Sample records for bsh toxicity issues

  1. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaHann, T.


    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  2. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: combined administration of BSH and BPA. (United States)

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Molinari, Ana J; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E


    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70-85ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  3. Current issues with paracetamol induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinc Cakir


    Full Text Available Paracetamol (acetaminophen; APAP, a commonly-used analgesic and anti-pyretic drug, is usually safe when administered at therapeutic doses in children. However, at overdoses, APAP has the potential for causing fulminant hepatic necrosis and nephrotoxicity in both humans and animals. In pre-school children, many poisonings are due to chemical or pharmaceutical preparations like APAP which is an important example for poisoning with pharmaceutics. Liver has an important role in the metabolism of toxic chemicals, certain drugs and environmental pollutants. Using the cytochrome P450 pathway, APAP is converted to a highly toxic metabolite, namely N–acetyl–p–benzoquinamine (NAPQI. By this way, ... [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(3.000: 165-166

  4. Toxicity of nanomaterials; an undermined issue. (United States)

    Mogharabi, Mehdi; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali


    Nanomaterials are employed in extensive variety of commercial products such as electronic components, cosmetics, food, sports equipment, biomedical applications, and medicine. With the increasing utilization of engineered nanomaterials, the potential exposure of human to nanoparticles is rapidly increasing. Nowadays when new nanomaterials with new applications are introduced, mostly good and positive effects are mentioned whereas possible hazards arising from nanosize of the compounds are undermined. Toxicology studies of nanomaterials demonstrate some adverse effects in some human organs such as central nerve system, immune system, and lung. There is lack of complete information about human toxicity and environmental waste of nanomaterials. We aimed to highlight current toxicological concerns of potentially useful nanomaterials which are now used in pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences.

  5. IS30-related transposon mediated insertional inactivation of bile salt hydrolase (bsh1) gene of Lactobacillus plantarum strain Lp20. (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, Sunita; Kaushik, Jai K; Batish, Virender Kumar


    Lactobacillus plantarum is a flexible and versatile microorganism that inhabits a variety of niches, and its genome may express up to four bsh genes to maximize its survival in the mammalian gut. However, the ecological significance of multiple bsh genes in L. plantarum is still not clearly understood. Hence, this study demonstrated the disruption of bile salt hydrolase (bsh1) gene due to the insertion of a transposable element in L. plantarum Lp20 - a wild strain of human fecal origin. Surprisingly, L. plantarum strain Lp20 produced a ∼2.0 kb bsh1 amplicon against the normal size (∼1.0 kb) bsh1 amplicon of Bsh(+)L. plantarum Lp21. Strain Lp20 exhibited minimal Bsh activity in spite of having intact bsh2, bsh3 and bsh4 genes in its genome and hence had a Bsh(-) phenotype. Cloning and sequence characterization of Lp20 bsh1 gene predicted four individual open reading frames (ORFs) within this region. BLAST analysis of ORF1 and ORF2 revealed significant sequence similarity to the L. plantarum bsh1 gene while ORF3 and ORF4 showed high sequence homology to IS30-family transposases. Since, IS30-related transposon element was inserted within Lp20 bsh1 gene in reverse orientation (3'-5'), it introduced several stop codons and disrupted the protein reading frames of both Bsh1 and transposase. Inverted terminal repeats (GGCAGATTG) of transposon, mediated its insertion at 255-263 nt and 1301-1309 nt positions of Lp20 bsh1 gene. In conclusion, insertion of IS30 related-transposon within the bsh1 gene sequence of L. plantarum strain Lp20 demolished the integrity and functionality of Bsh1 enzyme. Additionally, this transposon DNA sequence remains active among various Lactobacillus spp. and hence harbors the potential to be explored in the development of efficient insertion mutagenesis system.

  6. Molecular cloning, characterization and heterologous expression of bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) from Lactobacillus fermentum NCDO394. (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Kumar, Manoj; Varikuti, Sudarshan Reddy; Athimamula, Ramakrishna; Shujauddin, Mohd; Ramagoni, Ramesh; Kondapalli, Narendrababu


    Bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) active probiotic strains hydrolyze bile acid amino conjugates in vivo, which triggers cholesterol consumption in liver to synthesize new bile leading to consequential cholesterol lowering. Hence, bile salt hydrolyzing potential was the criterion to select L. fermentum NCDO394 for this study and its gene encoding Bsh was identified and cloned. The resulting nucleotide sequence of bsh gene contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 978 nucleotides encoding a predicted protein of 325 amino acids with a theoretical pI of 6.39. Moreover, deduced Bsh protein had high similarity with the Bshs of L. fermentum only and also exhibited significant similarity to the Pencillin V amidases of other Lactobacillus spp. Five catalytically important amino acids were highly conserved in L. fermentum Bsh while four amino acid motifs around these active sites, were not as consistent as in other Bsh proteins. Furthermore, L. fermentum bsh gene was sub-cloned into pET-28b(+) vector, and its expression was induced with 0.05 mM isopropylthiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant Bsh (rBsh) was purified with homogeneity using Ni+2-NTA column and characterized for substrate specificity, pH and temperature. The rBsh hydrolyzed six major human bile salts with a slight preference towards glycine-conjugated bile salts. The optimum pH of rBsh was six, and its enzymatic activity declined below pH 5 and above pH 7. The enzyme was stable and functional even at 65 °C while showed its maximum activity at 37 °C. In conclusion, L. fermentum NCDO394 may be a promising candidate probiotic which may affect cholesterol metabolism in vivo.

  7. Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery: Safety and Toxicity Issues. (United States)

    Jain, Keerti; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Narendra K


    Nanotoxicology deals with the new perception regarding nanotechnology i.e. risk and hazards associated with nanoscale materials. Although, nanotechnology is playing significant role in modern advancements from cell phones to medicines, yet it is necessary to consider their negative part as well that could be dangerous if not given proper attention. It is not certain that nanotechnology will essentially exert toxic effects since at present only few reports are available on their toxic effects and most of them are controversial. In this review we have summarized the advances in nanotechnology, their applications and, most importantly their safety issues that are often overlooked. However combined efforts are advocated to develop promising regulatory and ethical guidelines to control production, use and disposal of nanomaterials that will be safe to human health, environment and other living organisms.

  8. 76 FR 17639 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of BSH... (United States)


    .... Geological Survey located at ). Calculations Water Use... frequency is related to the level of water hardness. BSH included test results and calculations showing... granted by DOE. (75 FR 62127, Oct. 7, 2010). BSH states that the water used in the regeneration process...

  9. Disposition of TF-PEG-Liposome-BSH in tumor-bearing mice

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    Ito, Y. [Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Division of Medicine for Function and Morphology of Sensory Organs, Osaka Medical College (Japan)], E-mail:; Kimura, Y.; Shimahara, T.; Ariyoshi, Y.; Shimahara, M. [Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Division of Medicine for Function and Morphology of Sensory Organs, Osaka Medical College (Japan); Miyatake, S.; Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College (Japan); Kasaoka, S. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hiroshima-International University (Japan); Ono, K. [Particle Radiation Oncology Research Center, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (Japan)


    BNCT requires high concentration and selective delivery of {sup 10}B to the tumor cell. To improve the drug delivery in BNCT, we conducted a study by devising TPLB. We administrated three types of boron delivery systems: BSH, PLB and TPLB, to Oral SCC bearing mice. Results confirmed that {sup 10}B concentration is higher in the TPLB group than in the BSH group and that TPLB is significantly effective as boron delivery system.

  10. 77 FR 33450 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of BSH Corporation From the Department of Energy Residential... (United States)


    ... at ). Calculations Water Use Based on the DOE... February 4th petition on June 29, 2011 (76 FR 38144). DOE granted an interim waiver to BSH for the model... (77 FR 19650). BSH states that ``hard'' water can reduce customer satisfaction with...

  11. Prenatal imprinting by environmental toxicants: really an important issue?

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    Karl Ernst v. Mühlendahl


    Full Text Available Prenatal imprinting of sexual behaviour and of other traits by environmental toxicants has been one important topic in the ongoing discussions in environmental medicine. This review of the literature shows that, so far, concrete data are sparse and, in part, contradictory.

  12. Developmental toxicity of cigarette butts - An underdeveloped issue. (United States)

    Lee, Wenjau; Lee, Chih Chun


    Cigarette butts (CBs) littering is not just an unsightly nuisance but also a public health problem, because chemicals contained in cigarettes can leach into aquatic environments and pose a risk to the health of humans and wildlife. However, this risk is largely unrecognized or ignored by the public, and toxicological evidence of CBs is scarce. Therefore, we used medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes) to explore developmental toxicity of CBs. The embryos were exposed to various concentrations of leachates from smoked and unsmoked cigarette tobacco (ST and UST) and filters (SF and USF), and observed from 1 to 3 days post-fertilization. The images were recorded and several developmental endpoints analyzed. The values from these endpoints were then used to calculate the Integrated Biomarker Response and evaluate overall effects of the leachates. Some of the embryos were allowed to hatch, and the hatchlings were tested for anxiety-like behavior. Our results showed that low concentrations of the leachates from ST, UST, and SF raised the heart rate, accelerated development, and changed behavior, while high concentrations lowered the heart rate, suppressed development, and increased mortality. The lowest observed effect concentration for the leachates was ≤0.2piece (pc)/L. The USF leachate had no effect at the concentration of 20pc/L. Developmental toxicity of the leachates was ranked as: ST>UST>SF>USF. This study has demonstrated for the first time that CB leachates affect fish development, and provided toxicological evidence to better assess ecological impacts of CBs.

  13. Biodistribution of sodium borocaptate (BSH) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in an oral cancer model. (United States)

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Monti Hughes, Andrea; González, Sara J; Molinari, Ana J; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Nievas, Susana; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E


    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of ¹⁰B carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We previously proved the therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by the boron compounds boronophenylalanine and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Based on the clinical relevance of the boron carrier sodium borocaptate (BSH) and the knowledge that the most effective way to optimize BNCT is to improve tumor boron targeting, the specific aim of this study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and evaluate the feasibility of BNCT mediated by BSH at nuclear reactor RA-3. The general aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology and optimize BNCT for head and neck cancer. Sodium borocaptate (50 mg ¹⁰B/kg) was administered to tumor-bearing hamsters. Groups of 3-5 animals were killed humanely at nine time-points, 3-12 h post-administration. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous pouch tissue, normal pouch tissue and other clinically relevant normal tissues were processed for boron measurement by optic emission spectroscopy. Tumor boron concentration peaked to therapeutically useful boron concentration values of 24-35 ppm. The boron concentration ratio tumor/normal pouch tissue ranged from 1.1 to 1.8. Pharmacokinetic curves showed that the optimum interval between BSH administration and neutron irradiation was 7-11 h. It is concluded that BNCT mediated by BSH at nuclear reactor RA-3 would be feasible.

  14. 78 FR 17925 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to BSH... (United States)


    ... introduction of a new model number, the instant petition is identical to petitions submitted by BSH on February... softeners for compliance, marketing, or other purposes only to the extent that such products have...

  15. Investigation of Microencapsulated BSH Active Lactobacillus in the Simulated Human GI Tract

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    Christopher Martoni


    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase (BSH overproducing Lactobacillus plantarum 80 cells for oral delivery applications using a dynamic computer-controlled model simulating the human gastrointestinal (GI tract. Bile salt deconjugation rates for microencapsulated BSH overproducing cells were 4.87 ± 0.28 μmol/g microcapsule/h towards glycoconjugates and 0.79 ± 0.15 μmol/g microcapsule/h towards tauroconjugates in the simulated intestine, a significant (P< .05 increase over microencapsulated wild-type cells. Microcapsules protected the encased cells in the simulated stomach prior to intestinal release, maintaining cell viability above 109 cfu/mL at pH 2.5 and 3.0 and above 106 cfu/mL at pH 2.0 after 2-hour residence times. In the simulated intestine, encased cell viability was maintained above 1010 cfu/mL after 3, 6, and 12-hour residence times in bile concentrations up to 1.0%. Results show that microencapsulation has potential in the oral delivery of live BSH active bacterial cells. However, in vivo testing is required.

  16. 75 FR 28610 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (United States)


    ... AGENCY Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments... Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments'' (EPA/600/R- 10/038A). This draft report responds to the key recommendations and comments included in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)...

  17. 75 FR 35800 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (United States)


    ... AGENCY Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments... Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments'' (EPA/600/R-10/038A) for independent external review, and... Sciences (NAS) 2006 report. In addition, it includes new analyses on potential human effects that...

  18. 77 FR 19650 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of BSH Corporation From the Department of Energy Residential... (United States)


    ...:// ). Calculations Water Use Based on the DOE Energy Test for... one submitted by BSH on February 4, 2011. The February 4 petition was granted on June 29, 2011 (76 FR... regeneration operation takes place infrequently, and the frequency is related to the level of water...

  19. Biodistribution of BPA and BSH after single, repeated and simultaneous administrations for neutron-capture therapy of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)], E-mail:; Taniguchi, E. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)


    The effect of administration mode of L-BPA and BSH on the biodistribution in the melanoma-bearing hamsters was investigated. In single intravenous (i.v.) administration, BSH (100 mg BSH/kg) showed no significant retention of {sup 10}B in all the tissues, including tumors, while long-term retention of {sup 10}B in the tumor, muscle and brain was observed with L-BPA (500 mg BPA/kg). The dose escalation of L-BPA and the simultaneous single administration of L-BPA and BSH were not so effective at increasing boron accumulation in tumor after bolus i.v. injection. The boron concentration in tumor was 41 {mu}g B/g after single bolus i.v. injection even at the dose of 1000 mg BPA/kg. In contrast, two sequential bolus i.v. injections of L-BPA with the dose of 500 mg BPA/kg each was found to be effective at increasing {sup 10}B accumulation in the tumor; the maximum {sup 10}B concentration in the tumor reached 52 {mu}g B/g at 3 h after the second i.v. injection.

  20. Dendrimers in drug delivery and targeting: Drug-dendrimer interactions and toxicity issues

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    Kanika Madaan


    Full Text Available Dendrimers are the emerging polymeric architectures that are known for their defined structures, versatility in drug delivery and high functionality whose properties resemble with biomolecules. These nanostructured macromolecules have shown their potential abilities in entrapping and/or conjugating the high molecular weight hydrophilic/hydrophobic entities by host-guest interactions and covalent bonding (prodrug approach respectively. Moreover, high ratio of surface groups to molecular volume has made them a promising synthetic vector for gene delivery. Owing to these properties dendrimers have fascinated the researchers in the development of new drug carriers and they have been implicated in many therapeutic and biomedical applications. Despite of their extensive applications, their use in biological systems is limited due to toxicity issues associated with them. Considering this, the present review has focused on the different strategies of their synthesis, drug delivery and targeting, gene delivery and other biomedical applications, interactions involved in formation of drug-dendrimer complex along with characterization techniques employed for their evaluation, toxicity problems and associated approaches to alleviate their inherent toxicity.

  1. Catalytic Interactions and Molecular Docking of Bile Salt Hydrolase (BSH) from L. plantarum RYPR1 and Its Prebiotic Utilization (United States)

    Yadav, Ruby; Singh, Puneet K.; Puniya, Anil K.; Shukla, Pratyoosh


    Prebiotics are the non-digestible carbohydrate, which passes through the small intestine into unmetabolized form, reaches the large intestine and undergoes fermentation by the colonic bacteria thus; prebiotics stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Further, bile salt hydrolase (BSH) is an enzyme that catalyses the deconjugation of bile salt, so it has enormous potential toward utilizing such capability of Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 toward detoxifying through BSH enzyme activity. In the present study, six isolates of Lactobacillus were evaluated for the co-aggregation assay and the isolate Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 was further selected for studies of prebiotic utilization, catalytic interactions and molecular docking. The prebiotic utilization ability was assessed by using commercially available prebiotics lactulose, inulin, xylitol, raffinose, and oligofructose P95. The results obtained revealed that RYPR1 is able to utilize these probiotics, maximum with lactulose by showing an increase in viable cell count (7.33 ± 0.02 to 8.18 ± 0.08). In addition, the molecular docking of BSH from Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 was performed which revealed the binding energy –4.42 and 7.03 KJ/mol. This proves a considerably good interactions among BSH and its substrates like Taurocholic acid (–4.42 KJ/mol) and Glycocholic acid (–7.03 KJ/mol). These results from this study establishes that Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 possesses good probiotic effects so it could be used for such applications. Further, molecular dynamics simulations were used to analyze the dynamic stability of the of modeled protein to stabilize it for further protein ligand docking and it was observed that residues Asn12, Ile8, and Leu6 were interacting among BSH and its substrates, i.e., Taurocholic acid and Lys88 and Asp126 were interacting with Glycocholic acid. These residues were interacting when the docking was carried out with stabilized BSH protein structure, thus, these residues may

  2. Historical bottle temperature and salinity data collected globally by multiple platforms from 1868 to 1959, submitted by the German Data Center (BSH) (NODC Accession 0071062) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical bottle temperature and salinity data from the German data center, Bundesamt fur Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) in Hamburg. The data contain...

  3. A special issue on reviews in biomedical applications of nanomaterials, tissue engineering, stem cells, bioimaging, and toxicity. (United States)

    Nalwa, Hari Singh


    This second special issue of the Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology in a series contains another 30 state-of-the-art reviews focused on the biomedical applications of nanomaterials, biosensors, bone tissue engineering, MRI and bioimaging, single-cell detection, stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, toxicity and biosafety of nanodrugs, nanoparticle-based new therapeutic approaches for cancer, hepatic and cardiovascular disease.

  4. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft) (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the Is cardiac toxicity a relevant issue in the radiation treatment of esophageal cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, Jannet C; van Luijk, Peter; Widder, Joachim; Langendijk, Johannes A; Muijs, Christina T


    Purpose: In recent years several papers have been published on radiation-induced cardiac toxicity, especially in breast cancer patients. However, in esophageal cancer patients the radiation dose to the heart is usually markedly higher. To determine whether radiation-induced cardiac toxicity is also


    The widespread contamination of aquatic sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has created a need for cost-effective bioremediation processes, on which the bioavailability and the toxicity of PAHs often have a significant impact. This research investigated the biode...


    As a subgroup of the OECD Expert Group on Assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Effects in Birds, we reviewed unresolved methodological issures important for the development of a two-generation toxicity test, discussed advantages and disadvantages of alternative approaches, and prop...

  7. Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D; Sanz, J


    We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

  8. Gonadal toxicity of Hodgkin lymphoma treatment in adolescents and young males: issue relevance and ways of solve (literature review

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    A. A. Vinokurov


    Full Text Available Hodgkin`s Lymphoma (HL is one of the most curable cancer disease. A half of all patients are young males under 35 years old. Gonadal toxicity is one of the most frequent late effects of HL therapy and associated with significant decrease in patient’s quality of life. In present article frequency and risk factors of gonadal toxicity in males with HL were summarized. It was shown that chemotherapy with alkylating agents and radiotherapy may lead to gonadal toxicity in significant number of patients. Current possibilities of semen cryopreservation before start of the treatment are discussed.

  9. Gonadal toxicity of Hodgkin lymphoma treatment in adolescents and young males: issue relevance and ways of solve (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vinokurov


    Full Text Available Hodgkin`s Lymphoma (HL is one of the most curable cancer disease. A half of all patients are young males under 35 years old. Gonadal toxicity is one of the most frequent late effects of HL therapy and associated with significant decrease in patient’s quality of life. In present article frequency and risk factors of gonadal toxicity in males with HL were summarized. It was shown that chemotherapy with alkylating agents and radiotherapy may lead to gonadal toxicity in significant number of patients. Current possibilities of semen cryopreservation before start of the treatment are discussed.

  10. Critical issues in benzene toxicity and metabolism: The effect of interactions with other organic chemicals on risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medinsky, M.A.; Schlosser, P.M.; Bond, J.A. [Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)


    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia. Some individuals exposed repeatedly to cytotoxic concentrations of benzene develop acute myeloblastic anemia. It has been hypothesized that metabolism of benzene is required for its toxicity, although administration of no single benzene metabolite duplicates the toxicity of benzene. Several investigators have demonstrated that a combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) is necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene. Enzymes implicated in the metabolic activation of benzene and its metabolites include the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and myeloperoxidase. Since benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. Other organic molecules that are substrates for cytochrome P450 can inhibit the metabolism of benzene. For example, toluene has been shown to inhibit the oxidation of benzene in a noncompetitive manner. Enzyme inducers, such as ethanol, can alter the target tissue dosimetry of benzene metabolites by inducing enzymes responsible for oxidation reactions involved in benzene metabolism. 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen


    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  12. Tungsten toxicity. (United States)

    Witten, Mark L; Sheppard, Paul R; Witten, Brandon L


    There is emerging evidence that tungsten has toxic health effects. We summarize the recent tungsten toxicity research in this short review. Tungsten is widely used in many commercial and military applications because it has the second highest melting temperature of any element. Consequently, it is important to elucidate the potential health effects of tungsten.

  13. Toxic Picoplanktonic Cyanobacteria—Review

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    Natalia Jakubowska


    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria of a picoplanktonic cell size (0.2 to 2.0 µm are common organisms of both freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, due to their small size and relatively short study history, picoplanktonic cyanobacteria, in contrast to the microplanktonic cyanobacteria, still remains a poorly studied fraction of plankton. So far, only little information on picocyanobacteria toxicity has been reported, while the number of reports concerning their presence in ecosystems is increasing. Thus, the issue of picocyanobacteria toxicity needs more researchers’ attention and interest. In this report, we present information on the current knowledge concerning the picocyanobacteria toxicity, as well as their harmfulness and problems they can cause.

  14. Toxic picoplanktonic cyanobacteria--review. (United States)

    Jakubowska, Natalia; Szeląg-Wasielewska, Elżbieta


    Cyanobacteria of a picoplanktonic cell size (0.2 to 2.0 µm) are common organisms of both freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, due to their small size and relatively short study history, picoplanktonic cyanobacteria, in contrast to the microplanktonic cyanobacteria, still remains a poorly studied fraction of plankton. So far, only little information on picocyanobacteria toxicity has been reported, while the number of reports concerning their presence in ecosystems is increasing. Thus, the issue of picocyanobacteria toxicity needs more researchers' attention and interest. In this report, we present information on the current knowledge concerning the picocyanobacteria toxicity, as well as their harmfulness and problems they can cause.

  15. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter


    . The first section of this chapter outlines the complete cause-effect pathway, from emissions of toxic substances to intake by the population up to damages in terms of human health effects. Section 2 outlines the framework for assessing human toxicity in LCIA. Section 3 discusses the contributing substances......This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... – demonstrates the importance to account for both outdoor and indoor exposure, including consumer products. Analysing the variations in intake fraction (the fraction of the emitted or applied chemical that is taken in by the consumer and the general population), effect factor and characterisation factor across...

  16. Toxic myopathies. (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Barohn, Richard J; Dimachkie, Mazen M


    Muscle tissue is highly sensitive to many substances. Early recognition of toxic myopathies is important, because they potentially are reversible on removal of the offending drug or toxin, with greater likelihood of complete resolution the sooner this is achieved. Clinical features range from mild muscle pain and cramps to severe weakness with rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and even death. The pathogenic bases can be multifactorial. This article reviews some of the common toxic myopathies and their clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and possible underlying cellular mechanisms.


    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current...

  18. Thermal Stress and Toxicity (United States)

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  19. Some methodological issues in biosurveillance. (United States)

    Fricker, Ronald D


    This paper briefly summarizes a short course I gave at the 12th Biennial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Symposium held in Decatur, Georgia on April 6, 2009. The goal of this short course was to discuss various methodological issues of biosurveillance detection algorithms, with a focus on the issues related to developing, evaluating, and implementing such algorithms.

  1. Lead Toxicity (United States)

    ... including some imported jewelry. What are the health effects of lead? • More commonly, lower levels of lead in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other ...

  2. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)


    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  3. Bond Issues. (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.


    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  4. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  5. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen


    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  6. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyer, R.A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))


    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  7. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia) (United States)

    ... Contact Lenses Additional Content Medical News Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia) By James Garrity, MD, Mayo Clinic NOTE: ... or methyl alcohol), antifreeze, or certain drugs. A nutritional deficiency or toxic substance is often the cause ...

  8. Past, Present and Emerging Toxicity Issues for Jet Fuel (United States)


    increased with time on 128 D.R. Mattie, T.R. Sterner / Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 254 (2011) 127–132 Author’s personal copy the job (Kaufman et al... lactation to JP-8 (Mattie et al., 2001). Litters were standardized to four male and four female pups at PND 4; all eight pups in a litter were tested for...of dams to JP-8 in utero and during lactation may be associated with key developmental milestones in the developing cerebellum of the pups. Although

  9. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome


    Gvozdenović Ljiljana; Pasternak Janko; Milovanović Stanislav; Ivanov Dejan; Milić Saša


    Introduction. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is now recognized as a toxin-mediated, multisystem illness. It is characterized by an early onset of shock with multiorgan failure and continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes. The symptoms for staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are similar. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was not well described until 1993, when children who had suffered from varicella pre...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Cam


    Full Text Available Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU, there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 215-220

  11. Pyridostigmine Synergistic Toxicity Study. (United States)


    AND DEET IN THE LABORATORY RAT 1. Executive Sum m ary .............................................................................................. 2 2...TOXICOLOGICAL STUDY 75-48-2665 ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF PYRIDOSTIGMINE BROMIDE. PERMETHRIN. AND DEET IN THE LABORATORY RAT 1. REFERENCES: See Appendix A... LABORATORY RAT 1. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxic interactions when pyridostigmine bromide. permethrin. and DEET are given

  12. Toxic proteins in plants. (United States)

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M


    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed.

  13. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa S. Nath


    Full Text Available Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3, the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N and arsenic (As, which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  14. Mechanisms of phosphine toxicity. (United States)

    Nath, Nisa S; Bhattacharya, Ishita; Tuck, Andrew G; Schlipalius, David I; Ebert, Paul R


    Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH(3)), the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N) and arsenic (As), which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH(3) and AsH(3). The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  15. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity (United States)

    Nath, Nisa S.; Bhattacharya, Ishita; Tuck, Andrew G.; Schlipalius, David I.; Ebert, Paul R.


    Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3), the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N) and arsenic (As), which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity. PMID:21776261

  16. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Teens) (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth > For Teens > Toxic Shock Syndrome Print ... it, then take some precautions. What Is Toxic Shock Syndrome? If you're a girl who's had ...

  17. Environmental toxicants in developing countries. (United States)

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E


    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations.

  18. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  19. Natural toxicants in foods. (United States)

    Coon, J M


    Food constitutes the most complex part of our chemical environment. Naturally occurring substances in food, such as goitrogens and estrogens, are toxicants. However, there is a difference of degree between toxicity and hazard, and the hazard to man in normal good health from naturally occurring toxicants in food is usually slight, because of (a) the small concentrations and (b) antagonistic interactions between toxicants which provide "safety in numbers." Hazard from foods may indeed exist under some circumstances, such as the presence of abnormal contaminants, ingestion of abnormal amounts, or abnormal susceptibility existing in some disease states. However, the major hazards of the dinner table can ordinarily be ascribed to careless food handling, unbalanced or fad diets, or overeating.

  20. Toxicity Reference Database (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  1. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))


    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  2. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim


    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  3. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity


    Nisa S. Nath; Ishita Bhattacharya; Andrew G. Tuck; Schlipalius, David I.; Paul R. Ebert


    Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3), the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity...

  4. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is now recognized as a toxin-mediated, multisystem illness. It is characterized by an early onset of shock with multiorgan failure and continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes. The symptoms for staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are similar. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was not well described until 1993, when children who had suffered from varicella presented roughly 2-4 weeks later with a clinical syndrome highly suggestive of toxic shock syndrome. Characteristics, complications and therapy. It is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches and rash. It can rapidly progress to severe and intractable hypotension and multisystem dysfunction. Almost every organ system can be involved. Complications of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome may include kidney failure, liver failure and even death. Crystalloids and inotropic agents are used to treat the hypovolemic shock aggressively, with close monitoring of the patient’s mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure. An immediate and aggressive management of hypovolemic shock is essential in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Targeted antibiotics are indicated; penicillin or a betalactam antibiotic is used for treating group A streptococci, and clindamycin has emerged as a key portion of the standard treatment.

  5. Emerging health issues of cyanobacterial blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Manganelli


    Full Text Available This paper describes emerging issue related to cyanobacterial dynamics and toxicity and human health risks. Data show an increasing cyanobacteria expansion and dominance in many environments. However there are still few information on the toxic species fitness, or on the effects of specific drivers on toxin production. Open research fields are related to new exposure scenario (cyanotoxins in water used for haemodialysis and in food supplements; to new patterns of co-exposure between cyanotoxins and algal toxins and/or anthropogenic chemicals; to dynamics affecting toxicity and production of different cyanotoxin variants under environmental stress; to the accumulation of cyanotoxins in the food web. In addition, many data gaps exist in the characterization of the toxicological profiles, especially about long term effects.

  6. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Toxic Shock Syndrome Print ... en español Síndrome de shock tóxico About Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious ...

  7. PETC Review, Issue 3, March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, B.; Reiss, J.; Robotti, S.; Brown, J.; Carter, C.; Evans, E.; Hammer, D. [eds.


    This issue of PETC Review presents brief discussion of the status of two DOE research program: (1)Coal Liquefaction and (2)Low-Cost Retrofit Technologies for Reducing SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and Particulates as part of the Clean Coal Technology Program. Air Toxics and the 1990 Clean Air Act are also discussed with respect to Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Supplemental sections on events, special focuses, publication listing, etc. are also included.

  8. Sleep Issues and Sundowning (United States)

    ... We will not sell or share your name. Sleep Issues and Sundowning Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | ... Sleep Changes Back to top Coping strategies for sleep issues and sundowning If the person is awake ...

  9. Psychostimulant toxicity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozalp Ekinci


    Full Text Available Methylphenidate is used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children above the age of 6 with a high safety and tolerability. When used above the recommended dosage, methylphenidate has been reported to cause toxicity symptoms including neuro-psychiatric and cardiac adverse reactions. In this overview paper, the available literature on psyhcostimulant toxicity in children and the clinical symptoms and follow-up of a 4-year-old child who accidentally used high dose of methylphenidate will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 184-193

  10. Toxic and Metabolic Myelopathies. (United States)

    Ramalho, Joana; Nunes, Renato Hoffmann; da Rocha, Antonio José; Castillo, Mauricio


    Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. It is most commonly caused by its compression by neoplasms, degenerative disc disease, trauma, or infection. Less common causes of myelopathy include spinal cord tumors, infection, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, vascular, toxic, and metabolic disorders. Conditions affecting the spinal cord must be recognized as early as possible to prevent progression that may lead to permanent disability. Biopsy is rarely performed, thus the diagnosis and management rely on patient׳s history, physical examination, laboratory results, and imaging findings. Here we review the clinical presentations, pathophysiological mechanisms, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of myelopathies related to metabolic or toxic etiologies.

  11. The toxicity of refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.


    This paper presents toxicity data and exposure limits for refrigerants. The data address both acute (short-term, single exposure) and chronic (long-term, repeated exposure) effects, with emphasis on the former. The refrigerants covered include those in common use for the last decade, those used as components in alternatives, and selected candidates for future replacements. The paper also reviews the toxicity indicators used in both safety standards and building, mechanical, and fire codes. It then outlines current classification methods for refrigerant safety and relates them to standard and code usage.

  12. Stillwater Megasite : Contaminants issues (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a partial response to questions regarding toxics at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. Adverse effects of agricultural drain water on fish,...

  13. Issues in Teaching Mathematics (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow


    In this article, the author states that there are selected issues in mathematics instruction that educators should be well aware of when planning lessons and units of study. These issues provide a basis for thought and discussion when assisting pupils to attain more optimally. Purposeful studying of issues guides mathematics teachers in…

  14. Respiratory Toxicity Biomarkers (United States)

    The advancement in high throughput genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques have accelerated pace of lung biomarker discovery. A recent growth in the discovery of new lung toxicity/disease biomarkers have led to significant advances in our understanding of pathological proce...

  15. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  16. Toxic and drug-induced myopathies. (United States)

    Dalakas, M C


    Drugs used for therapeutic interventions either alone or in combination may sometimes cause unexpected toxicity to the muscles, resulting in a varying degree of symptomatology, from mild discomfort and inconvenience to permanent damage and disability. The clinician should suspect a toxic myopathy when a patient without a pre-existing muscle disease develops myalgia, fatigue, weakness or myoglobinuria, temporally connected to the administration of a drug or exposure to a myotoxic substance. This review provides an update on the drugs with well-documented myocytoxicity and cautions the clinicians to be alert for the potential toxicity of newly marketed drugs; highlights the clinical features and pathomechanisms of the induced muscle disease; and offers guidance on how best to treat and distinguish toxic myopathies from other acquired or hereditary muscle disorders. Practical issues regarding the diagnosis and management of statin-induced myopathies are emphasized. Myotoxicity resulting from direct insertion of transgenes to the muscle, an exciting new tool currently tested for treatment of muscular dystrophies, is also discussed.

  17. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)


    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  18. Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects. (United States)

    Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming


    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

  19. Predictive Modeling of Developmental Toxicity (United States)

    The use of alternative methods in conjunction with traditional in vivo developmental toxicity testing has the potential to (1) reduce cost and increase throughput of testing the chemical universe, (2) prioritize chemicals for further targeted toxicity testing and risk assessment,...

  20. Seven Issues Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul


    It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility...... and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited several times, by Halasz in his 1991 Hypertext keynote talk, and by Randy Trigg in his 1996 Hypertext keynote...... five years later. Additionally, over the intervening 15 years, many research systems have addressed the original seven issues, and new research avenues have opened up. The goal of this panel is to begin the process of developing a new set of seven issues for the next generation of hypertext system...

  1. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  2. Comparative toxicities of oxygen, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chlorine bleaching filtrates - microtox toxicities of raw and processed filtrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ard, T.A.; McDonough, T.J.


    It has claimed that effluents from the bleaching of kraft pulp with chlorine and its compounds have deleterious effects on the aquatic environment. It has been further suggested that bleaching without the use of chlorine or its compounds will produce innocuous effluents. To obtain information on the validity of these claims, we have conducted a laboratory study of the toxicity of filtrates from chlorine-based and nonchlorine bleaching processes. We have also examined two related issues. The first is whether any toxicants generated during bleaching are rendered harmless (by neutralization, storage, and biological treatment) before being discharged to the environment. The second related issue is whether any toxicity observed in mill effluents actually originates in the bleaching process, as opposed to being due to raw material components or compounds formed during the pulping step that precedes bleaching. Several conclusions were drawn from this study. (1) There is a background level of toxicity which originates in the oxygen stage, process steps prior to bleaching, or in the wood raw material. It is decreased by neutralization and storage, but residual toxicity may still be detected after two weeks. (2) If the sum of the first and second stage toxicities is taken as an indicator of overall toxicity, the untreated filtrates may be ranked as follows: Control (Background) > D(EO) > Z(EO) > C(EO). However, these toxicities are of no importance in regard to environmental effects because of their ephemeral nature and the likelihood of their being reduced or eliminated prior to effluent discharge. Evidence for this statement is the ease with which all except the C(EO) were detoxified by neutralization and storage. (3) After neutralization and storage for two weeks at room temperature the ranking of toxicities becomes: C(EO) > D(EO) > Z(EO) > Background. The last three are similar in magnitude.

  3. Olfactory toxicity in fishes. (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J


    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  4. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  5. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R. [and others


    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects.

  6. Nanoparticle toxicity and cancer (United States)

    Prevenslik, T.


    Nanoparticles (NPs) have provided significant advancements in cancer treatment. But as in any technology, there is a darkside. Experiments have shown NPs in body fluids pose a health risk by causing DNA damage that in of itself may lead to cancer. To avoid the dilemma that NPs are toxic to both cancer cells and DNA alike, the mechanism of NP toxicity must be understood so that the safe use of NPs may go forward. Reactive oxidative species (ROS) of peroxide and hydroxyl radicals damage the DNA by chemical reaction, but require NPs provide energies of about 5 eV not possible by surface effects. Only electromagnetic (EM) radiations beyond ultraviolet (UV) levels may explain the toxicity of NPs. Indeed, experiments show DNA damage from radiation, Hence, it is reasonable to hypothesize that NPs produce their own source of UV radiation, albeit at low intensity. Ionizing radiation from NPs at UV levels is consistent with the theory of QED induced EM radiation. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. By this theory, fine radiation need not be limited to natural or man-made NPs. Extensions suggest UV radiation is produced from biological NPs within the body, e.g., enzyme induced fragmentation of epithelial tissue, exocytosis of small proteins, and ironically, the same molecular markers used to detect cancer itself.

  7. The toxicity of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tephly, T.R. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))


    Methanol toxicity in humans and monkeys is characterized by a latent period of many hours followed by a metabolic acidosis and ocular toxicity. This is not observed in most lower animals. The metabolic acidosis and blindness is apparently due to formic acid accumulation in humans and monkeys, a feature not seen in lower animals. The accumulation of formate is due to a deficiency in formate metabolism which is, in turn, related, in part, to low hepatic tetrahydrofolate (H{sub 4}folate). An excellent correlation between hepatic H{sub 4} folate and formate oxidation rates has been shown within and across species. Thus, humans and monkeys possess low hepatic H{sub 4}folate levels, low rates of formate oxidation and accumulation of formate after methanol. Formate, itself, produces blindness in monkeys in the absence of metabolic acidosis. In addition to low hepatic H{sub 4}folate concentrations, monkeys and humans also have low hepatic 10-formyl H{sub 4}folate dehydrogenase levels, the enzyme which is the ultimate catalyst for conversion of formate to carbon dioxide. This review presents the basis for the role of folic acid-dependent reactions in the regulation of methanol toxicity.

  8. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases. (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas


    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses.

  9. Composition and Toxicity of Biodiesel versus Conventional Diesel (United States)

    Increasing production of biodiesel (BD) fuel at the local, national, and global levels raise important issues related to the impact and potential adverse health outcome related to BD exposures. Studies on the toxicity of BD combustion emissions are very limited. Emission co...

  10. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles. (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent


    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  11. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues (United States)


    competence in handling delicate and agricultral projects, medical research, sterilizing issues. tools, and digging oilfields. Electricity Minister Engineer ...CONTENTS 21 October 1992 [This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in built by shipping plutonium through the Strait of Malacca, For- the year 2006 to meet the soaring electricity demand, eign Ministry officials said

  12. Ethical issues in genetics. (United States)

    Shannon, T A


    The first section of the Notes on Moral Theology reviews ethical issues in genetics through the lenses of privacy-confidentiality; risk-benefit analysis in relation to prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy; and freedom-determinism/human dignity in the context of cloning. The author provides an overview of developments in genetics and highlights thematic issues common to these developments.

  13. Editorial Introduction - Issue 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lynema


    Full Text Available Welcome to the 5th issue of the Code4Lib Journal. We've come a long way in just over a year! We hope you take a few minutes to celebrate those accomplishments with us as you explore issue 5 and read about the innovations, ideas, and experiences shared there. Let's learn from each other.

  14. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues (United States)


    Momchilgrad Municipality (southern Bulgaria). The protest was addressed against the opera- tion of a perlite workshop, polluting the environment ten...state that it is impossible to produce tomatoes , cucumbers, cabbage, or any other vegetables without using toxic chemicals. Such a huge resort

  15. Navigating "thorny" issues (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kashema; Gilbert, Aderinsola; Malyukova, Anna


    In their article Mindfulness and discussing ` thorny' issues in the classroom Konstantinos Alexakos et al. (Cult Stud Sci Educ, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11422-015-9718-0) describe "thorny" issues as "difficult topics to discuss because they are more personal to some perhaps even cause pain and violence." As women from different backgrounds, we engage in a metalogue, which expands on our thoughts and emotions the thorny issues evoked. Our discussion is grounded in theoretical frameworks of mindfulness, wellness, and safe space for learning. We also reflect on our experiences of facing some of the thorny issues in our academic and personal lives. Having trust and respect for one another and being aware of thorny issues allows for a meaningful conversation about the complexity and nuances involved in discussing difficult topics in a classroom setting.

  16. [Toxicity of puffer fish fins]. (United States)

    Honda, Shunichi; Ichimaru, Shunichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Tamao; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji


    Puffer fish is prized as a Japanese traditional food and its fin is also used in the cuisine. However, whether the fin is edible or not is determined for convenience from the toxicity of skin, since little information is available about the toxicity of puffer fish fins. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of fins and skin of three toxic species, Takifugu vermicularis, T. snyderi, and T. porphyreus. The toxicity of T. vermicularis fins (< 5-52.4 MU/g) was significantly lower than that of skin (<5-1200 MU/g). HPLC analysis showed that tetrodotoxin was a major toxic principle irrespective of the toxicity value in each tissue of T. vermicularis. In the case of T. snyderi and T. porphyreus, the toxicity of fins was at almost the same level as that of the skin. The toxicity (< 10-12 MU/g) of caudal fins of T. porphyreus was apparently increased to 16.5-22.0 MU/g by drying. However, the toxin amounts in the dried fins were slightly decreased as compared with those of the non-dried fins. These results demonstrate that puffer fish with toxic skin also have toxic fins.

  17. Understanding the toxicity of carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Yuliang; Sun, Baoyun; Chen, Chunying


    Because of their unique physical, chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted a great deal of research interest and have many potential applications. As large-scale production and application of CNTs increases, the general population is more likely to be exposed to CNTs either directly or indirectly, which has prompted considerable attention about human health and safety issues related to CNTs. Although considerable experimental data related to CNT toxicity at the molecular, cellular, and whole animal levels have been published, the results are often conflicting. Therefore, a systematic understanding of CNT toxicity is needed but has not yet been developed. In this Account, we highlight recent investigations into the basis of CNT toxicity carried out by our team and by other laboratories. We focus on several important factors that explain the disparities in the experimental results of nanotoxicity, such as impurities, amorphous carbon, surface charge, shape, length, agglomeration, and layer numbers. The exposure routes, including inhalation, intravenous injection, or dermal or oral exposure, can also influence the in vivo behavior and fate of CNTs. The underlying mechanisms of CNT toxicity include oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, malignant transformation, DNA damage and mutation (errors in chromosome number as well as disruption of the mitotic spindle), the formation of granulomas, and interstitial fibrosis. These findings provide useful insights for de novo design and safe application of carbon nanotubes and their risk assessment to human health. To obtain reproducible and accurate results, researchers must establish standards and reliable detection methods, use standard CNT samples as a reference control, and study the impact of various factors systematically. In addition, researchers need to examine multiple types of CNTs, different cell lines and animal species, multidimensional evaluation methods, and

  18. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  19. [Toxic shock syndrome]. (United States)

    Tyll, T; Bílková, M; Revinová, A; Müller, M; Čurdová, M; Zlámal, M; Holub, M


    The authors present an up-to-date review of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) - a life-threatening condition where toxins of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphyloccocus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes play a key role in the pathogenesis. The authors provide insight into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease and point out the relevant patient history data and clinical signs and symptoms that may indicate progression of TSS. Last but not least, the state of the art diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to early and full blown TSS are summarized. Case reports are presented to illustrate two different etiological forms of this relatively rare nosological entity.

  20. Neurological oxygen toxicity. (United States)

    Farmery, Scott; Sykes, Oliver


    SCUBA diving has several risks associated with it from breathing air under pressure--nitrogen narcosis, barotrauma and decompression sickness (the bends). Trimix SCUBA diving involves regulating mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen and helium in an attempt to overcome the risks of narcosis and decompression sickness during deep dives, but introduces other potential hazards such as hypoxia and oxygen toxicity convulsions. This study reports on a seizure during the ascent phase, its potential causes and management and discusses the hazards posed to the diver and his rescuer by an emergency ascent to the surface.

  1. Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.


    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

  2. Health, safety and environmental issues in thin film manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.; Baumann, A.E.; Hill, R.; Patterson, M.H.


    An investigation is made of Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) aspects for the manufacturing, use and decommissioning of CdTe, CIS and a-Si modules. Issues regarding energy requirements, resource availability, emissions of toxic materials, occupational health and safety and module waste treatmen

  3. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.


    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  4. [Toxicity of monkshood. Review.]. (United States)

    Ingolfsdottir, K; Olafsson, K


    Monkshood, Aconitum napellus L. (Ranunculaceae), is considered one of the most poisonous plants growing in Europe. Monkshood and other Aconitum species are still used in Oriental and homeopathic medicine as analgesics, febrifuges and hypotensives. The neurotoxin aconitine is the principal alkaloid in most subspecies of monkshood. A review is presented, which includes historical aspects of monkshood as a poisonous and medicinal plant, the mode of action of aconitine, symptoms of toxicity, treatment and reports of recent poisoning incidents. In addition, results of quantitative HPLC examination of hypogeous and epigeous organs from a population of A. napellus ssp. vulgare cultivated in Iceland are discussed. The fact that children in Iceland have commonly been known to eat the sweet tasting nectaries in monkshood prompted an investigation of the alkaloidal content of these organs specifically. The low aconitine content found in the nectaries as well as in whole flowers accords with the absence of reported toxicity arising from the handling of flowers and consumption of nectaries from A. napellus in this country.

  5. Biochemical toxicity of benzene. (United States)

    Rana, S V S; Verma, Yeshvandra


    Human exposure to benzene in work environment is a global occupational health problem. After inhalation or absorption, benzene targets organs viz. liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain etc. It is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 multifunctional oxygenase system. Benzene causes haematotoxicity through its phenolic metabolites that act in concert to produce DNA strand breaks, chromosomal damage, sister chromatid exchange, inhibition of topoisomerase II and damage to mitotic spindle. The carcinogenic and myelotoxic effects of benzene are associated with free radical formation either as benzene metabolites or lipid peroxidation products. Benzene oxide and phenol have been considered as proheptons. Liver microsomes play an important role in biotransformation of benzene whereas in kidney, it produces degenerative intracellular changes. Cohort studies made in different countries suggest that benzene induces multiple myeloma in petrochemical workers. Though extensive studies have been performed on its toxicity, endocrinal disruption caused by benzene remains poorly known. Transgenic cytochrome P450 IIE1 mice may help in understanding further toxic manifestations of benzene.

  6. Toxic compounds in honey. (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua


    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  7. Molecular toxicity of nanomaterials. (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Xing, Gengmei


    With the rapid developments in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnlogy, more and more nanomaterials and their based consumer products have been used into our daily life. The safety concerns of nanomaterials have been well recognized by the scientific community and the public. Molecular mechanism of interactions between nanomaterials and biosystems is the most essential topic and final core of the biosafety. In the last two decades, nanotoxicology developed very fast and toxicity phenomena of nanomaterials have been reported. To achieve better understanding and detoxication of nanomaterials, thorough studies of nanotoxicity at molecular level are important. The interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules have been widely investigated as the first step toward the molecular nanotoxicology. The consequences of such interactions have been discussed in the literature. Besides this, the chemical mechanism of nanotoxicology is gaining more attention, which would lead to a better design of nontoxic nanomaterials. In this review, we focus on the molecular nanotoxicology and explore the toxicity of nanomaterials at molecular level. The molecular level studies of nanotoxicology are summarized and the published nanotoxicological data are revisited.

  8. Gambling: A Consumer Issue? (United States)

    Makela, Carole J.; Tucker, Suzanne


    Focuses upon gambling, the twelfth largest industry in the United States, and its impact on families. Discusses the history of gambling, the cost of gambling, and the growth of lotteries. Suggests issues for consumer professionals to explore. (JOW)

  9. Medical Issues: Orthopedics (United States)

    ... joint contractures will have a different course of treatment than a “stander” with contractures. The Musculoskeletal Team As with all medical issues in SMA, decisions on treatment of musculoskeletal problems should be made with an ...

  10. Medical Issues: Nutrition (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  11. Ethical issues in immunisation. (United States)

    Isaacs, David; Kilham, Henry; Leask, Julie; Tobin, Bernadette


    Discussions about current and future immunisation programmes raise novel questions about familiar ethical issues. Two sets of ethical issues dominate these discussions. The first is the issue of compulsory immunisation: what should be done about parents who fail to immunise their children? The second is: given competing demands on health care budgets, how should principles of justice in access and distribution inform vaccination programmes? This paper considers these two issues in the light of traditional ethical principles. With respect to the first, we argue that compulsion is justified only in cases in which we know with practical certainty that parental failure to immunise puts their own child or other children at high risk of severe illness. We also argue that the state should compensate those who suffer vaccine-related injury. With respect to the second, we claim that allocating resources according to health care need requires establishing priorities between public health programmes such as immunisation and other treatment programmes.

  12. Osteogenesis Imperfecta Issues: Constipation (United States)

    OI Issues: Constipation 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) 947-0083 Fax: (301) 947- ... a cure, education, awareness, and mutual support. Introduction Constipation is a problem for some people with osteogenesis ...

  13. Inflammatory and toxic myopathies. (United States)

    Dalakas, M C


    The major advances in the immunopathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory myopathies, and the main criteria that distinguish polymyositis (PM) from dermatomyositis (DM) or inclusion-body myositis (IBM) are presented. The origin and implications of the amyloid and ubiquitin deposits found within the vacuolated fibers of patients with IBM are considered. The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-I-associated PM is presented, and the role of retroviruses in triggering PM, even in the absence of detectable viral genome within the muscle fibers, is discussed. In addition, three toxic myopathies with distinct morphologic, biochemical, or molecular characteristics, caused by zidovudine [azidothymidine (AZT) myopathy], the cholesterol-lowering-agent myopathy (CLAM), and the combination of blocking agents with corticosteroids are presented.

  14. Manganese toxicity to tropical freshwater species in low hardness water. (United States)

    Harford, Andrew J; Mooney, Thomas J; Trenfield, Melanie A; van Dam, Rick A


    Elevated manganese (Mn) is a common contaminant issue for mine water discharges, and previous studies have reported that its toxicity is ameliorated by H(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) ions. In the present study, the toxicity of Mn was assessed in a high risk scenario, that is, the slightly acidic, soft waters of Magela Creek, Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia. Toxicity estimates were derived for 6 tropical freshwater species (Chlorella sp., Lemna aequinoctialis, Amerianna cumingi, Moinodaphnia macleayi, Hydra viridissima, and Mogurnda mogurnda). Low effect chronic inhibition concentration (IC10) and acute lethal concentration (LC05) values ranged between 140 μg L(-1) and 80,000 μg L(-1), with 3 of the species tested (M. macleayi, A. cumingi, and H. viridissima) being more sensitive to Mn than all but 1 species in the international literature (Hyalella azteca). A loss of Mn was observed on the final day for 2 of the H. viridissima toxicity tests, which may be a result of the complex speciation of Mn and biological oxidation. International data from toxicity tests conducted in natural water with a similar physicochemistry to Magela Creek water were combined with the present study's data to increase the sample size to produce a more reliable species sensitivity distribution. A 99% protection guideline value of 73 μg L(-1) (33-466 μg L(-1)) was derived; the low value of this guideline value reflects the higher toxicity of Mn in slightly acidic soft waters.

  15. Volume 4, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nelson


    Full Text Available This issue showcases a rich variety of first year issues reported from an assortment of national and international settings.  In the Feature, Professor Phil Long (University of Queensland and Associate Professor Shane Dawson (University of South Australia share their views about the issues and challenges associated with learning analytics.  Reflecting the adage from last century that successful student engagement is the result of a combination of warmth and challenge the articles and practice reports focus on both the cognitive challenge  (e.g., assessment, forms of knowledge, distance learning, research skills, peer learning, etc. and the affective warmth (e.g., help-seeking, collaboration, identity development etc. aspects of student behaviour.

  16. Volume 7 Issue 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Creagh


    Full Text Available The continuing interest and commitment to improving the student experience in the tertiary sector was reflected in yet another successful Students, Transitions, Achievement, Retention and Success (STARS Conference recently held in Perth, Western Australia (June 29-July 2, 2016.  As is customary, this issue of the journal publishes the top research papers selected via a peer review process and the top Emerging Initiatives selected by the Conference Committee.  As well, a Good Practice Report was selected for this issue.  The Invited Feature in this issue republishes an article from Professor Sally Kift, President of the Australian Learning and Teaching Fellows (and one of the Editors of Student Success. The statement draws on and is representative of the national reaction to the closure of the OLT, highlighting the substantial role it has played in developing and disseminating innovation and good practice in tertiary teaching and learning.

  17. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy J.C.TRAPPEY; Fataneh Taghaboni DUTTA; Kai-Ying CHEN


    @@ This special issue of Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering recognizes the contributions of authors and participants in the 16th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering (CE2009), 2009 ASME International Manufacturing - Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC) and 2009 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. Among related papers presented in these conferences, the guest editors have selectively identified and invited the authors to re-write and extend their works to full-length papers for re-submission to the special issue.

  19. Toxic encephalopathy induced by capecitabine. (United States)

    Niemann, B; Rochlitz, C; Herrmann, R; Pless, M


    Toxic encephalopathy is a rarely described side effect of 5-fluorouracil which usually presents with cerebellar, neuropsychiatric, and focal neurological symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging findings are described as patchy white matter alterations. We report the 1st case of capecitabine-induced toxic encephalopathy with epilepsy-like symptoms and diffuse white matter alterations on magnetic resonance imaging.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F


    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  1. A dividing issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter


    . While there was broad agreement across all three groups that recreational hunting of naturally occurring “surplus” wildlife is acceptable, the release of farm-reared game birds for shooting was a dividing issue, both within the groups and between them. The majority of participants (51%) in the survey...

  2. Respiratory Issues in OI (United States)

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) 947-0083 Fax: (301) 947-0456 ... Email: The Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation, Inc. is the only voluntary national health ...

  3. Ethical issues in physiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor


    Background: An important aspect of physiotherapy professional autonomy is the ethical code of the profession, both collectively and for the individual member of the profession. The aim of this study is to explore and add additional insight into the nature and scope of ethical issues as they are u......Background: An important aspect of physiotherapy professional autonomy is the ethical code of the profession, both collectively and for the individual member of the profession. The aim of this study is to explore and add additional insight into the nature and scope of ethical issues......: The ideal of being beneficent toward the patient. Here, the ethical issues uncovered in the interviews were embedded in three code-groups: 1) ethical issues related to equality; 2) feeling obligated to do one's best; and 3) transgression of boundaries. Conclusions: In an ethical perspective, physiotherapy...... in private practice is on a trajectory toward increased professionalism. Physiotherapists in private practice have many reflections on ethics and these reflections are primarily based on individual common sense arguments and on deontological understandings. As physiotherapy by condition is characterized...

  4. About this issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Mulligan


    Full Text Available I am delighted to have been asked to be the consulting editor for this special issue on disability and diversity. It covers a range of interesting articles that are relevant for anybody working in community eye health specifically, as well as in the health sector generally.

  5. Introduction: The Transparency Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlings, J.; Stauff, M.


    Besides giving an overview on the individual contributions, this introduction to the special issue on transparency delineates a conceptual context for a critical analysis of the contemporary discourse on transparency and the media mechanisms related to it. It focuses on three ambivalences inherent t

  6. International Issues in Education (United States)

    Ruggeri, Kai; Diaz, Carmen; Kelley, Karl; Papousek, Ilona; Dempster, Martin; Hanna, Donncha


    Anxiety, negative attitudes, and attrition are all issues presented in the teaching of statistics to undergraduates in research-based degrees regardless of location. Previous works have looked at these obstacles, but none have consolidated a multilingual, multinational effort using a consistent method. Over 400 Spanish-, English-, and…

  7. Structuralist Performance Issue. (United States)

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.


    Defining structuralism as an unannounced aesthetic movement that involves not only the theatre but all arts, this journal issue focuses on structuralist performance. The nine articles provide information on the following topics: the French theatre group, Atelier Theatre et Musique; "Tell Me," a play by Guy de Cointet; patterning in "Five…

  8. Workplace Diversity Issues. (United States)


    This document contains three symposium papers on workplace diversity issues. "Expanding Theories of Career Development: Adding the Voices of African American Women in the White Academy" (Mary V. Alfred) questions the validity of existing career development models for women and minority groups and examines the professional development of five…

  9. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues (United States)


    All information has been obtained from foreign radio and television broadcasts, news agency transmissions, newspapers , books, and periodicals. Items...COMMERCE 8NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE ’TIC Q.,’U ’ SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 PROLIFERATION ISSUES JPRS-TND-92-023 CONTENTS 16 July 1992 [This...Experts To Tour Azerbaijan ........................................................................................ 12 To Conduct Biochemical Analysis

  10. Quantitative analysis of the toxicity of human amniotic fluid to cultured rat spinal cord. (United States)

    Drewek, M J; Bruner, J P; Whetsell, W O; Tulipan, N


    It has been proposed that the myelodysplastic components of a myelomeningocele are secondarily damaged as the result of exposure to amniotic fluid, the so-called 'two-hit' hypothesis. The critical time at which this secondary insult might occur has not been clearly defined. The present study addresses this issue by quantitatively assessing the toxic effects of human amniotic fluid of various gestational ages upon organotypic cultures of rat spinal cord. Using an assay for lactate dehydrogenase efflux to evaluate toxicity in such spinal cord cultures, we found that the amniotic fluid became toxic at approximately 34 weeks' gestation. This toxic effect of amniotic fluid appears to emerge rather suddenly. Accordingly, it seems reasonable to suggest that prevention of exposure of vulnerable spinal cord tissue to this toxicity by surgical closure of a myelomeningocele defect prior to the emergence of toxicity in amniotic fluid may prevent injury to vulnerable myelodysplastic spinal cord tissue.

  11. [Toxicity of sulpiride]. (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Szpak, Dorota; Wilimowska, Jolanta


    Sulpiride is a benzamide neuroleptic used in the treatment of some psychiatric and gastroenterological disorders. Its antipsychotic, antiautistic, activizing and antidepressive properties result from antagonistic action to dopaminergic D2, D3 and D4 receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). The oral bioavailability of sulpiride is poor and it does not appear to have an extensive first-pass metabolism, nor is it extensively protein-bound. Elimination of sulpiride appears to depend primarily on the kidneys. The acute sulpiride poisoning includes mainly neuropsychiatric (i.e., agitation, hallucinations, and CNS depression) as well as cardiac effects (i.e., hypotension, dysrhythmias, and sinus tachycardia). The life-threatening conditions with sometimes fatal outcome after sulpiride poisoning are prolongation of QTc interval with consequent torsade de pointes (TdP) and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). The quantitative methods for the measurement of sulpiride blood concentration are not routinely available and the toxic blood concentration is probably higher than 2 mg/L. Treatment of acute sulpiride poisoning includes standard protocols of gastrointestinal decontamination and further symptomatic and supportive measures, among them TdP (magnesium sulphate, isoproterenol, electrotherapy) and NMS treatment (benzodiazepines, bromocriptine, dantrolene, physical cooling).

  12. Toxic epidermal necrolysis. (United States)

    Castelain, Florence; Humbert, Philippe


    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe mucocutaneous drug-induced syndrome that causes massive keratinocyte apoptosis and therefore hydro-electrolytic disorders and systemic infection. TEN approximately affects one to two cases per million per year. Mortality rate may reach thirty percent of cases. Thus, TEN constitutes a therapeutic emergency at diagnosis. Typically, clinical examination shows a mucocutaneous detachment involving more than thirty percent of body area. Definitive diagnosis is made on cutaneous biopsy with histological exam that shows the blister of necrotic keratinocytes. Main differential diagnosis are acute staphylococcus epidermis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, paraneoplastic pemphigus, bullous fixed pigmented erythema, acute lupus erythematosus. In the early days, SCORTEN gives a good estimation and is now widely used as prognostic score. Drugs are generally considered as the main etiology of TEN but in some cases bacterial or viral infections could be involved. Physiopathology remains unclear even if recent advances have reported the possible implication of immune pathways based on activation of T and NK cells. Treatment of TEN requires to be instituted as soon as the diagnosis is made and the patient is preferentially referred to a specialized unit. Supportive care consist of covering areas of cutaneous detachment. No other therapy has demonstrated its efficiency, but high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin might improve the prognosis.

  13. Special Issue: “Organic Reactions in Green Solvents”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sperry


    Full Text Available To overcome the well-established drawbacks of conventional organic solvents (toxicity, non-biodegradability, flammability, accumulation in the atmosphere remarkable research efforts have been recently devoted to the replacement of traditional organic reaction media by the so-called Green Solvents. In this sense, the choice of a safe, non-toxic, biorenewable and cheap reaction media is a crucial goal in organic synthesis. Thus, this Special Issue on “Organic Reactions in Green Solvents” has been aimed to showcase a series of stimulating contributions from international experts within different sub-areas of organic synthesis in Green Solvents (ranging from metal- to organo-catalyzed organic reactions.

  14. An update on environmental, health and safety issues of interest to the photovoltaic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Viren, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.


    There is growing interest in the environmental, health, and safety issues related to new photovoltaic technologies as they approach commercialization. Such issues include potential toxicity of II--VI compounds; the impacts of new environmental regulations on module manufacturers; and, the need for recycling of spent modules and manufacturing wastes. This paper will review these topics. 20 refs.

  15. An update on environmental, health and safety issues of interest to the photovoltaic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Viren, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.


    There is growing interest in the environmental, health, and safety issues related to new photovoltaic technologies as they approach commercialization. Such issues include potential toxicity of II--VI compounds; the impacts of new environmental regulations on module manufacturers; and, the need for recycling of spent modules and manufacturing wastes. This paper will review these topics. 20 refs.

  16. Naphthalene toxicity and antioxidant nutrients. (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Ohia, Sunny; Bagchi, Debasis


    Naphthalene is a bicyclic aromatic compound that has wide industrial and commercial applications. It is used as the starting material for the synthesis of other compounds, as a moth repellent, soil fumigant and lavatory deodorant. Most exposure occurs through low dose chronic inhalation, dermal contact or ingestion through the food chain. The lungs and eyes appear to be most susceptible to toxicity, although biochemical markers of toxicity can be demonstrated in other tissues, such as the kidney, brain and liver. In addition to lens opacification (cataracts) and histological changes associated with pneumotoxicity, other biomarkers of toxic effects include glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and the production of the active oxygen species as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. In addition, the urinary excretion of lipid metabolites occurs. A role for the tumor suppressor gene p53 has been demonstrated. Toxic manifestations of naphthalene are associated with its oxidative metabolism to various products including quinones. The ability to protect against the toxic effects of naphthalene by using various antioxidants and free radical scavengers has been demonstrated. Studies have been conducted with vitamin E, vitamin E succinate, melatonin, curcumin, various L-cysteine prodrugs, several aldose reductase inhibitors and spin-trapping agents. The ability to prevent the toxic manifestations of naphthalene is dependent on the pharmacokinetic properties of the agents, which have been studied. The appropriate selection of chemoprotectants can be useful in preventing naphthalene toxicity.

  17. Molecular toxicity mechanism of nanosilver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle McShan


    Full Text Available Silver is an ancient antibiotic that has found many new uses due to its unique properties on the nanoscale. Due to its presence in many consumer products, the toxicity of nanosilver has become a hot topic. This review summarizes recent advances, particularly the molecular mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. The surface of nanosilver can easily be oxidized by O2 and other molecules in the environmental and biological systems leading to the release of Ag+, a known toxic ion. Therefore, nanosilver toxicity is closely related to the release of Ag+. In fact, it is difficult to determine what portion of the toxicity is from the nano-form and what is from the ionic form. The surface oxidation rate is closely related to the nanosilver surface coating, coexisting molecules, especially thiol-containing compounds, lighting conditions, and the interaction of nanosilver with nucleic acids, lipid molecules, and proteins in a biological system. Nanosilver has been shown to penetrate the cell and become internalized. Thus, nanosilver often acts as a source of Ag+ inside the cell. One of the main mechanisms of toxicity is that it causes oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species and causes damage to cellular components including DNA damage, activation of antioxidant enzymes, depletion of antioxidant molecules (e.g., glutathione, binding and disabling of proteins, and damage to the cell membrane. Several major questions remain to be answered: (1 the toxic contribution from the ionic form versus the nano-form; (2 key enzymes and signaling pathways responsible for the toxicity; and (3 effect of coexisting molecules on the toxicity and its relationship to surface coating.

  18. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  19. Methylmercury toxicity and functional programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe


    PURPOSE: Adverse health effects of developmental toxicants may induce abnormal functional programming that leads to lasting functional deficits. This notion is considered from epidemiological evidence using developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity as an example. MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS...... of certain brain functions, thereby causing confounding bias. The functional deficits caused by prenatal methylmercury exposure appear to be permanent, and their extent may depend on the joint effect of toxicants and nutrients. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: The lasting functional changes caused...... by neurodevelopmental methylmercury toxicity fit into the pattern of functional programming, with effects opposite to those linked to beneficial stimuli....

  20. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  1. Toxicity of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in rabbits.


    de Azavedo, J C; Arbuthnott, J P


    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic shock syndrome produce toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST 1), which is lethal to conventional rabbits and acts synergistically with gram-negative lipopolysaccharide. The lethal effect of TSST 1 was examined in specific-pathogen-free rabbits on the basis that these rabbits, being less colonized by gram-negative bacteria, would be less susceptible than conventional animals. Although there was no significant difference in mortality between s...

  2. Multidrug toxicity involving sumatriptan. (United States)

    Knittel, Jessica L; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Hughes, Rhome L; Bosy, Thomas Z


    A multidrug fatality involving sumatriptan is reported. Sumatriptan is a tryptamine derivative that acts at 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors and is used for the treatment of migraines. The decedent was a 21-year-old white female found dead in bed by her spouse. No signs of physical trauma were observed and a large number of prescription medications were discovered at the scene. Toxicological analysis of the central blood revealed sumatriptan at a concentration of 1.03 mg/L. Following therapeutic dosing guidelines, sumatriptan concentrations do not exceed 0.095 mg/L. Sumatriptan was isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. A tissue distribution study was completed with the following concentrations measured: 0.61 mg/L in femoral blood, 0.56 mg/L in iliac blood, 5.01 mg/L in urine, 0.51 mg/kg in liver, 3.66 mg/kg in kidney, 0.09 mg/kg in heart, 0.32 mg/kg in spleen, 0.01 mg/kg in brain, 15.99 mg/kg in lung and 78.54 mg/45 mL in the stomach contents. Carisoprodol, meprobamate, fluoxetine, doxylamine, orphenadrine, dextromethorphan and hydroxyzine were also present in the blood at the following concentrations: 3.35, 2.36, 0.63, 0.19, 0.06, 0.55 and 0.16 mg/L. The medical examiner ruled the cause of death as acute mixed drug toxicity and the manner of death as accident.

  3. Advertising in This Issue (United States)


    If you would like additional information about the products of the advertisers in this issue, the quickest and easiest way is via JCE Online's new service: Ad Index This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. · 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 · phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email:

  4. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita


    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 ( On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (, On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  5. Wireless ATM : handover issues


    Jiang, Fan; Käkölä, Timo


    Basic aspects of cellular systems and the ATM transmission technology are introduced. Wireless ATM is presented as a combination of radio ATM and mobile ATM. Radio ATM is a wireless extension of an ATM connection while mobile ATM contains the necessary extensions to ATM to support mobility. Because the current ATM technology does not support mobility, handover becomes one of the most important research issues for wireless ATM. Wireless ATM handover requirements are thus analysed. A handover s...

  6. Ukraine; Selected Issues



    This Selected Issues paper investigates the economic importance of institutions in Ukraine, and attempts to quantify the potential benefits of market-friendly structural reforms. The paper reviews some of the key findings of the development-accounting literature, which has tried to explain the significant differences in income that persist across countries. It introduces the stochastic-frontier approach, outlining its key assumptions and strengths, and results obtained with the stochastic-fro...

  7. Issues in Target Tracking (United States)


    the CUSUM (Page) test yields the quickest detection of a change of distribution for the case of i.i.d. observations [3]. In fact, in a (highly...11. Autocorrelation of the CUSUM increments, sn, under H1 (target present). Issues in Target Tracking RTO-EN-SET-157(2010...restrictive condition that the increments of the cumulative sum, sn, be i.i.d. [3], [22]. Fig. 11 plots the autocorrelation of the CUSUM increments as a

  8. ECMR’13 Special Issue


    Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Frese, Udo; Moritz, Tenorth


    This special issue contains extended versions of the best papers from the 6th European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR). ECMR is a biennial European forum, internationally open, that allows roboticists throughout Europe to become acquainted with the latest research accomplishments and innovations in mobile robotics and mobile human–robot systems. ECMR covers most aspects of mobile robotics research and machine intelligence, including (but not limited to) the following topics: multi-sensor f...

  9. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues (United States)


    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 PROLIFERATION ISSUES JPRS-TND-93-011 CONTENTS 23 April 1993 [This report contains foreign media English 1432 GMT 19 Apr 93 Both Qian and Han are here to attend the 49th annual session of the UN Economic and Social Commission [Text] Chengdu...symposium held at a countries, its bad habit of the cold war era. Tokyo hotel on plutonium and the destruction of nuclear weapons, said he hopes proposals

  10. Accelerating News Issue 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K; Wildner, E


    In this summer issue we look at how developments in collimator materials could have applications in aerospace and beyond, and how Polish researchers are harnessing accelerators for medical and industrial uses. We see how the LHC luminosity upgrade is linking with European industry and US researchers, and how the neutrino oscillation community is progressing. We find out the mid-term status of TIARA-PP and how it is mapping European accelerator education resources.

  11. JPRS Report: Proliferation Issues (United States)


    Iraqi Islamic Revolution] ................. 15 ISRAEL Charges of Technology Transfer to PRC ’Baseless’ /DA VAR 6 Jan... Islamic 0W2112134192 Tokyo KYODO in English 1323 GMT Revolution in Arabic 1440 GMT 9 Jan 93 21 Dec 92 [Text] Well-informed sources inside Iraq have...the USA , "particu- We call on all states that possess nuclear weapons, the larly on the issue of nuclear disarmament," emerged long statement says, to

  12. Colombia: Issues for Congress (United States)


    government has made in improving security conditions in Colombia, some Members of Congress have expressed concerns about labor activist killings and the para... Sistemas de Información de Población Desplazada,” July 31, 2006. 70 Department of State Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, “Refugee Admissions...agreement are concerned about the status of labor rights in Colombia, as well as the ongoing para-political scandal. An issue of contention is the

  13. Introduction to Special Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This special issue presents the Italian approach to planned interventions by the Government and public institutions to counteract disability and handicap.Analysis of the provisions and laws which have followed on in time highlight the diversity between two types of approach:one that only considers physical or mental disability and one that also takes into consideration,besides these limitations,aspects linked to the social participation and integration of people with disabilities.

  14. JPRS Report: Proliferation Issues (United States)


    foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, including...Domestic Service in English 1215 GMT 28 Dec 92 As China has shown enormous market potential in its economic reform and opening to the outside world...CIS commander-in-chief, social and legal guarantees of military Reports on Minsk Summit on Strategic Forces observers and peace-keepers, as well as

  15. Issues of English Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this essay, the complexity of the present situation of world Englishes, comments on the spread of the language, de-bate over standardized variants in English and the pedagogical implication relating to what types of English should be taught will be discussed. The expansion of English in China is then analyzed concerning issues such as attitudes towards local variety, desirable teaching models, and future adjustment.

  16. JPRS Report: Proliferation Issues (United States)


    report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical , and biological...Intelligence Branch Head on Far East Weapons Threat [IDF Radio, 8 Jun 93] ............................. 12 Sarid: No More Nuclear Reactors To Be Built...Treaty," said Han, who is also unification minister. Non-Proliferation Treaty. Whether the proposed working-level contact to improve Asked about

  17. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  18. Chitin Adsorbents for Toxic Metals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Anastopoulos


    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is still a critical issue all over the world. Among examined methods for the decontamination of wastewaters, adsorption is a promising, cheap, environmentally friendly and efficient procedure. There are various types of adsorbents that have been used to remove different pollutants such as agricultural waste, compost, nanomaterials, algae, etc., Chitin (poly-β-(1,4-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine is the second most abundant natural biopolymer and it has attracted scientific attention as an inexpensive adsorbent for toxic metals. This review article provides information about the use of chitin as an adsorbent. A list of chitin adsorbents with maximum adsorption capacity and the best isotherm and kinetic fitting models are provided. Moreover, thermodynamic studies, regeneration studies, the mechanism of adsorption and the experimental conditions are also discussed in depth.

  19. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil]. (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó


    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  20. Gels and more gels: probing toxicity. (United States)

    Witzmann, Frank A; Bai, Fengju; Hong, Seok-Min; Liu, Sheng; Pedrick, Nathan; Ringham, Heather; Tan, Jian


    Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) remains an important technology in the study of protein expression. In many applications, 2-DE has been supplanted by liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric approaches that overcome some of its limitations and labor intensiveness. Nevertheless, 2-DE has exceptional relevance in toxicology and, despite the challenges, its implementation continues to support toxicologists in understanding the biological effects of chemical exposures in living systems. This review will address the use of 2-DE-based proteomics in toxicology and recent developments in this strategy, considering the unique nature of toxicity testing and the issues of dynamic range and reproducibility that have previously limited the overall utility of 2-DE in this field.

  1. The future challenge of lead toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))


    Five decades ago, lead toxicity in childhood was thought in nonlethal cases to be without residual effect. This misconception was corrected in 1943 by Randolph Byers, who began the modern era of lead neurotoxicology by asserting that lead not only killed cells, but interfered with the normal development of central nervous system neurons. The human data from Byers forward is reviewed, with particular attention on methodological issues that have emerged. The papers on human neurotoxicology presented at the NIEHS lead conference held in Research Triangle Park, NC, in 1974 are examined to demonstrate the progress made over the last 15 years. Seven methodological solecisms have clouded judgment over the question of lead toxicity at low dose: worship of the sacrament of p = 0.05; inaccurate causal modeling;drawing conclusions from studies with inadequate power; positing phantom covariates; underestimating the importance of small effects; demanding proof of causality; and evaluating studies in isolation. The principles behind these errors are discussed. Lead exposure is associated with hyperactivity, and hyperactivity is a risk factor for antisocial behavior. The relationship between lead exposure and antisocial behavior is estimated. A plan for the effective removal of one major lead source, housing stock, is presented.

  2. [Theory of toxic classification of traditional Chinese medicine and recommendations for revision of China pharmacopeia (volume 1)]. (United States)

    Zhao, Junning; Ye, Zuguang


    Toxic classification of traditional Chinese medicine, as a contribution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to the recognition of medicinal toxicity and rational use of medicinal materials by Chinese people, is now a great issue related to safe medication, sustainable development and internationalization of Chinese medicine. In this article, the origination and development of toxic classification theory was summarized and analyzed. Because toxic classification is an urgent issue related to TCM industrialization, modernization and internationalization, this article made a systematic analysis on the nature and connotation of toxic classification as well as risk control for TCM industry due to the medicinal toxicity. Based on the toxic studies, this article made some recommendations on toxic classification of Chinese medicinal materials for the revision of China Pharmacopeia (volume 1). From the aspect of scientific research, a new technical guideline for research on toxic classification of Chinese medicine should be formulated based on new biological toxicity test technology such as Microtox and ADME/Tox, because the present classification of acute toxicity of mice/rats can not met the modern development of Chinese medicine any more. The evaluation system and technical SOP of TCM toxic classification should also be established, and they should well balance TCM features, superiority and international requirements. From the aspect of medicine management, list of toxic medicines and their risk classification should be further improved by competent government according to scientific research. In China Pharmacopeia (volume I), such descriptions of strong toxicity, toxicity or mild toxicity should be abandoned when describing medicine nature and flavor. This revision might help promote TCM sustainable development and internationalization, and enhance the competitive capacity of Chinese medicine in both domestic and international market. However, description of strong

  3. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  4. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta


    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  5. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates for...

  6. Low-Toxicity PMR Polyimide (United States)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Ely, Robert M.; Stanfield, Clarence E.; Dickerson, George E.; Snoha, John J.; Srinivasan, Krishna; Hou, Tan


    New low-toxicity PMR system developed and designated LaRC-RP46. Exhibits better processability, toughness, and thermo-oxidative stability than does PMR-15. Polyimide inexpensive and readily processed into high-quality graphite-fiber-reinforced composite. Used as high-performance, high-temperature-resistant adhesive, molding, composite, film, and coating material where low toxicity desired characteristic. Significantly extends applications of PMR-type polyimides.

  7. Ocular toxicity of targeted therapies. (United States)

    Renouf, Daniel J; Velazquez-Martin, Juan P; Simpson, Rand; Siu, Lillian L; Bedard, Philippe L


    Molecularly targeted agents are commonly used in oncology practice, and many new targeted agents are currently being tested in clinical trials. Although these agents are thought to be more specific and less toxic then traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, they are associated with a variety of toxicities, including ocular toxicity. Many of the molecules targeted by anticancer agents are also expressed in ocular tissues. We reviewed the literature for described ocular toxicities associated with both approved and investigational molecularly targeted agents. Ocular toxicity has been described with numerous approved targeted agents and also seems to be associated with several classes of agents currently being tested in early-phase clinical trials. We discuss the proposed pathogenesis, monitoring guidelines, and management recommendations. It is important for oncologists to be aware of the potential for ocular toxicity, with prompt recognition of symptoms that require referral to an ophthalmologist. Ongoing collaboration between oncologists and ocular disease specialists is critical as the use of molecularly targeted agents continues to expand and novel targeted drug combinations are developed.

  8. Issue 6, Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters


    Full Text Available There has been more interest than I'd ever anticipated in issue 6 "Digital Publication", the first themed issue of Internet Archaeology - so much so that several more related articles have been submitted and will appear in issue 7! The discussion on linearity and hypertext, arising from the contributions by Cornelius Holtorf and Andre Costopoulos, also generated some serious and lengthy debate on our email discussion list intarch-interest for the first time too, and my thanks go out to all who participated - active authorship and readership in practice. Archaeologists are using the web and other electronic media more than ever now, but I believe that this is not just "because it's there". Theoretically and practically, the internet is a valuable tool for us. On the web, rather than on the printed page, we can come closer to fulfilling our concerns about dissemination, we can more easily incorporate many "voices" and facilitate the opening up of our work and our interpretations to critical inquiry, immediately and on a global scale. At the same time, the web also offers new and experimental ways of expressing and communicating our work, and the flexibility of the medium means that our information can even be layered in complexity - depth and the building up of layers and meaning are concepts that every archaeologist is familiar with after all! But there's one more reason why I think archaeology and the web should be embraced. The printed word lies at the very core of a discipline like history; archaeology, on the other hand, is made up of what we see (images, what we feel (experience, what we find (material, what we read (text - it is multimedia. So what better way to communicate all these things than in a like-minded medium?

  9. Ethical issues in nanotechnology. (United States)

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata


    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field.

  10. Accelerating News Issue 4

    CERN Document Server

    Szeberenyi, A; Wildner, E


    In this winter issue, we are very pleased to announce the approval of EuCARD-2 by the European Commission. We look at the conclusions of EUROnu in proposing future neutrino facilities at CERN, a new milestone reached by CLIC and progress on the SPARC upgrade using C-band technology. We also report on recent events: second Joint HiLumi LHC-LARP Annual Meeting and workshop on Superconducting technologies for the Next Generation of Accelerators aiming at closer collaboration with industry. The launch of the Accelerators for Society brochure is also highlighted.

  11. Ethical issues in transgenics. (United States)

    Sherlock, R; Morrey, J D


    The arguments of critics and concerns of the public on generating transgenic cloned animals are analyzed for the absence or presence of logical structure. Critics' arguments are symbolically compared with "genetic trespassing," "genetic speeding," or "going the wrong way," and responses are provided to these arguments. Scientists will be empowered to participate in the public discussion and to engage the critics on these issues as they consider thoughtful, plausible responses to their concerns. Temporary moratoriums are recognized as a plausible approach to dealing with possible concerns of new scientific advancements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The term “cloud computing” has been in the spotlights of IT specialists the last years because of its potential to transform this industry. The promised benefits have determined companies to invest great sums of money in researching and developing this domain and great steps have been made towards implementing this technology. Managers have traditionally viewed IT as difficult and expensive and the promise of cloud computing leads many to think that IT will now be easy and cheap. The reality is that cloud computing has simplified some technical aspects of building computer systems, but the myriad challenges facing IT environment still remain. Organizations which consider adopting cloud based services must also understand the many major problems of information policy, including issues of privacy, security, reliability, access, and regulation. The goal of this article is to identify the main security issues and to draw the attention of both decision makers and users to the potential risks of moving data into “the cloud”.

  13. Clinical research: regulatory issues. (United States)

    Wermeling, D P


    The regulatory issues faced by institutions performing clinical research are described. Many institutions do not have on staff an expert who understands the regulatory issues involved in managing investigational new drug research and who knows the institution's obligations under the federal rules. Because pharmacists understand the FDA regulations that apply to the management of drugs in clinical research, institutions are asking pharmacists to expand their role and manage clinical research offices. Many authorities govern various aspects of investigational drug research. FDA has published regulations for good clinical practice (GCP), and the International Conference on Harmonisation is developing an international standard for the proper management of clinical trials. The guidelines published by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations aim to protect patients who are in the institution to receive health care and also participate in clinical trials. The Social Security Administration Acts specifically state that only items and services that are reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of injury or disease can be billed to the government; research-related billings are excluded from coverage. Proper management of drug research is crucial to the success of a research program that is integrated with patient care.

  14. Orbital debris issues (United States)

    Kessler, D. J.

    Orbital debris issues fall into three major topics: Environment Definition, Spacecraft Hazard, and Space Object Management. The major issue under Environment Definition is defining the debris flux for sizes smaller (10 cm in diameter) than those tracked by the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). Sources for this size debris are fragmentation of larger objects, either by explosion or collision, and solid rocket motor products. Modeling of these sources can predict fluxes in low Earth orbit which are greater than the meteoroid environment. Techniques to measure the environment in the size interval between 1 mm and 10 cm are being developed, including the use of telescopes and radar both on the ground and in space. Some impact sensors designed to detect meteoroids may have detected solid rocket motor products. Once the environment is defined, it can be combined with hypervelocity impact data and damage criteria to evaluate the Spacecraft Hazard. Shielding may be required to obtain an acceptable damage level. Space Object Management includes techniques to control the environment and the desired policy to effectively minimize the hazard to spacecraft. One control technique - reducing the likelihood of future explosions in space - has already been implemented by NASA. The effectiveness of other techniques has yet to be evaluated.

  15. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, B. [PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs.

  16. Global Energy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, M.


    The e8 is a Non-Government Organization of nine power companies from the G8 countries. It was established in 1992 to play an active role in global electricity issues and to promote sustainable energy development. The e8 is governed by the Chairmen of the member companies, who exchange their views on common themes of the year at their annual Summit meetings. At the Evian Summit in May 2006, the Chairmen discussed 'Global Energy Issues' and established a common statement of e8 commitments and recommendations as follows: (1) Optimum mix of energy supply, (2) Investment for infrastructure and demand growth, (3) Promoting sustainable energy development by sharing expertise, (4) Cooperation among electricity companies, (5) Integration and modernisation of transmission networks, (6) Inclusion of large scale-technologies under the Flexible Mechanisms, (7) International financial institutions, (8) Developments of long-term contracts in the electricity sector, (9) International Institutions - Producer and Consumer Countries, (10) Public acceptance. Guided by this statement, e8 will stride ahead toward achieving 3A's (Accessibility, Availability, Acceptability) globally. (auth)

  17. Environmental issues in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, P.S.


    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Common synonymous variants in ABCA4 are protective for chloroquine induced maculopathy (toxic maculopathy)


    Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Bergholz, Richard; Mändl, Julia; Jägle, Herbert; Ruether, Klaus; Grassmann, Felix


    Background Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are used to treat auto-immune related diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus. Both drugs however can cause retinal toxicity eventually leading to irreversible maculopathy and retinopathy. Established risk factors are duration and dosage of treatment while the involvement of genetic factors contributing to toxic maculopathy is largely unclear. To address the latter issue, this study aimed to expand on ...


    Petryszyn, Paweł; Wiela-Hojeńska, Anna


    The fact that resources for health care are limited has been found as a rationale for the development of pharmacoeconomics. Pharmacoeconomic analysis identifies, measures and compares the costs and the economic, clinical and humanistic outcomes of diseases, drug therapies and programmes directed to these diseases. As health care expenditures have escalated over the past decades, the number of its applications has increased. Taking into consideration outcome and economic issues and establishing their mutual relationship helps proper resource allocation. In the case of some effective and toxic drugs therapeutic drug monitoring has been proven to allow obtaining the desired clinical effects safely and thus to improve outcome. However, it requires the presence of clinical pharmacology or clinical pharmacy service within a hospital, which in turn is associated with some additional costs. This review sums up the results of pharmacoeconomic studies relevant to the use of therapeutic drug monitoring in case of the medicines for which it has been commonly performed so far.

  20. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012


    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  1. The cellular toxicity of aluminium. (United States)

    Exley, C; Birchall, J D


    Aluminium is a serious environmental toxicant and is inimical to biota. Omnipresent, it is linked with a number of disorders in man including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's dementia and osteomalacia. Evidence supporting aluminium as an aetiological agent in such disorders is not conclusive and suffers principally from a lack of consensus with respect to aluminium's toxic mode of action. Obligatory to the elucidation of toxic mechanisms is an understanding of the biological availability of aluminium. This describes the fate of and response to aluminium in any biological system and is thus an important influence of the toxicity of aluminium. A general theme in much aluminium toxicity is an accelerated cell death. Herein mechanisms are described to account for cell death from both acute and chronic aluminium challenges. Aluminium associations with both extracellular surfaces and intracellular ligands are implicated. The cellular response to aluminium is found to be biphasic having both stimulatory and inhibitory components. In either case the disruption of second messenger systems is observed and GTPase cycles are potential target sites. Specific ligands for aluminium at these sites are unknown though are likely to be proteins upon which oxygen-based functional groups are orientated to give exceptionally strong binding with the free aluminium ion.

  2. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)


    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  3. Software Tool Issues (United States)

    Hennell, Michael

    This chapter relies on experience with tool development gained over the last thirty years. It shows that there are a large number of techniques that contribute to any successful project, and that formality is always the key: a modern software test tool is based on a firm mathematical foundation. After a brief introduction, Section 2 recalls and extends the terminology of Chapter 1. Section 3 discusses the the design of different sorts of static and dynamic analysis tools. Nine important issues to be taken into consideration when evaluating such tools are presented in Section 4. Section 5 investigates the interplay between testing and proof. In Section 6, we call for developers to take their own medicine and verify their tools. Finally, we conclude in Section 7 with a summary of our main messages, emphasising the important role of testing.

  4. Ergonomics Issues in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Loo


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ergonomics so far has had little impact in Malaysia. For most Malaysian managers, ergonomics is not considered to be associated with performance, but rather with occupational health and safety and legislation. Approach: This study reviews the development of ergonomics in Malaysia and the underlying issues related to national development. Results: Many changes need to be made within the ergonomics research, education and practice community by integrating concepts from the social sciences with technological advances into Malaysian culture to enhance productivity and sustainable improvements in the quality of life, while achieving essential health and safety goals. Conclusion/Recommendation: Ergonomics helps to improve performance besides enhancing workplace OSH. It is essential to promote ergonomics concepts and practice to various industries in Malaysia. More effort and skills are required to compensate for the lack of infrastructure in providing a framework within which ergonomics recommendations can be disseminated and realized.

  5. Space radiation protection issues. (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Cucinotta, Francis A


    The complex charged particle environments in space pose considerable challenges with regard to potential health consequences that can impact mission design and crew selection. The lack of knowledge of the biological effects of different ions in isolation and in combination is a particular concern because the risk uncertainties are very high for both cancer and non-cancer late effects. Reducing the uncertainties is of high priority. Two principal components of space radiation each raise different concerns. Solar particle events (SPE) occur sporadically and are comprised primarily of low- to moderate-energy protons. Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is isotropic and relatively invariant in dose rate. GCR is also dominated by protons, but the energy range is wider than in SPE. In addition, the contribution of other light and heavy ions to the health risks from GCR must be addressed. This paper will introduce the principal issues under consideration for space radiation protection.

  6. Issues in energy finance (United States)

    Khokher, Zeigham Islam

    As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In

  7. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))


    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  8. Integrating Mathematics and Social Issues (United States)

    Harrell, Gregory K.


    This article illustrates how to integrate mathematics with social issues. Social issues discussed in the newspaper provide a rich context for connecting mathematical activities to the real world. The sample activities focus on measurement concepts. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. Launch Services Program EMC Issues (United States)

    trout, Dawn


    Presentation covers these issues: (1) Vehicles of the Launch Services Program, (2) RF Environment, (3) Common EMC Launch Vehicle Payload Integration Issues, (4) RF Sensitive Missions and (5) Lightning Monitoring,

  10. Molecular mechanisms of homocysteine toxicity. (United States)

    Boldyrev, A A


    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for a number of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative processes as well as a complicating factor in normal pregnancy. Toxic effects of homocysteine and the product of its spontaneous oxidation, homocysteic acid, are based on their ability to activate NMDA receptors, increasing intracellular levels of ionized calcium and reactive oxygen species. Even a short-term exposure of cells to homocysteic acid at concentrations characteristic of hyperhomocysteinemia induces their apoptotic transformation. The discovery of NMDA receptors both in neuronal tissue and in several other tissues and organs (including immunocompetent cells) makes them a target for toxic action of homocysteine. The neuropeptide carnosine was found to protect the organism from homocysteine toxicity. Treatment of pregnant rats with carnosine under conditions of alimentary hyperhomocysteinemia increases viability and functional activity of their progeny.

  11. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan


    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  12. Lung toxicity of biodegradable nanoparticles. (United States)

    Fattal, Elias; Grabowski, Nadége; Mura, Simona; Vergnaud, Juliette; Tsapis, Nicolas; Hillaireau, Hervé


    Biodegradable nanoparticles exhibit high potentialities for local or systemic drug delivery through lung administration making them attractive as nanomedicine carriers. However, since particulate matter or some inorganic manufactured nanoparticles exposed to lung cells have provoked cytotoxic effects, inflammatory and oxidative stress responses, it becomes important to investigate nanomedicine toxicity towards the lungs. This is the reason why, in the present review, the behavior of biodegradable nanoparticles towards the different parts of the respiratory tract as well as the toxicological consequences, measured on several models in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo, are described. Taken all together, the different studies carried out so far conclude on no or slight toxicity of biodegradable nanoparticles.

  13. Nanofluids research: key issues. (United States)

    Wang, Liqiu; Fan, Jing


    Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets) in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities). Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids.

  14. In This Issue (United States)


    Composing the Curriculum For your summer reading pleasure this month's issue provides a wide range of subjects and activities. Our lead article is a tribute to a chemist-composer, Lejaren A. Hiller, Jr., as well as an examination of the interesting relationship between chemistry (and science) and music. Like Hiller, Wamser and Wamser (page 601) love both chemistry and music, and this comes through loud and clear in their historical perspective on Hiller's work. Much of the rest of the issue impinges on the chemistry curriculum in one form or another. Rettich, Bailey, Frank, and Frick (page 638) describe an integrated first- and second-year curriculum being developed at Illinois Wesleyan University that includes all subdisciplines of chemistry. They describe ways to teach topics such as acids and bases so that the perspectives of (for example) organic and inorganic chemistry are integrated and contemporaneous. Those contemplating a popular reform, group work or cooperative learning, will be interested in Birk and Kurtz's program (page 615) for training teaching assistants using cooperative learning. Surely TAs who have participated in cooperative groups to develop their own techniques for handling discussion and lab sessions will be able to use group learning to better advantage. Several years ago the ACS Division of Chemical Education set up a Task Force on the General Chemistry Curriculum. With support from the National Science Foundation and others, the task force has been quite active. In addition to the summative reports published here (pages 617-636) on four areas in which general chemistry teaching can be improved, they have contributed many Forum columns in earlier issues of the Journal and have published much of their work in New Directions for General Chemistry: A Resource for Curricular Change; Baird W. Lloyd, ed. Our current approach to teaching electron configurations of the atoms is largely based on quantum theory Because of the mathematics required

  15. Neoprene splinting: dermatological issues. (United States)

    Stern, E B; Callinan, N; Hank, M; Lewis, E J; Schousboe, J T; Ytterberg, S R


    Occupational therapists are expanding their use of custom and commercial soft splints fabricated from neoprene (polychloroprene), but little has been written regarding dermatological issues associated with this material. Skin contact with neoprene poses two dermatological risks: allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and miliaria rubra (i.e., prickly heat). Allergic reaction to neoprene is generally ascribed to the accelerants used to manufacture the man-made rubber, specifically thiourea compounds and mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). Symptoms of neoprene-related ACD include itching, skin eruptions, swelling, and hemorrhages into the skin. Miliaria rubra creates small, red, elevated, inflammatory papules and a tingling, burning sensation. Although neoprene hypersensitivity is rare, its incidence may grow as neoprene becomes a more commonly used material. It is recommended that therapists screen patients for a history of dermatological reactions to neoprene or other materials containing thiourea compounds or MBT and educate patients to discontinue splint use if dermatological symptoms develop. Therapists are also encouraged to notify splint manufacturers regarding all ACD reactions.

  16. Social Issues in Proposals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    During the annual session of the 11th National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) that concluded on March 14,1,992 of the total 2,236 members at the beginning of their five-year term in China’s top advisory body submitted 4,772 proposals. Members of the CPPCC National Committee put forward proposals to offer comments and suggestions on major po- litical and social issues of the country.A proposal can be raised by one member or a group of members;by one or more groups jointly;in the name of a party or non-government group that has joined the CPPCC;or in the name of a sub- committee of the CPPCC National Committee. Out of the proposals that were classified during the conference,1,863 or 41.16 percent were on economic matters;1,405 or 31.04 percent were on education,scientific research,entertainment,health care and sports;and 1,258 proposals or 27.8 percent were on legal affairs and social seeurity. During the pnst five years,the CPPCC National Committee handled over 23,000 proposals,of which 21,843 were sent to government branches in charge of the matters for solution. Following are summaries of some selected proposals.

  17. Acknowledgment - Issue 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Executive Editor


    Full Text Available Biblios wish to acknowledge the support of the following professionals who participated in the review process of submissions for our issue 60.ReviewersAndré Ancona Lopez (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, BrasilGildenir Carolino Santos (Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, BrasilJacira Gil Bernardes (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, BrasilRodrigo Donoso Vegas (Universidad de Chile - UCHILE, ChileSaúl Hiram Souto Fuentes (Universidad de Monterrey - UDEM, MéxicoReviewers invitedAlejandro Uribe Tirado (Universidad de Antioquia - UDEA, ColombiaFernanda Passini Moreno (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, BrasilJosé Bernal Rivas Fernández (Universidad de Costa Rica - UCR, Costa RicaMarta Lígia Pomim Valentim (Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, BrasilOrlando Corzo Cauracurí (Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos - UNMSM, PerúTerezinha Elisabeth da Silva (Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, BrasilZaira Regina Zafalon (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - UFSCAR, BrasilIn the same way our acknowledge to University Library System (University of Pittsburgh - PITTS, USA by constant technical support and advice for our journal.

  18. Nanofluids Research: Key Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liqiu


    Full Text Available Abstract Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities. Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids.

  19. Proceedings of the 36. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, L.; Triffault-Bouchet, G. [Centre d' expertise en analyse environnementale du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Fournier, M. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, Laval, PQ (Canada). Inst. Armand Frappier; Berryman, D.; Guay, I. [Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Campbell, P.G.C. [Quebec Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Eau, Terre et Environnement; Lebeuf, M.; Couillard, C. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne; Parent, L. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Pellerin, J. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski; Benoit, P. [Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs du Quebec, Longueil, PQ (Canada); Lacroix, E. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Burridge, L.E. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. Andrews, NB (Canada)] (eds.)


    This workshop was held to discuss topics related to aquatic and environmental toxicology. Principles, issues, and recent innovations in aquatic toxicology were reviewed. New developments in environmental monitoring were discussed, as well as issues related to environmental regulation. The workshop was attended by a range of stakeholders from governments, universities, and industry. The sessions were entitled: legacy contaminants 1 organics; nanotoxicology; environmental effects monitoring; oil sands; BFR and other emerging contaminants; biomarkers; neuro and endocrine disrupting compounds; remediation of degraded aquatic environments; legacy contaminants 2 hydrocarbons; waterborne and diet-borne metals; water and sediment standards and criteria; pesticides; amphibians and wildlife toxicology; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 2; environmental risk assessment; genomics, protemics, and metabolomics; contamination in the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine park; legacy contaminants 3 organics and metals; community level indicators; toxicity tests; toxicity mechanisms; areas of concern; general aquatic toxicology; general legacy contaminants; emerging contaminants; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 1; omics in aquatic ecotoxicology; organism or population level indicators; and toxicity tests. The workshop featured 250 presentations, of which 24 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  20. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novack, Steven David; Marshall, Frances Mc Clellan; Stromberg, Howard Merion; Grant, Gary Michael


    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEELs lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

  1. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. M. Marshall; G. M. Grant; H. M. Stromberg; S. D. Novack


    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk-informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEEL's lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

  2. Chemistry, toxicity, and bioavailability of copper and its relationship to regulation in the marine environment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, P.E.; Zirino, A.


    This document details issues addressed at a June 1997 workshop attended by Navy and regulatory representatives and scientific experts. Objectives discussed were: (1) define the current status and future direction of copper (Cu) regulations, (2) define problems and issues associated with the introduction of copper into the estuarine environment, and (3) discuss and evaluate the relationship between copper speciation, bio-availability, and toxicity.

  3. Gossypol Toxicity from Cottonseed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cristina N. Gadelha


    Full Text Available Gossypol is a phenolic compound produced by pigment glands in cotton stems, leaves, seeds, and flower buds (Gossypium spp.. Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton that is used for animal feeding because it is rich in oil and proteins. However, gossypol toxicity limits cottonseed use in animal feed. High concentrations of free gossypol may be responsible for acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning which include respiratory distress, impaired body weight gain, anorexia, weakness, apathy, and death after several days. However, the most common toxic effects is the impairment of male and female reproduction. Another important toxic effect of gossypol is its interference with immune function, reducing an animal’s resistance to infections and impairing the efficiency of vaccines. Preventive procedures to limit gossypol toxicity involve treatment of the cottonseed product to reduce the concentration of free gossypol with the most common treatment being exposure to heat. However, free gossypol can be released from the bound form during digestion. Agronomic selection has produced cotton varieties devoid of glands producing gossypol, but these varieties are not normally grown because they are less productive and are more vulnerable to attacks by insects.

  4. The Effect of Toxic Leadership (United States)


    for everything their organizations do or fail to do. However, does centralizing power in this manner lead to abuses and toxicity? According to Edmund ... Burke , ―Power, in whatever hands, is rarely guilty of too strict limitations on itself.‖115 The U.S. Government is strengthened by a system of

  5. Sparfloxacin induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh M


    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a life-threatening cutaneous adverse drug reaction. TEN is known to occur with the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, but only four cases of sparfloxacin induced TEN have been reported to the WHO database. This is another case report of sparfloxacin induced TEN.

  6. Iodine toxicity and its amelioration. (United States)

    Baker, David H


    Iodine (I) toxicity is rare in animals and humans, but nuclear explosions that give off radioactive I and excessive stable I ingestion in parts of the world where seaweed is consumed represent specialized I toxicity concerns. Chronic overconsumption of I reduces organic binding of I by the thyroid gland, which results in hypothyroidism and goiter. Bromine can replace I on position 5 of both T(3) and T(4) with no loss of thyroid hormone activity. Avian work has also demonstrated that oral bromide salts can reverse the malaise and growth depressions caused by high doses of I (as KI) added as supplements to the diet. Newborn infants by virtue of having immature thyroid glands are most susceptible to I toxicity, whether of stable or radioactive origin. For the latter, the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Belarus has provided evidence that KI blockage therapy for exposed individuals 18 years of age and younger is effective in minimizing the development of thyroid cancer. Whether bromide therapy has a place in I toxicity situations remains to be determined.

  7. Recent advances in caffeine and theobromine toxicities: a review. (United States)

    Eteng, M U; Eyong, E U; Akpanyung, E O; Agiang, M A; Aremu, C Y


    Caffeine and theobromine are purine alkaloids widely consumed as stimulants and snacks in coffee and cocoa based foods and most often as part of ingredients in drugs. Man has enjoyed a long history of consumption of caffeine and theobromine. Recent interest in these two alkaloids, however, is centered on their potential reproductive toxicities. Caffeine and theobromine are now known to cross the placental and blood brain barrier thus potentially inducing fetal malformation by affecting the expression of genes vital in development. The developing fetus may not have developed enzymes for detoxification of these methylxanthine alkaloids via demethylation. There is a need, therefore, to protect the conceptus against 'insults' from teratogens of this nature. Apart from its reproductive toxicity, the presence of caffeine and theobromine in cocoa could limit its potentials as a nourishing food. This is an issue that needs to be addressed by nutritionists and the food industry at large. This paper discusses the natural sources, consumption and uses, toxicity and the major advances in the reproductive toxicology of caffeine and theobromine. The biosynthesis of these compounds in plants, metabolism in mammalian systems and the involvement of cytochrome P450 are reviewed and summarized. Evidence in favor of the toxicity of these compounds in experimental animals is presented with emphasis on the implications of these findings in humans. The paper concludes with a call for caution in the use of caffeine and theobromine pending further and more elaborate investigations.

  8. Geo Issue Tracking System (United States)

    Khakpour, Mohammad; Paulik, Christoph; Hahn, Sebastian


    Communication about remote sensing data quality between data providers and users as well as between the users is often difficult. The users have a hard time figuring out if a product has known problems over their region of interest and data providers have to spend a lot of effort to make this information available, if it exists. Scientific publications are one tool for communicating with the users base but they are static and mostly one way. As a data provider it is also often difficult to make feedback, received from users, available to the complete user base. The Geo Issue Tracking System (GeoITS) is an Open Source Web Application which has been developed to mitigate these problems. GeoITS combines a mapping interface (Google Maps) with a simple wiki platform. It allows users to give region specific feedback on a remote sensing product by drawing a polygon on the map and describing the problems they had using the remote sensing product in this area. These geolocated wiki entries are then viewable by other users as well as the data providers which can modify and extend the entries. In this way the conversations between the users and the data provider are no longer hidden in e.g. emails but open for all users of the dataset. This new kind of communication platform can enable better cooperation between users and data providers. It will also provide data providers with the ability to track problems their dataset might have in certain areas and resolve them with new product releases. The source code is available via A running instance can be tried at

  9. Mars Surface Environmental Issues (United States)

    Charles, John


    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http :// Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  10. Methods For Collecting , Culturing And Performing Toxicity Tests With Daphnia ambigua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Winona L.


    Toxicity tests conducted on water collected from impacted locations in SRS streams often failed chronic toxicity tests and sometimes failed acute toxicity tests (Specht 1995). These findings prompted SRS to determine the cause of the failures. Some SRS NPDES outfalls were also failing chronic toxicity tests, even though no toxicant could be identified and when TIEs were performed, none of the TIE treatments removed the toxicity. Ultimately, it was determined that the failures were due to the low hardness of SRS surface waters, rather than to the presence of a toxicant. The species of cladoceran that the EPA recommends for toxicity testing, Ceriodaphnia dubia, is stressed by the very low hardness of SRS waters. SRS developed an alternate species toxicity test that is similar to the EPA test, but uses an indigenous cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (Specht and Harmon, 1997; Harmon et al., 2003). In 2001, SCDHEC approved the use of D. ambigua for toxicity testing at SRS, contingent upon approval by EPA Region 4. In 2002, EPA Region 4 approved the use of this species for compliance toxicity testing at SRS. Ultimately, the use of this species demonstrated that SRS effluents were not toxic, and most toxicity testing requirements were removed from the NPDES permit that was issued in December 2003, with the exception of one round of chronic definitive testing on outfalls A-01, A-11, and G-10 just before the next NPDES permit application is submitted to SCDHEC. Although the alternate species test was developed at SRS (1996-1998), the culture was transferred to a contract toxicity testing lab (ETT Environmental) located in Greer, SC in 1998. ETT Environmental became certified by SCDHEC to perform toxicity tests using D. ambigua in 2002, and at this time is the only laboratory certified by SCDHEC to perform tests with this species. Because of the expense associated with maintaining the D. ambigua culture for several years when no toxicity testing is required, SRS decided to suspend

  11. Comparative Ochratoxin Toxicity: A Review of the Available Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra H. Heussner


    Full Text Available Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by a variety of moulds. Ochratoxin A (OTA, the most prominent member of this toxin family, was first described by van der Merwe et al. in Nature in 1965. Dietary exposure to OTA represents a serious health issue and has been associated with several human and animal diseases including poultry ochratoxicosis, porcine nephropathy, human endemic nephropathies and urinary tract tumours in humans. More than 30 years ago, OTA was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents and since then extensive research has been performed in order to investigate its mode of action, however, this is still under debate. OTA is regarded as the most toxic family member, however, other ochratoxins or their metabolites and, in particular, ochratoxin mixtures or combinations with other mycotoxins may represent serious threats to human and animal health. This review summarises and evaluates current knowledge about the differential and comparative toxicity of the ochratoxin group.

  12. Comparative Ochratoxin Toxicity: A Review of the Available Data. (United States)

    Heussner, Alexandra H; Bingle, Lewis E H


    Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by a variety of moulds. Ochratoxin A (OTA), the most prominent member of this toxin family, was first described by van der Merwe et al. in Nature in 1965. Dietary exposure to OTA represents a serious health issue and has been associated with several human and animal diseases including poultry ochratoxicosis, porcine nephropathy, human endemic nephropathies and urinary tract tumours in humans. More than 30 years ago, OTA was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents and since then extensive research has been performed in order to investigate its mode of action, however, this is still under debate. OTA is regarded as the most toxic family member, however, other ochratoxins or their metabolites and, in particular, ochratoxin mixtures or combinations with other mycotoxins may represent serious threats to human and animal health. This review summarises and evaluates current knowledge about the differential and comparative toxicity of the ochratoxin group.

  13. Ethical issues in neuroprosthetics (United States)

    Glannon, Walter


    Objective. Neuroprosthetics are artificial devices or systems designed to generate, restore or modulate a range of neurally mediated functions. These include sensorimotor, visual, auditory, cognitive affective and volitional functions that have been impaired or lost from congenital anomalies, traumatic brain injury, infection, amputation or neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, brain-to-brain interfaces and hippocampal prosthetics can bypass, replace or compensate for dysfunctional neural circuits, brain injury and limb loss. They can enable people with these conditions to gain or regain varying degrees of control of thought and behavior. These direct and indirect interventions in the brain raise general ethical questions about weighing the potential benefit of altering neural circuits against the potential harm from neurophysiological and psychological sequelae. Other ethical questions are more specific to the therapeutic goals of particular neuroprosthetics and the conditions for which they are indicated. These include informed consent, agency, autonomy (free will) and identity. Approach. This review is an analysis and discussion of these questions. It also includes consideration of social justice issues such as how to establish and implement fair selection criteria in providing access to neuroprosthetic research and balancing technological innovation with patients’ best interests. Main results. Neuroprosthetics can restore or improve motor and mental functions in bypassing areas of injury or modulating dysregulation in neural circuits. As enabling devices that integrate with these circuits, neuroprosthetics can restore varying degrees of autonomous agency for people affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. They can also re-establish the connectedness and continuity of the psychological properties they had before injury or disease onset and thereby

  14. The hydrogen issue. (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo


    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  15. Mega-constellations Issues (United States)

    Bastida Virgili, Benjamin; Krag, Holger


    increase drastically. In this study, we report the detected issues of such a mega-constellation traffic, and we analyse the response of the space object population to the introduction of a large constellation conforming to the post-mission disposal guideline with differing levels of success and with different disposal orbit options.

  16. In This Issue (United States)


    Organic Chemistry--New Challenges Perhaps more than any other of the chemical subdisciplines, the scope and focus of organic chemistry has been changed by modern technology and theoretical advances, and these changes have had an equally striking effect on the undergraduate curriculum. The main challenge in organic chemistry classes has shifted, in less than a generation, from memorizing all the groups, naming conventions, and classes of reactions to understanding complex interactions at the structural and electronic orbital level. As biochemistry and polymer chemistry have grown from being the purview of a few specialists to full-blown disciplines of their own, they have also migrated from interesting, but optional, chapters at the back of the book to separate courses in the curriculum. The availability of inexpensive instrumentation means undergraduates routinely use NMR and mass spec instead of melting points to identify their products. And the changes are continuing: segments of biochemistry are metamorphizing into molecular biology and polymer chemistry is finding interconnections with materials science. In fact, as our understanding of chemical reactions at molecular and electronic levels expands, it becomes more and more difficult to decide on demarcations between the subdisciplines. Organic chemistry is an organizational construct that once was useful for segregating certain topics into a coherent two-semester introductory course. Today, it covers so much territory that no one who is an "organic chemist" can know even a small fraction of the territory and faces unique challenges when designing and teaching undergraduate courses. In a wide spectrum of articles in this issue that fall under the "organic" umbrella--from environmental chemistry to new polymer products--teachers share their specific experiences and creative solutions to these challenges, providing their colleagues with new ideas, processes, and pedagogic approaches. To start off, we can examine

  17. Toxic effects of domestic sewage on zooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    The toxic effects of raw domestic sewage on different groups of zooplank-ton, was tested in the laboratory for evaluating acute toxicity. 24 hr., LC-50 values for larvae of stomatopods, gastropods and chaetognaths (2-7% concentration) indicated...

  18. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released...

  19. Burning up TNF toxicity for cancer therapy


    Leist, Marcel; Jäättelä, Marja


    The tumor-killing capacity and the systemic toxicity of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have appeared inseparable. Now a study shows that TNF loses its toxicity but still kills tumors in heat-treated mice.

  20. Policy issues in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, DRF


    Policy Issues in Modern Cartography contains the views of national mapping agencies, legal scholars, the library community, the private sector and academia on these and many other important issues. The book begins with perspectives from national mapping agencies in Britain, Canada and the United States followed by a survey of the situation in Asia. The next three chapters deal primarily with legal issues such as copyright and intellectual property from both North American and European perspectives. Chapter 8 presents an important perspective on the key issues by a representative of the privat

  1. Current issues with research support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W.T.


    It would be difficult to condense current issues in nuclear reactor regulation to just a few minutes. So, let me start off by saying that I have not tried to give a comprehensive listing of issues that are currently facing the reactor program, but rather to select those that I thought were relevant as they relate to research activities. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in regulatory decisions; materials aging issues concerning steam generators and reactor vessels; high burnup fuels; accident management; and digital instrumentation and control, are just a sampling of the important issues that I want to talk about.

  2. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review Cold Smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.


    Cold Smoke is a dense white smoke produced by the reaction of titanium tetrachloride and aqueous ammonia aerosols. Early studies on the toxicity of this nonpyrotechnically generated smoke indicated that the smoke itself is essentially non-toxic (i.e. exhibits to systemic toxicity or organ damage due to exposure) under normal deployment conditions. The purpose of this evaluation was to review and summarize the recent literature data available on the toxicity of Cold Smoke, its chemical constituents, and its starting materials.

  3. Liver toxicity of rosuvastatin therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Famularo; Luca Miele; Giovanni Minisola; Antonio Grieco


    We report here a case of clinically significant liver toxicity after a brief course of rosuvastatin, which is the first statin approved by the regulatory authorities since the withdrawal of cerivastatin. Whether rosuvastatin has a greater potential compared with other statins to damage the liver is unclear and the involved mechanisms are also unknown. However, rosuvastatin is taken up by hepatocytes more selectively and more efficiently than other statins, and this may reasonably represent an important variable to explain the hepatotoxic potential of rosuvastatin. Our report supports the view that a clinically significant risk of liver toxicity should be considered even when rosuvastatin is given at the range of doses used in common clinical practice.

  4. Mechanisms of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Rasmus

    nanometers. At this size, materials begin to exhibit unique properties that affect physical, chemical, and biological behavior. However, the same characteristics which make nanomaterials attractive for exploitation in new products have led to concerns that nanomaterials may pose a risk for humans...... to their anti-microbial properties, high electrical conductivity, and optical properties. Information about the mechanisms involved in the cytotoxicity of Ag NPs is important in order to evaluate the potential hazards posed by these particles. Several studies have suggested oxidative stress to play a major role...... in NP toxicity. But, to what degree and by which mechanism Ag NPs cause oxidative stress in cells is unresolved. The present PhD project set out to explore the cellular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of Ag NPs in vitro. In particular, the study aimed to assess the induction of cellular pathways...

  5. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Öner


    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  6. Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStolzberg


    Full Text Available Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs or aging which affects ~14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed.

  7. Toxicity testing using Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middendorf, P.J.; Dusenbery, D.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Williams, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)


    Caenorhabditis elegans is a small free-living nematode that is representative of what may be the most abundant animal group. It has been promoted as a possible model organism for toxicity testing in the laboratory and in field evaluations in part because more is known about its biology than any other animal, Toxicity tests using C. elegans have been developed with lethality, reproduction, and behavior as end points. The tests have also been developed to varying degrees using standard laboratory media, water, and soil. The results of the tests when exposing C. elegans to a variety of metals, inorganic, and organic compounds indicate it is typically at least as sensitive as other species currently used, such as Daphnia and earthworms, and is generally much easier to maintain in the laboratory. The advantages and disadvantages of C. elegans and the state of development of the tests will be discussed.

  8. Toxic Picoplanktonic Cyanobacteria—Review


    Natalia Jakubowska; Elżbieta Szeląg-Wasielewska


    Cyanobacteria of a picoplanktonic cell size (0.2 to 2.0 µm) are common organisms of both freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, due to their small size and relatively short study history, picoplanktonic cyanobacteria, in contrast to the microplanktonic cyanobacteria, still remains a poorly studied fraction of plankton. So far, only little information on picocyanobacteria toxicity has been reported, while the number of reports concerning their presence in ecosystems is increasing. Thus, th...

  9. Abacavir-induced liver toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Diletta Pezzani

    Full Text Available Abstract Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine.

  10. Abacavir-induced liver toxicity. (United States)

    Pezzani, Maria Diletta; Resnati, Chiara; Di Cristo, Valentina; Riva, Agostino; Gervasoni, Cristina


    Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine.

  11. Joint toxic effects on Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.J.


    In polluted areas organisms are generally exposed to mixtures of toxic chemicals rather than a single toxicant only. Since the number of mixture toxicity studies with regard to soil systems is limited, the research in this thesis was focused on investigating ecotoxicological consequences of combined

  12. Renal Toxicities of Targeted Therapies. (United States)

    Abbas, Anum; Mirza, Mohsin M; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Tendulkar, Ketki


    With the incorporation of targeted therapies in routine cancer therapy, it is imperative that the array of toxicities associated with these agents be well-recognized and managed, especially since these toxicities are distinct from those seen with conventional cytotoxic agents. This review will focus on these renal toxicities from commonly used targeted agents. This review discusses the mechanisms of these side effects and management strategies. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, aflibercept (VEGF trap), and anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) all cause hypertension, whereas some of them result in proteinuria. Monoclonal antibodies against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, cause electrolyte imbalances including hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia due to the direct nephrotoxic effect of the drug on renal tubules. Cetuximab may also result in renal tubular acidosis. The TKIs, imatinib and dasatinib, can result in acute or chronic renal failure. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can cause acute renal failure following initiation of therapy because of the onset of acute tumor lysis syndrome. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, can result in proteinuria. Discerning the renal adverse effects resulting from these agents is essential for safe treatment strategies, particularly in those with pre-existing renal disease.

  13. Postnatal toxic and acquired disorders. (United States)

    Saint-Amour, Dave; Dallaire, Renee; Dulac, Oliver


    To develop and function optimally, the brain requires a balanced environment of electrolytes, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and metabolic substrates. As a consequence, organ dysfunction has the potential to induce brain disorders and toxic-metabolic encephalopathies, particularly when occurring during early stages of cerebral maturation. Induced toxicity of three different organ systems that are commonly associated with brain complications are discussed. First, thyroid hormone deficiency caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors (e.g., environmental toxins) may induce severe adverse effects on child neurological development from reversible impairments to permanent mental retardation. Second, inadequate removal of wastes due to chronic renal failure leads to the accumulation of endogenous toxins that are harmful to brain function. In uremic pediatric patients, the brain becomes more vulnerable to exogenous substances such as aluminum, which can induce aluminum encephalopathy. Following surgical procedures, neurological troubles including focal defects and severe epileptic seizures may result from hypertensive encephalopathy combined with toxicity of immunomodulating substances, or from the delayed consequences of cardiovascular defect. Taken together, this illustrates that organ disorders clearly have an impact on child brain function in various ways.

  14. Cynoglossum officinale toxicity in calves. (United States)

    Baker, D C; Pfister, J A; Molyneux, R J; Kechele, P


    Six calves were given dried, ground Cynoglossum officinale daily in a dose which provided 15 (two calves) or 60 (four calves) mg per kg per day of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Those calves given 60 mg per kg of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids per day died following a single dose of plant material. These calves had a marked elevation of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities and serum bile acid and total bilirubin (TBili) concentrations. These four calves all had massive hepatocellular necrosis and haemorrhage of the liver. Of the two calves that were given 15 mg per kg of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids per day, one died on day 34 and the other survived until day 35 when it was painlessly killed. There were significant elevations in serum AST and GGT activities in these calves. The histological lesions of the calf surviving until 35 days were compatible with pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity, that is megalocytosis, karyomegaly and necrosis of hepatocytes with karyomegaly of biliary epithelium. The pyrrolizidine base present in Cynoglossum officinale (heliotridine) and its esters have a similar type of toxicity to the highly toxic and more familiar macrocyclic diester pyrrolizidine alkaloids of the pyrrolizidine base (retronecine), present in Senecio or Crotolaria species.

  15. Doxorubicin-induced ovarian toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizel Shulamith


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young cancer patients may occasionally face infertility and premature gonadal failure. Apart from its direct effect on follicles and oocytes, chemotherapy may induce ovarian toxicity via an impact on the entire ovary. The role of doxorubicin in potential ovarian failure remains obscure. Our intention was to elucidate doxorubicin-related toxicity within ovaries. Methods Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 or 10 mg/kg doxorubicin and their ovaries were visualized in vivo by high resolution MRI, one day and one month following treatment. Ovaries of other treated mice were excised and weighed at the same post-treatment intervals. Ovarian histological sections were stained for TUNEL or active caspase-3 and follicles were counted and categorized. Ovulation rates were evaluated in superovulated female mice treated with doxorubicin. Results A single injection of doxorubicin resulted in a major reduction in both ovarian size and weight that lasted even one month post treatment. A dramatic reduction in ovulation rate was observed one week after treatment, followed by a partial recovery at one month. Histological examination revealed positive staining of TUNEL and active caspase-3. We observed a significant reduction in the population of secondary and primordial follicles one month following treatment. Conclusions Our results may imply a mechanism of chemotherapy-induced ovarian toxicity, manifested by reduced ovulation and accompanied by a reduction in ovarian size, caused probably by an acute insult to the ovary.

  16. Issues for mature women with epilepsy. (United States)

    Harden, Cynthia L


    Specific concerns regarding mature women with epilepsy (WWE), specifically epilepsy-associated issues during perimenopause, menopause, and postmenopause, have been emerging in the epilepsy community. This chapter presents evidence that for WWE, seizure frequency may increase during perimenopause and decrease at postmenopause, especially if a catamenial epilepsy pattern was present during the reproductive years. This finding implies that, as in other age groups, a subset of mature WWE are particularly susceptible to endogenous reproductive hormonal changes. An adverse effect on seizure frequency with the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during postmenopause for WWE was reported in surveys, and a dose-related association between standard HRT and increased seizures was later borne out in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Management of symptomatic postmenopausal WWE using estrogenic and progestogenic compounds that are less likely to promote seizures is discussed. WWE are at risk for premature ovarian failure and for menopause at a younger age than the general population. This appears to be related to epilepsy severity in terms of seizure frequency and is likely a consequence of adverse effects of seizures and interictal activity on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The decline in antiepileptic drug (AED) clearance, as well as alterations in gastric functioning and decreasing albumin levels, with maturity can affect AED use in the aging population; therefore, mature individuals with epilepsy need to be monitored carefully for toxicity and for increasing AED levels that could eventually cause toxicity. Information about gender differences for AED use in the mature population is scant.

  17. [Toxic hepatitis due to the use of Ruta herbal medicine]. (United States)

    Rabaev, Elena; Zeller, Lior; Biton, Amnon; Barski, Leonid


    In recent years, the use of herbal medicine by the general population is increasing. There are many known side effects resulting from these treatments. Despite the known side effects, physicians tend to neglect the anamnesis details regarding this issue and research budgets of these drugs are relatively low compared with conventional medicine, thus causing a lack of updated information. In this case report, we present an example of toxic hepatitis due to use of Ruta herbal medicine, an unfamiliar side effect of the common herbal medicine Ruta.

  18. Environmental lead toxicity: Nutrition as a component of intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaffey, K.R. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))


    The influence of nutritional status on susceptibility to the toxicity of lead is discussed. Emphasis is given to dietary factors of substantial clinical importance. Subtle changes in susceptibility are difficult to evaluate under conditions of overwhelming lead exposure. It is clear that subtle effects of lead exposure on neurobehavioral and cognitive development are a major concern. The role of nutrition is considered to be an adjunct to reduction of environmental lead exposure, which is the primary means of reducing adverse health effects of lead. Nutrition should be evaluated as a component of strategies to address this broad societal issue.

  19. Current Issues in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)


    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference

  20. Mixture toxicity of three toxicants with similar and dissimilar modes of action to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, K.; Engell-Kofoed, Anders Elleby; Pedersen, H.;


    Mixture toxicity of similar- and dissimilar-acting toxicants can be predicted by the models concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) using single substance toxicity data. Knowledge of the toxicants mode of action is thus required in order to use the models. In order to test the pre...

  1. Issues in Training Family Scientists. (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others


    Issues related to graduate education in family science, especially at the doctoral level, are explored. Discusses competencies family scientists should have, as well as experiences necessary to help students acquire them. Proposes ideas for a core curriculum, identifies controversies and unresolved issues, and examines training for the future.…

  2. The NCSS Public Issues Program. (United States)

    McFarland, Mary


    Describes programs sponsored by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) to promote civic participation. The programs are National Issues Forums (NIF) in the Classroom; Jefferson Meetings; Great Decisions; Public Issues Series; and C-SPAN in the Classroom. (SLM)

  3. Editorial Volume 5 Issue 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciorstan J. Smark


    Full Text Available This issue of AABFJ contains a diverse range of articles from accounting, finance, financial planning and education. This issue leads with an article by Cowen, Blair and Taylor (2011 who examine, using a detailed case study, the educational technique of scaffolding to enhance the teaching and learning experiences of both staff and students in the teaching of financial planning.

  4. Teaching Gender Issues through Literature. (United States)

    McClish, Glen

    The issues of empiricism and theory-building can be used in practical terms to discuss how literary texts can be used to elucidate gender issues in the classroom. For instance, two literary texts written early in this century--Thornton Wilder's "Our Town" and Ernest Hemingway's short story "Up in Michigan"--can illustrate…

  5. Issue ownership and party choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, van der Wouter


    This study presents an empirical test of the extent to which the “issue ownership” model explains the electoral decisions of individual voters. The model has been tested mainly by its ability to predict aggregate election results by issue salience (e.g., Budge and Farlie, 1983 and Petrocik, 1996). A

  6. Introduction to the Special Issue


    Benati, Alessandro; Lee, James F.


    [Without Abstract]\\ud Introduction to International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, Volume 53, Issue 2 (Jun 2015)- Special Issue: Processing instruction: New insights after twenty years of theory, research and application. Guest Editors: Alessandro Benati and James F. Lee.

  7. Gene Transcription, Metabolite and Lipid Profiling in Eco-Indicator Daphnia magna Indicate Diverse Mechanisms of Toxicity by Legacy and Emerging Flame-Retardants (United States)

    The use of chemical flame-retardants (FR) in consumer products has steadily increased over the last 30 years. Toxicity data exist for legacy FRs such as pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE), but less is known about effects of new formulations. To address this issue, the toxicity o...

  8. A structure-toxicity study of Aß42 reveals a new anti-parallel aggregation pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Vignaud

    Full Text Available Amyloid beta (Aβ peptides produced by APP cleavage are central to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Despite widespread interest in this issue, the relationship between the auto-assembly and toxicity of these peptides remains controversial. One intriguing feature stems from their capacity to form anti-parallel ß-sheet oligomeric intermediates that can be converted into a parallel topology to allow the formation of protofibrillar and fibrillar Aβ. Here, we present a novel approach to determining the molecular aspects of Aß assembly that is responsible for its in vivo toxicity. We selected Aß mutants with varying intracellular toxicities. In vitro, only toxic Aß (including wild-type Aß42 formed urea-resistant oligomers. These oligomers were able to assemble into fibrils that are rich in anti-parallel ß-sheet structures. Our results support the existence of a new pathway that depends on the folding capacity of Aß .

  9. Food supply and food safety issues in China. (United States)

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming


    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China's connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain.

  10. Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review. (United States)

    Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C


    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion.

  11. Pulmonary toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles (United States)

    Peebles, Brian Christopher

    Manufactured nanomaterials have become ubiquitous in science, industry, and medicine. Although electron microscopy and surface probe techniques have improved understanding of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, much less is known about what makes nanomaterials toxic. Particulate matter less than 2.5 mum in effective aerodynamic diameter is easily inhaled and taken deep into the lungs. The toxicity of inhaled particulate matter is related to its size and surface chemistry; for instance, the smaller the size of particles, the greater their specific surface area. The chemistry and toxicity of insoluble particles depends on their surface area, since chemical reactions may happen with the environment on the surface. Oxidation and reduction may occur on the surfaces of particles after they are produced. For instance, it is known that carbonaceous particles from vehicle exhaust and industrial emission may interact with reactive species like ozone in their ambient environment, altering the surface chemistry of the particles. Reaction with species in the environment may cause changes in the chemical functionality of the surface and change the toxic properties of the particles when they are inhaled. Furthermore, metals on the surface of inhalable particles can contribute to their toxicity. Much attention has been given to the presence of iron on the surfaces of inhalable particles in the environment. After particle inhalation, particles are endocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the immune response to foreign matter. They are exposed to hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative burst, which can cause the iron-mediated production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction, causing oxidative stress that leads to inflammation and cell death. The toxicity of particles that contain metals depends on the redox activity and bioavailability of the metals, the causes of thich have not yet been adequately explored. In this thesis, electron paramagnetic spectroscopy showed

  12. Metal toxicity to freshwater organisms as a function of pH: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Meador, James P; Leung, Kenneth M Y


    Acidification caused by climate change and seasonal fluctuation can have profound implications for chemical toxicity to freshwater organisms. The present study aims to address this challenging issue through a comprehensive meta-analysis by comparing acute median lethal or effect concentration data (LC50 or EC50) for 10 metals and metalloids for various freshwater species obtained at different pH values. Our results revealed that element toxicity generally follows three different models, including Model-I: decreasing toxicity with increasing pH, Model-II: increasing toxicity with increasing pH, and Model-III: minimal toxicity at intermediate (optimal) pH (pH(opt)) with increasing toxicity as pH increases or decreases from pH(opt). We further examined these observations by constructing pH-dependent species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). The results indicated that the 10(th) percentile hazardous concentrations (HC10s) for copper, lead, selenium and silver generally exhibited a positive linear relationship with pH, following the Model-I. The ability to accurately predict toxicity of elements to biota in natural waters as a function of pH may be limited, however, the pH-dependent SSD approach presented in this study facilitates and helps characterize the role of pH in water quality guidelines and ecological risk assessment.

  13. Comparative toxicity of 24 manufactured nanoparticles in human alveolar epithelial and macrophage cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boczkowski Jorge


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical issue with nanomaterials is the clear understanding of their potential toxicity. We evaluated the toxic effect of 24 nanoparticles of similar equivalent spherical diameter and various elemental compositions on 2 human pulmonary cell lines: A549 and THP-1. A secondary aim was to elaborate a generic experimental set-up that would allow the rapid screening of cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles. We therefore compared 2 cytotoxicity assays (MTT and Neutral Red and analyzed 2 time points (3 and 24 hours for each cell type and nanoparticle. When possible, TC50 (Toxic Concentration 50 i.e. nanoparticle concentration inducing 50% cell mortality was calculated. Results The use of MTT assay on THP-1 cells exposed for 24 hours appears to be the most sensitive experimental design to assess the cytotoxic effect of one nanoparticle. With this experimental set-up, Copper- and Zinc-based nanoparticles appear to be the most toxic. Titania, Alumina, Ceria and Zirconia-based nanoparticles show moderate toxicity, and no toxicity was observed for Tungsten Carbide. No correlation between cytotoxicity and equivalent spherical diameter or specific surface area was found. Conclusion Our study clearly highlights the difference of sensitivity between cell types and cytotoxicity assays that has to be carefully taken into account when assessing nanoparticles toxicity.

  14. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.A.


    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  15. Adapting oecd aquatic toxicity tests for use with manufactured nanomaterials: key issues and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Elijah J.; Diamond, Stephen A.; Kennedy, Alan J.


    The unique or enhanced properties of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) suggest that their use in nano-enabled products will continue to increase. This will result in increased potential for human and environmental exposure to MNs, during manufacturing, use, and disposal of nano-enabled products...... participants that require specific guidance for MN testing: preparation of dispersions, dose metrics, the importance and challenges associated with maintaining and monitoring exposure levels, and the need for reliable methods to quantify MNs in complex media. To facilitate a scientific advance...

  16. Adapting oecd aquatic toxicity tests for use with manufactured nanomaterials: key issues and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Elijah J.; Diamond, Stephen A.; Kennedy, Alan J.;


    The unique or enhanced properties of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) suggest that their use in nano-enabled products will continue to increase. This will result in increased potential for human and environmental exposure to MNs, during manufacturing, use, and disposal of nano-enabled products. S...

  17. Recent Water Issues in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The rapid urbanization process in China over the past thirty years has significantly improved the living standards of Chinese people. But it also poses severe environmental pressure on environment including water. This paper discusses the water issues like urban water supply, water pollution and water quality of water system in the context of the rapid urbanization process in China. It then proposes strategic measures to tackle those water issues and discusses the progress of providing safe drinking water and protecting water resources by new technologies in-cluding membrane technology. It concludes that water is a global issue and should be tackled by global community together.

  18. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination. (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob


    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  19. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne


    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  20. Toxicity assessment of hydrazine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, W.C.


    The major health aspects of exposure to hydrazine propellants are reviewed. Toxic effects of hydrazine fuels on humans and animals as well as in vitro studies are discussed with emphasis on recent findings and USAF studies. Propellant hydrazines have been found to be genotoxic in in vitro studies and oncogenic in animal studies. Embryotoxicity has been demonstrated at very high exposures but not at occupationally encountered levels for hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine. Epidemiologic evidence to support these findings is lacking; however, the results of animal and in vitro studies have resulted in lowering both the time-weighted average-threshold limit values and short-term exposure limits for these propellants.

  1. Modern Issues in Food Safety-A Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James N Seiber


    INTRODUCTION There is much current interest worldwide in food safety.This results in large part from well publicized outbreaks due to foodborne pathogens,chemical food safety related to pesticides,and from persistent organic pollutants and other synthetic contaminants.Additionally,the melamine adulteration issue,acrylamide and other processing-induced toxicants in foods,petroleum hydrocarbons associated with oil spills in the oceans and seafood safety,mycotoxins and other natural contaminants in a variety of foods,and the perceived risks associated with foods improved by genetic modification or those protected by irradiation contribute to concerns over the safety of the food supply.

  2. The Origin of the Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Yang : Hello, everybody ! Recently, the discussion on constructing the security cooperative mechanism of Northeast Asia has been increasing both at home and abroad, which has almost t become another hot topic next to the Korean nuclear issue. Why is there such a phenomenon? Judging from the perspective of the regional situation, there have appeared two respects of "changing" and "unchanging" factors in the past few years. Should we consider that the "unchanging factors"have led to the breakout of the Korean Peninsula nuclear crisis again,and the "changing factors" have caused new changes in the regional circumstance following the crisis and the ways of resolving the issue; and with the Korean nuclear issue as a turning point, have these "changing" and "unchanging" factors led to warming-up of the issue of the regional security mechanism in both positive and negative ways?

  3. Issue Professionals in Transnational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    Relations to discuss how professionals and organizations battle over issue control through the designation of tasks and the creation of overlapping networks. We outline the emergence of ‘issue professionals’ and how they attempt network management. We do so via a case on transnational sustainability......Professionals and organizations both seek to exploit and cooperate with each other. Professionals seek alliances in their own peer networks while organizations do the same. These networks carry not only information that inform incentives but norms about appropriate forms of governance and practices...... that guide how they actually work. In this paper we outline how professionals and organizations operate in two-level networks through a focus on issue control over issues of transnational governance. As such, this interdisciplinary paper brings together insights from Organization Studies and International...

  4. Editorial Volume 5 Issue 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciorstan Smark


    Full Text Available Welcome to the final issue of AABFJ for 2012.1. The journal has grown in the past year with an increase in submissions and the editors are considering strategies to manage future publications.

  5. Professional Issues In Software Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bott, Frank; Eaton, Jack; Rowland, Diane


    An comprehensive text covering all the issues that software engineers now have to take into account apart from the technical side of things. Includes information on the legal, professional and commercial context in which they work.

  6. Special Issue on Graph Algorithms



    This special issue of Algorithms is devoted to the design and analysis of algorithms for solving combinatorial problems of a theoretical or practical nature involving graphs, with a focus on computational complexity.

  7. Professional Emergence on Transnational Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni


    they are conceptually linked by actors and organizations. A linked ecologies approach asks us to displace locating known actors within structures and instead pays attention to professional interactions on how ‘issue distinctions’ are made, the relationship between issue distinctions and professional tasks, and who......Addressing complex transnational problems requires coordination from different professionals. The emergence of new actors and issues has been addressed by those interested in studies of organizations through concepts and methods that highlight the importance of communities, fields, and networks....... These approaches are important in identifying the sources of what becomes established, but less geared to identifying interactions that are emergent. This article extends a linked ecologies approach to emergence, arguing that interaction on transnational issues should first be understood by how...

  8. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors. (United States)

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene


    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests.

  9. Call for Special Issue Proposals



    The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning is seeking proposals for guest edited special topics issue to be published in 2016. The special issue should focus on a targeted area of interest relevant to problem-based learning, project-based learning, case-based learning, anchored instruction, or inquiry broadly. We are open to any areas of specialized interest, whether they are context, content, or process related.

  10. Editorial Volume 9, Issue 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Mir


    Full Text Available There are five excellent studies which are published in this issue of Australasian Accounting, Banking and Finance Journal (AABFJ. As summarised below, out of these five studies, four of the studies have investigated and explored various accounting, finance and accountability issues of emerging and developing economies. Although more needs to be done, it is encouraging to observe that researchers from developing and emerging economies have been making progress in disseminating their research findings to the interested global communities.

  11. Business Ethics: Some Theoretical Issues


    Lluka, Valon


    Ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values. Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical issues. Those issues concern fairness, justice, rightness or wrongness; as a result it can only be resolved according to ethical standards. Setting the ethical standards for the way of doing business in corporation is primarily task of m...

  12. [Current management of toxic megacolon]. (United States)

    Leifeld, L; Kruis, W


    Toxic megacolon is a rare and life-threatening complication of severe colitis, defined as a dilatation of the colon > 6 cm in the absence of distal obstruction in combination with signs of systemic toxicity (major criteria: fever, tachycardia, leukocytosis, anaemia). Various triggers are known and the most common causes are underlying ulcerative colitis and Clostridium difficile. Diagnosis can easily be made by clinical examination, routine laboratory parameters and a plain X-ray of the abdomen. Much more difficult is to decide between non-surgical treatment including intensive care treatment or surgery (mostly subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy). Non-surgical therapy includes balancing of electrolytes and fluid volumes, broad-spectrum antibiotics including metronidazole, positioning of patients and probably careful intermittent decompression. In case of ulcerative colitis immunosuppression should be started with corticosteroids and potentially with calcineurin inhibitors. In pseudomembranous colitis vancomycin should be given orally and metronidazole should be given intravenously. As far as possible the patient should be treated in a centre with experience in the field.

  13. Subchronic toxicity of rebaudioside A. (United States)

    Curry, Leslie L; Roberts, Ashley


    The safety of the stevia-derived sweetener, rebaudioside A (CAS No. 58543-16-1), was evaluated in two oral toxicity studies. In a 4-week study, Wistar rats were administered rebaudioside A at dietary concentrations of 0, 25,000, 50,000, 75,000 and 100,000ppm. The NOAEL, including an evaluation of testes histopathology, was determined to be 100,000 ppm. In the 13-week study, Wistar rats were administered rebaudioside A at dietary concentrations of 0, 12,500, 25,000 and 50,000ppm. Reductions in body weight gain attributable to initial taste aversion and lower caloric density of the diet were observed in high-dose male and females groups. Inconsistent reductions in serum bile acids and cholesterol were attributed to physiological changes in bile acid metabolism due to excretion of high levels of rebaudioside A via the liver. All other hepatic function test results and liver histopathology were within normal limits. Significant changes in other clinical pathology results, organ weights and functional observational battery test results were not observed. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of all organs, including testes and kidneys, were unremarkable with respect to treatment-related findings. The NOAEL in the 13-week toxicity study was considered to be 50,000ppm or approximately 4161 and 4645mg/kg body weight/day in male and female rats, respectively.

  14. [Selenium toxicity in domestic animals]. (United States)

    Mihajlović, M


    The earliest written report of selenium poisoning is thought to be the description by Marco Polo of a necrotic hoof disease of horses that occurred in China in 13. century. However recognition of Se as toxic principle come in the early 1930s. Severity of Se poisoning depends on chemical forms of the element, species of animals and routes of administration. The soluble Se salts (Na2SeO3 and Na2SeO4) appear to be among the more toxic compounds; the Se inherent in grains and selenoamino acids (selenomethionine and selenocystine) appear to have relative moderate toxicity; the poorly soluble forms (e.g., elemental Se, Na2Se, SeS2 and diphenyl selenide) are among the least toxic of the Se compounds. In general, toxicity of Se compounds are substantially less when they are administered orally than when they are given parenterally. Rosenfeld and Beath described three clinical types of Se intoxication: acute selenosis, subacute selenosis (i.e., blind staggers type), and chronic selenosis (i.e., alkali disease type). Acute poisoning occurs when high Se content plants are consumed in large quantities within short period. Accidental acute poisoning occurs as consequence of errors in formulation of a Se supplemented diet. The most characteristic sign of acute selenosis is garlic breath due to the pulmonary excretion of volatile Se metabolites. Other signs include lethargy, excessive salivation, vomiting, dyspnea, muscle tremors and respiratory distress. Pathological findings are: congestion of the liver and kidney, fatty degeneration and focal necrosis of the liver, endocarditis and myocarditis. Subacute selenosis ("blind staggers") occurs as a consequence of exposure to large doses of Se over a longer period of time and manifests with neurological signs (e.g., blindness, ataxia, disorientation) and respiratory distress. This form of selenosis is most frequently observed in grazing animals that have consumed Se-accumulated plants. Chronic selenosis ("alkali disease") comes

  15. Mercury toxicity and neurodegenerative effects. (United States)

    Carocci, Alessia; Rovito, Nicola; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Genchi, Giuseppe


    Mercury is among the most toxic heavy metals and has no known physiological role in humans. Three forms of mercury exist: elemental, inorganic and organic. Mercury has been used by man since ancient times. Among the earliest were the Chinese and Romans, who employed cinnabar (mercury sulfide) as a red dye in ink (Clarkson et al. 2007). Mercury has also been used to purify gold and silver minerals by forming amalgams. This is a hazardous practice, but is still widespread in Brazil's Amazon basin, in Laos and in Venezuela, where tens of thousands of miners are engaged in local mining activities to find and purify gold or silver. Mercury compounds were long used to treat syphilis and the element is still used as an antiseptic,as a medicinal preservative and as a fungicide. Dental amalgams, which contain about 50% mercury, have been used to repair dental caries in the U.S. since 1856.Mercury still exists in many common household products around the world.Examples are: thermometers, barometers, batteries, and light bulbs (Swain et al.2007). In small amounts, some organo mercury-compounds (e.g., ethylmercury tiosalicylate(thimerosal) and phenylmercury nitrate) are used as preservatives in some medicines and vaccines (Ballet al. 2001).Each mercury form has its own toxicity profile. Exposure to Hg0 vapor and MeHg produce symptoms in CNS, whereas, the kidney is the target organ when exposures to the mono- and di-valent salts of mercury (Hg+ and Hg++, respectively)occur. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury produces stomatitis, erethism and tremors. Chronic MeHg exposure induced symptoms similar to those observed in ALS, such as the early onset of hind limb weakness (Johnson and Atchison 2009).Among the organic mercury compounds, MeHg is the most biologically available and toxic (Scheuhammer et a!. 2007). MeHg is neurotoxic, reaching high levels of accumulation in the CNS; it can impair physiological function by disrupting endocrine glands (Tan et a!. 2009).The most

  16. Characterization and toxicity of Amanita cokeri extract. (United States)

    Drehmel, Dennis C; Chilton, William Scott


    The nonprotein amino acids 2-amino-3-cyclopropylbutanoic acid and 2-amino-5-chloro-4-pentenoic acid were isolated from the mushroom Amanita cokeri. The cyclopropyl amino acid is toxic to the fungus Cercospora kikuchii, the arthropod Oncopeltus fasciatus (milk weed bug), and the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia amylovora, and Xanthomonas campestris. Toxicity to bacteria was reversible by addition of isoleucine to the medium. No toxicity was observed for 2-amino-5-chloro-4-pentenoic acid.

  17. Toxicants exposures as novel zoonoses: reflections on sustainable development, food safety and veterinary public health. (United States)

    Frazzoli, C; Mantovani, A


    The modern concept of zoonosis considers any detriment to the health and/or quality of human life resulting from relationships with (other) vertebrate or edible or toxic invertebrate animals. Whereas exposure to toxicants through foods of animal origin (a.o.) is a well-established issue, hereby we discuss it as novel zoonoses, from the standpoints of health implications as well as similarities and differences with classical zoonoses caused by biological agents. Novel toxicant-related zoonoses are linked with new issues in food safety, such as the environment-feed-food chain. In fact, the potential effect of the combined and repeated exposure to dietary toxicants is generally long-term and not readily discernible. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in staple foods of a.o. are discussed as a telling example of a food safety issue summing up critical points covered by the definition of sustainable development, also implicating health risks for generations to come. We suggest some critical points to implement the veterinary public health action in sustainable food safety, such as enhancement of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points systems for toxicological risk management.

  18. Combinatorial QSAR modeling of chemical toxicants tested against Tetrahymena pyriformis. (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Tropsha, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Varnek, Alexandre; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola; Oberg, Tomas; Dao, Phuong; Cherkasov, Artem; Tetko, Igor V


    Selecting most rigorous quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approaches is of great importance in the development of robust and predictive models of chemical toxicity. To address this issue in a systematic way, we have formed an international virtual collaboratory consisting of six independent groups with shared interests in computational chemical toxicology. We have compiled an aqueous toxicity data set containing 983 unique compounds tested in the same laboratory over a decade against Tetrahymena pyriformis. A modeling set including 644 compounds was selected randomly from the original set and distributed to all groups that used their own QSAR tools for model development. The remaining 339 compounds in the original set (external set I) as well as 110 additional compounds (external set II) published recently by the same laboratory (after this computational study was already in progress) were used as two independent validation sets to assess the external predictive power of individual models. In total, our virtual collaboratory has developed 15 different types of QSAR models of aquatic toxicity for the training set. The internal prediction accuracy for the modeling set ranged from 0.76 to 0.93 as measured by the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient ( Q abs2). The prediction accuracy for the external validation sets I and II ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 (linear regression coefficient R absI2) and from 0.38 to 0.83 (linear regression coefficient R absII2), respectively. The use of an applicability domain threshold implemented in most models generally improved the external prediction accuracy but at the same time led to a decrease in chemical space coverage. Finally, several consensus models were developed by averaging the predicted aquatic toxicity for every compound using all 15 models, with or without taking into account their respective applicability domains. We find that consensus models afford higher prediction accuracy for the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandlapalli Pavani


    Full Text Available There are many incidents of fluoride toxicity whether it is acute or chronic. Fluoride toxicity is an environmental hazard which arises from the upper layers of geological crust and is dissolved in water. Prolonged drinking of such water causes chronic fluoride toxicity. Use of fluoride containing compounds for various purposes such as dental products, metal, glass, refrigerator and chemical industries act as a source of fluoride poisoning and increase the risk of toxicity. This review reflects the deleterious effects of fluorides on various organs in the physiological system.

  20. Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity Database Network (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network provides a public forum for search and publishing downloadable, structure-searchable,...

  1. Cationized gelatin-HVJ envelope with sodium borocaptate improved the BNCT efficacy for liver tumors in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Koji


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a cell-selective radiation therapy that uses the alpha particles and lithium nuclei produced by the boron neutron capture reaction. BNCT is a relatively safe tool for treating multiple or diffuse malignant tumors with little injury to normal tissue. The success or failure of BNCT depends upon the 10B compound accumulation within tumor cells and the proximity of the tumor cells to the body surface. To extend the therapeutic use of BNCT from surface tumors to visceral tumors will require 10B compounds that accumulate strongly in tumor cells without significant accumulation in normal cells, and an appropriate delivery method for deeper tissues. Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan Envelope (HVJ-E is used as a vehicle for gene delivery because of its high ability to fuse with cells. However, its strong hemagglutination activity makes HVJ-E unsuitable for systemic administration. In this study, we developed a novel vector for 10B (sodium borocaptate: BSH delivery using HVJ-E and cationized gelatin for treating multiple liver tumors with BNCT without severe adverse events. Methods We developed cationized gelatin conjugate HVJ-E combined with BSH (CG-HVJ-E-BSH, and evaluated its characteristics (toxicity, affinity for tumor cells, accumulation and retention in tumor cells, boron-carrying capacity to multiple liver tumors in vivo, and bio-distribution and effectiveness in BNCT therapy in a murine model of multiple liver tumors. Results CG-HVJ-E reduced hemagglutination activity by half and was significantly less toxic in mice than HVJ-E. Higher 10B concentrations in murine osteosarcoma cells (LM8G5 were achieved with CG-HVJ-E-BSH than with BSH. When administered into mice bearing multiple LM8G5 liver tumors, the tumor/normal liver ratios of CG-HVJ-E-BSH were significantly higher than those of BSH for the first 48 hours (p . In suppressing the spread of tumor cells in mice, BNCT treatment was as

  2. [Cardiac toxicity of 5-fluorouracil]. (United States)

    Fournier, C; Benahmed, M; Blondeau, M


    A 67 year-old patient receives 5-fluorouracil for vocal chord cancer. During the perfusion, atypical angina pain occurs, accompanied with offset of ST above the baseline in standard leads and in V4 through V6. The pain subsides spontaneously in 45 minutes. These ECG alterations are followed 48 hours later by diffuse inverted T waves with lengthened QT. Cardiac ultrasonography and isotopic angiography do not show any abnormality of the left ventricular function, but myocardial tomoscintigraphy with labelled thallium show a lower hypofixation on exertion. The cardiac toxicity of 5-fluorouracil is in frequent. It is usually believed that it involves a coronary spasm, as suggested by the ECG tracing in the reported cases. The incident, which may be painful or painless, may result in a myocardial infarction or even sudden death during the perfusion. Therefore, it is advisable to discontinue the treatment as soon as an angina-type pain occurs.

  3. Engineered Nanoparticle (Eco)Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa

    , various international organizations (e.g. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and International Organization for Standardization) have recognized the need to amend and refine the current standard tests in relation to nanomaterials. Methodological considerations to standard testing...... for the purpose of testing engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic system are a central theme in this thesis. The research presented herein has included acute tests with freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna, genotoxicity tests with bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, as well as acellular and in vitro assays....... An understanding of different physico-chemical properties and specific characteristics of various nanoparticles employed in this project has been attained by reviewing the literature in the field. Specific processes such as agglomeration in aquatic suspension, influence of environmental conditions on toxicity...

  4. Biofilm susceptibility to metal toxicity. (United States)

    Harrison, Joe J; Ceri, Howard; Stremick, Carol A; Turner, Raymond J


    This study compared bacterial biofilm and planktonic cell susceptibility to metal toxicity by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the planktonic minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) using the MBEC device. In total, 17 metal cations and oxyanions, chosen to represent groups VIB to VIA of the periodic table, were each tested on biofilm and planktonic cultures of Escherichia coli JM109, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In contrast to control antibiotic assays, where biofilm cultures were 2 to 64 times less susceptible to killing than logarithmically growing planktonic bacteria, metal compounds killed planktonic and biofilm cultures at the same concentration in the vast majority of combinations. Our data indicate that, under the conditions reported, growth in a biofilm does not provide resistance to bacteria against killing by metal cations or oxyanions.

  5. Toxic Shock Syndrome following Tattooing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Young Jeong


    Full Text Available Toxic shock syndrome (TSS is a rare but life-threatening illness that is mainly caused by toxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Although TSS is classically known to be associated with tampon use, the number of TSS cases with non-menstrual causes such as skin and soft tissue infection has been increasing. Tattooing can result in several complications such as localized and systemic infections, inflammatory skin eruptions and neoplasms. We recently experienced a 26-year-old man diagnosed with typical TSS following tattooing. He complained of fever, chills and erythematous rash at tattoo site. Subsequently, the patient developed sign of shock. The skin cultures on the tattoo site were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was successfully treated with vasopressor infusion and intravenous antibiotics and was discharged without complications. On discharge from the hospital 7 days later, desquamations on the tattoo site, fingers and toes were observed.

  6. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.


    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  7. Electrocardiographic Manifestations of Benzodiazepine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Kazemzadeh


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and electrocardiographic (ECG manifestations of benzodiazepines (BZs. Methods: In this retrospective study, all BZ-poisoned patients hospitalized at Loghman Hakim Hospital between September 2010 and March 2011 were evaluated. Patients’ information including age, sex, time elapsed between the ingestion and presentation, and type of the BZ used were extracted from the patients' charts and recorded. ECGs on presentation to the emergency department (ED were evaluated and parameters such as PR interval, QRS duration, corrected QT, amplitude of S wave in lead I, height of R wave and R/S ratio in the lead aVR were also measured and recorded. Results: Oxazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and clonazepam were ingested by 9 (3%, 13 (4.4%, 29 (9.9%, 105 (35.8%, 65 (22.2%, and 72 (24.6% patients, respectively. Mean PR interval was reported to be 0.16 ± 0.03 sec and PR interval of greater than 200 msec was detected in 12 (4.5% patients. Mean QRS duration was 0.07 ± 0.01sec and QRS≥120 msec was observed in 7 (2.6% cases. Conclusion: Diazepam is the only BZ that does not cause QRS widening and oxazepam is the only one not causing PR prolongation. It can be concluded that if a patient refers with a decreased level of consciousness and accompanying signs of BZ toxicity, QRS widening in ECG rules out diazepam, whereas PR prolongation rules out oxazepam toxicity.

  8. Endogenous thiols enhance thallium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Sergio; Rios, Camilo [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, ' ' Manuel Velasco Suarez' ' , Departamento de Neuroquimica, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Soriano, Luz; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Laboratorio de Neuroproteccion, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    Either L-methionine (L-met) or L-cysteine (L-cys), given alone and in combination with Prussian blue (PB) was characterized as treatment against acute thallium (Tl) toxicity in rats. Animals were intoxicated with 32 mg/kg Tl acetate corresponding to rat LD{sub 50}. Antidotal treatments were administered during 4 days, as follows: (1) vehicle, (2) L-met 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (3) L-cys 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (4) PB 50 mg/kg oral, twice a day, (5) L-met + PB and (6) L-cys + PB. Mortality was as follows: control 50%; L-met 80%; L-cys 80%; PB 20%; L-met + PB 90% and L-cys + PB 100%. In a different experiment, using 16 mg/kg of Tl, tissue levels of this metal were analyzed. PB treatment statistically diminished Tl content in body organs and brain regions (P < 0.01). Whereas, separate treatments of L-met and L-cys failed to decrease Tl content in organs and brain regions; while its administration in combination with PB (L-met + PB and L-cys + PB groups) lowered Tl levels in body organs in the same extent as PB group. Results indicate that L-met and L-cys administered alone or in combination with PB should not be considered suitable treatments against acute Tl toxic effects because this strategy failed to prevent mortality and Tl accumulation in brain. (orig.)

  9. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 6: Special Issues. (United States)

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Issues Involved With the Use of Computer-Assisted Counseling, Testing, and…

  10. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)


    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  11. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared


    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  12. Special Issue: "Molecules against Alzheimer". (United States)

    Decker, Michael; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego


    This Special Issue, entitled "Molecules against Alzheimer", gathers a number of original articles, short communications, and review articles on recent research efforts toward the development of novel drug candidates, diagnostic agents and therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of death worldwide. This Special Issue contains many interesting examples describing the design, synthesis, and pharmacological profiling of novel compounds that hit one or several key biological targets, such as cholinesterases, β-amyloid formation or aggregation, monoamine oxidase B, oxidative stress, biometal dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, serotonin and/or melatonin systems, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, sigma receptors, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, or nuclear erythroid 2-related factor. The development of novel AD diagnostic agents based on tau protein imaging and the use of lithium or intranasal insulin for the prevention or the symptomatic treatment of AD is also covered in some articles of the Special Issue.

  13. Ethical issues in livestock cloning. (United States)

    Thompson, P B


    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity.

  14. Census 2001: issues and perspectives. (United States)


    This article discusses the Census of India for 2001 and gender issues such as the sex ratio, undercounts of girls, tribe and scheduled caste data, and the data users' conference. The April 1998 conference was attended by representatives of government planning and development departments, research institutions, and statisticians and researchers. Under consideration was a government Ministry of Welfare proposal to reintroduce, after a 60-year hiatus, data by scheduled caste and tribe. This issue is complicated by criteria that vary by state and includability. Quotas for backward classes in educational institutions, government jobs, and in decision-making bodies are the reason for designations by caste. Some groups are distressed because of lack of inclusion as backward classes. M.N. Srinivas strongly advises that counting by caste will create problems for enumerators and will result in lawsuits and violent disturbances. G. Shah argues that caste counts will not weaken the caste system nor expand their political power, but will intensify internal conflicts between the Dalit and Bahujan movements. One other issue is the reintroduction of the 1961 Household schedule which provides family composition by landholding size and household enterprise. Krishnaji advises that this data would help analyze sex ratio imbalances. In 1997, the Core Group examined gender equity issues and operational issues about increasing the scope without increasing costs. The Core Group recommended caste data at the district and sub-district level. Undercounting of the female work force is a continuing issue from the 1991 Census. Suggestions by the Core Group are indicated in brief.

  15. Rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes. (United States)

    Zhen, Xu; Rong, Le; Ng, Wei Cheng; Ong, Cynthia; Baeg, Gyeong Hun; Zhang, Wenlin; Lee, Si Ni; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa


    The solid residues including bottom ashes and fly ashes produced by waste gasification technology could be reused as secondary raw materials. However, the applications and utilizations of these ashes are very often restricted by their toxicity. Therefore, toxicity screening of ash is the primary condition for reusing the ash. In this manuscript, we establish a standard for rapid screening of gasification ashes on the basis of in vitro and in vivo testing, and henceforth guide the proper disposal of the ashes. We used three different test models comprising human cell lines (liver and lung cells), Drosophila melanogaster and Daphnia magna to examine the toxicity of six different types of ashes. For each ash, different leachate concentrations were used to examine the toxicity, with C0 being the original extracted leachate concentration, while C/C0 being subsequent diluted concentrations. The IC50 for each leachate was also quantified for use as an index to classify toxicity levels. The results demonstrated that the toxicity evaluation of different types of ashes using different models is consistent with each other. As the different models show consistent qualitative results, we chose one or two of the models (liver cells or lung cells models) as the standard for rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes. We may classify the gasification ashes into three categories according to the IC50, 24h value on liver cells or lung cells models, namely "toxic level I" (IC50, 24h>C/C0=0.5), "toxic level II" (C/C0=0.05IC50, 24hIC50, 24htoxic effects of various types of ashes generated in gasification plants every day. Subsequently, appropriate disposal methods can be recommended for each toxicity category.

  16. Editorial Volume 6 Issue 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciorstan Smark


    Full Text Available This issue of AABFJ has several finance articles related to the Australian securities market. Segara, Das and Turner (2012 report results from the use of active extension strategies in the Australian equities market. Lee (2012 examines whether individual hedge funds and funds-of-hedge funds (FOHFs exhibit risk-return trade-off patterns. Finally, Aldamen, Duncan and Khan (2012 explore the impact of corporate governance on the demand for debt in the Australian market. Pickering (2012 explores the issue of whether public (ASX listed or partnership ownership of accounting firms is the more efficient form.

  17. Characterization strategy report for the organic safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; Campbell, J.A.; Fryxell, G.E. [and others


    This report describes a logical approach to resolving potential safety issues resulting from the presence of organic components in hanford tank wastes. The approach uses a structured logic diagram (SLD) to provide a pathway for quantifying organic safety issue risk. The scope of the report is limited to selected organics (i.e., solvents and complexants) that were added to the tanks and their degradation products. The greatest concern is the potential exothermic reactions that can occur between these components and oxidants, such as sodium nitrate, that are present in the waste tanks. The organic safety issue is described in a conceptual model that depicts key modes of failure-event reaction processes in tank systems and phase domains (domains are regions of the tank that have similar contents) that are depicted with the SLD. Applying this approach to quantify risk requires knowing the composition and distribution of the organic and inorganic components to determine (1) how much energy the waste would release in the various domains, (2) the toxicity of the region associated with a disruptive event, and (3) the probability of an initiating reaction. Five different characterization options are described, each providing a different level of quality in calculating the risks involved with organic safety issues. Recommendations include processing existing data through the SLD to estimate risk, developing models needed to link more complex characterization information for the purpose of estimating risk, and examining correlations between the characterization approaches for optimizing information quality while minimizing cost in estimating risk.

  18. Contribution of oxidative stress to TiO2 nanoparticle-induced toxicity. (United States)

    Song, Bin; Zhou, Ting; Yang, WenLong; Liu, Jia; Shao, LongQuan


    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) are widely used in many fields. People in such workplaces or researchers in laboratories are at a higher risk of being exposed to TNPs, so are the consumers. Moreover, increasing evidence revealed that the concentrations of TNPs are elevated in animal organs after systematic exposure and such accumulated TNPs could induce organ dysfunction. Although cellular responses such as oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis, autophagy, signaling pathways, and genotoxic effects contribute to the toxicity of TNPs, the interrelationship among them remains obscure. Given the pivotal role of oxidative stress, we summarized relevant articles covering the involvement of oxidative stress in TNPs' toxicity and found that TNP-induced oxidative stress might play a central role in toxic mechanisms. However, available data are far from being conclusive and more investigations should be performed to further confirm whether the toxicity of TNPs might be attributed in part to the cascades of oxidative stress. Tackling this uncertain issue may help us to comprehensively understand the interrelationship among toxic cellular responses induced by TNPs and might shed some light on methods to alleviate toxicity of TNPs.

  19. Triterpenes of toxic and non-toxic taxa of Lantana camara. (United States)

    Hart, N K; Lamberton, J A; Sioumis, A A; Suares, H; Seawright, A A


    The taxa of Lantana camara toxic to animals contain lantadene A lantadene B, whereas in two non-toxic taxa other triterpenes predominate. Several new triterpenes have been characterized. Contrary to earlier claims, lantadene A and to a lesser extent lantadene B are toxic when administered intraruminally to sheep.

  20. AMAP, the alleged non-toxic isomer of acetaminophen, is toxic in rat and human liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi, Mackenzie; Dragovic, Sanja; van Swelm, Rachel; Herpers, Bram; van de Water, Bob; Russel, Frans G. M.; Commandeur, Jan N. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.


    N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally considered as a non-toxic regioisomer of the well-known hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP). However, so far, AMAP has only been shown to be non-toxic in mice and hamsters. To investigate whether AMAP could also be used as non-toxic analog of APAP in rat

  1. Earth Day 1990: Lesson Plan and Home Survey--K-6. Energy, Solid Waste/Recycling, Toxics, and Water, with Follow-up Activities and Action Guide. (United States)

    Sly, Carolie; Ruskey, Abby

    The purpose of this K-6 curriculum is to provide teachers and other educators with classroom lessons and home surveys that are a starting point for understanding four significant environmental issues--water, toxics, energy, and solid waste/recycling. While each of these environmental issues is complex and has far-reaching implications, the lessons…

  2. Earth Day 1990: Lesson Plan and Home Survey--7-12. Energy, Solid Waste/Recycling, Toxics, Transportation, and Water with Fact Sheets and Action Guide. (United States)

    Holm-Shuett, Amy; Shuett, Greg

    The purpose of this 7-12 curriculum is to provide teachers and other educators with classroom lessons and home surveys that are a starting point for understanding five significant environmental issues - water, toxics, energy, transportation, and solid waste/recycling. While each of these environmental issues is complex and has far-reaching…

  3. [Streptococcus pyogenes toxic-shock syndrome]. (United States)

    Antunes, Rui; Diogo, Marco; Carvalho, Alexandre; Pimentel, Teresa; Oliveira, José


    Recently there has been an exponential increase in invasive infections caused by Streptococcus ß hemolyticus group A. In about one third of cases they are complicated by toxic shock syndrome, characterized by septic shock and multiorgan failure. The authors, by their rarity, report a case of bacteraemia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes complicated by toxic shock syndrome.

  4. America's Poisoned Playgrounds: Children and Toxic Chemicals. (United States)

    Freedberg, Louis

    Next to chemical and farm workers, today's children are at the greatest risk from toxic chemicals. Through their normal play activities, children are exposed to a frightening array of toxic hazards, including lead, pesticides, arsenic, and unknown dangers from abandoned landfills and warehouses. Through a series of documented examples, the author…

  5. Review of Ammonium Dinitramide Toxicity Studies (United States)


    reproductive toxicant in rats, causing implantation failure in early gestation; follow-on studies implied that ADN is embryotoxic . EPR studies indicated that...mutagenic. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ammonium dinitramide, ADN, toxicity, reproductive, embryotoxic , genotoxicity 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17...reproductive studies, reproduction and fertility, pre-implantation and post-implantation studies, implied that ADN is embryotoxic . A mouse embryo

  6. In vitro toxicity screening of colored smokes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Alblas, M.J.; Makkus, J.C.; Meer, J.A. van der; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Groeneveld, F.R.; Norbert, M.; Lingen, J.N.J. van


    Data on the acute and/or long-term toxicity of colored smokes appear to be scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study is to obtain more insight on this matter. For this purpose, existing platforms for in vitro toxicity screening are evaluated with respect to their applicability

  7. 40 CFR 261.24 - Toxicity characteristic. (United States)


    ... characteristic of toxicity if, using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, test Method 1311 in “Test...-49-2 1.0 D011 Silver 7440-22-4 5.0 D039 Tetrachloroethyl-ene 127-18-4 0.7 D015 Toxaphene 8001-35-2...

  8. The facts about sunn hemp toxicity (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is an annual plant widely grown in the tropics. The genus Crotalaria includes some species known to be toxic to animals. Development of seed producing cultivars for the continental USA at Auburn University, AL, has raised the question if its seed and forage are toxic...

  9. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Arts, J.H.E.; Kuper, C.F.; Slootweg, P.J.; Woutersen, R.A.


    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and me

  10. Clinical approach to clinical herbal toxicity. (United States)

    Tovar, Richard T


    This article is a review of the history and current status of herbs in the United States. The clinical effects of herbs and herbal medicine will be reviewed with respect to side effects and clinical toxicity. Treatment of herbal toxicity will be described where indicated.

  11. Streptococcus pyogenes toxic-shock syndrome


    Antunes, R; M Diogo; Carvalho, A.; Pimentel, T.; J. Oliveira


    Recently there has been an exponential increase in invasive infections caused by Streptococcus ß hemolyticcus group A. In about one third of cases they are complicated by toxic shock syndrome, characterized by septic shock and multiorgan failure. The authors, by their rarity, report a case of bacteraemia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes complicated by toxic shock syndrome.

  12. 40 CFR 798.2250 - Dermal toxicity. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dermal toxicity. 798.2250 Section 798.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... animals of each sex with healthy skin shall be used at each dose level. (B) The females shall...

  13. National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast gives an overview of the three components of the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program: state surveillance, national database, and response teams.  Created: 2/3/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.   Date Released: 2/3/2011.

  14. Cybernetics and Education (Special Issue) (United States)

    Kopstein, Felix F., Ed.


    This is a special issue examining the potential of cybernetics in educational technology. Articles discuss: cybernetic methods, algorithms, feedback learning theory, a structural approach to behavioral objectives and criterion-referenced testing, task specifications and diagnosis, teacher-child interaction, educational development, teaching…

  15. Top Bankers Discuss Monetary Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    During the Fourth Session of the 11th National People’s Congress,the People’s Bank of China(PBC),the central bank,held a press con-ference on March 11.Central bank Governor Zhou Xiaochuan and three deputy governors answered questions on the country’s monetary policies and financial issues.Edited excerpts of their answers follow

  16. Overriding information issues. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Vibeke


    The Nordic project on overriding information issues focus on why an information project, how to inform about a difficult subject in a modern society, how to provide advance information, how to inform when the accident has occurred and how to inform about NKS and projects. (au)

  17. Better Reporting of Population Issues. (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1990


    Presented are the focus and the annotated issues from a workshop on new perspectives in population education for 19 Pacific Island journalists, both print and broadcast, from government and nongovernment agencies. The regional workshop was jointly organized by UNESCO and the South Pacific Commission during February 1990, in Auckland, New Zealand.…

  18. Visual Gestalt formation [special issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, P.A. van der; Lier, R.J. van; Wagemans, J.P.


    This special issue appears on the occasion of Emanuel Leeuwenberg’s retirement. During 40yea rs of research on visual perception, Leeuwenberg studied a wide range of topics, such as judged complexity, neon effects, subjective contours, visual pattern completion, ambiguity, assimilation and contrast,

  19. Photovoltaics radiometric issues and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)


    This paper presents a summary of issues discussed at the photovoltaic radiometric measurements workshop. Topics included radiometric measurements guides, the need for well-defined goals, documentation, calibration checks, accreditation of testing laboratories and methods, the need for less expensive radiometric instrumentation, data correlations, and quality assurance.

  20. Current Issues in Maritime Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne


     In the early part of 2008, Maria Anne Wagtmann had the opportunity to interview the former president of the International Maritime Health Association, Dr. Tim Carter, in London about a number of current maritime health issues. In this interview, Dr. Tim Carter, who is cur­rently employed...

  1. Resolving Ethical Issues at School (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.


    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  2. Unresolved Issues of Cooperative Learning. (United States)

    Cook, Stuart W.

    Proposals to use interracial/cross-ethnic learning teams in desegregated classrooms raise issues from research that demonstrate the complicated nature of the relationship between learning teams and classroom interracial relations. According to the research, relationships are affected by the characteristics of learning teams, namely…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Applying lean manufacturing philosophy is one of the most important concepts that help enterprises to gain competitive advantage in the world market. Suppliers are an important factor contributing to thesuccess of going lean. Major businesses in India as well as in other world, have been trying to integrate its suppliers to give better performance. In Indian small & medium scale enterprises (SME,application of lean manufacturing strategies especially in terms of supplier integration, have been far fewer. Indian SMEs are still resisting accepting the role of their suppliers to make them leaner. The aim of this study was to identify the supplier issues and their weightage in implementing the lean philosophy in Indian SMEs. The research hypothesizes that there are big opportunities for improvement in the Indian SMEs if it is made leaner by integrating its suppliers in its manufacturing system. Author identified total 21 supplier issues and divided these 21 supplier issues in four categories on conceptual basis named as Supplier Management strategy, Information Sharing with supplier, Supplier Integration, Capability to deal with uncertainty. Mean scores of all four categorized groups of supplier issues are ranked.

  4. Continuing Education: Facing the Issues. (United States)

    Broadbent, Marianne


    Examines a number of issues facing the Australian library and information services community in the area of continuing education, including recommendations of the Library Association of Australia, the cost of continuing education activities, the role and responsibility of schools of library and information studies, and notions of coordination.…

  5. Rural Literacy Issues in Alberta. (United States)

    Bell, James H.

    This paper reviews results of a questionnaire distributed to literacy workers in rural Alberta (Canada) to ascertain their views on rural literacy. The questionnaire was designed to identify: (1) distinctive features of the issue of adult illiteracy in rural areas; (2) the strengths of literacy efforts in rural Alberta; (3) the weaknesses of…

  6. Telematics Simulation: Recent Developments & Issues. (United States)

    Sutherland, Janet; Ekker, Knut; Morgan, Konrad; Crookall, David; Carbonell, Amparo Garcia

    Recent developments in Internet technologies have enabled new, more flexible forms of telematic simulation and have raised issues that were not considered in the early days of networked learning. Ultimately, these questions revolve around: (1) the learning cost-effectiveness of telematic simulation (quality and quantity of learning as opposed to…

  7. Special issue introduction: Ecological modernization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massa, Ilmo; Andersen, Mikael Skou


    The contributions to this special issue of the Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning stem from an international conference on ecological modernization that took place at the Department of Social Policy of the University of Helsinki, Finland, in late 1998. They have been selected, among other...... and restoring its meaning and justification for the environmental debate....

  8. Psychosocial Issues in Pediatric Oncology


    Marcus, Joel


    Psychosocial oncology, a relatively new discipline, is a multidisciplinary application of the behavioral and social sciences, and pediatric psychosocial oncology is an emerging subspecialty within the domain of psychosocial oncology. This review presents a brief overview of some of the major clinical issues surrounding pediatric psychosocial oncology.

  9. Preface to the Special Issue



    I am delighted to introduce this fifth special issue of L2 Journal, titled Critical Perspectives on Neoliberalism in Second/Foreign Language Education, guest-edited by five doctoral students from UC Berkeley’s Graduate School of Education: Katie Bernstein, Emily Hellmich, Noah Katznelson, Jaran Shin, and Kimberly Vinall.

  10. Menopause: Salient Issues for Counselors. (United States)

    Patterson, Marilyn M.; Lynch, Ann Q.


    Discusses issues surrounding menopause, with the idea that counselors are in an ideal position to help change attitudes toward viewing menopause as a time of positive change rather than a time of psychological distress. Reviews historical, sociological, psychological, and attitudinal factors that account for negative responses associated with…

  11. Ethics Issues Snare School Leaders (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.


    This article reports on ethics issues involving school leaders. Some superintendents have landed in murky ethical waters for their ties to for-profit companies, highlighting the temptations administrators face as industry and education increasingly intersect. Some questionable judgments by superintendents--from accepting company-paid trips to…

  12. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza


    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  13. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainman, B. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)


    The author discusses her thoughts on prospects for an energy policy from this Congress. She doesn`t believe the country will see any big sweeping energy policy acts or even utility deregulation in the next two years. Education on the issues is necessary. The author discusses the impacts for clean coal technologies and recommends continued aggressive work on deployment.

  14. Introducing to the first issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Acleto


    Full Text Available The presentation of the first issue of the REVISTA PERUANA DE BIOLOGíA, as official organ of dissemination of ASOCIACION DE BIOLOGOS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE SAN MARCOS, the reverse of the COVER is included with editorial information and BACK COVER with guidelines for authors and the reverse table with the CONTENS.

  15. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools (United States)

    Cavanagh, Marian


    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  16. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities. (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.


    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  17. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues (United States)

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul


    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  18. ELLEIEC implementation issues in EIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna; Thiriet, Jean-Marc; Yahoui, Hamed;


    The ELLEIEC ERASMUS thematic network runs from October 2008 to September 2011. Within this project, Task 4 is dedicated to “Implementation issues across EIE”. The idea of this task is to see how we can, thanks to implementation using Programmes available from the European Commission and associate...

  19. Ethical Issues in Media Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Journalists are always confronted by ethical definitions on the daily basis during their media practice.In this article,some ethical issues happened in media practice are analyzed,and aspects of both news reporters and public opinion are deeply studied,and the balance between both professional and ethics is probed seriously as well.

  20. Preface to the Inaugural Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This is the first issue of the English edition for the Chinese Jotn'nal of Clinical Oncology, an official journal of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA). As the editor-in-chief, I would like to express my appreciation to all the editors and editorial staff who have made tremendous effort in giving birth to this new journal. I would also

  1. Introduction to the Special Issue. (United States)

    Petrosino, Anthony


    Introduces the articles of this special issue focusing on randomized field trials in criminology. In spite of the overall lack of randomized field trials in criminology, some agencies and individuals are able to mount an impressive number of field trials, and these articles focus on their experiences. (SLD)

  2. Critical Analyses of Social Issues. (United States)

    Anastasiadis, Laurel


    Describes a three-part midterm exercise designed to demonstrate how using general semantics as an analytical tool can increase awareness and improve critical thinking about an issue. Explains each phase of the assignment in detail. Concludes with student responses to the exercise, indicating that the exercise is indeed helpful in analyzing current…

  3. Educational Issues in Childhood Cancer. (United States)

    Armstrong, Daniel F.; Horn, Marianna


    Describes school issues for children with cancer. Presents the relationship between school performance and both the acute and long-term consequences of the type of cancer, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Reviews the results of the studies of the cognitive and academic effects of cranial radiation and chemotherapy, and a developmental model…

  4. Ethical issues in animal cloning. (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn


    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  5. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring. (United States)

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.


    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  6. Common Toxic Syndromes in Psychiatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesile Altınyazar


    Full Text Available Poisonings and toxic substance exposures are prominent causes of morbidity and mortality in psychiatry. Entoxications which are confronted frequently include clinical scenarios ranging from known drug overdose or drug interactions, as well as, illicit drug use, suicide attempt, or accidental exposure. The clinical evaluation and management of such patients remain challenging. Recognition of major toxic syndromes is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment as well as rapid stabilization of patients and resuscitation. The main focus of this article is to discuss common toxic syndromes (symptom patterns of specific poisoning. These common toxic syndromes include serotonin syndrome, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, anticholinergic, sympathomimetic, opiate, sedative/hypnotic, cholinergic toxic syndromes. All of these syndromes are closely associated with psychiatric signs and symptoms. If recognized early and appropriate treatment is initiated rapidly, majority of patients display favourable outcome.

  7. Toxic Plant Resources in Panxi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yun; SU Chunjiang; ZHENG Yuanchang


    Panxi Area is abundant in plant resources, among which toxic plants are of great value in terms of exploitation. This paper is an initiative study (via field as well as literature investigation) of the categories, distributions, and reserves of toxic plant resources in Panxi Area. The study reveals that there are 51 families (210 species) of toxic plants evenly distributed in Panxi Area, of which more than 40 species grow in all counties in the area, and more than 14 species total a reserve more than 1.0×105kg. These toxic plants are of great applications to medicine, gardening, biopesticide industry, environmental engineering, and oil manufacturing. Rhododendron molle, Anisodus acutangulus, Arisaema erubesocens, Stellera chamaejasme, Rhytolacca acinosa, Rheum officinale, and Azadiralta indica etc are the typical toxic plants with great value of exploitation in Panxi Area.

  8. The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavet, R.; Nauss, K.M. (Environmental Research Information, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (USA))


    Methanol could become a major automotive fuel in the U.S., and its use may result in increased exposure of the public to methanol vapor. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute, rather than chronic, exposures. Acute methanol toxicity evolves in a well-understood pattern and consists of an uncompensated metabolic acidosis with superimposed toxicity to the visual system. The toxic properties of methanol are rooted in the factors that govern both the conversion of methanol to formic acid and the subsequent metabolism of formate to carbon dioxide in the folate pathway. In short, the toxic syndrome sets in if formate generation continues at a rate that exceeds its rate of metabolism. Current evidence indicates that formate accumulation will not challenge the metabolic capacity of the folate pathway at the anticipated levels of exposure to automotive methanol vapor.117 references.

  9. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohreiter, D.W.


    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  10. Debt Issues and Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Piloto Sincerre


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to analyze earnings management (EM surrounding debenture issues of companies listed on the BM&FBOVESPA. EM is an intentional intervention in external financial reports in order to obtain some private gain. This practice is especially important at the time of issuing debentures because if earnings are inflated, investors may pay an artificially high price. To measure earnings management, current discretionary accruals were used as a proxy, based on the Modified Jones and Modified Jones with ROA econometric models. All of the regressions considered the fixed effects of the companies and the time series effects of the analyses. Evidence was found that companies inflate their financial results in the issuing period in order to positively influence their investors. The results suggest that there is EM in the quarter preceding the issue (t = - 1, indicating the influence that investors may have been under when making the decision to invest in debentures from these companies. In addition, it was verified that companies with higher debt, profitability, and sales growth ratios have higher levels of earnings management. The reputation of the auditor was not statistically significant regarding reductions in the level of management. The results also show that companies listed on Level II and New Market had higher levels of management when considering the Modified Jones with ROA model. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a greater level of earnings management in companies that issue debentures in the period preceding the event. Finally, the variable that is directly related to the level of earnings management is sales growth.

  11. Environmental interactions with the toxicity of plant essential oils to the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. (United States)

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H


    The toxicity of a range of plant essential oils to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens throughout Europe and elsewhere, was assessed in the laboratory. Dermanyssus gallinae may cause losses in egg production, anaemia and, in extreme cases, death of hens. With changes in legislation and consumer demand, alternatives to synthetic acaricides are needed to manage this pest. Fifty plant essential oils were selected for their toxicity to arthropods reported in the literature. Twenty-four of these essential oils were found to kill > 75% of adult D. gallinae in contact toxicity tests over a 24-h period at a rate of 0.21 mg/cm(2). Subsequent testing at lower rates showed that the essential oils of cade, manuka and thyme were especially toxic to adult D. gallinae. The toxicity of the seven most acaricidal essential oils was found to be stable at different temperatures likely to be encountered in commercial poultry housing (15 degrees C, 22 degrees C and 29 degrees C), although results suggest that humidity and dust might influence the toxicity of some of the oils tested. The toxicity of clove bud essential oil to D. gallinae, for example, was increased at high humidity and dust levels compared with ambient levels. The results suggest that certain essential oils may make effective botanical pesticides for use against D. gallinae, although it is likely that issues relating to the consistency of the toxic effect of some oils will determine which oils will be most effective in practice.

  12. Toxicity of 2,4-dinitrotoluene to terrestrial plants in natural soils. (United States)

    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Kuperman, Roman G; Simini, Mike; Hawari, Jalal; Checkai, Ronald T; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I


    The presence of energetic materials (used as explosives and propellants) at contaminated sites is a growing international issue, particularly with respect to military base closures and demilitarization policies. Improved understanding of the ecotoxicological effects of these materials is needed in order to accurately assess the potential exposure risks and impacts on the environment and its ecosystems. We studied the toxicity of the nitroaromatic energetic material 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli L. Beauv.), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) using four natural soils varying in properties (organic matter, clay content, and pH) that were hypothesized to affect chemical bioavailability and toxicity. Amended soils were subjected to natural light conditions, and wetting and drying cycles in a greenhouse for 13 weeks prior to toxicity testing to approximate field exposure conditions in terms of bioavailability, transformation, and degradation of 2,4-DNT. Definitive toxicity tests were performed according to standard protocols. The median effective concentration (EC(50)) values for shoot dry mass ranged from 8 to 229 mg kg(-1), depending on the plant species and soil type. Data indicated that 2,4-DNT was most toxic in the Sassafras (SSL) and Teller (TSL) sandy loam soils, with EC(50) values for shoot dry mass ranging between 8 to 44 mg kg(-1), and least toxic in the Webster clay loam soil, with EC(50) values for shoot dry mass ranging between 40 to 229 mg kg(-1). The toxicity of 2,4-DNT for each of the plant species was significantly (p < or = 0.05) and inversely correlated with the soil organic matter content. Toxicity benchmark values determined in the present studies for 2,4-DNT weathered-and-aged in SSL or TSL soils will contribute to development of an Ecological Soil Screening Level for terrestrial plants that can be used for ecological risk assessment at contaminated sites.

  13. Evidence on public policy: methodological issues, political issues and examples. (United States)

    Attanasio, Orazio P


    In this paper I discuss how evidence on public policy is generated and in particular the issue of evaluation of public policies. In economics, the issue of attribution and the identification of causal links has recently received considerable attention. Important methodological issues have been tackled and new techniques have been proposed and used. Randomized Control Trials have become some sort of gold standard. However, they are not exempt from problems and have important limitations: in some case they cannot be constructed and, more generally, problems of external validity and transferability of results can be important. The paper then moves on to discuss the political economy of policy evaluations for policy evaluations to have an impact for the conduct of actual policy, it is important that the demand for evaluation comes directly from the policy making process and is generated endogenously within it. In this sense it is important that the institutional design of policy making is such that policy making institutions are incentivized to use rigorous evaluation in the process of designing policies and allocating resources to alternative options. Economists are currently involved in the design and evaluation of many policies, including policies about health, nutrition and education. The role they can play in these fields is not completely obvious. The paper argues that their main contribution is in the modelling of how individual reacts to incentives (including those provided by public policies).

  14. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: transfusion issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkök ÇA


    Full Text Available Çiğdem Akalın Akkök,1,21Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Oslo, Norway; 2Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Abstract: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT is an intention-to-cure treatment strategy in several malignancies and nonmalignancies. The number of patients receiving AHSCT is increasing due to new indications, and more elderly patients with comorbidities are included in the protocols. Survival of the patients undergoing AHSCT has improved owing to better patient care, including optimization of transfusion support, which has a major contribution. However, transfusion can also be hazardous. Increasing awareness about transfusion and finding the balance between avoiding unnecessary transfusions and transfusing the correct component when needed are the key issues. Myeloablative conditioning results in pancytopenia, and the patients are prone to infections, anemia, and bleeding both before and after transplantation. Until red cell and platelet engraftment, the patients are usually transfusion dependent needing red cell and/or platelet components. Physicians dealing with AHSCT patients should be well informed about the attributes of the blood components they order. Knowledge about transfusion indications, triggers, and how to prevent and manage eventual transfusion complications is also required. The clinical picture can be challenging, and transplantation/treatment-related toxicity/complications can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from a transfusion complication, especially if the latter one took place, for instance, several days or weeks ago. ABO compatibility between the patient and the donor is not a prerequisite when choosing human leukocyte antigen-matched hematopoietic stem cell donor. Consequently, ABO incompatibility exists in ~40% of the cases and brings some immunohematological issues

  15. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen


    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  16. [Renal toxicity of antiviral drugs]. (United States)

    Frasca', Giovanni M; Balestra, Emilio; Tavio, Marcello; Morroni, Manrico; Manarini, Gloria; Brigante, Fabiana


    Highly effective and powerful antiviral drugs have been introduced into clinical practice in recent years which are associated with an increased incidence of nephrotoxicity. The need of combining several drugs, the fragility of the patients treated, and the high susceptibility of the kidney are all factors contributing to renal injury. Many pathogenetic mechanisms are involved in the nephrotoxicity of antiviral drugs, including drug interaction with transport proteins in the tubular cell; direct cytotoxicity due to a high intracellular drug concentration; mitochondrial injury; and intrarenal obstruction or stone formation due to the low solubility of drugs at a normal urinary pH. As a result, various clinical pictures may be observed in patients treated with antiviral drugs, ranging from tubular dysfunction (Fanconi syndrome, renal tubular acidosis, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) to acute renal failure (induced by tubular necrosis or crystal nephropathy) and kidney stones. Careful attention should be paid to prevent renal toxicity by evaluating the glomerular filtration rate before therapy and adjusting the drug dosage accordingly, avoiding the combination with other nephrotoxic drugs, and monitoring renal parameters on a regular basis while treating patients.

  17. Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.


    Full Text Available Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

  18. Mixture toxicity of three toxicants with similar and dissimilar modes of action to Daphnia magna. (United States)

    Syberg, Kristian; Elleby, Anders; Pedersen, Henrik; Cedergreen, Nina; Forbes, Valery E


    Mixture toxicity of similar- and dissimilar-acting toxicants can be predicted by the models concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) using single substance toxicity data. Knowledge of the toxicants mode of action is thus required in order to use the models. In order to test the predictive capability of the models, we conducted Daphnia magna 48 h immobilization experiments with three toxicants with known modes of action (dimethoate, pirimicarb and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate) singly, and in binary and ternary mixtures. Our results indicate that CA and IA predict binary mixtures of similar- and dissimilar-acting toxicants equally well. CA and IA also equally predicted the ternary mixture consisting of both similar- and dissimilar-acting chemicals. The paper discusses the concept of mode of action and the implications the definition of mode of action has on the choice of reference model for mixture toxicity studies.

  19. A New In Vivo Model System to Assess the Toxicity of Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Tino


    Full Text Available In the emerging area of nanotechnology, a key issue is related to the potential impacts of the novel nanomaterials on the environment and human health, so that this technology can be used with minimal risk. Specifically designed to combine on a single structure multipurpose tags and properties, smart nanomaterials need a comprehensive characterization of both chemicophysical properties and adequate toxicological evaluation, which is a challenging endeavour; the in vitro toxicity assays that are often employed for nanotoxicity assessments do not accurately predict in vivo response. To overcome these limitations and to evaluate toxicity characteristics of cadmium telluride quantum dots in relation to surface coatings, we have employed the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris as a model system. We assessed in vivo acute and sublethal toxicity by scoring for alteration of morphological traits, population growth rates, and influence on the regenerative capabilities providing new investigation clues for nanotoxicology purposes.

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo toxicity profiling of ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents. (United States)

    Hayyan, Maan; Looi, Chung Yeng; Hayyan, Adeeb; Wong, Won Fen; Hashim, Mohd Ali


    The cytotoxic potential of ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with four hydrogen bond donors, namely glycerine (Gl), ethylene glycol (EG), triethylene glycol (TEG) and urea (U) were investigated. The toxicity of DESs was examined using In Vitro cell lines and In Vivo animal model. IC50 and selectivity index were determined for the DESs, their individual components and their combinations as aqueous solutions for comparison purposes. The cytotoxicity effect of DESs varied depending on cell lines. The IC50 for the GlDES, EGDES, UDES and TEGDES followed the sequence of TEGDESIn Vivo toxicity profiles of DESs were being demonstrated, raising the toxicity issue of these neoteric mixtures and their potential applicability to be used for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Revision of the ICH guideline on detection of toxicity to reproduction for medicinal products: SWOT analysis. (United States)

    Barrow, Paul


    SWOT analysis was used to gain insights and perspectives into the revision of the ICH S5(R2) guideline on detection of toxicity to reproduction for medicinal products. The current ICH guideline was rapidly adopted worldwide and has an excellent safety record for more than 20 years. The revised guideline should aim to further improve reproductive and developmental (DART) safety testing for new drugs. Alternative methods to animal experiments should be used whenever possible. Modern technology should be used to obtain high quality data from fewer animals. Additions to the guideline should include considerations on the following: limit dose setting, maternal toxicity, biopharmaceuticals, vaccines, testing strategies by indication, developmental immunotoxicity, and male-mediated developmental toxicity. Emerging issues, such as epigenetics and the microbiome, will most likely pose challenges to DART testing in the future. It is hoped that the new guideline will be adopted even outside the ICH regions.

  2. Predicting the toxicity of metal mixtures. (United States)

    Balistrieri, Laurie S; Mebane, Christopher A


    The toxicity of single and multiple metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) solutions to trout is predicted using an approach that combines calculations of: (1) solution speciation; (2) competition and accumulation of cations (H, Ca, Mg, Na, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) on low abundance, high affinity and high abundance, low affinity biotic ligand sites; (3) a toxicity function that accounts for accumulation and potency of individual toxicants; and (4) biological response. The approach is evaluated by examining water composition from single metal toxicity tests of trout at 50% mortality, results of theoretical calculations of metal accumulation on fish gills and associated mortality for single, binary, ternary, and quaternary metal solutions, and predictions for a field site impacted by acid rock drainage. These evaluations indicate that toxicity of metal mixtures depends on the relative affinity and potency of toxicants for a given aquatic organism, suites of metals in the mixture, dissolved metal concentrations and ratios, and background solution composition (temperature, pH, and concentrations of major ions and dissolved organic carbon). A composite function that incorporates solution composition, affinity and competition of cations for two types of biotic ligand sites, and potencies of hydrogen and individual metals is proposed as a tool to evaluate potential toxicity of environmental solutions to trout.

  3. Toxic material advisory report - 2-mercaptoethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholc, N. M.; White, O. Jr.; Baloyi, R. S.; Silverstein, B. D.


    A review of the animal toxicity data for 2-ME is presented. The results revealed that chronic inhalation exposures at a concentration of 6 mg/m/sup 3/ produced decreased oxygen consumption, lymphopenia, and neutrophilia. Comparison of acute toxicity data for 2-ME with data of structurally similar compounds suggests that 2-ME may be 2.3 times more toxic than butanethiol (TLV = 0.5 ppM), 6.5 times more toxic than ethanethiol, and 6 times more toxic than propanethiol (TLV = 0.5 ppM) via oral administration but may be comparable to propanethiol and less toxic than butanethiol and ethanethiol by the inhalation route of exposure. The TLVs for ethanethiol, methanethiol, and butanethiol were based on discomfort to human volunteers rather than toxicity. Since 2-ME has many effects similar to those of the thiols discussed and its odor threshold falls in the range of other thiols, by analogy the exposure limit for 2-ME should be comparable to the TLVs for butanethiol and ethanethiol. An interim exposure limit (IEL) of 0.5 ppM for a time-weighted average concentration during an 8-hour work shift is recommended. As with other thiols, a nuisance problem due to 2-ME odors and complaints of odor may serve as a primary reason for controlling workplace concentrations.

  4. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B


    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  5. Ethical issues in physical therapy. (United States)

    Richardson, Robert W


    Healthcare professionals can be confronted with a wide range of ethical and regulatory issues in today's ever-changing practice environments. While achieving best practice standards, physical therapists may need to compromise what is best for patients due to fiscally driven rules, regulations, and limited benefits. Scenarios may surface where ethical issues and associated dilemmas become paramount between what is versus what should be. A challenge that should be in the forefront of professional endeavors is staying current with published rules, regulations, and conditions of participation, as applied to various practice models and environments while still adhering to ethical codes. Knowing and utilizing available resources especially American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), websites, documents, and references can strengthen practice patterns and treatment options.

  6. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)


    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  7. Special Issue: Single Molecule Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans H. Gorris


    Full Text Available Technological advances in the detection and manipulation of single molecules have enabled new insights into the function, structure and interactions of biomolecules. This Special Issue was launched to account for the rapid progress in the field of “Single Molecule Techniques”. Four original research articles and seven review articles provide an introduction, as well as an in-depth discussion, of technical developments that are indispensable for the characterization of individual biomolecules. Fluorescence microscopy takes center stage in this Special Issue because it is one of the most sensitive and flexible techniques, which has been adapted in many variations to the specific demands of single molecule analysis. Two additional articles are dedicated to single molecule detection based on atomic force microscopy.

  8. [Neuroethics: ethical issues in neurosciences]. (United States)

    Crozier, Sophie


    Neuroethics is a field of bioethics on the ethical challenges of advances in neuroscience. Born in the early 2000s, neuroethics is considering a number of issues raised by the opportunities created by advances in knowledge and techniques in the field of neurology and psychiatry. In fact, what we learn about brain functions allows us to potentially influence our behavior and our actions, and questions human nature, freedom and individual responsibility, and even the place of morality in our society.

  9. Scale issues in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Qihao


    This book provides up-to-date developments, methods, and techniques in the field of GIS and remote sensing and features articles from internationally renowned authorities on three interrelated perspectives of scaling issues: scale in land surface properties, land surface patterns, and land surface processes. The book is ideal as a professional reference for practicing geographic information scientists and remote sensing engineers as well as a supplemental reading for graduate level students.

  10. Volume 7, Issue 1 2016


    Tracy Creagh; John Clarke; Karen Nelson


    Welcome to Volume 7 of Student Success.  This editorial has two parts: The first part maintains the “doing things differently” tradition, making readers aware by chronicling the publishing of the journal in an open access (OA) forum.  Future editorials will briefly discuss other aspects and issues pertaining to the new scholarly publishing landscape that this journal adheres to, such as:  Creative Commons Licencing; ORCID IDs; considerations of new peer review models and importantly; measurin...

  11. IRST system: hardware implementation issues (United States)

    Deshpande, Suyog D.; Chan, Philip; Ser, W.; Venkateswarlu, Ronda


    Generally, Infrared Search and Track systems use linear focal-plane-arrays with time-delay and integration, because of their high sensitivity. However, the readout is a cumbersome process and needs special effort. This paper describes signal processing and hardware (HW) implementation issues related to front-end electronics, non-uniformity compensation, signal formatting, target detection, tracking and display system. This paper proposes parallel pipeline architecture with dedicated HW for computationally intensive algorithms and SW intensive DSP HW for reconfigurable architecture.

  12. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidy, M. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)


    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  13. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena


    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  14. Special Issue "Biomaterials and Bioprinting". (United States)

    Chua, Chee Kai; Yeong, Wai Yee; An, Jia


    The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm shift. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials and bioprinting and contains eight articles covering a number of recent topics in this emerging area.

  15. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 36 (United States)


    units that are regionally based. Their location should depend on pop - ulation mass. CBRNE weapons are most effective when used in heavily populated...strik- ingly symmetrical and historically surreal way to 106 JFQ / issue thirty-six Iraqi counterterrorism soldiers searching for weapons. U .S . M...territory presented their own pop - ulation statistics based on nationality. However, in the Balkans a single disputed territory might actually contain

  16. The evolution of controversial issues. (United States)

    King, P


    The controversial issues concerning the differences of opinion about the validity of Melanie Klein's theory and technique did not arise suddenly when members of the Viennese Society joined the British Psycho-Analytical Society, before the outbreak of the Second World War. In this paper, I describe briefly the socio-historical, administrative and institutional background out of which these scientific divergences evolved alongside other issues concerned with how long members should hold office in the British Psycho-Analytical Society and therefore be in a position to influence the scientific disagreements and training policy in the Society. These causes for concern among members, which were discussed at five business meetings, are then summarised: they relate to differences of opinion with regard to Melanie Klein's contributions to psychoanalysis, the need for revision of the rules of the Society and the type of training in psychoanalysis that should be offered to candidates. Finally, proposals for different ways of exploring and perhaps dealing with these issues are discussed, including the decision to hold formal scientific discussions of Klein's point of view, once a month. These meetings are now referred to as the 'Controversial Discussions'.

  17. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics. (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne


    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  18. Special issue on transient plasmas (United States)

    Bailey, James; Hoarty, David; Mancini, Roberto; Yoneda, Hitoki


    This special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is dedicated to the "spectroscopy of transient plasmas" covering plasma conditions produced by a range of pulsed laboratory sources including short and long pulse lasers, pulsed power devices, and free electron lasers (FELs). The full range of plasma spectroscopy up to high energy bremsstrahlung radiation, including line broadening analysis for application to data recorded with the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, is covered. This issue is timely as advances in optical lasers and x-ray FELs (XFEL) are enabling transient plasma to be probed at higher energies and shorter durations than ever before. New XFEL facilities being commissioned in Europe and Asia are adding to those operating in the US and Japan and the ELI high power laser project in Europe, due to open this year, will provide short pulse lasers of unprecedented power. This special issue represents a snapshot of the theoretical and experimental research in dense plasmas, electron kinetics, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of low temperature plasmas, inertial confinement fusion and non-equilibrium atomic physics using spectroscopy to diagnose plasmas produced by optical lasers, XFELs and pulsed-power machines.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was

  20. Toxicity following laundry detergent pod ingestion. (United States)

    Schneir, Aaron B; Rentmeester, Landen; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee


    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) have only recently become available in the United States, and there has been increasing concern regarding pediatric ingestions of them. We describe a 15-month-old female infant who ingested an LDP and had a depressed level of consciousness, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary toxicity, and swallowing difficulties. It is currently unclear what the exact etiologic agent(s) is responsible for the toxicity associated with LDPs. The case demonstrates the potential for significant toxicity following the ingestion of an LDP. Clearly, measures should be taken to avoid ingestions of these products.

  1. Parkinson's Disease: Is It a Toxic Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham A. Gad ELhak


    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the neurodegenerative diseases which we can by certainty identify its pathology, however, this confidence disappeares when talking about the cause. A long history of trials, suggestions, and theories tried linking PD to a specific causation. In this paper, a new suggestion is trying to find its way, could it be toxicology? Can we—in the future—look to PD as an occupational disease, in fact, many clues point to the possible toxic responsibility—either total or partial—in causing this disease. Searching for possible toxic causes for PD would help in designing perfect toxic models in animals.

  2. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour; Sreenivasan Sasidharan


    Objective: To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara(L. Camara) in Artemia salina. Methods: The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Conclusions:Methanolic extract of L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure.

  3. Toxicity of amphetamines: an update. (United States)

    Carvalho, Márcia; Carmo, Helena; Costa, Vera Marisa; Capela, João Paulo; Pontes, Helena; Remião, Fernando; Carvalho, Félix; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes


    Amphetamines represent a class of psychotropic compounds, widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, anorectic, and, in some cases, emphathogenic, entactogenic, and hallucinogenic properties. These compounds derive from the β-phenylethylamine core structure and are kinetically and dynamically characterized by easily crossing the blood-brain barrier, to resist brain biotransformation and to release monoamine neurotransmitters from nerve endings. Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs, of which amphetamine, methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) are well-known examples, humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums, through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants, namely cathinone (khat), obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine, obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra. More recently, a wave of new amphetamines has emerged in the market, mainly constituted of cathinone derivatives, including mephedrone, methylone, methedrone, and buthylone, among others. Although intoxications by amphetamines continue to be common causes of emergency department and hospital admissions, it is frequent to find the sophism that amphetamine derivatives, namely those appearing more recently, are relatively safe. However, human intoxications by these drugs are increasingly being reported, with similar patterns compared to those previously seen with classical amphetamines. That is not surprising, considering the similar structures and mechanisms of action among the different amphetamines, conferring similar toxicokinetic and toxicological profiles to these compounds. The aim of the present review is to give an insight into the pharmacokinetics, general mechanisms of biological and toxicological actions, and the main target organs for the toxicity of amphetamines. Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights, the long-studied classical

  4. Anticholinesterase Toxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milatovic


    Full Text Available Anticholinesterase compounds, organophosphates (OPs and carbamates (CMs are commonly used for a variety of purposes in agriculture and in human and veterinary medicine. They exert their toxicity in mammalian system primarily by virtue of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition at the synapses and neuromuscular junctions, leading into the signs of hypercholinergic preponderance. However, the mechanism(s involved in brain/muscle damage appear to be linked with alteration in antioxidant and the scavenging system leading to free radical-mediated injury. OPs and CMs cause excessive formation of F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes, in vivo biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and of citrulline, a marker of NO/NOS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS generation. In addition, during the course of these excitatory processes and inhibition of AChE, a high rate of ATP consumption, coupled with the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, compromise the cell's ability to maintain its energy levels and excessive amounts of ROS and RNS may be generated. Pretreatment with N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist memantine, in combination with atropine sulfate, provides significant protection against inhibition of AChE, increases of ROS/RNS, and depletion of high-energy phosphates induced by DFP/carbofuran. Similar antioxidative effects are observed with a spin trapping agent, phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN or chain breaking antioxidant vitamin E. This review describes the mechanisms involved in anticholinesterase-induced oxidative/nitrosative injury in target organs of OPs/CMs, and protection by various agents.

  5. Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.


    Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. The authors investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by {ge}70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

  6. Application of toxicity identification evaluation procedure to toxic industrial effluent in South Korea. (United States)

    Ra, Jin-Sung; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sang Don


    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was applied to the effluent from a pharmaceutical industrial complex, following the US EPA TIE guidelines. The whole effluent toxicity (WET) test found toxicity greater than 16toxic units (TU) in the effluent. Dissolved non-polar organic compounds were identified as the major contributor to the observed toxicity in the TIE manipulations in phases I and II. Among the 48 organic compounds identified, three compounds (i.e., acetophenone, benzoimide, and benzothiazole) were related to the pharmaceutical production procedure; however, no contribution to toxicity was predicted in the compounds. The results of the ECOSAR model, which predicts toxicity, indicated that the alkane compounds caused significant toxicity in the effluent. The toxicity test and heavy metal analysis, which used IC and ICP/MS, identified that particulate and heavy metals, such as Cu and Zn, contributed to the remaining toxicity, except dissolved organics. The results showed the applicability of the TIE method for predicting regional effluents produced by the industrial pharmaceutical complex in this study. Although the location was assumed to be affected by discharge of pharmaceutical related compounds in the river, no correlations were observed in the study. Based on the results, advanced treatment processes, such as activated carbon adsorption, are recommended for the wastewater treatment process in this location.

  7. Novel approaches to improving the chemical safety of the meat chain towards toxicants. (United States)

    Engel, E; Ratel, J; Bouhlel, J; Planche, C; Meurillon, M


    In addition to microbiological issues, meat chemical safety is a growing concern for the public authorities, chain stakeholders and consumers. Meat may be contaminated by various chemical toxicants originating from the environment, treatments of agricultural production or food processing. Generally found at trace levels in meat, these toxicants may harm human health during chronic exposure. This paper overviews the key issues to be considered to ensure better control of their occurrence in meat and assessment of the related health risk. We first describe potential contaminants of meat products. Strategies to move towards a more efficient and systematic control of meat chemical safety are then presented in a second part, with a focus on emerging approaches based on toxicogenomics. The third part presents mitigation strategies to limit the impact of process-induced toxicants in meat. Finally, the last part introduces methodological advances to refine chemical risk assessment related to the occurrence of toxicants in meat by quantifying the influence of digestion on the fraction of food contaminants that may be assimilated by the human body.

  8. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana. (United States)

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis


    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  9. A question about the potential cardiac toxicity of escitalopram. (United States)

    Howland, Robert H


    Previous reviews have focused on the potential cardiac toxicity of the racemic drug citalopram (Celexa(®)). Evaluating the safety of escitalopram (Lexapro(®)) is an important issue to consider, since it is the S-enantiomer of citalopram. Escitalopram has a small effect on the QTc interval. A prolonged QTc was seen in 2% to 14% of escitalopram overdose cases, without serious cardiac sequelae. The QTc prolongation effect of citalopram in beagle dogs has been attributed to the minor metabolite racemic didemethylcitalopram (DDCT). Whether the escitalopram minor metabolite S-DDCT has this effect is not known. Concentrations of S-DDCT are lower than DDCT, but for a broad range of doses of escitalopram and citalopram, the S-DDCT and DDCT concentrations are well below the QTc prolonging concentrations reported in dogs. There is no strong evidence from human and animal studies that the cardiac safety of escitalopram is significantly superior to that of citalopram.

  10. 32 CFR 154.48 - Issuing clearance. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuing clearance. 154.48 Section 154.48... PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.48 Issuing clearance. (a... personnel security clearance in the DCII (see § 154.43). A record of the clearance issued shall also...

  11. Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Sánchez-Querubín, N.; Kil, A.


    Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe is a seminal guide to mapping social and political issues with digital methods. The issue at stake concerns the imminent crisis of an ageing Europe and its impact on the contemporary welfare state. The book brings together three leading approaches to issue mapping:

  12. Top-Ten IT Issues, 2010 (United States)

    Ingerman, Bret L.; Yang, Catherine


    The eleventh annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey shows some very familiar themes among the top-ten IT issues of strategic importance to technology leaders in higher education. Indeed, all ten of the issues from the 2009 survey are back, albeit in a slightly different order. In addition, Strategic Planning returns as an issue of renewed…

  13. Formulations for aircraft and airfield deicing and anti-icing: aquatic toxicity and biochemical oxygen demand (United States)

    Ferguson, Lee; Corsi, Steven R.; Geis, Steven W.; Anderson, Graham; Joback, Kevin; Gold, Harris; Mericas, Dean; Cancilla, Devon A.


    The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) has sponsored research on environmental characteristics of aircraft and pavement deicers and anti-icers focusing primarily on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and aquatic toxicity of formulated products and individual chemical components of formulations. This report presents a background of issues leading to this research, objectives of this document, and a description of the efforts and findings of this research.

  14. Lipid raft disruption protects mature neurons against amyloid oligomer toxicity. (United States)

    Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Contrusciere, Valentina; Raggi, Carla; Fecchi, Katia; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Paradisi, Silvia; Matteucci, Andrea; Santini, Maria Teresa; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Frank, Claudio; Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Diociaiuti, Marco


    A specific neuronal vulnerability to amyloid protein toxicity may account for brain susceptibility to protein misfolding diseases. To investigate this issue, we compared the effects induced by oligomers from salmon calcitonin (sCTOs), a neurotoxic amyloid protein, on cells of different histogenesis: mature and immature primary hippocampal neurons, primary astrocytes, MG63 osteoblasts and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. In mature neurons, sCTOs increased apoptosis and induced neuritic and synaptic damages similar to those caused by amyloid beta oligomers. Immature neurons and the other cell types showed no cytotoxicity. sCTOs caused cytosolic Ca(2+) rise in mature, but not in immature neurons and the other cell types. Comparison of plasma membrane lipid composition showed that mature neurons had the highest content in lipid rafts, suggesting a key role for them in neuronal vulnerability to sCTOs. Consistently, depletion in gangliosides protected against sCTO toxicity. We hypothesize that the high content in lipid rafts makes mature neurons especially vulnerable to amyloid proteins, as compared to other cell types; this may help explain why the brain is a target organ for amyloid-related diseases.

  15. Understanding Genetic Toxicity Through Data Mining: The ... (United States)

    This paper demonstrates the usefulness of representing a chemical by its structural features and the use of these features to profile a battery of tests rather than relying on a single toxicity test of a given chemical. This paper presents data mining/profiling methods applied in a weight-of-evidence approach to assess potential for genetic toxicity, and to guide the development of intelligent testing strategies. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of representing a chemical by its structural features and the use of these features to profile a battery of tests rather than relying on a single toxicity test of a given chemical. This paper presents data mining/profiling methods applied in a weight-of-evidence approach to assess potential for genetic toxicity, and to guide the development of intelligent testing strategies.


    Moore, Daniel C.; Green, John


    The topical use of anesthetic agents involves an element of risk. Systemic toxic reactions are rare, but they do occur and may result in death. When a reaction occurs from a topical application, it usually progresses rapidly to respiratory and cardiovascular collapse, and thus therapy must be instituted with more haste to avoid deaths. Fatal systemic toxic reactions from topically administered anesthetic drugs are, in effect, usually not due to well informed use of the drug but to misuse owing to less than complete understanding of absorption. Emphasis is placed on the causes, prophylaxis and treatment of severe systemic toxic reactions which follow the topical application of local anesthetic drugs. If systemic toxic reactions resulting from a safe dose of a local anesthetic agent are correctly treated, there will usually follow an uneventful recovery rather than a catastrophe. PMID:13343009

  17. Simvastatin-induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Petrou; Vasiliki Karali; Emmanouil Papadakis


    Toxic epidermal necrolysis comprises a severe immune-complex mediated hypersensitivity reaction that typically involves the skin and mucous membranes.Herein, we describe a68-year -old man who presented with the condition after simvastatin administration.

  18. Simvastatin-induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Petrou


    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis comprises a severe immune-complex mediated hypersensitivity reaction that typically involves the skin and mucous membranes. Herein, we describe a 68-year -old man who presented with the condition after simvastatin administration.

  19. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Toxicity data for the impact of nano-silver on anaerobic degradation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gitipour, A., S. Thiel, K. Scheckel,...

  20. Molecular Strategies Against Sulfur Mustard Toxicity (United States)


    meiosis . Our current understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression involves basically two classes of molecular mechanisms: histone...Molecular Strategies Against Sulfur Mustard Toxicity 30 - 4 RTO-MP-HFM-182 meiosis . Our current understanding of epigenetic gene regulation

  1. Hydroxyaluminosilicates and acute aluminium toxicity in fish (United States)

    Exley; Pinnegar; Taylor


    The essentiality of silicon in biology might be explained in the terms of its chemistry with aluminium. In a previous study we demonstrated the elimination of acute aluminium toxicity in fish by silicon. We suggested that the reaction of silicic acid with aluminium to form hydroxyaluminosilicates reduced the biological availability, and hence toxicity, of aluminium. Though assumed in a burgeoning number of studies and contended in others this detoxification mechanism has remained unproven. Herein we have tested the toxicity of hydroxyaluminosilicates in fish and in doing so we have provided evidence which strongly supports a role for hydroxyaluminiosilicates in the elimination of acute aluminium toxicity in fish by silicon.Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited


    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  3. Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers (United States)

    Hilado, Carlos J.; Kosola, Kay L.; Solis, Alida N.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Parker, John A.


    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acryltonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions; carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

  4. Toxicity of Ordnance Wastes in Aquatic Environments (United States)


    tidal pool copepod Tigriopus californicus . Environ. Poll. 4(l):69-79. -17- Background References (Cont’d.) Osmon, J.L. and R.E. Klausmeier. 1973. The...toxicity of picric acid for the seawater copepod Tigriopus . Extremely good correlation is also obtained in comparing the toxicities of Otto fuel, Noset...Daphnia (65 ppm) and that of Tigriopus (45 ppm) appear to be the right order of magnitude when compared with results summarized by McKee and Wolf

  5. Environmental air toxics: role in asthma occurrence?


    Larsen, Gary L.; Beskid, Craig; Shirnamé-Moré, Lata


    The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) hosted its first scientific workshop in 1994 that focused on possible relationships between air toxics and asthma. From that meeting came recommendations for future research including a need for more complete individual personal exposure assessments so that determinations of personal exposures to pollutants could be made. In the spring of 2001, NUATRC held a second such workshop to review progress made in this area during the intervening ...

  6. Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de [Solvay S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Boutonnet, J.C. [Elf Atochem, Levallois-Perret (France); Thompson, R.S. [Zeneca Ltd., Devon (United Kingdom). Brixham Environmental Lab.


    As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  7. Modulation of anticancer drug toxicity by solcoseryl. (United States)

    Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Danysz, A


    The studies of the effect of solcoseryl on toxicity of selected anticancer drugs were performed in mice. The observed differential influence of solcoseryl was dependent on the type of anticancer drug as well as on the schedule of solcoseryl administration. The protective effect of the biostimulator was noticed exclusively against 5-FU toxicity. The results of our studies could provide possible implications for therapeutic approach.

  8. Acute toxicity and toxic interaction of chromium and nickel to common guppy Poecilia reticulata (Peters)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))


    The acute toxicity of heavy metals in combination to the common guppy has been reported. Information on the combined effects of chromium and nickel to fish is rather scarce. Toxicity of nickel and chromium to fish is generally low. These two elements are usually less toxic than silver, cadmium, copper and thallium; depending on test conditions, these may also be less hazardous than zinc, lead and arsenic. The present study was undertaken to investigate the acute toxicity of Ni and Cr singly and the toxic interaction of these two metal ions on survival of the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters). This species was selected for static bioassays because it can be easily cultured and raised under laboratory conditions through a complete life cycle, and it is one of the most common fish used for laboratory toxicity studies.

  9. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Kalra


    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

  10. Foundational issues in evolution education (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.; Siegel, Harvey; McInerney, Joseph D.


    There is a great need for effective evolution education. This paper reviews some of the evidence that demonstrates that need and analyzes some of the foundational semantic, epistemological, and philosophical issues involved. This analysis is used to provide a functional understanding of the distinction between science and non-science. Special emphasis is placed the scientific meaning of the terms theory, hypothesis, fact, proof, evidence, and truth, focusing on the difference between religious belief and acceptance of a scientific theory. Science is viewed as theologically neutral and as not mutually exclusive from religion. Finally, a number of practical recommendations to the classroom biology teacher are presented.

  11. Gender Issues in Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghuan Shi; Heidi A. Ross


    @@ The past decade has witnessed a rapid growth of higher education in China and an increasing number of female students enrolled in colleges and universities,with the rate of female students reaching 48.1% in 2007, which was 12.7%higher than the year of 1995 (35.4%). Along with the broader access of females to higher education, how come gender as an issue still needs to be stressed in political and policy sphere, as well as in social awareness?

  12. Preface JFDE Special Issue Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Knaack


    Full Text Available Facade Design and Engineering is a multidisciplinary field that touches many other scientific disciplines. Glass is one of the key materials for building envelopes, and a strong scientific community has developed over the last decade. Designers love glass for its transparency. It is strong but brittle and very demanding in terms of engineering. We continuously see new innovative developments in terms of its climatic performance, structural possibilities, construction design and new applications. Reason enough to dedicate this special issue to the topic. The issue would not have been possible without the contribution of our special editors Jan Belis and Christian Louter, who contributed through their outstanding editorial work and network. Most of the papers in this issue were carefully selected from of a number of invited submissions and conference papers of the COST Action TU0905 Mid-Term Conference, April 17+18 2013, Porec, (CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden and subsequently subjected to the regular blind review process of the journal. Glass as a building material demonstrates the nature of the architectural discipline, where science and building practice are closely linked. Buildings are the live testing bed for scientific research and, at the same time, building practice formulates new research questions. We found that many articles sent to us deal with this relation. Therefore we decided to introduce the new category ’Applied Practice’ for certain journal paper contributions, which from now on can be found at the end of each issue. Although they do not need to be purely scientific, ’Applied Practice’ papers will always discuss new developments, will have a clear structure and are subjected to the strict JFDE review process. Façade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO ( We see ’open access’ as the future publishing model. But it

  13. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh


    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  14. Issues concerning global warming today

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenqiu REN


    The global weather of today is growing significantly warmer; this is an indisputable fact.However,the scientific community has not yet reached consensus on the causes of global warming and its possible consequences.This paper introduces the causes of global warming and summarizes its results,which both involve a series of huge and complex system issues.Our top priority is to pinpoint the main reason and the interrelated links between causative factors by adopting a macro-approach,or comprehensive comparison analysis.Its physical mechanism was then determined and its digital model established after quantitative study.

  15. Psychological empowerment: issues and illustrations. (United States)

    Zimmerman, M A


    Discussed several issues related to psychological empowerment. The thesis of this paper is that the development of a universal and global measure of psychological empowerment may not be a feasible or appropriate goal. I begin by distinguishing between empowerment processes and outcomes. Underlying assumptions are discussed including the notion that empowerment differs across people, contexts, and times. A nomological network that includes intrapersonal, interactional, and behavioral components is also presented. Two examples of psychological empowerment for voluntary service organization members and members of a mutual help organization are described to help illustrate differences in the specific variables that may be used to measure psychological empowerment in different populations and settings.

  16. Message for the First Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Advances in Climate Change Research is a journal published by National Climate Centre of China Meteorological Administration.So far,it is the only comprehensive English journal in China,which focuses on climate change studies and covers both natural and social sciences related to climate change.This issue mainly presents the latest academic views and findings in climate change research both in China and overseas,and additionally it provides information about major activities regarding climate change both at home and abroad.

  17. Approval plans issues and innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S


    How can you, as an acquisition librarians, keep current on the output of hundreds of publishers? The answer, of course, is that you cannot. For over 30 years, approval plans have been used by librarians to acquire current titles, save staff time, and build core collections. Even today, these reasons seem appropriate, as libraries try to maintain up-to-date collections and control personnel and operating budgets. However, as shown in Approval Plans: Issues and Innovations, the use of approval plans is not so simple and straightforward; their use is subject to complex procedures and policies--an

  18. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.


    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  19. Biological issues in materials science and engineering: Interdisciplinarity and the bio-materials paradigm (United States)

    Murr, L. E.


    Biological systems and processes have had, and continue to have, important implications and applications in materials extraction, processing, and performance. This paper illustrates some interdisciplinary, biological issues in materials science and engineering. These include metal extraction involving bacterial catalysis, galvanic couples, bacterial-assisted corrosion and degradation of materials, biosorption and bioremediation of toxic and other heavy metals, metal and material implants and prostheses and related dental and medical biomaterials developments and applications, nanomaterials health benefits and toxicity issue, and biomimetics and biologically inspired materials developments. These and other examples provide compelling evidence and arguments for emphasizing biological sicences in materials science and engineering curricula and the implementation of a bio-materials paradigm to facilitate the emergence of innovative interdisciplinarity involving the biological sciences and materials sciences and engineering.

  20. Human Mars Mission Contamination Issues (United States)

    Lupisella, M. L.


    A potential challenge for a human Mars mission is that while humans are by most measures the obvious best way to search for life on Mars, we may also be the most problematic in that we could unduly compromise the search for life by contaminating relevant environments and/or possibly adversely and irreversibly affecting indigenous life. Perhaps more problematic is the fundamental epistemic challenge of the "one data point" limitation which could decrease confidence in applying terrestrially based research to extraterrestrial life issues in general. An informal decision tree is presented as one way to begin thinking about contamination issues. There are many sub-questions and distinctions not shown such as biological vs. nonbiological (but biologically relevant) contamination, viable vs. dead organisms, masking indigenous organisms vs. merely making the search more difficult, and independent origin vs. panspermia distinctions. While it may be unlikely that terrestrial microbes could survive on Mars, let alone reproduce and unduly compromise the search for life, the unpredictable potential for microbial life to survive, grow exponentially, evolve and modify (and sometimes destroy) environments, warrants focusing carefully on biologically relevant contamination as we prepare to send humans to the first planet that may have indigenous life-forms.

  1. Introduction to the special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Boehm


    Full Text Available (from the introduction Intuition and affect have been neglected topics in the literature on human judgment and decision making for a long time. Judgmental processes involved in risk perception and decision making have traditionally been conceptualized as cognitive in nature, being based upon a rational and deliberate evaluation of the alternatives at hand. This picture started to change in the early 1980s when decision researchers looked beyond rational, deliberate, and cognitive processes and began to investigate intuitive --- as opposed to deliberate --- and emotional --- as opposed to cognitive --- aspects of decision making. In sum, decision research has seen a proliferation of approaches that look beyond rational, deliberate, and purely cognitive processes in decision making and investigate intuitive and emotional judgments in this area. This seemed like a good point in time to reflect the state of this emerging field in a special issue that addresses the question of how intuition and affect are related to each other and how they shape risk perception and decision making. This special issue is the result of a workshop that was held at the University of Bergen in November, 2006.

  2. KSC Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Issues (United States)

    Buhler, Charles


    Discussion of key electrostatic issues that have arisen during the past few years at KSC that the Electrostatics Laboratory has studied. The lab has studied in depth the Space Shuttle's Thermal Control System Blankets, the International Space Station Thermal Blanket, the Pan/Tilt Camera Blankets, the Kapton Purge Barrier Curtain, the Aclar Purge Barrier Curtain, the Thrust Vector Controller Blankets, the Tyvek Reaction Control System covers, the AID-PAK and FLU-9 pyro inflatable devices, the Velostat Solid Rocket Booster mats, and the SCAPE suits. In many cases these materials are insulating meaning that they might be a source of unsafe levels of electrostatic discharge (ESD). For each, the lab provided in-depth testing of each material within its current configuration to ensure that it does not cause an ESD concern that may violate the safety of the astronauts, the workers and equipment for NASA. For example the lab provides unique solutions and testing such as Spark Incendivity Testing that checks whether a material is capable of generating a spark strong enough to ignite a flammable gas. The lab makes recommendations to changes in specifications, procedures, and material if necessary. The lab also consults with a variety of non-safety related ESD issues for the agency.

  3. Economic Issues on Food Safety (United States)

    Adinolfi, Felice; Capitanio, Fabian


    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work. PMID:27800432

  4. Economic Issues on Food Safety. (United States)

    Adinolfi, Felice; Di Pasquale, Jorgelina; Capitanio, Fabian


    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work.

  5. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert [Office for Energy Regulation (DTe), The Hague (Netherlands)


    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections.

  6. Biomedical Platforms Based on Composite Nanomaterials and Cellular Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, Stefano [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bergamaschi, A [Department of Environmental, Occupational and Social Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bottini, M [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Magrini, A [Department of Environmental, Occupational and Social Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Mustelin, T [Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)


    Carbon nanotubes possess unique chemical, physical, optical, and magnetic properties, which make them suitable for many uses in industrial products and in the field of nanotechnology, including nanomedicine. We describe fluorescent nanocomposites for use in biosensors or nanoelectronics. Then we describe recent results on the issue of cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes obtained in our labs. Silica nanoparticles have been widely used for biosensing and catalytic applications due to their large surface area-to-volume ratio, straightforward manufacture, and the compatibility of silica chemistry with covalent coupling of biomolecules. Carbon nanotubes-composite materials, such as those based on Carbon nanotubes bound to nanoparticles, are suitable, in order to tailor Carbon nanotubes properties for specific applications. We present a tunable synthesis of Multi Wall Carbon nanotubes-Silica nanoparticles. The control of the nanotube morphology and the bead size, coupled with the versatility of silica chemistry, makes these structures an excellent platform for the development of biosensors (optical, magnetic and catalytic applications). We describe the construction and characterization of supramolecular nanostructures consisting of ruthenium-complex luminophores, directly grafted onto short oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes or physically entrapped in silica nanobeads, which had been covalently linked to short oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes or hydrophobically adsorbed onto full-length multi-walled carbon nanotubes. These structures have been evaluated as potential electron-acceptor complexes for use in the fabrication of photovoltaic devices, and for their properties as fluorescent nanocomposites for use in biosensors or nanoelectronics. Finally, we compare the toxicity of pristine and oxidized Multi Walled Carbon nanotubes on human T cells - which would be among the first exposed cell types upon intravenous administration of Carbon nanotubes in therapeutic

  7. Taxation’s Troubling Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Milne


    Full Text Available Occupy Wall Street spurred cries of indignation, including calls to reform the tax code. This article examines the difficulty of raising taxes in the United States at a time when the federal government faces many needs and new taxes could help address the growing income disparity. In Part 1, it looks at several trends—the substantial federal deficit and rising debt, the lack of funding for infrastructure, and increasing income disparity among US residents—to establish the premise that resistance to higher taxes is troublesome. The article then turns to the question why taxes are viewed negatively. It surveys literature about the general public’s attitudes toward taxation (Part 2 and the intensely political views of taxation on and surrounding Capitol Hill (Part 3. Parts 2 and 3 confirm the challenges of raising federal taxes and find a range of forces at work with varying levels of intensity. Part 4 looks forward and considers mechanisms that might help overcome the perception of taxes as politically poisonous and increase their acceptance. The article draws on research from numerous disciplines, but its analysis of potential paths forward looks through the lens of the law at ways in which various legal procedures and legally oriented approaches might help overcome resistance. It concludes that taxation is politically toxic, which is troublesome given the important roles that taxation plays in society, but that there are some glimmers of hope that the structure and details of the law may help create some opportunities for change. Occupy Wall Street impulsó gritos de indignación, incluyendo una llamada a reformar el código tributario. Este artículo analiza la dificultad de aumentar los impuestos en Estados Unidos, en un momento en el que el gobierno federal se enfrenta a muchas necesidades, y la creación de nuevos impuestos podría ayudar a abordar la creciente disparidad de ingresos. En la Parte 1, se tratan diversas tendencias


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letiția-Doina DUCEAC


    Full Text Available Nowadays, intoxication with nitrates continues to represent an important aspect in child pathology. Methemoglobinemia symptoms appear when the human body is exposed to high amounts of toxic compounds.The aim of this work was to evaluate the main clinical, biological and development issues of affected patients hospitalized in a specialized clinic. Acquired methemoglobinemia cases of the ”blue child syndrome” type are more frequent than in born ones. The factors considered for the study were the environment from which patients came, a thorough clinical inspection, data on age, nutrition, methemoglobinemia values, other treatments followed, associated diseases and evolution prognosis. The conclusion of the investigation was that a low living standard, a poor health education, the climate, the presence of ground fertilizers and the type of nourishment determined a significant increase of methemoglobinemia patients.

  9. A mixture toxicity approach to predict the toxicity of Ag decorated ZnO nanomaterials. (United States)

    Azevedo, S L; Holz, T; Rodrigues, J; Monteiro, T; Costa, F M; Soares, A M V M; Loureiro, S


    Nanotechnology is a rising field and nanomaterials can now be found in a vast variety of products with different chemical compositions, sizes and shapes. New nanostructures combining different nanomaterials are being developed due to their enhancing characteristics when compared to nanomaterials alone. In the present study, the toxicity of a nanostructure composed by a ZnO nanomaterial with Ag nanomaterials on its surface (designated as ZnO/Ag nanostructure) was assessed using the model-organism Daphnia magna and its toxicity predicted based on the toxicity of the single components (Zn and Ag). For that ZnO and Ag nanomaterials as single components, along with its mixture prepared in the laboratory, were compared in terms of toxicity to ZnO/Ag nanostructures. Toxicity was assessed by immobilization and reproduction tests. A mixture toxicity approach was carried out using as starting point the conceptual model of Concentration Addition. The laboratory mixture of both nanomaterials showed that toxicity was dependent on the doses of ZnO and Ag used (immobilization) or presented a synergistic pattern (reproduction). The ZnO/Ag nanostructure toxicity prediction, based on the percentage of individual components, showed an increase in toxicity when compared to the expected (immobilization) and dependent on the concentration used (reproduction). This study demonstrates that the toxicity of the prepared mixture of ZnO and Ag and of the ZnO/Ag nanostructure cannot be predicted based on the toxicity of their components, highlighting the importance of taking into account the interaction between nanomaterials when assessing hazard and risk.

  10. Issues in qualitative and quantitative risk analysis for developmental toxicology. (United States)

    Kimmel, C A; Gaylor, D W


    The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risk in developmental toxicology has been discussed in several recent publications. A number of issues still are to be resolved in this area. The qualitative evaluation and interpretation of end points in developmental toxicology depends on an understanding of the biological events leading to the end points observed, the relationships among end points, and their relationship to dose and to maternal toxicity. The interpretation of these end points is also affected by the statistical power of the experiments used for detecting the various end points observed. The quantitative risk assessment attempts to estimate human risk for developmental toxicity as a function of dose. The current approach is to apply safety (uncertainty) factors to the no observed effect level (NOEL). An alternative presented and discussed here is to model the experimental data and apply a safety factor to an estimated risk level to achieve an "acceptable" level of risk. In cases where the dose-response curves upward, this approach provides a conservative estimate of risk. This procedure does not preclude the existence of a threshold dose. More research is needed to develop appropriate dose-response models that can provide better estimates for low-dose extrapolation of developmental effects.

  11. Use of thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease: Safety issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia; Konidari; Wael; El; Matary


    Thiopurines are widely used for maintenance treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Interindividual variability in clinical response to thiopurines may be attributed to several factors including genetic polymorphisms, severity and chronicity of disease, comorbidities, duration of administration, compliance issues and use of concomitant medication, environmental factors and clinician and patient preferences. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current evidence on thiopurine safety and toxicity, to describe adverse drug events and emphasise the significance of drug interactions, and to discuss the relative safety of thiopurine use in adults, elderly patients, children and pregnant women. Thiopurines are safe to use and well tolerated, however dose adjustment or discontinuation of treatment must be considered in cases of non-response, poor compliance or toxicity. Drug safety, clinical response to treatment and short to long term risks and benefits must be balanced throughout treatment duration for different categories of patients. Treatment should be individualised and stratified according to patient requirements. Enzymatic testing prior to treatment commencement is advised. Surveillance with regular clinic follow-up and monitoring of laboratory markers is important. Data on long term efficacy, safety of thiopurine use and interaction with other disease modifying drugs are lacking, especially in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease. High quality, collaborative clinical research is required so as to inform clinical practice in the future.

  12. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues (United States)

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.


    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  13. Ethical issues and Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié


    The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper. 


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Wei


    For many years, China has made great strides in constructing a sizeable and stable energy supply system rooted mainly in domestic coal supply. That system, however, is subject to immense strain as a result of rapid economic growth, rising living standard, widespread environmental degradation, limited oil reserves and uneven resources distribution. Industrialization and urbanization since the early 1980s have imposed structural constraints on its traditional coal-based energy supply model. Eventually, China became a net oil-importer in 1993 when ten million tons of crude oil and petroleum products from abroad fed into the local economies of the coastal areas. Such a change meant that energy security has become an increasingly sensitive issue to the central government of China. This paper argues that China could benefit from a more open energy supply by striking to a balance of both domestic and international sources, rather than the traditional mode emphasized on a highly self-sufficiency rate.

  15. Issues of Rural Light Pollution (United States)

    Osborn, W. H.; Hammer, R. L.; Hammer, A.


    Light pollution is generally considered mostly an urban problem. Common sources of light pollution are poorly designed lighting of streets, parking lots, businesses and advertizing signs and for security. These sources, and the amount of light pollution generated, increase with population density. Nevertheless, light pollution can also be significant in rural areas. Rural light pollution differs from that in urban settings, both in the types of pollution and in the means that must be employed to control it. In the country the offending sources are often isolated lights such as from farm barns, vacation cottages, radio and cell phone towers, and road intersections. A culture of strong property rights and privacy rights affects attempts to control rural light pollution. We describe how some of these issues may be addressed based on the results from an Eagle Scout project carried out in central Michigan.

  16. Theoretical issues in Spheromak research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R. H.; Hooper, E. B.; LoDestro, L. L.; Mattor, N.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Ryutov, D. D.


    This report summarizes the state of theoretical knowledge of several physics issues important to the spheromak. It was prepared as part of the preparation for the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX), which addresses these goals: energy confinement and the physics which determines it; the physics of transition from a short-pulsed experiment, in which the equilibrium and stability are determined by a conducting wall (``flux conserver``) to one in which the equilibrium is supported by external coils. Physics is examined in this report in four important areas. The status of present theoretical understanding is reviewed, physics which needs to be addressed more fully is identified, and tools which are available or require more development are described. Specifically, the topics include: MHD equilibrium and design, review of MHD stability, spheromak dynamo, and edge plasma in spheromaks.

  17. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder


    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  18. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  19. [Ethical issues in nursing leadership]. (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Fang; Hung, Chich-Hsiu


    Social transition causes shifts and changes in the relationship between health professionals and their patients. In their professional capacity, it is important today for nurses to handle ethical dilemmas properly, in a manner that fosters an ethical environment. This article investigates the ethical concerns and decision processes of nurses from a knowledge construction perspective, and examines such issues as patient needs, staff perceptions, organizational benefits, and professional image. The decision making methods commonly used when facing ethical dilemma explored in this study include the traditional problem solving, nursing process, MORAL model, and Murphy's methods. Although decision making for ethical dilemmas is governed by no universal rule, nurses are responsible to try to foster a trusting relationship between employee and employer, health care providers and patients, and the organization and colleagues. When decision making on ethical dilemmas is properly executed quality care will be delivered and malpractice can be reduced.

  20. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses. (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke


    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field.

  1. Philosophical Issues of Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E


    Black holes are extremely relativistic objects. Physical processes around them occur in a regime where the gravitational field is extremely intense. Under such conditions, our representations of space, time, gravity, and thermodynamics are pushed to their limits. In such a situation philosophical issues naturally arise. In this chapter I review some philosophical questions related to black holes. In particular, the relevance of black holes for the metaphysical dispute between presentists and eternalists, the origin of the second law of thermodynamics and its relation to black holes, the problem of information, black holes and hypercomputing, the nature of determinisim, and the breakdown of predictability in black hole space-times. I maintain that black hole physics can be used to illuminate some important problems in the border between science and philosophy, either epistemology and ontology.

  2. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke


    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  3. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix


    The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...... becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may...

  4. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...... becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may...

  5. Editorial Volume 6 Issue 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Perrin


    Full Text Available The articles published in this issue of AABFJ cover a variety of discipline areas as well as providing a contrast in methodologies for research. Cheung and Powell (2012 provide guidance on the use of the Excel modelling package to construct parametric and Monte Carlo Simulation models. Lama (2012 examined the relationship between corporate governance and a firm’s performance as measured by return on equity, earning yield and return on assets, and found and found that in mid-sized Australian ASX companies there was a positive correlation. Morunga and Bradbury (2012 report on the data overload found in the financial reports of New Zealand companies as a result of the disclosure requirements emanating from the adoption and implementation of the International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand.

  6. Deep brain stimulation: postoperative issues. (United States)

    Deuschl, Günther; Herzog, Jan; Kleiner-Fisman, Galit; Kubu, Cynthia; Lozano, Andres M; Lyons, Kelly E; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Tamma, Filippo; Tröster, Alexander I; Vitek, Jerrold L; Volkmann, Jens; Voon, Valerie


    Numerous factors need to be taken into account when managing a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation (DBS). Questions such as when to begin programming, how to conduct a programming screen, how to assess the effects of programming, and how to titrate stimulation and medication for each of the targeted sites need to be addressed. Follow-up care should be determined, including patient adjustments of stimulation, timing of follow-up visits and telephone contact with the patient, and stimulation and medication conditions during the follow-up assessments. A management plan for problems that can arise after DBS such as weight gain, dyskinesia, axial symptoms, speech dysfunction, muscle contractions, paresthesia, eyelid, ocular and visual disturbances, and behavioral and cognitive problems should be developed. Long-term complications such as infection or erosion, loss of effect, intermittent stimulation, tolerance, and pain or discomfort can develop and need to be managed. Other factors that need consideration are social and job-related factors, development of dementia, general medical issues, and lifestyle changes. This report from the Consensus on Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease, a project commissioned by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons and the Movement Disorder Society, outlines answers to a series of questions developed to address all aspects of DBS postoperative management and decision-making with a systematic overview of the literature (until mid-2004) and by the expert opinion of the authors. The report has been endorsed by the Scientific Issues Committee of the Movement Disorder Society and the American Society of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.

  7. Acoustic Issues in Human Spaceflight (United States)

    Clark, Jonathan B.


    NASA is concerned about acute effect of sound on crew performance on International Space Station (ISS), and is developing strategies to assess and reduce acute, chronic, and delayed effects of sound. High noise levels can cause headaches, irritation, fatigue, impaired sleep, headache, and tinnitus and have resulted in an inability to hear alarms. Speech intelligibility may be more impaired for crew understanding non-native language in a noisy environment. No hearing loss occurred, but significant effects on crew performance and communication occurred. Permanent Threshold Shifts (PTS) have not been observed in the US shuttle program. Russian specification for noise in spacecraft is 60 dBA (awake) and 50 dBA (asleep) while the U.S. noise specification on ISS is NC 50 (awake) and NC 40 (asleep) with a 85 dBA hazard limit. Background noise levels of ISS modules have measured 56-69 dBA. Treadmill exercise operations measure 77 dBA. Alarms are required to be 20 dBA above ambient. Hearing protection is recommended when noise exceeds 60 dB 24 hour Leq. Countermeasures include hearing protection and design/ engineering controls. Advanced composite materials with excellent low frequency attenuation properties could be applied as a barrier protection around noisy equipment, or used on personal protective equipment worn by the crew. Hearing protection countermeasures include foam ear inserts, passive muff headsets, and active noise reduction headsets. Oto-acoustic emissions (OAE) could be used to monitor effectiveness of hearing protection countermeasures and tailor hearing protection countermeasures to individual crewmembers. Micro-gravity, vibration, toxic fumes, air quality/composition, stress, temperature, physical exertion or some combination of the above factors may have interacted with moderate long-term noise exposure to cause significant hearing loss. Longitudinal studies will need to address what co-morbidity factors, such as radiation, toxicology, microgravity

  8. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology


    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  9. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.


    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  10. Toxicity and antinociceptive effects of Hamelia patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro


    Full Text Available Abstract Many medicinal herbs are used in folk medicine without taking into account their toxicity. Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae, a Mexican endemic species, is used for the empirical treatment of pain. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicity and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extracts of H. patens leaves. The toxicity of H. patens leaves (500–5000 mg/kg was evaluated in acute (14 days and subacute (28 days assays. In the subacute assay, a blood analysis (both hematology and chemistry was carried out. The antinociceptive effects of H. patens leaves (50–200 mg/kg were evaluated using thermal-induced nociception (hot plate and the chemical-induced nociceptive tests (acid acetic and formalin. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 estimated for H. patens leaves was 2964 mg/kg i.p. and >5000 mg/kg p.o., whereas in the subacute test HPE did not affect hematological or biochemical parameters. In chemical-induced nociception models, H. patens (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. showed antinociceptive effects with similar activity than 100 mg/kg naproxen. In the hot plate test, HPE at 100 mg/kg (17% and 200 mg/kg (25% showed moderate antinociceptive effects. HPE could be a good source of antinociceptive agents because of its good activity and low toxicity.

  11. Cadmium potentiates toxicity of cypermethrin in zebrafish. (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Ye, Xiaoqing; He, Buyuan; Liu, Jing


    Co-occurrence of pesticides such as synthetic pyrethroids and metals in aquatic ecosystems raises concerns over their combined ecological effects. Cypermethrin, 1 of the top 5 synthetic pyrethroids in use, has been extensively detected in surface water. Cadmium (Cd) has been recognized as 1 of the most toxic metals and is a common contaminant in the aquatic system. However, little information is available regarding their joint toxicity. In the present study, combined toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to the individual contaminant or binary mixtures. Co-exposure to cypermethrin and Cd produced synergistic effects on the occurrence of crooked body, pericardial edema, and noninflation of swim bladder. The addition of Cd significantly potentiated cypermethrin-induced spasms and caused more oxidative stress in zebrafish larvae. Cypermethrin-mediated induction of transcription levels and catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme were significantly down-regulated by Cd in both zebrafish larvae and adults. Chemical analytical data showed that in vitro elimination of cypermethrin by CYP1A1 was inhibited by Cd. The addition of Cd caused an elevation of in vivo cypermethrin residue levels in the mixture-exposed adult zebrafish. These results suggest that the enhanced toxicity of cypermethrin in the presence of Cd results from the inhibitory effects of Cd on CYP-mediated biotransformation of this pesticide. The authors' findings provide a deeper understanding of the mechanistic basis accounting for the joint toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd.

  12. Mechanisms of toxicity by carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Yañez, Yury; Muñoz, Balam; Albores, Arnulfo


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) consist of a family of carbon built nanoparticles, whose biological effects depend on their physical characteristics and other constitutive chemicals (impurities and functions attached). CNTs are considered the twenty first century material due to their unique physicochemical characteristics and applicability to industrial product. The use of these materials steadily increases worldwide and toxic outcomes need to be studied for each nanomaterial in depth to prevent adverse effects to humans and the environment. Entrance into the body is physical, and usually few nanoparticles enter the body; however, once there, they are persistent due to their limited metabolisms, so their removal is slow, and chronic cumulative health effects are studied. Oxidative stress is the main mechanism of toxicity but size, agglomeration, chirality as well as impurities and functionalization are some of the structural and chemical characteristic contributing to the CNTs toxicity outcomes. Among the many toxicity pathways, interference with cytoskeleton and fibrous mechanisms, cell signaling, membrane perturbations and the production of cytokines, chemokines and inflammation are some of the effects resulting from exposure to CNTs. The aim of this review is to offer an up-to-date scope of the effects of CNTs on biological systems with attention to mechanisms of toxicity.

  13. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton (United States)

    Paytan, A.; Mackey, K.R.M.; Chen, Y.; Lima, I.D.; Doney, S.C.; Mahowald, N.; Labiosa, R.; Post, A.F.


    Atmospheric aerosol deposition is an important source of nutrients and trace metals to the open ocean that can enhance ocean productivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Using aerosol samples from different back trajectories in incubation experiments with natural communities, we demonstrate that the response of phytoplankton growth to aerosol additions depends on specific components in aerosols and differs across phytoplankton species. Aerosol additions enhanced growth by releasing nitrogen and phosphorus, but not all aerosols stimulated growth. Toxic effects were observed with some aerosols, where the toxicity affected picoeukaryotes and Synechococcus but not Prochlorococcus.We suggest that the toxicity could be due to high copper concentrations in these aerosols and support this by laboratory copper toxicity tests preformed with Synechococcus cultures. However, it is possible that other elements present in the aerosols or unknown synergistic effects between these elements could have also contributed to the toxic effect. Anthropogenic emissions are increasing atmospheric copper deposition sharply, and based on coupled atmosphere-ocean calculations, we show that this deposition can potentially alter patterns of marine primary production and community structure in high aerosol, low chlorophyll areas, particularly in the Bay of Bengal and downwind of South and East Asia.

  14. Behavior as a sentry of metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.


    Many of the toxic properties of metals are expressed as behavioral aberrations. Some of these arise from direct actions on the central nervous system. Others arise from primary events elsewhere, but still influence behavior. Toxicity may be expressed either as objectively measurable phenomena, such as ataxia, or as subjective complaints, such as depression. In neither instance is clinical medicine equipped to provide assessments of subtle, early indices of toxicity. Reviewers of visual disturbances, paresthesia, and mental retardation exemplify the potential contribution of psychology to the toxicology of metals. Behavior and nervous system functions act as sensitive mirrors of metal toxicity. Sensitivity is the prime aim in environmental health assessments. Early detection of adverse effects, before they progress to irreversibility, underlies the strategy for optimal health protection. Some of the toxic actions of metals originate in direct nervous system dysfunction. Others may reflect disturbances of systems less directly linked to behavior than the central nervous system. But behavior, because it expresses the integrated functioning of the organism, can indicate flaws in states and processes outside the nervous system.

  15. Mass Media and Political Issue Perceptions. (United States)

    Hofstetter, C. Richard; Strand, Paul J.


    Based on one intensive survey of media behavior and a series of other national surveys, the study shows that holding issue positions and perceptions of major party candidates' issue positions are functions of media exposure to public affairs media. (Author)

  16. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.


    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement.

  17. Editorial: AABFJ Volume 10, Issue 3, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciorstan Smark


    Full Text Available The September 2016 issue of AABFJ carries articles from the areas of accounting, Finance and financial planning. Authors for this issue are from Institutions in Australia, Vietnam, India and New Zealand.

  18. Environmental Issues for Tourism and Recreation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The objectives of this article are to: analyze the relationship between tourism and recreation and major environmental issues; analyze tourism and recreation in the context of general issue of sustainable development; consider implications for policy development and implementation.

  19. Open Praxis vol. 8 issue 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (ed., Various authors


    Full Text Available This last Open Praxis issue in 2016 is an open issue that includes four research papers, two innovative practice papers and two book reviews. It also includes the list of reviewers that have collaborated in volume 8.

  20. Combined toxicity of four toxicants (Cu, Cr, oil, oil dispersant) to Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verriopoulos, G.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.; Milliou, E.


    In sea waters multicontaminant pollution appears to be the rule rather than the exception. For a realistic approach to pollution effects it is essential to estimate the combined toxicity of two or more chemicals. There is a need to understand the mechanisms of quantify the effects of multiple toxicity in order to provide responsible authorities with rational estimate of the effects of chemical mixtures. Thus the potential toxic effects of mixtures of toxicants has recently become a subject of growing scientific interest. In this paper the authors have tried to estimate the joint toxicity of some pollutants commonly found in nearshore polluted waters: two metals, copper and chromium; an oil (Tunesian crude oil zarzaitine type); and an oil dispersant (Finasol OSR-2).

  1. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012


    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  2. Top-Ten IT Issues: 2009 (United States)

    Agee, Anne Scrivener; Yang, Catherine


    This article presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the institution, as revealed by the tenth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. These IT-related issues include: (1) Funding IT; (2) Administrative/ERP Information Systems; (3) Security; (4) Infrastructure/Cyberinfrastructure; (5) Teaching and Learning with…

  3. Special Issue “Feature Papers”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Henson


    Full Text Available The Special Issue “Feature Papers” of the journal Processes aims to establish the scope of this new open access journal in chemical, biological, environmental, pharmaceutical, and material-process engineering, as well as the development of general process engineering methods. The Special Issue is available online at:[...

  4. Judging Social Issues: Difficulties, Inconsistencies, and Consistencies. (United States)

    Turiel, Elliot; And Others


    Three studies examined high school and college students' reasoning about issues of abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and incest. In the first study, groups differed in judgments about these issues but not about moral issues in general. Findings of second study paralleled those of first. Third study showed that assumptions associated with…

  5. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  6. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite. (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A; Pant, Aditya B


    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined.

  7. An inexpensive apparatus for toxicity screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Pinto, R.W.; Santelli, J. [Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Teaneck, NJ (United States)


    An inexpensive apparatus was fabricated to monitor and record changes in the motility patterns of small aquatic invertebrates, such as Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, during acute toxicity tests. Within hours of exposure to a range toxicant concentrations the motility patterns change in a way that predicts the EC50. The work to date suggests there is a correlation between the EC50 following a 60 hour exposure, and motility data collected within the first 40 minutes of the test. The apparatus may be useful to speed range finding tests and for shortening the duration of acute toxicity tests of an effluent or receiving water. The apparatus may also be used to quantify erratic swimming in surviving organisms when a test is terminated.

  8. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.


    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  9. Toxicity Studies on "840 Biologic Pesticide"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [Objective] "840 Biologic Pesticide" is a very effective biologic pesticide. It consists of Abamectin and celastrus angulatus. Toxicity study was aimed to provide scientific toxicological basis. [Methods] The acute toxicity test,Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were done. [Results] The acute toxicity of single dose of "840 Biologic Pesticide" showed that acute oral LD50 for female and male rats are 4 300 and 4 280 mg/kg,and for female and male mice are 2 330 and 5 110 mg/kg,respectively. The dermal LD50 was >2 000 mg/kg for female and male rats. The mutagenesis studies indicated that Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were negative. [Conclusion] Tested pesticidc belongs to low toticity grade.

  10. Steroidal alkaloid toxicity to fish embryos. (United States)

    Crawford, L; Kocan, R M


    Embryos of two species of fish were evaluated for their suitability as model systems for steroidal alkaloid toxicity, the Japanese rice fish, medaka (Oryzius latipes) and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Additionally, the equine neurotoxic sesquiterpene lactone repin, was also tested. A PROBIT program was used to evaluate the EC1, EC50 and EC99 as well as the associated confidence limits. The steroidal alkaloids tested were the Solanum potato glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, the aglyclones solanidine and solasodine and the Veratrum alkaloid, jervine. Embryo mortality, likely due to structural or functional abnormalities in the early development stages of the embryo, were the only response observed in both species. The rainbow trout exhibited a toxic response to chaconine, solasidine, repin and solanine but the medaka embryos were only affected by the compounds, chaconine and solanine. Rainbow trout may indeed serve as a good lower vertebrate model for studying the toxicity of steroidal alkaloids.


    Hyatt, Michael W; Georoff, Timothy A; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wells, Rebecca L; Clauss, Tonya M; Ialeggio, Donna M; Harms, Craig A; Wack, Allison N


    Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in penguins managed under human care. Triazole antifungal drugs, including itraconazole, are most commonly used for treatment; however, itraconazole treatment failures from drug resistance are becoming more common, requiring newer treatment options. Voriconazole, a newer triazole, is being used more often. Until recently, no voriconazole pharmacokinetic studies had been performed in penguins, leading to empiric dosing based on other avian studies. This has led to increased anecdotal reporting of apparent voriconazole toxicity in penguins. This report describes 18 probable and 6 suspected cases of voriconazole toxicity in six penguin species from nine institutions: 12 African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), 5 Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), 3 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), 2 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua papua), 1 macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and 1 emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Observed clinical signs of toxicity included anorexia, lethargy, weakness, ataxia, paresis, apparent vision changes, seizure-like activity, and generalized seizures. Similar signs of toxicity have also been reported in humans, in whom voriconazole therapeutic plasma concentration for Aspergillus spp. infections is 2-6 μg/ml. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured in 18 samples from penguins showing clinical signs suggestive of voriconazole toxicity. The concentrations ranged from 8.12 to 64.17 μg/ml, with penguins having plasma concentrations above 30 μg/ml exhibiting moderate to severe neurologic signs, including ataxia, paresis, and seizures. These concentrations were well above those known to result in central nervous system toxicity, including encephalopathy, in humans. This case series highlights the importance of species-specific dosing of voriconazole in penguins and plasma therapeutic drug monitoring. Further investigation, including pharmacokinetic studies, is

  12. Metabolism and toxicity of arsenicals in mammals. (United States)

    Sattar, Adeel; Xie, Shuyu; Hafeez, Mian Abdul; Wang, Xu; Hussain, Hafiz Iftikhar; Iqbal, Zahid; Pan, Yuanhu; Iqbal, Mujahid; Shabbir, Muhammad Abubakr; Yuan, Zonghui


    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid usually found in organic and inorganic forms with different oxidation states, while inorganic form (arsenite As-III and arsenate As-v) is considered to be more hazardous as compared to organic form (methylarsonate and dimethylarsinate), with mild or no toxicity in mammals. Due to an increasing trend to using arsenicals as growth promoters or for treatment purposes, the understanding of metabolism and toxicity of As gets vital importance. Its toxicity is mainly depends on oxi-reduction states (As-III or As-v) and the level of methylation during the metabolism process. Currently, the exact metabolic pathways of As have yet to be confirmed in humans and food producing animals. Oxidative methylation and glutathione conjugation is believed to be major pathways of As metabolism. Oxidative methylation is based on conversion of Arsenite in to mono-methylarsonic acid and di-methylarsenic acid in mammals. It has been confirmed that As is only methylated in the presence of glutathione or thiol compounds, suggesting that As is being methylated in trivalent states. Subsequently, non-conjugated trivalent arsenicals are highly reactive with thiol which converts the trivalent arsenicals in to less toxic pentavalent forms. The glutathione conjugate stability of As is the most important factor for determining the toxicity. It can lead to DNA damage by alerting enzyme profile and production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which causes the oxidative stress. Moreover, As causes immune-dysfunction by hindering cellular and humeral immune response. The present review discussed different metabolic pathways and toxic outcomes of arsenicals in mammals which will be helpful in health risk assessment and its impact on biological world.

  13. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others


    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  14. Pb Neurotoxicity: Neuropsychological Effects of Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa H. Mason


    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored.

  15. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  16. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.;

    as laboratory mammals. We have studied possible cadmium induced histopathological changes in the kidneys as well as a demineralisation of the skeletal system (DXA-scanning of lumbal vertebraes). No obvious cadmium induced toxic changes were found. Food composition and physiological adaptations may explain......Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...

  17. Information Search of Toxic-Free Ammunition (United States)


    evolved over the years, and virtually all current primers use lead styphnate , and exhaust lead, barium , and antimony as products of combustion. These primer...Policy and Regulations 9 3.2 Procedures and Infrastructure 11 Section 4 Determining Criteria for Toxicity 14 4.1 General 14 4.2 Lead 15 4.3 Barium 15 4.4...antimony and barium are not indicated on this list, but this certainly does not mean that they are not toxic. There are a number of more complete

  18. Is there a need to re-examine the approval of bismuth shotshell as a non-toxic alternative to lead based on the precautionary principle? (United States)

    Fahey, Nathan S C; Tsuji, Leonard J S


    In 1997, the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) approved bismuth shotshell as an alternative to lead. We assessed whether there is a need to re-examine the toxicity of bismuth issue using the initial CWS toxicity guideline criteria. Review of the literature suggests that in the context of the precautionary principle, a re-examination of the approval of bismuth shotshell should be undertaken based on animal health issues, associated deficiencies in the analytical data used in the original assessment, and to a lesser extent, human health concerns.

  19. Ethical issues in postauthorization drug trials


    Bernabe, R.D.L.C.


    This thesis is an attempt to raise some ethical issues that are specific to phase IV drug trials and to provide preliminary responses to such issues. We limited ourselves to issues of informed consent, risk-benefit assessment, and the therapeutic orientation of phase IV. On the issue of informed consent (IC) and phase IV, we deliberated on issues related to form and procedure. First, we demonstrated that in phase IV non-interventional studies, though IC remains the standard, the manner of col...

  20. Current bioethical issues in parasitology. (United States)

    Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E


    Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  1. Sampling Issues in Bibliometric Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Richard


    Bibliometricians face several issues when drawing and analyzing samples of citation records for their research. Drawing samples that are too small may make it difficult or impossible for studies to achieve their goals, while drawing samples that are too large may drain resources that could be better used for other purposes. This paper considers three common situations and offers advice for dealing with each. First, an entire population of records is available for an institution. We argue that, even though all records have been collected, the use of inferential statistics and significance testing is both common and desirable. Second, because of limited resources or other factors, a sample of records needs to be drawn. We demonstrate how power analyses can be used to determine in advance how large the sample needs to be to achieve the study's goals. Third, the sample size may already be determined, either because the data have already been collected or because resources are limited. We show how power analyses c...

  2. Maintenance as a safety issue. (United States)

    White, Jim


    Because safety is related to electrical power systems maintenance, it seems reasonable to assume there could be legal issues if maintenance is not performed. OSHA has not yet taken the stand that not performing maintenance as required by the manufacturer, NFPA 70B, or ANSI/NETA MTS-07 constitutes a willful violation. OSHA defines a willful citation as one where: "the employer knowingly commits with plain indifference to the law. The employer either knows that what he or she is doing constitutes a violation, or is aware that a hazardous condition existed and made no reasonable effort to eliminate it". However, NFPA 70E 2009 requires this maintenance, and OSHA has stated on its Web site that NFPA 70E is "a guide for meeting the requirements of the OSHA electrical regulations". In addition, federal courts have found that NFPA 70E is "standard industry practice." Once a company receives and accepts a willful citation, especially if received as the result of an accident investigation, its worker's compensation protection no longer shields it. One definition given by a trial attorney for a willful citation was that it is equal to negligent behavior. Be smart: Maintain that equipment and save yourself major problems, including unscheduled shutdowns and possible litigation.

  3. Sport supporting act: terminology issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The text deals with terminology issues from an interdisciplinary point of view. It is based on two different disciplines, law and kinanthropology, in an area of their overlap. AIM: The aim of the author is to point out some possible legislative problems, which could arise due to the current reading of the sport supporting act (Act no. 115/2001. The second aim of the author is to contribute to the discussion of kinantropologists (possibly also the educational researchers and lawyers and to stress the importance of the systematic approach to terminology formulation. METHODS: The author uses the method of language interpretation. We also use the basic analytical methods, induction and deduction, while we stress the systematic approach to the term formulation. RESULTS: The analysis of the sport supporting act terminology shows some specific legislative problems, which could arise due to the definition of sport in the sport supporting act. The author discusses a possible alternative solution. CONCLUSION: According to the opinion of the author, clear, obvious and unified terminology of kinantropologists as specialists in their discipline should represent a source, from which other sciences could derive their terminology. Defined and inexpert terminology used in other disciplines should not be used as an argument for its adopting in kinanthropology.

  4. Mitochondrial diseases: advances and issues (United States)

    Scarpelli, Mauro; Todeschini, Alice; Volonghi, Irene; Padovani, Alessandro; Filosto, Massimiliano


    Mitochondrial diseases (MDs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by a dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They can be related to mutation of genes encoded using either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. The advent of next generation sequencing and whole exome sequencing in studying the molecular bases of MDs will bring about a revolution in the field of mitochondrial medicine, also opening the possibility of better defining pathogenic mechanisms and developing novel therapeutic approaches for these devastating disorders. The canonical rules of mitochondrial medicine remain milestones, but novel issues have been raised following the use of advanced diagnostic technologies. Rigorous validation of the novel mutations detected using deep sequencing in patients with suspected MD, and a clear definition of the natural history, outcome measures, and biomarkers that could be usefully adopted in clinical trials, are mandatory goals for the scientific community. Today, therapy is often inadequate and mostly palliative. However, important advances have been made in treating some clinical entities, eg, mitochondrial neuro-gastrointestinal encephalomyopathy, for which approaches using allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, orthotopic liver transplantation, and carrier erythrocyte entrapped thymidine phosphorylase enzyme therapy have recently been developed. Promising new treatment methods are being identified so that researchers, clinicians, and patients can join forces to change the history of these untreatable disorders. PMID:28243136

  5. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)


    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes.

  6. Ethical issues in surgical innovation. (United States)

    Miller, Megan E; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter


    Innovation is responsible for most advances in the field of surgery. Innovative approaches to solving clinical problems have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality for many surgical procedures, and have led to improved patient outcomes. While innovation is motivated by the surgeon's expectation that the new approach will be beneficial to patients, not all innovations are successful or result in improved patient care. The ethical dilemma of surgical innovation lies in the uncertainty of whether a particular innovation will prove to be a "good thing." This uncertainty creates challenges for surgeons, patients, and the healthcare system. By its very nature, innovation introduces a potential risk to patient safety, a risk that may not be fully known, and it simultaneously fosters an optimism bias. These factors increase the complexity of informed consent and shared decision making for the surgeon and the patient. Innovative procedures and their associated technology raise issues of cost and resource distribution in the contemporary, financially conscious, healthcare environment. Surgeons and institutions must identify and address conflicts of interest created by the development and application of an innovation, always preserving the best interest of the patient above the academic or financial rewards of success. Potential strategies to address the challenges inherent in surgical innovation include collecting and reporting objective outcomes data, enhancing the informed consent process, and adhering to the principles of disclosure and professionalism. As surgeons, we must encourage creativity and innovation while maintaining our ethical awareness and responsibility to patients.

  7. LGBT Workplace Issues for Astronomers (United States)

    Kay, Laura E.; Danner, R.; Sellgren, K.; Dixon, V.; GLBTQastro


    Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws and regulations do not provide protection from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity or gender expression. Sexual minority astronomers (including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; LGBT) can face additional challenges at school and work. Studies show that LGBT students on many campuses report experiences of harassment. Cities, counties, and states may or may not have statutes to protect against such discrimination. There is wide variation in how states and insurance plans handle legal and medical issues for transgender people. Federal law does not acknowledge same-sex partners, including those legally married in the U.S. or in other countries. Immigration rules in the U.S. (and many other, but not all) countries do not recognize same-sex partners for visas, employment, etc. State `defense of marriage act' laws have been used to remove existing domestic partner benefits at some institutions, or benefits can disappear with a change in governor. LGBT astronomers who change schools, institutions, or countries during their career may experience significant differences in their legal, medical, and marital status.

  8. Ethical issues in palliative care. (United States)

    Randall, F M


    The relief of suffering is one of the aims of health care. Pain relief is a moral obligation in health care, not an optional extra. Doctors have moral obligations to strive to relieve pain, to be competent in basic pain control, and to endeavour to give patients an adequate understanding of their illness and painkillers. The most common moral problem in pain control in terminally ill patients is the conflict between the obligation to relieve suffering and the obligation to prolong life. The law prohibits intentionally causing the death of another person. Debates follow as to what constitutes an intention to cause death, and what actually constitutes a cause of death. At present, doctors are legally permitted to give sedatives and analgesics to terminally ill patients with the intention of relieving suffering, even if life is shortened. The moral principle of the 'double effect' relates to this and is explained. It relies on a distinction between intended and foreseen effects of treatment. Some people dispute the distinction between intended and foreseen effects and claim that the principle of double effect allows doctors who intend euthanasia to carry it out under cover of the law. This debate is explored in the article. Finally, is it ever morally justifiable to end the patient's life on the grounds that this is the only way to end pain? Even if it is, should euthanasia be legalised? A brief comment on these issues, and the roles of law and morality, are made.

  9. Critical issues in burn care. (United States)

    Holmes, James H


    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation.

  10. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics. (United States)

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten


    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  11. Pharmacology-based toxicity assessment: towards quantitative risk prediction in humans. (United States)

    Sahota, Tarjinder; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar


    Despite ongoing efforts to better understand the mechanisms underlying safety and toxicity, ~30% of the attrition in drug discovery and development is still due to safety concerns. Changes in current practice regarding the assessment of safety and toxicity are required to reduce late stage attrition and enable effective development of novel medicines. This review focuses on the implications of empirical evidence generation for the evaluation of safety and toxicity during drug development. A shift in paradigm is needed to (i) ensure that pharmacological concepts are incorporated into the evaluation of safety and toxicity; (ii) facilitate the integration of historical evidence and thereby the translation of findings across species as well as between in vitro and in vivo experiments and (iii) promote the use of experimental protocols tailored to address specific safety and toxicity questions. Based on historical examples, we highlight the challenges for the early characterisation of the safety profile of a new molecule and discuss how model-based methodologies can be applied for the design and analysis of experimental protocols. Issues relative to the scientific rationale are categorised and presented as a hierarchical tree describing the decision-making process. Focus is given to four different areas, namely, optimisation, translation, analytical construct and decision criteria. From a methodological perspective, the relevance of quantitative methods for estimation and extrapolation of risk from toxicology and safety pharmacology experimental protocols, such as points of departure and potency, is discussed in light of advancements in population and Bayesian modelling techniques (e.g. non-linear mixed effects modelling). Their use in the evaluation of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships (PKPD) has enabled great insight into the dose rationale for medicines in humans, both in terms of efficacy and adverse events. Comparable benefits

  12. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: the interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure. (United States)

    Leon, Lisa R


    Thermal stress can have a profound impact on the physiological responses that are elicited following environmental toxicant exposure. The efficacy by which toxicants enter the body is directly influenced by thermoregulatory effector responses that are evoked in response to high ambient temperatures. In mammals, the thermoregulatory response to heat stress consists of an increase in skin blood flow and moistening of the skin surface to dissipate core heat to the environment. These physiological responses may exacerbate chemical toxicity due to increased permeability of the skin, which facilitates the cutaneous absorption of many environmental toxicants. The core temperature responses that are elicited in response to high ambient temperatures, toxicant exposure or both can also have a profound impact on the ability of an organism to survive the insult. In small rodents, the thermoregulatory response to thermal stress and many environmental toxicants (such as organophosphate compounds) is often biphasic in nature, consisting initially of a regulated reduction in core temperature (i.e., hypothermia) followed by fever. Hypothermia is an important thermoregulatory survival strategy that is used by small rodents to diminish the effect of severe environmental insults on tissue homeostasis. The protective effect of hypothermia is realized by its effects on chemical toxicity as molecular and cellular processes, such as lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, are minimized at reduced core temperatures. The beneficial effects of fever are unknown under these conditions. Perspective is provided on the applicability of data obtained in rodent models to the human condition.

  13. Issues and concerns in nanotech product development and its commercialization. (United States)

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Kakkar, Vandita; Deol, Parneet Kaur; Yadav, Monika; Singh, Mandeep; Sharma, Ikksheta


    The revolutionary and ubiquitous nature of nanotechnology has fetched it a considerable attention in the past few decades. Even though its enablement and application to various sectors including pharmaceutical drug development is increasing with the enormous government aided funding for nanotechnology-based products, however the parallel commercialization of these systems has not picked up a similar impetus. The technology however does address the unmet needs of pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their solubility, bioavailability or toxicity profiles as observed from the wide array of high-quality research publications appearing in various scientific journals and magazines. Based on our decade-long experience in the field of nanotech-based drug delivery systems and extensive literature survey, we perceive that the major hiccups to the marketing of these nanotechnology products can be categorized as 1) inadequate regulatory framework; 2) lack of support and acceptance by the public, practicing physician, and industry; 3) developmental considerations like scalability, reproducibility, characterization, quality control, and suitable translation; 4) toxicological issues and safety profiles; 5) lack of available multidisciplinary platforms; and, 6) poor intellectual property protection. The present review dwells on these issues elaborating the trends followed by the industry, regulatory role of the USFDA and their implication, and the challenges set forth for a successful translation of these products from the lab and different clinical phases to the market.

  14. An Asian perspective on GMO and biotechnology issues. (United States)

    Teng, Paul P S


    Of the 102 million hectares that made up the global area of biotech crops in 2006, less than 8% (7.6 million ha) were in Asia. Three biotech crops are currently planted in significant areas in four Asian countries with government regulatory approval; namely, cotton, corn (maize), and canola. However, the amount of GM crop material imported into the Asian region for processing into food and animal feed is very substantial, and almost every country imports GM food. The issues which concern Asian scientists, regulators, and the lay public resemble those of other regions - biosafety, food safety, ethics and social justice, competitiveness, and the "EU" trade question. Most Asian countries now have regulatory systems for approving the commercialization of GM crops, and for approving food safety of GM crops. In Asia, because of the varied cultures, issues concerning the use of genes derived from animals arouse much emotion for religious and diet choice reasons. Because many Asian producers and farmers are small-scale, there is also concern about technology dependency and to whom the benefits accrue. All consumers surveyed have expressed concern about potential allergenic and long-term toxic effects, neither of which is grounded on scientific facts. Because of Asia's growing demand for high volumes of quality food, it is likely that GM crops will become an increasing feature of our diet.

  15. A Review of Pharmacological Treatment Options for Lung Cancer: Emphasis on Novel Nanotherapeutics and Associated Toxicity. (United States)

    England, Christopher G; Ng, Chin F; van Berkel, Victor; Frieboes, Hermann B


    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of death. Current treatment options are generally ineffective, highlighting the dire need for novel approaches. While numerous biologically-active chemotherapeutics have been discovered in the last two decades, biological barriers including minimal water solubility, stability, and cellular resistance hinder in vivo effectiveness. To overcome these limitations, nanoparticles have been designed to deliver chemotherapeutics selectively to cancerous tissue while minimizing pharmacokinetics hindrance. Numerous studies are underway analyzing the efficacy of nanoparticles in drug delivery, theranostic applications, and photothermal therapy. However, while nanoparticles have shown efficacy in treating some cancers, their potential toxicity and lack of targeting may hinder clinical potential. With the aim to help sort through these issues, we conduct a review to describe recent applications of nanotherapeutics for the treatment and diagnosis of lung cancer. We first provide a detailed background of statistics, etiology, histological classification, staging, diagnosis, and current treatment options. This is followed by a description of current applications of nanotherapeutics, focusing primarily on results published during the past five years. The potential toxicity associated with nanoparticles is evaluated, revealing inconclusive information which highlights the need for further studies. Lastly, recent advances in mathematical modeling and computational simulation have shown potential in predicting tumor response to nanotherapeutics. Thus, although nanoparticles have shown promise in treating lung cancer, further multi-disciplinary studies to quantify optimal dosages and assess possible toxicity are still needed. To this end, nanotherapeutic options currently in clinical trials offer hope to help address some of these critical issues.

  16. Materials issues in fusion reactors (United States)

    Suri, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Batra, I. S.


    The world scientific community is presently engaged in one of the toughest technological tasks of the current century, namely, exploitation of nuclear fusion in a controlled manner for the benefit of mankind. Scientific feasibility of controlled fusion of the light elements in plasma under magnetic confinement has already been proven. International efforts in a coordinated and co-operative manner are presently being made to build ITER - the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - to test, in this first step, the concept of 'Tokamak' for net fusion energy production. To exploit this new developing option of making energy available through the route of fusion, India too embarked on a robust fusion programme under which we now have a working tokamak - the Aditya and a steady state tokamak (SST-1), which is on the verge of functioning. The programme envisages further development in terms of making SST-2 followed by a DEMO and finally the fusion power reactor. Further, with the participation of India in the ITER program in 2005, and recent allocation of half - a - port in ITER for placing our Lead - Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) based Test Blanket Module (TBM), meant basically for breeding tritium and extracting high grade heat, the need to understand and address issues related to materials for these complex systems has become all the more necessary. Also, it is obvious that with increasing power from the SST stages to DEMO and further to PROTOTYPE, the increasing demands on performance of materials would necessitate discovery and development of new materials. Because of the 14.1 MeV neutrons that are generated in the D+T reaction exploited in a tokamak, the materials, especially those employed for the construction of the first wall, the diverter and the blanket segments, suffer crippling damage due to the high He/dpa ratios that result due to the high energy of the neutrons. To meet this challenge, the materials that need to be developed for the tokamaks


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.


    international scientific community to support ICC and join its activities (Chernobyl Center 2006). In December 1995, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on the ChNPP closure was signed by the government of Ukraine, all of the G7 governments, and the European Commission. The ICC foundation was considered critical to ensure the safe decommissioning of the ChNPP reactor units and improvement of the safety of the Chernobyl Containment Shelter. On the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident (26 April 1996), Mr. Viktor Yushchenko, the President of Ukraine, issued a decree to establish the Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology (Chernobyl Center). On the same day, a MOU involving the US participation in Chernobyl Center activities was signed by the US and Ukraine (Chernobyl Center 2006). In July 1998, the US and Ukraine signed an agreement to establish the International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) as part of the Chernobyl Center. The creation of IRL was a logical continuation of previous programs to conduct scientific research in radioecology and provide Ukraine and the rest of the world with the necessary infrastructure and scientific basis to conduct research in radioecology, radiobiology, dosimetry, and environmental protection in the ChEZ (Chernobyl Center 2006). A recent collaborative effort with IRL has been implemented through a project titled 'Long-term impacts from radiation/contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone' (Farfan et al. 2008; Gerdes et al. 2009; Marra et al. 2010). This collaboration had the following objectives: (1) Assess the long-term impacts to the environment from radiation exposure within the ChEZ; (2) Provide information on remediation guidelines and ecological risk assessment within radioactively contaminated territories based on the results of long-term field monitoring, analytical measurements, and numerical modeling of soils and groundwater radioactive contamination; and (3) Recommend the

  18. Mitochondrial diseases: advances and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpelli M


    Full Text Available Mauro Scarpelli,1 Alice Todeschini,2 Irene Volonghi,2 Alessandro Padovani,2 Massimiliano Filosto2 1Department of Neuroscience, Unit of Neurology, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona, Verona, Italy; 2Center for Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuropathies, Unit of Neurology, ASST “Spedali Civili”, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Abstract: Mitochondrial diseases (MDs are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by a dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They can be related to mutation of genes encoded using either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. The advent of next generation sequencing and whole exome sequencing in studying the molecular bases of MDs will bring about a revolution in the field of mitochondrial medicine, also opening the possibility of better defining pathogenic mechanisms and developing novel therapeutic approaches for these devastating disorders. The canonical rules of mitochondrial medicine remain milestones, but novel issues have been raised following the use of advanced diagnostic technologies. Rigorous validation of the novel mutations detected using deep sequencing in patients with suspected MD, and a clear definition of the natural history, outcome measures, and biomarkers that could be usefully adopted in clinical trials, are mandatory goals for the scientific community. Today, therapy is often inadequate and mostly palliative. However, important advances have been made in treating some clinical entities, eg, mitochondrial neuro-gastrointestinal encephalomyopathy, for which approaches using allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, orthotopic liver transplantation, and carrier erythrocyte entrapped thymidine phosphorylase enzyme therapy have recently been developed. Promising new treatment methods are being identified so that researchers, clinicians, and patients can join forces to change the history of these untreatable disorders. Keywords: mitochondrial diseases

  19. PREFACE: Specical issue on reflectometry (United States)

    Schüller, F. C.


    I would firstly like to convey my best wishes for 2006 to our readers, authors and referees. There are also some issues that I would like to communicate to you in this first issue of the new year. Farewell to Editorial Board members In 2005 the terms of office of half the Editorial Board came to an end. We would like to thank them for their wise advice on difficult questions, the innumerable cases where they have acted as adjudicators and for the many other forms of support they have given to the journal. While we say farewell to them as Board members, we trust that they will continue to support Nuclear Fusion. H. Bolt M.J. Fujiwara G.T. Hoang G.S. Lee S. Nakai R.R. Parker O.S. Pavlichenko S.C. Prager V.P. Smirnov M.Q. Tran Y. Wan Our special thanks go to F. (Rip) Perkins who chaired the Board for many years and was instrumental in many important Board decisions. We welcome the new members of the Editorial Board which met in its new composition (see the prelim pages) during the EPS conference in Tarragona under the chairmanship of M. Kikuchi. Refereeing As we did last year we would like to thank our top ten most loyal referees who have helped the journal with its double-referee peer-review procedure in the last year. At the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Office we are fully aware of the load we put on the shoulders of our referees. At the end of 2004 the Editorial Board decided that a gesture of gratitude should be made to our top ten most loyal referees. We offer them a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. To select the top ten referees we have adopted the criterion that a researcher should have acted as a referee or adjudicator for at least three different manuscripts during the period autumn 2004 to autumn 2005. According to our records the following people, excluding our Board members, met this criterion. Congratulations and many, many thanks! D. van Eester (ERM/KMS, Belgium) L.R. Grisham (PPPL, USA) C. Hidalgo

  20. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.