Sample records for bryozoa gymnolaemata cheilostomata

  1. Turnerellina, a new name for Turnerella Taylor & McKinney, 2006 (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, P.D.; McKinney, F.K.


    Turnerella Taylor & McKinney, 2006, p. 164, introduced for a new genus of cribrimorph Cheilostomata (Bryozoa), is preoccupied by Turnerella Cockerell, 1910, a genus of Hymenoptera, and two other introductions of the same name for new insect genera. We propose Turnerellina as a new name to replace Tu

  2. New and little-known Cheilostomata (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata from the NE Atlantic

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    Björn Berning


    Full Text Available Based on newly designated type material, four poorly known NE Atlantic cheilostome bryozoan species are redescribed and imaged: Cellaria harmelini d’Hondt from the northern Bay of Biscay, Hippomenella mucronelliformis (Waters from Madeira, Myriapora bugei d’Hondt from the Azores, and Characodoma strangulatum, occurring from Mauritania to southern Portugal. Moreover, Notoplites saojorgensis sp. nov. from the Azores, formerly reported as Notoplites marsupiatus (Jullien, is newly described. The genus Hippomenella Canu & Bassler is transferred from the lepraliomorph family Escharinidae Tilbrook to the umbonulomorph family Romancheinidae Jullien.

  3. Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda associated to Schizoporella unicornis (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata in Ubatuba bay (SP, Brazil

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    Fernando L. M. Mantelatto


    Full Text Available This work characterizes the composition of Brachyura from Schizoporella unicornis. The samples were collected in 1995 at Itaguá Beach, Ubatuba (SP, at three month intervals, during all seasons from January to December. The Bryozoa colonies were obtained by snorkeling at a depth of five meters in daylight. A total of 323 specimens were collected from four families (Xanthidae, Portunidae, Majidae and Grapsidae. Pachygrapsus transversus, Hexapanopeus schimitti, and Menippe nodifrons occurred in all seasons. The highest and lowest number of individuals occurred during the spring and autumn, respectively. Xanthidae exhibited the highest density during the summer, autumn, and spring, while Grapsidae exhibited the highest density in winter. It was noted the presence of Charibdis hellerii, an portunid from Indo-Pacific ocean. The diversity of species obtained, in addition to an accentuated number of immature and ovigerous females specimens, suggested that Schizoporella colonies were a place of reproduction and development.Este trabalho caracterizou a composição dos braquiúros em Schizoporella unicornis. As amostras foram coletadas na Praia do Itaguá, Ubatuba (SP, em intervalos de três meses, durante as estações climáticas de Janeiro a Dezembro/1995. As colônias de briozoários foram obtidas por mergulho livre, coletadas pela manhã. Um total de 323 espécimes foram coletados dentro de quatro famílias (Xanthidae, Portunidae, Majidae e Grapsidae. Pachygrapsus transversus, Hexapanopeus schimitti e Menippe nodifrons ocorreram em todas as estações. O maior e o menor número de indivíduos foram registrados na primavera e no outono, respectivamente. Xanthidae exibiu maior densidade no verão, outono e primavera, enquanto Grapsidae foi no inverno. Registrou-se a ocorrência de Charibdis hellerii, espécie originária do Indo-Pacífico. A diversidade de espécies obtida, juntamente com o acentuado número de indivíduos imaturos e fêmeas ov

  4. Systematics and diversity of deep-water Cheilostomata (Bryozoa) from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic). (United States)

    Souto, Javier; Berning, Björn; Ostrovsky, Andrew N


    Galicia Bank is a large seamount situated c. 200 km off NW Iberia with a minimum depth of 600 m. It was recently included in Natura 2000, an EU-wide network of nature protection areas. We here present the first taxonomic descriptions of cheilostome bryozoans from this bank. The specimens were collected through the Spanish project INDEMARES (during BANGAL 0811 cruise conducted in 2011) and during two previous campaigns, the French Seamount 1 in 1987 and the German Victor Hensen in 1997). Twenty-five species were found, including 12 that are new to science, while five species remain in open nomenclature. Three new cheilostome genera (Breoganipora, Galiciapora and Placidoporella) are described. A lectotype is designated for Setosella vulnerata (Busk), and Palmicellaria tenuis Calvet is transferred to the genus Porella [as Porella tenuis (Calvet) n. comb.]. Additionally, our study shows that 48-60% of the bryozoan species are endemic to Galicia Bank. The degree of endemism of the Cheilostomata is thus the highest among all orders present on this seamount.

  5. Eutaleola, a replacement name for the homonym Euteleia (Bryozoa: Pasytheidae

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    Leandro M. Vieira


    Full Text Available Eutaleola nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Euteleia Marcus, 1938 (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata, a secondary homonym of Euteleia Raffray, 1904 (Arthropoda: Coleoptera. Eutaleola is a monospecific genus of Pasytheida e, found in warm shallow waters on both sides of the Atlantic and in deeper waters of the eastern Pacific. Brazilian material of Eutaleola evelinae (Marcus, 1938 comb. nov. is described and illustrated.

  6. Immunocytochemistry and metamorphic fate of the larval nervous system of Triphyllozoon mucronatum (Ectoprocta: Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Koop, Demian; Degnan, Bernard M.


    and FMRFamide and followed the fate of immunoreactive cells through metamorphosis. The larval serotonergic nervous system of Triphyllozoon mucronatum consists of an apical commissure, one pair of lateral axons, a coronate nerve net, an internal nerve mesh, and one pair of axons innervating the frontal organ...... commissure, in cell bodies located at the base of the lophophore, and in neurites connecting these somata to the cerebral commissure. These findings differ significantly from that observed in other lophotrochozoans, where certain larval neural features are either incorporated in the adult nervous system and....../or have inductive functions during its ontogeny. The occurrence of a larval commissure and the lack of a serotonergic or FMRFamidergic apical organ in T. mucronatum are unique among lophotrochozoan larvae, which usually have a distinct apical organ containing serotonergic cells. Our data show...

  7. Revision of the genus Buchneria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata from Japan

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    Masato Hirose


    Full Text Available Buchneria dofleini (Buchner, 1924, type species of Buchneria Harmer, 1957, was first described from material collected in 1904–1905 from Sagami Bay, Japan, but the type specimens had not been reexamined since the original description. In this study, I examined specimens of Buchneria from historical collections and material recently collected near Akkeshi, Hokkaido, Japan. Three Buchneria species were detected, two from Sagami Bay that Ortmann (1890 had placed in Escharoides, and one from Akkeshi that Androsova (1958 had described as Porella variabilis. I concluded that Buchneria dofleini is a junior synonym of Escharoides teres Ortmann, 1890; selected a lectotype for E. teres among Ortmann’s syntypes; and established the new combination Buchneria teres (Ortmann, 1890, which becomes the type species of Buchneria. I also established the new combination Buchneria rhomboidalis (Ortmann, 1890 and selected a lectotype among Ortmann’s syntypes. Porella variabilis is transferred to Buchneria establishing the new combination Buchneria variabilis (Androsova, 1958. Here the three new combinations are redescribed and a key to the Japanese Buchneria species is provided. Finally, I transferred Buchneria to Bryocryptellidae on the basis of ovicell and orifice morphology. Therefore, Buchneria now includes a total of three species; B. sinuata Harmer, 1957, a species from Indonesia that has hitherto been placed in this genus, is almost certainly not congeneric with other Buchneria. As far as is now known, Buchneria is endemic to northern Japan and the northern Sea of Japan.

  8. Fossil Steginoporellid (Cheilostomata: Neocheilostomina), Bryozoa from the Tertiary sediments of Western Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan A Sonar; Sharad G Gaikwad


    Five species of Steginoporella from the Palaeogene rocks of the Western Kachchh, Gujarat are described in this paper. Out of five steginoporellids, S. mathuri n.sp., S. murachbanensis n.sp. and S. chiplonkari n.sp. are new to science; S. bhujensis is already reported from this region; and Steginoporella sp. indet is reported for the first time in these rocks. All these species show Indo-Pacific affinities. The occurrence of Steginoporella from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene indicates that two stages of radiation had taken place in Kachchh. Phylogenetic analysis using PAST programme indicates that S. mathuri is very distinct from other species of Steginoporella; while S. murachbanensis and S. bhujensis form the same clade.

  9. Lophopodella pectinatelliformis nov. spec. (Bryozoa-Phylactolaemata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacourt, A.W.


    A new species of freshwater Bryozoa has been found at Patua, Sumatra by Dr. A. Holleman-Haye. It belongs to the genus Lophopodella which has an Aethiopean-Indian range. The genus Lophopodella is characterised by its large oval statoblast, large capsule and broad annulus. This annulus possesses one o

  10. Fouling Bryozoa from some Alexandria harbours, EGYPT. (I Erect species

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    Full Text Available The fouling erect Bryozoa settled on polystyrene test panels immersed half a meter deep in the water of Abu Qir Harbour, the Eastern Harbour and El-Dekheila Harbour were studied. The present study yields 5 species of erect bryozoa. These areAmathia pruvoti, Zoobotryon verticillatum, Bowerbankia gracilis,Bugula neritina and Bugula stolonifera. The first three ones pertain to 3 genera of the family Vesiculariidae belonging to suborder the Stolonifera; while the other two species affiliate to the genus Bugula belonging to the family Bugulidae of suborder Anasca. The present record of Amathia pruvoti is the first from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. A re-description, supplied with full structural illustrations of the recorded species is given. Moreover, the temporal and spatial distributions of the species recorded are encountered.

  11. New species of Bryozoa from Madeira associated with rhodoliths. (United States)

    Souto, Javier; Reverter-Gil, Oscar; Ostrovsky, Andrew N


    Four new species of cheilostomate Bryozoa encrusting rhodoliths on Maërl beds are described from material collected at a single locality at Madeira Island. These are Coronellina atlantica n. sp., Hippothoa muripinnata n. sp., Chorizopora rosaria n. sp. and Hippoporella maderensis n. sp. A species of Schizomavella is left in open nomenclature. The genus Coronellina is transferred from the family Calescharidae and assigned to Microporidae. The close similarity of C. atlantica n. sp., a non-opesiulate species with deep depressions, to Coronellina fagei with opesiules, implies that the generally accepted evolutionary sequence from non-opesiulate to opesiulate species might not be the rule.

  12. The internal-brooding apparatus in the bryozoan genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata: Calloporidae) and its inferred homology to ovicells. (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Dick, Matthew H; Mawatari, Shunsuke F


    We studied by SEM the external morphology of the ooecium in eight bryozoans of the genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata, Calloporidae): C. spinifer, C. variegatus, C. magnus, C. multiavicularia, C. tortilis, C. cryptoarmatus, C. niger, and C. multispinosus, and by sectioning and light microscopy the anatomy of the brooding apparatus of C. spinifer, C. cryptoarmatus, and C. niger. These species all have a brood sac, formed by invagination of the non-calcified distal body wall of the maternal zooid, located in the distal half of the maternal (egg-producing) autozooid, and a vestigial, maternally budded kenozooidal ooecium. The brood sac comprises a main chamber and a long passage (neck) opening externally independently of the introvert. The non-calcified portion of the maternal distal wall between the neck and tip of the zooidal operculum is involved in closing and opening the brood sac, and contains both musculature and a reduced sclerite that suggest homology with the ooecial vesicle of a hyperstomial ovicell. We interpret the brooding apparatus in Cauloramphus as a highly modified form of cheilostome hyperstomial ovicell, as both types share 1) a brood chamber bounded by 2) the ooecium and 3) a component of the distal wall of the maternal zooid. We discuss Cauloramphus as a hypothetical penultimate stage in ovicell reduction in calloporid bryozoans. We suggest that the internal-brooding genus Gontarella, of uncertain taxonomic affinities, is actually a calloporid and represents the ultimate stage in which no trace of the ooecium remains. Internal brooding apparently evolved several times independently within the Calloporidae.

  13. Paleoecological Analysis of Cheilostome Bryozoa from Venezuela - British Guiana Shelf Sediments, 14 September 1963 to 19 September 1963 (NODC Accession 7100130) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The abundance of cheilostome Bryozoa in many Cenozoic sublittoral marine facies, their sedentary existence, minute size and sensitivity to environmental conditions...

  14. Bryozoan assemblages and relation with environmental factors: An example from the latium coast (Italy)

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    Chimenz Gusso, C. [Rome, Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell`Uomo; Nicoletti, L.


    The distribution of Bryozoa Gymnolaemata in 3 transect with different characteristics of inclination and exposure in analysed. The structural and morpho-functional characteristics of the assemblages are discussed in relation to the environmental factor. The data and the observations, considered on the whole, accord with the hypothesis that morpho-functional characteristics in the Bryozoa considered are in good relation with the environmental factors.

  15. Cheilostome Bryozoa from Penang and Langkawi, Malaysia

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    Paul D. Taylor


    Full Text Available Twenty-three species of cheilostome bryozoans are described from the Malaysian islands of Penang and Langkawi based on a brief reconnaisance survey of shore localities. These are the first bryozoans to be formally described from either island and they demonstrate the potential for further research on these neglected suspension feeders. Of the 23 species recorded, 12 are anascans, half of which are malacostegines, and 11 are ascophorans. The new combinations Acanthodesia falsitenuis (Liu, 1992, A. perambulata (Louis & Menon, 2009 and A. irregulata (Liu, 1992 are introduced. Most of the species recorded are widespread in the Indo-Pacific, and some are apparently globally distributed in the tropics and subtropics, including the invasive fouling species Bugula neritina, Hippoporina indica and Schizoporella japonica, as well as the coral reef associates Cranosina coronata and Hippopodina feegeensis. Plastic debris and glass bottles were encrusted by Jellyella eburnea, a coloniser of floating biological and man-made objects that is becoming widespread in the tropics and subtropics of the world’s oceans.

  16. Brachyuran and anomuran crabs associated with Schizoporella unicornis (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata from southeastern Brazil

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    Full Text Available The main goals of this investigation were to describe the community structure of anomuran and brachyuran crabs inhabiting reefs constituted by colonies of Schizoporella unicornis, and to provide a species importance ranking for this community. Collections were carried out on S. unicornis reefs at two-month intervals from May 2003 to May 2004, in the rocky sublittoral of the southeastern Brazilian coast. Relative abundance and occurrence were used to rank these species in the hierarchy importance. A total of 2,018 individuals were obtained, in 11 families, 22 genera and 31 species. Porcellanidae and Pilumnidae were the most abundant families, comprising respectively almost 60% and 15% of individuals sampled. The species ranking indicated four main groups A, B, C and D, with group A subdivided. Subgroup A1 contained 9 species, including the species of greatest ecological importance for community regarding abundance and occurrence. The great abundance of crabs associated with S. unicornis seems to be the result of its recognized importance during the crab developmental cycle, and as shelter and food for some Decapod species. These observations reveal the importance of conserving the areas occupied by these reef colonies, which appear to be an important environment for maintaining local biodiversity.

  17. Diversity and distribution of adeonid bryozoans (Cheilostomata: Adeonidae in Japanese waters

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    Masato Hirose


    Full Text Available Adeonid bryozoans construct antler-like erect colonies and are common in bryozoan assemblages along the Japanese Pacific coast. The taxonomy of Japanese adeonid species, however, has not been studied since their original descriptions more than 100 years ago. In the present study, adeonid specimens from historical collections and material recently collected along the Japanese coast are examined. Eight adeonid species in two genera were detected, of which Adeonella jahanai sp. nov., Adeonellopsis parvirostrum sp. nov., and Adeonellopsis toyoshioae sp. nov. are described as new species based on the branch width, size and morphology of frontal or suboral avicularia, shape and size of areolar pores, and size of the spiramen. Adeonellopsis arculifera (Canu & Bassler, 1929 is a new record for Japan. Lectotypes for Adeonellopsis japonica (Ortmann, 1890 and Adeonella sparassis (Ortmann, 1890 were selected among Ortmann’s syntypes. Most species of Adeonellopsis around Japan have a southern distribution from Sagami Bay to Okinawa, while A. japonica shows a more northern distribution from Kouchi to Otsuchi. In contrast, Adeonellopsis arculifera was collected only from southwestern Japan. A key to Japanese adeonid species is provided.

  18. Three new species of Calyptotheca (Bryozoa: Lanceoporidae) from the Great Barrier Reef, tropical Australia. (United States)

    Sebastian, Pascal; Cumming, Robyn L


    The cheilostome bryozoans Calyptotheca wulguru n. sp. and Calyptotheca tilbrooki n. sp. (Lanceoporidae) are described from inter-reefal, sediment-dominated habitats of the Great Barrier Reef, and Calyptotheca churro n. sp. was washed up on a Heron Island beach, with uncertain origin. Calyptotheca wulguru n. sp. and C. churro n. sp. belong to a subgroup of Calyptotheca species with numerous small, oval, marginal adventitious avicularia and suboral nodular thickening or umbones. The vicarious avicularia of C. tilbrooki n. sp. are elongate-oval, unlike those of other known Calyptotheca species, and C. tilbrooki n. sp. has more pronounced orificial dimorphism than in any other known Calyptotheca species. Calyptotheca churro n. sp. has the most pronounced suboral umbo of all known Calyptotheca species. This study increases the known Calyptotheca species of the Great Barrier Reef to ten, and of tropical Australia to 14.

  19. Diversity and Systematics of Schizomavella Species (Bryozoa: Bitectiporidae from the Bathyal NE Atlantic.

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    Oscar Reverter-Gil

    Full Text Available Eight NE Atlantic and Mediterranean species, which were originally assigned to the genus Schizoporella (Family Schizoporellidae when introduced, are redescribed and stabilized by typification. Seven of these species are transferred to the bitectiporid genus Schizomavella: S. fischeri, S. glebula, S. neptuni, S. obsoleta, S. richardi, S. triaviculata, and S. triaviculata var. paucimandibulata, which is here raised to species rank. The eighth species, Schizoporella fayalensis, is transferred to the lanceoporid genus Stephanotheca. Schizomavella obsoleta and S. glebula are considered junior subjective synonyms of S. fischeri and S. richardi, respectively. Two new species are described: Schizomavella rectangularis n. sp. from the Strait of Gibraltar, and Schizomavella phterocopa n. sp. from the Great Meteor Bank. A new subgenus, Calvetomavella n. subgen. is established as a result of a phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters; it includes S. neptuni, S. triaviculata, S. paucimandibulata and S. phterocopa n. sp., together with Schizomavella discoidea and Schizomavella noronhai. The rest of the species remain in the nominotypical subgenus Schizomavella.

  20. Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy, 1851) (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata), a biofouling bryozoan recently introduced to China (United States)

    Wang, Baoqiang; Wang, Hongzhu; Cui, Yongde


    Freshwater biofouling threatens a variety of human activities, from the supply of water and energy to recreation. Several species of freshwater bryozoans are notorious for clogging pipes and filters but have been relatively poorly studied to date. We report, for the first time, a biofouling species of freshwater bryozoan, Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy, 1851), from several freshwater rivers, lakes and ponds in China. A complete description, national distribution and the fouling problems are provided. Exactly how Pectinatella magnifica arrived in China remains unclear, but anthropochory and zoochory are considered to be important dispersal pathways.


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    Full Text Available A new species and a new subgenus Amphiblestrum (Aviculamphiblestrum ruggeroi sp.n. are described from deep circalittoral-epibathyal bottoms from the Sicily Strait and the north-western Mediterranean. The new subgenus is created to distinguish, within Amphiblestrum, species with both gymnocystal adventitious and large interzooidal avicularia, both originating from basal pore chambers. 

  2. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine


    . membranacea larva. The velum carries two rows of ciliated cells, though the lower "row" consists of only one or two cells. Both rows of ciliated cells are innervated by nerves, which have not been detected in the M. membranacea larva. The ciliated ridge of H. malayensis lacks the frontal cilia...

  3. Global mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and biogeographic history of the antitropically and longitudinally disjunct marine bryozoan Membranipora membranacea L. (Cheilostomata): another cryptic marine sibling species complex? (United States)

    Schwaninger, Heidi R


    The origin of disjunct distributions in high dispersal marine taxa remains an important evolutionary question as it relates to the formation of new species in an environment where barriers to gene flow are not always obvious. To reconstruct the relationships and phylogeographic history of the antitropically and longitudinally disjunct bryozoan Membranipora membranacea populations were surveyed with mtDNA cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) sequences across its cosmopolitan range. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian genealogies revealed three deep clades in the North Pacific and one monophyletic clade each in the southeast Pacific (Chile), southwest Pacific (Australia/New Zealand), North Atlantic and southeast Atlantic (South Africa). Human-mediated dispersal has not impacted M. membranacea's large-scale genetic structure. M. membranacea did not participate in the trans-arctic interchange. Episodic long-distance dispersal, combined with climatic vicariance can explain the disjunct distribution. Dispersal led southward across the tropics perhaps 13 mya in the East Pacific and again northwards perhaps 6 mya in the Eastern Atlantic to colonize the North Atlantic from the south, and along the West Wind Drift to colonize Australia. The clades differentiated over evolutionary time in their respective ocean region, potentially forming a sibling species complex. The taxonomic status of the clades is discussed.

  4. Evidence for polyphyly of the genus Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Candidae based on a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters.

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    Leandro M Vieira

    Full Text Available The bryozoan genus Scrupocellaria comprises about 80 species in the family Candidae. We propose a hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among species assigned to Scrupocellaria to serve as framework for a phylogenetic classification using 35 morphological characters. Our results suggest that the genus Scrupocellaria is polyphyletic. Scrupocellaria s. str. is redefined according to four morphological features: vibracular chamber with a curved setal groove, ooecium with a single ectooecial fenestra, two axillary vibracula, and a membranous operculum with a distinct distal rim. Thus, the genus includes only 11 species: Scrupocellaria aegeensis, Scrupocellaria delilii, Scrupocellaria harmeri, Scrupocellaria incurvata, Scrupocellaria inermis, Scrupocellaria intermedia, Scrupocellaria jullieni, Scrupocellaria minuta, Scrupocellaria puelcha, Scrupocellaria scrupea, and Scrupocellaria scruposa. The monophyly of Cradoscrupocellaria is supported and five new genera are erected: Aquiloniella n. gen., Aspiscellaria n. gen., Paralicornia n. gen., Pomocellaria n. gen. and Scrupocaberea n. gen. Two other new genera, Bathycellaria n. gen. and Sinocellaria n. gen., are erected to accommodate two poorly known species, Scrupocellaria profundis Osburn and Scrupocellaria uniseriata Liu, respectively. Scrupocellaria congesta is tentatively assigned to Tricellaria. Fifteen species are reassigned to Licornia: Licornia cookie n. comb., Licornia micheli n. comb., Licornia milneri n. comb., Licornia curvata n. comb., Licornia diegensis n. comb., Licornia drachi n. comb., Licornia mexicana n. comb., Licornia pugnax n. comb., Licornia raigadensis n. comb., Licornia regularis n. comb., Licornia resseri n. comb., Licornia securifera n. comb., Licornia spinigera n. comb., Licornia tridentata n. comb., and Licornia wasinensis n. comb. Notoplites americanus n. name is proposed as a replacement name for Scrupocellaria clausa Canu & Bassler. Three fossil species are reassigned to Canda: Canda rathbuni n. comb., Canda triangulata n. comb. and Canda williardi n. comb. A species is reassigned to Notoplites, Notoplites elegantissima n. comb. The generic assignment of eleven species of Scrupocellaria, including Scrupocellaria macandrei, remains uncertain.

  5. Nearly complete rRNA genes from 371 Animalia: updated structure-based alignment and detailed phylogenetic analysis. (United States)

    Mallatt, Jon; Craig, Catherine Waggoner; Yoder, Matthew J


    divergent cephalopod and urochordate sequences out of those clades. Unlikely to be correct, these refutations show for the first time that rRNA phylogeny can support some 'wrong' clades. Along with its weaknesses, the rRNA tree has strengths: It recovers many clades that are supported by independent evidence (e.g., Metazoa, Bilateria, Hexapoda, Nonoculata, Ambulacraria, Syndermata, and Thecostraca with Malacostraca) and shows good resolution within certain groups (e.g., in Platyhelminthes, Insecta, Cnidaria). As another strength, the newly added rRNA sequences yielded the first rRNA-based support for Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla (dolphin+llama) in Mammalia, for basic subdivisions of Bryozoa ('Gymnolaemata+Stenolaemata' versus Phylactolaemata), and for Oligostraca (ostracods+branchiurans+pentastomids+mystacocarids). Future improvement could come from better sequence-evolution models that account for base-compositional heterogeneity, and from combining rRNA with protein-coding genes in phylogenetic reconstruction.

  6. Use of Marine Fouling Communities to Evaluate the Ecological Effects of Pollution (United States)


    Family Ceramiaceae E Phylum Phaeophyta Scytosiphon lornentaria P - E Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera Halichondria panicea E PE E Haliclona sp. E E E...BRYOZOA PORIFERA VCryptosulc paflonaiono V Bugulo spp. OHaliChondrio panicco 4$ Holicolno sp. AWatersipora sp. WHoloperelo brurineo *Hymelaocidon sp...POLYCHAETE 0 Hydroides pocificus M Uridentirted Tunicat. * Soirorbis so. 0 II. pacificus + Spirorbis BRYOZOA PORIFERA VCyptosu~o poflonsiona V Bugula $pp

  7. Fouling polyzoans of Bombay offshore waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; DeSouza, A; Wagh, A

    ). Geographical distribution: M. savartii is a common species around the world in wanner shallow waters (PilIai, 1981). It has been reported earlier from the Gulf of Mexico, Wcst Atlantic, Red Sea, East Indics, Indian Ocean, Ceylon, Australia, Califor nia, Japan... Rao, K.S. and P.N. Ganapati, 1972a. Some new and interesting bicellariellids (Polyzoan:Cheilostomata) from Visakhapatnam coast. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 38 : 212-219. Rao, K.S. and P.N. Ganapati, 1972b. On the common anascan...

  8. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Processing, Taxonomy, and Quality Control of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Samples (United States)


    Only a portion of colonial organisms, such as Bryozoa or Porifera , is sorted to document its presence in the sample. Verte- brates, exuviae...Standard Taxonomic Assessment Taxon Level of identification Taxon Level of identification Porifera Family Corduliidae Genus/Species Cnidaria Family...individual taxonomists. The Taxon Level of identification Porifera Family Cnidaria Family Platyhelminthes Class Nematoda Phylum Nemertea Genus

  9. Extant cheilostomatous bryozoans of the Middle Miocene from the north Western Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Ziko, Abdelmohsen; Eweda, Shehta; El-Khawaga, Samar


    Twenty-nine extant Bryozoan species, belonging to the order Cheilostomata are described. They are from the Middle Miocene Marmarica Formation of the northern Western Desert in Egypt. The described bryozoans are collected from Matruh and Siwa areas. Fourteen species belong to the suborder Anasca, and the other fifteen species belong to the suborder Ascophora. The identified bryozoan species exhibit many zoarial growth forms. The encrusting forms are membraniporiform and celleporiform, while the erect forms are adeoniforms, eschariforms, vinculariiforms, reteporiform, and cellariiforms. They extend in the geologic record from the Eocene to the Recent, distributed mainly in the Tethyan realm, and recorded also from North America. The extant species are mainly of Mediterranean affinity, some are of wider distribution in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and are rarely cosmopolitan.

  10. Water Quality Management Studies. Postimpoundment Study of R.E. ’Bob’ Woodruff Lake, Alabama River, Alabama. (United States)


    Protozoa (8 genera), insecta (6 orders), Annelida (2 families), Bryozoa, Tardigrada , Nematoda, Coelenterata, Mollosca, Ostracoda, and Acarina. During the...0.04 0.06 IV - - -- - V----- T richoptera I - - -- El -0.03 0.02- 111 0.04---- IV ----- Tardigrada I - - --- 11 0.02 0.06 0.02- III ---- II *Sample not... Tardigrada I---- IV----- 362 -rr.~~~~~~~~~~r,~~1 M.w r r ~ f p . , . - .- t- . C. .r" WC - 7,7 .F .- 7, 7 - M - - p . Table B-4.--Continued Stat

  11. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): An update (United States)

    Mastrototaro, F.; D'Onghia, G.; Corriero, G.; Matarrese, A.; Maiorano, P.; Panetta, P.; Gherardi, M.; Longo, C.; Rosso, A.; Sciuto, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gravili, C.; Boero, F.; Taviani, M.; Tursi, A.


    The biodiversity of the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) coral bank is summarized and its description is updated using data collected by means of underwater video systems, benthic samplers and fishing gears. A total of 222 living species have been recorded within the coral bank area in the depth range 280-1121 m. The most abundant benthic taxa recorded are Porifera (36 species) followed by Mollusca (35) and Cnidaria (31). The scleractinian corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are the main colonial species in the structure of the SML bank. Annelida, Crustacea and Bryozoa have been found with 24, 23 and 19 species, respectively. A total of 40 species of demersal fish have been recorded. Other faunal taxa were found with small numbers of species. One hundred and thirty-five species are new for the SML bank, 31 of which represent new records for the north-western Ionian Sea (2 Porifera, 17 Cnidaria, 1 Mollusca, 3 Annelida, 2 Crustacea, 4 Bryozoa and 4 Echinodermata). The finding of the annelid Harmothoë vesiculosa represents the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. The SML coral bank represents a biodiversity "hot-spot" on the bathyal bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Biocromos (pigmentos de invertebrados marinhos: I - Briozoarios

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    Gilberto G. Villela


    Full Text Available In the present paper the author reported the results obtained for the chemical caracterization of the pigments of some species of Bryozoa (Polyzoa, living in the bay and the coast near Rio de Janeiro. The pigments (biochromes of "Bugula neritina", "Schizoporella unicornis", "Steganoporella magnilabris", "Bugula flabellata" and "Trigonospora sp", were extracted and the results showed that carotene was found in all the species, except, "Bugula neritina" and "Bugula flabellata". A new water-soluble pigment was described for "Bugula neritina". Spectrophotometric curves obtained with the Beckman spectrophotometer are reported for the "Bugula" pigment and for the carotenoids. Chromatographic analysis and the treatment with immiscible solvents were performed for all the extracts of the animals considered. A study of the biochromes of other "phyla" will be published in a near future.

  13. Drowned forests and archaeology on the continental shelf of British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Fedje, Daryl W.; Josenhans, Heiner


    We have used high-resolution digital terrain imaging and sea-floor sampling to reveal drowned late glacial to early postglacial terrestrial landscapes at water depths as great as 150 m. In situ tree stumps and shellfish-rich paleobeaches are present on these drowned landscapes. A stone tool encrusted with barnacles and bryozoa was recovered from a drowned delta flood plain now 53 m below mean sea level. This is the first tangible evidence that the formerly subaerial broad banks of the western North American Continental Shelf may have been occupied by humans in earliest Holocene and possibly late-glacial time. Analyses (14C) of the drowned terrestrial and intertidal deposits were used to refine the local sea-level curve, which shows very rapid change within this glacio-isostatically dynamic region.

  14. The macrofauna and macroflora associated with Laminaria digitata and L. hyperborea at the island of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea) (United States)

    Schultze, Kirstin; Janke, Klaus; Krüß, Andreas; Weidemann, Wolfgang


    This paper describes the macroflora and macrofauna associated with two bull kelp species, Laminaria hyperborea and L. digitata, at the island of Helgoland, North Sea. During a study period of seven months (March September 1987), 29 macroflora species and 125 macrofauna species were found. The dominant taxonomic groups were Polychaeta (25 species), Bryozoa (17), Amphipoda (14), Hydrozoa (10) and Ascidiae (8). The species maximum was in July. In general, L. hyperborea was preferred as a substrate for settlement to L. digitata. Composition of the communities associated with kelp changed during the season according to exposure to wave action, and according to location on the kelp thallus. The rhizoid community of both kelps bore more species at exposed locations. Wave-exposed L. digitata lacked obvious faunal settlement on both phylloid and cauloid. Phylloid and cauloid of L. hyperborea were chosen as an attractive substrate at both sheltered and wave-exposed locations, showing an association of encrusting bryozoan and hydrozoan colonies.

  15. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

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    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa


    Full Text Available The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustaceans and fishes. Echinoderms, foraminifera, bryozoa, sponges, polychaete worms, coelenterates and brachiopods were also observed in smaller proportions. Both males and females had a carnivorous benthic diet. Growth and changes in the seasons were not reflected by changes in the diet.

  16. Myoanatomy and serotonergic nervous system of the ctenostome Hislopia malayensis: evolutionary trends in bodyplan patterning of ectoprocta

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    Wanninger Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectoprocta is a large lophotrochozoan clade of colonial suspension feeders comprising over 5.000 extant species. Their phylogenetic position within the Lophotrochzoa remains controversially discussed, but also the internal relationships of the major ectoproct subclades -Phylactolaemata, Stenolaemata, and Gymnolaemata - remains elusive. To gain more insight into the basic configuration of ectoproct muscle systems for phylogenetic considerations, we analysed the adult myoanatomy and the serotonergic nervous system as well as myogenesis in budding stages of the ctenostome Hislopia malayensis. Results In adults, the serotonergic nervous system is restricted to the lophophoral base with a high concentration in the cerebral ganglion and serotonergic perikarya between each pair of tentacles. Prominent smooth apertural muscles extend from the basal cystid wall to each lateral side of the vestibular wall. The musculature of the tentacle sheath consists of regular strands of smooth longitudinal muscles. Each tentacle is supplied with two bands of longitudinal muscles that show irregular striation. At the lophophoral base several muscles are present: (i Short muscle fibres that proximally diverge from a single point from where they split distally into two separate strands. (ii Proximally of the first group are smooth, longitudinal fibres that extend to the proximal-most side of the lophophoral base. (iii Smooth muscle fibres, the buccal dilatators, traverse obliquely towards the pharynx, and (iv a circular ring of smooth muscle fibres situated distally of the buccal dilatators. Retractor muscles are mainly smooth with short distal striated parts. The foregut consists mainly of striated ring musculature with only few longitudinal muscle fibres in the esophagus, while the remaining parts of the digestive tract solely exhibit smooth musculature. During budding, apertural and retractor muscles are first to appear, while the parietal muscles

  17. Macroepizoísmo em Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae Macroepizoites on Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae

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    Vanessa C. Winter


    Full Text Available Um estudo de distribuição dos macroepizóicos foi realizado numa população do caranguejo-aranha Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 proveniente do litoral dos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. O material biológico foi obtido junto aos pescadores, e faz parte do rejeito de pesca. Os caranguejos foram mensurados e os macroepizóicos identificados e contados. Os seguintes macroepizóicos sésseis foram registrados: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia e duas espécies tubícolas de Gammaridea (Crustacea. Além destes organismos ocorreram dois tubos desabitados e quatro animais vágeis. A anêmona C. tricolor foi a espécie mais abundante e freqüente, sendo, provavelmente, utilizada como mecanismo de camuflagem pelo caranguejo. O macroepizoísmo em L. ferreirae está relacionado com a idade ou tamanho do caranguejo, tendo maior incidência naqueles mais velhos ou de maior porte. Entretanto, a densidade dos macroepizóicos por caranguejo se mantém em torno de três. Não há relação entre o macroepizoísmo e o sexo do hospedeiro; somente fêmeas ovígeras utilizam desse recurso mais freqüentemente do que as não-ovígeras. Devido à maior área de fixação, os macroepizóicos colonizam principalmente a carapaça do caranguejo, enquanto nos pereiópodos há predominância de Bryozoa.A study of the distribution of the macroepizoites was carried out on a population of the spider crab Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 from the Southern Brazilian coast. Crabs were obtained from shrimps and fishes by-catch. They were measured, and their macroepizoites were identified and counted. The following sessile macroepizoites were registered: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia and two species

  18. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

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    Vincent Saderne

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic

  19. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

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    Igor David da Costa


    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  20. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

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    V. Saderne


    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification. Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the

  1. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him


    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids.

  2. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather


    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  3. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

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    Clara Rimondino


    Full Text Available The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Lesson, 1830 and Molgula pedunculata Herdman, 1881 were identified, with Bryozoa being the most diverse. There were differences between the three ascidian species in terms of richness, percent cover and diversity of sessile macro-epibionts. The morphological characteristics of the tunic surface, the available area for colonization (and its relation with the age of the basibiont individuals and the pH of the ascidian tunic seem to explain the observed differences. Recent environmental changes in the study area (increase of suspended particulate matter caused by glaciers retreat have been related to observed shifts in the benthic community structure, negatively affecting the abundance and distribution of the studied ascidian species. Considering the diversity of sessile macro-epibionts found on these species, the impact of environmental shifts may be greater than that estimated so far.

  4. Abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two Mediterranean echinoids off the

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    Elzahrae Elmasry


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the variability in abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two echinoid species, the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816 and black urchin Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus, 1758 in the Southeastern Mediterranean (SEM along the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Four seasonal trips were made during the years 2014–2015 covering 55 km of the shore with depths ranging between 3 and 9 m. The sea urchin species composition, density and size structure and distribution were compared. The associated macrobenthic invertebrates with prominent presence and biomass were observed as well as other benthic fauna and flora associations. The present results showed that P. lividus was the dominant echinoid spatially and temporally. A. lixula showed frequent occurrence in Sidi Bishr and Sidi Gaber stations in the spring season. The most dominant size class was the medium to large-sized classes for P. lividus and large-sized classes for A. lixula. The commercial size for the edible P. lividus represented 33% of the sampled population. Furthermore, the most dominant macrobenthic assemblages beside the echinoid population were primarily oysters, sea cucumbers, and mussels. Beside these, assemblage of seaweeds (red, green, brown and crustose algae, Porifera, Cnidaria, Crustacea, other Echinodermata, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Tunicata, Bryozoa and Annelida were found. The present study shows that the investigated area represents stable habitats for the echinoid population with rich and diversified algal assemblages as well as other potential food resources.

  5. The flora and fauna associated with Himanthalia elongata (L.) S. F. Gray in relation to water current and wave action in the Lough Hyne marine nature reserve*1 (United States)

    Kitching, J. A.


    The growth of epiphytes (plant and animal) was investigated at various stages in the development of the low littoral alga Himanthalia elongata. The vegetative thallus, or button, is very resistant to the settlement of epiphytes on its upper surface, but susceptible to extensive coverage on its lower surface and stalk, especially by Bryozoa and spirorbid worms. The receptacles or straps are invaded by a microforest of filamentous algae, which in turn provides accommondation and in many cases food for many invertebrates, including gastropods, amphipods and larval Diptera. Spirorbid worms on the underbuttons are confined to sites sheltered from strong water currents and wave action, but other epiphytes of the underbuttons show little regard for these features. Microfores and its associated fauna are restricted to sheltered sites. Perspex discs set up as imitation Himanthalia buttons were colonized by the same epiphytes as real Himanthalia buttons, but on both sides, indicating the existence of a special protective mechanism for the upper surfaces of real Himanthalia buttons.

  6. [Trophic ecology of the fish Arothron meleagris (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae) from Los Frailes reef, southern Baja California, Mexico]. (United States)

    Moreno, Xchel G; Abitia, L Andrés; Favila, Araceli; Gutiérrez, Francisco J; Palacios, Devis S


    Monthly samples were taken from November 2004 to October 2005 in the Los Frailes reef, BCS, Mexico. The objective was to determine the feeding habits of the pufferfish, Arothron meleagris, as well as possible variations in feeding patterns due to size and/or sex. We captured 101 specimens, with all stomachs contained food. The index of relative importance (IRI) was used to determine the main items; which were non-identified organic matter (NIOM) (30.44%), Echinometra vanbrunti (26.25 %), Porifera (12.63 %), Pocillopora spp. (11.84%), Bryozoa (5.37 %) and Porites spp. (4.83 %). Levin's index indicated a low trophic niche breadth (Bi=0.12) and allowed us to determine that A. meleagris is a specialist predator with strong preferences towards certain food types. The Morisita-Horn index showed a high trophic overlap between sexes (Clambda=0.78), seasons (hot and cold Clambda=0.95) and among sizes (small and medium Clambda=0.94; small and large Clambda=0.74; medium and large Clambda=0.83).

  7. Die Makrofauna und ihre Verteilung im Nordost-Felswatt von Helgoland (United States)

    Janke, Klaus


    The macrofauna and its distribution in the sheltered, rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (North Sea) was studied at 9 vertically and/or morphologically different stations from March to September in 1984. Seasonal variations in the communities were described based on each species' “conspicuousness”. A total of 172 species was found. The macrofauna shows a zoned pattern, but also the different substrata, for example, affect its distribution. The number of species increases from the upper intertidal to the upper sublittoral zone from 23 to 133 species. The upper intertidal is characterized by Littorina saxatilis, Chaetogrammarus marinus and Hyale nilssonii. Typical and abundant species of the middle and lower intertidal are Flustrellidra hispida, Littorina mariae/obtusata, Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Spirorbis spirorbis. The upper sublittoral zone is characterized by Gibbula cineraria and increasing species numbers of Bryozoa, Nemertini and Opisthobranchia. Only few species (e.g. Dynamena pumila, Laomedea flexuosa, Polydora ciliata, Fabricia sabella, Jaera albifrons, Carcinus maenas) occur in the entire intertidal zone. In comparison to other very sheltered shores in Great Britain, which are also dominated by Fucaceae, the macrofauna in the Helgoland intertidal zone lacks several littoral species, such as Patella spp., Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Littorina neritoides, Chthamalus spp., whereas Littorina littorea and Gibbula cineraria are highly abundant.

  8. Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina (United States)

    Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia


    The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35‧S to 59°33‧W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Antitumor and immune regulation activities of the extracts of some Chinese marine invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lixin; FAN Xiao; HAN Lijun


    Extracts of 21 marine invertebrates belonging to Coelenterata, Mollusca, Annelida, Bryozoa,Echiura, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Urochordata were screened for the studies on their antitumor and immune regulation activities. Antitumor activity was determined by MTT method and immune regulation activity was studied using T- and B-lymphocytes in mice spleen in vitro. It was found that the n-butanol part of Asterina pectinifera, the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina, 95% ethanol extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus have a high inhibition rate of 96.7%, 63.9% and 50.5% respectively on tumor cell line HL-60 at the concentration of 0.063 mg/ml. The inhibition rate of the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina on the tumor cell line A-549 is 65.4 % at concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The 95% ethanol extract of Meretrix meretrix has so outstanding promoting effect on T-lymphocyfes that their multiplication increases 25% when the sample concentration is only 1 μg/ml. On B-lymphocytes, the 95% extract of Rapana venosa, at concentration of 100μg/ml, has a promotion percentage of 60%. On the other hand, under the condition of no cytotoxic effect, the 95% ethanol extracts of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus and Cellana toreum can reach 92% inhibition rate on T lymphocyte at concentration of 100 μg/ml, while the inhibition rate on B lymphocyte of the 95% extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus reaches 92% at the same concentration.

  10. World-wide distribution of the Bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy 1851

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    Zuzana Balounová


    Full Text Available Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy 1851 is an invasive freshwater colonial animal belonging to the phylum Bryozoa. It is native to the area east of the Mississippi River, from Ontario to Florida. Currently it occurs throughout North America and the first record for it outside that continent was for Bille near Hamburg in 1883. Later, it was found in the Elbe (Havel by Spandau, in Tegeler See, a pond in Wroclaw and in Silesia and Brandenburg. In addition, floatoblasts of P. magnifica were found in the upper Elbe in Germany in the 1950s. Then, P. magnifica spread to the area of Spandau in Berlin and the Oder, and Wroclaw. It is also recorded in Romania and Turkey. In France, it was recorded occurring in the area called Franche-Comte in 1994. Its occurrence in the Netherlands was first reported in 2003 and then each following year. The newest discoveries are for the Rhine basin in the area between Luxembourg and Germany. Recently, it was also recorded in the Czech Republic and Austria. Besides Europe and North America, it is also recorded in Japan and Korea. The statoblasts of P. magnifica are spread by flowing water, zoochory and probably also by anthropochory.

  11. Invertebrate communities associated with hard bottom habitats in the South Atlantic Bight (United States)

    Wenner, E. L.; Knott, D. M.; Van Dolah, R. F.; Burrell, V. G.


    Epibenthic invertebrates associated with nine hard bottom areas in the South Atlantic Bight between South Carolina and northern Florida were collected with dredge, trawl, suction and grab samplers to evaluate species composition, biomass, abundance, diversity, spatial distributions, and seasonality (winter and summer). Species composition changed noticeably with depth and season. Inner and outer shelf stations were least similar in species composition. Middle shelf areas were transitional and contained taxa characteristic of both inner and outer sites. Bryozoa (88 taxa), Cnidaria (85 taxa), Porifera (67 taxa), Annelida (261 taxa) and Mollusca (203 taxa) represented the richest taxonomic groups of the 1175 taxa collected. Both diversity (1175 total taxa) and biomass (1995 kg total) of invertebrates from hard bottom areas exceeded those reported in the literature for sand bottom communities. Sponges accounted for >60% of the total invertebrate biomass collected by dredge and trawl during both seasons. High diversity values were attributed primarily to habitat complexity and did not exhibit any discernible pattern with depth or latitude.

  12. The use of coal fly ash in concrete for marine artificial reefs in the southeastern Mediterranean: compressive strength, sessile biota, and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, N.; Tom, M.; Spanier, E. [National Institute of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)


    To examine the possible use of coal fly ash (CFA) in concrete for artificial reefs, blocks containing 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% CFA as a substitute for sand were deployed in the Mediterranean at 18.5-m depth off the coast of Israel during a period of 33 months. Changes in compressive strength, composition, and coverage of sessile biota species, as well as in trace element concentration of the block surface and in sessile biota from four taxonomic groups, were determined as a function of time at sea and block type. Compressive strength clearly increased with time in all types to values well above the minimal strength considered necessary for stability of the blocks at sea. Moreover, the 40% and 60% CFA blocks were 1.5 times stronger than the 0% and 80% ones. Main sessile taxa recorded were filamentous green algae, bryozoa, barnacles, serpulid polychaeta, hydrozoa, and bivalves. Number of species settled and biotic coverage varied among block side and seasonally, but did not differ significantly between block types. The initial heavy metal composition (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Al) of the block material was directly proportional to the CFA percentage. At the end of the study, Pb had decreased in all types, Cd in the 60% CFA block, and Fe and Al in the 40% and 60% blocks, while Mn had increased in the blocks with 0% and 80% CFA. After 21 months at sea, the only detectable change was a decrease in Pb concentration in all types, indicating that changes may be due to long-term processes. Trace metal levels (Hg, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, and Al) were measured in the sessile biota (hydrozoa, polychaeta, and bivalvia). In most cases, no dependence was found between metal levels and time at sea or CFA content of the blocks. In the hydroid, metal concentration even decreased over time.

  13. Combined effects of warming and ocean acidification on coral reef Foraminifera Marginopora vertebralis and Heterostegina depressa (United States)

    Schmidt, Christiane; Kucera, Michal; Uthicke, Sven


    Warming and changes in ocean carbonate chemistry alter marine coastal ecosystems at an accelerating pace. The interaction between these stressors has been the subject of recent studies on reef organisms such as corals, bryozoa, molluscs, and crustose coralline algae. Here we investigated the combined effects of elevated sea surface temperatures and pCO2 on two species of photosymbiont-bearing coral reef Foraminifera: Heterostegina depressa (hosting diatoms) and Marginopora vertebralis (hosting dinoflagellates). The effects of single and combined stressors were studied by monitoring survivorship, growth, and physiological parameters, such as respiration, photochemistry (pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry and oxygen production), and chl a content. Specimens were exposed in flow-through aquaria for up to seven weeks to combinations of two pCO2 (~790 and ~490 µatm) and two temperature (28 and 31 °C) regimes. Elevated temperature had negative effects on the physiology of both species. Elevated pCO2 had negative effects on growth and apparent photosynthetic rate in H.depressa but a positive effect on effective quantum yield. With increasing pCO2, chl a content decreased in H. depressa and increased in M. vertebralis. The strongest stress responses were observed when the two stressors acted in combination. An interaction term was statistically significant in half of the measured parameters. Further exploration revealed that 75 % of these cases showed a synergistic (= larger than additive) interaction between the two stressors. These results indicate that negative physiological effects on photosymbiont-bearing coral reef Foraminifera are likely to be stronger under simultaneous acidification and temperature rise than what would be expected from the effect of each of the stressors individually.

  14. Mississippian clastic-to-carbonate transition in the northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska: Depositional cycles of the Endicott and Lisburne Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepain, D.L.; Crowden, R.K.; Watts, K.F. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))


    The Ellesmerian sequence in northeastern Alaska consists of a thick succession of Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous platform carbonate and terrigenous clastic rocks. At the base of the Ellesmerian sequence, clastic rocks of the Endicott Group are the lower part of a major transgressive sequence that passes gradationally upward into carbonates of the Lisburne Group. In the Endicott Group, the basal Kekiktuk Conglomerate was deposited in fluvial and marginal marine environments. A broad suite of tidally influenced, shallow-marine environments are recorded in the overlying Kayak Shale. The transition into carbonate platform rocks of the Lisburne Group is recorded in a series of depositional cycles developed within the upper half of the Kayak Shale. In the lower beds of the transition, the depositional cycles are multiple upward-thickening and upward-coarsening successions composed of (1) organic-rich siltstone containing flaser-bedded and lenticular-bedded fine-grained sandstone, (2) fine-grained, ripple-laminated quartzarenite, and (3) an intensely bioturbated horizon of medium- to coarse-grained quartzarenite that contains scattered brachiopods, bryozoa, and crinoids. Each cycle is terminated by a sharp transgressive surface that consists of a thin shale drape. Near the top of the Kayak Shale, the coarse-grained horizons become increasingly replaced by wackestone, grainstone, and coralline boundstone. Despite the lithologic change, the vertical upward-thickening and upward-coarsening cycles continue in the basal limestone of the Lisburne Group. Repeated upward-shallowing episodes, followed by coastal onlap, are likely mechanisms for this cyclicity and suggests a genetic relation between both the clastic and carbonate depositional cycles.

  15. Rapid assessment survey for exotic benthic species in the São Sebastião Channel, Brazil

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    Antonio C Marques


    Full Text Available The study of biological invasions can be roughly divided into three parts: detection, monitoring, mitigation. Here, our objectives were to describe the marine fauna of the area of the port of São Sebastião (on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, in the São Sebastião Channel, SSC to detect introduced species. Descriptions of the faunal community of the SSC with respect to native and allochthonous (invasive or potentially so diversity are lacking for all invertebrate groups. Sampling was carried out by specialists within each taxonomic group, in December 2009, following the protocol of the Rapid Assessment Survey (RAS in three areas with artificial structures as substrates. A total of 142 species were identified (61 native, 15 introduced, 62 cryptogenic, 4 not classified, of which 17 were Polychaeta (12, 1, 1, 3, 24 Ascidiacea (3, 6, 15, 0, 36 Bryozoa (17, 0, 18, 1, 27 Cmdana (2, 1, 24, 0, 20 Crustacea (11, 4, 5, 0, 2 Entoprocta (native, 16 Mollusca (13, 3, 0, 0. Twelve species are new occurrences for the SSC. Among the introduced taxa, two are new for coastal Brazil. Estimates of introduced taxa are conservative as the results of molecular studies suggest that some species previously considered cryptogenic are indeed introduced. We emphasize that the large number of cryptogenic species illustrates the need for a long-term monitoring program, especially in areas most susceptible to bioinvasion. We conclude that rapid assessment studies, even in relatively well-known regions, can be very useful for the detection of introduced species and we recommend that they be carried out on a larger scale in all ports with heavy ship traffic.

  16. Please mind the gap – Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.


    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106–500 μm and 500–2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  17. Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs. (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana


    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but also improve the estimates of biodiversity in coral reef benthic communities. This study lays the foundations

  18. Breakdown of phylogenetic signal: a survey of microsatellite densities in 454 shotgun sequences from 154 non model eukaryote species.

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    Emese Meglécz

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes. A more complete understanding of their origin and spread can be gained from a comparison of their distribution within a phylogenetic context. Although information for model species is accumulating rapidly, it is insufficient due to a lack of species depth, thus intragroup variation is necessarily ignored. As such, apparent differences between groups may be overinflated and generalizations cannot be inferred until an analysis of the variation that exists within groups has been conducted. In this study, we examined microsatellite coverage and motif patterns from 454 shotgun sequences of 154 Eukaryote species from eight distantly related phyla (Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Onychophora, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata and Streptophyta to test if a consistent phylogenetic pattern emerges from the microsatellite composition of these species. It is clear from our results that data from model species provide incomplete information regarding the existing microsatellite variability within the Eukaryotes. A very strong heterogeneity of microsatellite composition was found within most phyla, classes and even orders. Autocorrelation analyses indicated that while microsatellite contents of species within clades more recent than 200 Mya tend to be similar, the autocorrelation breaks down and becomes negative or non-significant with increasing divergence time. Therefore, the age of the taxon seems to be a primary factor in degrading the phylogenetic pattern present among related groups. The most recent classes or orders of Chordates still retain the pattern of their common ancestor. However, within older groups, such as classes of Arthropods, the phylogenetic pattern has been scrambled by the long independent evolution of the lineages.

  19. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

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    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  20. Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species

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    Full Text Available This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23% leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52% are already well established, 262 (35% are casual records, while 98 species (13% remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca, which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are

  1. Ecological and Pharmacological Activities of Antarctic Marine Natural Products. (United States)

    Avila, Conxita


    Antarctic benthic communities are regulated by abundant interactions of different types among organisms, such as predation, competition, etc. Predators are usually sea stars, with omnivorous habits, as well as other invertebrates. Against this strong predation pressure, many organisms have developed all sorts of defensive strategies, including chemical defenses. Natural products are thus quite common in Antarctic organisms with an important ecological and pharmacological potential. In this paper, the chemical defenses of the Antarctic organisms studied during the ECOQUIM and ACTIQUIM projects, as well as their pharmacological potential, are reviewed. For the ecological defenses, predation against the sea star Odontaster validus is analyzed and evaluated along depth gradients as well as considering the lifestyle of the organisms. For the pharmacological activity, the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities tested are evaluated here. Very often, only crude extracts or fractions have been tested so far, and therefore, the natural products responsible for such activities remain yet to be identified. Even if the sampling efforts are not uniform along depth, most ecologically active organisms are found between 200 and 500 m depth. Also, from the samples studied, about four times more sessile organisms possess chemical defenses against the sea star than the vagile ones; these represent 50 % of sessile organisms and 35 % of the vagile ones, out of the total tested, being active. Pharmacological activity has not been tested uniformly in all groups, but the results show that relevant activity is found in different phyla, especially in Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, and Tunicata, but also in others. No relationship between depth and pharmacological activity can be established with the samples tested so far. More studies are needed in order to better understand the ecological relationships among Antarctic invertebrates mediated by natural products and

  2. Coastal dunes with high content of rhodolith (coralline red algae) bioclasts: Pleistocene formations on Maio and São Nicolau in the Cape Verde archipelago (United States)

    Johnson, Markes E.; Baarli, B. Gudveig; da Silva, Carlos M.; Cachão, Mário; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Mayoral, Eduardo J.; Santos, Ana


    Rhodoliths are spherical growths (coralline red algae) that contribute bioclasts to coastal dunes in the Gulf of California (Mexico) and the Canary Islands (North Atlantic). Pleistocene dunes on Maio and São Nicolau islands in the Cape Verde archipelago were studied to quantify rhodolith contribution relative to other sources. Near Pilão Cão on Maio, a transverse dune at Lomba Greija covers 0.3 km2, exposing stoss slopes that dip 8°-10° NE and leeward slip faces that dip 28°-32° SW and SE. Point counts on thin-section samples show that basalt and other non-carbonate materials account for 5%, on average, whereas fine matrix and voided space (dissolved grains) account for 67%. Among remaining identifiable bioclasts (coralline red algae, mollusks, corals, foraminifera, and echinoderms), rhodolith grains with an average diameter of 0.5 mm account for 74%. Near Carriçal at Covoadinha de Chacina on the SE coast of São Nicolau, the stoss slope dips 8° SE for 70-80 m on narrow longitudinal dunes. Point counts on a thin-section sample taken 2.5 m above basement rock, reveal that basalt and other non-carbonate materials account for 10%, on average, whereas fine matrix and voided spaces account for 60%. Among identifiable bioclasts from the remainder (coralline red algae, mollusks, echinoderms, and bryozoa), rhodolith grains ranging in size from 0.5 to 1 mm account for 96%. Potential enrichment from coralline red algae may be overlooked in coastal dunes, because content normally is described as dominated by mollusk shells, the tests from abundant foraminifera, and/or ooids.

  3. Inter-annual variation (1991-1993) of the substratum-leaf colonization dynamics for aquatic fauna in different habitats of the lake of the hydroelectric of Balbina, Amazon Central, Brazil; Variacao interanual (1991-1993) da dinamica de colonizacao de substrato-folha por fauna aquatica, em diferentes habitats do lago da Hidreletrica de Balbina, Amazonia Central, Amazonas- Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela-Pena, Gladys


    Experiments on fauna colonization of submersed vegetal substrate in different depths of water column were done to evaluate the benthic community structure in three habitats of the Balbina hydroelectric dam in 1991, 1992 and 1993. In these experiments substrate exposition periods of up to 60 and 75 days were done. The fauna associated to the standard substrate (Mabea caudata) belonged to seven phyla: Arthropoda, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Mollusca an Chordata. The most abundant and frequent families, during the studied period, were Naididae (Tubificida), Chydoridae (Cladocera) and Cenestheridae (Conchostraca), suggesting the persistence of these groups. In general, the pattern of colonization indicates some tendency to increase gradually with time of exposition of the substrate in the environment. Probably, the discontinuity of the tendencies is associated with the insects mobility and emergence. The initial colonization always was higher and quicker in the margin habitat, which indicates that the source of organisms is this habitat. This is due to better conditions of the environment such as availability of food and protection, associated with the submerged vegetation and wood. The community mean density during this study was 7, 312 ind/m{sup 2}. The density, the species richness index, and the diversity were correlated with abiotic variables such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, habitat and depth. Also, the density was correlated with total carbon and ammonium. Species richness was correlated with total carbon, ammonium and water color. The density, diversity and species richness were proportionally inverse to depth of the habitats and total absence of organisms ago 10 meter of depth, different from what is found in bottom of natural environments. This fact was attributed to the high concentration of nutrients, such as ammonium and dissolved iron, to the existence of toxic gases such a sulphide, and to the conditions of hypoxia in the deep

  4. Diversity and Activity of Communities Inhabiting Plastic Debris in the North Pacific Gyre (United States)

    Bryant, Jessica A.; Clemente, Tara M.; Viviani, Donn A.; Fong, Allison A.; Thomas, Kimberley A.; Kemp, Paul; Karl, David M.; White, Angelicque E.


    ABSTRACT Marine plastic debris has become a significant concern in ocean ecosystems worldwide. Little is known, however, about its influence on microbial community structure and function. In 2008, we surveyed microbial communities and metabolic activities in seawater and on plastic on an oceanographic expedition through the “great Pacific garbage patch.” The concentration of plastic particles in surface seawater within different size classes (2 to 5 mm and >5 mm) ranged from 0.35 to 3.7 particles m−3 across sampling stations. These densities and the particle size distribution were consistent with previous values reported in the North Pacific Ocean. Net community oxygen production (NCP = gross primary production − community respiration) on plastic debris was positive and so net autotrophic, whereas NCP in bulk seawater was close to zero. Scanning electron microscopy and metagenomic sequencing of plastic-attached communities revealed the dominance of a few metazoan taxa and a diverse assemblage of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic protists and bacteria. Bryozoa, Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated all plastic particles, regardless of particle size. Bacteria inhabiting plastic were taxonomically distinct from the surrounding picoplankton and appeared well adapted to a surface-associated lifestyle. Genes with significantly higher abundances among plastic-attached bacteria included che genes, secretion system genes, and nifH genes, suggesting enrichment for chemotaxis, frequent cell-to-cell interactions, and nitrogen fixation. In aggregate, our findings suggest that plastic debris forms a habitat for complex microbial assemblages that have lifestyles, metabolic pathways, and biogeochemical activities that are distinct from those of free-living planktonic microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Marine plastic debris is a growing concern that has captured the general public’s attention. While the negative impacts of plastic debris on

  5. Antibiotic, cytotoxic and enzyme inhibitory activity of crude extracts from Brazilian marine invertebrates Atividade antibiótica, citotóxica e de inibição enzimática de extratos brutos de invertebrados marinhos do Brasil

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    Mirna H. R. Seleghim


    , Niphates, Cliona, Darwinella, Dysidea, Ircinia, Monanchora and Mycale, ascidians of the genera Didemnum, Aplidium, Botrylloides, Clavelina, Polysyncraton and Symplegma, the bryozoan Bugula sp. and octocorals of the genera Carijoa and Lophogorgia. The subsequent chemical investigation of some of the active extracts led to the isolation of several new biologically active secondary metabolites. Our results are in agreement with previous screening programs carried out abroad, that showed a high percentage of bioactive extracts from Porifera, Ascidiacea, Cnidaria and Bryozoa.No presente estudo apresentamos resultados da triagem biológica realizada com 349 extratos obtidos de esponjas marinhas, ascídias, briozoários e octocorais do Brasil, em testes contra 16 linhagens de bactérias comuns e resistentes à antibióticos, uma levedura (Candida albicans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, três linhagens de células tumorais MCF-7 (mama, B16 (melanoma murínico e HCT8 (cólon, e de inibição da enzima adenina fosforribosil transferase de Leishmania tarentolae (L-APRT. Menos de 15% dos extratos de esponja marinhas apresentaram atividade antibacteriana, contra linhagens resistentes ou não a antibióticos. Quase 40% dos extratos de esponjas marinhas apresentaram atividade antimicobacteriana contra Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Foi observada citotoxicidade para 18% dos extratos de esponjas marinhas. Finalmente, menos de 3% dos extratos de esponjas apresentaram atividade inibitória da enzima L-APRT. Menos de 10% dos extratos de ascídias apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Mais de 25% dos extratos de ascídias apresentaram atividade contra M. tuberculosis e as três linhagens de células tumorais. Somente dois extratos obtidos da ascídia Polysyncraton sp. coletada em duas diferentes épocas (1995 e 1997 apresentaram atividade contra L-APRT. Menos de 2% dos extratos de briozoários e octocorais apresentaram atividade antibacteriana, mas uma alta percentagem de extratos

  6. Climate, vegetation and lake development at Sokli (northern Finland) during early MIS 3 at approx50 kyr: Revising earlier concepts on climate, glacial and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia during the Weichselian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmens, Karin F. (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))


    Long sediment records that register environmental changes in formerly glaciated regions such as Fennoscandia in the period preceding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at approx 20 kyr are rare. The Weichselian history of Fennoscandia is based on the long-distance correlation of poorly dated stratigraphic fragmentary evidence and studies on glacial geomorphology. Environmental conditions during ice-free intervals have been mostly reconstructed based on low resolution palynological analysis only. Here we present the results of a detailed study of a for Fennoscandia unusually long and continuous sediment sequence that has been recovered from the Sokli basin in northern Finland. The Sokli sequence consists of tills, glacio-fluvial beds, and fluvial beds, interlayered with fossil-rich lacustrine sediments that according to multiple accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) datings extend from the present into the Penultimate Glacial representing the last approx130 kyr. This report focuses on the youngest Weichselian interstadial interval with ice-free conditions at Sokli dated to approx50 kyr in the early part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. A comprehensive environmental reconstruction is made based on multi-proxy analysis on a two meter thick laminated, lacustrine clay-silt sequence, including lithological characteristics; organic content (loss-on-ignition, LOI); plant microfossils (pollen, spores, algal and fungal remains); macrofossils of plants (e.g. seeds, moss remains) and of aquatic animals (e.g. statoblasts of Bryozoa); head-capsules of chironomids (i.e. aquatic insects); and diatoms and other siliceous microfossils (e.g. phytolits, chrysophyte stomatocysts). Additionally, geomorphic evidence and analysis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data are employed in the environmental reconstruction. Mean July temperatures are reconstructed by applying transfer functions to the pollen, chironomid and diatom records. The results

  7. Quantitative Analyse von Korallengemeinschaften des Sanganeb-Atolls (mittleres Rotes Meer). I. Die Besiedlungsstruktur hydrodynamisch unterschiedlich exponierter Außen- und Innenriffe (United States)

    Mergner, H.; Schuhmacher, H.


    The Sanganeb-Atoll off Port Sudan is an elongate annular reef which rests on a probably raised block in the fracture zone along the Red Sea-graben. Its gross morphology was most likely formed by subaerial erosion during low sealevel conditions. Features of its topography and hydrography are described. The prevailing wind waves are from NE, Hence, the outer and inner reef slopes are exposed to different hydrodynamic conditions. The sessile benthos was analysed using the quadrat method. Four test quadrats (5×5 m each) were selected on the outer and inner slopes at a depth of 10 m along a SSW-NNE transect across the atoll. Cnidaria were by far the most dominating group; coralline algae, Porifera, Bryozoa and Ascidia, however, counted for just under 3 % living cover. Light and temperature intensities did not differ significantly at the sites studied; water movement, however, decreased in the following order: TQ IV (outer NE side of the reef ring) was exposed to strong swell and surf; TQ II (inner side of the SW-ring) was met by a strong longreef current; TQ I was situated on the outer lee of the SW-atoll ring and TQ III in the inner lee of the NE-side. This hydrodynamic gradient correlates with the composition of the coral communities from predominantly branching Scleractinia (staghorn-like and other Acropora species and Pocillopora) in TQ IV, through a Lobophyllia, Porites and Xenia-dominated community in TQ II, and a mixed community with an increasing percentage of xeniid and alcyoniid soft corals in TQ I, to a community in TQ III which is dominated by the soft corals Sinularia and Dendronephthya. The cnidarian cover ranged between 42.4 and 56.6 % whereby the two exposed test quadrats had a higher living coverage than the protected ones. In total, 2649 colonies comprising 124 species of stony, soft and hydrocorals were recorded by an elaborate method of accurate in-situ mapping. The 90 scleractinian species found include 3 species new to the Red Sea and 11 hitherto

  8. Climate, vegetation and lake development at Sokli (northern Finland) during early MIS 3 at approx50 kyr: Revising earlier concepts on climate, glacial and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia during the Weichselian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmens, Karin F. (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))


    Long sediment records that register environmental changes in formerly glaciated regions such as Fennoscandia in the period preceding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at approx 20 kyr are rare. The Weichselian history of Fennoscandia is based on the long-distance correlation of poorly dated stratigraphic fragmentary evidence and studies on glacial geomorphology. Environmental conditions during ice-free intervals have been mostly reconstructed based on low resolution palynological analysis only. Here we present the results of a detailed study of a for Fennoscandia unusually long and continuous sediment sequence that has been recovered from the Sokli basin in northern Finland. The Sokli sequence consists of tills, glacio-fluvial beds, and fluvial beds, interlayered with fossil-rich lacustrine sediments that according to multiple accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) datings extend from the present into the Penultimate Glacial representing the last approx130 kyr. This report focuses on the youngest Weichselian interstadial interval with ice-free conditions at Sokli dated to approx50 kyr in the early part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. A comprehensive environmental reconstruction is made based on multi-proxy analysis on a two meter thick laminated, lacustrine clay-silt sequence, including lithological characteristics; organic content (loss-on-ignition, LOI); plant microfossils (pollen, spores, algal and fungal remains); macrofossils of plants (e.g. seeds, moss remains) and of aquatic animals (e.g. statoblasts of Bryozoa); head-capsules of chironomids (i.e. aquatic insects); and diatoms and other siliceous microfossils (e.g. phytolits, chrysophyte stomatocysts). Additionally, geomorphic evidence and analysis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data are employed in the environmental reconstruction. Mean July temperatures are reconstructed by applying transfer functions to the pollen, chironomid and diatom records. The results