal barrier, is able to stimulate the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa of rats, the heat shock protein 70 may play an important role in gastric mucosal protection.

  2. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviewswere conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  3. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit (MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviews were conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% (n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  4. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. PMID:24603009

  5. Neighbourhood Deprivation and Outcomes of Stop Smoking Support – An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S.; McEwen, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of smoking and smoking cessation vary with socio-economic status. The objectives were to assess the association between neighbourhood deprivation, completion of treatment to support quit attempts and success of quit attempts—while taking into account other predictors of outcome. Methods 555,744 quit attempts supported by English Stop Smoking Services in 2009–2012 were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2010 ranks for the clients’ neighbourhood and split into deciles relative to the national IMD. Logistic regressions tested the association between neighbourhood deprivation and completion (4-week follow-up) of treatment and biochemically validated success (expired-air carbon monoxide <10ppm) while adjusting for demographics and intervention characteristics. Sensitivity analyses assessed subsamples: first supported attempts (n = 364,397), those with recorded cigarette dependence (n = 98,659) and completed treatment (n = 416,436). Results Higher neighbourhood deprivation was associated with reduced completion (ORadj = 0.949, 95% CI: 0.947 to 0.951) and success (ORadj = 0.957, 95% CI: 0.955 to 0.959). Results of sensitivity analyses were consistent with those of the main analysis. Conclusions Neighbourhood deprivation was associated with small but consistent reductions in completion and success of evidence-based interventions. These associations were not explained by intervention characteristics, demographics or dependence and reduced completion did not fully account for reduced success. PMID:26824352

  6. Neighbourhood Deprivation and Outcomes of Stop Smoking Support--An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie S Brose

    Full Text Available Rates of smoking and smoking cessation vary with socio-economic status. The objectives were to assess the association between neighbourhood deprivation, completion of treatment to support quit attempts and success of quit attempts-while taking into account other predictors of outcome.555,744 quit attempts supported by English Stop Smoking Services in 2009-2012 were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD 2010 ranks for the clients' neighbourhood and split into deciles relative to the national IMD. Logistic regressions tested the association between neighbourhood deprivation and completion (4-week follow-up of treatment and biochemically validated success (expired-air carbon monoxide <10 ppm while adjusting for demographics and intervention characteristics. Sensitivity analyses assessed subsamples: first supported attempts (n = 364,397, those with recorded cigarette dependence (n = 98,659 and completed treatment (n = 416,436.Higher neighbourhood deprivation was associated with reduced completion (OR(adj = 0.949, 95% CI: 0.947 to 0.951 and success (OR(adj = 0.957, 95% CI: 0.955 to 0.959. Results of sensitivity analyses were consistent with those of the main analysis.Neighbourhood deprivation was associated with small but consistent reductions in completion and success of evidence-based interventions. These associations were not explained by intervention characteristics, demographics or dependence and reduced completion did not fully account for reduced success.

  7. Development of a cross-cultural deprivation index in five European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Launay, Ludivine; Lillini, Roberto; Vercelli, Marina; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Fernández Fontelo, Amanda; Borrell, Carme; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; de Pina, Maria Fatima; Mayer, Alexandra; Delpierre, Cyrille; Rachet, Bernard; Launoy, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a concerted policy effort in Europe, social inequalities in health are a persistent problem. Developing a standardised measure of socioeconomic level across Europe will improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and causes of inequalities. This will facilitate developing, implementing and assessing new and more effective policies, and will improve the comparability and reproducibility of health inequality studies among countries. This paper presents the extension of the European Deprivation Index (EDI), a standardised measure first developed in France, to four other European countries—Italy, Portugal, Spain and England, using available 2001 and 1999 national census data. Methods and results The method previously tested and validated to construct the French EDI was used: first, an individual indicator for relative deprivation was constructed, defined by the minimal number of unmet fundamental needs associated with both objective (income) poverty and subjective poverty. Second, variables available at both individual (European survey) and aggregate (census) levels were identified. Third, an ecological deprivation index was constructed by selecting the set of weighted variables from the second step that best correlated with the individual deprivation indicator. Conclusions For each country, the EDI is a weighted combination of aggregated variables from the national census that are most highly correlated with a country-specific individual deprivation indicator. This tool will improve both the historical and international comparability of studies, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying social inequalities in health and implementation of intervention to tackle social inequalities in health. PMID:26659762

  8. Participatory Rural Appraisal of Basic Needs Deprivation among Rural Dwellers of Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequacy of environmental and infrastructural resources to satisfy basic needs results in deprivation among rural people which in most cases, rapid rural appraisal and other traditional survey methods rarely adequately capture. This paper employs therefore employs participatory rural appraisal (PRA techniques to analyse these phenomena in Borno state. The objectives are to determine the seasonality of basic needs deprivation, analyse the triggers of need deprivation, and, assess the coping strategies for deprivation. PRA techniques employed are Seasonal Calendar and Force Field Analysis and 300 systematically selected participants from 9 local government areas were the study frame. The findings are that basic need deprivation is an outcome of environmental scarcities, resource capture, and failure of socioeconomic infrastructure. Episodic drought, flood, and conflict over resources triggers loss of farm harvest and livestock hence food, income and other needs there from. The coping strategies include wild food foraging, migratory fishing and praying to God which lead to the conclusion that basic needs satisfaction among the studied rural dwellers in Borno state is below societal expectations. Recommendations for improvement were proffered.

  9. Increased functional connectivity between language and visually deprived areas in late and partial blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Norman; Authié, Colas N; Sanda, Nicolae; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Safran, Avinoam B; Habas, Christophe; Amedi, Amir

    2016-08-01

    In the congenitally blind, language processing involves visual areas. In the case of normal visual development however, it remains unclear whether later visual loss induces interactions between the language and visual areas. This study compared the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of retinotopic and language areas in two unique groups of late visually deprived subjects: (1) blind individuals suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP), (2) RP subjects without a visual periphery but with preserved central "tunnel vision", both of whom were contrasted with sighted controls. The results showed increased FC between Broca's area and the visually deprived areas in the peripheral V1 for individuals with tunnel vision, and both the peripheral and central V1 for blind individuals. These findings suggest that FC can develop in the adult brain between the visual and language systems in the completely and partially blind. These changes start in the deprived areas and increase in size (involving both foveal and peripheral V1) and strength (from negative to positive FC) as the disease and sensory deprivation progress. These observations support the claim that functional connectivity between remote systems that perform completely different tasks can change in the adult brain in cases of total and even partial visual deprivation. PMID:27143090

  10. Economic Deprivation as a Predictor of the Direction of Lethal Violence: An Analysis of Italian Provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; Laubepin, Frederique; Vichi, Monica; Minelli, Giada; Lester, David; Ferracuti, Stefano; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    Research on suicide and homicide rates has neglected an integrated model seeking to explain social variation in the direction of lethal violence. The present investigation explores the association between measures of social deprivation on the relative incidence of suicide over homicide in Italian provinces. Data refer to official government sources on lethal violence rates and measures of social deprivation. The central dependent variable (SHR) is the tendency towards suicide measured as the suicide rate divided by the sum of the suicide and homicide rates. Data were available for 102 Italian provinces in the Census year 2001. The percentage of the population marked by two indicators of deprivation (low education, household population density) were negatively associated with the SHR. The results are largely consistent with a stream of previous research that connects deprivation with a relatively high probability for disadvantaged populations to direct aggression outwardly in the form of homicide rather than inwardly in the form of suicide. The present study specifies which elements of deprivation best predict the direction of violence and is the first study for the Italian context. PMID:26881819

  11. Impact of nocturnal sleep deprivation on declarative memory retrieval in students at an orphanage: a psychoneuroradiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantawy AO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed O Tantawy,1 Hamdy N El Tallawy,2 Hussein RS Farghaly,3 Wafaa M Farghaly,3 Amr S Hussein1 1Educational Psychology Department, Faculty of Education, 2Neurology and Psychiatry Department, 3Nuclear Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Arab Republic of Egypt Background and methods: This study investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on total and partial (early and late declarative memory and activation in the areas of the brain involved in these activities. The study included two experiments. Experiment 1 included 40 male residents of an orphanage aged 16–19 years, who were divided into four groups (n = 10 each and subjected to total sleep deprivation, normal sleep, early-night sleep deprivation, or late-night sleep deprivation. Experiment 2 included eight students from the same institution who were divided into the same four groups (n = 2 as in experiment 1. Declarative memory was tested using lists of associated word pairs in both experiments, and activation of the relevant brain regions was measured before and after retrieval by single-photon emission computed tomography for subjects in experiment 2 only. Results: Students subjected to normal sleep had significantly higher scores for declarative memory retrieval than those subjected to total sleep deprivation (P = 0.002, early-night sleep deprivation (P = 0.005, or late-night sleep deprivation (P = 0.02. The left temporal lobe showed the highest rate of activity during memory retrieval after normal sleep, whereas the frontal, parietal, and right temporal lobes were more active after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: Both slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep play an active role in consolidation of declarative memory, which in turn allows memory traces to be actively reprocessed and strengthened during sleep, leading to improved performance in memory recall. Keywords: late-night sleep deprivation, early-night sleep deprivation, total sleep deprivation

  12. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of glutathione- and PEG-glutathione-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for nitric oxide delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M. C.; Seabra, A. B.; Pelegrino, M. T.; Haddad, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), with appropriate surface coatings, are commonly used for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery. For the successful application of SPIONs, it is necessary that the nanoparticles have well-defined morphological, structural and magnetic characteristics, in addition to high stability and biocompatibility in biological environments. The present work is focused on the synthesis and characterization of SPIONs, which were prepared using the co-precipitation method and have great potential for drug delivery. The surfaces of the SPIONs were functionalized with the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form GSH-SPIONs and PEG-GSH-SPIONs. The structural, morphological, magnetic properties and the cytotoxicity of the obtained nanoparticles were characterized using different techniques. The results showed that the nanoparticles have a mean diameter of 10 nm in the solid state and are superparamagnetic at room temperature. No cytotoxicity was observed for either nanoparticle (up to 500 μg L-1) on mouse normal fibroblasts (3T3 cell line) or acute T cell leukemia (Jurkat cell line) after 24 h of incubation. Free thiol groups (SH) on the surfaces of GSH-SPIONs and PEG-GSH-SPIONs were nitrosated, leading to the formation of S-nitrosated SPIONs, which act as a nitric oxide (NO) donor. The amounts of NO released from GSNO-SPIONs and PEG-GSNO-SPIONs were (124.0 ± 1.0) μmol and (33.2 ± 5.1) μmol of NO per gram, respectively. This study highlights the successful capping of the SPION surfaces with antioxidant GSH and biocompatible PEG, which improved the dispersion and biocompatibility of the NPs in aqueous/biological environments, thereby enhancing the potential uses of SPIONs as drug delivery systems, such as a NO donor vehicle, in biomedical applications.

  13. Relative deprivation theory and responses to discrimination in a gay male and lesbian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, C M; Dion, K L

    1987-06-01

    Relative deprivation (RD) theory states that the perception of the relative positions of one's group and an out-group in terms of status and privilege is psychologically important. RD theory predictions for members of oppressed groups include increased endorsement of militant acts, decreased feelings of control and life-satisfaction as a function of perceived relative deprivation and perceived discrimination. In the present study, these predictions were tested with 74 members of Toronto's gay male and lesbian community. RD measures encompassed the cognitive-affective (i.e. concerned with knowledge vs. feelings about the deprivation) and egoistical-fraternal (i.e. concerned with the status of the individual vs. the in-group) dimensions, with a measure of concrete fraternal discrimination (CFD) also included for comparison. The results indicated that CFD was the best predictor of increased militancy, decreased control and decreased satisfaction. Implications for RD theory are discussed. PMID:3607390

  14. Sleep-deprivation effect on human performance: a meta-analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candice D. Griffith; Candice D. Griffith; Sankaran Mahadevan

    2006-05-01

    Human fatigue is hard to define since there is no direct measure of fatigue, much like stress. Instead fatigue must be inferred from measures that are affected by fatigue. One such measurable output affected by fatigue is reaction time. In this study the relationship of reaction time to sleep deprivation is studied. These variables were selected because reaction time and hours of sleep deprivation are straightforward characteristics of fatigue to begin the investigation of fatigue effects on performance. Meta-analysis, a widely used procedure in medical and psychological studies, is applied to the variety of fatigue literature collected from various fields in this study. Meta-analysis establishes a procedure for coding and analyzing information from various studies to compute an effect size. In this research the effect size reported is the difference between standardized means, and is found to be -0.6341, implying a strong relationship between sleep deprivation and performance degradation.

  15. Chronic Melatonin Treatment Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Mayyas, Fadia A; Khabour, Omar F; Bani Salama, Fatima M; Alhashimi, Farah H; Mhaidat, Nizar M

    2016-07-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been associated with memory impairment through induction of oxidative stress. Melatonin, which promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS), has antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. In this study, the effect of melatonin on memory impairment induced by 4 weeks of SD was investigated using rat animal model. Animals were sleep deprived using modified multiple platform model. Melatonin was administered via oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day). Spatial learning and memory were assessed using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers in the hippocampus following treatments were measured using ELISA procedure. The result revealed that SD impaired both short- and long-term memory (P sleep-deprived rats (P  0.05). In conclusion, SD induced memory impairment, which was prevented by melatonin. This was correlated with normalizing hippocampus antioxidant mechanisms during chronic SD. PMID:26084441

  16. Exploring relative deprivation: is social comparison a mechanism in the relation between income and health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aberg Yngwe, Monica; Fritzell, Johan; Lundberg, Olle; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo

    2003-01-01

    individual's basic needs are fulfilled. This study hypothesises relative deprivation to be a mechanism in the relation between income and health in Sweden: being relatively deprived in comparison to a reference group causes a stressful situation, which might affect self-rated health. Reference groups were......During the last decade there has been a growing interest in the relation between income and health. The discussion has mostly focused on the individual's relative standing in the income distribution with the implicit understanding that the absolute level of income is not as relevant when the...... formed by combining indicators of social class, age and living region, resulting in 40 reference groups. Within each of these groups a mean income level was calculated and individuals with an income below 70% of the mean income level in the reference group were considered as being relatively deprived...

  17. Glutathione Reductase of Vacuole. Comparison of Glutathione Reductase Activity of Vacuole and Tissue Extract of Red Beet Root (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7 is the enzyme that reduces oxidized glutathione (GSSG and thus regulates the redox state of glutathione (GSH/GSSG. GR has been studied in most plants. This enzyme has been identified in chloroplasts and cytosol, so these cellular compartments are considered to be the main place of the enzyme localization. In the same time, just a little is known about GR vacuoles. There are no conclusive evidences to prove the presence or absence of this enzyme in the vacuoles. GR activity was found in the vacuoles of red beet root cells (Beta vulgaris L.. The level of activity, the optimum pH and isoenzyme composition of GR were compared in the vacuoles and tissue extract of beet root. Vacuolar GR activity was quite high, it was 1.5-2 times higher than the activity of the tissue extract. Enzyme pH optimum of all the objects were identical. pH-optimum depend on the pyridine nucleotide nature: pH 7.0-8.0 was an optimal range with NADPH; pH 5.0 – with NADH. GR activity of the vacuoles and tissue extracts decreased in the presence of a noncompetitive inhibitor 1-chloro-2.4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB, indicating the specificity of this enzymatic reaction. Two bands with glutathione reductase activity have been identified in the vacuoles and tissue extracts using zymography method to determine the enzymatic activity in PAAG after electrophoresis of proteins. Belonging to the GR isoforms of these bands was confirmed by enzyme immunoassay (Western blotting. The electric mobility of isoforms of the study objects did not differ significantly. It is concluded that the biochemical characteristics of vacuolar glutathione reductase were substantially identical to the biochemical characteristics of other localization GR.

  18. Synergistic killing effect of chloroquine and androgen deprivation in LNCaP cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Chloroquine synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation treatment. ► Chloroquine inhibited the function of autolysosomes and decreases the cytosolic ATP. ► Chloroquine induced nuclear and DNA fragmentation in androgen deprived LNCaP. ► Chloroquine may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy in PCa patients. -- Abstract: Modulation of autophagy is a new paradigm in cancer therapeutics. Recently a novel function of chloroquine (CLQ) in inhibiting degradation of autophagic vesicles has been revealed, which raises the question whether CLQ can be used as an adjuvant in targeting autophagic pro-survival mechanism in prostate cancer (PCa). We previously showed that autophagy played a protective role during hormone ablation therapy, in part, by consuming lipid droplets in PCa cells. In addition, blocking autophagy by genetic and pharmacological means in the presence of androgen deprivation caused cell death in PCa cells. To further investigate the importance of autophagy in PCa survival and dissect the role of CLQ in PCa death, we treated hormone responsive LNCaP cells with CLQ in combination with androgen deprivation. We observed that CLQ synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further confirmed that CLQ inhibited the maturation of autophagic vesicles and decreased the cytosolic ATP. Moreover, CLQ induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis, in androgen deprived LNCaP cells. Taken together, our finding suggests that CLQ may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  19. USE OF CLONAZEPAM AND AVOIDANCE OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN THE TREATMENT OF JUVENILE MYOCLONIC EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. RAFIEI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesJuvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy(J.M.E. needs life-long anti-epileptic drug (AED treatment. Of various drugs tried in this condition, valproate effectively treats all types of seizures seen in J.M.E.Among valproate side effects, neural tube defects (NTD in the offspring, is a deterring factor in its use in childbearing period. To avoid NTD, most authorities advise on switching to AED drug before conception.As well, the effects of valproate on male fertility is feared of.Clonazepam controls only the myoclonic jerks, leaving the patients unprotected and susceptible to generalized seizures, which mostly occur in the morning after sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation is the most prevalent precipitating factor for generalized seizures in these patients. Materials &MethodsBetween Jan 2003 & April 2008, 15 newly diagnosed JME patients (9 girls, 6 boys, were given clonazepam (1.0-4.0 mg at bedtime, and were compared to 16 patients on valproate treatment. All were advised to avoid sleep deprivation.ResultsThis study showed, all patients in the clonazepam group, (100 % had full control of their myoclonic jerks; 4(26.6% had breakthrough episodes of generalized seizures, provoked by sleep deprivation; the rest (11,73.4 %, were in full remission of their myoclonic and generalized seizures. In control group, 2(12.5 %, had episodes of breakthrough, sleep-deprived, generalized seizures;the rest(14, 87.5% were in remission. Statistically, there was no significance betweenthe results in both groups.Clonazepam side effects were limited to mild to moderate drowsiness in the morning, eliminated by giving the dose earlier at night.Conclusion The study suggests that if J.M.E. patients avoid sleep deprivation, they can be reated with clonazepam alone to avoid side effects of valproate. 

  20. Sensitivity and validity of psychometric tests for assessing driving impairment: effects of sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Jongen

    Full Text Available To assess drug induced driving impairment, initial screening is needed. However, no consensus has been reached about which initial screening tools have to be used. The present study aims to determine the ability of a battery of psychometric tests to detect performance impairing effects of clinically relevant levels of drowsiness as induced by one night of sleep deprivation.Twenty four healthy volunteers participated in a 2-period crossover study in which the highway driving test was conducted twice: once after normal sleep and once after one night of sleep deprivation. The psychometric tests were conducted on 4 occasions: once after normal sleep (at 11 am and three times during a single night of sleep deprivation (at 1 am, 5 am, and 11 am.On-the-road driving performance was significantly impaired after sleep deprivation, as measured by an increase in Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP of 3.1 cm compared to performance after a normal night of sleep. At 5 am, performance in most psychometric tests showed significant impairment. As expected, largest effect sizes were found on performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT. Large effects sizes were also found in the Divided Attention Test (DAT, the Attention Network Test (ANT, and the test for Useful Field of View (UFOV at 5 and 11 am during sleep deprivation. Effects of sleep deprivation on SDLP correlated significantly with performance changes in the PVT and the DAT, but not with performance changes in the UFOV.From the psychometric tests used in this study, the PVT and DAT seem most promising for initial evaluation of drug impairment based on sensitivity and correlations with driving impairment. Further studies are needed to assess the sensitivity and validity of these psychometric tests after benchmark sedative drug use.