WorldWideScience

Sample records for bryophytes

  1. Uses of Bryophytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mosses can be used as an indicator of calcium and nutrient content in water. Some bryophytes grow only in a narrow and specific pH range and, therefore, their presence can be used as an .... for the treatment of waste water and effluent of factories with ... of waste water with peat, drying the peat by mechanical pressure,.

  2. Phytohormone Profiling across the Bryophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Záveská Drábková; Dobrev, Petre I.; Václav Motyka

    2015-01-01

    Background Bryophytes represent a very diverse group of non-vascular plants such as mosses, liverworts and hornworts and the oldest extant lineage of land plants. Determination of endogenous phytohormone profiles in bryophytes can provide substantial information about early land plant evolution. In this study, we screened thirty bryophyte species including six liverworts and twenty-four mosses for their phytohormone profiles in order to relate the hormonome with phylogeny in the plant kingdom...

  3. Phytohormone Profiling across the Bryophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Záveská Drábková

    Full Text Available Bryophytes represent a very diverse group of non-vascular plants such as mosses, liverworts and hornworts and the oldest extant lineage of land plants. Determination of endogenous phytohormone profiles in bryophytes can provide substantial information about early land plant evolution. In this study, we screened thirty bryophyte species including six liverworts and twenty-four mosses for their phytohormone profiles in order to relate the hormonome with phylogeny in the plant kingdom.Samples belonging to nine orders (Pelliales, Jungermanniales, Porellales, Sphagnales, Tetraphidales, Polytrichales, Dicranales, Bryales, Hypnales were collected in Central and Northern Bohemia. The phytohormone content was analysed with a high performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.As revealed for growth hormones, some common traits such as weak conjugation of both cytokinins and auxins, intensive production of cisZ-type cytokinins and strong oxidative degradation of auxins with abundance of a major primary catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid were pronounced in all bryophytes. Whereas apparent dissimilarities in growth hormones profiles between liverworts and mosses were evident, no obvious trends in stress hormone levels (abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid were found with respect to the phylogeny.The apparent differences in conjugation and/or degradation strategies of growth hormones between liverworts and mosses might potentially show a hidden link between vascular plants and liverworts. On the other hand, the complement of stress hormones in bryophytes probably correlate rather with prevailing environmental conditions and plant survival strategy than with plant evolution.

  4. Phytohormone Profiling across the Bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Dobrev, Petre I; Motyka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Bryophytes represent a very diverse group of non-vascular plants such as mosses, liverworts and hornworts and the oldest extant lineage of land plants. Determination of endogenous phytohormone profiles in bryophytes can provide substantial information about early land plant evolution. In this study, we screened thirty bryophyte species including six liverworts and twenty-four mosses for their phytohormone profiles in order to relate the hormonome with phylogeny in the plant kingdom. Samples belonging to nine orders (Pelliales, Jungermanniales, Porellales, Sphagnales, Tetraphidales, Polytrichales, Dicranales, Bryales, Hypnales) were collected in Central and Northern Bohemia. The phytohormone content was analysed with a high performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). As revealed for growth hormones, some common traits such as weak conjugation of both cytokinins and auxins, intensive production of cisZ-type cytokinins and strong oxidative degradation of auxins with abundance of a major primary catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid were pronounced in all bryophytes. Whereas apparent dissimilarities in growth hormones profiles between liverworts and mosses were evident, no obvious trends in stress hormone levels (abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid) were found with respect to the phylogeny. The apparent differences in conjugation and/or degradation strategies of growth hormones between liverworts and mosses might potentially show a hidden link between vascular plants and liverworts. On the other hand, the complement of stress hormones in bryophytes probably correlate rather with prevailing environmental conditions and plant survival strategy than with plant evolution.

  5. SAXICOLE BRYOPHYTES FROM VÂLSAN KEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Mihaela Dobrescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the saxicole species in the Vâlsan Keys and considerations regarding the bryophytic saxicole cenoses from the protected area. To analyze the diversity of the saxicole bryophytes, we considered the number of species, as well as the phytogeografical element, the growth form and the “life strategy” of each species. From the systematic perspective, Vâlsan Keys are featured by a high specific diversity of the saxicole bryophytes.

  6. [Research advances in bryophyte ecological function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ji; Hao, Zhanqing; Yu, Deyong; Yan, Haibing; Feng, Dequan

    2004-10-01

    Though the body of bryophyte is small, its species is abundant (about 23,000), being an important part of biodiversity. The previous studies were focused on its taxology, while its ecological functions in ecosystem were ignored. Bryophyte can adapt to various environments, distribute in many extreme surroundings, and has rebuilding ability to environments. It has a very strong ability of holding and absorbing water, especially the epiphytic bryophyte can intercept a great deal of rain, and its function in water circulation is very obvious. Bryophyte can absorb a lot of nutrient elements by body surface, but its function in nutrient cycling was usually ignored. In some extreme environments, bryophyte is the important primary producer. Sphagnum biomass is more enormous, and maybe, is the important C pool. Bryophyte can sensitively response to the air and heavy metal pollution, and is a kind of bio-indicators. In order to promote the further studies on bryophyte ecological function, the related research advances were reviewed in this paper.

  7. Contributions to Bryophyte Flora of Zonguldak Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet ÖREN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With this study, some new bryophyte taxa have been added for the bryophyte flora of Zonguldak. One taxon from Anthoceratophyta (Hornworts, 11 from Marchantiophyta (Liverworts and 55 from Bryophyta (Mosses, totally 67 taxa are determined as new for the bryophyte flora of Zonguldak province with examination of specimens collected from field trips held on different habitats between 2012-2014. Among them, 14 taxa are newly reported from A2 square according to the Henderson grid system. Considering previous studies, the number of specific and infra specific taxa in the research area are reached up to 282.

  8. BRYOPHYTES OF MOUNT PATUHA, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBBERT GRADSTEIN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available GRADSTEIN, R.    et al. 2010. Bryophytes of Mount Patuha, West  Java,  Indonesia.  Reinwardtia  13(2:  107–123. This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  two–day  survey  of  the  bryophyte  flora of Mt.  Patuha  and  its  surroundings  near Bandung, West Java, carried out in the framework of the 5th regional training course on bryophyte and lichen diversity and conservation organized by SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, in July 2009. A total of 159 bryophyte species were identi-fied,  including 98 mosses, 60  liverworts, and 1 hornwort, representing almost 1/6 of the  total bryophyte flora of Java. Three moss species, Bryohumbertia subcomosa (Dix. J.–P. Frahm, Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. and F. polypodioidesHedw., and one liverwort, Lejeunea pectinella Mizut., are new additions to the Javanese flora. The bryophyte diversity of Mt. Patuha is well representative of the Malesian flora and is rich in uncommon species. However, the relatively poor representation of shade epiphytes and commonness of sun epiphytes and generalists reflect disturbance of the forest by anthropogenic activities. Careful attention should be given  to conservation of  the  remaining natural  forest  in order  to prevent further losses of the rich bryophyte diversity of the area.

  9. Bryophytes from Tuxedni Wilderness area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The bryoflora of two small maritime islands, Chisik and Duck Island (2,302 ha), comprising Tuxedni Wilderness in western lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. The field study was conducted from sites selected to represent the totality of environmental variation within Tuxedni Wilderness. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare the bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 286 bryophytes were identified: 230 mosses and 56 liverworts. Bryum miniatum, Dichodontium olympicum, and Orthotrichum pollens are new to Alaska. The annotated list of species for Tuxedni Wilderness expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Central Pacific Coast district. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Tuxedni Wilderness primarily includes taxa of boreal (61%), montane (13%), temperate (11%), arctic-alpine (7%), cosmopolitan (7%), distribution; 4% of the total moss flora are North America endemics. A brief summary of the botanical exploration of the general area is provided, as is a description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types of Chisik and Duck Islands.

  10. Morphological peculiarities of bryophytes asexual organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Lobachevska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main types of brood organs of dominant bryophyte species on dumps of the mining factories were determined. The special features of morphology, localization and genesis of specialized asexual propagula and gemmae were detected. The analysis of their role in reproductive strategy of colonist species was conducted.

  11. The Bryophyte Diversity of Ljubljana (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skudnik Mitja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available .The authors studied the bryophyte flora of the city of Ljubljana (Slovenia, recording 104 bryophyte taxa within the inner ring-road of Ljubljana. The specimens were collected from randomly picked sampling sites during different seasons in 2011 and 2012. Interesting records include Barbula convoluta var. commutata (Jur. Husn., Grimmia trichophylla Grev., Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw. Wilson, Phascum cuspidatum Hedw. and Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum (Schultz R. H. Zander, species last recorded in Slovenia more than 60 years ago. Some species rare and endangered in Slovenia were also recorded: Syntrichia papillosa (Willson Jur. and Lunularia cruciata (L. Lindb. Rhynchostegium rotundifolium (Scop. ex Brid. Schimp., a moss red-listed Europea-wide, was recorded in the investigated area.

  12. The Bryophyte Flora of Subice Mountain (Aydın

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut KIRMACI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the bryophyte flora of Subice Mountain (Aydın has been investigated. At the result of identifications of 1000 bryophyte taxa which collected from the area, totally 148 bryophyte taxa were reported. Among them, 125 moss taxa belonging to 20 families and 55 genera, 22 liverwort taxa belonging to 13 families and 16 genera and 2 hornwort taxa belonging to one families and 2 genera are represented.

  13. Studies on diversity and biogeography of island bryophytes:significances, progress and dircetion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Jing

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies on bryophytes diversity and biogeography of bryophytes in coastal islands.Our reviews on bryophyte diversity and biogeography of bryophytes on islands showed disputes existing on breeding characteristics,spreading ability of bryophytes and applicability of island biogeography theory on bryophytes.China has a large number of coastal islands,but most of them lack any bryophytes information.Therefore,studies on bryophytes in Chinese coastal islands are of theoretical and practical significances.Zhoushan archipelago of Zhejiang province is an ideal region for us to conduct bryophyte diversity and biogeographical study,especially for us to understand the influences of habitat fragmentation on the genetic diversity of bryophytes.The 4607 islands along the coast of Zhejiang and Fujiang,accounting for 62.5% of that of China,are suitable for us to study the gradient distribution of bryophyte diversity and its relationship with climate.

  14. Bryophyte extracts with activity against plant pathogenic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of extracts from 17 different bryophyte species were investigated against economically important plant pathogenic fungi. In vitro experiments showed that ethanol extracts of bryophytes inhibited mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria solani. Extracts from Bazzania trilobata, Diplophyllum albicans, ...

  15. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  16. Bryophytes - an emerging source for herbal remedies and chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabovljevic, Marko S.; Sabovljević, Aneta D.; Ikram, Nur Kusaira K.

    2016-01-01

    polysaccharides, lipids, rare amino acids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, quinones and many other specialized metabolites. Additionally, different bryophyte extracts and isolated compounds have shown antimicrobial, antiviral, cytotoxic, nematocidal, insecticidal, effects on smooth and non-striated muscles, weight...

  17. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  18. Bryophytes and lichens: Small but indispensable forest dwellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutten, Martin; Woodward, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    * What is a Bryophyte? * Bryophytes are the small green plants commonly known as mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Compared to plants, they have primitive tissues for conducting food and water, and they lack a protective outer surface to maintain water balance. Most bryophytes, because they lack tissues such as roots, obtain their water through direct surface contact with their environment. During dry weather they have the capacity to withstand complete dehydration. Bryophytes that are dry may appear dead but will regain normal function when moisture is available. Instead of producing seeds, bryophytes can either reproduce sexually by means of spores, or asexually when small pieces break off and grow into new individuals. * What is a Lichen? * Lichens are dual organisms consisting of a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium. The fungus provides the alga with structure, protection, nutrients, and water absorbed from the atmosphere and the substrate (e.g., soil, rotten logs, tree branches). In return, the alga provides carbohydrates from photosynthesis to the fungus. Algae from some lichens grow independently of the fungus, but in lichen form, the algae can inhabit more challenging environments than when growing alone. Most lichens can reproduce asexually. They either produce specialized propagules containing both partners, or parts of the lichen simply break, allowing both the fungus and the alga to disperse together. In some lichens, the fungal partner reproduces sexually by releasing spores, but the partner alga must be present in order for a lichen to reform.

  19. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  20. Bryophyte responses to microclimatic edge effects across riparian buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Katherine J; Mallik, Azim U

    2006-08-01

    Although riparian buffers are an important aspect of forest management in the boreal forest of Canada, little is known about the habitat conditions within buffers, due in part to complex edge effects in response to both the upland clearcut and the stream. We investigated microclimatic conditions and bryophyte growth and vitality in seven locations between the stream edge and 60 m into the upland undisturbed conifer forests and at the clearcut sites with riparian buffer 30 km northwest of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that the growth and vitality of a pleurocarpous moss, Hylocomium splendens, and an acrocarpous moss, Polytrichum commune, would be directly related to the microclimatic gradients detected. We further hypothesized that sensitivity of the bryophytes to environmental factors will vary depending on their life form type, i.e., pleurocarpous moss will respond differently than the acrocarpous moss. Both bryophyte species were transplanted in pots and placed at 10-m intervals along 60-m transects perpendicular to the stream across the buffer and undisturbed sites. Bryophyte growth, cover, and vitality, as well as microclimatic parameters and plant cover, were measured over the summer in 2003. The riparian buffers were simultaneously affected by microclimatic gradients extending from both the clearcut edge and the riparian-upland ecotonal edge. Both bryophyte species responded to changes in the microclimatic conditions. However, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was the most important factor influencing the growth of H. splendens, whereas for P. commune growth soil moisture was most important. Our study confirms earlier findings that interior forest bryophytes such as H. splendens can be used as indicators to monitor edge effects and biodiversity recovery following forest harvesting. We demonstrate that growth and vitality of these bryophytes reflect the prevailing near-ground microclimatic conditions at the forest edges. Abundance estimates of such

  1. Forestry impacts on the hidden fungal biodiversity associated with bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Marie L; Kauserud, Håvard; Ohlson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have revealed an unexpectedly high, cryptic diversity of fungi associated with boreal forest bryophytes. Forestry practices heavily influence the boreal forest and fundamentally transform the landscape. However, little is known about how bryophyte-associated fungal communities are affected by these large-scale habitat transformations. This study assesses to what degree bryophyte-associated fungal communities are structured across the forest successional stages created by current forestry practices. Shoots of Hylocomium splendens were collected in Picea abies dominated forests of different ages, and their associated fungal communities were surveyed by pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons. Although community richness, diversity and evenness were relatively stable across the forest types and all were consistently dominated by ascomycete taxa, there was a marked shift in fungal community composition between young and old forests. Numerous fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed distinct affinities for different forest ages. Spatial structure was also detected among the sites, suggesting that environmental gradients resulting from the topography of the study area and dispersal limitations may also significantly affect bryophyte-associated fungal community structure. This study confirms that Hylocomium splendens hosts an immense diversity of fungi and demonstrates that this community is structured in part by forest age, and as such is highly influenced by modern forestry practices. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danguolė Andriušaitytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research data on bryophyte diversity in arable land throughout the territory of Lithuania. The bryoflora was analyzed regarding systematic structure and morphological forms, life-history strategies, mode of reproduction and frequency of species. Bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania was compared with that of Slovakia and the British Isles, which are positioned in different geographical regions of Europe. A total of 97 species of bryophytes of 25 families and 48 genera were ascertained. Dominance of acrocarpous mosses and thalloid liverworts, high representation of Pottiaceae, Bryaceae, Mielichhoferiaceae and Ricciaceae families as well as Bryum, Dicranella, Pohlia and Riccia genera, wide distribution of annual shuttles and ephemeral colonists, high reproduction effort of the species (frequent sporophytes and asexual propagules were specific features of the bryophytes of the studied habitats as a result of adaptations to regular disturbances. The distribution of species into six frequency groups seemed to be uneven. The most abundant group of species with the lowest frequency (1–3 records covered 53.6% of all species. The group contained about 90% of all many-year potential life span species recorded in the habitat. Species with short life span were distributed quite evenly throughout frequency groups. No regionally-specific species were ascertained in the studied habitat. Most of arable-land-specific species recorded in Lithuania is distributed throughout different regions of Europe.

  3. Bryophyte spore germinability is inhibited by peatland substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhao-Jun; Li, Zhi; Liu, Li-Jie; Sundberg, Sebastian; Feng, Ya-Min; Yang, Yun-He; Liu, Shuang; Song, Xue; Zhang, Xing-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Bryophyte substrates and species may affect spore germination through allelopathy. Polytrichum strictum is currently expanding in peatlands in north-eastern China - is this an effect of its superior spore germinability or do its gametophytes have a stronger allelopathic effect than do Sphagnum? We conducted a spore burial experiment to test the effect of species identity, substrate and water table depth (WTD) on spore germinability and bryophyte allelopathic effect with P. strictum and two Sphagnum species (S. palustre and S. magellanicum). After 5 months of burial during a growing season, the spores were tested for germinability. Allelopathic effect of bryophyte substrates was assessed by the difference between spore germinability after being stored inside or outside the substrates. After burial, more than 90% of the spores lost their germinability across all three species due to ageing and allelopathy. Spore germinability differed among species, where the spores in S. palustre had a higher germination frequency than those in P. strictum. The three bryophytes maintained a higher germinability in Sphagnum than in Polytrichum hummocks, probably due to a stronger allelopathic effect of P. strictum. Water table drawdown by 10 cm increased germinability by more than 60% across the three species. The study indicates that P. strictum does not possess an advantage regarding spore germination but rather its gametophytes have a stronger allelopathic effect. Due to the weaker inhibitive effect of Sphagnum gametophytes, P. strictum may have a potential establishment superiority over Sphagnum in peatlands, in addition to a better drought tolerance, which may explain its current expansion.

  4. Inventory of Bryophytes in the “Bulgarka” Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports data on the diversity of bryophytes in the Bulgarka Nature Park. The registered 55 species belonged to 23 families and 46 genera. Six species were with conservationstatus; 2 were assessed as Not Evaluated. The main threats were assessed and measures towardsbryophyte conservation were proposed.

  5. The lichen and bryophyte vegetation of Cuverville Island, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, C; Aptroot, A; van Zanten, B

    1998-01-01

    In the Antarctic summer of 1993 the vegetation of Cuverville Island, a small island near the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, was mapped and described. Eleven different plant communities of algae, lichens, bryophytes and spermatophytes have been distinguished. The 51 species Vary from endemic

  6. Stochastic processes dominate during boreal bryophyte community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Nicole J; Bergeron, Yves

    2013-09-01

    Why are plant species found in certain locations and not in others? The study of community assembly rules has attempted to answer this question, and many studies articulate the historic dichotomy of deterministic (predictable niches) vs. stochastic (random or semi-random processes). The study of successional sequences to determine whether they converge, as would be expected by deterministic theory, or diverge, as stochastic theory would suggest, has been one method used to investigate this question. In this article we ask the question: Do similar boreal bryophyte communities develop in the similar habitat created by convergent succession after fires of different severities? Or do the stochastic processes generated by fires of different severity lead to different communities? Specifically we predict that deterministic structure will be more important for large forest-floor species than stochastic processes, and that the inverse will be true for small bryophyte species. We used multivariate regression trees and model selection to determine the relative weight of structure (forest structure, substrates, soil structure) and processes (fire severity) for two groups of bryophyte species sampled in 12 sites (seven high-severity and five low-severity fires). Contrary to our first hypothesis, processes were as important for large forest-floor bryophytes as for small pocket species. Fire severity, its interaction with the quality of available habitat, and its impact on the creation of biological legacies played dominant roles in determining community structure. In this study, sites with nearly identical forest structure, generated via convergent succession after high- and low-severity fire, were compared to see whether these sites supported similar bryophyte communities. While similar to some degree, both the large forest-floor species and the pocket species differed after high-severity fire compared to low-severity fire. This result suggests that the "how," or process of

  7. Total flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province (China: Phylogeny and ecological factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available The flavonoids in bryophytes may have great significance in phylogeny and metabolism research. However, to date there has been little research on bryophyte metabolites, especially flavonoids. To redress this somewhat, we determined flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain through a colorimetric assay and considered the factors influencing the results. This is the first time that the flavonoid contents of bryophytes have been examined in detail. The results revealed a range of total flavonoid concentrations in 90 samples collected from Tianmu Mountain from 1.8 to 22.3 mg/g (w/w. The total flavonoid contents of liverworts were generally higher than those of mosses; acrocarpous mosses had generally higher values than that of pleurocarpous mosses. The total flavonoid contents of bryophytes growing at lower light levels were general higher than those growing in full-sun. The total flavonoid contents of epiphytic bryophytes were highest, while those of aquatic bryophytes were the lowest. Total flavonoid contents of species growing at low-latitudes were much higher than those at high-latitude individuals. In conclusion, total flavonoid contents of bryophytes have some connection with plant phylogeny; more flavonoids might be contained in relatively primitive bryophytes. Meanwhile, the effects of ecological factors on total flavonoid contents of bryophytes exist; light and habitat (especially tree habitat and river habitat might be representative factor.

  8. Bryophytes for Beginners: The Usability of a Printed Dichotomous Key versus a Multi-Access Computer-Based Key for Bryophyte Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria E.; Smith, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Bryophytes are a rewarding study group in field biology and the UK bryophyte flora has international importance to biodiversity conservation. We designed an identification key to common woodland moss species and compared the usability of two formats, web-based multi-access and printed dichotomous key, with undergraduate students. The rate of…

  9. N and P addition inhibits growth of rich fen bryophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Riis, Tenna

    2016-01-01

    vernicosus and paludella squarrosa) rich fen bryophytes were grown in mixed culture and subjected to rainwater or groundwater and three levels of N (0, 1 and 3 mg N L-1) and P (0, 0.05 and 0.1 mg P NL-1). All species responded negatively to higher N-levels and three of four species responded negatively...... to rainwater and higher P-levels. C. cuspidata had highest relative growth rate in all treatments, and the infrequently occurringrare species had lower relative growth rate and were more negatively affected by high levels of N than the frequently occurringcommon species. A negative effect of rainwater seemed...... to be caused by higher background levels of N in rainwater compared to groundwater rather than a pH-effect per se. We found a negative effect of high initial bryophyte density in three of four species indicating density dependent inhibition between species.We suggest that maintenance of oligotrophic conditions...

  10. How to describe species richness patterns for bryophyte conservation?

    OpenAIRE

    Hespanhol, Helena; Cez?n, Katia; Felic?simo, ?ngel M.; Mu?oz, Jes?s; Mateo, Rub?n G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A large amount of data for inconspicuous taxa is stored in natural history collections; however, this information is often neglected for biodiversity patterns studies. Here, we evaluate the performance of direct interpolation of museum collections data, equivalent to the traditional approach used in bryophyte conservation planning, and stacked species distribution models (S?SDMs) to produce reliable reconstructions of species richness patterns, given that differences between these me...

  11. Habitat heterogeneity and diversity of bryophytes in campos rupestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia de Brito Valente

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Campos rupestres (rupestrian grasslands are characterized by the presence of rock outcrops associated with an herbaceous-shrub physiognomy typically growing on quartzitic soils; they occur a wide variety of habitats. Bryophytes respond rapidly and efficiently to variation in microclimate. The present work aimed to study bryophyte species richness, diversity and composition, their life forms, and the substrates they colonize in exposed and shaded habitats in campos rupestres of Chapada Diamantina. Collections were made in 25 x 25 m sampling plots. One hundred and nine species were recorded and included a predominance of mosses (78 spp. over liverworts (31 spp.. Most species (79 % were restricted to one of the two types of habitat (exposed versus shaded. While the genera Campylopus, Polytrichum, Schlotheimia, Macromitrium and Syrrhopodon were prevalent in exposed habitats, Sphagnum, Lepidozia, Micropterygium, Bazzania and Odontoschisma prevailed in shaded habitats. The rupicolous community was more prominent than the other communities in both types of habitat. “Weft” was the most frequent life form in shaded areas, while “turf” predominated in exposed sites. The high number of rare, and exclusive, species illustrates the high degree of heterogeneity among bryophyte communities in campos rupestres, and demonstrates the importance of habitat heterogeneity for the high diversity.

  12. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Ingimundardóttir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963–1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis. Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum. Some species (especially Bryum spp. benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments

  13. The Effects of Bryophyte Morphology on Epiphytic Diatom Distribution in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J. M.; Lowe, R. L.

    2005-05-01

    Diatoms and aquatic bryophytes have specific habitat requirements and are easily accessible in the field, making them ideal taxa for assessing water quality and environmental change. Although they both inhabit the same substrates within streams, there is a dearth of information regarding the relationship between these two indicator organisms. With this study, we examined the relationship between bryophytes and their epiphytic diatom communities from streams in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. We hypothesized that bryophyte morphologies with more crevices between leaves would provide algae with a more protected micro-environment, resulting in a higher density of diatoms on these taxa compared to bryophytes with greatly exposed leaves. In addition, we also expect that bryophytes rich in crevices will have a high relative abundance of non-rheophilic taxa. Diatom community structure on bryophytes was determined using light microscopy. Using scanning electron microscopy, bryophytes were examined to compare the distribution and density of diatoms on the abnate and adnate surfaces of leaves. Preliminary results indicate that diatom density is not correlated with bryophyte species.

  14. Species richness and distribution of understorey bryophytes in different forest types in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, J.C.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The first bryophyte survey results from Colombian Amazonia are presented. Bryophyte species, differentiated into mosses and liverworts, and further into four life-form classes, were sampled in 0.1-ha plots. These plots were distributed over four landscape units in the middle Caquetá area:

  15. Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ravera,Sonia; Cogoni, Annalena; von Brackel,Wolfgang; Filippino, Giorgia; Isocrono,Deborah; Matteucci, Enrica; Morando, Mariagrazia; Prosser,Filippo; Puntillo, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, new data concerning lichens and bryophytes of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records, exclusions, and confirmations to the Italian administrative regions for taxa in the lichen genera Athallia, Ramonia, Thelotrema, Pertusaria, Bryoplaca and in the bryophyte genera Dicranella, Bryum, and Scorpiurium.

  16. Effects of bryophyte and lichen cover on permafrost soil temperature at large scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Bryophytes and lichens covering the soil surface at high latitudes act as an insulating layer, which has a net cooling effect on the soil and thereby protects permafrost. Climate change, however, may lead to changes in the average surface coverage of bryophytes and lichens. This can result in thawing of permafrost and an associated release of soil carbon to the atmosphere, which may cause a positive feedback on atmospheric CO2 concentration. Hence, it is crucial to predict the future large-scale response of bryophyte and lichen cover to climatic change at high latitudes. Current global land surface models, however, contain mostly empirical approaches to represent the surface cover of bryophytes and lichens, which makes it difficult to quantify its future extent and dynamics. Therefore, we integrate a process-based model of bryophyte and lichen growth into the global land surface model JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere-Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg). Thereby, we explicitly simulate dynamic thermal properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover and their relation to environmental factors. To quantify the insulating effect of the cover on the soil, we compare simulations with and without simulated bryophyte and lichen cover. We estimate that the bryophyte and lichen cover exerts an average cooling effect of 2.7 K on temperature in the topsoil for the region north of 50o N under current climatic conditions. Locally, a cooling of up to 5.7 K may be reached. Furthermore, we show that using a simple, empirical representation of the bryophyte and lichen cover instead of a dynamic one results only in an average cooling of around 0.5 K. We conclude that bryophytes and lichens have a significant impact on soil temperature in high-latitude ecosystems and that dynamic thermal properties are necessary for a realistic representation of the cooling effect.

  17. Stand Structure and Substrate Diversity as Two Major Drivers for Bryophyte Distribution in a Temperate Montane Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating the major drivers of bryophyte distribution is the first step to protecting bryophyte diversity. Topography, forest, substrates (ground, tree trunks, roots, rocks, and rotten wood, and spatial factor, which factors are the major drivers of bryophyte distribution? In this study, 53 plots were set in 400 m2 along the elevation gradient in Xiaoqinling, China. All bryophytes in the plots were collected and identified. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between bryophyte and substrate diversity. We compared the patterns of overall bryophyte diversity and diversity of bryophytes found on the ground, tree, and rock along elevational gradients. Canonical correspondence analysis was applied to relate species composition to selected environmental variables. The importance of topography, forest, substrates, and spatial factors was determined by variance partitioning. A total of 1378 bryophyte specimens were collected, and 240 species were identified. Bryophyte diversity was closely related to substrate diversity. The overall bryophyte diversity significantly increased with elevation; however, the response varied among ground, tree, and rock bryophytes. Tree diversity and herb layer were considered important environmental factors in determining bryophyte distribution. Species abundance was best explained by stand structure (17%, and species diversity was best explained by stand structure (35% and substrate (40%. Results directly indicated that substrate diversity can improve bryophyte species diversity. The effects of micro-habitat formed by stand structure and substrate diversity were higher than those of spatial processes and topography factors on bryophyte distribution. This study proved that the determinant factors influencing bryophyte diversity reflect the trends in recent forest management, providing a real opportunity to improve forest biodiversity conservation.

  18. Effects of bryophyte and lichen cover on permafrost soil temperature at large scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Porada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyte and lichen cover on the forest floor at high latitudes exerts an insulating effect on the ground. In this way, the cover decreases mean annual soil temperature and can protect permafrost soil. Climate change, however, may change bryophyte and lichen cover, with effects on the permafrost state and related carbon balance. It is, therefore, crucial to predict how the bryophyte and lichen cover will react to environmental change at the global scale. To date, current global land surface models contain only empirical representations of the bryophyte and lichen cover, which makes it impractical to predict the future state and function of bryophytes and lichens. For this reason, we integrate a process-based model of bryophyte and lichen growth into the global land surface model JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg. The model simulates bryophyte and lichen cover on upland sites. Wetlands are not included. We take into account the dynamic nature of the thermal properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover and their relation to environmental factors. Subsequently, we compare simulations with and without bryophyte and lichen cover to quantify the insulating effect of the organisms on the soil. We find an average cooling effect of the bryophyte and lichen cover of 2.7 K on temperature in the topsoil for the region north of 50° N under the current climate. Locally, a cooling of up to 5.7 K may be reached. Moreover, we show that using a simple, empirical representation of the bryophyte and lichen cover without dynamic properties only results in an average cooling of around 0.5 K. This suggests that (a bryophytes and lichens have a significant impact on soil temperature in high-latitude ecosystems and (b a process-based description of their thermal properties is necessary for a realistic representation of the cooling effect. The advanced land surface scheme, including a dynamic bryophyte and lichen model, will

  19. Adaptive evolution of rbcL in Conocephalum (Hepaticae, bryophytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hidetsugu; Odrzykoski, Ireneusz J; Matsui, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Masami; Akiyama, Hiroyuki; Jia, Yu; Sabirov, Renat; Takahashi, Hideki; Boufford, David E; Murakami, Noriaki

    2009-07-15

    An excess of nonsynonymous substitutions over synonymous ones has been regarded as an important indicator of adaptive evolution or positive selection at the molecular level. We now report such a case for rbcL sequences among cryptic species in Conocephalum (Hepaticae, Bryophytes). This finding can be regarded as evidence of adaptive evolution in several cryptic species (especially in F and JN types) within the genus. Bryophytes are small land plants with simple morphology. We can therefore expect the existence of several biologically distinct units or cryptic species within each morphological species. In our previous study, we found three rbcL types in Asian Conocephalum japonicum (Thunb.) Grolle and also found evidence strongly suggesting that the three types are reproductively isolated cryptic species. Additionally, we examined rbcL sequence variation in six cryptic species of C. conicum (L.) Dumort. previously recognized by allozyme analyses. As a result, we were able to discriminate the six cryptic species based only on their rbcL sequences. We were able to show that rbcL sequence variation is also useful in finding cryptic species of C. conicum.

  20. THE EPIPHYTIC BRYOPHYTE FLORA OF THE COLOMBIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA V. CAMPOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of 384 plots on 64 trees, in four localities across the Colombian Amazon region (Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo, Vaupés, yielded 160 species of epiphytic bryophytes (116 of liverworts, 44 of mosses, in 64 genera and 26 families. Sampling was carried out in four non-seasonally flooded forests (Terra Firme, where bryophytes where collected from the base to the outer canopy, of 16 trees per locality. The flora is characterized by dominance of liverworts, especially Lejeuneaceae. The families with the highest number of records were Lejeuneaceae (55%, Calymperaceae (10%, Lepidoziaceae (8%, Octoblepharaceae (6% and Sematophyllaceae (5%. The most common genera in number of records were Cheilolejeunea (11%, Pycnolejeunea (8%, Archilejeunea (8% Ceratolejeunea (8% and Syrrhopodon (7%.Syrropodon and Lejeunea were the most species-rich genera, followed by Ceratolejeunea and Cheilolejeunea. In average, the localities had 102 species in sixteen phorophytes. In terms of species richness and composition there were no significant differences between the four localities.

  1. Bryophytes of Cocos Island, Costa Rica: diversity, biogeography and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Dauphin

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 98 liverwort species (43 genera, 10 families, 54 moss species (33 genera, 17 families and one species of hornwort have been reported for Cocos Island (5°32’N, 87°04’W, Costa Rica. Over 60% of the bryophytes have a Neotropical or Pantropical distribution, about 10% are Caribbean, and less than 5% are endemic or subendemic. In comparison to the Galapagos Archipelago, Cocos Island harbors a more typical tropical bryoflora with foliose hepatics (e. g. Lejeuneaceae, Lepidoziaceae constituting the bulk of diversity; fewer thallose liverworts and moss taxa as in the Archipelago were found. A richer habitat variety including wet and dry habitats, as well as its bigger area, seem to account for the higher number of bryophyte species in Galapagos Archipelago. Most bryophytes in Cocos Island are corticolous (46%, the remaining are epiphyllous (25%, saxicolous (23% or terrestrial (12%. Bryophyte occurrence in eight plots (10 x 10 m with 20 quadrates (30 x 30 cm were recorded at different habitats and altitudes (0-600 m. Bryophyte distribution within the island coincides with lowland forest (0-100 m, secondary lowland forest (0-200 m and montane forest (to 600 m. Physantholejeunea portoricensis (Hampe & Gott. Schust. is reported as new to Costa Rica.Se comunica la presencia de 153 especies de briófitas y antocerotófitas en la Isla de Cocos (5°32’N, 87°04’W, Costa Rica. Estas son 98 especies de hepáticas en 43 géneros y 10 familias; 54 especies de musgos en 33 géneros y 17 familias y una especie de antocerotófita. Más del 60% de las briófitas tiene amplia distribución en el Neotrópico, 10.4% distribución pantropical, 9.7% pertenecen al elemento Caribe, 1.3% al elemento Centroamericano, 4.5% al Nor-sudamericano, 3.2% son endémicos, 1.3% subendémicos y 1.3% subcosmopolitas. En comparación con Galápagos, la Isla de Cocos muestra una brioflora más tropical, en su mayor parte compuesta por hepáticas foliosas (e. g

  2. Epiphytes in wooded pastures: Isolation matters for lichen but not for bryophyte species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebacher, Thomas; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph; Bergamini, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Sylvo-pastoral systems are species-rich man-made landscapes that are currently often severely threatened by abandonment or management intensification. At low tree densities, single trees in these systems represent habitat islands for epiphytic cryptogams. Here, we focused on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) wooded pastures in the northern European Alps. We assessed per tree species richness of bryophytes and lichens on 90 sycamore maple trees distributed across six study sites. We analysed the effects of a range of explanatory variables (tree characteristics, environmental variables and isolation measures) on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and various functional subgroups (based on diaspore size, habitat preference and red list status). Furthermore, we estimated the effect of these variables on the occurrence of two specific bryophyte species (Tayloria rudolphiana, Orthotrichum rogeri) and one lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria) of major conservation concern. Bryophytes and lichens, as well as their subgroups, were differently and sometimes contrastingly affected by the variables considered: tree diameter at breast height had no significant effect on bryophytes but negatively affected many lichen groups; tree phenological age positively affected red-listed lichens but not red-listed bryophytes; increasing isolation from neighbouring trees negatively affected lichens but not bryophytes. However, the high-priority bryophyte species T. rudolphiana was also negatively affected by increased isolation at small spatial scales. Orthotrichum rogeri was more frequent on young trees and L. pulmonaria was more frequent on trees with thin stems and large crowns. The results indicate that local dispersal is important for lichens, whereas long distance dispersal seems to be more important for colonisation by bryophytes. Furthermore, our study highlights that different conservation measures need to be taken depending on the taxonomic and functional species

  3. How to describe species richness patterns for bryophyte conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol, Helena; Cezón, Katia; Felicísimo, Ángel M; Muñoz, Jesús; Mateo, Rubén G

    2015-12-01

    A large amount of data for inconspicuous taxa is stored in natural history collections; however, this information is often neglected for biodiversity patterns studies. Here, we evaluate the performance of direct interpolation of museum collections data, equivalent to the traditional approach used in bryophyte conservation planning, and stacked species distribution models (S-SDMs) to produce reliable reconstructions of species richness patterns, given that differences between these methods have been insufficiently evaluated for inconspicuous taxa. Our objective was to contrast if species distribution models produce better inferences of diversity richness than simply selecting areas with the higher species numbers. As model species, we selected Iberian species of the genus Grimmia (Bryophyta), and we used four well-collected areas to compare and validate the following models: 1) four Maxent richness models, each generated without the data from one of the four areas, and a reference model created using all of the data and 2) four richness models obtained through direct spatial interpolation, each generated without the data from one area, and a reference model created with all of the data. The correlations between the partial and reference Maxent models were higher in all cases (0.45 to 0.99), whereas the correlations between the spatial interpolation models were negative and weak (-0.3 to -0.06). Our results demonstrate for the first time that S-SDMs offer a useful tool for identifying detailed richness patterns for inconspicuous taxa such as bryophytes and improving incomplete distributions by assessing the potential richness of under-surveyed areas, filling major gaps in the available data. In addition, the proposed strategy would enhance the value of the vast number of specimens housed in biological collections.

  4. Bryophyte Species Richness and Composition along an Altitudinal Gradient in Gongga Mountain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Wu, Yan-Hong; Wang, Gen-Xu; Zhou, Jun; Yu, Dong; Bing, Hai-Jian; Luo, Ji

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of terrestrial bryophyte species diversity and community structure along an altitudinal gradient from 2,001 to 4,221 m a.s.l. in Gongga Mountain in Sichuan, China was carried out in June 2010. Factors which might affect bryophyte species composition and diversity, including climate, elevation, slope, depth of litter, vegetation type, soil pH and soil Eh, were examined to understand the altitudinal feature of bryophyte distribution. A total of 14 representative elevations were chosen along an altitudinal gradient, with study sites at each elevation chosen according to habitat type (forests, grasslands) and accessibility. At each elevation, three 100 m × 2 m transects that are 50 m apart were set along the contour line, and three 50 cm × 50 cm quadrats were set along each transect at an interval of 30 m. Species diversity, cover, biomass, and thickness of terrestrial bryophytes were examined. A total of 165 species, including 42 liverworts and 123 mosses, are recorded in Gongga mountain. Ground bryophyte species richness does not show any clear elevation trend. The terrestrial bryophyte cover increases with elevation. The terrestrial bryophyte biomass and thickness display a clear humped relationship with the elevation, with the maximum around 3,758 m. At this altitude, biomass is 700.3 g m−2 and the maximum thickness is 8 cm. Bryophyte distribution is primarily associated with the depth of litter, the air temperature and the precipitation. Further studies are necessary to include other epiphytes types and vascular vegetation in a larger altitudinal range. PMID:23472146

  5. Genetic Diversity of Nostoc Symbionts Endophytically Associated with Two Bryophyte Species

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, José-Luis; Paulsrud, Per; Rikkinen, Jouko; Lindblad, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of the endophytic Nostoc symbionts of two thalloid bryophytes, the hornwort Anthoceros fusiformis and the liverwort Blasia pusilla, was examined using the tRNALeu (UAA) intron sequence as a marker. The results confirmed that many different Nostoc strains are involved in both associations under natural conditions in the field. The level of Nostoc diversity within individual bryophyte thalli varied, but single DNA fragments were consistently amplified from individual symbiotic col...

  6. Bryophyte species richness and composition along an altitudinal gradient in Gongga Mountain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qin Sun

    Full Text Available An investigation of terrestrial bryophyte species diversity and community structure along an altitudinal gradient from 2,001 to 4,221 m a.s.l. in Gongga Mountain in Sichuan, China was carried out in June 2010. Factors which might affect bryophyte species composition and diversity, including climate, elevation, slope, depth of litter, vegetation type, soil pH and soil Eh, were examined to understand the altitudinal feature of bryophyte distribution. A total of 14 representative elevations were chosen along an altitudinal gradient, with study sites at each elevation chosen according to habitat type (forests, grasslands and accessibility. At each elevation, three 100 m × 2 m transects that are 50 m apart were set along the contour line, and three 50 cm × 50 cm quadrats were set along each transect at an interval of 30 m. Species diversity, cover, biomass, and thickness of terrestrial bryophytes were examined. A total of 165 species, including 42 liverworts and 123 mosses, are recorded in Gongga mountain. Ground bryophyte species richness does not show any clear elevation trend. The terrestrial bryophyte cover increases with elevation. The terrestrial bryophyte biomass and thickness display a clear humped relationship with the elevation, with the maximum around 3,758 m. At this altitude, biomass is 700.3 g m(-2 and the maximum thickness is 8 cm. Bryophyte distribution is primarily associated with the depth of litter, the air temperature and the precipitation. Further studies are necessary to include other epiphytes types and vascular vegetation in a larger altitudinal range.

  7. Diversity of bryophytes in priority areas for conservation in the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Patrícia Pereira Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The northeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest is the region with the greatest diversity of bryophytes in the country. However, knowledge about bryophytes is irregularly distributed among Brazilian regions. Therefore, we aimed to contribute to knowledge about bryophytes on a regional scale in the northeastern Atlantic forest, to identify the centers of bryophyte diversity in that region, and to reiterate the importance and identify locations for which new protected areas should be created. We built a database of bryophytes in 23 locations of the region, based on a literature review and new floristic inventories. To identify the locations of greatest relevance to bryophyte conservation, we considered 1 total and endemic species richness, 2 phylogenetic diversity (PD, and 3 functional diversity (proportion of shade specialists. The northeastern Atlantic rainforest contains 396 spp., representing 26% of the taxa occurring in the country, 13 of which are endemic. Generalist species predominated (164 spp., followed by shade (133 spp. and sun (92 spp. specialists. The Murici Ecological Station had the highest richness, number of endemic species, and phylogenetic diversity.

  8. Vertical distribution of epiphytic bryophytes in Atlantic Forest fragments in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermeson Cassiano de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The microclimatic gradient established from the forest understory to the canopy provides a range of different conditions for the establishment of bryophytes along the height of a tree. We investigated epiphytic bryophyte communities of four fragments of Atlantic Forest with the aim of describing their vertical zonation and assessing differentiation among the communities of the different fragments. In each fragment, five host trees were selected from which bryophyte samples were collected in four height zones from the base to the canopy. Furthermore, 10 plots were demarcated in each fragment where bryophytes were collected from the understory. In total, 114 bryophyte species were found on the 20 sampled phorophytes, plus an additional 51 species in the understory, for a total of 165 species. Species composition of height zones differed significantly between communities of the trunk base and the canopy. The samples from the understory included 77% of all species. Among all species found, 10 showed a significant preference for a specific height. Around 70% of the bryophyte species grew as mats; this life form occurred in all trees and height zones. The results showed a weak, yet significant, vertical gradient, which differs from what is usually found in the Atlantic Forest.

  9. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oldén

    Full Text Available Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L. retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old

  10. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldén, Anna; Ovaskainen, Otso; Kotiaho, Janne S; Laaka-Lindberg, Sanna; Halme, Panu

    2014-01-01

    Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L.) retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered) and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old-growth forests.

  11. Measurement and modeling of bryophyte evaporation in a boreal forest chronosequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Gower, Stith T.; Amiro, Brian; Ewers, Brent

    2011-01-19

    The effects of changing climate and disturbance on forest water cycling are not well understood. In particular bryophytes contribute significantly to forest evapotranspiration (ET) in poorly-drained boreal forests, but few studies have directly measured this flux and how it changes with stand age and soil drainage. We used large chambers to measure bryophyte evaporation (E) in Canadian Picea mariana forests of varying ages and soil drainages, as well under controlled laboratory conditions, and modeled daily E using site-specific meteorological data to drive a Penman-Monteith-based model. Field measurements of E averaged 0.37 mm day-1, and ranged from 0.03 (Pleurozium schreberii in a 77-year-old dry stand) to 1.43 mm day-1 (Sphagnum riparium in a 43-year-old bog). canopy resistance ranged from ~0 (at 25 °C, some values were <0) to ~1500 s m-1 for dry, cold (5 °C) mosses. In the laboratory, moss canopy resistance was constant until a moss water content of ~6 g g-1 and then climbed sharply with further drying; no difference was observed between the three moss groups (feather mosses, hollow mosses, and hummock mosses) tested. Modeled annual E fluxes from bryophytes ranged from 0.4 mm day-1, in the well-drained stands, to ~1 mm day-1 in the 43-year-old bog, during the growing season. Eddy covariance data imply that bryophytes contributed 18-31% and 49-69% to the total ET flux, at the well- and poorly-drained stands respectively. Bryophyte E was greater in bogs than in upland stands, was driven by low-lying mosses, and did not vary with stand age; this suggests that shifts in forest age due to increasing fire will have little effect on the bryophyte contribution to ET.

  12. Illumina sequencing-based community analysis of bacteria associated with different bryophytes collected from Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing Yan; Ma, Jing; Li, Xue Dong; Li, Yan Hong

    2016-11-16

    Previous studies on the bacteria associated with the bryophytes showed that there were abundant bacteria inhabited in/on these hosts. However, the type of bacteria and whether these discriminate between different bryophytes based on a particular factor remains largely unknown. This study was designed to analyze the biodiversity and community of the bacteria associated with ten liverworts and ten mosses using Illumina-sequencing techniques based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene. A total of 125,762 high quality sequences and 437 OTUs were obtained from twenty bryophytes. Generally, there were no obvious differences between the richness of bacteria associated with liverworts and mosses; however, the diversity was significantly higher in liverworts than in mosses. The taxonomic analyses showed that there were abundant bacteria inhabited with each bryophyte and those primarily detected in all samples were within the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Armatimonadetes and Planctomycetes. In addition, bacteria assigned to Chloroflexi, Fibrobacteres, Gemmatimonadetes, Chlamydiae, group of TM6 and WCHB1-60 also appeared in part of the bryophytes. The assigned bacteria included those adapted to aquatic, anaerobic and even extreme drought environments, which is consistent with the bryophyte transition from aquatic to terrestrial conditions. Of them, approximately 10 recognized genera were shared by all the samples in a higher proportion, such as Burkholderia, Novosphingobium, Mucilaginibacter, Sorangium, Frankia, Frondihatitans, Haliangium, Rhizobacter, Granulicella and Hafnia, and 11 unclassified genera were also detected in all samples, which exhibited that large amounts of unclassified bacteria could interact with the bryophytes. The Heatmap and Principle Coordinate Analyses showed that bacteria associated with six mosses displayed a higher community similarity. Notably, the bacteria associated with another four mosses exhibited higher similarity

  13. Estimating global nitrous oxide emissions by lichens and bryophytes with a process-based productivity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, Philipp; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kleidon, Axel; Beer, Christian; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Lichens and bryophytes have been shown to release significant amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a strong greenhouse gas and atmospheric ozone - depleting agent. Relative contributions of lichens and bryophytes to nitrous oxide emissions are largest in dryland and tundra regions, with potential implications for the nitrogen balance of these ecosystems. So far, this estimate is based on large-scale values of net primary productivity of lichens and bryophytes, which are derived from empirical upscaling of field measurements. Productivity is then converted to nitrous oxide emissions by empirical relationships between productivity and respiration, as well as respiration and nitrous oxide release. Alternatively, we quantify nitrous oxide emissions using a global process-based non-vascular vegetation model of lichens and bryophytes. The model simulates photosynthesis and respiration of lichens and bryophytes directly as a function of climatic conditions, such as light and temperature. Nitrous oxide emissions are then derived from simulated respiration, assuming a fixed relationship between the two fluxes, which is based on laboratory experiments under varying environmental conditions. Our approach yields a global estimate of 0.27 (0.19 - 0.35) Tg N2O yr-1 released by lichens and bryophytes. This is at the lower end of the range of a previous, empirical estimate, but corresponds to about 50 % of the atmospheric deposition of nitrous oxide into the oceans or 25 % of the atmospheric deposition on land. We conclude that, while productivity of lichens and bryophytes at large scale is relatively well constrained, improved estimates of their respiration may help to reduce uncertainty of predicted N2O emissions. This is particularly important for quantifying the spatial distribution of N2O emissions by lichens and bryophytes, since simulated respiration shows a different global pattern than productivity. We find that both physiological variation among species as well as

  14. Physcomitrium eurystomum and Pohlia proligera, new mosses in the bryophyte flora of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papp Beáta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physcomitrium eurystomum Sendtn. and Pohlia proligera (Kindb. Lindb. ex Broth. were recently discovered as new moss species for the bryophyte flora of Serbia. Both species were recorded in the Vlasina Lake area, a large highland wetland plateau in southeastern Serbia.

  15. Survey of bryophytes in Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Marchi do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Serra da Canastra National Park is located in southwestern Minas Gerais State and contains several phytophysiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado. To date, no study on bryophytes has been conducted in this area and the present study is the first to be carried out in this major biological reserve of Cerrado located on the Brazilian Plateau. This study found 289 species of bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts, and one species of hornwort, representing fourty-one Brazilian endemic species and 56 new records for Minas Gerais State. Most species are widely distributed in Brazil, with only 16% having restricted distributions. Regarding worldwide distribution, 31% are Neotropical. Lejeuneaceae had the highest species richness among liverwort families with 53 species, whereas Sphagnaceae had the highest richness among moss families with 26 species. Phaeoceros laevis was the only hornwort species found in the park. This study contributes to the understanding of bryophyte species richness and distribution, and provides the worldwide and Brazilian distribution of the bryophyte flora of Serra da Canastra National Park, an important center for biodiversity conservation.

  16. Western Mount Kenya bryophytes-I | Chuah-Petiot | Journal of East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bryophyte composition of the Western side of Mt. Kenya between 2,400 and 5,199 m was studied. Ninety-nine species were identified, 66 belonging to Bryopsida and 33 to Hepaticopsida. The greatest diversity in terms of species numbers and life forms comes from the mountain forests where ideal conditions of ...

  17. Bryophyte DNA sequences from faeces of an arctic herbivore, barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stech, M.; Kolvoort, E.; Loonen, M. J. J. E.; Vrieling, K.; Kruijer, J. D.

    We tested DNA extraction methods and PCR conditions for the amplification of bryophyte DNA from barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) faeces collected from Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Both the Qiagen stool kit and a silica-based extraction method received sufficient DNA from fresh and older droppings, as

  18. Outdoor studies on the effects of solar UV-B on bryophytes : Overview and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, P.; de Boer, M.K.; de Bakker, N.; Rozema, Jelte

    In this review all recent field studies on the effects of UV-B radiation on bryophytes are discussed. In most of the studies fluorescent UV-B tubes are used to expose the vegetation to enhanced levels of UV-B radiation to simulate stratospheric ozone depletion. Other studies use screens to filter

  19. Global estimate of lichen and bryophyte contributions to forest precipitation interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John; Porada, Philipp; Kleidon, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Interception of precipitation by forest canopies plays an important role in its partitioning to evaporation, transpiration and runoff. Field observations show arboreal lichens and bryophytes can substantially enhance forests' precipitation storage and evaporation. However, representations of canopy interception in global land surface models currently ignore arboreal lichen and bryophyte contributions. This study uses the lichen and bryophyte model (LiBry) to provide the first process-based modelling approach estimating these organisms' contributions to canopy water storage and evaporation. The global mean value of forest water storage capacity increased significantly from 0.87 mm to 1.33 mm by the inclusion of arboreal poikilohydric organisms. Global forest canopy evaporation of intercepted precipitation was also greatly enhanced by 44%. Ratio of total versus bare canopy global evaporation exceeded 2 in many forested regions. This altered global patterns in canopy water storage, evaporation, and ultimately the proportion of rainfall evaporated. A sensitivity analysis was also performed. Results indicate rainfall interception is of larger magnitude than previously reported by global land surface modelling work because of the important role of lichen and bryophytes in rainfall interception.

  20. Bryophyte flora on the northern slopes of Zlatar Mountain (Southwest Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of Zlatar Mountain. A total of 127 taxa from 35 families were identified. The hepatics are represented by 18 and mosses by 109 taxa. Representatives of the Holarctic distribution type and the temperate floristic category are highly present the investigated area.

  1. Outdoor studies on the effects of solar UV-B on bryophytes: overview and methodology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, P.; de Boer, M.K.; Bakker, N.; Rozema, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this review all recent field studies on the effects of UV-B radiation on bryophytes are discussed. In most of the studies fluorescent UV-B tubes are used to expose the vegetation to enhanced levels of UV-B radiation to simulate stratospheric ozone depletion. Other studies use screens to filter

  2. A Novel Experimental Design for Examining Bryophyte Response to Increased Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, Linda; True, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Bryophytes were among the earliest colonizers of terrestrial environs, and despite their interesting life histories and population dynamics, they are rarely used in undergraduate introductory biology labs. In an inquiry-based laboratory exercise for introductory biology, students implement a controlled experiment to investigate effects of…

  3. Species richness and origin of the bryophyte flora of the Colombian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.; Reenen, van G.B.A.; Griffin, D.

    1988-01-01

    Based on data from the ECOANDES project, a phytogeographical analysis has been made of the bryophyte flora along the wet, foggy western slope (1000-4500 m) and the drier eastern slope (500-4500 m) of the Colombian Central Cordillera at the ‘Parque de los Nevados’. Species richness increases with

  4. Regeneration of Little Ice Age bryophytes emerging from a polar glacier with implications of totipotency in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Farge, Catherine; Williams, Krista H; England, John H

    2013-06-11

    Across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, widespread ice retreat during the 20th century has sharply accelerated since 2004. In Sverdrup Pass, central Ellesmere Island, rapid glacier retreat is exposing intact plant communities whose radiocarbon dates demonstrate entombment during the Little Ice Age (1550-1850 AD). The exhumed bryophyte assemblages have exceptional structural integrity (i.e., setae, stem structures, leaf hair points) and have remarkable species richness (60 of 144 extant taxa in Sverdrup Pass). Although the populations are often discolored (blackened), some have developed green stem apices or lateral branches suggesting in vivo regrowth. To test their biological viability, Little Ice Age populations emerging from the ice margin were collected for in vitro growth experiments. Our results include a unique successful regeneration of subglacial bryophytes following 400 y of ice entombment. This finding demonstrates the totipotent capacity of bryophytes, the ability of a cell to dedifferentiate into a meristematic state (analogous to stem cells) and develop a new plant. In polar ecosystems, regrowth of bryophyte tissue buried by ice for 400 y significantly expands our understanding of their role in recolonization of polar landscapes (past or present). Regeneration of subglacial bryophytes broadens the concept of Ice Age refugia, traditionally confined to survival of land plants to sites above and beyond glacier margins. Our results emphasize the unrecognized resilience of bryophytes, which are commonly overlooked vis-a-vis their contribution to the establishment, colonization, and maintenance of polar terrestrial ecosystems.

  5. CONTRASTING ARBOREAL AND TERRESTRIAL BRYOPHYTES COMMUNITIES OF THE MOUNT HALIMUN SALAK NATIONAL PARK, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNIK S. ARIYANTI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyte communities were compared between arboreal (trunk bases and terrestrialhabitats in primary forest Mount Halimun Salak National Park, West Java. The communitieswere analyzed based on species diversity, abundance, and biomass. A total of 150 bryophytesspecies were identified, including 67 species of mosses (Bryopsida and 83 of liverworts(Hepaticopsida. Both bryophyte groups varied in diversity and abundance between arborealand terrestrial communities as well as among different elevations. Species diversity of arborealhabitats (116 species was higher than that of terrestrial habitats (64 species. Moss species weremore abundant in terms of coverage in terrestrial habitats whereas liverworts species weremore abundant in arboreal habitats. Species richness in both terrestrial and arboreal habitatsdecreased towards higher elevation, whereas the abundance increased.

  6. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Arróniz-Crespo

    Full Text Available Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1 very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1 but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years. N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous. We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  7. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De Los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T G Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  8. Bryophyte-Cyanobacteria Associations during Primary Succession in Recently Deglaciated Areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T. G. Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G.

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition. PMID:24819926

  9. Modeling species distributions from heterogeneous data for the biogeographic regionalization of the European bryophyte flora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén G Mateo

    Full Text Available The definition of biogeographic regions provides a fundamental framework for a range of basic and applied questions in biogeography, evolutionary biology, systematics and conservation. Previous research suggested that environmental forcing results in highly congruent regionalization patterns across taxa, but that the size and number of regions depends on the dispersal ability of the taxa considered. We produced a biogeographic regionalization of European bryophytes and hypothesized that (1 regions defined for bryophytes would differ from those defined for other taxa due to the highly specific eco-physiology of the group and (2 their high dispersal ability would result in the resolution of few, large regions. Species distributions were recorded using 10,000 km2 MGRS pixels. Because of the lack of data across large portions of the area, species distribution models employing macroclimatic variables as predictors were used to determine the potential composition of empty pixels. K-means clustering analyses of the pixels based on their potential species composition were employed to define biogeographic regions. The optimal number of regions was determined by v-fold cross-validation and Moran's I statistic. The spatial congruence of the regions identified from their potential bryophyte assemblages with large-scale vegetation patterns is at odds with our primary hypothesis. This reinforces the notion that post-glacial migration patterns might have been much more similar in bryophytes and vascular plants than previously thought. The substantially lower optimal number of clusters and the absence of nested patterns within the main biogeographic regions, as compared to identical analyses in vascular plants, support our second hypothesis. The modelling approach implemented here is, however, based on many assumptions that are discussed but can only be tested when additional data on species distributions become available, highlighting the substantial

  10. Geographical, Temporal and Environmental Determinants of Bryophyte Species Richness in the Macaronesian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Silvia C.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Santos, Ana M. C.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Patiño, Jairo; Hortal, Joaquín; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Species richness on oceanic islands has been related to a series of ecological factors including island size and isolation (i.e. the Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography, EMIB), habitat diversity, climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and more recently island ontogeny (i.e. the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island biogeography, GDM). Here we evaluate the relationship of these factors with the diversity of bryophytes in the Macaronesian region (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde). The predictive power of EMIB, habitat diversity, climate and the GDM on total bryophyte richness, as well as moss and liverwort richness (the two dominant bryophyte groups), was evaluated through ordinary least squares regressions. After choosing the best subset of variables using inference statistics, we used partial regression analyses to identify the independent and shared effects of each model. The variables included within each model were similar for mosses and liverworts, with orographic mist layer being one of the most important predictors of richness. Models combining climate with either the GDM or habitat diversity explained most of richness variation (up to 91%). There was a high portion of shared variance between all pairwise combinations of factors in mosses, while in liverworts around half of the variability in species richness was accounted for exclusively by climate. Our results suggest that the effects of climate and habitat are strong and prevalent in this region, while geographical factors have limited influence on Macaronesian bryophyte diversity. Although climate is of great importance for liverwort richness, in mosses its effect is similar to or, at least, indiscernible from the effect of habitat diversity and, strikingly, the effect of island ontogeny. These results indicate that for highly vagile taxa on oceanic islands, the dispersal process may be less important for successful colonization than the availability of suitable ecological

  11. Bryophyte-dominated biological soil crusts mitigate soil erosion in an early successional Chinese subtropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Nebel, Martin; Goebes, Philipp; Käppeler, Kathrin; Schmidt, Karsten; Shi, Xuezheng; Song, Zhengshan; Webber, Carla L.; Weber, Bettina; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in an early successional subtropical forest plantation and their impact on soil erosion. Within a biodiversity and ecosystem functioning experiment in southeast China (biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) China), the effect of these biocrusts on sediment delivery and runoff was assessed within micro-scale runoff plots under natural rainfall, and biocrust cover was surveyed over a 5-year period. Results showed that biocrusts occurred widely in the experimental forest ecosystem and developed from initial light cyanobacteria- and algae-dominated crusts to later-stage bryophyte-dominated crusts within only 3 years. Biocrust cover was still increasing after 6 years of tree growth. Within later-stage crusts, 25 bryophyte species were determined. Surrounding vegetation cover and terrain attributes significantly influenced the development of biocrusts. Besides high crown cover and leaf area index, the development of biocrusts was favoured by low slope gradients, slope orientations towards the incident sunlight and the altitude of the research plots. Measurements showed that bryophyte-dominated biocrusts strongly decreased soil erosion, being more effective than abiotic soil surface cover. Hence, their significant role in mitigating sediment delivery and runoff generation in mesic forest environments and their ability to quickly colonise soil surfaces after disturbance are of particular interest for soil erosion control in early-stage forest plantations.

  12. Could the canopy structure of bryophytes serve as an indicator of microbial biodiversity? A test for testate amoebae and microcrustaceans from a subtropical cloud forest in Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Mercado, D; Cancel-Morales, N; Chinea, J D; Santos-Flores, C J; De Jesús, I Sastre

    2012-07-01

    The mechanisms that ultimately regulate the diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities in bryophyte ecosystems remain a contentious topic in microbial ecology. Although there is robust consensus that abiotic factors, such as water chemistry of the bryophyte and pH, explain a significant proportion of protist and microcrustacean diversity, there is no systematic assessment of the role of bryophyte habitat complexity on such prominent microbial groups. Water-holding capacity is correlated with bryophyte morphology and canopy structure. Similarly, canopy structure explains biodiversity dynamics of the macrobiota suggesting that canopy structure may also be a potential parameter for understanding microbial diversity. Canopy roughness of the dominant bryophyte species within the Bahoruco Cloud Forest, Cachote, Dominican Republic, concomitant with their associated diversity of testate amoebae and microcrustaceans was estimated to determine whether canopy structure could be added to the list of factors explaining microbial biodiversity in bryophytes. We hypothesized that smooth (with high moisture content) canopies will have higher species richness, density, and biomass of testate amoebae and higher richness and density of microcrustaceans than rough (desiccation-prone) canopies. For testate amoebae, we found 83 morphospecies with relative low abundances. Species richness and density differed among bryophytes with different bryophyte canopy structures and based on non-metric multidimensional scaling, canopy roughness explained 25% of the variation in species composition although not as predicted. Acroporium pungens (low roughness, LR) had the lowest species richness (2 ± 0.61 SD per gram dry weight bryophyte), and density (2.1 ± 0.61 SD individual per gram of dry weight bryophyte); whereas Thuidium urceolatum (high roughness) had the highest richness (24 ± 10.82 SD) and density (94 ± 64.30 SD). The fact that the bryophyte with the highest roughness had the highest

  13. Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hai-Long; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B. hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C. aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S. uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to psychrophiles (9), psychrotrophs (11), and mesophile (1). The results herein demonstrate that the Antarctic bryophytes are an interesting source of fungal endophytes and the endophytic fungal composition is different among the bryophyte species, and suggest that these fungal endophytes are adapted to cold stress in Antarctica. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dominant bryophyte control over high-latitude soil temperature fluctuations predicted by heat transfer traits, field moisture regime and laws of thermal insulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Bryophytes cover large territories in cold biomes, where they control soil temperature regime, and therefore permafrost, carbon and nutrient dynamics. The mechanisms of this control remain unclear. We quantified the dependence of soil temperature fluctuations under bryophyte mats on the interplay of

  15. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bryophytes on Bramley’s Seedling trees in East of England apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Whitelaw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic bryophytes on apple trees were investigated in relation to a selection of tree characteristics. Management of orchard trees for fruit production affects the habitats available for colonisation and growth of epiphytes on trunks and branches. Bryophytes recorded on Bramley’s Seedling apple trees in orchards in Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire showed a high level of similarity in species composition between the orchards. The similarity between orchards was, however, much reduced when relative species cover on the trees was taken into account. Twenty three species were recorded on the 71 trees sampled for detailed investigation. Tree structure, as determined by management, explained about 10% of the observed variation in bryophyte cover. Within that, trunk girth and distance to nearest neighbouring orchard trees were the most important factors. This information is of value to orchard managers aiming to become more proactive in managing their habitats for the benefit of biodiversity.

  16. Restricted variation in plant barcoding markers limits identification in closely related bryophyte species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Kristian; Segreto, Rossana; Ekrem, Torbjørn

    2013-11-01

    Species-level identification and delimitation of bryophytes using the proposed general barcode markers for land plants has been challenging. Bryophyta (mosses) is the second most species-rich group of land plants after angiosperms, and it is thus of great importance to find useful barcoding regions also for this group of plants. We investigated how the plastid regions atpF-atpH, rbcL and trnH-psbA and the nuclear ITS2 region performed as barcode markers on closely related bryophyte taxa of selected moss (Bartramia, Distichium, Fissidens, Meesia and Syntrichia) and liverwort (Blepharostoma) genera from boreal and arctic regions. We also evaluated how sequencing success of herbarium specimens is related to length of the sequenced fragment, specimen age and taxonomic group. Sequencing success was higher for shorter fragments and younger herbarium specimens, but was lower than expected in the genera Distichium and Fissidens, indicating imperfect universality of the primers used. None of the studied DNA barcode regions showed a consistent barcode gap across the studied genera. As a single locus, the region atpF-atpH performed slightly better than rbcL and ITS2 and much better than trnH-psbA in terms of grouping conspecific sequences in monophyletic groups. This marker also gave a higher percentage of correct hits when conducting blast searches on a local database of identified sequences. Concatenated data sets of two and three markers grouped more conspecific sequences in monophyletic groups, but the improvement was not great compared with atpF-atpH alone. A discussion of recent studies testing barcode regions for bryophytes is given. We conclude that atpF-atpH, rbcL and ITS2 are to be the most promising barcode markers for mosses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Edge effects on understory epiphytic ferns and epiphyllous bryophytes in moist afromontane forests of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylander Kristoffer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on edge effects in tropical forests have been conducted in landscapes with low human population density and in situations where the edges have been left unused after logging of the adjacent area. Here we studied forest margins heavily used by local farmers in a forest/agriculture mosaic landscape in Ethiopia. We compared forest structure and plant species composition across 41 forest-agriculture ecotones from 200 m out into the agricultural area to 200 m into the forest. There are strong edge effects from the edge and into the forest on canopy cover and number of stumps and apparently these forest-agricultural edges are intensively used by humans. They are penetrated by paths, beehives are found in the trees, timber of various dimensions is harvested and there is sometimes substantial cover of perennial wild (or semi-wild crops such as coffee and spices. The number of understory epiphytic fern species as well as number of epiphyllous (i.e., growing on leaves bryophyte species was lower at 20 m than at 75 m from the edge. The number of fern species was higher in newly created edges and thereafter they declined, which indicates an extinction debt. This pattern was not seen for the epiphyllous bryophytes. It is likely that different human management activities are responsible for many of the found edge effects besides wind and sun effects from the edge. Tropical forest margins provide important resources for people in many landscapes. It is important to understand how such use affects the biota of the forests. This study shows that there are substantial edge effects, but that the edge effects do not seem to become worse over time for epiphyllous bryophytes and only slightly so for ferns.

  18. Forests regenerating after clear-cutting function as habitat for bryophyte and lichen species of conservation concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolphi, Jörgen; Gustafsson, Lena

    2011-04-07

    The majority of managed forests in Fennoscandia are younger than 70 years old but yet little is known about their potential to host rare and threatened species. In this study, we examined red-listed bryophytes and lichens in 19 young stands originating from clear-cutting (30-70 years old) in the boreal region, finding 19 red-listed species (six bryophytes and 13 lichens). We used adjoining old stands, which most likely never had been clear-cut, as reference. The old stands contained significantly more species, but when taking the amount of biological legacies (i.e., remaining deciduous trees and dead wood) from the previous forest generation into account, bryophyte species number did not differ between old and young stands, and lichen number was even higher in young stands. No dispersal effect could be detected from the old to the young stands. The amount of wetlands in the surroundings was important for bryophytes, as was the area of old forest for both lichens and bryophytes. A cardinal position of young stands to the north of old stands was beneficial to red-listed bryophytes as well as lichens. We conclude that young forest plantations may function as habitat for red-listed species, but that this depends on presence of structures from the previous forest generation, and also on qualities in the surrounding landscape. Nevertheless, at repeated clear-cuttings, a successive decrease in species populations in young production stands is likely, due to increased fragmentation and reduced substrate amounts. Retention of dead wood and deciduous trees might be efficient conservation measures. Although priority needs to be given to preservation of remnant old-growth forests, we argue that young forests rich in biological legacies and located in landscapes with high amounts of old forests may have a conservation value.

  19. Pungent and bitter, cytotoxic and antiviral terpenoids from some bryophytes and inedible fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Nagashima, Fumihiro; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Toyota, Masao; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Komala, Ismiarni; Ito, Takuya; Yagi, Yasuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Most liverworts elaborate characteristic odiferous, pungent and bitter tasting compounds many of which show antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, allergenic contact dermatitis, cytotoxic, insecticidal, anti-HIV, superoxide anion radical release, plant growth regulatory, neurotrophic, NO production inhibitory, muscle relaxant, antiobesity, piscicidal and nematocidal activities. Several inedible mushrooms produce female spider pheromones, strong antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds. The present paper is concerned with the extraction and isolation of terpenoids from some bryophytes and inedible fungi and their pungent and bitter taste, and cytotoxic and antiviral activity.

  20. Briófitas de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram listadas 74 espécies de briófitas para a cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, sendo 41 espécies de musgos distribuídos em 24 gêneros e 15 famílias e 33 hepáticas em 17 gêneros e sete famílias. Destas, 17 espécies de briófitas são ocorrências novas para Manaus e para o estado do Amazonas. T. ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck é uma ocorrência nova para o Brasil. São apresentadas associações com outras briófitas e comparação com outras espécies urbanas.This survey lists 74 species of bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, namely, 41 species of mosses distributed in 24 genera and 15 families and 33 liverworts in 17 genera and seven families, of which, 17 species are new occurrences to Manaus. T. Ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck is new occurrence to Brazil. Associations with other bryophytes and comparison with other regions are presented.

  1. Arctic warming on two continents has consistent negativ effects on lichen diversity and mixed effects on bryophyte diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, S.I.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Shaver, G.R.; Ahrens, M.; Callaghan, T.V.; Molau, U.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Hölzer, A.; Aerts, R.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of changing temperature regimes on composition and diversity of cryptogam communities in the Arctic and Subarctic, despite the well-known importance of lichens and bryophytes to the functioning and climate feedbacks of northern ecosystems. We investigated changes in

  2. Arctic warming on two continents has consistent negative effects on lichen diversity and mixed effects on bryophyte diversity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, S.I.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Shaver, G.R.; Ahrens, M.; Callaghan, T.V.; Molau, U.; ter Braak, C.J.F.; Holzer, A; Aerts, R.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of changing temperature regimes on composition and diversity of cryptogam communities in the Arctic and Subarctic, despite the well-known importance of lichens and bryophytes to the functioning and climate feedbacks of northern ecosystems. We investigated changes in

  3. Bryophyte species diversity in secondary forests dominated by the introduced species Spathodea campanulata Beauv. in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Perez; I. Sastre de Jesús; A. E. Lugo; O. J. Abelleira Martínez

    2012-01-01

    The introduced tree species Spathodea campanulata (Bignoniaceae) forms novel forests in Puerto Rico, these having emerged after the abandonment of fields in the mid-20th century and resulting in forests with a new species composition. We assessed bryophyte species richness in these novel forests and sought correlations with geological substrate, past land use, forest...

  4. Consequences of introducing bryophytes and Arctic-shrubs in a land surface model with dynamical vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druel, A.; Peylin, P.; Krinner, G.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2016-12-01

    Recent developments of boreal vegetation in land surface models show the importance of new plant functional types for a better representation of physical and carbon cycle related processes in northern latitudes. In past climate transitions, shifts in northern vegetation played a crucial role, for example in the inception of the Last Glacial Maximum. With the current high-latitude warming, a greening of vegetation is observed, associated with increased shrub cover. It has thus become essential to include shifts in vegetation in models. In the ORCHIDEE land surface model with a dynamic vegetation, we introduced new parameterizations and processes associated to Arctic-shrubs, bryophytes (mosses and lichens) and boreal C3 grasses to simulate their effect on biomass, albedo, snow cover and soil thermal dynamic (including frozen soils). Specific competition and survival conditions are defined for these three plant functional types. Competition between herbaceous vegetation, shrubs and trees is based on available light. Survival conditions of shrubs include their protection from cold temperatures by snow, and the competition between C3 grasses and bryophytes depends especially on soil water-saturation conditions. The equilibrium fractional coverage of the three competing plant functional types is based on the net primary production. We compare the results from simulations with different configurations: 1) vegetation being either fixed prescribed from a satellite land cover map or dynamic and 2) plant functional types used being either the default settings of ORCHIDEE which include three different boreal tree types and one grassland type, or the latter plus the new boreal vegetation types. The simulations are run for the historical period and with an additional run of 100 years according to the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 climate scenarios. We evaluate the effect of new plant functional types on the vegetation distribution, and their consequences for energy, water and carbon fluxes

  5. Epiphytic bryophytes of Quercus forests in Central and North inland Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore García Medina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity patterns are governed by a complex network of interacting factors. Studies directed to disentangle the most important factors affecting diversity have frequently shown divergent results, which has encouraged a rewarding debate about the relative importance of each factor. Scale dependency has been identified as a direct cause of at least part of such divergences. However, studies with spatially-explicit measurements at different scales are costly and therefore they are relatively scarce despite their importance. Here, we present a database to disentangle the cross-scale variation in the importance of factors affecting the diversity of epiphytic bryophyte communities in Quercus dominated forests (Quercus ilex L., Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and Quercus faginea Lam. in the North-western region of the Iberian Peninsula. We provide species-per-site abundance information with more than 9000 entries and an environmental table containing 20 in situ measured variables at three different scales (forest, stand, and sample. The database will help to advance the research of cross-scale effects of diversity patterns while at the same time providing valuable information on the distribution of a poorly known group of organisms. 

  6. Rare Carboniferous and Permian glacial and non-glacial bryophytes and associated lycophyte megaspores of the Paraná Basin, Brazil: A new occurrence and paleoenvironmental considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardi-Branco, Fresia; Rohn, Rosemarie; Longhim, Marcia Emilia; Costa, Juliana Sampaio; Martine, Ariel Milani; Christiano-de-Souza, Isabel Cortez

    2016-12-01

    Fossil bryophytes are rare because their preservation is compromised by the presence of a thin cuticle (if any) and a lack of lignin. Except for the occurrence of one bryophyte in the glacial Dwyka Group of the Karoo Basin, the other rare Late Paleozoic records in Gondwana are notably from the Paraná Basin in Southeast/South Brazil. Four bryophyte sites (including a newly discovered one) were found in the lower part of the thick Permo-Carboniferous glacial succession of the Itararé Group, and one was found in the Guadalupian Teresina Formation, which was roughly assigned to an epeiric sea (or "lake") dominated by a warm, semi-arid climate. This study describes the fossils from the new occurrence from the Itararé Group and discusses the context in which the bryophyte beds originated in the basin. The new samples confirm that all of the bryophytes of the Itararé Group can be classified as Dwykea araroii Ricardi-Branco et al. (a possible pleurocarp) and are associated with the lycophyte megaspore Sublagenicula brasiliensis (Dijkstra) Dybová-Jachowicz. In the much younger Teresina Formation, the bryophytes are Yguajemanus yucapirus Cristiano-de-Souza et al. and Capimirinus riopretensis Cristiano-de-Souza et al., and abundant charophytes and rare dwarf lycophyte stems and bracts are present in the same layers. Although the two stratigraphic units represent distinct paleoenvironments and climates, they seem to share some characteristics: a) the bryophyte assemblages were transported very little; b) they were deposited in very calm environments; c) they were the main components (along with some lycophytes) of local or poorly diversified regional vegetation. The low number of species, which is characteristic of opportunistic communities, can be explained by local or regional conditions that would have been stressful for the vascular plants in other areas. During the deposition of the Itararé Group, the main control was probably the cold climate in addition to a

  7. Concentrations of selected heavy metals in bryophyte tissues at Cu-mine heap Podlipa in Ľubietová (Central Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širka, Pavel; Midula, Pavol

    2017-04-01

    Mine heaps and wastes created by mining industry belong to one of the most extreme man-made habitat types. In addition to their specific microclimatic conditions mine heaps are also characterized by increased contents of heavy metals and toxic substances in the soil substrate. These substances are transported into plant bodies and create difficult conditions for their growth. However, there are some plants that can cope with extremely high metal contents and are capable of growing on metalliferous habitats. These plants develop unique adaptation mechanisms and basically represent modified ecotypes with specific tolerances to certain heavy metals adapted through microevolutionary processes. The toxic effects of heavy metals on vascular plants are known for quite a long time, however, bryophytes are also known to accumulate certain heavy metals without any visible signs of damage. Because of this ability they have been successfully used in biomonitoring. Chemical analysis of contaminants in samples of bryophytes can reflect the state of environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to analyze the concentrations of 6 heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in tissues of 16 bryophyte samples at an abandoned Cu deposit Podlipa in Ľubietová and to compare them with concentrations of these elemens in soil samples and 9 vascular plant species (belonging to different growth forms) in a research performed by Andráš et al. (2014) in the studied area. Bryophytes were collected at 10 sampling sites randomly chosen in the dump-field area and consist of 14 different moss species. Only above-ground parts of bryophyte thalli (separated from rhizoids, gravel, soil, needles etc.) were used for analysis. Samples were dried at room temperature and subjected to microwave mineralization (MWS - 2 Berghof). The detailed procedure is defined in the Application Report MWS - 2 / Food, Pharma, Cosmetics (Berghof). In order to determine the concentrations of studied elements, atomic

  8. Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov., isolated from bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Akio; Sahin, Nurettin

    2013-09-01

    Pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T), were isolated from the bryophytes Haplocladium microphyllum and Brachythecium plumosum, respectively. The cells of both strains were Gram-reaction-negative, motile, non-spore-forming rods. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) were found to be related to Methylobacterium organophilum ATCC 27886(T) (97.1% and 97.7%, respectively). Strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene similarity to Methylobacterium gnaphalii 23e(T) (98.3 and 99.0%, respectively). The phylogenetic similarities to all other species of the genus Methylobacterium with validly published names were less than 97%. Major cellular fatty acids of both strains were C(18:1)ω7c and C(18:0). The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene sequences, fatty acid profiles, whole-cell matrix-assisted, laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) from their phylogenetically closest relatives. We propose that strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) represent novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. (type strain 87e(T) =DSM 24195(T) =NBRC 107714(T)) and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov. (type strain 99b(T) =DSM 24105(T) =NBRC 107710(T)) are proposed.

  9. Pharmacological screening of bryophyte extracts that inhibit growth and induce abnormal phenotypes in human HeLa cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzaczkowski, Lucie; Wright, Michel; Rebérioux, Delphine; Massiot, Georges; Etiévant, Chantal; Gairin, Jean Edouard

    2009-08-01

    Antitumor activities of substances from natural sources apart from vascular plants and micro-organisms have been poorly investigated. Here we report on a pharmacological screening of a bryophyte extract library using a phenotypic cell-based assay revealing microtubules, centrosomes and DNA. Among the 219 moss extracts tested, we identified 41 extracts acting on cell division with various combinations of significant effects on interphasic and mitotic cells. Seven extracts were further studied using a cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis and the phenotypic assay. Three distinct pharmacological patterns were identified including two unusual phenotypes.

  10. Investigating the impact of light and water status on the exchange of COS, 13CO2, CO18O and H218O from bryophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa; Royles, Jessica; Ogee, Jerome; Jones, Samuel; Burlett, Regis; West, Jason; Sauze, Joana; Wohl, Steven; Genty, Bernard; Griffiths, Howard; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial surfaces are often covered by photoautotrophic communities that play a significant role in the biological fixation of C and N at the global scale. Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) are key members in these communities and are especially adapted to thrive in hostile environments, by growing slowly and surviving repeated dehydration events. Consequently, bryophyte communities can be extremely long-lived (>1500yrs) and can serve as valuable records of historic climate change. In particular the carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of mosses can be used as powerful proxies describing how growing season changes in atmospheric CO2 and rainfall have changed in the distant past over the land surface. Interpreting the climate signals of bryophyte biomass requires a robust understanding of how changes in photosynthetic activity and moisture status regulate the growth and isotopic composition of bryophyte biomass. Thus theoretical models predicting how changes in isotopic enrichment and CO2 discrimination respond to dehydration and rehydration are used to tease apart climatic and isotopic source signals. Testing these models with high resolution datasets obtained from new generation laser spectrometers can provide more information on how these plants that lack stomata cope with water loss. In addition novel tracers such as carbonyl sulfide (COS) can also be measured at high resolution and precision (pattern in the fluxes of CO2 and COS during the desiccation cycle. Initially when the bryophyte was wet and a barrier to diffusion existed, net CO2 and COS uptake rates were low. As the water film on the bryophyte disappeared the net rates of CO2 and COS uptake increased to a steady maximum rate whilst relative water content values remained above 100%. Thereafter, the bryophyte turned from a COS sink to a source. In this talk we will further explore how the COS exchange rate of bryophytes varies with light level and whether there is any evidence for

  11. Biomonitoring of testate amoebae (protozoa) as toxic metals absorbed in aquatic bryophytes from the Hg-Tl mineralized area (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zai-Chao; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Zhao-Hui

    2011-05-01

    Toxic metal pollution in bodies of water is a source of danger to the health of people living in developing countries. The untreated mine wastes located near some Chinese ore mines may cause water pollution, which ultimately results in various diseases. The aim of the present study is to assess the response of testate amoebae communities to pollution by toxic metals in groundwater, stream water, and aquatic bryophytes in Lanmuchang stream located in the Hg-Tl mineralized area in southwestern Guizhou Province, China. Measurements were made of the levels of Hg, As, Cd, Tl, Cu, Zn, and Pb in three mosses: Hyophila propagulifera, Rhynchostegium riparioides, and Hygroamblystegium tenax. Mean moss concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were significantly higher than stream water values and testate amoebae species richness and abundance were significantly lower in the 'polluted' group. We then studied the correlation between toxic metals and testate amoebae. The total species abundance is correlated negatively to Hg and Cu concentrations. Our results indicated that testate amoebae are sensitive to toxic metal pollution and aquatic bryophytes are bioaccumulators of trace metals, and results also showed potential microecosystem health risks.

  12. Composition and structure of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream in the Atlantic forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, B F J V; Dias-Silva, M V D; Alves, R G

    2013-02-01

    This study describes the structure of the Chironomidae community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. Samples of bryophytes adhered to rocks along a 100-m stretch of the stream were removed with a metal blade, and 200-mL pots were filled with the samples. The numerical density (individuals per gram of dry weight), Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index, the dominance index (DI), and estimated richness were calculated for each collection period (dry and rainy). Linear regression analysis was employed to test the existence of a correlation between rainfall and the individual's density and richness. The high numerical density and richness of Chironomidae taxa observed are probably related to the peculiar conditions of the bryophyte habitat. The retention of larvae during periods of higher rainfall contributed to the high density and richness of Chironomidae larvae. The rarefaction analysis showed higher richness in the rainy season related to the greater retention of food particles. The data from this study show that bryophytes provide stable habitats for the colonization by and refuge of Chironomidae larvae, mainly under conductions of faster water flow and higher precipitation.

  13. Relationship of atmospheric pollution characterized by gas (NO2) and particles (PM10) to microbial communities living in bryophytes at three differently polluted sites (rural, urban, and industrial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caroline; Gilbert, Daniel; Gaudry, André; Franchi, Marielle; Nguyen, Hung Viet; Fabure, Juliette; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a major problem for modern societies owing to its fatal effects on both human health and ecosystems. We studied the relationships of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric pollution and metal trace elements contained in atmospheric particles which were accumulated in bryophytes to microbial communities of bryophytes at three differently polluted sites in France (rural, urban, and industrial) over an 8-month period. The analysis of bryophytes showed an accumulation of Cr and Fe at the rural site; Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, and Pb at the urban site; and Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Sr, Cu, and Zn at the industrial site. During this study, the structure of the microbial communities which is characterized by biomasses of microbial groups evolved differently according to the site. Microalgae, bacteria, rotifers, and testate amoebae biomasses were significantly higher in the rural site. Cyanobacteria biomass was significantly higher at the industrial site. Fungal and ciliate biomasses were significantly higher at the urban and industrial sites for the winter period and higher at the rural site for the spring period. The redundancy analysis showed that the physico-chemical variables ([NO(2)], relative humidity, temperature, and site) and the trace elements which were accumulated in bryophytes ([Cu], [Sr], [Pb]) explained 69.3% of the variance in the microbial community data. Moreover, our results suggest that microbial communities are potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Further research is needed to understand the causal relationship underlined by the observed patterns.

  14. Studies on Colombian cryptogams XX. A transect analysis of the bryophyte vegetation along an altitudinal gradient on the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van G.B.A.; Gradstein, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Along an altitudinal transect on the northern slope of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, 500-4100 m, five altitudinal bryophyte zones are distinguished – four forest zones and one páramo zone – based on ecosystem relevé analysis concerning species presence, substrate preference and

  15. Recovery of target bryophytes in floating rich fens after 25 yr of inundation by base-rich surface water with lower nutrient contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Cusell, C.; Mettrop, I.S.; Lamers, L.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Question: What are the changes in mineral-rich fens (H7410A) after 25 yr of improved surface water quality in a national park? Location: Stobbenribben floating-fen complex in National Park Weerribben-Wieden, the Netherlands. Methods: Bryophyte species composition, peak above-ground biomass and

  16. Comparisons of photosynthesis-related traits of 27 abundant or subordinate bryophyte species in a subalpine old-growth fir forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Bader, Maaike Y; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Zhangming; Bao, Weikai

    2017-09-01

    Bryophyte communities can exhibit similar structural and taxonomic diversity as vascular plant communities, just at a smaller scale. Whether the physiological diversity can be similarly diverse, and whether it can explain local abundance patterns is unknown, due to a lack of community-wide studies of physiological traits. This study re-analyzed data on photosynthesis-related traits (including the nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations, photosynthetic capacities, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies) of 27 bryophyte species in a subalpine old-growth fir forest on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We explored differences between taxonomic groups and hypothesized that the most abundant bryophyte species had physiological advantages relative to other subdominant species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to summarize the differences among species and trait values of the most abundant and other co-occurring subdominant species. Species from the Polytrichaceae were separated out on both PCA axes, indicating their high chlorophyll concentrations and photosynthetic capacities (axis 1) and relatively high-light requirements (axis 2). Mniaceae species also had relatively high photosynthetic capacities, but their light saturation points were low. In contrast, Racomitrium joseph-hookeri and Lepidozia reptans , two species with a high shoot mass per area, had high-light requirements and low nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations and photosynthetic capacities. The nutrient concentrations, photosynthetic capacities, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies of the most abundant bryophyte species did not differ from co-occurring subdominant species. Our research confirms the links between the photosynthesis-related traits and adaptation strategies of bryophytes. However, species relative abundance was not related to these traits.

  17. Grimmiaceae in the Early Cretaceous: Tricarinella crassiphylla gen. et sp. nov. and the value of anatomically preserved bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoretti, Adolfina; Bippus, Alexander C; Stockey, Ruth A; Rothwell, Gar W; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2018-02-10

    Widespread and diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are rare in the fossil record, especially in pre-Cenozoic rocks. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known from compression fossils, which lack detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy significantly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian) deposits on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora including numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized. Among them is the grimmiaceous moss described here. One fossil moss gametophyte preserved in a carbonate concretion was studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. Tricarinella crassiphylla gen. et sp. nov. is a moss with tristichous phyllotaxis and strongly keeled leaves. The combination of an acrocarpous condition (inferred based on a series of morphological features), a central conducting strand, a homogeneous leaf costa and a lamina with bistratose portions and sinuous cells, and multicellular gemmae, supports placement of Tricarinella in family Grimmiaceae. Tricarinella is similar to Grimmia, a genus that exhibits broad morphological variability. However, tristichous phyllotaxis and especially the lamina, bistratose at the base but not in distal portions of the leaf, set Tricarinella apart as a distinct genus. Tricarinella crassiphylla marks the oldest record for both family Grimmiaceae and sub-class Dicranidae, providing a hard minimum age (136 million years) for these groups. The fact that this fossil could be placed in an extant family, despite a diminutive size, emphasizes the considerable resolving power of anatomically preserved bryophyte fossils, even when recovered from allochthonous assemblages of marine sediments, such as the Apple Bay flora. Discovery of Tricarinella re-emphasizes the importance of paleobotanical studies as the only approach allowing access to a significant segment

  18. A primary survey on bryophyte species reveals two novel classes of nucleotide-binding site (NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yu Xue

    Full Text Available Due to their potential roles in pathogen defense, genes encoding nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain have been particularly surveyed in many angiosperm genomes. Two typical classes were found: one is the TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL class and the other is the CC-NBS-LRR (CNL class. It is seldom known, however, what kind of NBS-encoding genes are mainly present in other plant groups, especially the most ancient groups of land plants, that is, bryophytes. To fill this gap of knowledge, in this study, we mainly focused on two bryophyte species: the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, to survey their NBS-encoding genes. Surprisingly, two novel classes of NBS-encoding genes were discovered. The first novel class is identified from the P. patens genome and a typical member of this class has a protein kinase (PK domain at the N-terminus and a LRR domain at the C-terminus, forming a complete structure of PK-NBS-LRR (PNL, reminiscent of TNL and CNL classes in angiosperms. The second class is found from the liverwort genome and a typical member of this class possesses an α/β-hydrolase domain at the N-terminus and also a LRR domain at the C-terminus (Hydrolase-NBS-LRR, HNL. Analysis on intron positions and phases also confirmed the novelty of HNL and PNL classes, as reflected by their specific intron locations or phase characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis covering all four classes of NBS-encoding genes revealed a closer relationship among the HNL, PNL and TNL classes, suggesting the CNL class having a more divergent status from the others. The presence of specific introns highlights the chimerical structures of HNL, PNL and TNL genes, and implies their possible origin via exon-shuffling during the quick lineage separation processes of early land plants.

  19. Electrical output of bryophyte microbial fuel cell systems is sufficient to power a radio or an environmental sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ross J.; Felder, Fabienne; Cooper, Matt B.; Royles, Jessica; Harrison, Susan T. L.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant microbial fuel cells are a recently developed technology that exploits photosynthesis in vascular plants by harnessing solar energy and generating electrical power. In this study, the model moss species Physcomitrella patens, and other environmental samples of mosses, have been used to develop a non-vascular bryophyte microbial fuel cell (bryoMFC). A novel three-dimensional anodic matrix was successfully created and characterized and was further tested in a bryoMFC to determine the capacity of mosses to generate electrical power. The importance of anodophilic microorganisms in the bryoMFC was also determined. It was found that the non-sterile bryoMFCs operated with P. patens delivered over an order of magnitude higher peak power output (2.6 ± 0.6 µW m−2) than bryoMFCs kept in near-sterile conditions (0.2 ± 0.1 µW m−2). These results confirm the importance of the microbial populations for delivering electrons to the anode in a bryoMFC. When the bryoMFCs were operated with environmental samples of moss (non-sterile) the peak power output reached 6.7 ± 0.6 mW m−2. The bryoMFCs operated with environmental samples of moss were able to power a commercial radio receiver or an environmental sensor (LCD desktop weather station). PMID:27853542

  20. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  1. Novas ocorrências de Briófitas para Pernambuco, Brasil New occurrences of Bryophytes to Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisi Dámaris Pereira Alvarenga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos da flora de briófitas em duas áreas remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica, a Reserva Ecológica (RE Gurjaú (08°10'00''S e 35°02'30''O; 50-150 m n.a.m. e a Reserva Particular de Patrimônio Natural (RPPN Frei Caneca (08º42'37''S e 35º50'01''O; 500-750 m n.a.m., resultaram no registro de 15 novas ocorrências para o Estado de Pernambuco. São elas 11 hepáticas das famílias Cephaloziaceae, Jubulaceae, Herbertaceae, Lejeuneaceae, Lepidoziaceae, Metzgeriaceae e quatro musgos das famílias Calymperaceae, Pterobryaceae, Sematophyllaceae e Thuidiaceae. Sete destas espécies são também novas referências para a região Nordeste. As espécies são ilustradas e comentadas quanto aos caracteres taxonômicos mais relevantes.Floristic surveys of Bryophytes in Atlantic Rain Forest remnants from Reserva Ecológica (RE Gurjaú (08°10'00''S e 35°02'30''O; 50-150 a.s.l. and Reserva Particular de Patrimônio Natural (RPPN Frei Caneca (08º42'37''S e 35º50'01''O; 500-750 a.s.l., registered 15 new ocurrences to Pernambuco State. They are 11 liverworts of Cephaloziaceae, Jubulaceae, Geocalycaceae, Herbertaceae, Lejeuneaceae, Lepidoziaceae, Metzgeriaceae and four mosses of Calymperaceae, Pterobryaceae, Sematophyllaceae and Thuidiaceae. Seven of these species are new references for Northeastern area of Brazil. The species are illustrated and commented about relevant taxonomic characters.

  2. Small-scale hydropower plants and rare bryophytes and lichens. Knowledge and lack of knowledge; Smaakraftverk og sjeldne moser og lav. Kunnskap og kunnskapsmangler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evju, Marianne; Hassel, Kristian; Hagen, Dagmar; Erikstad, Lars

    2011-08-15

    There is a large and increasing interest for the development of small-scale hydropower in Norway. Small-scale hydropower plants may impact the biological diversity negatively through destruction, degradation or fragmentation of habitats. Both the environmental investigations and the treatment of applications for small-scale hydropower plants put a great emphasis on red listed species, and in particular on red-listed bryophytes and lichens growing in stream ravines and in meadows and rock faces influenced by waterfalls. Bryophytes and lichens can be difficult to identify in the field, and knowledge of the species' ecology, distribution and population sizes is insufficient. A large review of environmental investigations of small-scale hydropower plants, documented that red-listed lichens were rarely recorded, and red-listed bryophytes were never recorded. In this report, we try to make visible the knowledge we have and the knowledge we lack of red listed bryophytes and lichens in areas in which the development of small-scale hydropower is relevant. Most focus is placed on bryophytes. The report is mainly a collation of existing knowledge. There is a great variation among stream ravines in the occurrence of species. Several factors, such as stability of moisture conditions, tree species composition and bedrock, interact to affect the occurrence of species. Red-listed bryophytes and lichens occur both in the forest and in affiliation with the stream. A reduction of local moisture, through e.g. logging of forest close to the stream or reduction of the water flow, will probably affect the species negatively. River regulation will change the frequency of flooding and affect the ice drift in the stream, which may negatively affect species living on dead wood in or close to the stream. Several species are vulnerable to deteriorated habitat quality and habitat fragmentation as their habitat requirements are narrow and their dispersal capacity is limited. However, we

  3. The role of epiphytic bryophytes in interception, storage, and the regulated release of atmospheric moisture in a tropical montane cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah-Peng, Claudine; Cardoso, Anabelle Williamson; Flores, Olivier; West, Adam; Wilding, Nicholas; Strasberg, Dominique; Hedderson, Terry A. J.

    2017-05-01

    Epiphytes in tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) intercept atmospheric water and, as a result, form a vital part of the hydrological cycle of this ecosystem. Our study investigates the role of bryophytes in such systems on La Réunion Island (Mascarenes). To better understand ecohydrological functioning of the forest, we investigated cloud water interception (CWI) by two locally abundant liverwort species (Bazzania decrescens and Mastigophora diclados) using a novel lysimetric approach. We also evaluated biomass and water storage capacity of our study species, as well as of the entire bryophyte community in our plots, which we extrapolated to the forest community level. Both study species exhibited excellent abilities to intercept and store cloud water, and showed distinct diurnal variation in this ability according to varying climatic conditions. The two liverwort species' response to climatic conditions differed dramatically from one another, with B. decrescens storing double the mean and maximum litres of water per hectare despite having less than half the abundance of M. diclados. Despite its lower water storage capacity, M. diclados had a greater ability to intercept atmospheric moisture than B. decrescens. The differences in CWI were attributed to differences in plant structure of these two species, which explains their microhabitat requirements in this system. Our two species in this system were estimated to store 34,569 l.ha-1 of water, the equivalent of 3.46 mm of rainfall. The abundance of our study species combined with their atmospheric water interception, storage, and regulated release ability make both species ecologically important in the forest's microhydrological cycle. For the first time these data allow us to better understand the role of these plants in the microhydrological cycle of tropical montane cloud forests and to determine whether the diversity and functioning of these and similar systems will be at risk from predicted cloud layer

  4. Improvement of boreal vegetation modelling and climate interactions through the introduction of new bryophyte and artic-shrub plant functional types in a land surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druel, Arsène; Krinner, Gerhard; Peylin, Philippe; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Peregon, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Boreal and tundra vegetation, which represents 22% of the global land area, has had a significant impact on climate through changes of albedo, snow cover, soil thermal dynamics, etc. However, it is frequently poorly represented in earth system models used for climate predictions. We improved the description of high-latitude vegetation and its interactions with the environment in the ORCHIDEE land surface model by creating new plant functional types with specific biogeochemical and biophysical properties: boreal shrubs, bryophytes (mosses and lichens) and boreal C3 grasses. The introduction of shrub specificities allows for an intermediate stratum between trees and grasses, with a new carbon allometry within the plant, inducing new interactions between wooden species and their environment, especially the complex snow-shrubs interaction. Similarly, the introduction of non-vascular plants (i.e. bryophytes) involves numerous changes both in physical and biological processes, such as the response of photosynthesis to surface humidity, the decomposition of carbon and the soil thermal conductivity. These changes in turn lead to new processes and interactions between vegetation and moisture (soil and air), carbon cycle, energy balance, etc. For the boreal C3 grasses we did not include new processes compared to the generic C3 grass PFT, but improved the realism of the carbon and water budgets with new boreal adjusted parameters. We assess the performance of the modified ORCHIDEE land surface model and in particular its ability to represent the new plant types (their phenology etc.), and evaluate the effects of these new PFTs on the simulated energy, water and carbon balances of boreal ecosystems. The potential impact of these refinements on future climate simulations will be discussed.

  5. Novas ocorrências de briófitas para vários estados do Brasil New records of bryophytes in the states of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cento e dezesseis espécies de briófitas são relatadas como novas ocorrências em vários estados do Brasil, sendo 62 de musgos, 53 de hepáticas e uma de antóceros. Estas espécies pertencem a 67 gêneros e 36 famílias. Para cada uma das espécies são apresentados dados quanto à distribuição geográfica no Brasil, localidade-tipo, basiônimo, bem como comentários sobre o substrato e as associações com outras espécies, quando pertinente. As espécies Acrolejeunea heterophylla (Evans Grolle & Gradst., Brachymenium wrightii var. mnioides (Besch. Florsch., Cheilolejeunea myriantha (Nees & Mont. Schust., Cololejeunea nigerica (E.W. Jones Schust., Lejeunea filipes Spruce, Leucodon julaceus (Hedw. Sull., Macromitrium clavatum Grout, Plagiochila asplenioides (L. Dumort., Polytrichum brachymitrium C. Muell. e Pylaisiadelpha tenuirostris (Bruch & Schimp. ex Sull. Buck estão sendo referidas pela primeira vez para o Brasil.One hundred and sixteen (116 species of bryophytes are reported as new records for certain Brazilian states, distributed in 62 mosses, 53 liverworts and one hornworts. Those species are distributed among 67 genera and 36 families. Geographical distribution in Brazil, type locality, basyonym, comments on substrate, and about association with other bryophytes, when possible. The species Acrolejeunea heterophylla (Evans Grolle & Gradst., Brachymenium wrightii var. mnioides (Besch. Florsch., Cheilolejeunea myriantha (Nees & Mont. Schust., Cololejeunea nigerica (E.W. Jones Schust., Lejeunea filipes Spruce, Leucodon julaceus (Hedw. Sull., Macromitrium clavatum Grout, Plagiochila asplenioides (L. Dumort., Polytrichum brachymitrium C. Muell. and Pylaisiadelpha tenuirostris (Bruch & Schimp. ex Sull. Buck are new records for Brazil.

  6. BRIÓFITOS REÓFILOS DE TRES QUEBRADAS DEL PÁRAMO DE MAMAPACHA, CHINAVITA (BOYACÁ-COLOMBIA Rheophilic Bryophytes of Three River of the Páramo de Mamapacha, Chinavita (Boyacá-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYER ISNARDO LAGOS-LÓPEZ

    Full Text Available En este estudio se encontraron 42 especies de briófitos reófilos (21 musgos, 20 hepáticas, 1 antocero, 18 son nuevos registros para Boyacá. Las familias con mayor riqueza de especies son Bartramiaceae (4 spp., Brachytheciaceae, Dicranaceae, Pallaviciniaceae y Jungermanniaceae (3 spp. cada una. Los briófitos están condicionados por el grado de exposición al ambiente, la disponibilidad de rocas y la competencia con otros briófitos. Finalmente se presenta un catálogo comentado con datos morfológicos, de distribución y ecológicos para las especies.In this study, 42 species of rheophylic bryophytes (21 mosses, 20 liverworts, 1 hornwort were found. Of them 18 are new reports for Boyacá province. The families with more richness of species are Bartramiaceae (4 spp., Brachytheciaceae, Dicranaceae, Pallaviciniaceae and Jungermanniaceae (3 spp. each one. The bryophytes establishment is conditioned by the exhibition grade to the atmosphere, the availability of rocks and the competition with other bryophytes. Finally, a commented catalogue with morphological, distribution and ecological data of the species is presented.

  7. Cytokinins in the Bryophyte Physcomitrella patens: Analyses of Activity, Distribution, and Cytokinin Oxidase/Dehydrogenase Overexpression Reveal the Role of Extracellular Cytokinins1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Núñez, Marta Fernández; Blaschke, Hanna; Dobrev, Petre I.; Novák, Ondrej; Motyka, Václav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to establish the cytokinin profile of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S.G.; of 40 analyzed cytokinins, 20 were detected. cis-Zeatin-riboside-O-glucoside, N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine-5′-monophosphate (iPRMP), and trans-zeatin-riboside-O-glucoside were the most abundant intracellular cytokinins. In addition, the aromatic cytokinins N6-benzyladenosine (BAR), N6-benzyladenine, meta-, and ortho-topolin were detected. Unexpectedly, the most abundant extracellular cytokinin was the nucleotide iPRMP, and its identity was confirmed by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The effects of overexpressing a heterologous cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX; EC 1.4.3.18/1.5.99.12) gene (AtCKX2 from Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]) on the intracellular and extracellular distribution of cytokinins was assessed. In cultures of CKX-transformed plants, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurements showed that there were pronounced reductions in the extracellular concentrations of N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine (iP) and N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine (iPR), but their intracellular cytokinin concentrations were only slightly affected. In vitro and in vivo measured CKX activity was shown to be strongly increased in the transformants. Major phenotypic changes observed in the CKX-overexpressing plants included reduced and retarded budding, absence of sexual reproduction, and abnormal protonema cells. In bud-induction bioassays with wild-type Physcomitrella, the nucleotides iPRMP, trans-zeatin-riboside-5′-monophosphate, BAR monophosphate, and the cis-zeatin forms cZ and cZR had no detectable effects, while the activities displayed by other selected cytokinins were in the following order: iP > tZ > N6-benzyladenine > BAR > iPR > tZR > meta-topolin > dihydrozeatin > ortho-topolin. The results on wild type and CKX transgenics suggest that extracellular iP and i

  8. Cytokinins in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens: analyses of activity, distribution, and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase overexpression reveal the role of extracellular cytokinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Núñez, Marta Fernández; Blaschke, Hanna; Dobrev, Petre I; Novák, Ondrej; Motyka, Václav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2007-11-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to establish the cytokinin profile of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S.G.; of 40 analyzed cytokinins, 20 were detected. cis-Zeatin-riboside-O-glucoside, N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenosine-5'-monophosphate (iPRMP), and trans-zeatin-riboside-O-glucoside were the most abundant intracellular cytokinins. In addition, the aromatic cytokinins N(6)-benzyladenosine (BAR), N(6)-benzyladenine, meta-, and ortho-topolin were detected. Unexpectedly, the most abundant extracellular cytokinin was the nucleotide iPRMP, and its identity was confirmed by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The effects of overexpressing a heterologous cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX; EC 1.4.3.18/1.5.99.12) gene (AtCKX2 from Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]) on the intracellular and extracellular distribution of cytokinins was assessed. In cultures of CKX-transformed plants, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurements showed that there were pronounced reductions in the extracellular concentrations of N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenine (iP) and N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenosine (iPR), but their intracellular cytokinin concentrations were only slightly affected. In vitro and in vivo measured CKX activity was shown to be strongly increased in the transformants. Major phenotypic changes observed in the CKX-overexpressing plants included reduced and retarded budding, absence of sexual reproduction, and abnormal protonema cells. In bud-induction bioassays with wild-type Physcomitrella, the nucleotides iPRMP, trans-zeatin-riboside-5'-monophosphate, BAR monophosphate, and the cis-zeatin forms cZ and cZR had no detectable effects, while the activities displayed by other selected cytokinins were in the following order: iP > tZ > N(6)-benzyladenine > BAR > iPR > tZR > meta-topolin > dihydrozeatin > ortho-topolin. The results on wild type and CKX transgenics suggest that

  9. Briófitas do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ, Brasil Bryophytes of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Amitrano de Alencar Imbassahy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho representa uma síntese do conhecimento florístico de briófitas do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, com resultados de campo, material de herbário e publicações. Foram registrados 61 táxons de briófitas, pertencentes a 15 famílias e 33 gêneros. Para cada táxon foram analisados a distribuição geográfica, o tipo de substrato e a forma de vida. A família predominante foi Lejeuneaceae (25 espécies, seguida de Jubulaceae (sete, Calymperaceae (quatro e Sphagnaceae (quatro. Entre as espécies, predominaram as de distribuição Neotropical (35%. Com relação ao substrato preferencial, a maior parte dos táxons é corticícola. A forma de vida predominante foi o tapete, seguido pelo tufo e a trama. O Parque possui brioflora bastante representativa no que diz respeito à vegetação de restinga, com 45% dos táxons de briófitas conhecidas para as restingas no Brasil e 82% das conhecidas para as restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. É apresentada uma chave para identificação das espécies.We present a synthesis of the bryophyte flora in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, based on field work, herbaria material and bibliography. Sixty one taxa were recorded, in 15 families and 33 genera. For each taxa, we analyze geographic distribution, substrata and life form. The most species-rich family was Lejeuneaceae (25 species, followed by Jubulaceae (seven, Calymperaceae (four and Sphagnaceae (four. Most taxa have a Neotropical (35% distribution, and most taxa prefer the corticicolous substrate. Mat was the most common life form. The bryoflora of this National Park is an important reservoir of bryophyte diversity in the restingas, with 45% of the taxa known from the sandy coastal plains of Brazil and 82% known from the this habitat in Rio de Janeiro state. A key to identification of the species is given.

  10. The bryophytes of Trindade Island, South Atlantic, Brazil As briófitas da Ilha da Trindade, Atlântico Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Laid Alkimim Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Trindade is a Brazilian oceanic island located about 1,200 Km east of the Brazilian coast (between 20º 31' 30" S, 29º 19' 30'' W. The island originated from the abissal zone about 3 million years ago, has a maximum altitude of 620 meters and an area of 9.28 Km². Even though the fanerogamic flora is known, there were virtually no data on the bryophyte flora. Four expeditions to the island were carried out during two years and approximately 431 specimens collected. This work presents the Bryoflora of this island, which comprises 32 species, including 20 species of liverworts distributed among six families; the most speciose being Lejeuneaceae with 11 species and Frullaniaceae with four. There are also 11 species of mosses distributed among eight families, the most diverse being Fissidentaceae, Leocobryaceae and Pottiaceae with two species each. Only one species of hornworts was found. The bryophyte flora of Trindade most likely originated from the threatened Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil and, therefore, has conservation implications. Keys and comments are provided.Trindade é uma ilha oceânica brasileira localizada a 1.200 km a oeste da costa do Brasil entre as coordenadas 20º 31' 30" S e 29º 19' 30'' W. A ilha emergiu da zona abissal cerca de 3 milhões de anos, com altitude máxima de 620 m e uma área de 9,28 km². Sua flora fanerógama é relativamente conhecida, sendo praticamente não tendo dados sobre a flora de briófitas. Foram realizadas quatro expedições entre os anos de 2010 e 2011 e cerca de 431 espécimes coletados. O resultado mostrou 32 espécies de briófitas, das quais 20 são hepáticas distribuídas em seis famílias, com 11 espécies de Lejeuneaceae e quatro de Frullaniaceae. Na divisão dos musgos foi representado com 11 espécies distribuídos em oito famílias sendo a mais diversificadas com duas espécies: Fissidentaceae, Leocobryaceae e Pottiaceae. Na divisão dos antóceros apenas uma espécie foi

  11. Bryophyte and pteridophyte spores and other palynomorphs in quaternary marine sediments from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological descriptions and ecological data of cryptogam spores and other non-pollen palynomorphs from Quaternary sediments of Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. The ages were derived from biostratigraphy of planktonic foraminifers and two radiocarbon dates, and suggest that sediment deposition started in the last 140,000 years BP. Thirty different types of palynomorphs were identified, described, and photographed: two bryophyte spores (sensu lato; 21 pteridophyte spores; four freshwater microalgae; onePseudoschizaea; and two microfungi. Some of the identified spores (Sphagnum, Blechnum, Cyatheaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Lycopodiella, Microgramma, Polypodium, Acrostichum, Pityrogramma, and Lygodium are related to the modern flora found on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, at the Restinga of Jurubatiba, from vegetation types such as shrub swamp/coastal swamp formation, seasonally flooded forest, Clusia and Ericaceae woods, and disturbed vegetation. The freshwater microalgae and the microfungi are also presently recorded from the coastal lagoons of this region. The high spore concentration in slope sediments reflects the intense terrigenous influx, caused by a relative low sealevel during glacial stages. Palynological analysis suggests the presence of taxa from flooded forests and humid areas in the coastal plain during glacial and interglacial stages of the Late Pleistocene.

  12. Briófitas de praias do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Bryophytes from sea-shores of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho compõe-se de uma lista de briófitas, um grupo de plantas ausente em ambientes marinhos, porém ocorrente em condições arenosas e salinas e sob ação das ondas e dos ventos nas praias de Ubatuba, Bertioga e Peruíbe, no Estado de São Paulo. O material coletado encontra-se depositado nos herbários SP e HRCB. As 108 exsicatas com 67 amostras de hepáticas e 59 amostras de musgos incluem 25 famílias, 49 gêneros e 77 espécies de briófitas. Os maiores números de gêneros e espécies foram observados em Lejeuneaceae e Lejeunea, respectivamente, entre as hepáticas. O mesmo pode ser dito para Orthotrichaceae e Bryum, quanto aos musgos. São citadas 29 espécies, pela primeira vez, para determinados tipos de substratos como solo, casca de arbustos e rochas. As hepáticas Ceratolejeunea laetefusca (Austin R.M. Schust., Colura ulei Ast., Lejeunea bermudiana (A. Evans R.M. Schust. e os musgos Calymperes afzelii Sw., Fissidens serratus Müll. Hal. e Weissia controversa Hedw. são citados pela primeria vez para o Estado de São Paulo. As hepáticas superaram os musgos em número de gêneros e espécies. Todas as espécies listadas são citadas pela primeira vez para praias.This paper is a list of the bryophytes found in sandy and saline conditions under action of waves and winds of sea-shores in Ubatuba, Bertioga and Peruíbe Municipalities, São Paulo State, Brazil. The group does not exist in marine environments. The material is deposited in SP and HRCB herbarium. The 108 exsiccatae with 67 samples of hepatics and 59 samples of mosses include 25 families, 49 genera and 77 species of bryophytes. Concerning to hepatics, the largest number of genera and species were found in Lejeuneaceae and Lejeunea, respectively. The same was observed on Orthotrichaceae and Bryum for mosses. Twenty-nine species are cited for the first time for these kind of substrates as soil, bark of shrubs and rocks. The hepatics Ceratolejeunea laetefusca (Austin R

  13. Functional Characterization of UDP-apiose Synthases from Bryophytes and Green Algae Provides Insight into the Appearance of Apiose-containing Glycans during Plant Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James; Yang, Yiwen; Levy, Shahar; Adelusi, Oluwatoyin Oluwayemi; Hahn, Michael G; O'Neill, Malcolm A; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2016-10-07

    Apiose is a branched monosaccharide that is present in the cell wall pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan and in numerous plant secondary metabolites. These apiose-containing glycans are synthesized using UDP-apiose as the donor. UDP-apiose (UDP-Api) together with UDP-xylose is formed from UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) by UDP-Api synthase (UAS). It was hypothesized that the ability to form Api distinguishes vascular plants from the avascular plants and green algae. UAS from several dicotyledonous plants has been characterized; however, it is not known if avascular plants or green algae produce this enzyme. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of UAS homologs from avascular plants (mosses, liverwort, and hornwort), from streptophyte green algae, and from a monocot (duckweed). The recombinant UAS homologs all form UDP-Api from UDP-glucuronic acid albeit in different amounts. Apiose was detected in aqueous methanolic extracts of these plants. Apiose was detected in duckweed cell walls but not in the walls of the avascular plants and algae. Overexpressing duckweed UAS in the moss Physcomitrella patens led to an increase in the amounts of aqueous methanol-acetonitrile-soluble apiose but did not result in discernible amounts of cell wall-associated apiose. Thus, bryophytes and algae likely lack the glycosyltransferase machinery required to synthesize apiose-containing cell wall glycans. Nevertheless, these plants may have the ability to form apiosylated secondary metabolites. Our data are the first to provide evidence that the ability to form apiose existed prior to the appearance of rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan and provide new insights into the evolution of apiose-containing glycans. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Local adaptations in bryophytes revisited: the genetic structure of the calcium-tolerant peatmoss Sphagnum warnstorfii along geographic and pH gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulášková, Eva; Hájek, Michal; Veleba, Adam; Johnson, Matthew G; Hájek, Tomáš; Shaw, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Bryophytes dominate some ecosystems despite their extraordinary sensitivity to habitat quality. Nevertheless, some species behave differently across various regions. The existence of local adaptations is questioned by a high dispersal ability, which is thought to redistribute genetic variability among populations. Although Sphagnum warnstorfii is an important ecosystem engineer in fen peatlands, the causes of its rather wide niche along the pH/calcium gradient are poorly understood. Here, we studied the genetic variability of its global populations, with a detailed focus on the wide pH/calcium gradient in Central Europe. Principal coordinates analysis of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed a significant gradient coinciding with water pH, but independent of geography; even samples from the same fens were clearly separated along this gradient. However, most of the genetic variations remained unexplained, possibly because of the introgression from phylogenetically allied species. This explanation is supported by the small heterogeneous cluster of samples that appeared when populations morphologically transitional to S. subnites, S. rubellum, or S. russowii were included into the analysis. Alternatively, this unexplained variation might be attributed to a legacy of glacial refugia with recently dissolved ecological and biogeographic consequences. Isolation by distance appeared at the smallest scale only (up to 43 km). Negative spatial correlations occurred more frequently, mainly at long distances (up to 950 km), implying a genetic similarity among samples which are very distant geographically. Our results confirm the high dispersal ability of peatmosses, but simultaneously suggested that their ability to cope with a high pH/calcium level is at least partially determined genetically, perhaps via specific physiological mechanisms or a hummock-forming ability. PMID:25628880

  15. Briófitas da Ilha de Germoplasma, reservatório de Tucuruí, Pará, Brasil Bryophytes of Ilha de Germoplasma, Tucuruí Reservoir, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Luiza Ilkiu-Borges

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Ilha de Germoplasma, localizada no Reservatório de Tucuruí, Pará, é utilizada para manter espécies resgatadas de áreas que foram inundadas pelo represamento do Rio Tocantins em 1984. Neste trabalho foi estudada a brioflora dessa ilha, tendo sido identificadas 12 espécies de musgos e 13 de hepáticas. Estes resultados refletem baixa diversidade de briófitas ocorrendo nessa ilha, em comparação com outras áreas já estudadas no Estado do Pará.The "Ilha de Germoplasma", an island located in the Tucuruí Reservoir, Pará state, Brazil, is used to keep some of the species rescued from areas which were flooded by the Tocantins River, after the construction of the dam, in 1984. In this work we studied the bryophytes of this island, where identified 12 species of mosses and 13 liverworts were found. This result reflects the low diversity of bryophytes species occurring at the island, in comparison to other areas already studied in Pará State.

  16. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley; Uso de briofitas como indicadores atmosfericos de metales pesados en la zona metropolitana del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poblano B, J.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in species of frequent and abundant bryophytes in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV). The concentration of the studied metals was determined in two different seasons (cold-dry and warm-humid) in 11 sites of the MATV, 7 of them classified as urban areas, 2 as transition areas and 2 as protected natural areas. Only epiphyte organisms found to a superior height of 100 cm of the floor were considered and the species determination was realized in the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, while the processing of the samples was carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The samples processing consisted on separating the bryophytes of the bark of the trees, later on each one of the samples was washed, milled and homogenized, at the end they were subjected to a digestion process accelerated by microwaves. The concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bryophytes was determined applying the X-rays Fluorescence technique, using a spectrometer Tx-2000 Ital-Structures, with a detector type Si (Li), a tube of Mo (40 kV, 30 m A) with 17,4 keV like excitement energy. Each sample was analyzed six times with a counting time of 500 seconds. Additionally enrichment factors were obtained using reference soils considered as not impacted by anthropogenic activities. With the obtained results space and temporary differences were established through descriptive statistic, also the enrichment factor to infer the possible origin of the metals was calculated, as well as the sites that could represent a risk for the health. The species more frequent and abundant were F. ciliaris and L. angustata, presenting the following tendency in their metals concentration Fe>Ti>Mn>Zn>Pb>V ≅ Cu>Cr, being observed that the temporality is a factor that influences in the metals concentration and that in general F. ciliaris

  17. Briófitas de mata paludosa, município de Zacarias, noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Bryophytes from flooded forest, Zacarias municipality, northwest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denilson Fernandes Peralta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Mata Paludosa foram encontradas 84 espécies de briófitas, sendo 44 de musgos pertencentes a 36 gêneros em 22 famílias e 40 de hepáticas, pertencentes a 18 gêneros e 13 famílias. Destas espécies, 15 são citadas pela primeira vez para o Estado de São Paulo.Eighty four bryophytes species are recorded to flooded forest, the mosses are distributed in 44 species, 36 genera and 22 families, and the liverworts 40 species, 18 genera and 13 families. Fifteen species are new records from São Paulo State.

  18. Contribuição para o conhecimento da taxonomia, ecologia e fitogeografia de Briófitas da Amazônia Oriental Contribution to the taxonomy, ecology and phytogeographical knowledge of Bryophytes from Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisi Dámaris Pereira Alvarenga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho documenta o inventário da brioflora da Estação Científica Ferreira Penna (ECFPn, localizada na FLONA Caxiuanã (1º42'30"S - 51º31'45"W, Melgaço - Pará, realizado por ocasião da primeira chamada do Programa de Residência em Estudos Amazônicos, iniciativa do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Musgos e Hepáticas foram amostrados nos ecossistemas de mata de terra firme, várzea, igapó, capoeiras e campina, e analisadas quanto à composição, riqueza e diversidade. Foram registradas 1081 ocorrências de briófitas de 120 espécies, sendo 79 hepáticas e 41 musgos, das quais oito hepáticas são novas referências para o Estado do Pará. As famílias de maior riqueza e assiduidade foram Lejeuneaceae (58 spp., Calymperaceae (13 spp., Sematophyllaceae (9 spp. e Plagiochilaceae (7 spp.. As comunidades que melhor se fizeram representar foram a epífita (97 espécies/ 565 ocorrências e a epíxila (65 spp./ 242 ocorr., seguidas pelas comunidades epífila (27 spp./ 174 ocorr. e terrícola (15 spp./ 96 ocorr. e o ecossistema que apresentou maior riqueza e diversidade foi mata de terra firme. Quanto à composição nos substratos inventariados, foi observada uma inversão gradativa na proporção de riqueza entre hepáticas/musgos, sendo as primeiras fortemente dominantes em folha, moderadamente dominantes em tronco vivo e morto, ao passo que musgos predominaram nos demais. Os resultados obtidos neste inventário, inclusive as novas referências para o Estado, contribuem para o entendimento dos padrões de riqueza e diversidade na Floresta Amazônica e enriquecem a flora conhecida para o Estado do Pará.This paper presents the floristic survey of Bryophytes from Ferreira Penna Scientific Station (ECFPn, located in the FLONA Caxiuanã (1º42'30"S - 51º31'45"W, Melgaço - Pará, that was undertaken in the first stage of the Residence Program in Amazonian Studies, a project of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Mosses and

  19. Brioflora epífita e epífila da RPPN Frei Caneca, Jaqueira, PE, Brasil A checklist of epiphyllous and epiphytic bryophytes from Frei Caneca RPPN, Jaqueira, Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jaciane de Almeida Campelo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um inventário da brioflora epífita e epífila da RPPN Frei Caneca (8º42'41"S e 35º50'30"W, 750 m alt., 630 ha, remanescente de Floresta Atlântica, localizado no município de Jaqueira, Pernambuco. Um total de 120 amostras de briófitas epífitas foi coletado desde a base até a primeira ramificação do tronco em forófitas arbóreas representativas na área de estudo. Para o inventário das epífilas foram coletadas 40 amostras compostas de três a cinco folhas de arbustos e árvores, desde a base até cerca de 25 m de altura. A brioflora é composta por 71 espécies, distribuídas em 46 espécies de hepáticas e 25 espécies de musgos. Das 21 famílias registradas, Lejeuneaceae (31 spp. e Calymperaceae (7 spp. apresentaram maior riqueza genérica e específica. Lejeunea (6 spp. e Syrrhopodon (4 spp. foram os gêneros mais representativos. A distribuição das espécies é predominantemente Neotropical (67% e Pantropical (15%. Neste trabalho são apresentadas oito novas ocorrências para o Estado de Pernambuco: Colura tortifolia (Nees & Mont. Steph., Cyclolejeunea convexistipa (Lehm. & Lindenb. A. Evans, Diplasiolejeunea brunnea Steph., D. pellucida (Meissn. Schiffn., Prionolejeunea denticulata (Weber Schiffn., Radula mexicana Lindenb. & Gottsche, R. recubans Tayl.; e uma delas Calymperes smithii E.B. Bartram é ocorrência nova para a região Nordeste. São apresentados comentários taxonômicos e ecológicos, informações sobre tipos de substrato e distribuição geográfica no mundo e no Brasil para as espécies de ocorrência nova.A floristic survey of epiphyllous and epiphytic bryophytes was carried out at the Frei Caneca RPPN (8°42'41"S, 35°50'30"W, 750 m alt., 630 ha, a remnant Atlantic forest site located in the state of Pernambuco. A total of 120 samples of epiphytic bryophytes were taken from the trunks (base to first ramification of host trees commonly found at the site. For the epiphyllous epiphytes, 40 samples

  20. Relative growth rate of rich fen bryophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Riis, Tenna

    Rigkær er blandt den nordlige halvkugles mest artsrige naturtyper, og en lang række sjældne og truede plantearter er knyttet til netop disse områder. I dette forsøg undersøges den relative vækstrate hos to almindelige og to sjældne rigkærsmosser i relation til forskellige niveauer af næringsstoff...

  1. Bryology and Bryophytes at the Rijksherbarium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, A.

    1979-01-01

    The main task of the first directors of the Rijksherbarium consisted of the preparation of a catalogue of its Dutch East Indian and Japanese collections (cf. van Steenis-Kruseman’s paper in this volume). Among those who contributed to this catalogue was J. H. Molkenboer, a young physician who had

  2. Bryophytes collected in Mauritius by Gunnar Erdtman

    OpenAIRE

    Een, Gillis

    2000-01-01

    This small collection contained 8 species of mosses and 3 species of hepatics. Leucobryum boryanum is new to Mauritius but previously known from Réunion. A sample from the seldom visited small island of Ile aux Aigrettes, close to Mauritius, is of particular interest.

  3. Azorean Bryophytes : a preliminary review of rarity patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Rosalina; Homem, Nídia; Couto, Adalberto Borges; Silvia C Aranda; Borges, Paulo A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of the Symposium "Darwin's Mistake and what we are doing to correct it". Ponta Delgada, 19-22 September, 2009. Os briófitos podem ser tão raros e estar tão ameaçados como os demais organismos do planeta, apesar de o seu pequeno tamanho, cores discretas e difícil identificação no campo poderem mascarar o seu verdadeiro estatuto de conservação. De facto, é reconhecido que cerca de um quarto de todos os briófitos da Europa estão efectiva ou potencialmente ameaçados. O primeiro “Li...

  4. Species density of phanerogams and bryophytes in Dutch forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, G.M.; Martakis, G.F.P.

    1998-01-01

    In Dutch forests the species density of vascular plants ranges from I to 61 species per 300 m2. The vascular plant species density is high in the coastal dunes, southern Limburg, river valleys, and fen areas. With the exception of southern Limburg, these areas constitute the Holocene part of the

  5. bryophyte extracts with activity against plant pathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    In general, extracts from B. trilobata and D. albicans showed better efficient disease protection than that of S. quinquefarium, D. denudatum, and H. splendens. The direct mode-of-action of treatments on the surface of leaves gave inefficient disease protection, evidenced on treated plants at 4 hours before the inoculation.

  6. Evolutionary analysis of five bryophyte families using virtual fossils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zander, Richard H.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional taxa paraphyletic or polyphyletic on a molecular phylogenetic tree may be interpreted as populations of surviving ancestors that are evolutionarily static in expressed traits though labile in DNA traits used to track genetic continuity. In those cases in which re-evolution (convergence of such taxa is deemed improbable, such heterophyly may be used to infer evolutionary series of virtual fossils reflecting macroevolution. Descent with modification of taxa is here demonstrated by reinterpreting published cladograms of molecular studies of Dicranaceae, Pottiaceae, Grimmiaceae, Hypopterygiaceae, and Mniaceae as taxon trees. Given this argument, superimposed inferred ancestors are support for the theory of punctuated equilibrium.

    Los táxones parafiléticos o polifiléticos tradicionales en un árbol molecular filogenético pueden interpretarse como poblaciones de ancestros supervivientes que están evolutivamente estáticos en los caracteres expresados a través de lábiles en los caracteres ADN que se emplean para seguir la continuidad genética. En esos casos en los cuales la re-evolución (convergencia de tales táxones se considere improbable, la heterofilia puede usarse para inferir series evolutivas de fósiles virtuales que reflejan la macroevolución. El descenso con modificación de táxones se demuestra con la interpretación publicada de los cladogramas de estudios moleculares de Dicranaceae, Pottiaceae, Grimmiaceae, Hypopterygiaceae y Mniaceae como árboles taxonómicos. En vista de este argumento, resulta que los ancestros inferidos superimpuestos apoyan la teoría del equilibrio puntuado.

  7. Does Macaronesia exist? Conflicting signal in the bryophyte and pteridophyte floras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpoorten, A; Rumsey, F J; Carine, M A

    2007-04-01

    Macaronesia, which includes five mid-Atlantic archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, Selvagems, Canaries, and Cape Verdes), has been traditionally recognized as a distinct biogeographic unit whose circumscription has been intimately associated with the hypothesis that the flora is a relict of a formerly broadly distributed subtropical Tertiary flora. The concept of Macaronesia is revisited here using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of floristic data sets for the moss, liverwort, and pteridophyte floras. All analyses reject the monophyly of Macaronesia s.l., resolving the Cape Verdes with tropical Africa. Of the other Macaronesian archipelagos, the liverwort and pteridophyte analyses support, or could not reject, an Azorean-Madeiran-Canarian clade (hereafter Macaronesia s.s.), but the moss analysis resolves the Canary Islands as sister to North Africa, thus rejecting the concept of Macaronesia s.s. for this group. Dynamic interchange of taxa with neighboring continental areas rather than relictualism best explains the relationships of the Cape Verde cryptogamic flora and the Canary Island moss flora. In contrast, relictualism is consistent with a monophyletic Macaronesia s.s. for liverworts and pteridophytes. However, from the limited information available on relationships of endemic cryptogams, this explanation alone may be unsatisfactory. Spatially congruent patterns may, in fact, conceal a complex mixture of relictual distributions and more recent speciation and dispersal events.

  8. Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov., isolated from bryophytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tani, Akio; Sahin, Nurettin

    2013-01-01

    ...(T) were found to be related to Methylobacterium organophilum ATCC 27886(T) (97.1% and 97.7%, respectively). Strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene similarity to Methylobacterium gnaphalii 23e...

  9. Moss (Bryophyte) Mediated Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles from Campylopus flexuosus (Hedw.) Bird

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Vimala; S Sahaya Sathish; T Thamizharasi; R Palani; P Vijayakanth; R Kavitha

    2017-01-01

    ... UV-Visible spectroscopy, FTIR, FESEM, EDAX, Zeta potential, Particle size and XRD. Colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles subjected to UV-Vis spectral analysis where observed the maximum absorbance at 436nm (Figure 2). FTIR...

  10. Bryophyte Flora of Hunan Province, China. 16. Complex Thalloids (Marchantiopsida, Hepaticae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piippo Sinikka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of 13 species belonging to eight complex thalloid genera and six families are reported for Hunan. Conocephalum japonicum (Thunb. Grolle, C. salebrosum Szweykowski et al. and Dumortiera hirsuta (Sw. Nees are moderately common in Hunan, Conocephalum conicum (L. Dumort., Marchantia palaecea Bertol. and M. emarginata Reinw. et al. subsp. tosana (Steph. Bischler are rather rare, M. polymorpha L., Plagiochasma pterospermum Mass., Reboulia hemisphaerica (L. Raddi, and Wiesnerella denutata (Mitt. Steph. are rare and Asterella khasyana (Griff. Pandé et al., Plagiochasma appendiculatum Lehm. & Lindenb. and Riccia fluitans L. are very rare. Of them the following are new to Hunan: Genus Plagiochasma with two species, P. appendiculatum, P. pterospermum, Riccia fluitans, Marchantia paleacea and Conocephalum salebrosum. The altitudinal ranges of taxa in Hunan are mapped. The distribution, ecology and the classification of taxa into distributional elements, as well as the characters are discussed. Some thalloid hepatic genera, i.e. Conocephalum and Dumortiera include cryptic taxa that pose unsolved taxonomic problems that await further future research.

  11. From Trace Evidence to Bioinformatics: Putting Bryophytes into Molecular Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, Linda; Bougary, Azhar; Malott, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Students benefit most from their science education when they participate fully in the process of science in the context of real-world problems. We describe a student-directed open-inquiry lab experience that has no predetermined outcomes and requires students to engage in all components of scientific inquiry from posing a question through…

  12. Human-sensitive bryophytes retreat into the depth of forest fragments in central European landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Hošek, J.; Brabec, Marek; Tenčík, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 3 (2016), s. 539-549 ISSN 1612-4669 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : colonization * forest continuity * fragmentation * forest management * fragment size Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2016

  13. The current distribution in Poland of some European neophytic bryophytes with supposed invasive tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Fudali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a brief review of published so far and recently recorded unpublished bryological data concerning the distribution in Poland of two neophytic (sensu Meusel 1943 mosses: Campylopus introflexus (Hedw. Brid. and Orthodontium lineare Schwaegr.to estimate their current influence on native bryoflora. The data clearly indicate the constant spreading of these species towards the east, however, there is no direct evidence that they have been limiting the occurrence of native moss species. They are acidophilous species, so the acidification of the environment probably promotes their expansion. Maps of the most current distribution of Campylopus introflexus and Orthodontium lineare in Poland (in a system of ATMOS-grid squares are provided, as well as a description of the first locality in Poland of another European bryo-neophyte species Leptophascum leptophyllum Mull. Hal.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of K+ transporters in bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants indicates a specialization of vascular plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Lucia Gomez-Porras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As heritage from early evolution, potassium (K+ is absolutely necessary for all living cells. It plays significant roles as stabilizer in metabolism and is important for enzyme activation, stabilization of protein synthesis and neutralization of negative charges on cellular molecules as proteins and nucleic acids. Land plants even enlarged this spectrum of K+ utilization after having gone ashore, despite the fact that K+ is far less available in their new oligotrophic habitats than in sea water. Inevitably, plant cells had to improve and to develop unique transport systems for K+ accumulation and distribution. In the past two decades a manifold of K+ transporters from flowering plants has been identified at the molecular level. The recently published genome of the fern ally Selaginella moellendorffii now helps in providing a better understanding on the molecular changes involved in the colonization of land and the development of the vasculature and the seeds. In this article we present an inventory of K+ transporters of this lycophyte and pigeonhole them together with their relatives from the moss Physcomitrella patens, the monocotyledon Oryza sativa, and two dicotyledonous species, the herbaceous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the tree Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, the transition of green plants from an aqueous to a dry environment coincides with a dramatic reduction in the diversity of voltage-gated potassium channels followed by a diversification on the basis of one surviving K+ channel class. The first appearance of K+ release (Kout channels in S. moellendorffii that were shown in Arabidopsis to be involved in xylem loading and guard cell closure coincides with the specialization of vascular plants and may indicate an important adaptive step.

  15. The Use of Bryophytes as Indicators of Hydric Soils and Wetland Hydrology during Wetland Delineations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    nomenclature is according to Anderson et al. (1990) for true mosses and the Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007) for Sphagnum. ERDC/CRREL TR...comes from the Greek word for unknown plant ( Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2007). These mosses are well known for their morphological... Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2007). Most mosses are small, desiccation tolerant, and poikilohydric (i.e., their moisture content

  16. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  17. Response mechanisms of antioxidants in bryophyte (Hypnum plumaeforme) under the stress of single or combined Pb and/or Ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-Qin; He, Ming; Cao, Tong; Zhang, You-Chi; Han, Wei

    2009-02-01

    The short-term responses and mechanisms of antioxidants in moss Hypnum plumaeforme subjected to single or combined Pb and/or Ni stress has been revealed in this study, in order to clarify (1) the relationship between the stress intensity and antioxidant fluctuation, (2) the difference between single and combined stress, and (3) the possibility of biomonitoring by the application of antioxidant fluctuation under stress. The results showed that the stress induced dose dependent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent lipid peroxidation. Total chlorophyll (Chl) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were initiated under lower stress but were inhibited under higher stress. Both single and combined stress decreased catalase (CAT) activity but increased peroxidase (POD) activity, indicating POD in the moss played an important role in resisting the oxidative stress induced by Pb and Ni. The accumulation of (.)O2(-) and H2O2 in H. plumaeforme was respectively related to the low activity of SOD and the decreased activity of CAT. The study indicated that Pb and Ni had synergistic effect in inducing the oxidative stress in moss H. plumaeforme, especially under the combination of high concentration of Ni (0.1, 1.0 mM) and Pb. POD and CAT activity, as well as H2O2 and MDA content, which increased or decreased regularly with a dose dependent under Pb and Ni stress, could be used as an effective indicator in moss biomonitoring, especially in the case of light pollution caused by heavy metals without the changes in the appearance of mosses.

  18. Monitoring air quality in class I wilderness areas of the northeastern United States using lichens and bryophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison C. Dibble; James W. Hinds; Ralph Perron; Natalie Cleavitt; Richard L. Poirot; Linda H. Pardo

    2016-01-01

    To address a need for air quality and lichen monitoring information for the Northeast, we compared bulk chemistry data from 2011-2013 to baseline surveys from 1988 and 1993 in three Class I Wilderness areas of New Hampshire and Vermont. Plots were within the White Mountain National Forest (Presidential Range—Dry River Wilderness and Great Gulf Wilderness, New Hampshire...

  19. Novos registros de briófitas para Pernambuco, Brasil New records of bryophytes for the Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Rangel Germano

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os novos registros são provenientes de um remanescente de Floresta Atlântica, a Reserva Ecológica do Gurjaú (08º10'00'' e 08º15'00''S; 35º02'30'' e 35º05'00''O, situada na região metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco. São oito espécies de Lejeuneaceae: Archilejeunea auberiana (Mont. A. Evans, Cololejeunea cardiocarpa (Mont. A. Evans, Colura greig-smithii Jovet-Ast, Diplasiolejeunea cobrensis Gottsche ex Steph., Harpalejeunea stricta (Lindenb. & Gottsche Steph., Lejeunea caespitosa Lindenb., L. monimiae (Steph. Steph., L. quinqueumbonata Spruce,e uma de Bryaceae: Bryum pabstianum C. Muell. São apresentadas ilustrações, comentários taxonômicos e ecológicos, e distribuição geográfica das espécies no Brasil.The new records were found in an Atlantic Forest remnant (tropical lowland rainforest, Reserva Ecológica do Gurjaú (08º10'00'' and 08º15'00''S; 35º02'30'' and 35º05'00''W, situated in the metropolitan area of Recife, Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. The new occurrence corresponds to eight species of Lejeuneaceae: Archilejeunea auberiana (Mont. A. Evans, Cololejeunea cardiocarpa (Mont. A. Evans, Coluragreig-smithii Jovet-Ast, Diplasiolejeunea cobrensis Gottsche ex Steph., Harpalejeunea stricta (Lindenb. & Gottsche Steph., Lejeunea caespitosa Lindenb., L. monimiae (Steph. Steph., L. quinqueumbonata Spruce, and a Bryaceae: Bryum pabstianum C. Muell. Illustrations, floristic and ecological comments, and geographical distribution in Brazil are given for each species.

  20. Briófitas da Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brasil The bryophytes from the Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Serra de Itabaiana, foram encontradas 15 espécies de musgos pertencentes a 14 gêneros de 11 famílias e 14 de hepáticas de oito gêneros de quatro famílias. Rectolejeunea pililoba (Spruce Schust. está sendo referida pela primeira vez para o Brasil. Destas espécies, 26 estão sendo referidas pela primeira vez para o estado.Fifteen species of mosses and fourteen species of liverworts are reported from Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil. The mosses are distributed among 14 genera and 11 families, and the liverworts for eight genera and four families. Rectolejeunea pililoba (Spruce Schust. is cited for the first time from Brazil. Altogether, 26 species are cited for the first time for the State.

  1. Transfer of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides to ants, bryophytes and lichen in a semi-natural ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragović, Snezana; Howard, Brenda J; Caborn, Jane A; Barnett, Catherine L; Mihailović, Nevena

    2010-07-01

    Few data are available to quantify the transfer of both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides to detritivorous invertebrates to facilitate estimation of the internal dose to such biota in models used to assess radiation exposure. To enhance the available data, activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (90)Sr, (239 + 240)Pu, (241)Am, (235)U and (238)U were measured in ants (Formicidae) and corresponding undisturbed soil collected from the Zlatibor mountain in Serbia and ant/soil concentration ratios (CR) calculated. The (241)Am concentration ratios for ants were fourfold higher than those calculated for ants in a previous study whereas they are similar to the more numerous data previously reported for a range of detritivorous invertebrates in other studies. CR values for (137)Cs in ants were similar to the few other reported values and slightly lower than those for a range of detritivorous invertebrates. Those for (239 + 240)Pu were slightly higher than those for ants in two other studies but they were close to upper limit of a range of data reported for detritivorous invertebrates. All the CR values will be included in a future revision of the ERICA Tool database and will particularly improve the information available for uranium.

  2. A Guide to Alaskan Black Spruce Wetland Bryophytes: Species Specific to Delineation for Interior and South Central Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    leaf. • Stems long and often sparsely branched. • Plants green to dark green, sometimes blackened , never tinged red. Rarely found fruiting. Occurs...capitulum typically hemispherical; in exposed sites red, mottled red and green in shaded sites; without metallic lustre when dry. Stems green to

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of K+ transporters in bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants indicates a specialization of vascular plants

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Lucia Gomez-Porras; Diego Mauricio eRiaño Pachón; Begoña eBenito; Rosario eHaro; Kamil eSklodowski; Alonso eRodríguez-Navarro; Ingo eDreyer

    2012-01-01

    As heritage from early evolution, potassium (K+) is absolutely necessary for all living cells. It plays significant roles as stabilizer in metabolism and is important for enzyme activation, stabilization of protein synthesis and neutralization of negative charges on cellular molecules as proteins and nucleic acids. Land plants even enlarged this spectrum of K+ utilization after having gone ashore, despite the fact that K+ is far less available in their new oligotrophic habitats than in sea wa...

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of K+ transporters in bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants indicates a specialization of vascular plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Porras, Judith Lucia; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Benito, Begoña; Haro, Rosario; Sklodowski, Kamil; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso; Dreyer, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    As heritage from early evolution, potassium (K+) is absolutely necessary for all living cells. It plays significant roles as stabilizer in metabolism and is important for enzyme activation, stabilization of protein synthesis, and neutralization of negative charges on cellular molecules as proteins and nucleic acids. Land plants even enlarged this spectrum of K+ utilization after having gone ashore, despite the fact that K+ is far less available in their new oligotrophic habitats than in sea w...

  5. Biomass-diversity relations of epiphytic bryophytes on small Quercus copeyensis stems in a Costa Rican montane cloud forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J.F. Van Dunné

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se muestreó briófitas epífitas sobre tallos pequeños de Quercus copeyensis Müll. en un bosque montano nuboso maduro (Talamanca, Costa Rica. Se muetreó a 0.8-1.8 m en cinco tallos (d.a.p. 1.8 -2.8 cm, hallándose 22 especies de musgos y 22 de hepáticas. La biomasa de briófitas ("briomasa" se correlacionó con la frecuencia, contribuyendo los musgos 54-99% . Un 14% de las especies contribuyó casi el 90% de la briomasa, sobresaliendo Pilotrichella flexilis (Hedw. Ångstr., Rigodium sp. 1, Porotrichodendron superbum (Taylor Broth., Prionodon densus (Hedw. Müll. Hal., Neckera chilensis Schimp. ex Mont. y Plagiochila guilleminiana Nees & Mont. Estas especies podrían jugar un papel importante en la regulación del flujo de agua.

  6. Rhynchostegium megapolitanum (Web. et Mohr) B.S.G.-A rare bryophyte in dune ecosystems of Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Rhynchostegium megapolitanum was observed during a study of the effects of the invasive non-native Rosa rugosa in a sand dune. The vascular as well as the epiphytic and epigeic cryptogam vegetation was recorded., and soil properties were measured. Epihytic lichens were abundant on dead or dying...

  7. Atradidymella muscivora gen. et sp. nov. (Pleosporales) and its anamorph Phoma muscivora sp. nov.: A new pleomorphic pathogen of boreal bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Marie L; Currah, Randolph S

    2009-07-01

    During a survey of bryophilous fungi from boreal and montane habitats, 12 isolates of a hitherto unknown plant pathogenic member of the Pleosporales were recovered from Aulacomnium palustre, Hylocomium splendens, and Polytrichum juniperinum, and described as Atradidymella muscivora gen. et sp. nov. Atradidymella is characterized by minute, unilocular, setose pseudothecia having 2-3 wall layers; brown, fusiform, 1-septate ascospores; and a Phoma anamorph. The genus is distinguished from all other pleosporalean genera with brown, fusiform ascospores on the basis of ascospore and pseudothecium morphology and a highly reduced stroma that is localized within a single host cell. Atradidymella muscivora is distinguished by its minute pseudothecia (Phoma muscivora sp. nov., is morphologically distinguishable from P. herbarum in having smaller conidia. Parsimony analysis of the ITS rDNA region indicates A. muscivora has affinities to the Phoma-Ascochyta-Didymella clade that is sister to the Phaeosphaeriaceae within the Pleosporales.

  8. Solid Phase Extraction of Bryophyte Lipids / Briofītu lipīdu cietfāzes ekstrakcijas frakcionēšana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klavina Laura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pētījuma ietvaros izstrādāta vienkārša, ātra un viegli atkārtojama analītiska metode briofītu lipīdu frakcionēšanai. Lipīdu frakcijas frakcionēšanai izmantoja cietfāzes ekstrakciju ar silikagēlu un ar NH2 grupām modificētu silikagēlu, iegūtās vielu grupas kvantificēja kā to trimetilsilil atvasinājumus, izmantojot gāzes hromatogrāfiju-masas spektrometriju. Frakcionēšanu veica, izmantojot eluentu polaritātes gradienta principu (eluenti: heksāns, heksāns/hloroforms 5:1, hloroforms, kā pēdējo eluentu ar NH2 grupām modificēta silikagēla gadījumā izmantojot skābes (etiķskābes šķīdumu. Izpētes objekti bija divi Latvijā plaši izplatīti sūnaugi (Polytrichum commune, Dicranum polysetum, kuru sastāvā identificēja vairāk nekā 45 dažādus savienojumus, daudzi no kuriem ir ar augstu bioloģisko aktivitāti. Sūnaugu sastāvā identificēja sterolus, tokoferolus, taukskābes un citi savienojumus. Izmantotā frakcionēšanas shēma pavēra iespējas identificēt daudzus savienojumus, kuri kopējā ekstrakta hromatogrammā nebija uzrādīti, piemēram, alkānu rindas savienojumi, vairāki steroli. Līdz ar to sūnaugu lipīdu cietfāzes frakcionēšanas metode ļāva noteikt vielu klātbūtni, kuras atrodas mikrodaudzumos, bet kuras varēja ļaut izsekot brīofītu pārvērtībām bioģeoķīmiskos procesos. Ieteiktā frakcionēšanas metode ļāva arī identificēt vairākas vielu grupas, kuras varētu būt perspektīvas kā jaunas bioloģiski aktīvas vielas, kā arī palīdzēja labāk izprast briofītu metabolismu, piemēram starpsugu atšķirības un sastāva sezonālās mainības raksturu.

  9. Best Practices for Measuring Photosynthesis at Multiple Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rice, S.K.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Hanson, D.T.; Rice, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of bryophyte photosynthetic performance have generally adapted techniques developed for use in vascular plants and relied on underlying vascular plant functional models as guides. Within this context, bryophytes present intellectual and methodological challenges, but also opportunities

  10. Adições à flora de briófitas de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Additions to the flora of bryophytes from Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nesse levantamento foram encontrados 133 táxons no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, sendo um pertencente à divisão Anthocerotophyta em um gênero e uma família, 83 pertencentes à divisão Bryophyta, distribuídos em 54 gêneros e 27 famílias, e 49 à divisão Hepatophyta, distribuídos em 27 gêneros e 13 famílias. Destes, 100 (1 antócero, 59 musgos e 40 hepáticas são novas citações para o Estado.In this taxonomic survey 133 taxa were found in Mato Grosso do Sul State, one belonging to Anthocerotophyta, distributed into one genus and one family, 83 belonging to Bryophyta, distributed into 54 genera and 27 families, and 49 belonging to Hepatophyta, distributed into 27 genera and 13 families. Of these, 100 (one hornworts, 59 mosses and 40 hepatics are new records for the State.

  11. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanka G. Hristeva; Gana M. Gecheva; Karin Pall

    2015-01-01

    Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type), mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The...

  12. Genetic transformation of moss plant | Jing | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bryophytes are among the simplest and oldest of the terrestrial plants. Due to the special living environment and characteristics, bryophytes have become attractive experimental tools for the elucidation of complex biological processes in plants. Mosses grow rapidly when cultured on simple salt media, thereby making them ...

  13. Patterns of metal soil contamination and changes in terrestrial cryptogamic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuny, Damien; Denayer, Franck-Olivier; Foucault, Bruno de; Schumacker, Rene; Colein, Philippe; Haluwyn, Chantal van

    2004-05-01

    Correlations between terricolous bryophyte- and lichen- vegetation and edaphic parameters (pH, organic matter, nitrogen, Carbon/nitrogen ratio, Cation Exchange Capacity, and Cd, Pb and Zn soil contents) of soils submitted to a gradient of metal contamination in northern France were performed using statistical analysis. Six classes can be distinguished according to the low-, intermediate- and high-trace metal levels respectively, leading to the conclusion that bryophyte- and lichen-groupings have a strong bioindicative value of the heavy metal pollution of soils. - Bryophyte- and lichen-assemblages provide a bioindicative value of heavy metal polluted soils.

  14. Is Gulf of Mannar heading for marine bioinvasion?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    . (x) Three - dimensional natural and original pictures should be used as a software tool for study o f bryophytes i n- stead of live or preserved material. These plants are fast vanishing from their habitats without being scientifically cat a...

  15. Genetic transformation of moss plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akpobome uruemuesiri

    Bryophytes are among the simplest and oldest of the terrestrial plants. Due to the special living ... processes in plants. Mosses grow rapidly when cultured on simple ..... indole-3-acetic acid in gametophytes of the moss, Physcomitrella patens.

  16. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1976-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae – b) Fungi & Lichens — c) Bryophytes — d) Pteridophytes — e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  17. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: (a) Algae — (b) Fungi & Lichens — (c) Bryophytes — (d) Pteridophytes — (e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  18. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: (a) Algae — (b) Fungi & Lichens — (c) Bryophytes — (d) Pteridophytes — (e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  19. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, T.U.

    1966-01-01

    For the first time the growing amount of entries has been split into five categories: a) Algae, b) Fungi & Lichenes, c) Bryophytes, d) Pteridophytes, e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. Books have been marked by an asterisk.

  20. The reproductive biology of Polytrichum formosum : clonal structure and paternity revealed by microsatellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, M; During, HJ; Van de Zande, L; Bijlsma, R

    2001-01-01

    Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we assessed clonal structure and paternity in a population of the bryophyte species Polytrichum formosum. Identical multilocus genotypes of individual shoots were almost never observed in spatially separated cushions, but were found to be highly

  1. Dinámica de elementos en epífitos de un bosque altoandino de la cordillera oriental de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Rueda, Luis Martín; Rodríguez, Nelly; Martín, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The reserves and transfer of bioelements were studied during two years in the epiphytic bryophytes and the bromeliad Tillandsia compacta in a high Andean forest in Guisquiza, La Calera, Cundinamarca in the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Epiphyte biomass in this forest is 3766 kg/ha, ofwhich bryophytes contribute 55% and T.compacta, 9.3%. In relation to their biomass, these epihyttes store high quantities of water and nutrients and intercept materials washed from foliage, making them important to ...

  2. Dinámica de elementos en epífitos de un bosque altoandino de la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Rueda Luis Martín; Rodríguez Nelly; Martín Carlos

    1997-01-01

    The reserves and transfer of bioelements were studied during two years in the epiphytic bryophytes and the bromeliad Tillandsia compacta in a high Andean forest in Guisquiza, La Calera, Cundinamarca in the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Epiphyte biomass in this forest is 3766 kg/ha, ofwhich bryophytes contribute 55% and T.compacta, 9.3%. In relation to their biomass, these epihyttes store high quantities of water and nutrients and intercept materials washed from foliage, making them important to ...

  3. Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg

    2017-05-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.

  4. Historical review of bryological research in Fruška Gora Mt. (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Miloš M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruška Gora is a mountain located in the southern part of Pannonian plane and it is poorly bryologicaly investigated as well as most parts of Serbia. First data on bryophytes, for this region, were published in 1949 by Teodor Soška in his paper Pregled mahovina i lišajeva u okolini Beograda (Review of mosses and lichens in the vicinity of Belgrade. Soška listed 34 species of mosses and 8 liverworts species for this region. Later, in 1955, Zlatko Pavletić in his capital work Prodromus flore briofita Jugoslavije (Prodromus of Yugoslavian bryophyte flora, stated 26 moss species and 3 liverwort species, without indicating specific localities, but all of them were Soška’s original results. In 1966, the second botanist with original findings of bryophytes on Fruška Gora was Popović, who recorded 2 liverwort and 19 moss species, for this mountain, also without specific localities. By far, the most comprehensive data were given by Cvetić and Sabovljević in 2004. Their study A contribution to the bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora (Vojvodina, Serbia counted total number of 118 mosses and 14 liverworts, on 16 localities within National park Fruška Gora. The latest study on bryophytes of Fruška Gora was in 2013, and it is the first and so far, the last study of bryophyte assemblages on grasslands. Authors of this paper recorded 18 species of mosses from 29 releveé. Complete bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora is still unknown. Considering the fact that this is the region with high biodiversity, dense hydrological network and a rather complex geology, Fruška Gora certainly deserves further bryological researches.

  5. Analysis by neutron activation in moss samples for the determination of Cr, Se, As and Hg; Analisis por activacion neutronica en muestras de musgos para la determinacion de Cr, Se, As y Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia C, R.; Garcia R, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Departamento de Posgrado, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Fraccionamiento La Virgen, 52149 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez R, C.; Avila P, P.; Longoria G, L. C., E-mail: rosario.mejia@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento del Reactor, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    This research work, presents a study of environmental monitoring in the Metropolitan Area of Toluca Valley using as bio-monitors to the mosses (bryophytes) native of different sites, analyzing the concentrations of As, Cr, Hg and Se, present in its structure. The analysis technique used to identify and to quantify to these elements was the Analysis by Neutron Activation, a nuclear analytic technique that allowed determining the concentrations at track level for its great versatility. Likewise the morphological study of the bryophyte Leskea angustata is presented by scanning electron microscopy. (Author)

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Francis

    Tethyan group of Syntrichia (Pottiaceae, Bryophyta): The S. caninervis complex. Systematic Botany 27 (4): 643-653. Kürschner HF (2000) Bryophyte flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra. Bryoph. Bibl. 55: 1-131. Magill RE (1976) Mosses of Big Bend National Park, Texas. The Bryologist 79: 269-295. Magill RE (1981) ...

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON MOSSES FOR AIR POLLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-08-16

    Aug 16, 2012 ... The division bryophyta also consists of liverworts and hornworts. Bryophyta have been long considered to be insignificant in the economy of man except for those used in packing, plugging and decoration. Recent progress in environmental pollution studies has changed our understanding of bryophytes as ...

  8. Makinde and Akande

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The slow growth rate, manageable size and ability to complete life cycle in a short period of time are salient factors responsible for the proliferation of bryophytes .... biogeochemical prospecting Shacklette (1965) and in studying regional deposition of heavy metals (Ruhlings and Tyler, 1968, 1969, 1971 and. 312. Makinde ...

  9. Moss-inhabiting diatom communities from Heard Island, sub-Antarctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeVijver, B.; Beyens, L.; Vincke, S.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we list 192 diatom taxa, collected from bryophyte samples from Heard Island (52degrees05'S, 73degrees30'E). The Heard Island diatom flora shows a marked similarity to those of the Crozet and Kerguelen archipelagos, and is quite dissimilar to the moss-dwelling diatom flora of Macquarie

  10. The Moss Flora (Musci) of the Sündiken Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    SAVAROĞLU, Filiz; TOKUR, Süleyman

    2006-01-01

    In this study carried out in the Sündiken Mountains, 83 taxa were identified by the authors. These belong to 21 families and 42 genera of bryophytes. Of these, 64 taxa are new for the B7 grid-square adopted by Henderson.

  11. Effect of Generator (Exhaust) Fumes on the Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    The fundamental problem facing the electric power sector in Nigeria is inadequate power generation. This is to an ... Vehicle emissions release nitrogen into the atmosphere. In near busy roads, some of the emissions ... airborne pollutants emitted from motor vehicles. They found that bryophytes near highly used roads were.

  12. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  13. 45 CFR 670.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fossils. Native plant means any terrestrial or freshwater vegetation, including bryophytes, lichens, fungi... ANIMALS AND PLANTS Introduction § 670.3 Definitions. In this part: Act means the Antarctic Conservation... native terrestrial plants by landing aircraft, driving vehicles, or walking on them, or by other means...

  14. 45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... designated native plants, including: Bryophytes Freshwater algae Fungi Lichens Marine algae Vascular Plants ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native plants. 670.21 Section 670... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.21...

  15. Genetics of dioecy and causal sex chromosomes in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dioecy (separate male and female individuals) ensures outcrossing and is more prevalent in animals than in plants. Although it is common in bryophytes and gymnosperms, only 5% of angiosperms are dioecious. In dioecious higher plants, flowers borne on male and female individuals are, respectively deficient in ...

  16. Disjunct Hepaticae in tropical America and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.; Pócs, T.; Váňa, J.

    1983-01-01

    An increasingly large number of macrodisjunct species is emerging from recent literature dealing with taxonomy and floristics of tropical bryophytes. This paper reviews present knowledge concerning Afro-American disjunctions in Hepaticae and seeks to interprete the data in the light of current

  17. Prospects for Sphagnum bogs subject to high nitrogen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.

    2003-01-01

    S phagnum bogs harbour a wealth of rare vascular plant and bryophyte species, preserve an amazing pollen record and are long-term sinks for atmospheric carbon. Unfortunately, the relatively low production and decomposition rates, that make these bogs such important environments, also make

  18. Effects of experimental increase of temperature and drought on heathland vegetation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sass-Gyarmati, A.; Papp, B.; Tietema, A.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of simulated environmental changes on heathland vegeta-tion were investigated in Oldebroek, the Netherlands. As response to strong dis-turbance, decrease of the presence/coverage of lichen species was observed; bryophytes have shown various reactions. In the drought plots the normally

  19. Calliergon megalophyllum rediscovered in the Netherlands after 50 years: comparison to Swedish habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.; Hedenäs, L.; Mettrop, I.; Cusell, C.

    2015-01-01

    The moss Calliergon megalophyllum is rediscovered in the Netherlands after approximately 50 years of absence, in a location different from before: National Park Weerribben-Wieden. This is a Natura 2000 wetland area, and a Dutch hotspot for rich-fen bryophytes. The species was growing in a fen pool.

  20. Rode Lijst van in Nederland verdwenen en bedreigde mossen en korstmossen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebel, H.N.; Aptroot, A.; Dirkse, G.M.; Dobben, van H.F.; Melick, van H.M.H.; Touw, A.

    1992-01-01

    Red Data List of extinct, endangered and vulnerable mosses and lichens in the Netherlands. Lists are presented of threatened bryophytes and lichens in the Netherlands. The threatened species are classified into 5 Red Data categories (0 Extinct, 1 Endangered, 2 Most vulnerable, 3 Vulnerable, 4

  1. The effect of lead and zinc concentrations on the growth of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have been made on the morphological and physiological changes that occurred in four bryophyte taxa, namely, Riccia crystalina, Timmiella barbuloides, Hyophila involuta and Physcomitrium repandum in response to the various concentrations of two heavy metals, i.e. zinc and lead. Effect of different concentrations ...

  2. New records of mosses for Zhejiang province,China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Liyuan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have found and reported 31 newly recorded species of mosses of Zhejiang province via investigation and specimen identification for bryophytes in the QingliangFeng.Two of them are new genera of Zhejiang province:Trichodon Schimp.and Zygodon Hook.& Taylor.The maintaxonomic characters,habitats and geographical distributions of these species are presented in this paper.

  3. In vivo assembly of DNA-fragments in the moss, Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Brian Christopher; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Ikram, Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul

    2016-01-01

    enabled the complete replacement of eukaryotic chromosomes with heterologous DNA. The moss Physcomitrella patens, a non-vascular and spore producing land plant (Bryophyte), has a well-established capacity for homologous recombination. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo assembly of multiple DNA fragments...

  4. Fotosyntéza, produkce a růst rostlin při časově proměnné ozářenosti

    OpenAIRE

    KUBÁSEK, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    In this Ph.D. thesis I am dealing with the effect of dynamic irradiance on (i) photosynthesis, growth and bundle sheath leakiness (for CO2) of C4 plants and (ii) bryophyte photosynthesis. Part of this thesis is literature review on broader aspects of the dynamic light effects on photosynthetic and growth processes in plants.

  5. Oyesiku (1).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    remove the adhered soil particles and decayed plants, spread on paper towel and dried under laboratory conditions ..... Maritime Antarctic. British Antarctic Survey. Bulletin25:1-21. Glime, J.M. 2007. Physiological adaptations: Drought tolerance and avoidance. In: Glime J.M, (ed.) Bryophyte Ecology. Sponsored by Michigan ...

  6. Biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant) of fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bryophytes like other lower plants (non-vascular plants) are not traditionally employed for therapeutic purposes. Hence this study evaluated the in vitro anti-oxidant potentials and anti-inflammatory activities of the fractions and methanolic extract of Moss (Philonotis hastata, Duby) with a view to studying its ...

  7. Role of biological soil crusts in desert hydrology and geomorphology: Implications for military training operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Warren

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, composed of soil surfaces stabilized by a consortium of cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, lichens, and/or bryophytes, are common in most deserts and perform functions of primary productivity, nitrogen fixation, nutrient cycling, water redistribution, and soil stabilization. The crusts are highly susceptible to disturbance. The degree of perturbation...

  8. Distribution of Grimmia Hedw. on Mediterranean islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    On the six largest Mediterranean islands: Corsica, Crete, Cyprus, Mallorca, Sardinia and Sicily, the moss genus Grimmia (Grimmiaceae, Musci) is represented by 29 species. Many of these are newly recorded. The importance of the islands for bryophyte conservation is stressed. -Author

  9. Selecting and testing cryptogam species for use in wetland delineation in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Lichvar; Gary A. Laursen; Rodney D. Seppelt; Walter R. Ochs

    2009-01-01

    To support the determination of hydrophytic vegetation in wetland delineations in Alaska, USA, a series of tests were conducted to develop a group of "test positive" species to be used in a "cryptogam indicator." In 2004, non-vascular cryptogam species (bryophytes, lichens, and fungi) from Interior and South-Central Alaska in the vicinities of...

  10. Announcements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1998-01-01

    Dr. B.C. Tan at the National University of Singapore (SINU) is looking for good and enthusiastic graduate students, especially from ASEAN countries, to study bryophyte systematics for either a MSc or a PhD degree. SINU has good laboratory and library facilities for both classical and modern

  11. Expeditions and other exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1979-01-01

    In cooperation with Dr. M.R. Crosby (MO), Professor W. Schultze-Motel (B) and his wife collected bryophytes in the Seychelles: Cerf, la Digue, Mahe, Moyenne, Praslin, in connection with a catalogue of the mosses of Madagascar, Comores, Seychelles, &c., which they are preparing.

  12. Cell-wall polysaccharides play an important role in decay resistance of Sphagnum and actively depressed decomposition in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajek, T.; Ballance, S.; Limpens, J.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.; Zijlstra, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum-dominated peatlands head the list of ecosystems with the largest known reservoirs of organic carbon (C). The bulk of this C is stored in decomposition-resistant litter of one bryophyte genus: Sphagnum. Understanding how Sphagnum litter chemistry controls C mineralization is essential for

  13. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Johnsen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Atmospheric dry and wet deposition (bulk precipitation) of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, V and Fe over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations during a twelve-month period. Epigeic bryophytes from 100 stations in the area were analysed for the heavy met...

  14. Studies on Lejeuneaceae Subfam. Ptychanthoideae, V. A Review of the Species from Ceylon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S. Rob; Inoue, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    In the spring of 1966, the junior author (H. Inoue) made a bryophyte collecting trip to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) with the support of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The collections have served as a basis for reviews of individual liverwort genera or families occurring in Ceylon, e.g.

  15. Identification of Lichen Metabolism in an Early Devonian Terrestrial Fossil using Carbon Stable Isotope Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S.; Jahren, H.

    2002-05-01

    The fossil organismSpongiophyton minutissimum is commonly found in early terrestrial assemblages (Devonian age, 430-340 Ma). Suites of morphological descriptions of this fossil have been published, starting in 1954, and have led to two competing hypotheses: 1.) that this early colonizer of land was a primitive bryophyte, and therefore a precursor to modern plant organisms, and 2.) thatS. minutissimum was a lichen: a close association between an alga and a fungus. Because the ultimate mechanisms for carbon supply to the carboxylating enzyme in bryophytes and lichens differ fundamentally, we expect these two types of organisms to exhibit separate ranges of δ 13Ctissue value. In bryophytes, gaseous carbon dioxide diffuses through perforations in cuticle (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Cbryophyte = ~20 ‰ ). Within the lichen, carbon is supplied to the carboxylating enzyme of the photobiont as carbon dioxide dissolved in fungal cell fluids (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Clichen = ~15 ‰ ). By comparing the δ 13Ctissue value ofS. minutissimum (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 75) with δ 13Ctissue values in twenty-five lichens, representative of the four different phylogenetic clades (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 25) and thirty different genera of bryophytes including mosses, liverworts, and hornworts (mean = -28 ‰ ;n = 30), we conclude thatS. minutissimum was cycling carbon via processes that much more closely resembled those of lichens, and not bryophytes. We discuss the general strategies associated with lichen biology, such as the ability to withstand dessication during reproduction, and how they may have contributed to the successful colonization of terrestrial environments.

  16. Does the silver moss Bryum argenteum exhibit sex-specific patterns in vegetative growth rate, asexual fitness or prezygotic reproductive investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly; Stark, Lloyd R; McLetchie, D Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    Expected life history trade-offs associated with sex differences in reproductive investment are often undetected in seed plants, with the difficulty arising from logistical issues of conducting controlled experiments. By controlling genotype, age and resource status of individuals, a bryophyte was assessed for sex-specific and location-specific patterns of vegetative, asexual and sexual growth/reproduction across a regional scale. Twelve genotypes (six male, six female) of the dioecious bryophyte Bryum argenteum were subcultured to remove environmental effects, regenerated asexually to replicate each genotype 16 times, and grown over a period of 92 d. Plants were assessed for growth rates, asexual and sexual reproductive traits, and allocation to above- and below-ground regenerative biomass. The degree of sexual versus asexual reproductive investment appears to be under genetic control, with three distinct ecotypes found in this study. Protonemal growth rate was positively correlated with asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction, whereas asexual reproduction was negatively correlated (appeared to trade-off) with vegetative growth (shoot production). No sex-specific trade-offs were detected. Female sex-expressing shoots were longer than males, but the sexes did not differ in growth traits, asexual traits, sexual induction times, or above- and below-ground biomass. Males, however, had much higher rates of inflorescence production than females, which translated into a significantly higher (24x) prezygotic investment for males relative to females. Evidence for three distinct ecotypes is presented for a bryophyte based on regeneration traits. Prior to zygote production, the sexes of this bryophyte did not differ in vegetative growth traits but significantly differed in reproductive investment, with the latter differences potentially implicated in the strongly biased female sex ratio. The disparity between males and females for prezygotic reproductive investment is

  17. Phytosociological and ecological study of springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro PETRAGLIA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociological survey of the crenic vegetation was made in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, combining the field method of the Braun-Blanquet approach with a numerical syntaxonomical analysis. A set of 139 phytosociological relevés, including vascular plants and bryophytes, were classified using cluster analysis. The vegetation types were assigned to 7 different phytosociological classes: Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae, Montio-Cardaminetea, Adiantetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae, Molinio- Arrhenatheretea, Galio-Urticetea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea. The classes Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae and Montio- Cardaminetea represent the core of crenic vegetation, including permanently or intermittently submerged plant communities, mostly made up of bryophytes, or non-submerged communities dominated by bryophytes or vascular plants. The other classes include chasmophytic bryophyte-rich communities and hygrophilous or tall herb communities lying around the periphery of the springs. 23 vegetation types were identified and, whenever possible, classified at the association level, or as phytocoena. The environmental parameters showed different ranges among vegetation types. A number of environmental variables were recorded during the vegetation survey, including altitude, shading, discharge, flow velocity, with exhaustive hydrochemical sampling. Conductivity, alkalinity and pH showed similar distribution patterns, clearly separating the vegetation types into two distinct groups, differing in the nature of the substratum. The altitudinal range was very broad and shading was also very variable. Nitrate and phosphate levels showed that the majority of vegetation types were irrigated by oligotrophic crenic waters. Finally, the bryophyte-dominated vegetation types belonging to the class Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae occurred in springs with the highest discharge values and variation. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the

  18. Long-term addition of fertilizer, labile carbon, and fungicide alters the biomass of plant functional groups in a subarctic-alpine community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, M S; Michelsen, A.

    2011-01-01

    In subarctic ecosystems, plant growth is mostly limited by nutrient availability and harsh climate. Investigating how soil nutrient availability controls the plant community composition may therefore help to understand indirect effects of climate change. The study was conducted in a long-term field...... experiment on a subarctic-alpine fellfield dominated by woody evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens. To manipulate nutrient availability additions of NPK fertilizer, labile C, and fungicide (benomyl) were done in a fully factorial design, replicated in six blocks. The treatments were run for 10 years......, and the aboveground plant biomass was harvested 4 and 16 years after initiating the experiment. In addition, soil inorganic N and P concentration was analyzed the same years. Increased nutrient availability (NPK fertilizer) largely increased the biomass of graminoids and unexpectedly of bryophytes, but not of other...

  19. Finnish–Hungarian Cooperation in Bryology; Memories from Excursions, Congresses and Research with Professor Tamás Pócs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koponen Timo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes Professor Tamás Pócs’ cooperation with Finnish bryologists and other cryptogam taxonomists. Cooperation began with exchange of reprints in 1966 and identification of African bryophyte specimens in 1973. In 1976, Timo Koponen visited Budapest and Eger, and joint work continued during a University of Helsinki Department of Botany student excursion to Tanzania in 1988. Tamás Pócs, then a professor at Sokoine Agricultural University, arranged the logistics for the preparatory visit of four teachers as well as for the excursion itself. Later, Pócs participated in the Congress of Eastern Asiatic Bryology, the EU-funded ‘Advanced instruction in bryology and lichenology’ (Large Scale Facility program and the ‘Bryophyte Flora of the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea’ project organized in Helsinki. He was elected a corresponding member of the Finnish Bryological Society in 2009.

  20. Slow molecular evolution in 18S rDNA, rbcL and nad5 genes of mosses compared with higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenøien, H K

    2008-03-01

    The evolutionary potential of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) has been debated for decades. Fossil record and biogeographical distribution patterns suggest very slow morphological evolution and the retainment of several ancient traits since the split with vascular plants some 450 million years ago. Many have argued that bryophytes may evolve as rapidly as higher plants on the molecular level, but this hypothesis has not been tested so far. Here, it is shown that mosses have experienced significantly lower rates of molecular evolution than higher plants within 18S rDNA (nuclear), rbcL (chloroplast) and nad5 (mitochondrial) genes. Mosses are on an average evolving 2-3 times slower than ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms; and also green algae seem to be evolving faster than nonvascular plants. These results support the observation of a general correlation between morphological and molecular evolutionary rates in plants and also show that mosses are 'evolutionary sphinxes' regarding both morphological and molecular evolutionary potential.

  1. The decision to germinate is regulated by divergent molecular networks in spores and seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesty, Eleanor F.; Saidi, Younousse; Moody, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal is a key step in land plant life cycles, usually via formation of spores or seeds. Regulation of spore- or seed-germination allows control over the timing of transition from one generation to the next, enabling plant dispersal. A combination of environmental and genetic factors determines...... when seed germination occurs. Endogenous hormones mediate this decision in response to the environment. Less is known about how spore germination is controlled in earlier-evolving nonseed plants. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the environmental and hormonal regulation of spore germination...... in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Aphanoregma patens). Our data suggest that the environmental signals regulating germination are conserved, but also that downstream hormone integration pathways mediating these responses in seeds were acquired after the evolution of the bryophyte lineage. Moreover...

  2. Studies of Physcomitrella patens reveal that ethylene-mediated submergence responses arose relatively early in land-plant evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yasumura, Yuki

    2012-10-18

    Colonization of the land by multicellular green plants was a fundamental step in the evolution of life on earth. Land plants evolved from fresh-water aquatic algae, and the transition to a terrestrial environment required the acquisition of developmental plasticity appropriate to the conditions of water availability, ranging from drought to flood. Here we show that extant bryophytes exhibit submergence-induced developmental plasticity, suggesting that submergence responses evolved relatively early in the evolution of land plants. We also show that a major component of the bryophyte submergence response is controlled by the phytohormone ethylene, using a perception mechanism that has subsequently been conserved throughout the evolution of land plants. Thus a plant environmental response mechanism with major ecological and agricultural importance probably had its origins in the very earliest stages of the colonization of the land. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Nonvascular contribution to ecosystem NPP in a subarctic heath during early and late growing season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Samson, Roeland; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Bryophytes and lichens abound in many arctic ecosystems and can contribute substantially to the ecosystem net primary production (NPP). Because of their growth seasonality and their potential for growth out of the growing season peak, bryophyte and lichen contribution to NPP may be particularly...... significant when vascular plants are less active and ecosystems act as a source of carbon (C). To clarify these dynamics, nonvascular and vascular aboveground NPP was compared for a subarctic heath during two contrasting periods of the growing season, viz. early-mid summer and late summer-early autumn....... Nonvascular NPP was determined by assessing shoot biomass increment of three moss species (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum elongatum) and by scaling to ecosystem level using average standing crop. For D. elongatum, these estimates were compared with production estimates obtained from...

  4. Patterns and drivers of phytodiversity in steppe grasslands of Central Podolia (Ukraine)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzemko, Anna; Steinbauer, Manuel; Becker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We asked: (i) Which environmental factors determine the level of α-diversity at several scales and β-diversity in steppic grasslands? (ii) How do the effects of environmental factors on α- and β-diversity vary between the different taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens)? We sampled...... nested-plot series ranging from 0.0001 to 100 m2 and additional 10-m2 plots, covering different vegetation types and management regimes in steppes and semi-natural dry grasslands of Central Podolia (Ukraine). We recorded all terricolous taxa and used topographic, soil, land-use and climatic variables...... intermediate compared to those known from similar grasslands throughout the Palaearctic, but for 1 cm2 we found seven species of vascular plants, a new world record. Heat index was the most important factor for vascular plants and bryophytes (negative relation), while lichen diversity depended mainly on stone...

  5. Effects of variability of meteorological measures on soil temperature in permafrost regions

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Christian; Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Brakebusch, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    To clarify effects of the variability of meteorological measures and their extreme events on topsoil and subsoil temperature in permafrost regions, an artificially manipulated climate dataset has been used for process-oriented model experiments. Climate variability mainly impacts snow depth, and the cover and thermal diffusivity of lichens and bryophytes. The latter effect is of opposite direction in summer and winter. These impacts of climate variability on insulating layers together substan...

  6. Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Brian Pointing; Burkhard eBuedel; Peter eConvey; Len eGillman; Christian eKoerner; Sebastian eLeuzinger; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2015-01-01

    The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs ov...

  7. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Desiccated Tortula ruralis Identify a Large Number of Novel Plant Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J., Wood; R.Joel, Duff; Melvin J., Oliver; Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale; Plant Stress and Water Conservation Unit, Cropping Systems Research Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    The desiccation-tolerant moss Tortula ruralis [Hedw.] Gaerten., Meyer & Scherb.has both a constitutive protection system and an active rehydration induced recovery mechanism apparently unique to bryophytes. Immediately following rehydration, desiccated T.ruralis gametophytes produce a set of polypeptides whose synthesis is unique to the rehydrated state. We report the construction of a cDNA expression library from the polysomal mRNA of desiccated gametophytes and the single-pass sequencing of...

  8. Trends in vegetation cover changes in Bonny area of the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens on the boles and branches of the trees. From satellite imageries of the area, it is evident that the landcover classes changed across the three epochs. The water class covered an area of 111.91km2 in 1986, 108.90km2 in 1998 and 103.41km2 in 2007. Mature forest ...

  9. Aliens in Antarctica: Assessing transfer of plant propagules by human visitors to reduce invasion risk

    OpenAIRE

    Huiskes, Ad H. L.; Gremmen, Niek J. M.; Dana M. Bergstrom; Frenot, Yves; Hughes, Kevin A.; IMURA, Satoshi; Kiefer, Kate; Lebouvier, Marc; Lee, Jennifer E.; Tsujimoto, Megumu; Ware, Chris; Van de Vijver, Bart; Chown, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable research on biological invasions, key areas remain poorly explored, especially ways to reduce unintentional propagule transfer. The Antarctic represents a microcosm of the situation, with the numbers of established non-native species growing. Information to help reduce potential impacts is therefore critical. We measured the propagule load of seeds, and fragments of bryophytes and lichens (the number of other plant or animal fragments was too low to draw any conclusions) ...

  10. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodd, Rory L; Bourke, David; Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly

  11. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory L Hodd

    Full Text Available Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1 oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2 species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3 species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need

  12. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae t...

  13. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: prospects for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n=200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1,217 μg L(-1). The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4,979 mg kg(-1)) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963mgkg(-1)), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg(-1)), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg(-1)), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg(-1)), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg(-1)). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg(-1)). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg(-1)) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. © 2013.

  14. The rare peat moss Sphagnum wulfianum (Sphagnaceae) did not survive the last glacial period in northern European refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkjeeide, Magni Olsen; Hassel, Kristian; Flatberg, Kjell I; Stenøien, Hans K

    2012-04-01

    Organisms may survive unfavorable conditions either by moving to more favorable areas by means of dispersal or by adapting to stressful environments. Pleistocene glacial periods represent extremely unfavorable conditions for the majority of life forms, especially sessile organisms. Many studies have revealed placements of refugial areas and postglacial colonization patterns of seed plants, but little is still known about areas of long-term survival and historical migration routes of bryophytes. Given overall differences in stress tolerance between seed plants and bryophytes, it is of interest to know whether bryophytes have survived periods of extreme climatic conditions better then seed plants in northern areas. The haploid and rarely spore-producing peat moss Sphagnum wulfianum is mostly found in areas that were covered by ice during the last glacial maximum. Twelve microsatellite markers were amplified from 43 populations (367 shoots) of this species, and data were analyzed using population genetic diversity statistics, Bayesian clustering methods, and coalescence-based inference tools to estimate historical and demographic parameters. Genetic diversity within populations was low, but populations were highly differentiated, with two main genetic clusters being recognized. The two main genetic groups have diverged quite recently in the Holocene, and the pattern of genetic variability and structuring gives no support for survival in Scandinavian refugia during the last glacial period in this species. The dispersal ability of this plant thus seems surprisingly high despite its infrequent spore production.

  15. Early terrestrial ecosystems: the animal evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.

    1985-01-01

    Work on fossil spores indicates that plants at a level of vegetative organization comparable to bryophytes and vascular plants existed on land in the Early Silurian. Vascular plants, limnetic fishes, and probable Ascomycetes have Late Silurian records. Charophytes are known in the Late Silurian but may have been marine. The presence of microarthropods in the Ludlovian has been hypothesized from fungal masses in the Burgsvik Sandstone that closely resemble microarthropod frass. A number of microarthropods such as collembolans and mites are microphagous; these animals are among the earliest known from the Early Devonian. These fungal masses as animal traces have been given added credibility by the recovery of animal body fossils from basal Llandovery age fluvial deposits of the Central Appalachians that yield abundant plant spores but that lack marine invertebrates, phytoplankton or chitinozoans. The remains are abundant and sufficiently varied to suggest that they may represent a variety of organisms. Some are eurypterid-like, others grossly arthropod-like, although they may represent an unknown phylum or phyla. Many small invertebrates are associated with extant bryophytes, which have been viewed as stepping stones or halfway houses for them as they emerged from water onto land. The occurrence of these Early Silurian invertebrate remains with abundant spore tetrads, which Gray has hypothesized represent land plants at a bryophyte or hepatic grade of organization, is of great interest in trying to understand the early development of nonmarine ecosystems.

  16. Co-existence and interaction between myxomycetes and other organisms in shared niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina O. Dudka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of myxomycetes co-existing with the Latridiidae (Coleoptera, bryophytes and ascomycetous, basidiomycetous and anamorphic fungi were studied in Crimea and at different locations on the left bank of Ukraine. Results from the left bank indicate that the Latridiidae feed on myxomycetes. Colonies of the most common 13 myxomycete species (which included Stemonitis axifera (Bull. Macbr., S. fusca Roth, S. splendens Rost., Fuligo septica (L. Wigg. and Mucilago crustacea Wigg. were inhabited by 5 species of the Latridiidae. Myxomycete spores were present in guts of 19 of the 25 beetle specimens investigated. Beetles Latridius hirtus, Enicmus rugosus and E fungicola seem to be obligate myxomycete feeders, while Corticarina truncatella was clearly facultative. 13 species of myxomycetes were recorded on 9 species of moss and 3 species of liverwort developing on decaying wood or bark in the Crimean Nature Reserve. Relations between myxomycetes and bryophytes on woody substrata are spatial rather than trophic, and are possibly regulated by specific microclimatic conditions inside bryophyte thallomes. 69 species of myxomycetes were found co-existing with 36 species of ascomycetes, 21 species of basidiomycetes and 9 species of anamorphic fungi in the Crimean Nature Reserve. Associations formed by myxomycetes and fungi on different woody substrata are analyzed.

  17. Forensic botany as a useful tool in the crime scene: Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, Gabriele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Carnevali, Eugenia; Severini, Simona; Bacci, Mauro; Gabbrielli, Mario

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous presence of plant species makes forensic botany useful for many criminal cases. Particularly, bryophytes are useful for forensic investigations because many of them are clonal and largely distributed. Bryophyte shoots can easily become attached to shoes and clothes and it is possible to be found on footwear, providing links between crime scene and individuals. We report a case of suicide of a young girl happened in Siena, Tuscany, Italia. The cause of traumatic injuries could be ascribed to suicide, to homicide, or to accident. In absence of eyewitnesses who could testify the dynamics of the event, the crime scene investigation was fundamental to clarify the accident. During the scene analysis, some fragments of Tortula muralis Hedw. and Bryum capillare Hedw were found. The fragments were analyzed by a bryologists in order to compare them with the moss present on the stairs that the victim used immediately before the death. The analysis of these bryophytes found at the crime scene allowed to reconstruct the accident. Even if this evidence, of course, is circumstantial, it can be useful in forensic cases, together with the other evidences, to reconstruct the dynamics of events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Contrasting growth responses of dominant peatland plants to warming and vegetation composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tom N; Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Bardgett, Richard D

    2015-05-01

    There is growing recognition that changes in vegetation composition can strongly influence peatland carbon cycling, with potential feedbacks to future climate. Nevertheless, despite accelerated climate and vegetation change in this ecosystem, the growth responses of peatland plant species to combined warming and vegetation change are unknown. Here, we used a field warming and vegetation removal experiment to test the hypothesis that dominant species from the three plant functional types present (dwarf-shrubs: Calluna vulgaris; graminoids: Eriophorum vaginatum; bryophytes: Sphagnum capillifolium) contrast in their growth responses to warming and the presence or absence of other plant functional types. Warming was accomplished using open top chambers, which raised air temperature by approximately 0.35 °C, and we measured air and soil microclimate as potential mechanisms through which both experimental factors could influence growth. We found that only Calluna growth increased with experimental warming (by 20%), whereas the presence of dwarf-shrubs and bryophytes increased growth of Sphagnum (46%) and Eriophorum (20%), respectively. Sphagnum growth was also negatively related to soil temperature, which was lower when dwarf-shrubs were present. Dwarf-shrubs may therefore promote Sphagnum growth by cooling the peat surface. Conversely, the effect of bryophyte presence on Eriophorum growth was not related to any change in microclimate, suggesting other factors play a role. In conclusion, our findings reveal contrasting abiotic and biotic controls over dominant peatland plant growth, suggesting that community composition and carbon cycling could be modified by simultaneous climate and vegetation change.

  19. Comparison of water, sediment, and plants for the monitoring of antibiotics: a case study on a river dedicated to fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliquen, Hervé; Delépée, Raphaël; Thorin, Chantal; Haury, Jacques; Larhantec-Verdier, Michaëlle; Morvan, Marie-Line; Le Bris, Hervé

    2009-03-01

    Oxolinic acid, flumequine, oxytetracycline, and florfenicol are antibiotics commonly used in farming. Because an important percentage of these antibiotics given to fish and cattle ends up, directly or indirectly, in the freshwater environment, suitable tools for the monitoring of these antibiotics are needed. A French river was chosen because of the location of four fish farms and a sewage plant on its main course. First, a passive monitoring program involving water, sediment, and autochthonous bryophytes was performed at 25 sampling sites tested once every three months for one year. Second, an active monitoring method was performed using moss bags for a one-month exposure period, both upstream and downstream of each potential source of antibiotics. Sediment and bryophyte samples, but not water samples, were found to be useful for monitoring environmental contamination by oxolinic acid, flumequine, oxytetracycline, and florfenicol. Sediments and bryophytes also appeared to be complementary media for dating the river's contamination by antibiotics. Data collected by both active and passive monitoring methods confirmed contamination of the river, mainly by flumequine and oxytetracycline, attributable to fish farming but also to terrestrial animal farming and perhaps human pharmaceuticals.

  20. Recovery of Three Arctic Stream Reaches From Experimental Nutrient Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A. C.; Benstead, J. P.; Deegan, L. A.; Peterson, B. J.; Bowden, W. B.; Huryn, A. D.; Slavik, K.; Hershey, A. E.

    2005-05-01

    We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient (N+P and P only) enrichment in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (USA). Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2 to 13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass and C:P ratio of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of enrichment duration. Bryophyte cover, which increased greatly after long-term enrichment (>8 years), recovered to reference levels only after 7 years, when a storm scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. Persistence of bryophytes slowed recovery rates of insect taxa that had either been positively (e.g., Ephemerella, most chironomid taxa) or negatively (e.g., Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer and its consequence for benthic habitat. Growth of Arctic grayling (adults and young-of-year), the top predator, returned to reference rates within two years. Recovery of these Arctic stream ecosystems from nutrient enrichment was consequently controlled largely by interactions between duration of enrichment and physical disturbance, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by bryophytes.

  1. Multiple innovations underpinned branching form diversification in mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, Yoan; Bell, Neil E; Edelin, Claude; Harrison, C Jill

    2017-07-01

    Broad-scale evolutionary comparisons have shown that branching forms arose by convergence in vascular plants and bryophytes, but the trajectory of branching form diversification in bryophytes is unclear. Mosses are the most species-rich bryophyte lineage and two sub-groups are circumscribed by alternative reproductive organ placements. In one, reproductive organs form apically, terminating growth of the primary shoot (gametophore) axis. In the other, reproductive organs develop on very short lateral branches. A switch from apical to lateral reproductive organ development is proposed to have primed branching form diversification. Moss gametophores have modular development and each module develops from a single apical cell. Here we define the architectures of 175 mosses by the number of module classes, branching patterns and the pattern in which similar modules repeat. Using ancestral character state reconstruction we identify two stages of architectural diversification. During a first stage there were sequential changes in the module repetition pattern, reproductive organ position, branching pattern and the number of module classes. During a second stage, vegetative changes occurred independently of reproductive fate. The results pinpoint the nature of developmental change priming branching form diversification in mosses and provide a framework for mechanistic studies of architectural diversification. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Geosites of Lithuania as an environment for dwelling of specific biota: geo- and biodiversity interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga; Jukoniene, Ilona; Prigodina Lukosiene, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Surface of Lithuania and surrounding countries is sculptured by five glaciations, which left behind morainic tills and melt water deposits, modified by erosion and later used for agriculture or overgrown by wild meadows or forests. The glaciations also left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields that are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and surrounding countries. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Though sparse, but of high scientific value, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic outcrops and quarries of Lithuania are variably protected. Quaternary scientists attempted to use single erratic boulders, their fields and abundances in tills to imply glacier dynamics. Some erratics came from known localities in Scandinavia and are called indicator boulders because they show the source and directions of ice sheet movements. Huge single boulders (e.g. 7 m long and 6 m high Puntukas, Anyksciai Regional Park) and wild boulder fields are natural monuments and attractive sites for visitors. Outcrops and quarries of Devonian dolomites and gypsium, Permian limestones and Jurassic sandstones widely used for a scientific research are parts of the protected geo-diversity in the Venta and Birzai regional parks, N and NW Lithuania. On the other hand, a large part of the c. 700 species of lichenized and allied fungi and of c. 500 bryophytes known in Lithuania are confined to natural or semi-natural (quarries) rocky habitats. Eight rock-dwelling lichen and nine bryophyte species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them are known from 1-2 localities or are thought to be extinct now. Besides, the recent investigations of dolomite quarries revealed them to be habitats for 7 bryophyte, 8 lichenized and lichenicolous species, previously unknown for Lithuania. One new lichenicolous species was discovered (Khodosovtsev et al., 2012). Some of the newfinds are rare or absent

  3. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: Prospects for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favas, Paulo J.C., E-mail: pjcf@utad.pt [School of Life Sciences and the Environment, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Pratas, João [Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Varun, Mayank; D' Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S. [Department of Botany, St. John' s College, Agra 282 002 (India)

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n = 200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1217 μg L{sup −1}. The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4979 mg kg{sup −1}) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg{sup −1}), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg{sup −1}), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg{sup −1}). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg{sup −1}). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg{sup −1}) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • Exploration of U contamination extent in uraniferous province of Central Portugal • A group of previously untested species with the ability to accumulate U was assessed • U accumulation patterns in the species indicate their potential in bioindication and phytoremediation of U-contaminated water.

  4. Improved appreciation of the functioning and importance of biological soil crusts in Europe: the Soil Crust International Project (SCIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia; Green, T G Allan; Grube, Martin; Lázaro Suau, Roberto; Loewen-Schneider, Katharina; Maier, Stefanie; Peer, Thomas; Pintado, Ana; Raggio, José; Ruprecht, Ulrike; Sancho, Leopoldo G; Schroeter, Burkhard; Türk, Roman; Weber, Bettina; Wedin, Mats; Westberg, Martin; Williams, Laura; Zheng, Lingjuan

    2014-01-01

    Here we report details of the European research initiative "Soil Crust International" (SCIN) focusing on the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSC, composed of bacteria, algae, lichens, and bryophytes) and on functional aspects in their specific environment. Known as the so-called "colored soil lichen community" (Bunte Erdflechtengesellschaft), these BSCs occur all over Europe, extending into subtropical and arid regions. Our goal is to study the uniqueness of these BSCs on the regional scale and investigate how this community can cope with large macroclimatic differences. One of the major aims of this project is to develop biodiversity conservation and sustainable management strategies for European BSCs. To achieve this, we established a latitudinal transect from the Great Alvar of Öland, Sweden in the north over Gössenheim, Central Germany and Hochtor in the Hohe Tauern National Park, Austria down to the badlands of Tabernas, Spain in the south. The transect stretches over 20° latitude and 2,300 m in altitude, including natural (Hochtor, Tabernas) and semi-natural sites that require maintenance such as by grazing activities (Öland, Gössenheim). At all four sites BSC coverage exceeded 30 % of the referring landscape, with the alpine site (Hochtor) reaching the highest cyanobacterial cover and the two semi-natural sites (Öland, Gössenheim) the highest bryophyte cover. Although BSCs of the four European sites share a common set of bacteria, algae (including cyanobacteria) lichens and bryophytes, first results indicate not only climate specific additions of species, but also genetic/phenotypic uniqueness of species between the four sites. While macroclimatic conditions are rather different, microclimatic conditions and partly soil properties seem fairly homogeneous between the four sites, with the exception of water availability. Continuous activity monitoring of photosystem II revealed the BSCs of the Spanish site as the least active in terms of

  5. Long-term impacts of forest ditching on non-aquatic biodiversity: conservation perspectives for a novel ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remm, Liina; Lõhmus, Piret; Leis, Mare; Lõhmus, Asko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial drainage (ditching) is widely used to increase timber yield in northern forests. When the drainage systems are maintained, their environmental impacts are likely to accumulate over time and along accompanying management, notably after logging when new forest develops on decayed peat. Our study provides the first comprehensive documentation of long-term ditching impacts on terrestrial and arboreal biodiversity by comparing natural alder swamps and second-generation drained forests that have evolved from such swamps in Estonia. We explored species composition of four potentially drainage-sensitive taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and snails), abundance of species of conservation concern, and their relationships with stand structure in two-ha plots representing four management types (ranging from old growth to clearcut). We found that drainage affected plot-scale species richness only weakly but it profoundly changed assemblage composition. Bryophytes and lichens were the taxonomic groups that were most sensitive both to drainage and timber-harvesting; in closed stands they responded to changed microhabitat structure, notably impoverished tree diversity and dead-wood supply. As a result, natural old-growth plots were the most species-rich and hosted several specific species of conservation concern. Because the most influential structural changes are slow, drainage impacts may be long hidden. The results also indicated that even very old drained stands do not provide quality habitats for old-growth species of drier forest types. However, drained forests hosted many threatened species that were less site type specific, including early-successional vascular plants and snails on clearcuts and retention cuts, and bryophytes and lichens of successional and old forests. We conclude that three types of specific science-based management tools are needed to mitigate ditching effects on forest biodiversity: (i) silvicultural techniques to

  6. Long-Term Impacts of Forest Ditching on Non-Aquatic Biodiversity: Conservation Perspectives for a Novel Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remm, Liina; Lõhmus, Piret; Leis, Mare; Lõhmus, Asko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial drainage (ditching) is widely used to increase timber yield in northern forests. When the drainage systems are maintained, their environmental impacts are likely to accumulate over time and along accompanying management, notably after logging when new forest develops on decayed peat. Our study provides the first comprehensive documentation of long-term ditching impacts on terrestrial and arboreal biodiversity by comparing natural alder swamps and second-generation drained forests that have evolved from such swamps in Estonia. We explored species composition of four potentially drainage-sensitive taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and snails), abundance of species of conservation concern, and their relationships with stand structure in two-ha plots representing four management types (ranging from old growth to clearcut). We found that drainage affected plot-scale species richness only weakly but it profoundly changed assemblage composition. Bryophytes and lichens were the taxonomic groups that were most sensitive both to drainage and timber-harvesting; in closed stands they responded to changed microhabitat structure, notably impoverished tree diversity and dead-wood supply. As a result, natural old-growth plots were the most species-rich and hosted several specific species of conservation concern. Because the most influential structural changes are slow, drainage impacts may be long hidden. The results also indicated that even very old drained stands do not provide quality habitats for old-growth species of drier forest types. However, drained forests hosted many threatened species that were less site type specific, including early-successional vascular plants and snails on clearcuts and retention cuts, and bryophytes and lichens of successional and old forests. We conclude that three types of specific science-based management tools are needed to mitigate ditching effects on forest biodiversity: (i) silvicultural techniques to

  7. Long-term impacts of forest ditching on non-aquatic biodiversity: conservation perspectives for a novel ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Remm

    Full Text Available Artificial drainage (ditching is widely used to increase timber yield in northern forests. When the drainage systems are maintained, their environmental impacts are likely to accumulate over time and along accompanying management, notably after logging when new forest develops on decayed peat. Our study provides the first comprehensive documentation of long-term ditching impacts on terrestrial and arboreal biodiversity by comparing natural alder swamps and second-generation drained forests that have evolved from such swamps in Estonia. We explored species composition of four potentially drainage-sensitive taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and snails, abundance of species of conservation concern, and their relationships with stand structure in two-ha plots representing four management types (ranging from old growth to clearcut. We found that drainage affected plot-scale species richness only weakly but it profoundly changed assemblage composition. Bryophytes and lichens were the taxonomic groups that were most sensitive both to drainage and timber-harvesting; in closed stands they responded to changed microhabitat structure, notably impoverished tree diversity and dead-wood supply. As a result, natural old-growth plots were the most species-rich and hosted several specific species of conservation concern. Because the most influential structural changes are slow, drainage impacts may be long hidden. The results also indicated that even very old drained stands do not provide quality habitats for old-growth species of drier forest types. However, drained forests hosted many threatened species that were less site type specific, including early-successional vascular plants and snails on clearcuts and retention cuts, and bryophytes and lichens of successional and old forests. We conclude that three types of specific science-based management tools are needed to mitigate ditching effects on forest biodiversity: (i silvicultural

  8. Distribuição da brioflora em diferentes fisionomias de cerrado da Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brasil Distribution of the brioflora in the different cerrado physiognomies of the Biological Reserve and of the Experimental Station of Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho refere-se à distribuição da brioflora ocorrente no cerrado Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de MogiGuaçu. Este bioma apresenta fisionomias que variam de florestas a campos. As coletas foram realizadas entre 1993 e 1995, na casca de 15 espécies de forófitos arbustivo-arbóreos, ao longo de um transecto, passando por cinco fisionomias diferentes de cerrado. Estudaramse 1.345 exsicatas de 49 gêneros e 92 espécies de briófitas. A brioflora está relacionada às fisionomias de cerrado e não aos forófitos arbustivo-arbóreos. As fisionomias são mais semelhantes quanto à flora de musgos do que em relação à flora de hepáticas. As briófitas distribuem-se em três grupos de fisionomias: cerrado sentido restrito, campo cerrado e transição / cerrado sentido restrito de Myrsine / campo cerrado queimado.This paper refers to the distribution of the brioflora in the cerrado vegetation of the Biological Reserve and of the Experimental Station of Mogi-Guaçu. This biome includes forests to grassland physiognomies. Collects of bryophytes was made between 1993 and 1995 on bark of 15 shrubby-arboreous phorophytes species along a transect, through five different physiognomies of the cerrado vegetation. The studied material totalized 1,345 numbers from 49 genera and 92 species of bryophytes. The brioflora is not related to the shrubby-arboreous phorophytes, but to the cerrado physiognomies. Similarity between physiognomies is higher due to mosses than hepatics distribution. Bryophytes are distributed in three physiognomic groups: cerrado 'stricto sensu', cerrado grassland and transition / cerrado 'stricto sensu' of Myrsine / burned cerrado grassland.

  9. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. de Wet

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations to the inventory of about 24 000 species and infraspecific taxa of bryophytes and vascular plants in southern Africa are reported for the year 1988. The inventory, as currently maintained in the Taxon component of the PRECIS system, contains the accepted name for each taxon, synonyms previously in use as accepted names during the past half-century, and literature references necessary to identify species in each genus and to establish the synonymy. The inventory is updated as new research affecting plant classification in southern Africa is published. During 1988 there were 744 alterations, affecting about 3% of the total number of taxa.

  10. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations to the inventory of about 24 000 species and infraspecific taxa of bryophytes and vascular plants in southern Africa are reported for the year 1987. The inventory, as presently maintained in the Taxon component of the PRECIS system, contains the accepted name for each taxon, synonyms previously in use as accepted names during the past half-century, and literature references necessary to identify species in each genus and to establish the synonymy. The inventory is updated as new research affecting plant classification in southern Africa is published. During 1987 there were 678 alterations, representing about 2,8% of the total number of taxa.a

  11. Lake sediment multi-taxon DNA from North Greenland records early post-glacial appearance of vascular plants and accurately tracks environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, L. S.; Gussarova, C.; Boessenkool, S.

    2015-01-01

    temperatures. Lake sediments contain DNA paleorecords of the surrounding ecosystems and can be used to retrieve a variety of organismal groups from a single sample. In this study, we analyzed vascular plant, bryophyte, algal (in particular diatom) and copepod DNA retrieved from a sediment core spanning...... the Holocene, taken from Bliss Lake on the northernmost coast of Greenland. A previous multi-proxy study including microscopic diatom analyses showed that this lake experienced changes between marine and lacustrine conditions. We inferred the same environmental changes from algal DNA preserved in the sediment...

  12. Alkalinity and trophic state regulate aquatic plant distribution in Danish lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    distinct differences in the distribution of species and growth forms among the lakes. The lakes separated into five groups of characteristic species compositions. Alkalinity was the main factor responsible for the species distribution. Lakes of high alkalinity were dominated by vascular plants...... of the elodeid growth form, lakes of intermediate alkalinity contained a variety of elodeids and vascular plants of the isoetid growth form, while lakes of low alkalinity and low pH had several isoetids and bryophytes, but very few elodeids. Alkalinity is a close descriptor of the bicarbonate concentration...

  13. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S. Robbert

    2016-01-01

    Shifts in sexual systems are one of the key drivers of species diversification. In contrast to angiosperms, unisexuality prevails in bryophytes. Here, we test the hypotheses that bisexuality evolved from an ancestral unisexual condition and is a key innovation in liverworts. We investigate whether...... are significantly biased toward unisexuality, even though bisexuality is coupled with increased diversification. Sexual systems are strongly conserved deep within the liverwort tree but become much more labile toward the present. Bisexuality appears to be a key innovation in liverworts. Its effects...

  14. A Marchantialean thallus from the Lower Gondwana Sequence of Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarate, O.S.; Budhraja, N. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2007-07-15

    The present paper deals with the critical observation of a thallus section recorded in one of the samples prepared for the coal petrographic study (Pellet No. 3). This sample represents a coal band lying above the 'Queen seam' from Koyagudem area of the Godavari valley coalfield, Andhra Pradesh. The shape of this specimen in transverse section and its cellular organization very closely resemble the anatomical features of extant thalli of the bryophytic (liverwort) family Rebouliaceae, a big group of Marchantiales (Hepaticopsida). A thallus with cellular details assignable to Hepaticae is recorded from the Lower Gondwana Sequence of Godavari valley coalfield.

  15. Biomonitoring with lichens on twigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsholm, René Larsen; Wolseley, Pat; Søchting, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    Two surveys of the lichen and bryophyte flora growing on oak twigs from a Welsh and a Danish locality were compared with additional data on bark pH and % nitrogen in thalli of Hypogymnia physodes. Despite differences in climate and lichen flora, both sites showed a shift in the lichen communities...... showing a loss of nitrophobes in all sites and the appearance of nitrophiles in pasture sites in 2003. This study demonstrates that lichens on twigs can be used as an early warning system to detect a response to changes in land management and nitrogen deposition....

  16. Relations between vegetation and water level in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Indicator scores of moisture, pH and nutrients were calculated for each site. The water level correlates with the number of typical fen species of vascular plants, whereas bryophytes are closer connected to the stable water level conditions provided by groundwater seepage. The water level variability...... is proved to be a significant limiting factor for species diversity in wetlands, which should be considered along with the fertility in order to access the habitat quality. The study provides new insight in the water level preferences for GWDTEs which is highly needed in the management and assessment...

  17. Biological legacies buffer local species extinction after logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolphi, Jörgen; Jönsson, Mari T; Gustafsson, Lena; Bugmann, H

    2014-02-01

    Clearcutting has been identified as a main threat to forest biodiversity. In the last few decades, alternatives to clearcutting have gained much interest. Living and dead trees are often retained after harvest to serve as structural legacies to mitigate negative effects of forestry. However, this practice is widely employed without information from systematic before-after control-impact studies to assess the processes involved in species responses after clearcutting with retention. We performed a large-scale survey of the occurrence of logging-sensitive and red-listed bryophytes and lichens before and after clearcutting with the retention approach. A methodology was adopted that, for the first time in studies on retention approaches, enabled monitoring of location-specific substrates. We used uncut stands as controls to assess the variables affecting the survival of species after a major disturbance. In total, 12 bryophyte species and 27 lichen species were analysed. All were classified as sensitive to logging, and most species are also currently red-listed. We found that living and dead trees retained after final harvest acted as refugia in which logging-sensitive species were able to survive for 3 to 7 years after logging. Depending on type of retention and organism group, between 35% and 92% of the species occurrences persisted on retained structures. Most species observed outside retention trees or patches disappeared. Larger pre-harvest population sizes of bryophytes on dead wood increased the survival probability of the species and hence buffered the negative effects of logging. Synthesis and applications. Careful spatial planning of retention structures is required to fully embrace the habitats of logging-sensitive species. Bryophytes and lichens persisted to a higher degree in retention patches compared to solitary trees or in the clearcut area. Retaining groups of trees in logged areas will help to sustain populations of species over the clearcut phase

  18. CRREL Technical Publications. Supplement 1976-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    with daily me.,% ianed traot runoff icaaa-s at ta- gAe. aet usg watershed rusamwl rela. euasured on the mainule gplats. Tkhe tf dse "_ rtinti and efem...BEARING CRACKS, TESTS. contain a checklist of the vascular. bryophyte. and lichen STRENGTH. Large. simply supported beams of temperate lake ice...recovery in the Cape Thompson region, Alaska. and addi- CR 71-06 Jezek, K.C. lions to the checklist of flora t1 98 5, 7 5p I CR 85-11 Measurements

  19. Atmospheric deposition levels of chosen elements in the Czech Republic determined in the framework of the International Bryomonitoring Program 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucharová, J; Suchara, I

    1998-11-03

    In order to determine the atmospheric loads of 13 elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, V, Zn), samples of Pleurozium schreberi (81.1%), Hypnum cupressiforme (11.2%) and Pseudoscleropodium purum (7.7%) bryophytes (mosses) were taken and analysed from an approx. 20 x 20-km grid extending over the entire territory (78,864 km2) of the Czech Republic (abbreviated 'the CZ' in this study). The level of the elements found in the bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements at the investigated sites. Five hot spots indicating relatively high deposition levels were identified in the CZ. The marginal hot spots are the following: the CZ part of the so-called Black Triangle I territory in northwestern CZ; the CZ part of the Black Triangle II territory in northeastern CZ; and the CZ part of the Sudeten mountains (Jizerské Mts and Giant Mts) and their foothills in northern CZ. Inland hot spots were found in the southwestern industrial part of central Bohemia and in the southern Moravian industrial district. The average element contents in CZ bryophytes were comparable with the respective average values obtained in Germany and Poland. However, the CZ average bryophyte values were higher and lower in comparison to the average Austrian and Slovak values, respectively. The CZ average relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements were found to be 2-3 times higher than the respective loads in the cleanest parts of Europe (e.g. clean parts of Nordic countries). A comparison of the analytical results obtained repeatedly at 20 identical localities in the CZ showed a significant decrease in the relative deposition loads of all of the investigated elements in 1995 as compared to 1991. This decrease has been caused by the dramatic restriction of the industrial production, mainly that of the metallurgical and chemical industries, in the CZ. Desulphurisation programs and the effective trapping of flying dust particles in CZ power plants

  20. Rare Moss-Built Microterraces in a High-Altitude, Acid Mine Drainage-Polluted Stream (Cordillera Negra, Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Sevink, J.; Verstraten, J.M.; Kooijman, A.M.; Loayza-Muro, R.A.; Hoitinga, L.; Palomino, E.J.; Jansen, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Rio Santiago in the Cordillera Negra of Peru is severely contaminated by acid mine drainage in its headwaters. In a strongly acid stream, at about 3800?m above sea level (masl), microterraces were found with terrace walls built up of dead moss, with encrustations and interstitial fine, creamy sediment. The stream water was turbid due to the presence of similar suspended sediment, which also occurred as a thin basal layer in inter-rim basins. The moss was identified as the rare bryophyte A...

  1. Effects and empirical critical loads of Nitrogen for ecoregions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Fenn, Mark E.; Goodale, Christine L.; Geiser, Linda H.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Allen, Edith B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, Roland; Bowman, William D.; Clark, C M; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, Frank S; Greaver, Tara L.; Hall, Sharon J; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Liu, Lingli; Lynch, Jason A.; Nadelhoffer, Knute J; Perakis, Steven; Stoddard, John L; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Dennis, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has increased nitrogen (N) deposition to a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations to the structure and function of many ecosystems across the United States. We synthesized current research relating atmospheric N deposition to effects on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in the United States, and estimated associated empirical critical loads of N for several receptors: freshwater diatoms, mycorrhizal fungi, lichens, bryophytes, herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees. Biogeochemical responses included increased N mineralization and nitrification, increased gaseous N losses, and increased N leaching. Individual species, population, and community responses included increased tissue N, physiological and nutrient imbalances, increased growth, altered root-shoot ratios, increased susceptibility to secondary stresses, altered fire regime, shifts in competitive interactions and community composition, changes in species richness and other measures of biodiversity, and increases in invasive species. The range of critical loads of nutrient N reported for U.S. ecoregions, inland surface waters, and freshwater wetlands is 1–39 kg N ha−1 yr−1, spanning the range of N deposition observed over most of the country. The empirical critical loads of N tend to increase in the following sequence: diatoms, lichens and bryophytes, mycorrhizal fungi, herbaceous plants and shrubs, trees.

  2. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  3. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Exploring the fossil history of pleurocarpous mosses: Tricostaceae fam. nov. from the Cretaceous of Vancouver Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Glenn W K; Stockey, Ruth A; Rothwell, Gar W; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2015-11-01

    Mosses, very diverse in modern ecosystems, are currently underrepresented in the fossil record. For the pre-Cenozoic, fossil mosses are known almost exclusively from compression fossils, while anatomical preservation, which is much more taxonomically informative, is rare. The Lower Cretaceous of Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) hosts a diverse anatomically preserved flora at Apple Bay. While the vascular plant component of the Apple Bay flora has received much attention, the numerous bryophytes identified at the locality have yet to be characterized. Fossil moss gametophytes in more than 20 carbonate concretions collected from the Apple Bay locality on Vancouver Island were studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. We describe Tricosta plicata gen. et sp. nov., a pleurocarpous moss with much-branched gametophytes, tricostate plicate leaves, rhizoid-bearing bases, and delicate gametangia (antheridia and archegonia) borne on specialized branches. A new family of hypnanaean mosses, Tricostaceae fam. nov., is recognized based on the novel combination of characters of T. plicata. Tricosta plicata reveals pleurocarpous moss diversity unaccounted for in extant floras. This new moss adds the first bryophyte component to an already diverse assemblage of vascular plants described from the Early Cretaceous at Apple Bay and, as the oldest representative of the Hypnanae, provides a hard minimum age for the group (136 Ma). © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Morphology informed by phylogeny reveals unexpected patterns of species differentiation in the aquatic moss Rhynchostegium riparioides s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsemékers, Virginie; Vieira, Cristiana C; Ros, Rosa María; Huttunen, Sanna; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2012-02-01

    Bryophyte floras typically exhibit extremely low levels of endemism. The interpretation, that this might reflect taxonomic shortcomings, is tested here for the Macaronesian flora, using the moss species complex of Rhynchostegium riparioides as a model. The deep polyphyly of R. riparioides across its distribution range reveals active differentiation that better corresponds to geographic than morphological differences. Morphometric analyses are, in fact, blurred by a size gradient that accounts for 80% of the variation observed among gametophytic traits. The lack of endemic diversification observed in R. riparioides in Macaronesia weakens the idea that the low rates of endemism observed in the Macaronesian bryophyte flora might solely be explained by taxonomic shortcomings. To the reverse, the striking polyphyly of North American and European lineages of R. riparioides suggests that the similarity between the floras of these continents has been over-emphasized. Discriminant analyses point to the existence of morphological discontinuities among the lineages resolved by the molecular phylogeny. The global rate of error associated to species identification based on morphology (0.23) indicates, however, that intergradation of shape and size characters among species in the group challenges their identification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cloning and characterization of micro-RNAs from moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Tzahi; Talmor-Neiman, Mali; Stav, Ran; Riese, Maike; Huijser, Peter; Baulcombe, David C

    2005-09-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous tiny RNAs that play important regulatory roles in plant development and responses to external stimuli. To date, miRNAs have been cloned from higher plants such as Arabidopsis, rice and pumpkin, and there is limited information on their identity in lower plants including Bryophytes. Bryophytes are among the oldest groups of land plants among the earth's flora, and are important for our understanding of the transition to life on land. To identify miRNAs that might have played a role early in land plant evolution, we constructed a library of small RNAs from the juvenile gametophyte (protonema) of the moss Physcomitrella patens. Sequence analysis revealed five higher plant miRNA homologues, including three members of the miR319 family, previously shown to be involved in the regulation of leaf morphogenesis, and miR156, which has been suggested to regulate several members of the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) family in Arabidopsis. We have cloned PpSBP3, a moss SPL homologue that contains an miR156 complementary site, and demonstrated that its mRNA is cleaved within that site suggesting that it is an miR156 target in moss. Six additional candidate moss miRNAs were identified and shown to be expressed in the gametophyte, some of which were developmentally regulated or upregulated by auxin. Our observations suggest that miRNAs play important regulatory roles in mosses.

  7. Metal(loid) accumulation in aquatic plants of a mining area: Potential for water quality biomonitoring and biogeochemical prospecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Rodrigues, Nelson; D'Souza, Rohan; Varun, Mayank; Paul, Manoj S

    2018-03-01

    Aquatic bryophytes can accumulate extremely high levels of chemical elements because of their unique morphology and physiology which is markedly different from vascular plants. Four aquatic mosses-Fontinalis squamosa, Brachythecium rivulare, Platyhypnidium riparioides, Thamnobryum alopecurum-and a freshwater red alga Lemanea fluviatilis along with water samples from the streams of Góis mine region in Central Portugal were analyzed for 46 elements. Despite being below detection levels in the water samples, the elements Zr, V, Cr, Mo, Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pt, Ag, Ge and Bi were obtained in the plant samples. The moss T. alopecurum had the highest mean concentrations of 19 elements followed by B. rivulare (15 elements). Maximum accumulation of Rb, Ta and Au, however, was seen in the alga L. fluviatilis. Bioconcentration factors > 10 6 were obtained for a few metals. The investigation confirms that aquatic bryophytes can be suitable for water quality biomonitoring and biogeochemical prospecting in fresh water bodies owing to their high accumulative capacity of multi-elements from their aquatic ambient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epiphytic Plants on Stand of Schima wallichii (D.C. Korth. at Mount Lawu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to know: (1 the diversity of epiphyte species at the stand of puspa trees (Schima wallichii (D.C. Korth. in Cemoro Sewu and Cemoro Kandang of mount Lawu, and (2 the distribution and cover abundance of the species based on its location from the land surface. The research objects were all species of epiphyte plants on the stand of puspa trees. The procedures of data collection were including species collection in the field, make up herbariums, observation of epiphyte vegetation using transect method and morphology observation in the laboratory. The results show that in the south slope of the mount Lawu were found 23 species of epiphyte consisting 4 species of lichenes, 2 species of Fungi, 3 species of Bryophyte, 10 species of Pterydophyte, 2 species of Orchidaceae and 2 species of liana. The species with the highest density was Bryophyte, and the highest diversity was Pterydophyte. The height of the trees affects the distribution, diversity and density of the epiphyte plants.

  9. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian) Indian Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Bechteler, Julia; Lee, Gaik Ee; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Hedenäs, Lars; Singh, Hukam; Pócs, Tamás; Nascimbene, Paul C; Peralta, Denilson F; Renner, Matt; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea). We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  10. Impacts of the removal of shrubs on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of Syntrichia caninervis Mitt: in a temperate desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ben-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Lou, An-Ru

    2017-04-01

    Moss crusts play important roles in biological soil crusts biomass and soil surface stabilization. However, because of increasingly intensive human activities, especially grazing, the growth and survival of shrubs are seriously threatened. This study aimed to test whether the presence of shrubs affects the physiological state of the bryophyte Syntrichia caninervis Mitt. in this desert ecosystem. We simulated animal-grazed shrubs at three levels in the Gurbantunggut Desert and compared these simulations to exposed areas, measuring the indicators of growth and stress tolerance exhibited by bryophytes. The results showed that the removal of shrubs significantly decreased chlorophyll fluorescence activity and soluble protein content in S. caninervis, especially under the total shrub removal treatment. The ratio between the total removal of shrubs and other treatments in antioxidative enzymes and in osmotic adjustment substances of S. caninervis exhibited two types of responses. With the exception of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), the variables examined fitted as downward parabolic then upward parabolic temporal dynamics. The removal of shrubs is harmful to the survival of S.caninervis. In resource-constrained conditions, SOD is an important antioxidant enzyme that of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and osmotic adjustment substances, for S. caninervis survival.

  11. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from cryptogamic covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Katharina; Weber, Bettina; Elbert, Wolfgang; Steinkamp, Jörg; Clough, Tim; Crutzen, Paul; Pöschl, Ulrich; Keppler, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Cryptogamic covers, which comprise some of the oldest forms of terrestrial life on Earth (Lenton & Huntingford, ), have recently been found to fix large amounts of nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Elbert et al., ). Here we show that they are also greenhouse gas sources with large nitrous oxide (N2 O) and small methane (CH4 ) emissions. Whilst N2 O emission rates varied with temperature, humidity, and N deposition, an almost constant ratio with respect to respiratory CO2 emissions was observed for numerous lichens and bryophytes. We employed this ratio together with respiration data to calculate global and regional N2 O emissions. If our laboratory measurements are typical for lichens and bryophytes living on ground and plant surfaces and scaled on a global basis, we estimate a N2 O source strength of 0.32-0.59 Tg year(-1) for the global N2 O emissions from cryptogamic covers. Thus, our emission estimate might account for 4-9% of the global N2 O budget from natural terrestrial sources. In a wide range of arid and forested regions, cryptogamic covers appear to be the dominant source of N2 O. We suggest that greenhouse gas emissions associated with this source might increase in the course of global change due to higher temperatures and enhanced nitrogen deposition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Relative importance of local habitat complexity and regional factors for assemblages of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in Sphagnum peat bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, M A; Ermilov, S G; Philippov, D A; Prokin, A A

    2016-11-01

    We investigated communities of oribatid mites in five peat bogs in the north-west of the East European plain. We aimed to determine the extent to which geographic factors (latitude, separation distance), local environment (Sphagnum moss species, ground water level, biogeochemistry) and local habitat complexity (diversity of vascular plants and bryophytes in the surrounding plant community) influence diversity and community composition of Oribatida. There was a significant north-to-south increase in Oribatida abundance. In the variance partitioning, spatial factors explained 33.1 % of variability in abundance across samples; none of the environmental factors were significant. Across all bogs, Oribatida species richness and community composition were similar in Sphagnum rubellum and Sphagnum magellanicum, but significantly different and less diverse in Sphagnum cuspidatum. Sphagnum microhabitat explained 52.2 % of variability in Oribatida species richness, whereas spatial variables explained only 8.7 %. There was no distance decay in community similarity between bogs with increased geographical distance. The environmental variables explained 34.9 % of the variance in community structure, with vascular plants diversity, bryophytes diversity, and ground water level all contributing significantly; spatial variables explained 15.1 % of the total variance. Overall, only 50 % of the Oribatida community variance was explained by the spatial structure and environmental variables. We discuss relative importance of spatial and local environmental factors, and make general inferences about the formation of fauna in Sphagnum bogs.

  13. Divergence and adaptive evolution of the gibberellin oxidase genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Wang, Xi; Ge, Song; Rao, Guang-Yuan

    2015-09-29

    The important phytohormone gibberellins (GAs) play key roles in various developmental processes. GA oxidases (GAoxs) are critical enzymes in GA synthesis pathway, but their classification, evolutionary history and the forces driving the evolution of plant GAox genes remain poorly understood. This study provides the first large-scale evolutionary analysis of GAox genes in plants by using an extensive whole-genome dataset of 41 species, representing green algae, bryophytes, pteridophyte, and seed plants. We defined eight subfamilies under the GAox family, namely C19-GA2ox, C20-GA2ox, GA20ox,GA3ox, GAox-A, GAox-B, GAox-C and GAox-D. Of these, subfamilies GAox-A, GAox-B, GAox-C and GAox-D are described for the first time. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and characteristic motifs of GAox genes, we demonstrated a rapid expansion and functional divergence of the GAox genes during the diversification of land plants. We also detected the subfamily-specific motifs and potential sites of some GAox genes, which might have evolved under positive selection. GAox genes originated very early-before the divergence of bryophytes and the vascular plants and the diversification of GAox genes is associated with the functional divergence and could be driven by positive selection. Our study not only provides information on the classification of GAox genes, but also facilitates the further functional characterization and analysis of GA oxidases.

  14. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Tatiana A; Morgado, Luis N; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic richness of soil ascomycetes in dry and moist tundra types. Using deep Ion Torrent sequencing, we quantified how OTU assemblage and richness of different orders of Ascomycota changed in response to summer warming. Experimental warming significantly altered ascomycete communities with stronger responses observed in the moist tundra compared with dry tundra. The proportion of several lichenized and moss-associated fungi decreased with warming, while the proportion of several plant and insect pathogens and saprotrophic species was higher in the warming treatment. The observed alterations in both taxonomic and ecological groups of ascomycetes are discussed in relation to previously reported warming-induced shifts in arctic plant communities, including decline in lichens and bryophytes and increase in coverage and biomass of shrubs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Vegetative reproduction and clonal diversity in Rhytidium rugosum (Rhytidiaceae, Bryopsida) inferred by morpho-anatomical and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Tanja; Fritz, Sebastian; Stech, Michael; Frey, Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    Many bryophytes exhibit specific life forms that result in the formation of distinct patches. This is primarily achieved by "consequent vegetative multiplication" through indeterminate growth and vegetative reproduction. Little, however, is known about the underlying mechanisms and genetic patterns. In this study on vegetative multiplication in bryophytes, we apply morpho-anatomical and molecular (AFLP fingerprinting) techniques to analyze the vegetative reproduction system, clonal diversity, and habitat colonization of a pleurocarpous moss, Rhytidium rugosum (Rhytidiaceae). Morpho-anatomically, three types of vegetative diaspores are identified and illustrated: ramets, separated after decay and disintegration of older shoot parts (clonal reproduction); brood branches/branchlets; and caducous shoot apices (both vegetative reproduction s.str.). The AFLP fingerprinting of 35 samples (from two plots in Thuringia, further German populations, and from France, Russia, and Canada) resulted in the identification of three clones from the two plots, each comprising two to 15 samples with identical fingerprints. Samples from one clone occurred in both plots, thus proving dispersal of vegetative diaspores. The AFLP analysis further revealed close relationships of the plot samples, which suggest a clonal rather than generative (sexual) origin of the population.

  16. A Transcriptome Atlas of Physcomitrella patens Provides Insights into the Evolution and Development of Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Carlos; Hernandez-Coronado, Marcela; Thamm, Anna; Catarino, Bruno; Wang, Mingyi; Dolan, Liam; Feijó, José A; Becker, Jörg D

    2016-02-01

    Identifying the genetic mechanisms that underpin the evolution of new organ and tissue systems is an aim of evolutionary developmental biology. Comparative functional genetic studies between angiosperms and bryophytes can define those genetic changes that were responsible for developmental innovations. Here, we report the generation of a transcriptome atlas covering most phases in the life cycle of the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, including detailed sporophyte developmental progression. We identified a comprehensive set of sporophyte-specific transcription factors, and found that many of these genes have homologs in angiosperms that function in developmental processes such as flowering and shoot branching. Deletion of the PpTCP5 transcription factor results in development of supernumerary sporangia attached to a single seta, suggesting that it negatively regulates branching in the moss sporophyte. Given that TCP genes repress branching in angiosperms, we suggest that this activity is ancient. Finally, comparison of P. patens and Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptomes led us to the identification of a conserved core of transcription factors expressed in tip-growing cells. We identified modifications in the expression patterns of these genes that could account for developmental differences between P. patens tip-growing cells and A. thaliana pollen tubes and root hairs. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeted metabolomics shows plasticity in the evolution of signaling lipids and uncovers old and new endocannabinoids in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachet, María Salomé; Schubert, Alexandra; Calarco, Serafina; Boccard, Julien; Gertsch, Jürg

    2017-01-25

    The remarkable absence of arachidonic acid (AA) in seed plants prompted us to systematically study the presence of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, stearic acid, oleic acid, jasmonic acid (JA), N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and endocannabinoids (ECs) in 71 plant species representative of major phylogenetic clades. Given the difficulty of extrapolating information about lipid metabolites from genetic data we employed targeted metabolomics using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS to study these signaling lipids in plant evolution. Intriguingly, the distribution of AA among the clades showed an inverse correlation with JA which was less present in algae, bryophytes and monilophytes. Conversely, ECs co-occurred with AA in algae and in the lower plants (bryophytes and monilophytes), thus prior to the evolution of cannabinoid receptors in Animalia. We identified two novel EC-like molecules derived from the eicosatetraenoic acid juniperonic acid, an omega-3 structural isomer of AA, namely juniperoyl ethanolamide and 2-juniperoyl glycerol in gymnosperms, lycophytes and few monilophytes. Principal component analysis of the targeted metabolic profiles suggested that distinct NAEs may occur in different monophyletic taxa. This is the first report on the molecular phylogenetic distribution of apparently ancient lipids in the plant kingdom, indicating biosynthetic plasticity and potential physiological roles of EC-like lipids in plants.

  18. Recent and subrecent diatom flora of the Sudeten mountains: The Jeseníky Mts and The Jizerské hory Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisie Poulíčková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the summary of recent and subrecent diatom flora within Sudeten mountain wetlands - the Jizerské Mts and the Jeseníky Mts Recent samples were taken during the years 2003 and 2006 - 2010. Herbarized bryophytes and fixed samples deposited in museums from the period 1898 - 1995 were used as a source of subrecent diatom flora. A total of 163 diatom species occurred at 70 microsites within 26 mires along the Czech-Polish-German border areas. Recent diatom flora of both areas seems to be comparable in terms of species richness and dominant species. Subrecent samples (herbarized bryophytes contain some less frequent species (representation < 1%, which do not belong to mire flora and can represent a contamination (e.g. planktic genera. Frustulia saxonica and Eunotia paludosa were the most frequent species. E. exigua related in Western Europe to acidification caused by acid rains, was less frequent in both historic and modern samples. Unfortunately, we have few historical herbarium specimens from the 70-ies and 80- ies to trace changes associated with air pollution.

  19. Rare Moss-Built Microterraces in a High-Altitude, Acid Mine Drainage-Polluted Stream (Cordillera Negra, Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevink, Jan; Verstraten, Jacobus M; Kooijman, Annemieke M; Loayza-Muro, Raul A; Hoitinga, Leo; Palomino, Edwin J; Jansen, Boris

    The Rio Santiago in the Cordillera Negra of Peru is severely contaminated by acid mine drainage in its headwaters. In a strongly acid stream, at about 3800 m above sea level (masl), microterraces were found with terrace walls built up of dead moss, with encrustations and interstitial fine, creamy sediment. The stream water was turbid due to the presence of similar suspended sediment, which also occurred as a thin basal layer in inter-rim basins. The moss was identified as the rare bryophyte Anomobryum prostratum (Müll. Hal.) Besch. Chemical and mineralogical analyses show that green, living parts of the moss are gradually coated by Al/Fe (hydr)oxides, inducing their senescence and death. The necromass is covered by creamy crusts through precipitation of schwertmannite-type material from the stream water and simultaneous 'capture' of fine sediment. The latter consists of a mixture of precipitate and fine detrital primary minerals. These processes are held responsible for the formation of the microterraces, which regarding their composition and environment seem to be unique. Remarkable is the high As content of the creamy crusts and sediment, attributed to strong sorption of As, whereas its solute concentration is relatively low. This calls for more attention to suspended fine sediment in the assessment of environmental risks of stream water use. Lastly, the results raise serious doubts about the use of aquatic bryophytes as bioindicator for chemical pollution in acid mine drainage-polluted streams.

  20. Effects of cryptogamic covers on the global carbon and nitrogen balance as investigated by different approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Porada, Philipp; Elbert, Wolfgang; Burrows, Susannah; Caesar, Jennifer; Steinkamp, Jörg; Tamm, Alexandra; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Büdel, Burkhard; Kleidon, Axel; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Cryptogamic covers are composed of cyanobacteria, green algae, lichens, bryophytes, fungi and bacteria in varying proportions. As cryptogamic ground covers, comprising biological soil and rock crusts they occur on many terrestrial ground surfaces. Cryptogamic plant covers, containing epiphytic and epiphyllic crusts as well as foliose or fruticose lichens and bryophytes spread over large portions of terrestrial plant surfaces. Photoautotrophic organisms within these crusts sequester atmospheric CO2 and many of them include nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, utilizing atmospheric N2 to form ammonium which can be readily used by vascular plants. In a large-scale data analysis approach, we compiled all available data on the physiological properties of cryptogamic covers and developed a model to calculate their annual nitrogen fixation and net primary production. Here, we obtained a total value of 3.9 Pg a-1 for the global net uptake of carbon by cryptogamic covers, which corresponds to approximately 7% of the estimated global net primary production of terrestrial vegetation. Nitrogen assimilation of cryptogamic covers revealed a global estimate of ~49 Tg a-1, accounting for as much as about half the estimated total terrestrial biological nitrogen fixation. In a second approach, we calculated the global carbon uptake by lichens and bryophytes by means of a process-based model. In this model, we used gridded climate data combined with key habitat properties (as e.g. disturbance intervals) to predict the processes which control net carbon uptake, i.e. photosynthesis, respiration, water uptake and evaporation. The model relies on equations frequently used in dynamic vegetation models, which were combined with concepts specific to lichens and bryophytes. As this model only comprises lichens and bryophytes, the predicted terrestrial net uptake of 0.34 to 3.3 Gt a-1 is in accordance with our empirically-derived estimate. Based on this result, we quantified the amount of nitrogen

  1. Changing contributions of stochastic and deterministic processes in community assembly over a successional gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Måren, Inger Elisabeth; Kapfer, Jutta; Aarrestad, Per Arild; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2017-10-24

    Successional dynamics in plant community assembly may result from both deterministic and stochastic ecological processes. The relative importance of different ecological processes is expected to vary over the successional sequence, between different plant functional groups, and with the disturbance levels and land-use management regimes of the successional systems. We evaluate the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in bryophyte and vascular plant community assembly after fire in grazed and un-grazed anthropogenic coastal heathlands in Northern Europe. A replicated series of post-fire successions (n = 12) were initiated under grazed and un-grazed conditions, and vegetation data were recorded in permanent plots over 13 years. We used redundancy analysis (RDA) to test for deterministic successional patterns in species composition repeated across the replicate successional series and analyses of co-occurrence to evaluate to what extent species respond synchronously along the successional gradient. Change in species co-occurrences over succession indicates stochastic successional dynamics at the species level (i.e., species equivalence), whereas constancy in co-occurrence indicates deterministic dynamics (successional niche differentiation). The RDA shows high and deterministic vascular plant community compositional change, especially early in succession. Co-occurrence analyses indicate stochastic species-level dynamics the first two years, which then give way to more deterministic replacements. Grazed and un-grazed successions are similar, but the early-stage stochasticity is higher in un-grazed areas. Bryophyte communities in un-grazed successions resemble vascular plant communities. In contrast, bryophytes in grazed successions showed consistently high stochasticity and low determinism in both community composition and species co-occurrence. In conclusion, stochastic and individualistic species responses early in succession give way to

  2. Arctic Late Cretaceous and Paleocene Plant Community Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Alexei; Spicer, Robert; Daly, Robert; Jolley, David; Ahlberg, Anders; Moiseeva, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic abounds with Late Cretaceous and Paleocene plant fossils attesting to a thriving, diverse, but now extinct polar ecosystem that sequestered vast amounts of carbon. Through detailed examination of plant remains and their distributions in time and space with respect to their entombing sedimentary facies, it has been possible to reconstruct changes in Arctic vegetation composition and dynamics through the Late Cretaceous and into the Paleocene. Based on over 10,000 leaf remains, fossil wood and palynomorph assemblages from northeastern Russia and northern Alaska and palynological data from elsewhere in the Arctic we identify a number of successional plant communities (SPCs) representing seral development from early (pioneer), through middle to late SPCs and climax vegetation. We recognise that (1) Equisetites and some ferns (typically Birisia, but after the beginning of the Maastrichtian, Onoclea) were obligatory components of the early SPCs; (2) first rare angiosperms (e.g. the dicot Vitiphyllum multifidum) appeared in the middle SPCs of the Arctic in the Early - Middle Albian; (3) from late Albian times onwards angiosperms became abundant in the middle SPCs of the Arctic, but were still rare in the earlier and later SPCs; (4) monocots appeared in the Maastrichtian early SPCs; (5) all Arctic Cretaceous late SPCs (and climax vegetation) were dominated by conifers; (6) Arctic SPCs were more numerous and diverse under warm climates than cold; (7) during the Albian and late Cretaceous, advanced (Cenophytic, angiosperm-dominated) plant communities coexisted with those of a more relictual (Mesophytic, dominated by ferns and gymnosperms) aspect, and plants composing these communities did not mix; (8) coal-forming environments (mires) remained conifer, fern and bryophyte dominated throughout the late Cretaceous and Paleocene with little penetration of woody angiosperm components and thus are conservative and predominantly Mesophytic in character; (9) bryophytes

  3. Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointing, Stephen B; Burkhard Büdel; Convey, Peter; Gillman, Len N; Körner, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Vincent, Warwick F

    2015-01-01

    The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs over that of vascular plants. Constraints on vascular plants arise mainly due to stature and ontogenetic barriers. Conversely non-vascular plant and microbial photoautotroph distribution is correlated with favorable microclimates and the capacity for poikilohydric dormancy. Contemporary distribution also depends on evolutionary history, with adaptive and dispersal traits as well as legacy influencing biogeography. We highlight the relevance of these findings to predicting future impacts on diversity of polar photoautotrophs and to the current status of plants in Arctic and Antarctic conservation policy frameworks.

  4. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations for the year 1986 to the inventory maintained in PRECIS are reported for bryophytes, pteridophytes and monocotyledons, and for a few dicotyledons. For the cryptogams and monocots there are 77 newly described species or infraspecific taxa, 27 names brought back into use, and nine species newly reported for southern Africa, resulting in 113 additions to the total list of species. Five species were removed because they were mistakenly recorded from the area. Seventy-five names have gone into synonymy, there are 52 new combinations, and there are 35 orthographic corrections, resulting in 237 alterations to the list of species. The total of 355 additions, deletions and alterations represents about 5% of the total species and infraspecific taxa for the cryptogams and monocots.

  5. Revised Flora and List of Threatened and Endangered Plants for the John F. Kennedy Space Center Area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Foster, Tammy E.; Duncan, Brean W.; Quincy, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The vascular flora of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) area was first studied in the 1970's, and the list was revised in 1990. Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes as well as additional collections required a revision of this list. The revised list includes 1024 taxa of which 803 are native and 221 are introduced. This appears to be a substantial proportion of the regional flora. Fifty taxa are endemic or nearly endemic, a level of endemism that appears high for the east coast of Florida. Of the 221 introduced plants, twenty-six are Category I invasive exotics and fifteen are Category II invasive exotics. Thirty-eight taxa are listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern on state lists. For some of these taxa, populations on KSC appear to be important for their regional and global survival. The bryophyte flora of the KSC area includes 23 mosses and 20 liverworts and hornworts. The lichen flora is currently unknown.

  6. Lichens and microfungi in biocrusts: Structure and function now and in the future: Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Lange, Otto L.; Dighton, J.; White, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are formed by soil-surface communities of biota that live within, or immediately on top of, the uppermost millimeters of soil. They consist of cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, microfungi, and lichenized fungi (hereafter, lichens). Cyanobacterial and microfungal filaments, rhizinae and rhizomorphs of lichens, and rhizinae and protonemata of bryophytes weave throughout the top few millimeters of soil, gluing loose soil particles together (Fig. 1). The intimate association between soil particles and organisms forms a coherent crust. A quantitative estimate of global biological crust cover is difficult to obtain and not yet available, but the worldwide coverage of the terrestrial surface by biocrusts is very high. In arid and semiarid areas, biocrusts may constitute up to or more than 70% of the living cover and dryland (hyper-arid, arid, semi-arid, and polar deserts) ecosystems, where they often dominate, cover ~40% of the terrestrial land mass (Pointing and Belnap 2014).

  7. Comparison of the moss Pleurozium schreberi with needles and bark of Pinus sylvestris as biomonitors of pollution by industry in Stalowa Wola (southeast Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kosior, G; Kempers, A J

    2006-09-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in the terrestrial bryophyte Pleurozium schreberi and in samples of bark and current and previous year needles of Pinus sylvestris collected along transects around the Stalowa Wola industry center (southeast Poland) and compared with material of the same species from a control site. The suitability of bark and pine needles for use in monitoring of serious heavy metal pollution was investigated. In the examined area current and previous year pine needles can be considered suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution for Cu and Zn and bark for only Cu. Bioaccumulation abilities of Cd and Cu in P. schreberi and P. sylvestris current and previous year needles were similar. Current and previous year needles were better accumulators of Mn, Ni, and Zn compared to the moss P. schreberi. Bark was a better accumulator of Cd, Cu, and Ni and an inferior accumulator of Mn compared to P. schreberi in the examined area.

  8. Are herbarium mosses reliable indicators of historical nitrogen deposition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tora Finderup; Larsen, Jesper Ruf; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Mosses collected decades ago and stored in herbaria are often used to assess historical nitrogen deposition. This method is effectively based on the assumption that tissue N concentration remains constant during storage. The present study raises serious doubt about the generality of that assumption....... We measured tissue N and C concentrations as well as δ15N, δ13C, Pb and Mg in herbarium and present day samples of seven bryophyte species from six sites across Denmark. While an increase in nitrogen deposition during the last century is well-documented for the study site, we surprisingly found...... foliar N concentration to be higher in historical samples than in modern samples. Based on δ15N values and Pb concentration, we find nitrogen contamination of herbarium specimens during storage to be the most likely cause, possibly in combination with dilution though growth and/or decomposition during...

  9. Relations between vegetation and water level in alkaline fen ecosystems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    , management and conservation of fens are constrained by limited knowledge on the relations between vegetation and measurable hydrological conditions. This study investigates the relations between vegetation and water level dynamics in groundwater dependent wetlands in Denmark. A total of 35 wetland sites...... across Denmark were included in the study. The sites represent a continuum of wetlands with respect to vegetation and hydrological conditions. Water level was measured continuously using pressure transducers at each site. Metrics expressing different hydrological characteristics, such as mean water level...... and low and high water level periods, were calculated based on the water level time series. A complete plant species list was recorded in plots covering 78.5 m2 at each site. Community metrics such as total number of species and the number of bryophytes were generated from the species lists and Ellenberg...

  10. Seasonal pattern of metal bioaccumulation and their toxicity on Sphagnum squarrosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anuj

    2006-01-01

    Present study was undertaken as an attempt to study the effect of pollutants on biological responses of Sphagnum growing at Kainchi, Kumaon hills (Uttranchal). Sphagnum plants of almost identical size, collected from the marked sites of Kainchi in different seasons viz., monsoon, winter, summer and again in monsoon, were analysed for chlorophyll, protein, shoot length and nitrate reductase and peroxidase activities. Maximum chlorophyll, protein, shoots length and nitrate reductase activities were observed during the monsoon while minimum in summers. The abundance of Sphagnum and two other bryophytes, Marchantia and Plagiochasma was also higher in monsoon than in other seasons. The study also indicated that Sphagnum has more bioaccumulation and tolerance potential for heavy metals than Marchantia and Plagiochasma.

  11. Characterization of freshwater mosses as indicators of radioactive contamination; Caracterisation de mousses dulcaquicoles comme indicateurs de contamination radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.

    1994-12-16

    The necessity of indicators of freshwater contamination has developed the interest for aquatic mosses. From a fundamental point of view, studying the influence of some biotic and abiotic factors has permitted to better know the mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation by these bryophytes. From a radioecological point of view, simulating real cases of water contamination has allowed to give results a very interesting representativeness. The use of mosses as bio-indicators was applied for two in situ experiments, the results of which have been interpreted from those obtained in laboratory. Finally, an approach by a mathematical model has showed that it is possible to have, in a middle term, an evaluation tool of freshwater contamination, based on the radionuclides concentrations measured in aquatic mosses. (author). refs., 57 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Palaeoecology of Holocene peat deposits from Nordvestø, north-west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Two extensive peat deposits on Nordvestø, between Greenland and Canada, were examined for macroscopic remains of plants and animals. One of the peat deposits accumulated during the period from c. 7,100 to 5,100 cal. years BP. This peat is guanogenic and completely dominated by the coprophilous...... bryophyte Aplodon wormskioldii, and also contains frequent remains of feathers. The peat formed close to a large former sea bird colony, probably a puffin (Fratercula arctica) colony. Puffins are now rare in the region, but the population may have been larger during the mid Holocene, when the sea was ice......-free for a longer period than at present. The other peat deposit is dated to c. 9,300-7,400 cal. years BP, it is minerogenic and the macrofossils reflect deposition in a shallow, richly vegetated pond. This peat formed during warmer summers than at present....

  13. The regional species richness and genetic diversity of Arctic vegetation reflect both past glaciations and current climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, L.; Alsos, Inger G.; Bay, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Arctic has experienced marked climatic differences between glacial and interglacial periods and is now subject to a rapidly warming climate. Knowledge of the effects of historical processes on current patterns of diversity may aid predictions of the responses of vegetation to future climate...... species richness of the vascular plant flora of 21 floristic provinces and examined local species richness in 6215 vegetation plots distributed across the Arctic. We assessed levels of genetic diversity inferred from amplified fragment length polymorphism variation across populations of 23 common Arctic...... correlated with each other, and both showed a positive relationship with landscape age. Plot species richness showed differing responses for vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. At this finer scale, the richness of vascular plants was not significantly related to landscape age, which had a small effect...

  14. Palynomorphs in Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon in the coastal plain of extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebráilon Masetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.

  15. Ring strain and total syntheses of modified macrocycles of the isoplagiochin type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Speicher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocycles of the bisbibenzyl-type are natural products that are found exclusively in bryophytes (liverworts. The molecular framework of the subtype “isoplagiochin” is of substantial structural interest because of the chirality of the entire molecule, which arises from two biaryl axes in combination with two helical two-carbon units in a cyclic arrangement. From a structural as well as a synthetic point of view we report on the total synthesis of compounds which possess more rigid two-carbon biaryl bridges like stilbene (E or Z or even tolane moieties which were introduced starting with a Sonogashira protocol. The McMurry method proved to be a powerful tool for the cyclization to these considerably ring-strained macrocycles.

  16. The soil mite genus Conchogneta (Acari, Oribatida, Autognetidae, with new findings from Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badamdorj Bayartogtokh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with taxonomy, geographical distribution as well as known ecology of oribatid mites of the genus Conchogneta Grandjean, 1963 in the world. The majority of species belonging to this genus is known to be widely distributed in Europe, but only three of them are found in other areas of the northern hemisphere. Most species of Conchogneta are inhabitants of litter of various types of forestas, terricolous and epiphytic bryophytes, epiphytic lichens, and soil of steppe, river valleys, moor, oligotrophic bogs, floodland assemblages etc. A new species, Conchogneta glabrisensillata sp. n. is described, and another species, C. traegardhi (Forsslund, 1947 is redescribed from the northern and western parts of Mongolia, respectively. Conchogneta is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Mongolia. The species status of C. dalecarlica (Forsslund, 1947 is discussed. Species descriptions are accompanied with detailed illustrations. Furthermore, a key is provided for the identification of adults of the known species of Conchogneta in the world.

  17. The soil mite genus Conchogneta (Acari, Oribatida, Autognetidae), with new findings from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayartogtokh, Badamdorj

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with taxonomy, geographical distribution as well as known ecology of oribatid mites of the genus Conchogneta Grandjean, 1963 in the world. The majority of species belonging to this genus is known to be widely distributed in Europe, but only three of them are found in other areas of the northern hemisphere. Most species of Conchogneta are inhabitants of litter of various types of forestas, terricolous and epiphytic bryophytes, epiphytic lichens, and soil of steppe, river valleys, moor, oligotrophic bogs, floodland assemblages etc. A new species, Conchogneta glabrisensillatasp. n. is described, and another species, Conchogneta traegardhi (Forsslund, 1947) is redescribed from the northern and western parts of Mongolia, respectively. Conchogneta is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Mongolia. The species status of Conchogneta dalecarlica (Forsslund, 1947) is discussed. Species descriptions are accompanied with detailed illustrations. Furthermore, a key is provided for the identification of adults of the known species of Conchogneta in the world.

  18. Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brian Pointing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs over that of vascular plants. Constraints on vascular plants arise mainly due to stature and ontogenetic barriers. Conversely non-vascular plant and microbial photoautotroph distribution is correlated with favourable microclimates and the capacity for poikilohydric dormancy. Contemporary distribution also depends on evolutionary history, with adaptive and dispersal traits as well as legacy influencing biogeography. We highlight the relevance of these findings to predicting future impacts on polar plant diversity and to the current status of plants in Arctic and Antarctic conservation policy frameworks.

  19. In vivo assembly of DNA-fragments in the moss, Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Brian Christopher; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Ikram, Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul

    2016-01-01

    Direct assembly of multiple linear DNA fragments via homologous recombination, a phenomenon known as in vivo assembly or transformation associated recombination, is used in biotechnology to assemble DNA constructs ranging in size from a few kilobases to full synthetic microbial genomes. It has al...... of high-value therapeutics. These proof-of-principle experiments pave the way for more complex and increasingly flexible approaches for large-scale metabolic engineering in plant biotechnology.......Direct assembly of multiple linear DNA fragments via homologous recombination, a phenomenon known as in vivo assembly or transformation associated recombination, is used in biotechnology to assemble DNA constructs ranging in size from a few kilobases to full synthetic microbial genomes. It has also...... enabled the complete replacement of eukaryotic chromosomes with heterologous DNA. The moss Physcomitrella patens, a non-vascular and spore producing land plant (Bryophyte), has a well-established capacity for homologous recombination. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo assembly of multiple DNA fragments...

  20. A phylogenetic approach to study the origin and evolution of the CRINKLY4 family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eNikonorova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell communication plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and relies to a large extent on peptide ligand-receptor kinase signalling mechanisms. The CRINKLY4 (CR4 family of receptor-like kinases is involved in a wide range of developmental processes in plants, including mediating columella stem cell identity and differentiation in the Arabidopsis thaliana root tip. Members of the CR4 family contain a signal peptide, an extracellular part, a single-pass transmembrane helix and an intracellular cytoplasmic protein kinase domain. The main distinguishing features of the family are the presence of seven ‘crinkly’ repeats and a TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR (TNFR-like domain in the extracellular part. Here, we investigated the evolutionary origin of the CR4 family and explored to what extent members of this family are conserved throughout the green lineage. We identified members of the CR4 family in various dicots and monocots, and also in the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii and the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. In addition, we attempted to gain insight in the evolutionary origin of different CR4-specific domains, and we could detect ‘crinkly’ repeat containing proteins already in single celled algae. Finally, we related the presence of likely functional CR4 orthologues to its best described signalling module comprising CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-RELATED 40 (CLE40, WUSCHEL RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5, CLAVATA 1 (CLV1 and ARABIDOPSIS CR4 (ACR4, and established that this module likely is already present in bryophytes and lycophytes.

  1. β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine exposure alters defense against oxidative stress in aquatic plants Lomariopsis lineata, Fontinalis antipyretica, Riccia fluitans and Taxiphyllum barbieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Funke, Marc Sebastian; Peuthert, Anja; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2013-02-01

    Four different aquatic plants, the Pteridophyte Lomariopsis lineata and the Bryophytes Fontinalis antipyretica, Riccia fluitans and Taxiphyllum barbieri, were tested for their capacity to absorb the neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from water and thus their possible applicability in a "Green Liver System". After exposure to 10 and 100 μg L(-1) BMAA for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days exposure concentration of medium and tissue were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The amount removed by the plants within only 1 day was equal to the biological degradation of 14 days. Comparing the "BMAA-removal" capacity of the 4 tested aquatic plants R. fluitans, L. lineata and T. barbieri turned out to be most effective in cleaning the water from this cyanobacterial toxin by up to 97% within 14 days. Activity of the antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), as well as biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) was compared between exposed and control plants to determine possible harmful effects induced by BMAA. Whereas the Bryophytes displayed increased POD activity and subsequent adaptation when exposed to the lower concentration, as well as partly inhibited antioxidant response at the higher applied BMAA concentration, the Pteridophyte L. lineata reacted with increased POD activity during the whole experiment and increased GST activity after longer exposure for 14 days. To give a recommendation of the suitability of an aquatic plant to be used for sustainable phytoremediation of contaminated water, testing of removal capacity of specific contaminants as well as studying general physiological parameters giving hint on survivability in such environments has to be combined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The first complete chloroplast genome sequence of a lycophyte,Huperzia lucidula (Lycopodiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Paul G.; Karol, Kenneth G.; Mandoli, Dina F.; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Arumuganathan, K.; Ellis, Mark W.; Mishler, Brent D.; Kelch,Dean G.; Olmstead, Richard G.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    We used a unique combination of techniques to sequence the first complete chloroplast genome of a lycophyte, Huperzia lucidula. This plant belongs to a significant clade hypothesized to represent the sister group to all other vascular plants. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate the organelles, rolling circle amplification (RCA) to amplify the genome, and shotgun sequencing to 8x depth coverage to obtain the complete chloroplast genome sequence. The genome is 154,373bp, containing inverted repeats of 15,314 bp each, a large single-copy region of 104,088 bp, and a small single-copy region of 19,671 bp. Gene order is more similar to those of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts than to gene order for other vascular plants. For example, the Huperziachloroplast genome possesses the bryophyte gene order for a previously characterized 30 kb inversion, thus supporting the hypothesis that lycophytes are sister to all other extant vascular plants. The lycophytechloroplast genome data also enable a better reconstruction of the basaltracheophyte genome, which is useful for inferring relationships among bryophyte lineages. Several unique characters are observed in Huperzia, such as movement of the gene ndhF from the small single copy region into the inverted repeat. We present several analyses of evolutionary relationships among land plants by using nucleotide data, amino acid sequences, and by comparing gene arrangements from chloroplast genomes. The results, while still tentative pending the large number of chloroplast genomes from other key lineages that are soon to be sequenced, are intriguing in themselves, and contribute to a growing comparative database of genomic and morphological data across the green plants.

  3. Biocrust ecology: Unifying micro- and macro-scales to confront global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Reed, Sasha C.

    2017-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are communities of microbes, lichens and bryophytes living at the soil surface in drylands (Fig. 1; Belnap et al., 2016). Biocrusts occur on all continents and can comprise a majority of cover in some systems (Belnap et al., 2016). While species diversity and distributions have long been a research focus, interest in controls on community composition and cover has expanded as biocrusts are increasingly recognized for their roles in ecosystem functioning (Deane-Coe and Stanton, 2017). For example, biocrust organisms can stabilize soils (Belnap et al., 2016; Faist et al., 2017), fix atmospheric carbon (C) (Sancho et al., 2016), and serve as the foremost source of ‘new’ soil nitrogen (N) in drylands, via N2 fixation (Barger et al., 2016) These contributions to gross primary production and soil fertility could be quite large, as high-end estimates suggest biocrusts and similar communities of bryophytes and lichens might account for 10% of terrestrial C- and 50% of N-fixation globally (Elbert et al., 2012). Yet verifying these and other biocrust roles in ecosystem functioning is complicated by limited knowledge of biocrust cover and composition across the vast dryland biome (Ferrenberg et al., 2017).It was against this backdrop that ‘Biocrust3: the 3rd International workshop on biological soil crusts’ was held in Moab, UT, USA, on 26-30 September 2016. The workshop brought together over 50 scientists from 21 countries and six continents, and included numerous biocrust science pioneers (Fig. 2). The meeting was notable for its cross-scale focus, discussion of novel molecular and imaging techniques, and sessions on mapping and restoring biocrusts in a changing world. Here, we synthesize a central theme that emerged from Biocrust3, namely the potential for combining cutting edge tools with studies focused on organismal traits, ecosystem functions, and global change biology to advance the frontier of biocrust ecology.

  4. Evolution of allosteric regulation in chorismate mutases from early plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Kourtney; Holland, Cynthia K.; Starks, Courtney M.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2017-09-28

    Plants, fungi, and bacteria synthesize the aromatic amino acids: l-phenylalanine, l-tyrosine, and l-tryptophan. Chorismate mutase catalyzes the branch point reaction of phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis to generate prephenate. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are two plastid-localized chorismate mutases that are allosterically regulated (AtCM1 and AtCM3) and one cytosolic isoform (AtCM2) that is unregulated. Previous analysis of plant chorismate mutases suggested that the enzymes from early plants (i.e. bryophytes/moss, lycophytes, and basal angiosperms) formed a clade distinct from the isoforms found in flowering plants; however, no biochemical information on these enzymes is available. To understand the evolution of allosteric regulation in plant chorismate mutases, we analyzed a basal lineage of plant enzymes homologous to AtCM1 based on sequence similarity. The chorismate mutases from the moss/bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (PpCM1 and PpCM2), the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (SmCM), and the basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda (AmtCM1 and AmtCM2) were characterized biochemically. Tryptophan was a positive effector for each of the five enzymes examined. Histidine was a weak positive effector for PpCM1 and AmtCM1. Neither tyrosine nor phenylalanine altered the activity of SmCM; however, tyrosine was a negative regulator of the other four enzymes. Phenylalanine down-regulates both moss enzymes and AmtCM2. The 2.0 Å X-ray crystal structure of PpCM1 in complex with the tryptophan identified the allosteric effector site and reveals structural differences between the R- (more active) and T-state (less active) forms of plant chorismate mutases. Molecular insight into the basal plant chorismate mutases guides our understanding of the evolution of allosteric regulation in these enzymes.

  5. Biological soil crusts across disturbance-recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Reyes-Agüero, J. A.; Escudero, A.; Belnap, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Grazing represents one of the most common disturbances in drylands worldwide, affecting both ecosystem structure and functioning. Despite the efforts to understand the nature and magnitude of grazing effects on ecosystem components and processes, contrasting results continue to arise. This is particularly remarkable for the biological soil crust (BSC) communities (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes), which play an important role in soil dynamics. Here we evaluated simultaneously the effect of grazing impact on BSC communities (resistance) and recovery after livestock exclusion (resilience) in a semiarid grassland of Central Mexico. In particular, we examined BSC species distribution, species richness, taxonomical group cover (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichen, bryophyte), and composition along a disturbance gradient with different grazing regimes (low, medium, high impact) and along a recovery gradient with differently aged livestock exclosures (short-, medium-, long-term exclusion). Differences in grazing impact and time of recovery from grazing both resulted in slight changes in species richness; however, there were pronounced shifts in species composition and group cover. We found we could distinguish four highly diverse and dynamic BSC species groups: (1) species with high resistance and resilience to grazing, (2) species with high resistance but low resilience, (3) species with low resistance but high resilience, and (4) species with low resistance and resilience. While disturbance resulted in a novel diversity configuration, which may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning, we observed that 10 years of disturbance removal did not lead to the ecosystem structure found after 27 years of recovery. These findings are an important contribution to our understanding of BCS dynamics from a species and community perspective placed in a land use change context.

  6. Inventory of the mosses, liverworts, and lichens of Olympic National Park, Washington- Species list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutten, M.; Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, K.

    2005-01-01

    The identification of non-vascular cryptogam species (lichens, mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) is especially challenging because of their small size, their often microscopic or chemical distinguishing features, and their enormous diversity. Consequently, they are a poorly known component of Olympic National Park, despite their ecological and aesthetic importance. This project is the first attempt at a systematic, comprehensive survey of non-vascular cryptogams in the Park and presents the current species list with descriptions of the substrate and vascular vegetation type where they were observed. The authors strove to collect from as many park environments as feasible, and distributed collections along important environmental gradients in different regions of the park using vascular vegetation as an environmental indicator. They also collected opportunistically when interesting habitats or microhabitats were encountered. Finally, the authors updated the nomenclature in the Park’s previous collection of nonvascular plants. This study identified approximately 13,200 bryophyte and lichen species, adding approximately 425 new species to the Olympic National Park Herbarium. These data, combined with select literature reports and personal data from Martin and Karen Hutten, added more than 350 species to the previously documented Olympic Peninsula lichen and bryophyte list. The authors discuss the list in a local, regional, and global context of rarity, as well as cryptogam conservation and further work needed in Olympic National Park. The improved inventory of Olympic National Park cryptogams represented by this project enables Olympic National Park to protect populations of rare and sensitive species, assess the damage caused by illegal harvest, and contribute information to the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service Sensitive Species Programs.

  7. Desiccation tolerance of Sphagnum revisited: a puzzle resolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, T; Vicherová, E

    2014-07-01

    As ecosystem engineers, Sphagnum mosses control their surroundings through water retention, acidification and peat accumulation. Because water retention avoids desiccation, sphagna are generally intolerant to drought; however, the literature on Sphagnum desiccation tolerance (DT) provides puzzling results, indicating the inducible nature of their DT. To test this, various Sphagnum species and other mesic bryophytes were hardened to drought by (i) slow drying; (ii) ABA application and (iii) chilling or frost. DT tolerance was assessed as recovery of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters after severe desiccation. We monitored the seasonal course of DT in bog bryophytes. Under laboratory conditions, following initial de-hardening, untreated Sphagnum shoots lacked DT; however, DT was induced by all hardening treatments except chilling, notably by slow drying, and in Sphagnum species of the section Cuspidata. In the field, sphagna in hollows and lawns developed DT several times during the growing season, responding to reduced precipitation and a lowered water table. Hummock and aquatic species developed DT only in late autumn, probably as a response to frost. Sphagnum protonemata failed to develop DT; hence, desiccation may limit Sphagnum establishment in drier habitats with suitable substrate chemistry. Desiccation avoiders among sphagna form compact hummocks or live submerged; thus, they do not develop DT in the field, lacking the initial desiccation experience, which is frequent in hollow and lawn habitats. We confirmed the morpho-physiological trade-off: in contrast to typical hollow sphagna, hummock species invest more resources in water retention (desiccation avoidance), while they have a lower ability to develop physiological DT. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transformations of species composition in the main plant communities of the Karkonosze Mts. subalpine and alpine belts during the last 35 years. The investigations of floristic changes were performed in associations: Carici (rigidae-Nardetum, Carici-Festucetum supinae, Crepidi-Calamagrostietum villose and Empetro-Vaccinietum. Signalized are also some vegetation transformations in the remaining belts. The progressing floristic degradation of plant communities in the subalpine and alpine belts consists in: (a expansion of grasses, (b decline of rare vascular plants, and (c elimination of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. In spruce forest belts declining are species connected with old-growth spruce forests like: Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora. The changes of plant communities of low mountain swards (Nardetalia caused by cessation of pasture and mowing in the cause of retreat of many rare plants, like e.g., Arnica montana. The main cause of the still lasting in the Karkonosze Mts. community transformations is the changes in soil environment connected with anthropogenic nitrogen fertilization. The large inflow of mineral nitrogen from the atmosphere (1138 mg/m2 sum for vegetation season is the reason of accelerated rate of decomposition of organic matter and intensified nitrification. The high content of nitrates in soil (5 times higher than in the Tatra Mts. swards is the reason of expansion of graminoids, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa, Calamagrostis villosa and Carex bigelowii subsp. rigida. The overfertilisation of habitats causes the retreat of rare high mountain vascular plants and the decline of terricolous bryophytes and lichens.

  9. Influences of microhabitat constraints and rock-climbing disturbance on cliff-face vegetation communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Kathryn Lynne; Larson, Douglas W

    2006-06-01

    Many researchers report that rock climbing has significant negative effects on cliff biota. Most work on climbing disturbance, however has not controlled for variation in microsite characteristics when comparing areas with and without climbing presence. Additionally, some researchers do not identify the style or difficulty level of climbing routes sampled or select climbing routes that do not represent current trends in the sport. We solved these problems by sampling climbing areas used by advanced "sport" climbers and quantifying differences in microtopography between climbed and control cliffs. We determined whether differences in vegetation existed between pristine and sport-climbed cliff faces when microsite factors were not controlled. We then determined the relative influence of the presence of climbing, cliff-face microtopography, local physical factors, and regional geography on the richness, abundance, and community composition of cliff-face vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens. When we did not control for microsite differences among cliffs, our results were consistent with the majority of prior work on impacts of climbing (i.e., sport-climbed cliff faces supported a lower mean richness of vascular plants and bryophytes and significantly different frequencies of individual species when compared with pristine cliff faces). When we investigated the relative influences of microtopography and climbing disturbance, however the differences in vegetation were not related to climbing disturbance but rather to the selection by sport climbers of cliff faces with microsite characteristics that support less vegetation. Climbed sites had not diverged toward a separate vegetation community; instead, they supported a subset of the species found on pristine cliff faces. Prior management recommendations to restrict development of new climbing routes should be reevaluated based on our results.

  10. Interactions with successional stage and nutrient status determines the life-form-specific effects of increased soil temperature on boreal forest floor vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwall, Per-Ola; Skoglund, Jerry; Linder, Sune

    2015-01-01

    The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes and plays a key role for the global carbon balance and climate. The forest floor vegetation has a strong influence on the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the forests and is sensitive to changes in temperature conditions and nutrient availability. Additionally, the effects of climate warming on forest floor vegetation have been suggested to be moderated by the tree layer. Data on the effects of soil warming on forest floor vegetation from the boreal forest are, however, very scarce. We studied the effects on the forest floor vegetation in a long-term (18 years) soil warming and fertilization experiment in a Norway spruce stand in northern Sweden. During the first 9 years, warming favored early successional species such as grasses and forbs at the expense of dwarf shrubs and bryophytes in unfertilized stands, while the effects were smaller after fertilization. Hence, warming led to significant changes in species composition and an increase in species richness in the open canopy nutrient limited forest. After another 9 years of warming and increasing tree canopy closure, most of the initial effects had ceased, indicating an interaction between forest succession and warming. The only remaining effect of warming was on the abundance of bryophytes, which contrary to the initial phase was strongly favored by warming. We propose that the suggested moderating effects of the tree layer are specific to plant life-form and conclude that the successional phase of the forest may have a considerable impact on the effects of climate change on forest floor vegetation and its feedback effects on the carbon and nitrogen cycles, and thus on the climate. PMID:25750720

  11. Interactions with successional stage and nutrient status determines the life-form-specific effects of increased soil temperature on boreal forest floor vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwall, Per-Ola; Skoglund, Jerry; Linder, Sune

    2015-02-01

    The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes and plays a key role for the global carbon balance and climate. The forest floor vegetation has a strong influence on the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the forests and is sensitive to changes in temperature conditions and nutrient availability. Additionally, the effects of climate warming on forest floor vegetation have been suggested to be moderated by the tree layer. Data on the effects of soil warming on forest floor vegetation from the boreal forest are, however, very scarce. We studied the effects on the forest floor vegetation in a long-term (18 years) soil warming and fertilization experiment in a Norway spruce stand in northern Sweden. During the first 9 years, warming favored early successional species such as grasses and forbs at the expense of dwarf shrubs and bryophytes in unfertilized stands, while the effects were smaller after fertilization. Hence, warming led to significant changes in species composition and an increase in species richness in the open canopy nutrient limited forest. After another 9 years of warming and increasing tree canopy closure, most of the initial effects had ceased, indicating an interaction between forest succession and warming. The only remaining effect of warming was on the abundance of bryophytes, which contrary to the initial phase was strongly favored by warming. We propose that the suggested moderating effects of the tree layer are specific to plant life-form and conclude that the successional phase of the forest may have a considerable impact on the effects of climate change on forest floor vegetation and its feedback effects on the carbon and nitrogen cycles, and thus on the climate.

  12. Establishment of cell suspension culture in Marchantia linearis Lehm & Lindenb. for the optimum production of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Remya; Anil Kumar, V S; Murugan, K

    2014-02-01

    Bryophytes are the second largest group in the plant kingdom, but studies conducted to better understand their chemical composition are limited and scattered. Axenically grown bryophytes expressed potential in biotechnological processes. The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro cell growth, culture parameters and their effect on flavonoid synthesis. Chlorophyll-containing callus cells of Marchantia linearis Lehm & Lindenb. is able to grow under low light in the presence of organic carbon source and retain the ability to produce flavonoids. Highest flavonoid production was achieved using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as growth hormone. Inoculum size, light intensity, organic carbon source and cations are the culture parameters affecting flavonoid productivity. Maximum flavonoid productivity is observed under low light intensity, with a photon flux density ca. 20 μmol/m2/s. Optimal inoculum size and glucose concentration for flavonoid production are 10-14 and 2-3 %, respectively. Cations like ferrous trigger flavonoid synthesis by increasing its intracellular concentrations. Flavonoid production in the cell culture is shown to be significantly growth related. Osmotic stress is ineffective in triggering flavonoid synthesis. Methyl jasmonate and 2-(2-fluoro-6-nitrobenzylsulfanyl) pyridine-4-carbothioamide elicitors showed positive effect on intracellular flavonoid content in cultured cells. Using the standard plot of quercetin (y = 0.0148x, R2 = 0.975), the flavonoid contents of in vitro samples were found ranging from 4.0 to 17.7 mg quercetin equivalent/g tissue. Flavonoids are fractionated by HPLC-PAD revealed the presence of quercetin (182.5 μg/g), luteolin (464.5 μg/g) and apigenin (297.5 μg/g). Further studies are warranted to analyze the therapeutic potentiality of the flavonoids in the liverwort.

  13. Late Holocene and modern pollen records from three sites in Shannon and Carter Counties, southeast Missouri Ozarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.K. (Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Archaeometry Lab.)

    1993-03-01

    Palynological investigations of a small sinkhole bog (Buttonbush Bog) and two archaeological sites (Round Spring Shelter, Round Spring Site 23SH19 and Gooseneck Site 23CT54) located in Shannon and Carter counties, Missouri provide a 3,100 year record of vegetational change. Bryophytic polsters and surface samples were also collected in Shannon and Carter counties in the southeast Missouri Ozarks to determine modern pollen rain. A 302-cm core retrieved from Buttonbush Bog has a basal data of 3,130 [+-] 100 yr B.P. and a date of 1,400 [+-] 100 yr B.P. at 52--56 cm. The Buttonbush Bog pollen sequence is divided into three pollen-assemblage zones. The pollen spectra from Buttonbush Bog indicate that pine did not become well established in the southeast Missouri Ozarks until after 3,100 yr B.P. Zone 1 (the oldest) represents a mixed oak forest with minor components of pine and hickory. In Zone 2, pine values increase, indicating a shift to a pine-oak forest. The pollen sequence from Round Spring Shelter is divided into two pollen-assemblage zones. The lower zone (Zone 1) suggests the presence of a pine-oak forest in the vicinity of Round Spring prior to an Ambrosia rise at the top of the sequence in Zone 2. Regional pollen rain and variation in the local pollen rain are reflected by modern pollen spectra extracted from the bryophytic polsters surface samples. In this area the average regional pollen rain is dominated by pine, oak, hickory, and Ambrosia. The data are consistent with the mosaic of pine-oak and oak-hickory-pine forests characteristic of this region.

  14. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  15. New environmental metabarcodes for analysing soil DNA: potential for studying past and present ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Laura S; Boessenkool, Sanne; Bellemain, Eva P; Haile, James; Esposito, Alfonso; Riaz, Tiayyba; Erséus, Christer; Gusarov, Vladimir I; Edwards, Mary E; Johnsen, Arild; Stenøien, Hans K; Hassel, Kristian; Kauserud, Håvard; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Willerslev, Eske; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Brochmann, Christian

    2012-04-01

    Metabarcoding approaches use total and typically degraded DNA from environmental samples to analyse biotic assemblages and can potentially be carried out for any kinds of organisms in an ecosystem. These analyses rely on specific markers, here called metabarcodes, which should be optimized for taxonomic resolution, minimal bias in amplification of the target organism group and short sequence length. Using bioinformatic tools, we developed metabarcodes for several groups of organisms: fungi, bryophytes, enchytraeids, beetles and birds. The ability of these metabarcodes to amplify the target groups was systematically evaluated by (i) in silico PCRs using all standard sequences in the EMBL public database as templates, (ii) in vitro PCRs of DNA extracts from surface soil samples from a site in Varanger, northern Norway and (iii) in vitro PCRs of DNA extracts from permanently frozen sediment samples of late-Pleistocene age (~16,000-50,000 years bp) from two Siberian sites, Duvanny Yar and Main River. Comparison of the results from the in silico PCR with those obtained in vitro showed that the in silico approach offered a reliable estimate of the suitability of a marker. All target groups were detected in the environmental DNA, but we found large variation in the level of detection among the groups and between modern and ancient samples. Success rates for the Pleistocene samples were highest for fungal DNA, whereas bryophyte, beetle and bird sequences could also be retrieved, but to a much lesser degree. The metabarcoding approach has considerable potential for biodiversity screening of modern samples and also as a palaeoecological tool. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Combining geodiversity with climate and topography to account for threatened species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukiainen, Helena; Bailey, Joseph J; Field, Richard; Kangas, Katja; Hjort, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Understanding threatened species diversity is important for long-term conservation planning. Geodiversity-the diversity of Earth surface materials, forms, and processes-may be a useful biodiversity surrogate for conservation and have conservation value itself. Geodiversity and species richness relationships have been demonstrated; establishing whether geodiversity relates to threatened species' diversity and distribution pattern is a logical next step for conservation. We used 4 geodiversity variables (rock-type and soil-type richness, geomorphological diversity, and hydrological feature diversity) and 4 climatic and topographic variables to model threatened species diversity across 31 of Finland's national parks. We also analyzed rarity-weighted richness (a measure of site complementarity) of threatened vascular plants, fungi, bryophytes, and all species combined. Our 1-km 2 resolution data set included 271 threatened species from 16 major taxa. We modeled threatened species richness (raw and rarity weighted) with boosted regression trees. Climatic variables, especially the annual temperature sum above 5 °C, dominated our models, which is consistent with the critical role of temperature in this boreal environment. Geodiversity added significant explanatory power. High geodiversity values were consistently associated with high threatened species richness across taxa. The combined effect of geodiversity variables was even more pronounced in the rarity-weighted richness analyses (except for fungi) than in those for species richness. Geodiversity measures correlated most strongly with species richness (raw and rarity weighted) of threatened vascular plants and bryophytes and were weakest for molluscs, lichens, and mammals. Although simple measures of topography improve biodiversity modeling, our results suggest that geodiversity data relating to geology, landforms, and hydrology are also worth including. This reinforces recent arguments that conserving nature's stage

  17. Catálogo comentado de los líquenes y briófitos de la región Subxerofítica de La Herrera (Mosquera, Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinzón Maribel

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En la Región Subxerofítica de La Herrera se hallaron 89 especies pertenecientes a 49 géneros y 31 familias. Los líquenes con 21 especies (23.59% fueron más importantes en los suelos desnudos, prados, rocas y ramas de arbustos, mientras que los briófitos con 68 especies (76.40%; musgos 60.67%-54 especies y hepáticas 15.73%-14 especies lo fueron al interior de matorrales y cañadas. Las familias con mayor número de especies fueron Dicranaceae con 14 (15.73%, Parmeliaceae y Pottiaceae con 7 (7.86% Y Bryaceae y Fissidentaceae con 6 (6.74% cada una; las restantes familias presentaron cinco o menos especies. The lichens and bryophytes in La Herrera Subxerophitic Region are studied. In total 89 species belonging to 49 genera and 31 families were registered. Lichens with 21 species (23.59% have a great number of species in the naked soils, rocks, pastures and shrub branches, while the richness of bryophytes with 68 species (76.40%; mosses 60.67%-54 species and hepatics 15.73%-14 species were importants inside the thickets and gullies. The best-represented families were Dicranaceae with 14 species (15.73%, Parmeliaceae and Pottiaceae with 7 (7.86% and Bryaceae and Fissidentaceae with 6 (6.74% each one; the rest families were represented by less than five species.

  18. Effects of nitrogen deposition and empirical nitrogen critical loads for ecoregions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Goodale, C.L.; Geiser, L.H.; Driscoll, C.T.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.L.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.J.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K.C.; Dennis, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a significant increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and atmospheric deposition. This N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations to the structure and function of many ecosystems across the United States. One approach for quantifying the deposition of pollution that would be harmful to ecosystems is the determination of critical loads. A critical load is defined as the input of a pollutant below which no detrimental ecological effects occur over the long-term according to present knowledge. The objectives of this project were to synthesize current research relating atmospheric N deposition to effects on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in the United States, and to estimate associated empirical N critical loads. The receptors considered included freshwater diatoms, mycorrhizal fungi, lichens, bryophytes, herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees. Ecosystem impacts included: (1) biogeochemical responses and (2) individual species, population, and community responses. Biogeochemical responses included increased N mineralization and nitrification (and N availability for plant and microbial uptake), increased gaseous N losses (ammonia volatilization, nitric and nitrous oxide from nitrification and denitrification), and increased N leaching. Individual species, population, and community responses included increased tissue N, physiological and nutrient imbalances, increased growth, altered root : shoot ratios, increased susceptibility to secondary stresses, altered fire regime, shifts in competitive interactions and community composition, changes in species richness and other measures of biodiversity, and increases in invasive species. The range of critical loads for nutrient N reported for U.S. ecoregions, inland surface waters, and freshwater wetlands is 1-39 kg N.ha -1.yr -1, spanning the range of N deposition observed over most of the country. The empirical critical loads for N tend to

  19. Surface CO2 Exchange Dynamics across a Climatic Gradient in McKenzie Valley: Effect of Landforms, Climate and Permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Startsev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Northern regions are experiencing considerable climate change affecting the state of permafrost, peat accumulation rates, and the large pool of carbon (C stored in soil, thereby emphasizing the importance of monitoring surface C fluxes in different landform sites along a climate gradient. We studied surface net C exchange (NCE and ecosystem respiration (ER across different landforms (upland, peat plateau, collapse scar in mid-boreal to high subarctic ecoregions in the Mackenzie Valley of northwestern Canada for three years. NCE and ER were measured using automatic CO2 chambers (ADC, Bioscientific LTD., Herts, England, and soil respiration (SR was measured with solid state infrared CO2 sensors (Carbocaps, Vaisala, Vantaa, Finland using the concentration gradient technique. Both NCE and ER were primarily controlled by soil temperature in the upper horizons. In upland forest locations, ER varied from 583 to 214 g C·m−2·year−1 from mid-boreal to high subarctic zones, respectively. For the bog and peat plateau areas, ER was less than half that at the upland locations. Of SR, nearly 75% was generated in the upper 5 cm layer composed of live bryophytes and actively decomposing fibric material. Our results suggest that for the upland and bog locations, ER significantly exceeded NCE. Bryophyte NCE was greatest in continuously waterlogged collapsed areas and was negligible in other locations. Overall, upland forest sites were sources of CO2 (from 64 g·C·m−2·year−1 in the high subarctic to 588 g C·m−2·year−1 in mid-boreal zone; collapsed areas were sinks of C, especially in high subarctic (from 27 g·C·m−2 year−1 in mid-boreal to 86 g·C·m−2·year−1 in high subarctic and peat plateaus were minor sources (from 153 g·C·m−2·year−1 in mid-boreal to 6 g·C·m−2·year−1 in high subarctic. The results are important in understanding how different landforms are responding to climate change and would be useful in modeling the

  20. Evolutionary history of callose synthases in terrestrial plants with emphasis on proteins involved in male gametophyte development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Záveská Drábková

    Full Text Available Callose is a plant-specific polysaccharide (β-1,3-glucan playing an important role in angiosperms in many developmental processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Callose is synthesised at the plasma membrane of plant cells by callose synthase (CalS and, among others, represents the main polysaccharide in the callose wall surrounding the tetrads of developing microspores and in the growing pollen tube wall. CalS proteins involvement in spore development is a plesiomorphic feature of terrestrial plants, but very little is known about their evolutionary origin and relationships amongst the members of this protein family. We performed thorough comparative analyses of callose synthase family proteins from major plant lineages to determine their evolutionary history across the plant kingdom. A total of 1211 candidate CalS sequences were identified and compared amongst diverse taxonomic groups of plants, from bryophytes to angiosperms. Phylogenetic analyses identified six main clades of CalS proteins and suggested duplications during the evolution of specialised functions. Twelve family members had previously been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. We focused on five CalS subfamilies directly linked to pollen function and found that proteins expressed in pollen evolved twice. CalS9/10 and CalS11/12 formed well-defined clades, whereas pollen-specific CalS5 was found within subfamilies that mostly did not express in mature pollen vegetative cell, although were found in sperm cells. Expression of five out of seven mature pollen-expressed CalS genes was affected by mutations in bzip transcription factors. Only three subfamilies, CalS5, CalS10, and CalS11, however, formed monophyletic, mostly conserved clades. The pairs CalS9/CalS10, CalS11/CalS12 and CalS3 may have diverged after angiosperms diversified from lycophytes and bryophytes. Our analysis of fully sequenced plant proteins identified new evolutionary lineages of callose synthase

  1. Ecology of some mire and bog plant communities in the Western Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio BUFFA

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available During a mire vegetation study, conducted mainly in the subalpine-alpine sector of the Western Italian Alps, the ecology of several plant communities and numerous moss species of this kind of vegetation was evaluated. The study area covered the Piedmontese sector of the Graian Alps, the eastern sector of the Aosta Valley as well as certain localities of the Pennine Alps, the Canavese district and the Maritime Alps. They have a rocky substratum representative of the various regional lithologies and include the main sectors characterised by the highest precipitation. Three hundred and twenty two relevées were made using the phytosociological method and the pH and the conductivity of the water table and its depth were measured directly. Cluster Analysis allowed a classification of the samples and the identification of various groups of plant communities. Ordination performed by DCA and CCA allowed us to identify the ecological features of the various plant communities by using the values of the main environmental parameters, measured directly in the field, and certain climatic parameters (altitude and mean annual precipitation available. The use of climatic parameters is an important result for identifying communities which show greater oceanicity, something that is underlined also by the presence of indicator species such as Sphagnum papillosum and S. subnitens. Furthermore the communities are arranged in a "poor-rich" gradient, and are also profoundly influenced by depth to water table which is inversely correlated to the pH. Therefore we find certain kinds of communities all with a very low water table and which are little affected by its chemistry. Other groups share the fact that the water table is outcropping or near the surface and are distinguishable for their pH values and conductivity. We discuss the different response of the bryophytes and vascular plants of these communities to the environmental parameters considered, in light of their

  2. Biological soil crusts emit large amounts of NO and HONO affecting the nitrogen cycle in drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Elbert, Wolfgang; Behrendt, Thomas; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul J.; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Dryland systems currently cover ˜40% of the world's land surface and are still expanding as a consequence of human impact and global change. In contrast to that, information on their role in global biochemical processes is limited, probably induced by the presumption that their sparse vegetation cover plays a negligible role in global balances. However, spaces between the sparse shrubs are not bare, but soils are mostly covered by biological soil crusts (biocrusts). These biocrust communities belong to the oldest life forms, resulting from an assembly between soil particles and cyanobacteria, lichens, bryophytes, and algae plus heterotrophic organisms in varying proportions. Depending on the dominating organism group, cyanobacteria-, lichen-, and bryophyte-dominated biocrusts are distinguished. Besides their ability to restrict soil erosion they fix atmospheric carbon and nitrogen, and by doing this they serve as a nutrient source in strongly depleted dryland ecosystems. In this study we show that a fraction of the nitrogen fixed by biocrusts is metabolized and subsequently returned to the atmosphere in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO). These gases affect the radical formation and oxidizing capacity within the troposphere, thus being of particular interest to atmospheric chemistry. Laboratory measurements using dynamic chamber systems showed that dark cyanobacteria-dominated crusts emitted the largest amounts of NO and HONO, being ˜20 times higher than trace gas fluxes of nearby bare soil. We showed that these nitrogen emissions have a biogenic origin, as emissions of formerly strongly emitting samples almost completely ceased after sterilization. By combining laboratory, field, and satellite measurement data we made a best estimate of global annual emissions amounting to ˜1.1 Tg of NO-N and ˜0.6 Tg of HONO-N from biocrusts. This sum of 1.7 Tg of reactive nitrogen emissions equals ˜20% of the soil release under natural vegetation according

  3. Large-scale proteome analysis of abscisic acid and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3-dependent proteins related to desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yotsui, Izumi, E-mail: izumi.yotsui@riken.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Serada, Satoshi, E-mail: serada@nibiohn.go.jp [Laboratory of Immune Signal, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0085 (Japan); Naka, Tetsuji, E-mail: tnaka@nibiohn.go.jp [Laboratory of Immune Signal, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0085 (Japan); Saruhashi, Masashi, E-mail: s13db001@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Taji, Teruaki, E-mail: t3teruak@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Hayashi, Takahisa, E-mail: t4hayash@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Quatrano, Ralph S., E-mail: rsq@wustl.edu [Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, 63130-4899 (United States); Sakata, Yoichi, E-mail: sakata@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan)

    2016-03-18

    Desiccation tolerance is an ancestral feature of land plants and is still retained in non-vascular plants such as bryophytes and some vascular plants. However, except for seeds and spores, this trait is absent in vegetative tissues of vascular plants. Although many studies have focused on understanding the molecular basis underlying desiccation tolerance using transcriptome and proteome approaches, the critical molecular differences between desiccation tolerant plants and non-desiccation plants are still not clear. The moss Physcomitrella patens cannot survive rapid desiccation under laboratory conditions, but if cells of the protonemata are treated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to desiccation, it can survive 24 h exposure to desiccation and regrow after rehydration. The desiccation tolerance induced by ABA (AiDT) is specific to this hormone, but also depends on a plant transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). Here we report the comparative proteomic analysis of AiDT between wild type and ABI3 deleted mutant (Δabi3) of P. patens using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification). From a total of 1980 unique proteins that we identified, only 16 proteins are significantly altered in Δabi3 compared to wild type after desiccation following ABA treatment. Among this group, three of the four proteins that were severely affected in Δabi3 tissue were Arabidopsis orthologous genes, which were expressed in maturing seeds under the regulation of ABI3. These included a Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, a short-chain dehydrogenase, and a desiccation-related protein. Our results suggest that at least three of these proteins expressed in desiccation tolerant cells of both Arabidopsis and the moss are very likely to play important roles in acquisition of desiccation tolerance in land plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulatory machinery of ABA- and ABI3-mediated gene expression for desiccation

  4. Evolutionary history of callose synthases in terrestrial plants with emphasis on proteins involved in male gametophyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Honys, David

    2017-01-01

    Callose is a plant-specific polysaccharide (β-1,3-glucan) playing an important role in angiosperms in many developmental processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Callose is synthesised at the plasma membrane of plant cells by callose synthase (CalS) and, among others, represents the main polysaccharide in the callose wall surrounding the tetrads of developing microspores and in the growing pollen tube wall. CalS proteins involvement in spore development is a plesiomorphic feature of terrestrial plants, but very little is known about their evolutionary origin and relationships amongst the members of this protein family. We performed thorough comparative analyses of callose synthase family proteins from major plant lineages to determine their evolutionary history across the plant kingdom. A total of 1211 candidate CalS sequences were identified and compared amongst diverse taxonomic groups of plants, from bryophytes to angiosperms. Phylogenetic analyses identified six main clades of CalS proteins and suggested duplications during the evolution of specialised functions. Twelve family members had previously been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. We focused on five CalS subfamilies directly linked to pollen function and found that proteins expressed in pollen evolved twice. CalS9/10 and CalS11/12 formed well-defined clades, whereas pollen-specific CalS5 was found within subfamilies that mostly did not express in mature pollen vegetative cell, although were found in sperm cells. Expression of five out of seven mature pollen-expressed CalS genes was affected by mutations in bzip transcription factors. Only three subfamilies, CalS5, CalS10, and CalS11, however, formed monophyletic, mostly conserved clades. The pairs CalS9/CalS10, CalS11/CalS12 and CalS3 may have diverged after angiosperms diversified from lycophytes and bryophytes. Our analysis of fully sequenced plant proteins identified new evolutionary lineages of callose synthase subfamilies and has

  5. Fungos, criptógamas e outros palinomorfos holocênicos (7908±30 anos AP-atual da Planície Costeira sul-catarinense, Brasil Fungi, cryptogams and other palynomorphs in the Holocene sediments of the South Coastal Plain of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Cancelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo são apresentados os resultados palinológicos qualitativos equivalentes às análises paleoambientais realizadas em duas seções turfáceas na Planície Costeira sul do estado de Santa Catarina, nos municípios de Santa Rosa do Sul e São João do Sul. Uma amostra da base do testemunho de Santa Rosa do Sul foi datada (14C em 7908±33 anos AP, referente ao Holoceno inferior. A análise palinológica permitiu identificações taxonômicas, com descrições e ilustrações de 54 palinomorfos, relativos a fungos (21, algas (5, acritarcas (1, incertae sedis (1, briófitos (2, pteridófitos (15, pólen de gimnospermas (2, e outros palinomorfos (1 cápsula de briófitos, 4 fragmentos de invertebrados e 2 palinoforaminíferos indeterminados, cujos registros modernos expressam diferentes hábitos de vida. O trabalho tem como objetivos contribuir para o conhecimento dos vestígios da vegetação e táxons relacionados depositados na Planície Costeira sul-catarinense durante o Holoceno. As análises palinológicas conseguintes auxiliarão na interpretação dos paleoambientes e paleoclimas relacionados neste setor da costa brasileira.This paper presents the results of a palynological analysis carried out on two cores taken from the south Coastal Plain of the Santa Rosa do Sul and São João do Sul municipalities, in the state of Santa Catarina. A basal sample from the Santa Rosa do Sul core furnished a 14C age of 7908±33 yr BP, from the Lower Holocene. Palynological analysis of the material allowed for taxonomic identifications, and resulted in descriptions and illustrations of 54 palynomorphs related to fungi (21, algae (5, acritarchs (1, incertae sedis (1, bryophytes (2, ferns (15, gymnosperm pollen (2 and other palynomorphs (1 bryophyte capsule, 4 invertebrate fragments, and 2 indeterminate palynoforaminifers, which express different ecological patterns. This work aimed to contribute to the knowledge of the plant and fungal fossils

  6. Epiphytes as an Indicator of Climate Change in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettwich, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Although climate change threatens many ecosystems, current research in this field suggests tropical vegetation lags in response. Epiphytes, or arboreal vegetation, occupy tight, climate-defined niches compared with co-occurring life forms such as trees, yet there have been few studies of Hawaii's epiphyte communities. Because of Hawaii Island's natural climatic diversity, it is an ideal location to understand how these intrinsically climate sensitive plants interact with the atmosphere and evaluate how they may serve as a near-term indicator of climate change. Here we establish a baseline from which changes in corticolous epiphyte communities can be monitored as a leading indicator of likely forest changes by 1) investigating patterns of epiphyte abundance and species composition across elevation and precipitation gradients on windward Hawaii Island, and 2) using physiological measurements to investigate the relative importance of rain vs. fog in epiphyte-atmosphere interactions. The precipitation gradient keeps elevation constant at 1000m, while varying precipitation between 2,400 and 6,400 mm/year. The elevation gradient keeps rainfall constant at 3000mm/year, and varies elevation between 200 and 1750 m. Forest sites are dominated by Ohia Lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) across broad geographic and climatological ranges thus allowing examination of epiphytes on this single host. We quantified bryophytes and vascular plants growing on Ohia trunks with standardized diameter and branching characteristics. Overall, epiphyte communities showed much finer scale responses to climate variation when compared with structurally dominant vegetation (which was broadly similar at all sites). The precipitation gradient exhibits a clear increase in abundance of all epiphyte groups and a definable increase in diversity with increasing rainfall. Results across the elevation gradient show a higher abundance of filmy ferns and bryophytes above the lifting condensation level (about

  7. Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stith T.Gower

    2010-03-03

    A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground

  8. Palynology of the dinosaur beds of Tendaguru (Tanzania – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schrank

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tendaguru Beds, southeastern Tanzania, have yielded two palynological assemblages of Kimmeridgian to Tithonian age: (1 the Anapiculatisporites-Densoisporites-Trisaccites assemblage from the Middle Saurian Beds and (2 the Barbatacysta-Pareodinia assemblage from the overlying Smeei Beds. A third assemblage with Rhizophagites and rare angiosperm pollen from the Upper Saurian Beds is contaminated by recent and subrecent material. The Anapiculatisporites-Densoisporites-Trisaccites assemblage is characterized by the presence of freshwater algae (Ovoidites, pteridopyhtic-bryophytic spores and gymnosperm (conifer pollen, with Classopollis as the most abundant element. Among the rare elements of this assemblage is the questionable dinoflagellate Mendicodinium? quadratum, possibly a Kimmeridgian-Tithonian marker. The miospores show palaeobiogeographic links to Southern Gondwana, especially Madagascar, Australia, Argentina and India. Deposition of this assemblage took place in an aquatic environment with strong palynological influx from a terrestrial source and questionable marine influence. The Barbatacysta-Pareodinia assemblage contains a considerable number of dinoflagellates suggesting deposition in a marine environment. The terrestrially-derived miospores are impoverished and dominated by conifer pollen, while pteridophytic-bryophytic spores form a very subordinate element or are absent. Die Tendaguru-Schichten, Südost-Tansania, haben zwei palynologische Assoziationen, deren Alter als Kimmeridge bis Tithon interpretiert wird, geliefert. Die Anapiculatisporites-Densoisporites-Trisaccites-Assoziation stammt aus den Mittleren Saurierschichten, und die Barbatacysta-Pareodinia-Assoziation charakterisiert die darüberlagernden Smeei-Schichten. Eine dritte Vergesellschaftung mit Rhizophagites und seltenen Angiospermen-Pollen aus den Oberen Saurierschichten ist durch rezentes bis subrezentes Material kontaminiert. Die Anapiculatisporites

  9. Dinámica de elementos en epífitos de un bosque altoandino de la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero Rueda Luis Martín

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The reserves and transfer of bioelements were studied during two years in the epiphytic bryophytes and the bromeliad Tillandsia compacta in a high Andean forest in Guisquiza, La Calera, Cundinamarca in the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Epiphyte biomass in this forest is 3766 kg/ha, ofwhich bryophytes contribute 55% and T.compacta, 9.3%. In relation to their biomass, these epihyttes store high quantities of water and nutrients and intercept materials washed from foliage, making them important to consider in watershed management. There are no significant differences in epiphyte element composition between soll and trees, or between size categories of T. compacta. Trapping of heavy elements in particular may mitigate contamination problems in diverse components of the ecosystem. T.compacta appears especially important as a regulator of potassium transfer, and therefore of cation exchange capacity of the system. These properties permit the epiphytes to be dampers of high acidity and of excess concentrations of Al, Fe and Mn common in montant ecosystems, which can be observed in the dynamic model presented.En un estudio del bosque alto andino de la vereda Guisquiza, La Calera (Cundinamarca, se analizaron las reservas y transferencia de bioelementos en briófitos y Tillandsia compacta Grisebach (Bromeliaceae, durante dos años. Las epífitas tienen una biomasa de 3766 Kg/ha en el bosque'; de este valor los briófitos son el 55 % Y T.compacta el 9.3 %. Para esta biomasa tan pequeña, resultan almacenar altas cantidades de agua, nutrientes y ser interceptoras de materiales de lavado foliar que las hacen valiosas para los planes de manejo y ordenación de cuencas. No hay diferencias entre los valores de los elementos epífitos del suelo con respecto a los de los arboles; igualmente entre las categorfas de T.compacta. El trampeo de elementos especialmente, los pesados, disminuye los problemaspor intoxicación en los diversos componentes del ecosistema. T

  10. Diversity and habitat differentiation of mosses and liverworts in the cloud forest of. Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradstein S. Rob

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the understory and canopy of 4 ha oflower montane cloud forest at Monteverde, Costa Rica, yielded 190 bryophyte species: 133 hepatics, 56 mosses and 1 homwort. Thick branches of the lower canopy were by far the richest habitat in terms of number of species (99, trunks from 1m upwards had 65 species, lianas, shrubs, saplings, or living leaves in the understory had about 36-46 species each, and 16 species were found on rotten logs. The figures are illustrative of the great diversification of microhabitats of bryophytes in a tropical montane cloud forest. About 36% ofthe species, including more than half ofthe corticolous ones, occurred exclusively in the canopy. It appeared thatthe percentage ofbryophyte species restricted to the canopy may be the same in lowland and montane rain forests, in spite of the great differences in species abundance and composition in the two kinds of forest.  Ciento noventa especies de briofitas (133 hepáticas, 56 musgos, 1 antocerote fueron encontradas en un inventario hecho en 4 hectáreas del sotobosque y el dosel en el bosque nublado (1500 m de Monteverde, Costa Rica. Las ramas gruesas del dosel fueron la porción más rica en termino de numero de especies (99, en troncos había 65 especies, lianas, arbustos, árboles juveniles o hojas vivas en el sotobosque tenían entre 36-46 especies cada una, y 16 especies fueron encontradas en troncos en descomposición. Las cifras ilustran la gran diversidad de microhabitats de briofitas en el bosque nublado. Cerca de 36% de las especies, incluyendo mas de la mitad de los corticolos, se presentaron exclusivamente en el dosel. Parece que el porcentaje de especies de briofitas restringidas al dosel podría ser el mismo en bosques de tierras bajas y en bosques nublados, a pesar de la gran diferencia en abundancia y composición taxonómica de las briofitas en las dos clases de bosque.

  11. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Potential, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activity of the Extracts from the Gametophyte and Archegoniophore of Marchantia polymorpha L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cao, Jianguo; Wu, Yuhuan; Wang, Quanxi; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-03-17

    Marchantia polymorpha L. is a representative bryophyte used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for scald and pneumonia. The phytochemicals in M. polymorpha L. are terpenoids and flavonoids, among which especially the flavonoids show significant human health benefits. Many researches on the gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. have been reported. However, as the reproductive organ of M. polymorpha L., the bioactivity and flavonoids profile of the archegoniophore have not been reported, so in this work the flavonoid profiles, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of the extracts from the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were compared by radical scavenging assay methods (DPPH, ABTS, O(2-)), reducing power assay, acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay and LC-MS analysis. The results showed that the total flavonoids content in the archegoniophore was about 10-time higher than that of the gametophyte. Differences between the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were observed by LC-MS analysis. The archegoniophore extracts showed stronger bio-activities than those of the gametophyte. The archegoniophore extract showed a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibition, while the gametophyte extract hardly inhibited it.

  12. Litter evenness influences short-term peatland decomposition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nick J; McNamara, Niall P; Bardgett, Richard D

    2010-10-01

    There is concern that changes in climate and land use could increase rates of decomposition in peatlands, leading to release of stored C to the atmosphere. Rates of decomposition are driven by abiotic factors such as temperature and moisture, but also by biotic factors such as changes in litter quality resulting from vegetation change. While effects of litter species identity and diversity on decomposition processes are well studied, the impact of changes in relative abundance (evenness) of species has received less attention. In this study we investigated effects of changes in short-term peatland plant species evenness on decomposition in mixed litter assemblages, measured as litter weight loss, respired CO(2) and leachate C and N. We found that over the 307-day incubation period, higher levels of species evenness increased rates of decomposition in mixed litters, measured as weight loss and leachate dissolved organic N. We also found that the identity of the dominant species influenced rates of decomposition, measured as weight loss, CO(2) flux and leachate N. Greatest rates of decomposition were when the dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris dominated litter mixtures, and lowest rates when the bryophyte Pleurozium schreberi dominated. Interactions between evenness and dominant species identity were also detected for litter weight loss and leachate N. In addition, positive non-additive effects of mixing litter were observed for litter weight loss. Our findings highlight the importance of changes in the evenness of plant community composition for short-term decomposition processes in UK peatlands.

  13. Selenium speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed and its effects on fish diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsella, James; Melnykov, Igor; Bonetti, Sandra; Sánchez-Lombardo, Irma; Crans, Debbie C

    2017-07-01

    Se is an environmental concern as it can be toxic if present in high concentrations even though it is a dietary requirement for all animals. Se levels are a special concern in the Fountain Creek Watershed located in southeastern Colorado whose geological source is the Se-rich Pierre Shale. Segments of Fountain Creek have Se water levels that exceed the current EPA limit of 5 µg/l. In the studies described here, the effects of river water containing selenium were examined on fish populations at different sites along the Fountain Creek Watershed. Based on the hypothesis that high levels of Se present in the Creek and resident bryophytes should be an indicator of diversity in the river fish we explored the possibility that the low toxicity of the selenium could be due to speciation. A speciation analysis was conducted to determine the selenium(IV) and selenium(VI). Our results show that sites with higher ratios of the more toxic Se(IV) relative to total selenium exhibit lower fish diversity and number of fish. Our results indicate that factors, other than total Se, such as Se speciation may be involved in controlling the bioavailability and toxicity of this element to aquatic organisms in Fountain Creek.

  14. Cryptogamic community structure as a bioindicator of soil condition along a pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine changes in the structure of cryptogamic vegetation of poor psammophilous grassland along a pollution gradient near a zinc smelter to evaluate the potential of species assemblages as bioindicators of soil condition. Lichens and bryophytes were examined in study plots along six transects in four distance zones, and the physicochemical properties of corresponding soil samples were analysed. Four different responses of species to substrate contamination were identified, with a distinct group of species resistant to and favoured by metal contamination. Although species richness decreases as one approaches the smelter, the gradual replacement of certain sensitive species by resistant ones was observed along the pollution gradient. The results enabled us to develop a useful tool to diagnose strongly polluted sites. Two different cryptogamic assemblages of well-recognised key species characteristic for strongly polluted and lightly polluted sites were distinguished. We conclude that cryptogamic community structure clearly corresponds to the degree of soil contamination, thus demonstrating high bioindicative value. The study confirmed the high relevance of the community approach in metal pollution biomonitoring.

  15. Extending the fossil record of Polytrichaceae: Early CretaceousMeantoinea alophosioidesgen. et sp. nov., permineralized gametophytes with gemma cups from Vancouver Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bippus, Alexander C; Stockey, Ruth A; Rothwell, Gar W; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2017-04-01

    Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized. Among them is a polytrichaceous moss that is described here. Fossil moss gametophytes preserved in four carbonate concretions were studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. We describe Meantoinea alophosioides gen. et sp. nov., a polytrichaceous moss with terminal gemma cups containing stalked, lenticular gemmae. Leaves with characteristic costal anatomy, differentiated into sheathing base and free lamina and bearing photosynthetic lamellae, along with a conducting strand in the stem, place Meantoinea in family Polytrichaceae. The bistratose leaf lamina with an adaxial layer of mamillose cells, short photosynthetic lamellae restricted to the costa, and presence of gemma cups indicate affinities with basal members of the Polytrichaceae, such as Lyellia , Bartramiopsis , and Alophosia . Meantoinea alophosioides enriches the documented moss diversity of an already-diverse Early Cretaceous plant fossil assemblage. This is the third moss described from the Apple Bay plant fossil assemblage and represents the first occurrence of gemma cups in a fossil moss. It is also the oldest unequivocal record of Polytrichaceae, providing a hard minimum age for the group of 136 million years. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Flora and threatened and endangered plants of John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-01-01

    The vascular flora of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) area was first studied in the 1970's. Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes as well as additional collections required revision of this list. The revised list includes 1045 taxa of which 850 are native and 195 are introduced. This appears to be a substantial proportion of the regional flora. Forty six taxa are endemic or nearly endemic to Florida, a level of endemism that appears high for the east coast of central Florida. Seventy three taxa (69 native) are listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern on Federal or state lists. Taxa of special concern occur in all major habitats, but many are restricted to hammocks and hardwood swamps that constitute a minor proportion of the terrestrial vegetation. For some of these taxa, populations on KSC appear to be important for their regional and global survival. The bryophyte flora of the KSC area include 23 mosses and 20 liverworts and hornworts. The lichen flora is currently unknown.

  17. The flora of the highest building in Poland (the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Galera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the Palace of Culture and Science, which is the highest office building in Poland, was analysed. The exterior horizontal surfaces of the building (roofs, terraces, stairs could be regarded as polyhemerobic habitats. A total of 111 species of vascular plants (native species - 65% and 6 species of bryophytes were recorded from an area of 16 500 m2. It was found that the flora was relatively rich in species, of which some occurred in considerable quantities (over 1000 individuals of such species as: Eragrostis minor, Sagina procumbens, Chaenarrhinum minus were encountered. Moreover anemochorous species dominated (85% in the flora of the Palace. Thermophilous species and species indifferent to temperature were also strongly represented. The relatively high incidence of hygrophilous species was noteworthy. With regard to life forms an increased proportion of therophytes and phanerophytes (40% and 22%, respectively was observed. No significant differences were found between the flora of roofs situated on different floors of the building. However, slight differences between - the flora of north-facing and south-facing horizontal roof surfaces were marked.

  18. Botanical inventory of the Rocky Flats AEC site. Final report, April 29, 1976--July 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, P.J.

    1979-04-01

    The present plant life of the Rocky Flats site and surrounding area was documented. This documentation is intended as a base-line description which may be used by researchers and managers. The analysis of natural vegetation, including plant species inventory, vegetation composition study, and identification of major environmental control factors at the Rocky Flats site provides a data base on which future environmental decisions concerning, for example, future construction and handling of disturbance on this site can be made. The establishment of morphological norms for potential plant indicators of mutagenic hazards serves as a start for development of a vegetation-based system for detection of possible changes in plant life induced by accidental plutonium release around the plant. This study is not directed towards assessing any past or present industrial impacts of plutonium processing. The principal products from the contract are a list of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens, a 1:12,000 color vegetation map, five large scale (1:500) maps of special study and experimental areas, and a description of the morphological norms of two common vascular plant species.

  19. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions.

  20. Biological richness of a large urban cemetery in Berlin. Results of a multi-taxon approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Sascha; Blick, Theo; Hannig, Karsten; Kowarik, Ingo; Lemke, Andreas; Otte, Volker; Scharon, Jens; Schönhofer, Axel; Teige, Tobias; von der Lippe, Moritz; Seitz, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces can harbor a considerable species richness of plants and animals. A few studies on single species groups indicate important habitat functions of cemeteries, but this land use type is clearly understudied compared to parks. Such data are important as they (i) illustrate habitat functions of a specific, but ubiquitous urban land-use type and (ii) may serve as a basis for management approaches. We sampled different groups of plants and animals in the Weißensee Jewish Cemetery in Berlin (WJC) which is one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. With a total of 608 species of plants and animals, this first multi-taxon survey revealed a considerable biological richness in the WJC. In all, 363 wild-growing vascular plant, 72 lichen and 26 bryophyte taxa were recorded. The sampling also yielded 34 bird and 5 bat species as well as 39 ground beetle, 5 harvestman and 64 spider species. Some species are new records for Berlin.

  1. Estimated abundance and diversity of heterotrophic protists in South African biocrusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Dumack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (biocrusts occur widely in the uppermost millimeters of the soil in arid and semi-arid systems. Worldwide they cover large terrestrial areas and play a major role in the global terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycles. However, knowledge of the microbial decomposer foodwebs within biocrusts is particularly scarce. Heterotrophic protists in soil are predominantly bacterivores, and because of their high biomass compared with other soil fauna and fast turnover rates, protists are considered an important factor for soil nutrient cycling and energy fluxes. Thus, knowledge of their biodiversity, abundance and functional roles is important to understand soil ecosystem functions. We investigated the diversity and abundance of heterotrophic soil protists in different types of biocrusts from the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. With an overall diversity of 23 distinct morphotypes, soil protist biodiversity was shown to be high. The most abundant groups were Spumella-like chrysomonads, gliding bodonids, glissomonads and heteroloboseans. Protist abundance was highly variable among samples. The abundance and diversity did not differ significantly among different types of biocrusts, indicating that microscale differences, but not macroscopic soil crust builders (e.g. cyanobacteria, lichens and bryophytes, have a major impact on the protist community.

  2. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  3. Hydrologic alteration affects aquatic plant assemblages in an arid-land river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Mark; Hestmark, Bennett; Barkworth, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of long-term flow alteration on primary-producer assemblages. In 1962, Flaming Gorge Dam was constructed on the Green River. The Yampa River has remained an unregulated hydrologically variable river that joins the Green River 100 km downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam. In the 1960s before dam construction only sparse occurrences of two macroalgae, Cladophora and Chara, and no submerged vascular plants were recorded in the Green and Yampa rivers. In 2009–2010, aquatic plants were abundant and widespread in the Green River from the dam downstream to the confluence with the Yampa River. The assemblage consisted of six vascular species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum sibiricum, Nasturtium officinale,Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton pectinatus, and Ranunculus aquatilis, the macroalgae Chara and Cladophora, and the bryophyte, Amblystegium riparium. In the Green River downstream from the Yampa River, and in the Yampa River, only sparse patches of Chara and Cladophora growing in the splash zone on boulders were collected. We attribute the observed changes in the Green River to an increase in water transparency and a reduction in suspended and bed-load sediment and high flow disturbances. The lack of hydrophyte colonization downstream from the confluence with the Yampa River has implications for understanding tributary amelioration of dam effects and for designing more natural flow-regime schedules downstream from large dams.

  4. The early evolution of land plants, from fossils to genomics: a commentary on Lang (1937) 'On the plant-remains from the Downtonian of England and Wales'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dianne; Kenrick, Paul

    2015-04-19

    During the 1920s, the botanist W. H. Lang set out to collect and investigate some very unpromising fossils of uncertain affinity, which predated the known geological record of life on land. His discoveries led to a landmark publication in 1937, 'On the plant-remains from the Downtonian of England and Wales', in which he revealed a diversity of small fossil organisms of great simplicity that shed light on the nature of the earliest known land plants. These and subsequent discoveries have taken on new relevance as botanists seek to understand the plant genome and the early evolution of fundamental organ systems. Also, our developing knowledge of the composition of early land-based ecosystems and the interactions among their various components is contributing to our understanding of how life on land affects key Earth Systems (e.g. carbon cycle). The emerging paradigm is one of early life on land dominated by microbes, small bryophyte-like organisms and lichens. Collectively called cryptogamic covers, these are comparable with those that dominate certain ecosystems today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  5. The impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the Atlantic region of Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Carly J., E-mail: c.j.stevens@open.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Dupre, Cecilia [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Dorland, Edu [Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Department of Biology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.058, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Gaudnik, Cassandre [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Gowing, David J.G. [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bleeker, Albert [Department of Air Quality and Climate Change, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Diekmann, Martin [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Alard, Didier [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Bobbink, Roland [B-WARE Research Centre, Radboud University, PO Box 9010, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fowler, David [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Corcket, Emmanuel [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Mountford, J. Owen [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, MacLean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Vandvik, Vigdis [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2011-10-15

    A survey of 153 acid grasslands from the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is changing plant species composition and soil and plant-tissue chemistry. Across the deposition gradient (2-44 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) grass richness as a proportion of total species richness increased whereas forb richness decreased. Soil C:N ratio increased, but soil extractable nitrate and ammonium concentrations did not show any relationship with nitrogen deposition. The above-ground tissue nitrogen contents of three plant species were examined: Agrostis capillaris (grass), Galium saxatile (forb) and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (bryophyte). The tissue nitrogen content of neither vascular plant species showed any relationship with nitrogen deposition, but there was a weak positive relationship between R. squarrosus nitrogen content and nitrogen deposition. None of the species showed strong relationships between above-ground tissue N:P or C:N and nitrogen deposition, indicating that they are not good indicators of deposition rate. - Highlights: > N deposition is negatively correlated with forb richness as a proportion of species richness. > Soil C:N ratio increased with increasing N deposition. > Soil extractable nitrate and ammonium were not related to nitrogen deposition. > Plant-tissue N content was not a good indicator of N deposition. - Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects soils, plant-tissue chemistry and plant species composition in acid grasslands in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe.

  6. Using Moss to Assess Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Taizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. To understand the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn in Taizhou, East China, samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum were collected from 60 sites selected by a systematic sampling method during the summer of 2012, and the concentrations of these heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The results suggested that the concentrations of these metals varied moderately among different sites, indicating a similar contamination level for each element throughout the monitoring region. The mean values under investigation were higher than those from neighboring cities, such as Wuxi, Xuzhou, and Nanjing, and much higher than those in Europe based on a 2010 survey. Significant (p < 0.01 correlations were identified among some of the heavy metals, suggesting that these originated from identical sources. There was no statistically significant correlation between Hg and all the other elements. Spatial distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were created using Arc-GIS 9.0. The potential ecological risk index indicated that the air was heavily polluted by Cd and Hg, and that there was a considerable potential ecological risk from all the heavy metals studied.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Physcomitrella patens Identifies ABSCISIC ACID NON-RESPONSIVE, a Regulator of ABA Responses Unique to Basal Land Plants and Required for Desiccation Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Sean R; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Trinh, Chi H; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry W; Grimwood, Jane; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; Rensing, Stefan A; Lang, Daniel; Reski, Ralf; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J; Li, Fay-Wei; Larsson, Anders; Wong, Gane K-S; Edwards, Thomas A; Cuming, Andrew C

    2016-06-01

    The anatomically simple plants that first colonized land must have acquired molecular and biochemical adaptations to drought stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) coordinates responses leading to desiccation tolerance in all land plants. We identified ABA nonresponsive mutants in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and genotyped a segregating population to map and identify the ABA NON-RESPONSIVE (ANR) gene encoding a modular protein kinase comprising an N-terminal PAS domain, a central EDR domain, and a C-terminal MAPKKK-like domain. anr mutants fail to accumulate dehydration tolerance-associated gene products in response to drought, ABA, or osmotic stress and do not acquire ABA-dependent desiccation tolerance. The crystal structure of the PAS domain, determined to 1.7-Å resolution, shows a conserved PAS-fold that dimerizes through a weak dimerization interface. Targeted mutagenesis of a conserved tryptophan residue within the PAS domain generates plants with ABA nonresponsive growth and strongly attenuated ABA-responsive gene expression, whereas deleting this domain retains a fully ABA-responsive phenotype. ANR orthologs are found in early-diverging land plant lineages and aquatic algae but are absent from more recently diverged vascular plants. We propose that ANR genes represent an ancestral adaptation that enabled drought stress survival of the first terrestrial colonizers but were lost during land plant evolution. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Moss Mediates the Influence of Shrub Species on Soil Properties and Processes in Alpine Tundra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Guillermo Bueno

    Full Text Available In tundra ecosystems, bryophytes influence soil processes directly and indirectly through interactions with overstory shrub species. We experimentally manipulated moss cover and measured seasonal soil properties and processes under two species of deciduous shrubs with contrasting canopy structures, Salix planifolia pulchra and Betula glandulosa-nana complex. Soil properties (seasonal temperature, moisture and C:N ratios and processes (seasonal litter decomposition and soil respiration were measured over twelve months. Shrub species identity had the largest influence on summer soil temperatures and soil respiration rates, which were higher under Salix canopies. Mosses were associated with lower soil moisture irrespective of shrub identity, but modulated the effects of shrubs on winter soil temperatures and soil C:N ratios so that moss cover reduced differences in soil winter temperatures between shrub species and reduced C:N ratios under Betula but not under Salix canopies. Our results suggest a central role of mosses in mediating soil properties and processes, with their influence depending on shrub species identity. Such species-dependent effects need to be accounted for when forecasting vegetation dynamics under ongoing environmental changes.

  9. The effect of peatland drainage and restoration on Odonata species richness and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Merja; Penttinen, Jouni; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2015-04-09

    Restoration aims at reversing the trend of habitat degradation, the major threat to biodiversity. In Finland, more than half of the original peatland area has been drained, and during recent years, restoration of some of the drained peatlands has been accomplished. Short-term effects of the restoration on peatland hydrology, chemistry and vegetation are promising but little is known about how other species groups apart from vascular plants and bryophytes respond to restoration efforts. Here, we studied how abundance and species richness of Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) respond to restoration. We sampled larvae in three sites (restored, drained, pristine) on each of 12 different study areas. We sampled Odonata larvae before restoration (n = 12), during the first (n = 10) and the third (n = 7) year after restoration and used generalized linear mixed models to analyze the effect of restoration. Drained sites had lower abundance and species richness than pristine sites. During the third year after restoration both abundance and species richness had risen in restored sites. Our results show that Odonata suffer from drainage, but seem to benefit from peatland restoration and are able to colonize newly formed water pools already within three years after restoration.

  10. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: the importance of topography and geographical location in supporting higher biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Chen, Bao-Ming; Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason's richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM's area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM's area was in the 10°-20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM.

  11. Mini Review of Phytochemicals and Plant Taxa with Activity as Microbial Biofilm and Quorum Sensing Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieu Anh Kim Ta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms readily form on many surfaces in nature including plant surfaces. In order to coordinate the formation of these biofilms, microorganisms use a cell-to-cell communication system called quorum sensing (QS. As formation of biofilms on vascular plants may not be advantageous to the hosts, plants have developed inhibitors to interfere with these processes. In this mini review, research papers published on plant-derived molecules that have microbial biofilm or quorum sensing inhibition are reviewed with the objectives of determining the biosynthetic classes of active compounds, their biological activity in assays, and their families of occurrence and range. The main findings are the identification of plant phenolics, including benzoates, phenyl propanoids, stilbenes, flavonoids, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins and coumarins as important inhibitors with both activities. Some terpenes including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes also have anti-QS and anti-biofilm activities. Relatively few alkaloids were reported. Quinones and organosulfur compounds, especially from garlic, were also active. A common feature is the polar nature of these compounds. Phytochemicals with these activities are widespread in Angiosperms in temperate and tropical regions, but gymnosperms, bryophytes and pteridophytes were not represented.

  12. Nitrogen multitemporal monitoring through mosses in urban areas affected by mud volcanoes around Mt. Etna, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen emissions were assessed by using mosses as bioindicators in a densely inhabited area affected by mud volcanoes. Such volcanoes, locally called Salinelle, are phenomena that occur around Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy), and are interpreted as the surface outflow of a hydrothermal system located below Mt. Etna, which releases sedimentary fluids (hydrocarbons and Na-Cl brines) along with magmatic gases (mainly CO2 and He). To date, N emissions from such mud volcanoes have been only quantitatively assessed, and no biomonitoring campaigns are reported about the cumulative effects of these emissions. This study analyzed N concentrations in moss, water and soil samples, collected in a 4-year monitoring campaign. The bryophyte Bryum argenteum, a species widely adopted in surveys of atmospheric pollution, was used as a biological indicator. N concentrations in biomonitors showed relatively low values in the study sites. However, the results of this study suggest that N emissions from Salinelle may have an impact on surrounding ecosystems because N values in moss and water showed a significant correlation. N oxides, in particular, contribute to acidification of ecosystems, thus multitemporal biomonitoring is recommended, especially in those areas where N emitting sources are anthropogenic and natural.

  13. DUF581 is plant specific FCS-like zinc finger involved in protein-protein interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jamsheer K

    Full Text Available Zinc fingers are a ubiquitous class of protein domain with considerable variation in structure and function. Zf-FCS is a highly diverged group of C2-C2 zinc finger which is present in animals, prokaryotes and viruses, but not in plants. In this study we identified that a plant specific domain of unknown function, DUF581 is a zf-FCS type zinc finger. Based on HMM-HMM comparison and signature motif similarity we named this domain as FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ domain. A genome wide survey identified that FLZ domain containing genes are bryophytic in origin and this gene family is expanded in spermatophytes. Expression analysis of selected FLZ gene family members of A. thaliana identified an overlapping expression pattern suggesting a possible redundancy in their function. Unlike the zf-FCS domain, the FLZ domain found to be highly conserved in sequence and structure. Using a combination of bioinformatic and protein-protein interaction tools, we identified that FLZ domain is involved in protein-protein interaction.

  14. Assessing Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction on Microbial Communities in Headwater Stream Ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eTrexler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have increased dramatically in Pennsylvania Marcellus shale formations, however the potential for major environmental impacts are still incompletely understood. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the microbial community structure of water, sediment, bryophyte, and biofilm samples from 26 headwater stream sites in northwestern Pennsylvania with different histories of fracking activity within Marcellus shale play. Further, we describe the relationship between microbial community structure and environmental parameters measured. Approximately 3.2 million 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from a total of 58 samples. Microbial community analyses showed significant reductions in species richness as well as evenness in sites with Marcellus shale activity (MSA+. Beta diversity analyses revealed distinct microbial community structure between sites with and without Marcellus shale activity (MSA-. For example, OTUs within the Acetobacteracea, Methylocystaceae, Acidobacteriaceae, and Phenylobacterium were greater than three log-fold more abundant in MSA+ sites as compared to MSA- sites. Further, several of these OTUs were strongly negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with the number of wellpads in a watershed. It should be noted that many of the OTUs enriched in MSA+ sites are putative acidophilic and/or methanotrophic populations. This study revealed apparent shifts in the autochthonous microbial communities and highlighted potential members that could be responding to changing stream conditions as a result of nascent industrial activity in these aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Diversity of ABC transporter genes across the plant kingdom and their potential utility in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Thomas S; Rempe, Caroline S; Davitt, Jack; Staton, Margaret E; Peng, Yanhui; Soltis, Douglas Edward; Melkonian, Michael; Deyholos, Michael; Leebens-Mack, James H; Chase, Mark; Rothfels, Carl J; Stevenson, Dennis; Graham, Sean W; Yu, Jun; Liu, Tao; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Yinlong; Zhu, Ying; Carpenter, Eric; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Stewart, C Neal

    2016-05-31

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene superfamily is ubiquitous among extant organisms and prominently represented in plants. ABC transporters act to transport compounds across cellular membranes and are involved in a diverse range of biological processes. Thus, the applicability to biotechnology is vast, including cancer resistance in humans, drug resistance among vertebrates, and herbicide and other xenobiotic resistance in plants. In addition, plants appear to harbor the highest diversity of ABC transporter genes compared with any other group of organisms. This study applied transcriptome analysis to survey the kingdom-wide ABC transporter diversity in plants and suggest biotechnology applications of this diversity. We utilized sequence similarity-based informatics techniques to infer the identity of ABC transporter gene candidates from 1295 phylogenetically-diverse plant transcriptomes. A total of 97,149 putative (approximately 25 % were full-length) ABC transporter gene members were identified; each RNA-Seq library (plant sample) had 88 ± 30 gene members. As expected, simpler organisms, such as algae, had fewer unique members than vascular land plants. Differences were also noted in the richness of certain ABC transporter subfamilies. Land plants had more unique ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter gene members on average (p red algae, and bryophytes had significantly more ABCF transporter gene members (p biotechnology, with an emphasis on crops.

  16. Exploding a myth: the capsule dehiscence mechanism and the function of pseudostomata in Sphagnum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Jeffrey G; Pressel, Silvia; P'ng, Ken M Y; Renzaglia, Karen S

    2009-01-01

    The nineteenth century air-gun explanation for explosive spore discharge in Sphagnum has never been tested experimentally. Similarly, the function of the numerous stomata ubiquitous in the capsule walls has never been investigated. Both intact and pricked Sphagnum capsules, that were allowed to dry out, all dehisced over an 8-12 h period during which time the stomatal guard cells gradually collapsed and their potassium content, measured by X-ray microanalysis in a cryoscanning electron microscope, gradually increased. By contrast, guard cell potassium fell in water-stressed Arabidopsis. The pricking experiments demonstrate that the air-gun notion for explosive spore discharge in Sphagnum is inaccurate; differential shrinkage of the capsule walls causes popping off the rigid operculum. The absence of evidence for a potassium-regulating mechanism in the stomatal guard cells and their gradual collapse before spore discharge indicates that their sole role is facilitation of sporophyte desiccation that ultimately leads to capsule dehiscence. Our novel functional data on Sphagnum, when considered in relation to bryophyte phylogeny, suggest the possibility that stomata first appeared in land plants as structures that facilitated sporophyte drying out before spore discharge and only subsequently acquired their role in the regulation of gaseous exchange.

  17. The effects of quantitative fecundity in the haploid stage on reproductive success and diploid fitness in the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M G; Shaw, A J

    2016-06-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how mating patterns affect the fitness of offspring. However, in animals and seed plants it is virtually impossible to investigate the effects of specific gamete genotypes. In bryophytes, haploid gametophytes grow via clonal propagation and produce millions of genetically identical gametes throughout a population. The main goal of this research was to test whether gamete identity has an effect on the fitness of their diploid offspring in a population of the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum. We observed a heavily male-biased sex ratio in gametophyte plants (ramets) and in multilocus microsatellite genotypes (genets). There was a steeper relationship between mating success (number of different haploid mates) and fecundity (number of diploid offspring) for male genets compared with female genets. At the sporophyte level, we observed a weak effect of inbreeding on offspring fitness, but no effect of brood size (number of sporophytes per maternal ramet). Instead, the identities of the haploid male and haploid female parents were significant contributors to variance in fitness of sporophyte offspring in the population. Our results suggest that intrasexual gametophyte/gamete competition may play a role in determining mating success in this population.

  18. Sphagnum physiology in the context of changing climate: emergent influences of genomics, modelling and host-microbiome interactions on understanding ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David J; Timm, Collin M; Walker, Anthony P; Gu, Lianhong; Muchero, Wellington; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shaw, A Jonathan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Warren, Jeffrey M; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2015-09-01

    Peatlands harbour more than one-third of terrestrial carbon leading to the argument that the bryophytes, as major components of peatland ecosystems, store more organic carbon in soils than any other collective plant taxa. Plants of the genus Sphagnum are important components of peatland ecosystems and are potentially vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. However, the response of Sphagnum to rising temperatures, elevated CO2 and shifts in local hydrology have yet to be fully characterized. In this review, we examine Sphagnum biology and ecology and explore the role of this group of keystone species and its associated microbiome in carbon and nitrogen cycling using literature review and model simulations. Several issues are highlighted including the consequences of a variable environment on plant-microbiome interactions, uncertainty associated with CO2 diffusion resistances and the relationship between fixed N and that partitioned to the photosynthetic apparatus. We note that the Sphagnum fallax genome is currently being sequenced and outline potential applications of population-level genomics and corresponding plant photosynthesis and microbial metabolic modelling techniques. We highlight Sphagnum as a model organism to explore ecosystem response to a changing climate and to define the role that Sphagnum can play at the intersection of physiology, genetics and functional genomics. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mercury methylation in Sphagnum moss mats and its association with sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acidic Adirondack forest lake wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ri-Qing; Adatto, Isaac; Montesdeoca, Mario R; Driscoll, Charles T; Hines, Mark E; Barkay, Tamar

    2010-12-01

    Processes leading to the bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in northern wetlands are largely unknown. We have studied various ecological niches within a remote, acidic forested lake ecosystem in the southwestern Adirondacks, NY, to discover that mats comprised of Sphagnum moss were a hot spot for mercury (Hg) and MeHg accumulation (190.5 and 18.6 ng g⁻¹ dw, respectively). Furthermore, significantly higher potential methylation rates were measured in Sphagnum mats as compared with other sites within Sunday Lake's ecosystem. Although MPN estimates showed a low biomass of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), 2.8 × 10⁴ cells mL⁻¹ in mat samples, evidence consisting of (1) a twofold stimulation of potential methylation by the addition of sulfate, (2) a significant decrease in Hg methylation in the presence of the sulfate reduction inhibitor molybdate, and (3) presence of dsrAB-like genes in mat DNA extracts, suggested that SRB were involved in Hg methylation. Sequencing of dsrB genes indicated that novel SRB, incomplete oxidizers including Desulfobulbus spp. and Desulfovibrio spp., and syntrophs dominated the sulfate-reducing guild in the Sphagnum moss mat. Sphagnum, a bryophyte dominating boreal peatlands, and its associated microbial communities appear to play an important role in the production and accumulation of MeHg in high-latitude ecosystems. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodeterioration of the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace, Granada (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarro, M. Isabel; Garcia, Ana M.; Rivalta, Victor M.; Moreno, Diego A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales; Arroyo, Irene [Instituto del Patrimonio Historico Espanol, Ministerio de Cultura, El Greco, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Stone works of art exposed to the environment are liable to be deteriorated by the action of biological agents such as bacteria, fungi, mosses, etc. In ornamental fountains, the microorganisms present in water can contribute to these biodeterioration processes. This paper assesses the biodeterioration experienced by the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace in Granada (Spain). Analyses have been made of the biodeterioration of Lions 4, 5 and 9, the biofouling of the fountain basin, and the water supply system. Conventional and molecular biology techniques have identified microorganisms belonging to various microbial groups ({alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-Protebacteria, Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia and Eukaryota). Additionally, on the mortar in the sculptures the presence of algae and bryophytes has been observed. X-ray diffraction allowed both the detection of neoformation mineral products that can be related with the presence of microorganisms and the corrosion products in the Lions Fountain. A number of recommendations are made regarding the prevention and control of biodeterioration in this important work of art. (author)

  1. Linkage of 35S and 5S rRNA genes in Artemisia (family Asteraceae): first evidence from angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sònia; Lim, K Yoong; Chester, Michael; Garnatje, Teresa; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Leitch, Andrew R; Kovarík, Ales

    2009-02-01

    Typically in plants, the 5S and 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) encoding two major ribosomal RNA species occur at separate loci. However, in some algae, bryophytes and ferns, they are at the same locus (linked arranged). Southern blot hybridisation, polymerase chain reactions (PCR), fluorescent in situ hybridisation, cloning and sequencing were used to reveal 5S and 35S rDNA genomic organisation in Artemisia. We observed thousands of rDNA units at two-three loci containing 5S rDNA in an inverted orientation within the inter-genic spacer (IGS) of 35S rDNA. The sequenced clones of 26-18S IGS from Artemisia absinthium appeared to contain a conserved 5S gene insertion proximal to the 26S gene terminus (5S rDNA-1) and a second less conserved 5S insertion (5S rDNA-2) further downstream. Whilst the 5S rDNA-1 showed all the structural features of a functional gene, the 5S-rDNA-2 had a deletion in the internal promoter and probably represents a pseudogene. The linked arrangement probably evolved before the divergence of Artemisia from the rest of Asteraceae (>10 Myrs). This arrangement may have involved retrotransposons and once formed spread via mechanisms of concerted evolution. Heterogeneity in unit structure may reflect ongoing homogenisation of variant unit types without fixation for any particular variant.

  2. First survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Kosovo using moss biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxhuni, Albert; Lazo, Pranvera; Kane, Sonila; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda; Harmens, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. The atmospheric deposition of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Kosovo was investigated by using carpet-forming moss species (Pseudocleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicators. This research is part of the European moss survey coordinated by the ICP Vegetation, an International Cooperative Programme reporting on the effects of air pollution on vegetation to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Sampling was performed during the summer of 2011 at 25 sampling sites homogenously distributed over Kosovo. Unwashed, dried samples were digested by using wet digestion in Teflon tubes. The concentrations of metal elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and/or furnace systems. The heavy metal concentration in mosses reflected local emission sources. The data obtained in this study were compared with those of similar studies in neighboring countries and Europe (2010-2014 survey). The geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher than the respective median values of Europe, suggesting that the zones with heavy vehicular traffic and industry emission input are important emitters of these elements. Selected zones are highly polluted particularly by Cd, Pb, Hg, and Ni. The statistical analyses revealed that a strong correlation exists between the Pb and Cd content in mosses, and the degree of pollution in the studied sites was assessed.

  3. Short-term monitoring of aridland lichen cover and biomass using photography and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Johnson, N.C.; Belnap, J.; Koch, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crust (BSC) communities (composed of lichens, bryophytes, and cyanobacteria) may be more dynamic on short-time scales than previously thought, requiring new and informative short-term monitoring techniques. We used repeat digital photography and image analysis, which revealed a change in area of a dominant BSC lichen, Collema tenax. The data generated correlated well with gross photosynthesis (r=0.57) and carotenoid content (r=0.53), two variables that would be expected to be positively related to lichen area. We also extracted fatty acids from lichen samples and identified useful phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) indicators for the Collema mycobiont (20:1, 15:0, 23:0), and the Collema photobiont (18:3??3). The 18:3??3 correlated well with chlorophyll a (r=0.66), a more traditional proxy for cyanobacterial biomass. We also compared total PLFA as a proxy for total Collema biomass with our photographically generated areal change data, and found them to be moderately correlated (r=0.44). Areal change proved to be responsive on short-time scales, while fatty acid techniques were information-rich, providing data on biomass of lichens, and both photo- and mycobionts separately, in addition to the physiological status of the mycobiont. Both techniques should be refined and tested in field situations. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Potential, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activity of the Extracts from the Gametophyte and Archegoniophore of Marchantia polymorpha L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marchantia polymorpha L. is a representative bryophyte used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for scald and pneumonia. The phytochemicals in M. polymorpha L. are terpenoids and flavonoids, among which especially the flavonoids show significant human health benefits. Many researches on the gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. have been reported. However, as the reproductive organ of M. polymorpha L., the bioactivity and flavonoids profile of the archegoniophore have not been reported, so in this work the flavonoid profiles, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of the extracts from the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were compared by radical scavenging assay methods (DPPH, ABTS, O2−, reducing power assay, acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay and LC-MS analysis. The results showed that the total flavonoids content in the archegoniophore was about 10-time higher than that of the gametophyte. Differences between the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were observed by LC-MS analysis. The archegoniophore extracts showed stronger bio-activities than those of the gametophyte. The archegoniophore extract showed a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibition, while the gametophyte extract hardly inhibited it.

  5. Preparation and properties of silicone fouling release coatings with long-life afterglow fluorescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhanping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on polydimethylsiloxane, three-component coatings were prepared with different content of luminescence powder. The results showed that the illuminance of coatings increases with the content of luminescence powder, decays exponentially with the afterglow time, increases exponentially with the increase of exposure time. The afterglow illuminance augments with irradiated light illuminance. All coatings are hydrophobic and oleophilic. Surface free energy decreases with the increase of luminescence powder. They have highest impact-resistance and bend flexibility. The luminescence powder does not change obviously the shore hardness, tensile breaking strength, breaking elongation rate, elastic modular and roughness of coatings. The static test panels in sea generally could be covered obviously by biofouling including sponges, bryophytes and mussels, hydra, kelp, green algae after 2 months of immersion during growing season. But it never found that the barnacle attached on the coating surface during 4 years of immersion test. The static anti-fouling ability of the coatings is very limited. In addition, the sea creatures attached on the coating surface can be easily removed; even attached organisms will fall off and expose again the smooth coating surface. Consequently, all coatings with long-life afterglow fluorescent have a significant effect on preventing adhesion of barnacle and fouling-release performance.

  6. Practical application of methanol-mediated mutualistic symbiosis between Methylobacterium species and a roof greening moss, Racomitrium japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Tani

    Full Text Available Bryophytes, or mosses, are considered the most maintenance-free materials for roof greening. Racomitrium species are most often used due to their high tolerance to desiccation. Because they grow slowly, a technology for forcing their growth is desired. We succeeded in the efficient production of R. japonicum in liquid culture. The structure of the microbial community is crucial to stabilize the culture. A culture-independent technique revealed that the cultures contain methylotrophic bacteria. Using yeast cells that fluoresce in the presence of methanol, methanol emission from the moss was confirmed, suggesting that it is an important carbon and energy source for the bacteria. We isolated Methylobacterium species from the liquid culture and studied their characteristics. The isolates were able to strongly promote the growth of some mosses including R. japonicum and seed plants, but the plant-microbe combination was important, since growth promotion was not uniform across species. One of the isolates, strain 22A, was cultivated with R. japonicum in liquid culture and in a field experiment, resulting in strong growth promotion. Mutualistic symbiosis can thus be utilized for industrial moss production.

  7. Drought alters carbon fluxes in alpine snowbed ecosystems through contrasting impacts on graminoids and forbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Vachon, Jérémie; Britton, Andrea J; Helliwell, Rachel C

    2011-05-01

    • Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of drought events in alpine ecosystems with the potential to affect carbon turnover. • We removed intact turfs from a Nardus stricta alpine snowbed community and subjected half of them to two drought events of 8 d duration under controlled conditions. Leachate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was measured throughout the 6 wk study period, and a (13)CO(2) pulse enabled quantification of fluxes of recent assimilate into shoots, roots and leachate and ecosystem CO(2) exchange. • The amount of DOC in leachate from droughted cores was 62% less than in controls. Drought reduced graminoid biomass, increased forb biomass, had no effect on bryophytes, and led to an overall decrease in total above-ground biomass compared with controls. Net CO(2) exchange, gross photosynthesis and the amount of (13)CO(2) fixed were all significantly less in droughted turfs. These turfs also retained proportionally more (13)C in shoots, allocated less (13)C to roots, and the amount of dissolved organic (13)C recovered in leachate was 57% less than in controls. • Our data show that drought events can have significant impacts on ecosystem carbon fluxes, and that the principal mechanism behind this is probably changes in the relative abundance of forbs and grasses. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Practical application of methanol-mediated mutualistic symbiosis between Methylobacterium species and a roof greening moss, Racomitrium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Akio; Takai, Yuichiro; Suzukawa, Ikko; Akita, Motomu; Murase, Haruhiko; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2012-01-01

    Bryophytes, or mosses, are considered the most maintenance-free materials for roof greening. Racomitrium species are most often used due to their high tolerance to desiccation. Because they grow slowly, a technology for forcing their growth is desired. We succeeded in the efficient production of R. japonicum in liquid culture. The structure of the microbial community is crucial to stabilize the culture. A culture-independent technique revealed that the cultures contain methylotrophic bacteria. Using yeast cells that fluoresce in the presence of methanol, methanol emission from the moss was confirmed, suggesting that it is an important carbon and energy source for the bacteria. We isolated Methylobacterium species from the liquid culture and studied their characteristics. The isolates were able to strongly promote the growth of some mosses including R. japonicum and seed plants, but the plant-microbe combination was important, since growth promotion was not uniform across species. One of the isolates, strain 22A, was cultivated with R. japonicum in liquid culture and in a field experiment, resulting in strong growth promotion. Mutualistic symbiosis can thus be utilized for industrial moss production.

  9. Cluster formation in liverwort-associated methylobacteria and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U.; Thomas, J.; Hornschuh, M.

    2007-08-01

    Pink-pigmented methylotropic bacteria of the genus Methylobacterium inhabit the surfaces of plant organs. In bryophytes, these methylobacteria enhance cell growth, but the nature of this plant-microbe interaction is largely unknown. In this study, methylobacteria were isolated from the upper surface of the free-living thalli of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. Identification of one strain by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other data show that these microbes represent an undescribed species of the genus Methylobacterium ( Methylobacterium sp.). The growth-promoting activity of these wild-type methylobacteria was tested and compared with that of the type strain Methylobacterium mesophilicum. Both types of methylobacteria stimulated surface expansion of isolated gemmae from Marchantia polymorpha by about 350%. When suspended in water, the liverwort-associated bacteria ( Methylobacterium sp.) formed dense clusters of up to 600 cells. In liquid cultures of Methylobacterium mesophilicum, single cells were observed, but no clustering occurred. We suggest that the liverwort-associated methylobacteria are co-evolved symbionts of the plants: Cluster formation may be a behavior that enhances the survival of the epiphytic microbes during periods of drought of these desiccation-tolerant lower plants.

  10. Abiotic determinants of the historical buildings biodeterioration in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Piotrowska

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study conducted at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim on the occurrence of biodeterioration. Visual assessment of the buildings revealed signs of deterioration of the buildings in the form of dampness, bulging and crumbling plaster, and wood fiber splitting. The external surfaces, and especially the concrete strips and ground immediately adjoining the buildings, were colonized by bryophytes, lichens, and algae. These organisms developed most intensively close to the ground on the northern sides of the buildings. Inside the buildings, molds and bacteria were not found to develop actively, while algae and wood-decaying fungi occurred locally. The factors conducive to biological corrosion in the studied buildings were excessive dampness of structural partitions close to the ground and a relative air humidity of above 70%, which was connected to ineffective moisture insulation. The influence of temperature was smaller, as it mostly affected the quantitative composition of the microorganisms and the qualitative composition of the algae. Also the impact of light was not very strong, but it was conducive to algae growth.

  11. Isopentenyltransferase-1 (IPT1) knockout in Physcomitrella together with phylogenetic analyses of IPTs provide insights into evolution of plant cytokinin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is part of an early divergent clade of land plants utilizing the plant hormone cytokinin for growth control. The rate-limiting step of cytokinin biosynthesis is mediated by isopentenyltransferases (IPTs), found in land plants either as adenylate-IPTs or as tRNA-IPTs. Although a dominant part of cytokinins in flowering plants are synthesized by adenylate-IPTs, the Physcomitrella genome only encodes homologues of tRNA-IPTs. This study therefore looked into the question of whether cytokinins in moss derive from tRNA exclusively. Targeted gene knockout of ipt1 (d|ipt1) along with localization studies revealed that the chloroplast-bound IPT1 was almost exclusively responsible for the A37 prenylation of tRNA in Physcomitrella. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based cytokinin profiling demonstrated that the total amount of all free cytokinins in tissue was almost unaffected. However, the knockout plants showed increased levels of the N 6-isopentenyladenine (iP)- and trans-zeatin (tZ)-type cytokinins, considered to provide active forms, while cis-zeatin (cZ)-type cytokinins were reduced. The data provide evidence for an additional and unexpected tRNA-independent cytokinin biosynthetic pathway in moss. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis indicates a diversification of tRNA-IPT-like genes in bryophytes probably related to additional functions. PMID:24692654

  12. Briófitas rupícolas de um trecho do rio Bethary, Iporanga, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram encontradas 19 espécies de briófitas, sendo 14 espécies de musgos e 5 espécies de hepáticas, cobrindo uma maior extensão de rochas das margens que do centro do leito do rio. As rochas das margens do rio, bem üuminadas, porém sem receber luz direta do sol, apresentaram uma maior número de espécies, muito emaranhadas entre si. Já as rochas do centro do leito do rio, iluminadas pela luz direta do sol, apresentaram um menor número de espécies, formando tufos isolados ou pouco emaranhados entre si.Nineteen species of bryophytes were found being 14 species mosses and 5 species liverworts. These plants occured in greater extension on the rocks of the riverbank than on the rocks of riverbed. The rocks on the riverbank which received indirect sun light showed a larger number of species very entangled among themselves. The rocks of the riverbed which received direct sun light showed a smaller number of species forming isolated turfs or were nor very entangled among themselves.

  13. Does spore ultrastructure mirror different dispersal strategies in mosses? A study of seven iberian orthotrichum species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore G Medina

    Full Text Available Most mosses have xerochastic dispersal (i.e., they open their capsules when conditions are dry, which is thought to favor long-distance dispersal. However, there are several species that use a hygrochastic strategy: spores are dispersed when conditions are wet. The significance of this strategy in the Mediterranean region is unknown. In this study, we explored whether ultrastructural features related to differences in spore resistance may explain these different strategies of spore dispersal. To this end, we examined the ultrastructural features of the spores of seven closely related species in the moss genus Orthotrichum. These species all grow as epiphytes in sub-Mediterranean forests, and the group includes both xerochastic and hygrochastic members. First, we found that the spore wall layers exhibit several features previously undescribed in mosses. Second, we discovered that there are only subtle differences in spore ultrastructure with regards to spore wall thickness, the degree of plastid development, or the storage substances used. We suggest that the hygrochastic dispersal in mosses from Mediterranean environments might be related to a safe-site strategy, rather than to drought avoidance, and we underscore the necessity of conducting spore ultrastructural studies on a greater number of bryophyte species.

  14. Culturable bacteria in hydroponic cultures of moss Racomitrium japonicum and their potential as biofertilizers for moss production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Akio; Akita, Motomu; Murase, Haruhiko; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2011-07-01

    The use of Racomitrium japonicum, a drought resistant bryophyte used for roof-greening, is gradually increasing. However, its utilization is hampered by slow growth rate. Here we isolated culturable bacteria from hydroponic cultivation samples to identify isolates that could promote moss growth. Most of the isolates belonged to Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Duganella species. The isolates were biochemically characterized according to their type of interaction with plants, i.e., production of auxin, siderophores, or hydrogen cyanate, growth in the absence of an added nitrogen source, calcium phosphate solubilization, utilization of sugars, polymers, or aliphatic compounds, and antifungal activity. The isolates were applied to sterile protonemata and non-sterile adult gametophytes of R. japonicum to evaluate their effect on plant growth. Furthermore, we isolated fungi that inhibited moss growth. Our results suggest that the microbial community structure in hydroponic cultures is important to stabilize moss production and the isolates that promote moss growth have potential to be utilized as biofertilizers for moss production. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Moss Macromitrium Richardii (Orthotrichaceae with Sporophyte and Calyptra Enclosed in Hymenaea Resin from the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrichs Jochen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dominican amber is an important source for Early Miocene bryophytes. We report the moss Macromitrium richardii Schwägr., an extant representative of the Orthotrichaceae, from the Dominican amber collection of the American Museum of Natural History. This species is currently a widespread Neotropical epiphyte. The specimen includes several gametophytes and sporophytes, and represents the first fossil record of Orthotrichaceae. Alongside the Macromitrium shoots we observed several fragments of the liverworts Cheilolejeunea antiqua and Frullania sp. The unusual thermal behavior of the resin sample initially led to doubts about the Miocene age of the specimen, but chemical analyses of the Hymenaea resin provides evidence that the specimen represents a highly oxidized sample of Miocene Dominican amber rather than an artificially thermally-treated subfossil resin (copal. Our inclusion demonstrates the exceptional preservation potential of tree resin, but our observations also suggest that provenance (including any possibility that a modern resin has been thermally treated to make it appear older should be scrutinized when single pieces with atypical thermal behavior and exceptionally well-preserved extant morphotypes come to light.

  16. Origins and Evolution of Stomatal Development1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The fossil record suggests stomata-like pores were present on the surfaces of land plants over 400 million years ago. Whether stomata arose once or whether they arose independently across newly evolving land plant lineages has long been a matter of debate. In Arabidopsis, a genetic toolbox has been identified that tightly controls stomatal development and patterning. This includes the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors SPEECHLESS (SPCH), MUTE, FAMA, and ICE/SCREAMs (SCRMs), which promote stomatal formation. These factors are regulated via a signaling cascade, which includes mobile EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) peptides to enforce stomatal spacing. Mosses and hornworts, the most ancient extant lineages to possess stomata, possess orthologs of these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stomatal toolbox genes, and manipulation in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens has shown that the bHLH and EPF components are also required for moss stomatal development and patterning. This supports an ancient and tightly conserved genetic origin of stomata. Here, we review recent discoveries and, by interrogating newly available plant genomes, we advance the story of stomatal development and patterning across land plant evolution. Furthermore, we identify potential orthologs of the key toolbox genes in a hornwort, further supporting a single ancient genetic origin of stomata in the ancestor to all stomatous land plants. PMID:28356502

  17. GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE channels are essential for chemotaxis and reproduction in mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Carlos; Michard, Erwan; Simon, Alexander A; Damineli, Daniel S C; Hernández-Coronado, Marcela; Becker, Jörg D; Feijó, José A

    2017-09-07

    Glutamate receptors are well characterized channels that mediate cell-to-cell communication during neurotransmission in animals, but their functional role in organisms without a nervous system remains unclear. In plants, genes of the GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE (GLR) family have been implicated in defence against pathogens, reproduction, control of stomata aperture and light signal transduction. However, the large number of GLR genes present in angiosperm genomes (20 to 70) has prevented the observation of strong phenotypes in loss-of-function mutants. Here we show that in the basal land plant Physcomitrella patens, mutation of the GLR genes GLR1 and GLR2 causes failure of sperm cells to target the female reproductive organs. In addition, we show that GLR genes encode non-selective Ca2+-permeable channels that can regulate cytoplasmic Ca2+ and are needed to induce the expression of a BELL1-like transcription factor essential for zygote development. Our work reveals functions for GLR channels in sperm chemotaxis and transcriptional regulation. Sperm chemotaxis is essential for fertilization in both animals and early land plants such as bryophytes and pteridophytes. Therefore, our results suggest that ionotropic glutamate receptors may have been conserved throughout plant evolution to mediate cell-to-cell communication during sexual reproduction.

  18. ASSIMILATORY PIGMENTS CONTENT IN FERN GAMETOPHYTES AND SPOROPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pteridophytes distinguishes from other land plants is that they have independent gametophyte and sporophyte generations. Half fern’s lives are spent in the gametophyte stage, or haplophase, and the other half in the sporophyte stage. Fern gametophytes have no vascular system, like bryophytes, and live on substrate surfaces as small individual plants, but their sporophytes have a vascular system enabling more vertical growth than gametophytes, resulting in a large herbaceous plant form. Many species are able to change the composition of their photosynthetic apparatus to optimize photosynthesis for the light environment in which they are growing. Measurements performed at fern gametophytes (Polypodium vulgare, Asplenium trichomanes and Cystopteris fragilis obtained in vitro and in fern sporophytes (ten species from the natural site showed that the content of chlorophylls is both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that of higher plants. Chlorophyll content was much higher in sporophytes, which is in agreement with their higher photosynthetic rates. The highest amount of chlorophyll values was determined to species of Asplenium, and the lower value was in Lycopodium clavatum.

  19. Warming experiments elucidate the drivers of observed directional changes in tundra vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Robert D; May, Jeremy L; Kremers, Kelseyann S; Tweedie, Craig E; Oberbauer, Steven F; Liebig, Jennifer A; Botting, Timothy F; Barrett, Robert T; Gregory, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have clearly linked long-term monitoring with in situ experiments to clarify potential drivers of observed change at a given site. This is especially necessary when findings from a site are applied to a much broader geographic area. Here, we document vegetation change at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska, occurring naturally and due to experimental warming over nearly two decades. An examination of plant cover, canopy height, and community indices showed more significant differences between years than due to experimental warming. However, changes with warming were more consistent than changes between years and were cumulative in many cases. Most cases of directional change observed in the control plots over time corresponded with a directional change in response to experimental warming. These included increases in canopy height and decreases in lichen cover. Experimental warming resulted in additional increases in evergreen shrub cover and decreases in diversity and bryophyte cover. This study suggests that the directional changes occurring at the sites are primarily due to warming and indicates that further changes are likely in the next two decades if the regional warming trend continues. These findings provide an example of the utility of coupling in situ experiments with long-term monitoring to accurately document vegetation change in response to global change and to identify the underlying mechanisms driving observed changes. PMID:26140204

  20. Synonymous codon usage bias in plant mitochondrial genes is associated with intron number and mirrors species evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xu

    Full Text Available Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB is a common event that a non-uniform usage of codons often occurs in nearly all organisms. We previously found that SCUB is correlated with both intron number and exon position in the plant nuclear genome but not in the plastid genome; SCUB in both nuclear and plastid genome can mirror the evolutionary specialization. However, how about the rules in the mitochondrial genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome, based on 24 plant species ranging from algae to land plants. The frequencies of NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons are higher than those of NNG and NNC, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in land plants, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. The preference for NNA and NNT is more evident in genes harboring a greater number of introns in land plants, but the bias to NNA and NNT exhibits even among exons. The pattern of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome differs in some respects to that present in both the nuclear and plastid genomes.

  1. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: the importance of topography and geographical location in supporting higher biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhou

    Full Text Available Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM, an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason's richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM's area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM's area was in the 10°-20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM.

  2. Responses to ammonium and nitrate additions by boreal plants and their natural enemies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Annika [Umeaa Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: annika.nordin@genfys.slu.se; Strengbom, Joachim [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: joachim.strengbom@ebc.uu.se; Ericson, Lars [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: lars.ericson@eg.umu.se

    2006-05-15

    Separate effects of ammonium (NH{sub 4} {sup +}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3} {sup -}) on boreal forest understorey vegetation were investigated in an experiment where 12.5 and 50.0 kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} was added to 2 m{sup 2} sized plots during 4 years. The dwarf-shrubs dominating the plant community, Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea, took up little of the added N independent of the chemical form, and their growth did not respond to the N treatments. The grass Deschampsia flexuosa increased from the N additions and most so in response to NO{sub 3} {sup -}. Bryophytes took up predominately NH{sub 4} {sup +} and there was a negative correlation between moss N concentration and abundance. Plant pathogenic fungi increased from the N additions, but showed no differences in response to the two N forms. Because the relative contribution of NH{sub 4} {sup +} and NO{sub 3} {sup -} to the total N deposition on a regional scale can vary substantially, the N load a habitat can sustain without substantial changes in the biota should be set considering specific vegetation responses to the predominant N form in deposition. - Biota will respond to nitrogen deposition depending on the form of nitrogen.

  3. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Jelte; Boelen, Peter; Blokker, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially, (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution.

  4. Temporal trends (1990-2005 in heavy metal accumulation in mosses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Maòkovská

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring of multielement atmospheric deposition using terrestrialmoss is a well-established technique in Europe. The moss samples of Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum sp. were collected in Slovakia. Separately we evaluated the atmospheric deposition in the National Parks (Vysoké Tatry, Nízke Tatry, Západné Tatry -Jelenec, Slovenský raj and in a landscape protection area (Ve¾ká Fatra. In comparison to the median northern Norway values ofheavy metal contents in moss, the Slovak atmospheric deposition loads of elements were found to be higher. The survey has been repeated and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn between 1990 and 2005. Metal- and sites-specific temporal trends were observed. In general, the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in mossesdecreased between 1990 and 2005; the decline was higher for Pb than for Cd. The observed temporal trends for the concentrations in mosses were similar to the trends reported for the modelled total deposition of cadmium, lead and mercury in Europe. The level of elements, determined in bryophytes reflects the relative atmosphericdeposition loads of elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian mosses.

  5. A High Efficiency Chlorophyll Sensitized Solar Cell with Quasi Solid PVA Based Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of chlorophyll sensitized solar cells (CSSCs with gel electrolyte based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA with single iodide salt (potassium iodide (KI and double salt (KI and tetrapropylammonium iodide (TPAI. Chlorophyll was extracted from the bryophyte Hyophila involuta. The CSSC with electrolyte containing only KI salt produced a short circuit current density (Jsc of 4.59 mA cm−2, open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.61 V, fill factor (FF of 0.64, and efficiency (η of 1.77%. However, the CSSC with double salt electrolyte exhibited Jsc of 5.96 mA cm−2, Voc of 0.58 V, fill factor FF of 0.58, and η of 2.00%. Since CSSC with double salt electrolyte showed better efficiency, other cells fabricated will use the double salt electrolyte. On addition of 0.7 M tetrabutyl pyridine (TBP to the double salt electrolyte, the cell’s efficiency increased to 2.17%, Jsc=5.37 mA cm−2, Voc=0.55 V, and FF = 0.73. With 5 mM chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA added to the chlorophyll, the light to electricity efficiency increased to 2.62% with Jsc of 8.44 mA cm−2, Voc of 0.54 V, and FF of 0.58.

  6. The Nostoc punctiforme Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Meeks

    2001-12-31

    Nostoc punctiforme is a filamentous cyanobacterium with extensive phenotypic characteristics and a relatively large genome, approaching 10 Mb. The phenotypic characteristics include a photoautotrophic, diazotrophic mode of growth, but N. punctiforme is also facultatively heterotrophic; its vegetative cells have multiple development alternatives, including terminal differentiation into nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and transient differentiation into spore-like akinetes or motile filaments called hormogonia; and N. punctiforme has broad symbiotic competence with fungi and terrestrial plants, including bryophytes, gymnosperms and an angiosperm. The shotgun-sequencing phase of the N. punctiforme strain ATCC 29133 genome has been completed by the Joint Genome Institute. Annotation of an 8.9 Mb database yielded 7432 open reading frames, 45% of which encode proteins with known or probable known function and 29% of which are unique to N. punctiforme. Comparative analysis of the sequence indicates a genome that is highly plastic and in a state of flux, with numerous insertion sequences and multilocus repeats, as well as genes encoding transposases and DNA modification enzymes. The sequence also reveals the presence of genes encoding putative proteins that collectively define almost all characteristics of cyanobacteria as a group. N. punctiforme has an extensive potential to sense and respond to environmental signals as reflected by the presence of more than 400 genes encoding sensor protein kinases, response regulators and other transcriptional factors. The signal transduction systems and any of the large number of unique genes may play essential roles in the cell differentiation and symbiotic interaction properties of N. punctiforme.

  7. Ancient Food Habits Dictate that Food Can Be Medicine but Medicine Cannot Be “Food”!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hit Kishore Goswami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive surveys of several population settlements in different parts of India—covering plains, mountains, valleys, river banks and deeper areas of forests at different altitudes—between 1968 and 2016 demonstrated that the basic vital need of hunger is being fulfilled since antiquity by plants in the wild. Methods: Based on collections, consultations with local population personnel and literature searches, this paper presents many plants that are commonly used as food and focuses on their products, which are rich in alkaloids, polysaccharides, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, aminoacids, fatty acids and antibiotics etc. These complex organic compounds are suitable for the production of drugs for many ailments/diseases, including the prevention of cancers. Results: There are more than 100 families including several hundred plant taxa from various plant groups like angiosperms, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and even fleshy fungi, which have offered essential food items to ever-growing human populations since antiquity. Phytochemicals functioning as antioxidants are exceedingly beneficial to the human body but excess consumption of these compounds, adding higher levels of antioxidants, may even be responsible for chronic diseases including aging, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, etc. These medicines can obviously be taken in small and prescribed quantities but can never be consumed as “food items.”

  8. Metacommunity ecology meets biogeography: effects of geographical region, spatial dynamics and environmental filtering on community structure in aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, Jani; Soininen, Janne; Alahuhta, Janne; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Virtanen, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Metacommunity patterns and underlying processes in aquatic organisms have typically been studied within a drainage basin. We examined variation in the composition of six freshwater organismal groups across various drainage basins in Finland. We first modelled spatial structures within each drainage basin using Moran eigenvector maps. Second, we partitioned variation in community structure among three groups of predictors using constrained ordination: (1) local environmental variables, (2) spatial variables, and (3) dummy variable drainage basin identity. Third, we examined turnover and nestedness components of multiple-site beta diversity, and tested the best fit patterns of our datasets using the "elements of metacommunity structure" analysis. Our results showed that basin identity and local environmental variables were significant predictors of community structure, whereas within-basin spatial effects were typically negligible. In half of the organismal groups (diatoms, bryophytes, zooplankton), basin identity was a slightly better predictor of community structure than local environmental variables, whereas the opposite was true for the remaining three organismal groups (insects, macrophytes, fish). Both pure basin and local environmental fractions were, however, significant after accounting for the effects of the other predictor variable sets. All organismal groups exhibited high levels of beta diversity, which was mostly attributable to the turnover component. Our results showed consistent Clementsian-type metacommunity structures, suggesting that subgroups of species responded similarly to environmental factors or drainage basin limits. We conclude that aquatic communities across large scales are mostly determined by environmental and basin effects, which leads to high beta diversity and prevalence of Clementsian community types.

  9. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  10. The response of Arctic vegetation and soils following an unusually severe tundra fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Mack, Michelle C.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Huebner, Diane C.; Johnston, Miriam; Mojica, Camilo A.; Pizano, Camila; Reiskind, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Fire causes dramatic short-term changes in vegetation and ecosystem function, and may promote rapid vegetation change by creating recruitment opportunities. Climate warming likely will increase the frequency of wildfire in the Arctic, where it is not common now. In 2007, the unusually severe Anaktuvuk River fire burned 1039 km2 of tundra on Alaska's North Slope. Four years later, we harvested plant biomass and soils across a gradient of burn severity, to assess recovery. In burned areas, above-ground net primary productivity of vascular plants equalled that in unburned areas, though total live biomass was less. Graminoid biomass had recovered to unburned levels, but shrubs had not. Virtually all vascular plant biomass had resprouted from surviving underground parts; no non-native species were seen. However, bryophytes were mostly disturbance-adapted species, and non-vascular biomass had recovered less than vascular plant biomass. Soil nitrogen availability did not differ between burned and unburned sites. Graminoids showed allocation changes consistent with nitrogen stress. These patterns are similar to those seen following other, smaller tundra fires. Soil nitrogen limitation and the persistence of resprouters will likely lead to recovery of mixed shrub–sedge tussock tundra, unless permafrost thaws, as climate warms, more extensively than has yet occurred. PMID:23836794

  11. Moss Mediates the Influence of Shrub Species on Soil Properties and Processes in Alpine Tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C Guillermo; Williamson, Scott N; Barrio, Isabel C; Helgadóttir, Ágústa; HiK, David S

    2016-01-01

    In tundra ecosystems, bryophytes influence soil processes directly and indirectly through interactions with overstory shrub species. We experimentally manipulated moss cover and measured seasonal soil properties and processes under two species of deciduous shrubs with contrasting canopy structures, Salix planifolia pulchra and Betula glandulosa-nana complex. Soil properties (seasonal temperature, moisture and C:N ratios) and processes (seasonal litter decomposition and soil respiration) were measured over twelve months. Shrub species identity had the largest influence on summer soil temperatures and soil respiration rates, which were higher under Salix canopies. Mosses were associated with lower soil moisture irrespective of shrub identity, but modulated the effects of shrubs on winter soil temperatures and soil C:N ratios so that moss cover reduced differences in soil winter temperatures between shrub species and reduced C:N ratios under Betula but not under Salix canopies. Our results suggest a central role of mosses in mediating soil properties and processes, with their influence depending on shrub species identity. Such species-dependent effects need to be accounted for when forecasting vegetation dynamics under ongoing environmental changes.

  12. Photosynthesis, growth and competitive ability of some coniferous forest mosses and the influence of herbicides and heavy metals (Cu, Zn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stjernquist, I.

    1981-12-01

    The importance of morphological characteristics and environmental variables as controlling factors for photo- synthesis and growth of Dicranum polysetum, Pleurozium schreberi and Ptilium crista-castrensis were studied. The three mosses had maximum assimilation capacity in different segments of the shoot and the growth form determined to what degree the capacity could be utilized. CO/sub 2/ fixation was limited by nutrient supply and selectivity affected by the environmental variables. In situ growth in a certain habitat or during a certain season closely corresponded to the oscillation of the variables important for CO/sub 2/ fixation. Application of 2,4-D,MCPA,Triclopyr and Glyphosate to populations of Dicranum, Pleurozium and five co-existing species gave selective effects on assimilation and respiration depending on bryophyte and herbicide. Generally, Glyphosate had negative long-term effects on photosynthesis of coniferous mosses with the exception of Sphagnum squarrosum. MCPA, 2,4-D and Triclopyr immediately decreased CO/sub 2/ fixation to maximally 30% of the control (Pleurozium and Hylocomium splendens). After one month CO/sub 2/ assimilation increased. Effects of varying concentrations of 2,4-D, and Glyphosate were studied and the influence on growth discussed. Assimilation and respiration of Dicranum was negatively related to increasing content of Cu+Zn in the shoot. The effect was significant at concentrations twice the background level.

  13. Twenty years of research on community composition and species distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, J P; Christie, P; Feng, G; Li, X L

    2006-06-01

    The biodiversity and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in different ecosystems and plant communities in China has received increasing interest over the past decades. This has led to a steady increase in the number of scientific papers published on this topic. Studies have surveyed AMF-colonizing rhizospheres of most families of angiosperms, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and gymnosperms. China has about 30,000 plant species (one eighth of the plant species worldwide). A total of 104 AMF species within nine genera, including 12 new species, have been reported in environments such as croplands, grasslands, forests, and numerous disturbed environments. In this paper, we review data published over the past 20 years on AMF community composition and species distribution, the mycorrhizal status of plants, AMF spore communities in different habitats, and germplasm collections in China. Possible future trends in the study of the biodiversity of AMF are also briefly discussed. In particular, the aim of our review is to make some of the recent work published in the Chinese literature accessible to a wider international audience.

  14. Tardigrada from a sub-Andean forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia) with the description of Itaquascon pilatoi sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Oscar; Londoño, Rosana; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-07-29

    Currently only 32 species of limno-terrestrial tardigrades have been reported in the literature for Colombia. Our study focused on both heterotardigrades and eutardigrades, which were extracted from eight samples of bryophytes and lichens collected in a sub-Andean forest transect in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Fourteen species were found, six of which are new records for Colombia: Echiniscus madonnae Michalczyk & Kaczmarek, 2006, Echiniscus virginicus Riggin, 1962, Milnesium krzysztofi Kaczmarek & Michalczyk, 2007, Doryphoribius amazzonicus Lisi, 2011, Isohypsibius sattleri (Richters, 1902) and Diphascon higginsi Binda, 1971; and one new to science. Itaquascon pilatoi sp. nov., is characterized by having smooth cuticle, no eyes, buccal tube almost as long as the pharyngeal tube, well developed, obvious stylet furcae with long branches, slender claws, no lunules and no cuticular bars on the legs. The new species differs from I. umbellinae Barros, 1939, the most similar species, in having the stylet supports inserted precisely at the border between buccal and pharyngeal tube, more slender claws and more pronounced length differential between the external and internal claws of each leg. The total number of Colombian limno-terrestrial tardigrade species is raised to 37. 

  15. Biological Macro and Micro Systems Co-existing in the “Fountain of the Two Dragons”, Palermo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Di Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stone works of art located outdoors are exposed to natural deterioration, due to several physical, chemical and biological factors. Biological macro- and micro-systems (e.g. weeds, insects, algae, mosses, fungi and bacteria may induce the biodeterioration of stone materials. In February 2014, the state of conservation of the Fountain of the two Dragons in Palermo was examined, during which time biological colonization in some areas of the fountain and statues, was also detected. The monument represents an excellent substrate for the development and growth of microrganisms and organisms that need a continuous supply of water. Direct solar irradiance promotes the development of photoautotrophic organisms, bryophyte flora, in addition to several microbial genera, responsible for pigmentation, discoloring, efflorescence. After autotrophic colonization, some organisms find an ideal habitat also during wintertime, including two species of gastropods and two species of Hemiptera, omnivorous, a species of Collembola, mostly fungivorous. This interdisciplinary study has enabled the detection and identification of different biological communities, providing information for a subsequent project of preventive conservation of the fountain and its surroundings.

  16. Bisbibenzyls, a new type of antifungal agent, inhibit morphogenesis switch and biofilm formation through upregulation of DPP3 in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available The yeast-to-hypha transition plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule (QSM secreted by the fungal itself, could prevent the formation of hyphae and subsequently lead to the defect of biofilm formation. The DPP3, encoding phosphatase, is a key gene in regulating farnesol synthesis. In this study, we screened 24 bisbibenzyls and 2 bibenzyls that were isolated from bryophytes or chemically synthesized by using CLSI method for antifungal effect. Seven bisbibenzyls were found to have antifungal effects with IC(80 less than 32 µg/ml, and among them, plagiochin F, isoriccardin C and BS-34 were found to inhibit the hyphae and biofilm formation of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. To uncover the underlying relationship between morphogenesis switch and QSM formation, we measured the farnesol production by HPLC-MS and quantified Dpp3 expression by detecting the fluorescent intensity of green fluorescent protein tagged strain using Confocal Laser Scanning microscopy and Multifunction Microplate Reader. The DPP3 transcripts were determined by real-time PCR. The data indicated that the bisbibenzyls exerted antifungal effects through stimulating the synthesis of farnesol via upregulation of Dpp3, suggesting a potential antifungal application of bisbibenzyls. In addition, our assay provides a novel, visual and convenient method to measure active compounds against morphogenesis switch.

  17. A late-Middle Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage 6) vegetated surface buried by Old Crow tephra at the Palisades, interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A.V.; Jensen, B.J.L.; Zazula, G.D.; Ager, T.A.; Kuzmina, S.; La, Farge C.; Froese, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    A 40??cm thick primary bed of Old Crow tephra (131??????11??ka), an important stratigraphic marker in eastern Beringia, directly overlies a vegetated surface at Palisades West, on the Yukon River in central Alaska. Analyses of insect, bryophyte, and vascular plant macrofossils from the buried surface and underlying organic-rich silt suggest the local presence of an aquatic environment and mesic shrub-tundra at the time of tephra deposition. Autochthonous plant and insect macrofossils from peat directly overlying Old Crow tephra suggest similar aquatic habitats and hydric to mesic tundra environments, though pollen counts indicate a substantial herbaceous component to the regional tundra vegetation. Trace amounts of arboreal pollen in sediments associated with the tephra probably reflect reworking from older deposits, rather than the local presence of trees. The revised glass fission-track age for Old Crow tephra places its deposition closer to the time of the last interglaciation than earlier age determinations, but stratigraphy and paleoecology of sites with Old Crow tephra indicate a late Marine Isotope Stage 6 age. Regional permafrost degradation and associated thaw slumping are responsible for the close stratigraphic and paleoecological relations between Old Crow tephra and last interglacial deposits at some sites in eastern Beringia. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Molecular Properties and Functional Divergence of the Dehydroascorbate Reductase Gene Family in Lower and Higher Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, which reduces oxidized ascorbate, is important for maintaining an appropriate ascorbate redox state in plant cells. To date, genome-wide molecular characterization of DHARs has only been conducted in bryophytes (Physcomitrella patens and eudicots (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, to gain a general understanding of the molecular properties and functional divergence of the DHARs in land plants, we further conducted a comprehensive analysis of DHARs from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, gymnosperm Picea abies and monocot Zea mays. DHARs were present as a small gene family in all of the land plants we examined, with gene numbers ranging from two to four. All the plants contained cytosolic and chloroplastic DHARs, indicating dehydroascorbate (DHA can be directly reduced in the cytoplasm and chloroplast by DHARs in all the plants. A novel vacuolar DHAR was found in Z. mays, indicating DHA may also be reduced in the vacuole by DHARs in Z. mays. The DHARs within each species showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, subcellular localizations, and enzymatic characteristics. This study provides new insights into the molecular characteristics and functional divergence of DHARs in land plants.

  19. Structural motifs of syringyl peroxidases predate not only the gymnosperm-angiosperm divergence but also the radiation of tracheophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Ros, L V; Gabaldón, Carlos; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Pedreño, María A; Barceló, A Ros

    2007-01-01

    * The most distinctive variation in the monomer composition of lignins in vascular land plants is that found between the two main groups of seed plants. Thus, while gymnosperm lignins are typically composed of guaiacyl (G) units, angiosperm lignins are largely composed of similar levels of G and syringyl (S) units. * However, and contrary to what might be expected, peroxidases isolated from basal (Cycadales and Ginkgoales) and differentially evolved (Coniferales and Gnetales) gymnosperms are also able to oxidize S moieties, and this ability is independent of the presence or absence of S-type units in their lignins. * The results obtained led us to look at the protein database to search for homologies between gymnosperm peroxidases and true eudicot S-peroxidases, such as the Zinnia elegans peroxidase. * The findings showed that certain structural motifs characteristic of eudicot S-peroxidases (certain amino acid sequences and beta-sheet secondary structures) predate the gymnosperm-angiosperm divergence and the radiation of tracheophytes, since they are found not only in peroxidases from basal gymnosperms, ferns and lycopods, but also in peroxidases from the moss Physcomitrella patens (Bryopsida) and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha (Marchantiopsida), which, as typical of bryophytes, do not have xylem tissue nor lignins.

  20. The evolution of hydrophobic cell wall biopolymers: from algae to angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Cobb, Edward D; Matas, Antonio J

    2017-11-09

    The transition from an aquatic ancestral condition to a terrestrial environment exposed the first land plants to the desiccating effects of air and potentially large fluctuations in temperature and light intensity. To be successful, this transition necessitated metabolic, physiological, and morphological modifications, among which one of the most important was the capacity to synthesize hydrophobic extracellular biopolymers such as those found in the cuticular membrane, suberin, lignin, and sporopollenin, which collectively reduce the loss of water, provide barriers to pathogens, protect against harmful levels of UV radiation, and rigidify targeted cell walls. Here, we review phylogenetic and molecular data from extant members of the green plant clade (Chlorobionta) and show that the capacity to synthesize the monomeric precursors of all four biopolymers is ancestral and extends in some cases to unicellular plants (e.g. Chlamydomonas). We also review evidence from extant algae, bryophytes, and early-divergent tracheophytes and show that gene duplication, subsequent neo-functionalization, and the co-option of fundamental and ancestral metabolic pathways contributed to the early evolutionary success of the land plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Fenología de Tayloria dubyi (Splachnaceae en las turberas de la Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos Phenology of Tayloria dubyi (Splachnaceae in the peatlands of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOCELYN JOFRE

    2010-03-01

    diversity of bryophytes, greater than the species richness of vascular plants. Despite this fact, phenological studies on bryophytes are lacking for this ecoregion and Chile. Based on the study of the sporophytic phase of Tayloria dubyi, an endemic moss from the sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion, we propose a methodology for phonological studies on austral bryophytes. We defined five phenophases, easily distinguishable with a hand-lens, which were monthly recorded during 2007 and 2008 in populations of T. dubyi at the Omora Ethnobotanical Park and Mejillones Bay on Navarino Island (55º S in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve. The sporophytic (or reproductive phase of T. dubyi presented a clear seasonality. After growing in November, in three months (December-February of the austral reproductive season the sporophytes mature and release their spores; by March they are already senescent. T. dubyi belongs to the Splachnaceae family for which entomochory (dispersal of spores by insects, specifically Diptera has been detected in the Northern Hemisphere. The period of spores release in T. dubyi coincides with the months of highest activity of Diptera which are potential dispersers of spores; hence, entomochory could also take place in sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion. In sum, our work: (i defines a methodology for phenological studies in austral bryophytes, (ii it records a marked seasonality ion the sporophyte phase of T. dubyi, and (iii it proposes to evaluate in future research the occurrence of entomochory in Splachnaceae species growing in the sub-Antarctic peatlands and forest ecosystems in the Southern Hemisphere.

  2. Increased plant biomass in a High Arctic heath community from 1981 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J M G; Henry, G H R

    2009-10-01

    The Canadian High Arctic has been warming for several decades. Over this period, tundra plant communities have been influenced by regional climate change, as well as other disturbances. At a site on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, we measured biomass and composition changes in a heath community over 13 years using a point-intercept method in permanent plots (1995-2007) and over 27 years using a biomass harvest comparison (1981-2008). Results from both methods indicate that the community became more productive over time, suggesting that this ecosystem is currently in transition. Bryophyte and evergreen shrub abundances increased, while deciduous shrub, forb, graminoid, and lichen cover did not change. Species diversity also remained unchanged. Because of the greater evergreen shrub cover, canopy height increased. From 1995 to 2007, mean annual temperature and growing season length increased at the site. Maximum thaw depth increased, while soil water content did not change. We attribute the increased productivity of this community to regional warming over the past 30-50 years. This study provides the first plot-based evidence for the recent pan-Arctic increase in tundra productivity detected by satellite-based remote-sensing and repeat-photography studies. These types of ground-level observations are critical tools for detecting and projecting long-term community-level responses to warming.

  3. Conservation of AtTZF1, AtTZF2 and AtTZF3 homolog gene regulation by salt stress in evolutionarily distant plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eD'Orso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arginine-rich tandem zinc-finger proteins (RR-TZF participate in a wide range of plant developmental processes and adaptive responses to abiotic stress, such as cold, salt and drought. This study investigates the conservation of the genes AtTZF1-5 at the level of their sequences and expression across plant species. The genomic sequences of the two RR-TZF genes TdTZF1-A and TdTZF1-B were isolated in durum wheat and assigned to chromosomes 3A and 3B, respectively. Sequence comparisons revealed that they encode proteins that are highly homologous to AtTZF1, AtTZF2 and AtTZF3. The expression profiles of these RR-TZF durum wheat and Arabidopsis proteins support a common function in the regulation of seed germination and responses to abiotic stress. In particular, analysis of plants with attenuated and overexpressed AtTZF3 indicate that AtTZF3 is a negative regulator of seed germination under conditions of salt stress. Finally, comparative sequence analyses establish that the RR-TZF genes are encoded by lower plants, including the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The regulation of the Physcomitrella AtTZF1-2-3-like genes by salt stress strongly suggests that a subgroup of the RR-TZF proteins has a function that has been conserved throughout evolution.

  4. Comunidades de briófitos reofílicos en un caño de montaña, en San Francisco, Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linares Castillo Edgar Leonardo

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The rheophilic bryophyte vegetation of a montan e stream between 2450-2650 m alt, near San Francisco, in the northwest of Cundinamarca, on the western slope of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental, was studied following the Zürich-Montpellier approach. Recognized were: 1 community of Thamnobryum fasciculatum and Monoelea gottschei. under foresto and 2 community of Brachythecium plumosum and Platyhypnidium aquaticum. outside the forest. The structure, floristic composition and ecological aspects were considered.Se estudió la vegetación de briófitos reofílicos en un caño de montaña, en el gradiente altitudinal entre 2450 y 2650 m. Se hallaron dos comunidades: una comunidad de Thamnobryum fasciculatum y Monoelea gottschei propia del interior del bosque y otra comunidad de Brachythecium plumosum y Platyhypnidium aquaticum de los potreros. Se registró la estructura, composición florística, los rasgos ecológicos y la distribución de las comunidades.

  5. Evolution of the B3 DNA binding superfamily: new insights into REM family gene diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisson A C Romanel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The B3 DNA binding domain includes five families: auxin response factor (ARF, abscisic acid-insensitive3 (ABI3, high level expression of sugar inducible (HSI, related to ABI3/VP1 (RAV and reproductive meristem (REM. The release of the complete genomes of the angiosperm eudicots Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa, the monocot Orysa sativa, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens,the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri and the red algae Cyanidioschyzon melorae provided an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of this superfamily. METHODOLOGY: In order to better understand the origin and the diversification of B3 domains in plants, we combined comparative phylogenetic analysis with exon/intron structure and duplication events. In addition, we investigated the conservation and divergence of the B3 domain during the origin and evolution of each family. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that showed that the B3 containing genes have undergone extensive duplication events, and that the REM family B3 domain has a highly diverged DNA binding. Our results also indicate that the founding member of the B3 gene family is likely to be similar to the ABI3/HSI genes found in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri. Among the B3 families, ABI3, HSI, RAV and ARF are most structurally conserved, whereas the REM family has experienced a rapid divergence. These results are discussed in light of their functional and evolutionary roles in plant development.

  6. Bryoflora of the municipalities of Soure and Cachoeira do Arari, on Marajó Island, in the state of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete da Silva Brito

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the richness and ecological aspects (ecosystem and substrate of mosses and liverworts at two municipalities on Marajó Island, in the state of Pará, Brazil. The study area (6615 km² encompasses the municipalities of Soure and Cachoeira do Arari. Bryophytes were collected from the 10th to the 16th of January, 2007, during random visits along existing trails or during the forging of new trails, from all possible types of vegetation, regardless of the type of substrate. The ecosystems visited in the study area were capoeira (secondary vegetation, growing on land that has been burned or cleared, teso (vegetation growing on areas of land at an elevation slightly higher than the water line during flood season, floodplain forest, mangrove forests, cerrado (savanna and natural grasslands (pure and mixed. In total, 11 families, 30 genera, and 67 species were recorded, of which 39 represented new records for the island. Cololejeunea panamensis G. Dauphin & Pocs represented a new record for South America; Microlejeuneasubulistipa Steph. represented a new record for the northern region of Brazil, and Cololejeuneaverwimpii Tixier and Mastigolejeuneainnovans (Spruce Steph. represented new records for the state of Pará.

  7. Identification of proteins involved in desiccation tolerance in the red seaweed Pyropia orbicularis (Rhodophyta, Bangiales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cristoffanini, Camilo; Zapata, Javier; Gaillard, Fanny; Potin, Philippe; Correa, Juan A; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto

    2015-12-01

    Extreme reduction in cellular water content leads to desiccation, which, if persistent, affects the physiology of organisms, mainly through oxidative stress. Some organisms are highly tolerant to desiccation, including resurrection plants and certain intertidal seaweeds. One such species is Pyropia orbicularis, a rhodophycean that colonizes upper intertidal zones along the Chilean coast. Despite long, daily periods of air exposure due to tides, this alga is highly tolerant to desiccation. The present study examined the proteome of P. orbicularis by 2DE and LC-MS/MS analyses to determine the proteins associated with desiccation tolerance (DT). The results showed that, under natural conditions, there were significant changes in the protein profile during low tide as compared to naturally hydrated plants at high tide. These changes were mainly in newly appeared proteins spots such as chaperones, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and manganese superoxide dismutase, among others. Previously undescribed proteins under desiccation conditions included phycobiliproteins, glyoxalase I, and phosphomannomutase. These changes evidenced that several physiological responses involved in DT are activated during low tide, including decreased photosynthetic activity, increased antioxidant capacity, and the preservation of cell physiology by regulating water content, cell wall structure, and cell volume. Similar responses have been observed in resurrection plants and bryophytes exposed to desiccation. Therefore, the coordinated activation of different desiccation tolerance pathways in P. orbicularis could explain the successful biological performance of this seaweed in the upper intertidal rocky zones. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Dehydration-responsive features of Atrichum undulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruoyang; Xiao, Lihong; Bao, Fang; Li, Xuedong; He, Yikun

    2016-09-01

    Drought is an increasingly important limitation on plant productivity worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in plants can lead to new strategies for developing drought-tolerant crops. Many moss species are able to survive desiccation-a more severe state of dehydration than drought. Research into the mechanisms and evolution of desiccation tolerance in basal land plants is of particular significance to both biology and agriculture. In this study, we conducted morphological, cytological, and physiological analyses of gametophytes of the highly desiccation-tolerant bryophyte Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv during dehydration and rehydration. Our results suggested that the mechanisms underlying the dehydration-recovery cycle in A. undulatum gametophytes include maintenance of membrane stability, cellular structure protection, prevention of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, elimination of ROS, protection against ROS-induced damage, and repair of ROS-induced damage. Our data also indicate that this dehydration-recovery cycle consists not only of the physical removal and addition of water, but also involves a highly organized series of cytological, physiological, and biochemical changes. These attributes are similar to those reported for other drought- and desiccation-tolerant plant species. Our findings provide major insights into the mechanisms of dehydration-tolerance in the moss A. undulatum.

  9. A multi-taxon approach reveals the effect of management intensity on biodiversity in Alpine larch grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Fontana, Veronika; Spitale, Daniel

    2014-07-15

    In the Alps, larch grasslands form one of the most pleasing aspects of the landscape. However, their effectiveness in contributing to biodiversity conservation may depend on the intensity of their management. We used a multi-taxon approach to evaluate the effects of the intensification of management practices and those of abandonment on the biodiversity of the main autotrophic organisms hosted in this habitat, including vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens. The study was carried out in the eastern part of South Tyrol, in the Italian Alps, where the diversity patterns of these three organismal groups were compared among intensively managed, extensively managed, and abandoned stands. The management intensity was found to strongly influence the biodiversity of the organisms, with a general pattern indicating the best conditions in extensively managed stands. Both abandonment and management intensification were detrimental to biodiversity through different mechanisms that led to species loss or to major shifts in species composition. However, the most negative effects were related to management intensification, mainly due to the high nitrogen supply, providing evidence for the increasing impact of eutrophication on Alpine environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isopentenyltransferase-1 (IPT1) knockout in Physcomitrella together with phylogenetic analyses of IPTs provide insights into evolution of plant cytokinin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Ann-Cathrin; Lang, Daniel; Seifert, Maike; Podlešáková, Kateřina; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Reski, Ralf; von Schwartzenberg, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is part of an early divergent clade of land plants utilizing the plant hormone cytokinin for growth control. The rate-limiting step of cytokinin biosynthesis is mediated by isopentenyltransferases (IPTs), found in land plants either as adenylate-IPTs or as tRNA-IPTs. Although a dominant part of cytokinins in flowering plants are synthesized by adenylate-IPTs, the Physcomitrella genome only encodes homologues of tRNA-IPTs. This study therefore looked into the question of whether cytokinins in moss derive from tRNA exclusively. Targeted gene knockout of ipt1 (d|ipt1) along with localization studies revealed that the chloroplast-bound IPT1 was almost exclusively responsible for the A37 prenylation of tRNA in Physcomitrella. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based cytokinin profiling demonstrated that the total amount of all free cytokinins in tissue was almost unaffected. However, the knockout plants showed increased levels of the N (6) -isopentenyladenine (iP)- and trans-zeatin (tZ)-type cytokinins, considered to provide active forms, while cis-zeatin (cZ)-type cytokinins were reduced. The data provide evidence for an additional and unexpected tRNA-independent cytokinin biosynthetic pathway in moss. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis indicates a diversification of tRNA-IPT-like genes in bryophytes probably related to additional functions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Something old, something new: auxin and strigolactone interact in the ancient mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Eloise

    2013-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, formed between more than 80% of land plants and fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota, is an ancient association that is believed to have evolved as plants moved onto land more than 400 mya. Similarly ancient, the plant hormones auxin and strigolactone are thought to have been present in the plant lineage since before the divergence of the bryophytes in the case of auxin and before the colonisation of land in the case of strigolactones. The discovery of auxin in the 1930s predates the discovery of strigolactones as a plant hormone in 2008 by over 70 y. Recent studies in pea suggest that these two signals may interact to regulate mycorrhizal symbiosis. Furthermore, the first quantitative studies are presented that show that low auxin content of the root is correlated with low strigolactone production, an interaction that has implications for how these plant hormones regulate several developmental programs including shoot branching, secondary growth and root development. With recent advances in our understanding of auxin and strigolactone biosynthesis, together with the discovery of the fungal signals that activate the plant host, the stage is set for real breakthroughs in our understanding of the interactions between plant and fungal signals in mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  12. Sebacina vermifera: a unique root symbiont with vast agronomic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Prasun; Craven, Kelly D

    2016-01-01

    The Sebacinales belong to a taxonomically, ecologically, and physiologically diverse group of fungi in the Basidiomycota. While historically recognized as orchid mycorrhizae, recent DNA studies have brought to light both their pandemic distribution and the broad spectrum of mycorrhizal types they form. Indeed, ecological studies using molecular-based methods of detection have found Sebacinales fungi in field specimens of bryophytes (moss), pteridophytes (fern) and all families of herbaceous angiosperms (flowering plants) from temperate, subtropical and tropical regions. These natural host plants include, among others, liverworts, wheat, maize and Arabidopsis thaliana, the model plant traditionally viewed as non-mycorrhizal. The orchid mycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera (MAFF 305830) was first isolated from the Australian orchid Cyrtostylis reniformis. Research performed with this strain clearly indicates its plant growth promoting abilities in a variety of plants, while demonstrating a lack of specificity that rivals or even surpasses that of arbuscular mycorrhizae. Indeed, these traits thus far appear to characterize a majority of strains belonging to the so-called "clade B" within the Sebacinales (recently re-classified as the Serendipitaceae), raising numerous basic research questions regarding plant-microbe signaling and the evolution of mycorrhizal symbioses. Further, given their proven beneficial impact on plant growth and their apparent but cryptic ubiquity, sebacinoid fungi should be considered as a previously hidden, but amenable and effective microbial tool for enhancing plant productivity and stress tolerance.

  13. E. A. C. L. E. (Ted Scheipe (1924-1985 — a biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Prof. E.A.C.L.E. Scheipe was born in Durban on 27 July 1924 and died in Cape Town on  12 October 1985. He studied at the University of Natal and at Oxford, England. He was awarded an M.Sc. (S. Afr. for a thesis on the ecology of the Natal Drakensberg and a D. Phil. (Oxon. for a thesis on the ecology of bryophytes. For a brief period he was Curator of the Fielding Herbarium, Oxford. In  1953 he was appointed Lecturer in Botany at the University of Cape Town, until in  1973 he was awarded a full professorship (ad hominem and the title of Director of the Bolus Herbarium. Here he established a school of taxonomy and promoted  22  theses. His main fields of research were the taxonomy and phytogeography of Pteridophyta (especially African groups and of Orchidaceae.He has  112 publications to his credit and collected over 7 000 numbers in various regions of Africa, in Europe and the Himalayas. He was a keen gardener and was active in several societies promoting horticulture, orchidology and nature conservation. He was a member of several scientific committees and was repeatedly honoured for his work.Three children were born from his marriage to Sybella Gray, also a botanist.

  14. In silico assessment of primers for eDNA studies using PrimerTree and application to characterize the biodiversity surrounding the Cuyahoga River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M. V.; Hester, J.; Shalkhauser, A.; Chan, E. R.; Logue, K.; Small, S. T.; Serre, D.

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) enables the detection of species of interest from water and soil samples, typically using species-specific PCR. Here, we describe a method to characterize the biodiversity of a given environment by amplifying eDNA using primer pairs targeting a wide range of taxa and high-throughput sequencing for species identification. We tested this approach on 91 water samples of 40 mL collected along the Cuyahoga River (Ohio, USA). We amplified eDNA using 12 primer pairs targeting mammals, fish, amphibians, birds, bryophytes, arthropods, copepods, plants and several microorganism taxa and sequenced all PCR products simultaneously by high-throughput sequencing. Overall, we identified DNA sequences from 15 species of fish, 17 species of mammals, 8 species of birds, 15 species of arthropods, one turtle and one salamander. Interestingly, in addition to aquatic and semi-aquatic animals, we identified DNA from terrestrial species that live near the Cuyahoga River. We also identified DNA from one Asian carp species invasive to the Great Lakes but that had not been previously reported in the Cuyahoga River. Our study shows that analysis of eDNA extracted from small water samples using wide-range PCR amplification combined with high-throughput sequencing can provide a broad perspective on biological diversity.

  15. Distribution of lignin monomers and the evolution of lignification among lower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiñeira, J M; Novo Uzal, E; Gómez Ros, L V; Carrión, J S; Merino, F; Ros Barceló, A; Pomar, F

    2011-01-01

    Through application of chemical, biochemical and histochemical analyses, we provide new data on the absence/presence of syringyl lignins in the algal species Mastocarpus stellatus, Cystoseira baccata and Ulva rigida, the bryophytes Physcomitrella patens and Marchantia polymorpha, the lycophytes Selaginella martensii, Isoetes fluitans and Isoetes histrix, the sphenophyte Equisetum telmateia, the ferns Ceratopteris thalictroides, Ceratopteris cornuta, Pteridium aquilinum, Phyllitis scolopendrium and Dryopteris affinis, and the angiosperm Posidonia oceanica. Lignins, and especially syringyl lignins, are distributed from non-vascular basal land plants, such as liverworts, to lycopods and ferns. This distribution, along with the already reported presence of syringyl lignins in ginkgoopsids, suggests that syringyl lignin is a primitive character in land plant evolution. Here, we discuss whether the pathway for sinapyl alcohol recruitment was iterative during the evolution of land plants or, alternatively, was incorporated into the earliest land plants and subsequently repressed in several basal liverworts, lycopods, equisetopsids and ferns. This last hypothesis, which is supported by recent studies of transcriptional regulation of the biosynthesis of lignins, implies that lignification originated as a developmental enabler in the peripheral tissues of protracheophytes and would only later have been co-opted for the strengthening of tracheids in eutracheophytes. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Impact of biocrust succession on water retention and repellency on open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation in Lower Lusatia, NE-Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas; Lange, Philipp; Veste, Maik

    2016-04-01

    caused by bryophytes. The determination of the water retention curves showed an increase of the water holding capacity, especially in conjunction with the growth of green algae layer. The absorption capacity of soil crust biota as well as a decreased pore diameter in the green algae layers positively affected the water retention of crusted soil compared to pure substrate. The occurrence of bryophytes with later succession weakened the repellent behavior of the biocrusts, increased infiltration, and might have affected the run-off at small-scale on biocrusts. Certainly, the biological soil crusts showed water repellent properties but no distinctive hydrophobic characteristics. On both locations, similar trends of water repellency and retention related to crustal formation were observed, in spite of different relief, reclamation time and inhomogeneous distribution of crustal organisms. References Gypser, S., Veste, M., Fischer, T., Lange, P. (2016): Infiltration and water retention of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils of former open-cast lignite mining sites in Brandenburg, north-east Germany, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, accepted 12. November 2015. Gypser, S., Veste, M., Fischer, T., Lange, P. (2015): Formation of soil lichen crusts at reclaimed post-mining sites, Lower Lusatia, North-east Germany. Graphis Scripta 27: 3-14.

  17. Mercury and selenium in fish of Fountain Creek, Colorado (USA): possible sources and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, D R; Herrmann, S J; Carsella, J S; McGarvy, C M; Foutz, H P; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Gregorich, J M; Turner, J A; Vanden Heuvel, B D

    2016-01-01

    Fountain Creek in Colorado USA is a major tributary that confluences with the Arkansas River at Pueblo, Colorado, the result being the tributary's influence on Arkansas River water quality affecting down-stream users. In a previous study, we found that bryophytes (aquatic plants) accumulated selenium in Fountain Creek watershed and this finding prompted us to investigate the extent of the metalloid in the whole-body tissues of fish. One hundred 11 fish (six species) were collected and analyzed for Se by inductively-coupled plasma emission mass spectrometry. Analysis of all analytical data also showed mercury in all of the fish whole bodies and selected tissues. There was a general increase in selenium but a decrease in mercury in fish with downstream travel-distance. The highest whole-body selenium was in Pueblo, Colorado (3393 µg/kg, dry weight; 906 µg/kg, wet weight); the highest mercury in fish was in the Monument Creek tributary north of Colorado Springs, Colorado (71 µg/kg, dry weight; 19 µg/kg, wet weight). In four tissues of 11 female fish captured, selenium was highest in the livers at eight sites but highest in the ovaries at three sites. Mercury was highest in the epaxial muscle at all sites. Selenium availability could be due to the watershed lithology and land uses; however, mercury could be carried by atmospheric deposition from coal-fired power plants and historic mining activities. Selenium in fish tissues and water samples were compared to U.S. national water quality criteria.

  18. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2015-12-31

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Post-fire ecohydrological conditions at peatland margins in different hydrogeological settings of the Boreal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukenbach, M. C.; Hokanson, K. J.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Granath, G.; Waddington, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    In the Boreal Plain of Canada, the margins of peatland ecosystems that regulate solute and nutrient fluxes between peatlands and adjacent mineral uplands are prone to deep peat burning. Whether post-fire carbon accumulation is able to offset large carbon losses associated with the deep burning at peatland margins is unknown. For this reason, we examined how post-fire hydrological conditions (i.e. water table depth and periodicity, soil tension, and surface moisture content) and depth of burn were associated with moss recolonization at the peatland margins of three sites. We then interpreted these findings using a hydrogeological systems approach, given the importance of groundwater in determining conditions in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in peatlands. Peatland margins dominated by local groundwater flow from adjacent peatland middles were characterized by dynamic hydrological conditions that, when coupled with lowered peatland margin surface elevations due to deep burning, produced two common hydrological states: 1) flooding during wet periods and 2) rapid water table declines during dry periods. These dynamic hydrological states were unfavorable to peatland moss recolonization and bryophytes typical of post-fire recovery in mineral uplands became established. In contrast, at a peatland margin where post-fire hydrological conditions were moderated by larger-scale groundwater flow, flooding and rapid water table declines were infrequent and, subsequently, greater peatland-dwelling moss recolonization was observed. We argue that peatland margins poorly connected to larger-scale groundwater flow are not only prone to deep burning but also lags in post-fire moss recovery. Consequently, an associated reduction in post-fire peat accumulation may occur and negatively affect the net carbon sink status and ecohydrological and biogeochemical function of these peatlands.

  20. Biodiversity: molecular biological domains, symbiosis and kingdom origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1992-01-01

    The number of extant species of organisms is estimated to be from fewer than 3 to more than 30 x 10(6) (May, 1992). Molecular biology, comparative genetics and ultrastructural analyses provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between these species, including increasingly precise ideas of how species and higher taxa have evolved from common ancestors. Accumulation of random mutations and large macromolecular sequence change in all organisms since the Proterozoic Eon has been importantly supplemented by acquisition of inherited genomes ('symbiogenesis'). Karyotypic alterations (polyploidization and karyotypic fissioning) have been added to these other mechanisms of species origin in plants and animals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The new evolution concepts (coupled with current rapid rates of species extinction and ignorance of the extent of biodiversity) prompted this analysis of the field of systematic biology and its role in the reorganization of extant species into higher taxa. Two superkingdoms (= Domains: Prokaryotae and Eukaryotae) and five kingdoms (Monera = Procaryotae or Bacteria; Protoctista: algae, amoebae, ciliates, foraminifera, oomycetes, slime molds, etc.; Mychota: 'true' fungi; Plantae: one phylum (division) of bryophytes and nine phyla of tracheophytes; and Animalia) are recognized. Two subkingdoms comprise the monera: the great diverse lineages are Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. The criteria for classification using molecular, ultrastructural and genetic data for this scheme are mentioned. For the first time since the nineteenth century, logical, technical definitions for each group are given with their time of appearance as inferred from the fossil record in the primary scientific literature. This classification scheme, which most closely reflects the evolutionary history, molecular biology, genetics and ultrastructure of extant life, requires changes in social organization of biologists, many of whom as botanists and zoologists, still

  1. Effect of 30 years of road traffic abandonment on epiphytic moss diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plášek, Vítězslav; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Nobis, Marcin; Kusza, Grzegorz; Kochanowska, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    Road traffic emits a cocktail of pollutants that can influence the vegetation and plant diversity in neighboring areas. However, the recovery potential of bryophytes after traffic abandonment is still little explored. In addition, the effects of the main pollutants of road verges, such as metals and salinity, on moss flora need to be investigated. In our study, we compared the moss richness and diversity in two closely related veteran tree allees of high conservation importance. The allees in Gryżów and Lubrza, Poland, were chosen because of their similarity in age, geographical location, type of surrounding areas, and tree species. The only difference was that the trees in Gryżów had not been exposed to direct road pollution for almost 30 years. The moss richness and diversity differed significantly between the sites. Altogether, 20 moss species were recorded on 229 trees, 17 species in Gryżów (abandoned road), and 13 in Lubrza (busy road). We found considerable differences between moss cover on the road-facing and opposite sides of tree trunks. In Lubrza, mosses on the road-facing side were very scarce. The moss cover in Gryżów was highly balanced between trunk sides as well as among trunk heights. Typical epiphytic species such as Bryum moravicum, Dicranoweisia cirrata, Leskea polycarpa, and Orthodicranum tauricum preferred the Gryżów tree stands, where they were present in numbers almost twice as high as that at Lubrza. The study shows that constructing a bypass road could be an effective conservation measure for veteran tree protection with their epiphytic moss flora.

  2. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eTakahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal sulfate transporters (SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26. The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1 to SULTR4 in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologues from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4, and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13 and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT. The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1 and SAC1-like transporters (SLT of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is completely absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  3. Microhabitat de Habia rubica (Vieillot e Trichothraupis melanops (Vieillot (Aves, Emberizidae, Thraupinae, em uma floresta atlântica do sul do Brasil Microhabitat of Habia rubica (Vieillot and Trichothraupis melanops (Vieillot (Aves, Emberizidae, Thraupinae in an Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Lima Fávaro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo identifica quais variáveis caracterizam os microhabitats de Habia rubica (Vieillot, 1817 e Trichothraups melanops (Vieillot, 1818 e verifica o padrão de abundância dessas espécies em relação aos parâmetros de microhabitat. Análise de componentes principais mostrou as variáveis de microhabitat mais importantes para cada espécie. O microhabitat de H. rubica foi caracterizado pelo estrato médio aberto e sub-bosque denso e rico em samambaias, arvoretas, herbáceas e cipós; esta espécie apresentou maior abundância nos locais ricos em tais variáveis. Para T. melanops, as variáveis mais importantes foram samambaias, arbustos, arvoretas, herbáceas, cipós, árvores de grande porte e quantidade de árvores com briófitas; a abundância desta espécie não foi relacionada com a densidade dessas variáveis talvez devido aos seus hábitos generalistas.This study identifies which variables characterize the microhabitats of Habia rubica (Vieillot, 1817 and Trichothraupis melanops (Vieillot, 1818 and verifies the pattern of abundance of these species in relation to the parameters of microhabitat. Principal components analysis showed the variables of microhabitat more important for each species. The microhabitat of H. rubica was characterized for the middle stratum open and understory unclear, rich in ferns, young trees, herbs and lianes; this species presented higher abundance in places rich in such variables. For T. melanops, the variables more important were understory unclear with ferns, shrubs, young trees, lianes and herbs, large trees and number of trees with bryophytes; the abundance of this species was unrelated with the density of these variables perhaps due to their generalist habits.

  4. Role of RNA interference (RNAi) in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    KAUST Repository

    Arif, Muhammad Asif

    2013-01-14

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism that regulates genes by either transcriptional (TGS) or posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), required for genome maintenance and proper development of an organism. Small non-coding RNAs are the key players in RNAi and have been intensively studied in eukaryotes. In plants, several classes of small RNAs with specific sizes and dedicated functions have evolved. The major classes of small RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which differ in their biogenesis. miRNAs are synthesized from a short hairpin structure while siRNAs are derived from long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA). Both miRNA and siRNAs control the expression of cognate target RNAs by binding to reverse complementary sequences mediating cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNA. They also act on the DNA and cause epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. In the last years, the analysis of plant RNAi pathways was extended to the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, a non-flowering, non-vascular ancient land plant that diverged from the lineage of seed plants approximately 450 million years ago. Based on a number of characteristic features and its phylogenetic key position in land plant evolution P. patens emerged as a plant model species to address basic as well as applied topics in plant biology. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of RNAi in P. patens that shows functional overlap with RNAi pathways from seed plants, and also unique features specific to this species. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  5. Earliest land plants created modern levels of atmospheric oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Dahl, Tais W.; Daines, Stuart J.; Mills, Benjamin J. W.; Ozaki, Kazumi; Saltzman, Matthew R.; Porada, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The progressive oxygenation of the Earth’s atmosphere was pivotal to the evolution of life, but the puzzle of when and how atmospheric oxygen (O2) first approached modern levels (∼21%) remains unresolved. Redox proxy data indicate the deep oceans were oxygenated during 435–392 Ma, and the appearance of fossil charcoal indicates O2 >15–17% by 420–400 Ma. However, existing models have failed to predict oxygenation at this time. Here we show that the earliest plants, which colonized the land surface from ∼470 Ma onward, were responsible for this mid-Paleozoic oxygenation event, through greatly increasing global organic carbon burial—the net long-term source of O2. We use a trait-based ecophysiological model to predict that cryptogamic vegetation cover could have achieved ∼30% of today’s global terrestrial net primary productivity by ∼445 Ma. Data from modern bryophytes suggests this plentiful early plant material had a much higher molar C:P ratio (∼2,000) than marine biomass (∼100), such that a given weathering flux of phosphorus could support more organic carbon burial. Furthermore, recent experiments suggest that early plants selectively increased the flux of phosphorus (relative to alkalinity) weathered from rocks. Combining these effects in a model of long-term biogeochemical cycling, we reproduce a sustained +2‰ increase in the carbonate carbon isotope (δ13C) record by ∼445 Ma, and predict a corresponding rise in O2 to present levels by 420–400 Ma, consistent with geochemical data. This oxygen rise represents a permanent shift in regulatory regime to one where fire-mediated negative feedbacks stabilize high O2 levels. PMID:27528678

  6. Diversity of winter photoinhibitory responses: a case study in co-occurring lichens, mosses, herbs and woody plants from subalpine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, Fátima; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José-María; García-Plazaola, José-Ignacio

    2017-07-01

    Winter evergreens living in mountainous areas have to withstand a harsh combination of high light levels and low temperatures in wintertime. In response, evergreens can activate a photoprotective process that consists of the downregulation of photosynthetic efficiency, referred to as winter photoinhibition (WPI). WPI has been studied mainly in woody evergreens and crops even when, in many instances, other functional groups such as lichens or bryophytes dominate in alpine and boreal habitats. Thus, we aimed to (1) assess the occurrence of WPI within overwintering evergreens comprising woody species, herbs, mosses and lichens, (2) compare the recovery kinetics among those groups and (3) clarify the role of thylakoid proteins and pigments in both processes: WPI and recovery. With this aim, WPI was analyzed in 50 species in the field and recovery kineticcs were studied in one model species from each functional group. Results showed that high levels of WPI are much more frequent among woody plants than in any other group, but are also present in some herbs, lichens and mosses. Winter conditions almost always led to the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Nevertheless, changes in the de-epoxidation level were not associated with the activation/deactivation of WPI in the field and did not match changes in photochemical efficiency during recovery treatments. Seasonal changes in thylakoid proteins [mainly D1 (photosystem II core complex protein) and PsbS (essential protein for thermal dissipation)] were dependent on the functional group. The results highlight the diversity of physiological solutions and suggest a physical-mechanical reason for the more conservative strategy of woody species compared with other groups. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Extending a Single Residue Switch for Abbreviating Catalysis in Plant ent-Kaurene Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Jia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of ent-kaurene as a precursor for important signaling molecules such as the gibberellins seems to have arisen early in plant evolution, with corresponding cyclase(s present in all land plants (i.e., embryophyta. The relevant enzymes seem to represent fusion of the class II diterpene cyclase that produces the intermediate ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP and the subsequently acting class I diterpene synthase that produces ent-kaurene, although the bifunctionality of the ancestral gene is only retained in certain early diverging plants, with gene duplication and sub-functionalization leading to distinct ent-CPP synthases (CPSs and ent-kaurene synthases (KSs generally observed. This evolutionary scenario implies that plant KSs should have conserved structural features uniquely required for production of ent-kaurene relative to related enzymes that have alternative function. Notably, substitution of threonine for a conserved isoleucine has been shown to short-circuit the complex bicyclization and rearrangement reaction catalyzed by KSs after initial cyclization, leading to predominant production of ent-pimaradiene, at least in KSs from angiosperms. Here this effect is shown to extend to KSs from earlier diverging plants (i.e., bryophytes, including a bifunctional CPS/KS. In addition, attribution of the dramatic effect of this single residue switch on product outcome to electrostatic stabilization of the ent-pimarenyl carbocation intermediate formed upon initial cyclization by the hydroxyl introduced by threonine substitution has been called into question by the observation of similar effects from substitution of alanine. Here further mutational analysis and detailed product analysis is reported that supports the importance of electrostatic stabilization by a hydroxyl or water.

  8. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Gillian A; Johansen, Mathew P; Carpenter, Julia G; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beresford, Nicholas A

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife concentration ratios for 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po and isotopes of Th and U from soil, water, and sediments were evaluated for a range of Australian uranium mining environments. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CRwo-media) were developed for 271 radionuclide-organism pairs within the terrestrial and freshwater wildlife groups. Australian wildlife often has distinct physiological attributes, such as the lower metabolic rates of macropod marsupials as compared with placental mammals. In addition, the Australian CRswo-media originate from tropical and semi-arid climates, rather than from the temperate-dominated climates of Europe and North America from which most (>90%) of internationally available CRwo-media values originate. When compared, the Australian and non-Australian CRs are significantly different for some wildlife categories (e.g. grasses, mammals) but not others (e.g. shrubs). Where differences exist, the Australian values were higher, suggesting that site-, or region-specific CRswo-media should be used in detailed Australian assessments. However, in screening studies, use of the international mean values in the Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD) appears to be appropriate, as long as the values used encompass the Australian 95th percentile values. Gaps in the Australian datasets include a lack of marine parameters, and no CR data are available for freshwater phytoplankton, zooplankton, insects, insect larvae or amphibians; for terrestrial environments, there are no data for amphibians, annelids, ferns, fungi or lichens & bryophytes. The new Australian specific parameters will aide in evaluating remediation plans and ongoing operations at mining and waste sites within Australia. They have also substantially bolstered the body of U- and Th-series CRwo-media data for use internationally. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the WRKY gene family in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaohong; Pang, Chaoyou; Song, Meizhen; Wei, Hengling; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2014-12-01

    WRKY proteins are major transcription factors involved in regulating plant growth and development. Although many studies have focused on the functional identification of WRKY genes, our knowledge concerning many areas of WRKY gene biology is limited. For example, in cotton, the phylogenetic characteristics, global expression patterns, molecular mechanisms regulating expression, and target genes/pathways of WRKY genes are poorly characterized. Therefore, in this study, we present a genome-wide analysis of the WRKY gene family in cotton (Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium hirsutum). We identified 116 WRKY genes in G. raimondii from the completed genome sequence, and we cloned 102 WRKY genes in G. hirsutum. Chromosomal location analysis indicated that WRKY genes in G. raimondii evolved mainly from segmental duplication followed by tandem amplifications. Phylogenetic analysis of alga, bryophyte, lycophyta, monocot and eudicot WRKY domains revealed family member expansion with increasing complexity of the plant body. Microarray, expression profiling and qRT-PCR data revealed that WRKY genes in G. hirsutum may regulate the development of fibers, anthers, tissues (roots, stems, leaves and embryos), and are involved in the response to stresses. Expression analysis showed that most group II and III GhWRKY genes are highly expressed under diverse stresses. Group I members, representing the ancestral form, seem to be insensitive to abiotic stress, with low expression divergence. Our results indicate that cotton WRKY genes might have evolved by adaptive duplication, leading to sensitivity to diverse stresses. This study provides fundamental information to inform further analysis and understanding of WRKY gene functions in cotton species.

  10. The Roles of the Sole Activator-Type Auxin Response Factor in Pattern Formation of Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotaka; Kouno, Masaru; Takeda, Mayuko; Suzuki, Hidemasa; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2017-10-01

    Cell division patterning is important to determine body shape in plants. Nuclear auxin signaling mediated by AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors affects plant growth and development through regulation of cell division, elongation and differentiation. The evolutionary origin of the ARF-mediated pathway dates back to at least the common ancestor of bryophytes and other land plants. The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has three phylogenetically distinct ARFs: MpARF1, the sole 'activator' ARF; and MpARF2 and MpARF3, two 'repressor' ARFs. Genetic screens for auxin-resistant mutants revealed that loss of MpARF1 function conferred auxin insensitivity. Mparf1 mutants showed reduced auxin-inducible gene expression and various developmental defects, including thallus twisting and gemma malformation. We further investigated the role of MpARF1 in gemma development, which is traceable at the cellular level. In wild-type plants, a gemma initial first undergoes several transverse divisions to generate a single-celled stalk and a gemma proper, followed by rather synchronous longitudinal divisions in the latter. Mparf1 mutants often contained multicelled stalks and showed defects in the execution and timing of the longitudinal divisions. While wild-type gemmae finally generate two meristem notches, Mparf1 gemmae displayed various numbers of ectopic meristems. These results suggest that MpARF1 regulates formative cell divisions and axis formation through auxin responses. The mechanism for activator ARF regulation of pattern formation may be shared in land plants and therefore important for the general acquisition of three-dimensional body plans. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Onset of the Growing Season on Svalbard, Arctic Norway — Measured by MODIS-NDVI Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Rune Karlsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is among the regions with the most rapid changes in climate and has the expected highest increase in temperature. Changes in the timing of phenological phases, such as onset of the growing season observed from remote sensing, are among the most sensitive bio-indicators of climate change. The study area here is the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, located between 76°30ʹ and 80°50ʹN. The goal of this study was to use MODIS Terra data (the MOD09Q1 and MOD09A1 surface reflectance products, both with 8-day temporal composites to map the onset of the growing season on Svalbard for the 2000–2013 period interpreted from field observations. Due to a short and intense period with greening-up and frequent cloud cover, all the cloud free data is needed, which requires reliable cloud masks. We used a combination of three cloud removing methods (State QA values, own algorithms, and manual removal. This worked well, but is time-consuming as it requires manual interpretation of cloud cover. The onset of the growing season was then mapped by a NDVI threshold method, which showed high correlation (r2 = 0.60, n = 25, p < 0.001 with field observations of flowering of Salix polaris (polar willow. However, large bias was found between NDVI-based mapped onset and field observations in bryophyte-dominated areas, which indicates that the results in these parts must be interpreted with care. On average for the 14-year period, the onset of the growing season occurs after July 1st in 68.4% of the vegetated areas of Svalbard. The mapping revealed large variability between years. The years 2000 and 2008 were extreme in terms of late onset of the growing season, and 2002 and 2013 had early onset. Overall, no clear trend in onset of the growing season for the 2000–2013 period was found.

  12. Transferability of multi- and hyperspectral optical biocrust indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, E.; Escribano, P.; Olehowski, C.; Chamizo, S.; Hill, J.; Cantón, Y.; Weber, B.

    2017-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are communities of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens and bryophytes in varying proportions, which live within or immediately on top of the uppermost millimeters of the soil in arid and semiarid regions. As biocrusts are highly relevant for ecosystem processes like carbon, nitrogen, and water cycling, a correct characterization of their spatial distribution is required. Following this objective, considerable efforts have been devoted to the identification and mapping of biocrusts using remote sensing data, and several mapping indices have been developed. However, their transferability to different regions has only rarely been tested. In this study we investigated the transferability of two multispectral indices, i.e. the Crust Index (CI) and the Biological Soil Crust Index (BSCI), and two hyperspectral indices, i.e. the Continuum Removal Crust Identification Algorithm (CRCIA) and the Crust Development Index (CDI), in three sites dominated by biocrusts, but with differences in soil and vegetation composition. Whereas multispectral indices have been important and valuable tools for first approaches to map and classify biological soil crusts, hyperspectral data and indices developed for these allowed to classify biocrusts at much higher accuracy. While multispectral indices showed Kappa (κ) values below 0.6, hyperspectral indices obtained good classification accuracy (κ ˜ 0.8) in both the study area where they had been developed and in the newly tested region. These results highlight the capability of hyperspectral sensors to identify specific absorption features related to photosynthetic pigments as chlorophyll and carotenoids, but also the limitation of multispectral information to discriminate between areas dominated by biocrusts, vegetation or bare soil. Based on these results we conclude that remote sensing offers an important and valid tool to map biocrusts. However, the spectral similarity between the main surface

  13. Evolution of plant sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke eReinders

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs have important functions especially in vascular tissue. Here we explore the evolutionary origins of SUTs by analysis of angiosperm SUTs and homologous transporters in a vascular early land plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and a non-vascular plant, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, the charophyte algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus, several red algae and fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Plant SUTs cluster into three types by phylogenetic analysis. Previous studies using angiosperms had shown that Types I and II are localized to plasma membrane while type III SUTs are associated with vacuolar membrane. SUT homologs were not found in the chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus contains a SUT homolog (CaSUT1 and phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is basal to all other streptophyte SUTs analyzed. SUTs are present in both red algae and S. pombe but are less related to plant SUTs than CaSUT1. Both Selaginella and Physcomitrella encode type II and III SUTs suggesting that both plasma membrane and vacuolar sucrose transporter activities were present in early land plants. It is likely that SUT transporters are important for scavenging sucrose from the environment and intracellular compartments in charophyte and non-vascular plants. Type I SUTs were only found in eudicots and we conclude that they evolved from type III SUTs, possibly through loss of a vacuolar targeting sequence. Eudicots utilize type I SUTs for phloem (vascular tissue loading while monocots use type II SUTs for phloem loading. We show that HvSUT1 from barley, a type II SUT, reverted the growth defect of the Arabidopsis atsuc2 (type I mutant. This indicates that SUTs evolved similar (and interchangeable phloem loading transporter capabilities independently.

  14. Arsenic in stream waters is bioaccumulated but neither biomagnified through food webs nor biodispersed to land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Luiz U; Pratas, João A M S; Graça, Manuel A S

    2017-05-01

    Human activities such as mining have contributed substantially to the increase of metals in aquatic environments worldwide. These metals are bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms and can be biomagnified along trophic webs. The dispersal of contaminants from water to land has been little investigated, even though most aquatic invertebrates in streams have aerial stages. We used field and laboratory approaches to investigate the effects of arsenic pollution on stream invertebrate assemblages, and its bioaccumulation, biomagnification and trophic transfer from aquatic to terrestrial environments by emergent insects. We conducted the study in an arsenic-impacted stream (40μgL-1 As at the most polluted site) and a reference stream (0.3μgL-1 As). Invertebrate abundance and richness were lowest at the most impacted site. Arsenic in biofilm and in invertebrates increased with the arsenic content in the water. The highest arsenic accumulators were bryophytes (1760μgg-1), followed by the biofilm (449μgg-1) and shredder invertebrates (313μgg-1); predators had the lowest arsenic concentration. Insects emerging from water and spiders along streambanks sampled from the reference and the impacted stream did not differ in their body arsenic concentrations. In the laboratory, the shredder Sericostoma vittatum had reduced feeding rates when exposed to water from the impacted stream in comparison with the reference stream (15.6 vs. 19.0mg leaves mg body mass-1 day-1; parsenic from food, not through contact with water. We concluded that although arsenic is bioaccumulated, mainly by food ingestion, it is not biomagnified through food webs and is not transported from the aquatic to terrestrial environment when insects leave the stream water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Recovery of biological soil crust richness and cover 12-16 years after wildfires in Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Heather T.; Brinda, John C.; Dodson, E. Kyle

    2017-09-01

    Changing fire regimes in western North America may impact biological soil crust (BSC) communities that influence many ecosystem functions, such as soil stability and C and N cycling. However, longer-term effects of wildfire on BSC abundance, species richness, functional groups, and ecosystem functions after wildfire (i.e., BSC resilience) are still poorly understood. We sampled BSC lichen and bryophyte communities at four sites in Idaho, USA, within foothill steppe communities that included wildfires from 12 to 16 years old. We established six plots outside each burn perimeter and compared them with six plots of varying severity within each fire perimeter at each site. BSC cover was most strongly negatively impacted by wildfire at sites that had well-developed BSC communities in adjacent unburned plots. BSC species richness was estimated to be 65 % greater in unburned plots compared with burned plots, and fire effects did not vary among sites. In contrast, there was no evidence that vascular plant functional groups or fire severity (as measured by satellite metrics differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) or relativized differenced normalized burn ratio (RdNBR)) significantly affected longer-term BSC responses. Three large-statured BSC functional groups that may be important in controlling wind and water erosion (squamulose lichens, vagrant lichens, and tall turf mosses) exhibited a significant decrease in abundance in burned areas relative to adjacent unburned areas. The decreases in BSC cover and richness along with decreased abundance of several functional groups suggest that wildfire can negatively impact ecosystem function in these semiarid ecosystems for at least 1 to 2 decades. This is a concern given that increased fire frequency is predicted for the region due to exotic grass invasion and climate change.

  16. A review and evaluation of forest canopy epiphyte roles in the partitioning and chemical alteration of precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Stan, John T., E-mail: jvanstan@georgiasouthern.edu [Dept. of Geology and Geography, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States); Pypker, Thomas G. [Dept. of Natural Resource Sciences, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, BC (Canada)

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between precipitation and forest canopy elements (bark, leaves, and epiphytes) control the quantity, spatiotemporal patterning, and the chemical concentration, character and constituency of precipitation to soils. Canopy epiphytes exert a range of hydrological and biogeochemical effects due to their diversity of morphological traits and nutrient acquisition mechanisms. We reviewed and evaluated the state of knowledge regarding epiphyte interactions with precipitation partitioning (into interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow) and the chemical alteration of net precipitation fluxes (throughfall and stemflow). As epiphyte species are quite diverse, this review categorized findings by common paraphyletic groups: lichens, bryophytes, and vascular epiphytes. Of these groups, vascular epiphytes have received the least attention and lichens the most. In general, epiphytes decrease throughfall and stemflow and increase interception loss. Epiphytes alter the spatiotemporal pattern of throughfall and increase overall latent heat fluxes from the canopy. Epiphytes alter biogeochemical processes by impacting the transfer of solutes through the canopy; however, the change in solute concentration varies with epiphyte type and chemical species. We discuss several important knowledge gaps across all epiphyte groups. We also explore innovative methods that currently exist to confront these knowledge gaps and past techniques applied to gain our current understanding. Future research addressing the listed deficiencies will improve our knowledge of epiphyte roles in water and biogeochemical processes coupled within forest canopies—processes crucial to supporting microbe, plant, vertebrate and invertebrate communities within individual epiphytes, epiphyte assemblages, host trees, and even the forest ecosystem as a whole. - Highlights: • Reviews > 100 studies on epiphyte effects on throughfall, stemflow, & interception • Identifies shared hydro

  17. Advances, gaps, and future prospects in biological soil crust research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Büdel, Burkhard; Belnap, Jayne

    2017-04-01

    Research progress has led to the understanding that biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are often complete miniature ecosystems comprising a variety of photosynthesizers (cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes), decomposers like bacteria, fungi, and archaea, and heterotrophic organisms, like protozoa, nematodes, and microarthropods feeding on them. Biocrusts are one of the oldest terrestrial ecosystems, playing central roles in the structure and functioning of dryland ecosystems and presumably also influencing global biogeochemical cycles. On the other hand, biocrusts have been shown to be highly sensitive to global change, being easily destroyed by mechanical disturbance and severely threatened by minor changes in climate patterns. Despite the large increase in biocrust research, we still see major knowledge gaps which need to be tackled. Considering biodiversity studies, there are major regions of potential biocrust occurrence, where hardly any studies have been conducted. Molecular identification techniques are increasingly employed, but genetically characterized entities need to be linked with morphologically identified organisms to identify their ecological roles. Although there is a large body of research on the role of biocrusts in water and nutrient budgets, we are still far from closing the overall cycles. Results suggest that not all mechanisms have been identified, yet, leading to sometimes contradictory results between different studies. Knowledge on how to minimize impact to biocrusts during surface-disturbing activities has hardly been gained, and despite research efforts, instructions on effective biocrust restoration are still exemplary. In order to fill these research gaps, novel scientific approaches are needed. We expect that global research networks could be extremely helpful to answer scientific questions by tackling them within different regions, utilizing the same methodological techniques. Global networks could also be used for long

  18. The GapA/B gene duplication marks the origin of Streptophyta (charophytes and land plants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jörn; Teich, René; Becker, Burkhard; Cerff, Rüdiger; Brinkmann, Henner

    2006-06-01

    Independent evidence from morphological, ultrastructural, biochemical, and molecular data have shown that land plants originated from charophycean green algae. However, the branching order within charophytes is still unresolved, and contradictory phylogenies about, for example,the position of the unicellular green alga Mesostigma viride are difficult to reconcile. A comparison of nuclear-encoded Calvin cycle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDH) indicates that a crucial duplication of the GapA gene occurred early in land plant evolution. The duplicate called GapB acquired a characteristic carboxy-terminal extension (CTE) from the general regulator of the Calvin cycle CP12. This CTE is responsible for thioredoxin-dependent light/dark regulation. In this work, we established GapA, GapB, and CP12 sequences from bryophytes, all orders of charophyte as well as chlorophyte green algae, and the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of all available plastid GAPDH sequences suggest that glaucophytes and green plants are sister lineages and support a positioning of Mesostigma basal to all charophycean algae. The exclusive presence of GapB in terrestrial plants, charophytes, and Mesostigma dates the GapA/B gene duplication to the common ancestor of Streptophyta. The conspicuously high degree of GapB sequence conservation suggests an important metabolic role of the newly gained regulatory function. Because the GapB-mediated protein aggregation most likely ensures the complete blockage of the Calvin cycle at night, we propose that this mechanism is also crucial for efficient starch mobilization. This innovation may be one prerequisite for the development of storage tissues in land plants.

  19. An expressed sequence tag analysis of the intertidal brown seaweeds Fucus serratus (L.) and F. vesiculosus (L.) (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae) in response to abiotic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Gareth A; Hoarau, Galice; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Coyer, James A; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Henckel, Kolja; Serrão, Ester T A; Corre, Erwan; Olsen, Jeanine L

    2010-04-01

    In order to aid gene discovery and uncover genes responding to abiotic stressors in stress-tolerant brown algae of the genus Fucus, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were studied in two species, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus. Clustering of over 12,000 ESTs from three libraries for heat shock/recovery and desiccation/rehydration resulted in identification of 2,503, 1,290, and 2,409 unigenes from heat-shocked F. serratus, desiccated F. serratus, and desiccated F. vesiculosus, respectively. Low overall annotation rates (18-31%) were strongly associated with the presence of long 3' untranslated regions in Fucus transcripts, as shown by analyses of predicted protein-coding sequence in annotated and nonannotated tentative consensus sequences. Posttranslational modification genes were overrepresented in the heat shock/recovery library, including many chaperones, the most abundant of which were a family of small heat shock protein transcripts, Hsp90 and Hsp70 members. Transcripts of LI818-like light-harvesting genes implicated in photoprotection were also expressed during heat shock in high light. The expression of several heat-shock-responsive genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. However, candidate genes were notably absent from both desiccation/rehydration libraries, while the responses of the two species to desiccation were divergent, perhaps reflecting the species-specific physiological differences in stress tolerance previously established. Desiccation-tolerant F. vesiculosus overexpressed at least 17 ribosomal protein genes and two ubiquitin-ribosomal protein fusion genes, suggesting that ribosome function and/or biogenesis are important during cycles of rapid desiccation and rehydration in the intertidal zone and possibly indicate parallels with other poikilohydric organisms such as desiccation-tolerant bryophytes.

  20. Characterization and Functional Identification of a Novel Plant 4,5-Extradiol Dioxygenase Involved in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis in Portulaca grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christinet, Laurent; Burdet, Frédéric X.; Zaiko, Maïa; Hinz, Ursula; Zrÿd, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Betalains are pigments that replace anthocyanins in the majority of families of the plant order Caryophyllales. Betalamic acid is the common chromophore of betalains. The key enzyme of the betalain biosynthetic pathway is an extradiol dioxygenase that opens the cyclic ring of dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) between carbons 4 and 5, thus producing an unstable seco-DOPA that rearranges nonenzymatically to betalamic acid. A gene for a 4,5-DOPA-dioxygenase has already been isolated from the fungus Amanita muscaria, but no homolog was ever found in plants. To identify the plant gene, we constructed subtractive libraries between different colored phenotypes of isogenic lines of Portulaca grandiflora (Portulacaceae) and between different stages of flower bud formation. Using in silico analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, we identified a candidate showing strong homology at the level of translated protein with the LigB domain present in several bacterial extradiol 4,5-dioxygenases. The gene was expressed only in colored flower petals. The function of this gene in the betalain biosynthetic pathway was confirmed by biolistic genetic complementation in white petals of P. grandiflora genotypes lacking the gene for color formation. This gene named DODA is the first characterized member of a novel family of plant dioxygenases phylogenetically distinct from Amanita sp. DOPA-dioxygenase. Homologs of DODA are present not only in betalain-producing plants but also, albeit with some changes near the catalytic site, in other angiosperms and in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. These homologs are part of a novel conserved plant gene family probably involved in aromatic compound metabolism. PMID:14730069

  1. Molecular species delimitation in the Racomitrium canescens complex (Grimmiaceae and implications for DNA barcoding of species complexes in mosses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stech

    Full Text Available In bryophytes a morphological species concept is still most commonly employed, but delimitation of closely related species based on morphological characters is often difficult. Here we test morphological species circumscriptions in a species complex of the moss genus Racomitrium, the R. canescens complex, based on variable DNA sequence markers from the plastid (rps4-trnT-trnL region and nuclear (nrITS genomes. The extensive morphological variability within the complex has led to different opinions about the number of species and intraspecific taxa to be distinguished. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions allowed to clearly distinguish all eight currently recognised species of the complex plus a ninth species that was inferred to belong to the complex in earlier molecular analyses. The taxonomic significance of intraspecific sequence variation is discussed. The present molecular data do not support the division of the R. canescens complex into two groups of species (subsections or sections. Most morphological characters, albeit being in part difficult to apply, are reliable for species identification in the R. canescens complex. However, misidentification of collections that were morphologically intermediate between species questioned the suitability of leaf shape as diagnostic character. Four partitions of the molecular markers (rps4-trnT, trnT-trnL, ITS1, ITS2 that could potentially be used for molecular species identification (DNA barcoding performed almost equally well concerning amplification and sequencing success. Of these, ITS1 provided the highest species discrimination capacity and should be considered as a DNA barcoding marker for mosses, especially in complexes of closely related species. Molecular species identification should be complemented by redefining morphological characters, to develop a set of easy-to-use molecular and non-molecular identification tools for improving biodiversity assessments and ecological research

  2. Hypergravity of 10g Changes Plant Growth, Anatomy, Chloroplast Size, and Photosynthesis in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kaori; Watanabe, Rina; Kameishi, Ryuji; Sakaguchi, Naoya; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Kume, Atsushi; Karahara, Ichirou; Hanba, Yuko T.; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2017-10-01

    The photosynthetic and anatomical responses of bryophytes to changes in gravity will provide crucial information for estimating how these plant traits evolved to adapt to changes in gravity in land plant history. We performed long-term hypergravity experiments at 10g for 4 and 8 weeks using the moss Physcomitrella patens with two centrifuges equipped with lighting systems that enable long-term plant growth under hypergravity with irradiance. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify changes in the anatomy and morphology of P. patens, and (2) to analyze the post-effects of hypergravity on photosynthesis by P. patens in relation to these changes. We measured photosynthesis by P. patens for a population of gametophores (e.g., canopy) in Petri dishes and plant culture boxes. Gametophore numbers increased by 9% for a canopy of P. patens, with 24-27% increases in chloroplast sizes (diameter and thickness) in leaf cells. In a canopy of P. patens, the area-based photosynthesis rate (A canopy) was increased by 57% at 10g. The increase observed in A canopy was associated with greater plant numbers and chloroplast sizes, both of which involved enhanced CO2 diffusion from the atmosphere to chloroplasts in the canopies of P. patens. These results suggest that changes in gravity are important environmental stimuli to induce changes in plant growth and photosynthesis by P. patens, in which an alteration in chloroplast size is one of the key traits. We are now planning an ISS experiment to investigate the responses of P. patens to microgravity.

  3. Three-genome mosses: complex double allopolyploid origins for triploid gametophytes in Sphagnum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Eric F; Boles, S B; Ricca, M; Temsch, E M; Greilhuber, J; Shaw, A J

    2009-04-01

    This paper documents the occurrence of allotriploidy (having three differentiated genomes) in gametophytes of two Southern Hemisphere Sphagnum species (S. australe, S. falcatulum). The pattern of microsatellite alleles indicates that both species are composed of a complex of allodiploid and allotriploid gametophytes, with the latter resulting from two allopolyploidization events. No haploid (n = x) gametophytes were found for either species. The ploidal levels suggested by the pattern of microsatellite alleles were confirmed by flow cytometry and Feulgen DNA image densitometry. For both S. australe and S. falcatulum, the respective allodiploid plants (or their ancestors) are one of the parent species of the allotriploid plants. This is the first report of triploidy in Sphagnum gametophytes occurring in nature and also the first report of the presence of three differentiated genomes in any bryophyte. It is also the first report of intersectional allopolyploidy in Sphagnum, with S. australe appearing to have parental species from Sphagnum sections Rigida and Sphagnum, and S. falcatulum having parental species from Sphagnum sections Cuspidata and Subsecunda. In both species, the allotriploid cytotypes were the most prevalent cytotype on the South Island of New Zealand. The pattern of microsatellite alleles shows the presence of two genetically distinct populations of allodiploid S. australe, possibly indicating multiple origins of polyploidy for that allodiploid cytotype. Morphological evidence is also highly indicative of recurrent polyploidy in the allotriploid cytotype of S. falcatulum. Allopolyploidy has clearly played a major evolutionary role in these two Southern Hemisphere taxa. This study, in conjunction with other recent research, indicates that allopolyploidy is a common, if not the predominant, form of polyploidy in Sphagnum.

  4. The potential influence of short-term environmental variability on the composition of testate amoeba communities in Sphagnum peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maura E; Booth, Robert K

    2011-07-01

    Testate amoebae are a group of moisture-sensitive, shell-producing protozoa that have been widely used as indicators of changes in mean water-table depth within oligotrophic peatlands. However, short-term environmental variability (i.e., sub-annual) also probably influences community composition. The objective of this study was to assess the potential influence of short-term environmental variability on the composition of testate amoeba communities in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands. Testate amoebae and environmental conditions, including hourly measurements of relative humidity within the upper centimeter of the peatland surface, were examined throughout the 2008 growing season at 72 microsites within 11 peatlands of Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, USA. Relationships among testate amoeba communities, vegetation, depth to water table, pH, and an index of short-term environmental variability (EVI), were examined using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and correlation analysis. Results suggest that EVI influences testate amoeba communities, with some taxa more abundant under highly variable conditions (e.g., Arcella discoides, Difflugia pulex, and Hyalosphenia subflava) and others more abundant when environmental conditions at the peatland surface were relatively stable (e.g., Archerella flavum and Bullinularia indica). The magnitude of environmental variability experienced at the peatland surface appears to be primarily controlled by vegetation composition and density. In particular, sites with dense Sphagnum cover had lower EVI values than sites with loose-growing Sphagnum or vegetation dominated by vascular plants and/or non-Sphagnum bryophytes. Our results suggest that more environmental information may be inferred from testate amoebae than previously recognized. Knowledge of relationships between testate amoebae and short-term environmental variability should lead to more detailed and refined environmental inferences.

  5. Evolutionary classification of ammonium, nitrate, and peptide transporters in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wittgenstein, Neil J J B; Le, Cuong H; Hawkins, Barbara J; Ehlting, Jürgen

    2014-01-20

    Nitrogen uptake, reallocation within the plant, and between subcellular compartments involves ammonium, nitrate and peptide transporters. Ammonium transporters are separated into two distinct families (AMT1 and AMT2), each comprised of five members on average in angiosperms. Nitrate transporters also form two discrete families (NRT1 and NRT2), with angiosperms having four NRT2s, on average. NRT1s share an evolutionary history with peptide transporters (PTRs). The NRT1/PTR family in land plants usually has more than 50 members and contains also members with distinct activities, such as glucosinolate and abscisic acid transport. Phylogenetic reconstructions of each family across 20 land plant species with available genome sequences were supplemented with subcellular localization and transmembrane topology predictions. This revealed that both AMT families diverged prior to the separation of bryophytes and vascular plants forming two distinct clans, designated as supergroups, each. Ten supergroups were identified for the NRT1/PTR family. It is apparent that nitrate and peptide transport within the NRT1/PTR family is polyphyletic, that is, nitrate and/or peptide transport likely evolved multiple times within land plants. The NRT2 family separated into two distinct clans early in vascular plant evolution. Subsequent duplications occurring prior to the eudicot/monocot separation led to the existence of two AMT1, six AMT2, 31 NRT1/PTR, and two NRT2 clans, designated as groups. Phylogenetic separation of groups suggests functional divergence within the angiosperms for each family. Distinct groups within the NRT1/PTR family appear to separate peptide and nitrate transport activities as well as other activities contained within the family, for example nitrite transport. Conversely, distinct activities, such as abscisic acid and glucosinolate transport, appear to have recently evolved from nitrate transporters.

  6. Sulfate assimilation in eukaryotes: fusions, relocations and lateral transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durnford Dion G

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sulfate assimilation pathway is present in photosynthetic organisms, fungi, and many bacteria, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesis of cysteine and methionine and a range of other metabolites. In photosynthetic eukaryotes sulfate is reduced in the plastids whereas in aplastidic eukaryotes the pathway is cytosolic. The only known exception is Euglena gracilis, where the pathway is localized in mitochondria. To obtain an insight into the evolution of the sulfate assimilation pathway in eukaryotes and relationships of the differently compartmentalized isoforms we determined the locations of the pathway in lineages for which this was unknown and performed detailed phylogenetic analyses of three enzymes involved in sulfate reduction: ATP sulfurylase (ATPS, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR and sulfite reductase (SiR. Results The inheritance of ATPS, APR and the related 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPR are remarkable, with multiple origins in the lineages that comprise the opisthokonts, different isoforms in chlorophytes and streptophytes, gene fusions with other enzymes of the pathway, evidence a eukaryote to prokaryote lateral gene transfer, changes in substrate specificity and two reversals of cellular location of host- and endosymbiont-originating enzymes. We also found that the ATPS and APR active in the mitochondria of Euglena were inherited from its secondary, green algal plastid. Conclusion Our results reveal a complex history for the enzymes of the sulfate assimilation pathway. Whilst they shed light on the origin of some characterised novelties, such as a recently described novel isoform of APR from Bryophytes and the origin of the pathway active in the mitochondria of Euglenids, the many distinct and novel isoforms identified here represent an excellent resource for detailed biochemical studies of the enzyme structure/function relationships.

  7. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  8. Vegetative changes in boreal peatlands along salinity gradients resulting from produced water spills : implications for the environmental assessment and remediation of upstream oil and gas sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, D.; Harris, C.; Meier, M. [AECOM Canada Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In the province of Alberta, there are approximately 8,000 registered oil effluent and produced pipelines that have significant potential for ruptures and spills due to the highly corrosive nature of the emulsions and produced water they transport. Most releases occur in or adjacent to northern boreal wetlands. The first objective in spill response involves assessment and remediation for residuals, which involves handling and disposal of large volumes of salinized water. This presentation reported on a study that addressed the issues regarding the ecological features of semi-terrestrial and semi-aquatic components of boreal wetland environments as a basis for environmental protection at salt release sites. The fate of salt ions in such environments was examined along with the implications for secondary succession and ecological restoration. The study also examined the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in soils or water beyond which there is an inhibition to wetlands plants and bryophyte secondary succession; the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in water beyond which there may be adverse effects on invertebrates, vertebrates and other non-plant taxa; and species sensitivity distributions for floral and faunal assemblages found in boreal wetland habitats. The presentation summarized the 3 phases of a project that examined pipeline ruptures at 9 sites. Field methods and site sampling summaries were presented. It was difficult to locate study sites with residual salt contamination in surface media at concentrations above effects threshold for many species. It was concluded that the departures between surface and subsurface salinity indicates a smaller potential for effects on site vegetation. tabs., figs.

  9. High-throughput identification and screening of novel Methylobacterium species using whole-cell MALDI-TOF/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Akio; Sahin, Nurettin; Matsuyama, Yumiko; Enomoto, Takashi; Nishimura, Naoki; Yokota, Akira; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2012-01-01

    Methylobacterium species are ubiquitous α-proteobacteria that reside in the phyllosphere and are fed by methanol that is emitted from plants. In this study, we applied whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis (WC-MS) to evaluate the diversity of Methylobacterium species collected from a variety of plants. The WC-MS spectrum was reproducible through two weeks of cultivation on different media. WC-MS spectrum peaks of M. extorquens strain AM1 cells were attributed to ribosomal proteins, but those were not were also found. We developed a simple method for rapid identification based on spectra similarity. Using all available type strains of Methylobacterium species, the method provided a certain threshold similarity value for species-level discrimination, although the genus contains some type strains that could not be easily discriminated solely by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Next, we evaluated the WC-MS data of approximately 200 methylotrophs isolated from various plants with MALDI Biotyper software (Bruker Daltonics). Isolates representing each cluster were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In most cases, the identification by WC-MS matched that by sequencing, and isolates with unique spectra represented possible novel species. The strains belonging to M. extorquens, M. adhaesivum, M. marchantiae, M. komagatae, M. brachiatum, M. radiotolerans, and novel lineages close to M. adhaesivum, many of which were isolated from bryophytes, were found to be the most frequent phyllospheric colonizers. The WC-MS technique provides emerging high-throughputness in the identification of known/novel species of bacteria, enabling the selection of novel species in a library and identification without 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  10. High-throughput identification and screening of novel Methylobacterium species using whole-cell MALDI-TOF/MS analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Tani

    Full Text Available Methylobacterium species are ubiquitous α-proteobacteria that reside in the phyllosphere and are fed by methanol that is emitted from plants. In this study, we applied whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis (WC-MS to evaluate the diversity of Methylobacterium species collected from a variety of plants. The WC-MS spectrum was reproducible through two weeks of cultivation on different media. WC-MS spectrum peaks of M. extorquens strain AM1 cells were attributed to ribosomal proteins, but those were not were also found. We developed a simple method for rapid identification based on spectra similarity. Using all available type strains of Methylobacterium species, the method provided a certain threshold similarity value for species-level discrimination, although the genus contains some type strains that could not be easily discriminated solely by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Next, we evaluated the WC-MS data of approximately 200 methylotrophs isolated from various plants with MALDI Biotyper software (Bruker Daltonics. Isolates representing each cluster were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In most cases, the identification by WC-MS matched that by sequencing, and isolates with unique spectra represented possible novel species. The strains belonging to M. extorquens, M. adhaesivum, M. marchantiae, M. komagatae, M. brachiatum, M. radiotolerans, and novel lineages close to M. adhaesivum, many of which were isolated from bryophytes, were found to be the most frequent phyllospheric colonizers. The WC-MS technique provides emerging high-throughputness in the identification of known/novel species of bacteria, enabling the selection of novel species in a library and identification without 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  11. Positive edge effects on forest-interior cryptogams in clear-cuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Caruso

    Full Text Available Biological edge effects are often assessed in high quality focal habitats that are negatively influenced by human-modified low quality matrix habitats. A deeper understanding of the possibilities for positive edge effects in matrix habitats bordering focal habitats (e.g. spillover effects is, however, essential for enhancing landscape-level resilience to human alterations. We surveyed epixylic (dead wood inhabiting forest-interior cryptogams (lichens, bryophytes, and fungi associated with mature old-growth forests in 30 young managed Swedish boreal forest stands bordering a mature forest of high conservation value. In each young stand we registered species occurrences on coarse dead wood in transects 0-50 m from the border between stand types. We quantified the effect of distance from the mature forest on the occurrence of forest-interior species in the young stands, while accounting for local environment and propagule sources. For comparison we also surveyed epixylic open-habitat (associated with open forests and generalist cryptogams. Species composition of epixylic cryptogams in young stands differed with distance from the mature forest: the frequency of occurrence of forest-interior species decreased with increasing distance whereas it increased for open-habitat species. Generalists were unaffected by distance. Epixylic, boreal forest-interior cryptogams do occur in matrix habitats such as clear-cuts. In addition, they are associated with the matrix edge because of a favourable microclimate closer to the mature forest on southern matrix edges. Retention and creation of dead wood in clear-cuts along the edges to focal habitats is a feasible way to enhance the long-term persistence of epixylic habitat specialists in fragmented landscapes. The proposed management measures should be performed in the whole stand as it matures, since microclimatic edge effects diminish as the matrix habitat matures. We argue that management that aims to increase

  12. Environmental conditions and microbial community structure during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event; a multi-disciplinary study from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaak, Gemma; Edwards, Dianne S.; Foster, Clinton B.; Pagès, Anais; Summons, Roger E.; Sherwood, Neil; Grice, Kliti

    2017-12-01

    The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) is regarded as one of the most significant evolutionary events in the history of Phanerozoic life. The present study integrates palynological, petrographic, molecular and stable isotopic (δ13C of biomarkers) analyses of cores from four boreholes that intersected the Goldwyer Formation, Canning Basin, Western Australia, to determine depositional environments and microbial diversity within a Middle Ordovician epicontinental, tropical sea. Data from this study indicate lateral and temporal variations in lipid biomarker assemblages extracted from Goldwyer Formation rock samples. These variations likely reflect changing redox conditions between the upper (Unit 4) and lower (Units 1 + 2) Goldwyer, which is largely consistent with existing depositional models for the Goldwyer Formation. Cryptospores were identified in Unit 4 in the Theia-1 well and are most likely derived from bryophyte-like plants, making this is the oldest record of land plants in Australian Middle Ordovician strata. Biomarkers in several samples from Unit 4 that also support derivation from terrestrial organic matter include benzonaphthofurans and δ13C-depleted mid-chain n-alkanes. Typical Ordovician marine organisms including acritarchs, chitinozoans, conodonts and graptolites were present in the lower and upper Goldwyer Formation, whereas the enigmatic organism Gloeocapsomorpha prisca (G. prisca) was only detected in Unit 4. The correlation of a strong G. prisca biosignature with high 3-methylhopane indices and 13C depleted G. prisca-derived chemical fossils (biomarkers) is interpreted to suggest an ecological relationship between methanotrophs and G. prisca. This research contributes to a greater understanding of Ordovician marine environments from a molecular perspective since few biomarker studies have been undertaken on age-equivalent sections. Furthermore, the identification of the oldest cryptospores in Australia and their corresponding

  13. CHASE domain-containing receptors play an essential role in the cytokinin response of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Lindner, Ann-Cathrin; Gruhn, Njuscha; Šimura, Jan; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Gonneau, Martine; Nogué, Fabien; Heyl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    While the molecular basis for cytokinin action is quite well understood in flowering plants, little is known about the cytokinin signal transduction in early diverging land plants. The genome of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S. encodes three classical cytokinin receptors, the CHASE domain-containing histidine kinases, CHK1, CHK2, and CHK3. In a complementation assay with protoplasts of receptor-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana as well as in cytokinin binding assays, we found evidence that CHK1 and CHK2 receptors can function in cytokinin perception. Using gene targeting, we generated a collection of CHK knockout mutants comprising single (Δchk1, Δchk2, Δchk3), double (Δchk1,2, Δchk1,3, Δchk2,3), and triple (Δchk1,2,3) mutants. Mutants were characterized for their cytokinin response and differentiation capacities. While the wild type did not grow on high doses of cytokinin (1 µM benzyladenine), the Δchk1,2,3 mutant exhibited normal protonema growth. Bud induction assays showed that all three cytokinin receptors contribute to the triggering of budding, albeit to different extents. Furthermore, while the triple mutant showed no response in this bioassay, the remaining mutants displayed budding responses in a diverse manner to different types and concentrations of cytokinins. Determination of cytokinin levels in mutants showed no drastic changes for any of the cytokinins; thus, in contrast to Arabidopsis, revealing only small impacts of cytokinin signaling on homeostasis. In summary, our study provides a first insight into the molecular action of cytokinin in an early diverging land plant and demonstrates that CHK receptors play an essential role in bud induction and gametophore development. PMID:26596764

  14. Anhydrobiosis and programmed cell death in plants: Commonalities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anhydrobiosis is an adaptive strategy of certain organisms or specialised propagules to survive in the absence of water while programmed cell death (PCD is a finely tuned cellular process of the selective elimination of targeted cell during developmental programme and perturbed biotic and abiotic conditions. Particularly during water stress both the strategies serve single purpose i.e., survival indicating PCD may also function as an adaptive process under certain conditions. During stress conditions PCD cause targeted cells death in order to keep the homeostatic balance required for the organism survival, whereas anhydrobiosis suspends cellular metabolic functions mimicking a state similar to death until reestablishment of the favourable conditions. Anhydrobiosis is commonly observed among organisms that have ability to revive their metabolism on rehydration after removal of all or almost all cellular water without damage. This feature is widely represented in terrestrial cyanobacteria and bryophytes where it is very common in both vegetative and reproductive stages of life-cycle. In the course of evolution, with the development of advanced vascular system in higher plants, anhydrobiosis was gradually lost from the vegetative phase of life-cycle. Though it is retained in resurrection plants that primarily belong to thallophytes and a small group of vascular angiosperm, it can be mostly found restricted in orthodox seeds of higher plants. On the contrary, PCD is a common process in all eukaryotes from unicellular to multicellular organisms including higher plants and mammals. In this review we discuss physiological and biochemical commonalities and differences between anhydrobiosis and PCD.

  15. Protein phylogenetic analysis of Ca2+/cation antiporters and insights into their evolution in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eEmery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cation transport is a critical process in all organisms and is essential for mineral nutrition, ion stress tolerance, and signal transduction. Transporters that are members of the Ca2+/Cation Antiporter (CaCA superfamily are involved in the transport of Ca2+ and/or other cations using the counter exchange of another ion such as H+ or Na+. The CaCA superfamily has been previously divided into five transporter families: the YRBG, NCX, NCKX, CAX and CCX families, which include the well-characterized Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX and H+/cation exchanger (CAX transporters. To examine the evolution of CaCA transporters within higher plants and the green plant lineage, CaCA genes were identified from the genomes of sequenced flowering plants, a bryophyte, lycophyte, and freshwater and marine algae, and compared with those from non-plant species. We found evidence of the expansion and increased diversity of flowering plant genes within the CAX and CCX families. Genes related to the NCX family are present in land plant though they encode distinct MHX homologs which probably have an altered transport function. In contrast, the NCX and NCKX genes which are absent in land plants have been retained in many species of algae, especially the marine algae, indicating that these organisms may share ‘animal-like’ characteristics of Ca2+ homeostasis and signaling. A group of genes encoding novel CAX-like proteins containing an EF hand domain were identified from plants and selected algae but appeared to be lacking in any other species. Lack of functional data for most of the CaCA proteins make it impossible to reliably predict substrate specificity and function for many of the groups or individual proteins. The abundance and diversity of CaCA genes throughout all branches of life indicates the importance of this class of cation transporter, and that many transporters with novel functions are waiting to be discovered.

  16. Biomass assessment of microbial surface communities by means of hyperspectral remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Paul, Max; Tamm, Alexandra; Caesar, Jennifer; Büdel, Burkhard; Escribano, Paula; Hill, Joachim; Weber, Bettina

    2017-05-15

    Dryland vegetation developed morphological and physiological strategies to cope with drought. However, as aridity increases, vascular plant coverage gets sparse and microbially-dominated surface communities (MSC), comprising cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotropic bacteria, archaea and fungi, gain relevance. Nevertheless, the relevance of MSC net primary productivity has only rarely been considered in ecosystem scale studies, and detailed information on their contribution to the total photosynthetic biomass reservoir is largely missing. In this study, we mapped the spatial distribution of two different MSC (biological soil crusts and quartz fields hosting hypolithic crusts) at two different sites within the South African Succulent Karoo (Soebatsfontein and Knersvlakte). Then we characterized both types of MSC in terms of chlorophyll content, and combining these data with the biocrust and quartz field maps, we estimated total biomass values of MSCs and their spatial patterns within the two different ecosystems. Our results revealed that MSC are important vegetation components of the South African Karoo biome, revealing clear differences between the two sites. At Soebatsfontein, MSC occurred as biological soil crusts (biocrusts), which covered about one third of the landscape reaching an overall biomass value of ~480gha-1 of chlorophyll a+b at the landscape scale. In the Knersvlakte, which is characterized by harsher environmental conditions (i.e. higher solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration), MSC occurred as biocrusts, but also formed hypolithic crusts growing on the lower soil-immersed parts of translucent quartz pebbles. Whereas chlorophyll concentrations of biocrusts and hypolithic crusts where insignificantly lower in the Knersvlakte, the overall MSC biomass reservoir was by far larger with ~780gha-1 of chlorophyll a+b. Thus, the complementary microbially-dominated surface communities promoted biomass formation within

  17. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C S McIntosh

    Full Text Available Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR of the forest floor microbial community environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide

  18. The DnaJ-Like Zinc-Finger Protein HCF222 Is Required for Thylakoid Membrane Biogenesis in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartings, Stephanie; Paradies, Susanne; Karnuth, Bianca; Eisfeld, Sabrina; Mehsing, Jasmin; Wolff, Christian; Levey, Tatjana; Westhoff, Peter; Meierhoff, Karin

    2017-07-01

    To understand the biogenesis of the thylakoid membrane in higher plants and to identify auxiliary proteins required to build up this highly complex membrane system, we have characterized the allelic nuclear mutants high chlorophyll fluorescence222-1 (hcf222-1) and hcf222-2 and isolated the causal gene by map-based cloning. In the ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant hcf222-1, the accumulation of the cytochrome b6f (Cytb6f) complex was reduced to 30% compared with the wild type. Other thylakoid membrane complexes accumulated to normal levels. The T-DNA knockout mutant hcf222-2 showed a more severe defect with respect to thylakoid membrane proteins and accumulated only 10% of the Cytb6f complex, accompanied by a reduction in photosystem II, the photosystem II light-harvesting complex, and photosystem I. HCF222 encodes a protein of 99 amino acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that has similarities to the cysteine-rich zinc-binding domain of DnaJ chaperones. The insulin precipitation assay demonstrated that HCF222 has disulfide reductase activity in vitro. The protein is conserved in higher plants and bryophytes but absent in algae and cyanobacteria. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that a fraction of HCF222-green fluorescent protein was detectable in the endoplasmic reticulum but that it also could be recognized in chloroplasts. A fusion construct of HCF222 containing a plastid transit peptide targets the protein into chloroplasts and was able to complement the mutational defect. These findings indicate that the chloroplast-targeted HCF222 is indispensable for the maturation and/or assembly of the Cytb6f complex and is very likely involved in thiol-disulfide biochemistry at the thylakoid membrane. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Ascorbate as seen through plant evolution: the rise of a successful molecule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Noé; Gautier, Hélène; Stevens, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbate is a widespread and efficient antioxidant that has multiple functions in plants, traditionally associated with the reactions of photosynthesis. This review aims to look at ascorbate from an evolutionary perspective. Cyanobacteria, algae, and bryophytes contain lower concentrations of ascorbate than higher plants, where the molecule accumulates in high concentrations in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs and tissues. This increase in ascorbate concentration is paralleled by an increase in the number of isoforms of ascorbate peroxidase and the ascorbate regenerating enzymes mono- and dehydroascorbate reductase. One way of understanding the rise in ascorbate concentrations is to consider ascorbate as a molecule among others that has been subject to selection pressures during evolution, due to its cost or benefit for the cell and the organism. Ascorbate has a low cost in terms of synthesis and toxicity, and its benefits include protection of the glutathione pool and proper functioning of a range of enzymes. The hypothesis presented here is that these features would have favoured increasing roles for the molecule in the development and growth of multicellular organisms. This review then focuses on this diversity of roles for ascorbate in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues of higher plants, including fruits and seeds, as well as further functions the molecule may possess by looking at other species. The review also highlights one of the trade-offs of domestication, which has often reduced or diluted ascorbate content in the quest for increased fruit growth and yield, with unknown consequences for the corresponding functional diversity, particularly in terms of stress resistance and adaptive responses to the environment.

  20. Towards a more detailed representation of high-latitude vegetation in the global land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORC-HL-VEGv1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druel, Arsène; Peylin, Philippe; Krinner, Gerhard; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Peregon, Anna; Bastrikov, Vladislav; Kosykh, Natalya; Mironycheva-Tokareva, Nina

    2017-12-01

    Simulation of vegetation-climate feedbacks in high latitudes in the ORCHIDEE land surface model was improved by the addition of three new circumpolar plant functional types (PFTs), namely non-vascular plants representing bryophytes and lichens, Arctic shrubs and Arctic C3 grasses. Non-vascular plants are assigned no stomatal conductance, very shallow roots, and can desiccate during dry episodes and become active again during wet periods, which gives them a larger phenological plasticity (i.e. adaptability and resilience to severe climatic constraints) compared to grasses and shrubs. Shrubs have a specific carbon allocation scheme, and differ from trees by their larger survival rates in winter, due to protection by snow. Arctic C3 grasses have the same equations as in the original ORCHIDEE version, but different parameter values, optimised from in situ observations of biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) in Siberia. In situ observations of living biomass and productivity from Siberia were used to calibrate the parameters of the new PFTs using a Bayesian optimisation procedure. With the new PFTs, we obtain a lower NPP by 31 % (from 55° N), as well as a lower roughness length (-41 %), transpiration (-33 %) and a higher winter albedo (by +3.6 %) due to increased snow cover. A simulation of the water balance and runoff and drainage in the high northern latitudes using the new PFTs results in an increase of fresh water discharge in the Arctic ocean by 11 % (+140 km3 yr-1), owing to less evapotranspiration. Future developments should focus on the competition between these three PFTs and boreal tree PFTs, in order to simulate their area changes in response to climate change, and the effect of carbon-nitrogen interactions.

  1. Towards a more detailed representation of high-latitude vegetation in the global land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORC-HL-VEGv1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Druel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of vegetation–climate feedbacks in high latitudes in the ORCHIDEE land surface model was improved by the addition of three new circumpolar plant functional types (PFTs, namely non-vascular plants representing bryophytes and lichens, Arctic shrubs and Arctic C3 grasses. Non-vascular plants are assigned no stomatal conductance, very shallow roots, and can desiccate during dry episodes and become active again during wet periods, which gives them a larger phenological plasticity (i.e. adaptability and resilience to severe climatic constraints compared to grasses and shrubs. Shrubs have a specific carbon allocation scheme, and differ from trees by their larger survival rates in winter, due to protection by snow. Arctic C3 grasses have the same equations as in the original ORCHIDEE version, but different parameter values, optimised from in situ observations of biomass and net primary productivity (NPP in Siberia. In situ observations of living biomass and productivity from Siberia were used to calibrate the parameters of the new PFTs using a Bayesian optimisation procedure. With the new PFTs, we obtain a lower NPP by 31 % (from 55° N, as well as a lower roughness length (−41 %, transpiration (−33 % and a higher winter albedo (by +3.6 % due to increased snow cover. A simulation of the water balance and runoff and drainage in the high northern latitudes using the new PFTs results in an increase of fresh water discharge in the Arctic ocean by 11 % (+140 km3 yr−1, owing to less evapotranspiration. Future developments should focus on the competition between these three PFTs and boreal tree PFTs, in order to simulate their area changes in response to climate change, and the effect of carbon–nitrogen interactions.

  2. Angiosperms Are Unique among Land Plant Lineages in the Occurrence of Key Genes in the RNA-Directed DNA Methylation (RdDM) Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lu; Hatlen, Andrea; Kelly, Laura J; Becher, Hannes; Wang, Wencai; Kovarik, Ales; Leitch, Ilia J; Leitch, Andrew R

    2015-09-02

    The RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway can be divided into three phases: 1) small interfering RNA biogenesis, 2) de novo methylation, and 3) chromatin modification. To determine the degree of conservation of this pathway we searched for key genes among land plants. We used OrthoMCL and the OrthoMCL Viridiplantae database to analyze proteomes of species in bryophytes, lycophytes, monilophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. We also analyzed small RNA size categories and, in two gymnosperms, cytosine methylation in ribosomal DNA. Six proteins were restricted to angiosperms, these being NRPD4/NRPE4, RDM1, DMS3 (defective in meristem silencing 3), SHH1 (SAWADEE homeodomain homolog 1), KTF1, and SUVR2, although we failed to find the latter three proteins in Fritillaria persica, a species with a giant genome. Small RNAs of 24 nt in length were abundant only in angiosperms. Phylogenetic analyses of Dicer-like (DCL) proteins showed that DCL2 was restricted to seed plants, although it was absent in Gnetum gnemon and Welwitschia mirabilis. The data suggest that phases (1) and (2) of the RdDM pathway, described for model angiosperms, evolved with angiosperms. The absence of some features of RdDM in F. persica may be associated with its large genome. Phase (3) is probably the most conserved part of the pathway across land plants. DCL2, involved in virus defense and interaction with the canonical RdDM pathway to facilitate methylation of CHH, is absent outside seed plants. Its absence in G. gnemon, and W. mirabilis coupled with distinctive patterns of CHH methylation, suggest a secondary loss of DCL2 following the divergence of Gnetales. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Was the ANITA rooting of the angiosperm phylogeny affected by long-branch attraction? Amborella, Nymphaeales, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y L; Lee, J; Whitlock, B A; Bernasconi-Quadroni, F; Dombrovska, O

    2001-09-01

    Five groups of basal angiosperms, Amborella, Nymphaeales, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya (ANITA), were identified in several recent studies as representing a series of the earliest-diverging lineages of the angiosperm phylogeny. All of these studies except one employed a multigene analysis approach and used gymnosperms as the outgroup to determine the ingroup topology. The high level of divergence between gymnosperms and angiosperms, however, has long been implicated in the difficulty of reconstructing relationships at the base of angiosperm phylogeny using DNA sequences, for fear of long-branch attraction (LBA). In this study, we replaced the gymnosperm sequences from the five-gene matrix (mitochondrial atp1 and matR, plastid atpB and rbcL, and nuclear 18S rDNA) used in our earlier study with four categories of divergent sequences--random sequences with equal base frequencies or equally AT- and GC-rich contents, homopolymers and heteropolymers, misaligned gymnosperm sequences, and aligned lycopod and bryophyte sequences--to evaluate whether the gymnosperms were an appropriate outgroup to angiosperms in our earlier study that identified the ANITA rooting. All 24 analyses performed rooted the angiosperm phylogeny at either Acorus or Alisma (or Alisma-Triglochin-Potamogeton in one case due to use of a slightly different alignment) and placed the monocots as a basal grade, producing genuine LBA results. These analyses demonstrate that the identification of ANITA as the basalmost extant angiosperms was based on historical signals preserved in the gymnosperm sequences and that the gymnosperms were an appropriate outgroup with which to root the angiosperm phylogeny in the multigene sequence analysis. This strategy of evaluating the appropriateness of an outgroup using artificial sequences and a series of outgroups with increments of divergence levels can be applied to investigations of phylogenetic patterns at the bases of other major clades, such as land

  4. Efficacy of feral pig removals at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Jeffrey, John J.; Ball, Donna; Babich, Lev

    2006-01-01

    We compiled and analyzed data from 1987–2004 on feral pig (Sus scrofa) management and monitoring activities at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, a tropical montane rainforest on the island of Hawai`i. These data included annual surveys of feral pig and cattle (Bos taurus) activity, the number of feral ungulates removed from closed management units, age and reproductive status from necropsies, and vegetation surveys repeated 4 times over a 16 year period. We found an essentially even sex ratio within the feral pig population and within age classes, although males lived to 60 months while females lived to only 48 months. The pregnancy rate was 23.5%, and lactation rate was 8.3%, regardless of season and age, but lactation peaked in April-June. Reproductive rates also increased with age, peaking at 2–4 years in females. We reconstructed the standing population within a closed unit to examine demographic processes. We estimated that annual removal in excess of approximately 41–43% would be necessary to affect a population decline. We examined annual feral pig activity surveys and found a strong and sustained decline in pig sign after 1997 relative to unmanaged areas. We related the standing population to feral pig activity surveys to build a predictive model of feral pig density, and then applied this model to other management units. We evaluated control methods and found snaring to be more efficient than staff or public hunting. Vegetation monitoring revealed a strong temporal increase in cover of native ferns, and marginally non-significant decreases in cover of bryophytes and exposed soil.

  5. Genomic and expression analysis of glycosyl hydrolase family 35 genes from rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesan Janjira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many plant β-galactosidases (Bgals have been well characterized and their deduced biological functions mainly involve degradation of structural pectins, xyloglucans or arabinogalactoproteins in plant cell walls. However, gene multiplicity in glycosyl hydrolase family 35 (GH35, to which these proteins belong, implies diverse functions. In this study, the gene multiplicity, apparent evolutionary relationships and transcript expression of rice Bgal genes were examined, in order to predict their biological functions. Results Fifteen rice Bgal genes were identified in the plant genome, one of which encodes a protein similar to animal Bgals (OsBgal9, and the remaining 14 fall in a nearly plant-specific subfamily of Bgals. The presence of both classes of Bgals in bryophytes, as well as vascular plants, suggests both gene lineages were present early in plant evolution. All 15 proteins were predicted to contain secretory signal sequences, suggesting they have secretory pathway or external roles. RT-PCR and database analysis found two distinct lineages to be expressed nearly exclusively in reproductive tissues and to be closely related to Arabidopsis Bgals expressed most highly in flower and pollen. On the other hand, OsBgal6 is expressed primarily in young vegetative tissues, and alternative splicing in panicle prevents its production of full-length protein in this reproductive tissue. OsBgal11 also showed alternative splicing to produce different length proteins. OsBgal13 produced by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli hydrolyzed α-L-arabinoside in addition to β-D-galactoside and β-(1→3-, β-(1→4- and β-(1→6- linked galacto-oligosaccharides. Conclusion Rice GH35 contains fifteen genes with a diversity of protein sequences, predicted locations and expression and splicing patterns that suggest that OsBgals enzymes may play a variety of roles in metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycolipids.

  6. Insights into the Evolution of Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoproteins from 1000 Plant Transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kim L; Cassin, Andrew M; Lonsdale, Andrew; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Soltis, Douglas E; Miles, Nicholas W; Melkonian, Michael; Melkonian, Barbara; Deyholos, Michael K; Leebens-Mack, James; Rothfels, Carl J; Stevenson, Dennis W; Graham, Sean W; Wang, Xumin; Wu, Shuangxiu; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Carpenter, Eric J; Bacic, Antony; Doblin, Monika S; Schultz, Carolyn J

    2017-06-01

    The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall-based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs), and proline-rich proteins. Using motif and amino acid bias, a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline, we identified HRGPs in sequences from the 1000 Plants transcriptome project (www.onekp.com). Our analyses provide new insights into the evolution of HRGPs across major evolutionary milestones, including the transition to land and the early radiation of angiosperms. Significantly, data mining reveals the origin of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored AGPs in green algae and a 3- to 4-fold increase in GPI-AGPs in liverworts and mosses. The first detection of cross-linking (CL)-EXTs is observed in bryophytes, which suggests that CL-EXTs arose though the juxtaposition of preexisting SPn EXT glycomotifs with refined Y-based motifs. We also detected the loss of CL-EXT in a few lineages, including the grass family (Poaceae), that have a cell wall composition distinct from other monocots and eudicots. A key challenge in HRGP research is tracking individual HRGPs throughout evolution. Using the 1000 Plants output, we were able to find putative orthologs of Arabidopsis pollen-specific GPI-AGPs in basal eudicots. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Biotic diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates at contrasting glacier-fed systems in Patagonia Mountains: The role of environmental heterogeneity facing global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia; Epele, Luis B; Di Prinzio, Cecilia Y; Omad, Guillermo H; Archangelsky, Miguel; Martínez, Oscar; Kutschker, Adriana M

    2018-05-01

    Patagonia is by far the largest glacierized area in South America. However, little is known about ecology, functioning and biodiversity of glacier-fed streams facing global warming. We investigated changes in environmental features and macroinvertebrate communities along a longitudinal gradient of glacier influence of two Patagonian systems that differ in glacier cover magnitude and the spatial sequence of lotic and lentic phases. Both glaciers, Torrecillas (~5.5km 2 , Torrecillas system) and Cónico (~0.44km 2 , Baggilt system), are retreating. Longitudinal distribution of benthic invertebrates partially fitted to predictions for glacierized temperate systems, with Diamesinae spp. dominating at closest sites to the Cónico, and Orthocladiinae increasing downstream, but patterns were unclear at Torrecillas. Generalized Linear Model identified chlorophyll a and conductivity as having significant effect on richness and density respectively at Torrecillas; detritus biomass and gravel influenced species richness, and boulder percentage and water temperature affected density, at Baggilt. Canonical Correspondence Analyses integrating benthic biota and environmental variables revealed that a higher environmental heterogeneity at Baggilt, related with spatial dimension (unshaded/shaded reaches, wetland reaches), local resources (detritus, bryophytes) and temperature, probably explained the unexpected high richness in benthic assemblages (67 taxa). Environmental conditions imposed by the lake outlet (proglacial) at Torrecillas resulted in a less diverse community (31 taxa). Finally our results suggest that these isolated, small glacier-fed streams typical of the Patagonian landscape appear highly vulnerable to global warming. Endemic elements could disappear at upper segments being replaced by other species common at rhithral environments, which might increase local diversity (alfa diversity) but decrease regional diversity (gamma diversity). From an ecosystem perspective

  8. A SABATH Methyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens catalyzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nan [ORNL; Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Universite Joseph Fourier, France; Moon, Hong S [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee; Kapteyn, Jeremy [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University; Zhuang, Xiaofeng [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu [Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, National Institute for Biology, 38 Nishigounaka; Stewart, Neal C. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee; Gang, David R. [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University; Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    Known SABATH methyltransferases, all of which were identified from seed plants, catalyze methylation of either the carboxyl group of a variety of low molecular weight metabolites or the nitrogen moiety of precursors of caffeine. In this study, the SABATH family from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens was identified and characterized. Four SABATH-like sequences (PpSABATH1, PpSABATH2, PpSABATH3, and PpSABATH4) were identified from the P. patens genome. Only PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 showed expression in the leafy gametophyte of P. patens. Full-length cDNAs of PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were cloned and expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. Recombinant PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were tested for methyltransferase activity with a total of 75 compounds. While showing no activity with carboxylic acids or nitrogen-containing compounds, PpSABATH1 displayed methyltransferase activity with a number of thiols. PpSABATH2 did not show activity with any of the compounds tested. Among the thiols analyzed, PpSABATH1 showed the highest level of activity with thiobenzoic acid with an apparent Km value of 95.5 lM, which is comparable to those of known SABATHs. Using thiobenzoic acid as substrate, GC MS analysis indicated that the methylation catalyzed by PpSABATH1 is on the sulfur atom. The mechanism for S-methylation of thiols catalyzed by PpSABATH1 was partially revealed by homology-based structural modeling. The expression of PpSABATH1 was induced by the treatment of thiobenzoic acid. Further transgenic studies showed that tobacco plants overexpressing PpSABATH1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to thiobenzoic acid, suggesting that PpSABATH1 have a role in the detoxification of xenobiotic thiols.

  9. Phylogeny and expression profiling of CAD and CAD-like genes in hybrid Populus (P. deltoides x P. nigra): evidence from herbivore damage for subfunctionalization and functional divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Abdelali; Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Frost, Christopher J; Carlson, John E

    2010-05-28

    Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) proteins function in lignin biosynthesis and play a critical role in wood development and plant defense against stresses. Previous phylogenetic studies did not include genes from seedless plants and did not reflect the deep evolutionary history of this gene family. We reanalyzed the phylogeny of CAD and CAD-like genes using a representative dataset including lycophyte and bryophyte sequences. Many CAD/CAD-like genes do not seem to be associated with wood development under normal growth conditions. To gain insight into the functional evolution of CAD/CAD-like genes, we analyzed their expression in Populus plant tissues in response to feeding damage by gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar L.). Expression of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus tissues (xylem, leaves, and barks) was analyzed in herbivore-treated and non-treated plants by real time quantitative RT-PCR. CAD family genes were distributed in three classes based on sequence conservation. All the three classes are represented by seedless as well as seed plants, including the class of bona fide lignin pathway genes. The expression of some CAD/CAD-like genes that are not associated with xylem development were induced following herbivore damage in leaves, while other genes were induced in only bark or xylem tissues. Five of the CAD/CAD-like genes, however, showed a shift in expression from one tissue to another between non-treated and herbivore-treated plants. Systemic expression of the CAD/CAD-like genes was generally suppressed. Our results indicated a correlation between the evolution of the CAD gene family and lignin and that the three classes of genes may have evolved in the ancestor of land plants. Our results also suggest that the CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved a diversity of expression profiles and potentially different functions, but that they are nonetheless co-regulated under stress conditions.

  10. Phylogeny and expression profiling of CAD and CAD-like genes in hybrid Populus (P. deltoides × P. nigra: evidence from herbivore damage for subfunctionalization and functional divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD proteins function in lignin biosynthesis and play a critical role in wood development and plant defense against stresses. Previous phylogenetic studies did not include genes from seedless plants and did not reflect the deep evolutionary history of this gene family. We reanalyzed the phylogeny of CAD and CAD-like genes using a representative dataset including lycophyte and bryophyte sequences. Many CAD/CAD-like genes do not seem to be associated with wood development under normal growth conditions. To gain insight into the functional evolution of CAD/CAD-like genes, we analyzed their expression in Populus plant tissues in response to feeding damage by gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar L.. Expression of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus tissues (xylem, leaves, and barks was analyzed in herbivore-treated and non-treated plants by real time quantitative RT-PCR. Results CAD family genes were distributed in three classes based on sequence conservation. All the three classes are represented by seedless as well as seed plants, including the class of bona fide lignin pathway genes. The expression of some CAD/CAD-like genes that are not associated with xylem development were induced following herbivore damage in leaves, while other genes were induced in only bark or xylem tissues. Five of the CAD/CAD-like genes, however, showed a shift in expression from one tissue to another between non-treated and herbivore-treated plants. Systemic expression of the CAD/CAD-like genes was generally suppressed. Conclusions Our results indicated a correlation between the evolution of the CAD gene family and lignin and that the three classes of genes may have evolved in the ancestor of land plants. Our results also suggest that the CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved a diversity of expression profiles and potentially different functions, but that they are nonetheless co-regulated under stress conditions.

  11. Effects of river restoration on riparian biodiversity in secondary channels of the Pite River, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfield, James M; Engström, Johanna; Michel, James T; Nilsson, Christer; Jansson, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Between 1850 and 1970, rivers throughout Sweden were channelized to facilitate timber floating. Floatway structures were installed to streamline banks and disconnect flow to secondary channels, resulting in simplified channel morphologies and more homogenous flow regimes. In recent years, local authorities have begun to restore channelized rivers. In this study, we examined the effects of restoration on riparian plant communities at previously disconnected secondary channels of the Pite River. We detected no increase in riparian diversity at restored sites relative to unrestored (i.e., disconnected) sites, but we did observe significant differences in species composition of both vascular plant and bryophyte communities. Disconnected sites featured greater zonation, with mesic-hydric floodplain species represented in plots closest to the stream and mesic-xeric upland species represented in plots farthest from the stream. In contrast, restored sites were most strongly represented by upland species at all distances relative to the stream. These patterns likely result from the increased water levels in reconnected channels where, prior to restoration, upland plants had expanded toward the stream. Nonetheless, the restored fluvial regime has not brought about the development of characteristic flood-adapted plant communities, probably due to the short time interval (ca. 5 years) since restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated relatively quick responses to similar restoration in single-channel tributaries, but secondary channels may respond differently due to the more buffered hydrologic regimes typically seen in anabranching systems. These findings illustrate how restoration outcomes can vary according to hydrologic, climatic and ecological factors, reinforcing the need for site-specific restoration strategies.

  12. Holocene paleoenviroments of northwest Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.G. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bettis, E.A. III [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Iowa City, IA (United States); Schwert, D.P. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents the biotic, sedimentary, geomorphic, and climatic history of the upper part of the Roberts Creek Basin, northeastern Iowa for the late-glacial and Holocene, and compares these records with a C-O isotopic sequence from Coldwater Cave, 60 km northwest of Roberts Creek. the biotic record (pollen, vascular plant and bryophyte macrofossils, and insects) is preserved in floodplain alluvium that underlies three constructional surfaces separated by low scarps. Each surface is underlain by a lithologically and temporally distinct alluvial fill. The highest surface is underlain by the Gunder Member of the Deforest Formation, dating from 11,000 to 4000 yr BP; beneath the intermediate level is the Roberts Creek Member, dating from 4000 to 400 yr BP; and the lowest level is underlain by the Camp Creek Member, deposited during the last 380 yr. Pollen and plant macrofossils in the alluvial fill show that a typical late-glacial spruce forest was replaced by Quercus and Ulmus in the early Holocene. This early-to-middle Holocene forest became dominated by medic elements such as Acer saccharum, Tila americana, Ostyra virginiana, and Carpinus caroliniana as late as 5500 yr BP; in contrast, the closest sites to the west and north were at their warmest and driest were covered by prairie vegetation between 6500 and 5500 yr BP. After 5500 yr BP, the forest in the roberts Creek area was replaced by prairie, as indicated by a rich assemblage of plant macrofossils, although only Ambrosia and Poaceae became abundant in the pollen record. The return of Quercus {approx} 3000 BP (while nonarboreal pollen percentages remained relatively high) indicates the oak savanna prevailed with little change until settlement time. 83 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Plant diversity in a changing world: Status, trends, and conservation needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Corlett

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of plants has not generated the sense of urgency—or the funding—that drives the conservation of animals, although plants are far more important for us. There are an estimated 500,000 species of land plants (angiosperms, gymnosperms, ferns, lycophytes, and bryophytes, with diversity strongly concentrated in the humid tropics. Many species are still unknown to science. Perhaps a third of all land plants are at risk of extinction, including many that are undescribed, or are described but otherwise data deficient. There have been few known global extinctions so far, but many additional species have not been recorded recently and may be extinct. Although only a minority of plant species have a specific human use, many more play important roles in natural ecosystems and the services they provide, and rare species are more likely to have unusual traits that could be useful in the future. The major threats to plant diversity include habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation, overexploitation, invasive species, pollution, and anthropogenic climate change. Conservation of plant diversity is a massive task if viewed globally, but the combination of a well-designed and well-managed protected area system and ex situ gap-filling and back-up should work anywhere. The most urgent needs are for the completion of the global botanical inventory and an assessment of the conservation status of the 94% of plant species not yet evaluated, so that both in and ex situ conservation can be targeted efficiently. Globally, the biggest conservation gap is in the hyperdiverse lowland tropics and this is where attention needs to be focused.

  14. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens .

  15. Towards a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolutionary history of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the plant kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eJanitza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway is a three-tier signaling cascade that transmits cellular information from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm where it triggers downstream responses. The MAPKs represent the last step in this cascade and are activated when both tyrosine and threonine residues in a conserved TxY motif are phosphorylated by MAPK kinases, which in turn are themselves activated by phosphorylation by MAPK kinase kinases. To understand the molecular evolution of MAPKs in the plant kingdom, we systematically conducted a Hidden-Markov-Model based screen to identify MAPKs in 13 completely sequenced plant genomes. In this analysis, we included green algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and several mono- and dicotyledonous species covering >800 million years of evolution. The phylogenetic relationships of the 204 identified MAPKs based on Bayesian inference facilitated the retraction of the sequence of emergence of the four major clades that are characterized by the presence of a TDY or TEY-A/TEY-B/TEY-C type kinase activation loop. We present evidence that after the split of TDY- and TEY-type MAPKs, initially the TEY-C clade emerged. This was followed by the TEY-B clade in early land plants until the TEY-A clade finally emerged in flowering plants. In addition to these well characterized clades, we identified another highly conserved clade of 45 MAPK-likes, members of which were previously described as MHKs. In agreement with their essential functions, molecular population genetic analysis of MAPK genes in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions reveal that purifying selection drove the evolution of the MAPK family, implying strong functional constraints on MAPK genes. Closely related MAPKs most likely subfunctionalized, a process in which differential transcriptional regulation of duplicates may be involved.

  16. Jungermanniales (Marchantiophyta da Chapada da Ibiapaba, Ceará, Brasil Jungermanniales (Marchantiophyta of the Ibiapaba Plateau, Ceará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermeson Cassiano de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A Chapada da Ibiapaba, localiza-se ao norte do estado do Ceará, possuindo uma extensão de 110 km com alitudes variando entre 800 e 1100 m. No inventário florístico de briófitas realizado na área, foram encontradas 15 espécies de hepáticas folhosas, pertencentes a odaem Jungermanniales, distribuídas em oito gêneros e seis famílias. Das espécies encontradas, cinco representam novos registros para o estado do Ceará e quatro para a região Nordeste. Chiloscyphus serratus (Mitt. J.J. Engel & R.M. Schust. é citada pela segunda vez para o Brasil. São fornecidos chaves de identificação para as famílias e espécies, distribuição geográfica, comentários referentes à ambiente, substratos e caracteres taxonômicos pertinentes, além de ilustração para Heteroscyphus contortuplicatus (Nees & Mont. Grolle.The Ibiapaba Plateau, north zone of Ceara, Brazil, has a length of 110 km with altitudes between 800 and 1.100 m. In the bryophytes floristic survey conducted in the area, 15 species of liverworts were found, wich belong to the order Jungermanniales, distributed in eight genera and six families. Among the species found, five represent new records for the state of Ceara and four for the Northeast region. Chiloscyphus serratus (Mitt. J.J. Engel & R.M. Schust. is cited by the second time for Brazil. Identification keys to the families and species, geographic distribution, comments on the environment, substrate and important taxonomic characters are provided for the species found. An Illustration has been made for Heteroscyphus contortuplicatus (Nees & Mont. Grolle.

  17. Synthesis of UDP-apiose in Bacteria: The marine phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas pisi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Amor Smith

    Full Text Available The branched-chain sugar apiose was widely assumed to be synthesized only by plant species. In plants, apiose-containing polysaccharides are found in vascularized plant cell walls as the pectic polymers rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan. Apiosylated secondary metabolites are also common in many plant species including ancestral avascular bryophytes and green algae. Apiosyl-residues have not been documented in bacteria. In a screen for new bacterial glycan structures, we detected small amounts of apiose in methanolic extracts of the aerobic phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the pathogenic soil-dwelling bacteria Xanthomonas pisi. Apiose was also present in the cell pellet of X. pisi. Examination of these bacterial genomes uncovered genes with relatively low protein homology to plant UDP-apiose/UDP-xylose synthase (UAS. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these bacterial UAS-like homologs belong in a clade distinct to UAS and separated from other nucleotide sugar biosynthetic enzymes. Recombinant expression of three bacterial UAS-like proteins demonstrates that they actively convert UDP-glucuronic acid to UDP-apiose and UDP-xylose. Both UDP-apiose and UDP-xylose were detectable in cell cultures of G. roseus and X. pisi. We could not, however, definitively identify the apiosides made by these bacteria, but the detection of apiosides coupled with the in vivo transcription of bUAS and production of UDP-apiose clearly demonstrate that these microbes have evolved the ability to incorporate apiose into glycans during their lifecycles. While this is the first report to describe enzymes for the formation of activated apiose in bacteria, the advantage of synthesizing apiose-containing glycans in bacteria remains unknown. The characteristics of bUAS and its products are discussed.

  18. The fate of the missing spores--patterns of realized dispersal beyond the closest vicinity of a sporulating moss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Lönnell

    Full Text Available It is well-known that many species with small diaspores can disperse far during extended temporal scales (many years. However, studies on short temporal scales usually only cover short distances (in, e.g., bryophytes up to 15 m. By using a novel experimental design, studying the realized dispersal, we extend this range by almost two orders of magnitude. We recorded establishment of the fast-growing moss Discelium nudum on introduced suitable substrates, placed around a translocated, sporulating mother colony. Around 2,000 pots with acidic clay were placed at different distances between 5 m and 600 m, in four directions, on a raised bog, with increased pot numbers with distance. The experiment was set up in April-May and the realized dispersal (number of colonized pots was recorded in September. Close to the mother colony (up to 10 m, the mean colonization rates (ratio of colonized pots exceeded 50%. At distances between 10 and 50 m colonization dropped sharply, but beyond 50 m the mean colonization rates stabilized and hardly changed (1-3%. The estimated density of spores causing establishments at the further distances (2-6 spores/m² was realistic when compared to the estimated spore output from the central colonies. Our study supports calculations from earlier studies, limited to short distances, that a majority of the spores disperse beyond the nearest vicinity of a source. The even colonization pattern at further distances raises interesting questions about under what conditions spores are transported and deposited. However, it is clear that regular establishment is likely at the km-scale for this and many other species with similar spore output and dispersal mechanism.

  19. Role of abscisic acid (ABA) in activating antioxidant tolerance responses to desiccation stress in intertidal seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Eduardo; Correa, Juan A; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto

    2016-03-01

    The hormone ABA regulates the oxidative stress state under desiccation in seaweed species; an environmental condition generated during daily tidal changes. Desiccation is one of the most important factors that determine the distribution pattern of intertidal seaweeds. Among most tolerant seaweed is Pyropia orbicularis, which colonizes upper intertidal zones along the Chilean coast. P. orbicularis employs diverse mechanisms of desiccation tolerance (DT) (among others, e.g., antioxidant activation, photoinhibition, and osmo-compatible solute overproduction) such as those used by resurrection plants and bryophytes. In these organisms, the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in regulating responses to water deficit, including gene expression and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The present study determined the effect of ABA on the activation of antioxidant responses during desiccation in P. orbicularis and in the sensitive species Mazzaella laminarioides and Lessonia spicata. Changes in endogenous free and conjugated ABA, water content during the hydration-desiccation cycle, enzymatic antioxidant activities [ascorbate peroxidase (AP), catalase (CAT) and peroxiredoxine (PRX)], and levels of lipid peroxidation and cell viability were evaluated. The results showed that P. orbicularis had free ABA levels 4-7 times higher than sensitive species, which was overproduced during water deficit. Using two ABA inhibitors (sodium tungstate and ancymidol), ABA was found to regulate the activation of the antioxidant enzymes activities during desiccation. In individuals exposed to exogenous ABA the enzyme activity increased, concomitant with low lipid peroxidation and high cell viability. These results demonstrate the participation of ABA in the regulation of DT in seaweeds, and suggest that regulatory mechanisms with ABA signaling could be of great importance for the adaptation of these organisms to dehydration.

  20. Synthesis of UDP-apiose in Bacteria: The marine phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas pisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James Amor; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2017-01-01

    The branched-chain sugar apiose was widely assumed to be synthesized only by plant species. In plants, apiose-containing polysaccharides are found in vascularized plant cell walls as the pectic polymers rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan. Apiosylated secondary metabolites are also common in many plant species including ancestral avascular bryophytes and green algae. Apiosyl-residues have not been documented in bacteria. In a screen for new bacterial glycan structures, we detected small amounts of apiose in methanolic extracts of the aerobic phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the pathogenic soil-dwelling bacteria Xanthomonas pisi. Apiose was also present in the cell pellet of X. pisi. Examination of these bacterial genomes uncovered genes with relatively low protein homology to plant UDP-apiose/UDP-xylose synthase (UAS). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these bacterial UAS-like homologs belong in a clade distinct to UAS and separated from other nucleotide sugar biosynthetic enzymes. Recombinant expression of three bacterial UAS-like proteins demonstrates that they actively convert UDP-glucuronic acid to UDP-apiose and UDP-xylose. Both UDP-apiose and UDP-xylose were detectable in cell cultures of G. roseus and X. pisi. We could not, however, definitively identify the apiosides made by these bacteria, but the detection of apiosides coupled with the in vivo transcription of bUAS and production of UDP-apiose clearly demonstrate that these microbes have evolved the ability to incorporate apiose into glycans during their lifecycles. While this is the first report to describe enzymes for the formation of activated apiose in bacteria, the advantage of synthesizing apiose-containing glycans in bacteria remains unknown. The characteristics of bUAS and its products are discussed.

  1. Light and desiccation responses of some Hymenophyllaceae (filmy ferns) from Trinidad, Venezuela and New Zealand: poikilohydry in a light-limited but low evaporation ecological niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Michael C F

    2012-04-01

    shift of adaptive strategy from typical vascular plant adaptation to the poikilohydry most typical of bryophytes.

  2. Exploiting the Substrate Promiscuity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase to Reduce Lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Pereira, Jose H; Yogiswara, Sasha; Wang, George; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Baidoo, Edward E K; Lee, Taek Soon; Adams, Paul D; Keasling, Jay D; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Lignin poses a major challenge in the processing of plant biomass for agro-industrial applications. For bioengineering purposes, there is a pressing interest in identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lignin. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT; EC 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of the most important lignin monomers: coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. In this study, we investigated the substrate promiscuity of HCT from a bryophyte (Physcomitrella) and from five representatives of vascular plants (Arabidopsis, poplar, switchgrass, pine and Selaginella) using a yeast expression system. We demonstrate for these HCTs a conserved capacity to acylate with p-coumaroyl-CoA several phenolic compounds in addition to the canonical acceptor shikimate normally used during lignin biosynthesis. Using either recombinant HCT from switchgrass (PvHCT2a) or an Arabidopsis stem protein extract, we show evidence of the inhibitory effect of these phenolics on the synthesis of p-coumaroyl shikimate in vitro, which presumably occurs via a mechanism of competitive inhibition. A structural study of PvHCT2a confirmed the binding of a non-canonical acceptor in a similar manner to shikimate in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, we exploited in Arabidopsis the substrate flexibility of HCT to reduce lignin content and improve biomass saccharification by engineering transgenic lines that overproduce one of the HCT non-canonical acceptors. Our results demonstrate conservation of HCT substrate promiscuity and provide support for a new strategy for lignin reduction in the effort to improve the quality of plant biomass for forage and cellulosic biofuels. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  3. CHASE domain-containing receptors play an essential role in the cytokinin response of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Lindner, Ann-Cathrin; Gruhn, Njuscha; Šimura, Jan; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Gonneau, Martine; Nogué, Fabien; Heyl, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    While the molecular basis for cytokinin action is quite well understood in flowering plants, little is known about the cytokinin signal transduction in early diverging land plants. The genome of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S. encodes three classical cytokinin receptors, the CHASE domain-containing histidine kinases, CHK1, CHK2, and CHK3. In a complementation assay with protoplasts of receptor-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana as well as in cytokinin binding assays, we found evidence that CHK1 and CHK2 receptors can function in cytokinin perception. Using gene targeting, we generated a collection of CHK knockout mutants comprising single (Δchk1, Δchk2, Δchk3), double (Δchk1,2, Δchk1,3, Δchk2,3), and triple (Δchk1,2,3) mutants. Mutants were characterized for their cytokinin response and differentiation capacities. While the wild type did not grow on high doses of cytokinin (1 µM benzyladenine), the Δchk1,2,3 mutant exhibited normal protonema growth. Bud induction assays showed that all three cytokinin receptors contribute to the triggering of budding, albeit to different extents. Furthermore, while the triple mutant showed no response in this bioassay, the remaining mutants displayed budding responses in a diverse manner to different types and concentrations of cytokinins. Determination of cytokinin levels in mutants showed no drastic changes for any of the cytokinins; thus, in contrast to Arabidopsis, revealing only small impacts of cytokinin signaling on homeostasis. In summary, our study provides a first insight into the molecular action of cytokinin in an early diverging land plant and demonstrates that CHK receptors play an essential role in bud induction and gametophore development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Effects of shading on relative competitive advantage of three species of Sphagnum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Z. Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (1 Sphagnum is an important genus of bryophytes holding 10–15 % of the terrestrial carbon stock. With climate change a drier surface may increase the abundance of vascular plants on peatlands, so shading of Sphagnum may increase. Here we describe growth cabinet experiments to reveal the effects of shading on interactions among mixtures of three species: S. capillifolium, S. palustre (hummock species, and S. fallax (a hollow species. We measured the six traits: growth in length, growth as increase in dry mass, side-shoot production, nitrogen and carbon proportion of the capitulum dry mass, and C:N ratio in the capitulum. (2 Shading had no effect on biomass production or side-shoot production but increased height increment in all three species. It also increased the C and N proportions of total dry mass but decreased C:N ratio in the capitula. (3 Neighbours of a different species reduced biomass and side-shoot production in the two hummock species but had no effect on the hollow species. (4 All three species showed interaction between shading and neighbour in two or more plant traits. S. fallax showed competitive advantage over S. palustre in no-shading treatments and over S. capillifolium in moderate shading treatments. In addition, under deep shading, S. fallax showed a competitive advantage over both hummock species. A clear competitive hierarchy S. fallax>S. capillifolium>S. palustre emerged which was consistent with the hierarchy of side-shoot production. (5 The results suggest that all the species appear to tolerate deep shade (for a few months at least. In a shaded environment, especially under deeply shaded conditions, S. fallax retains its dominance in hollow habitats (if water availability is guaranteed by virtue of its advantage in side-shoot production. (6 If shading increases then the abundance of different Sphagnum species is likely to change.

  5. Hypergravity of 10 g Changes Plant Growth, Anatomy, Chloroplast Size, and Photosynthesis in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kaori; Watanabe, Rina; Kameishi, Ryuji; Sakaguchi, Naoya; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Kume, Atsushi; Karahara, Ichirou; Hanba, Yuko T.; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2017-12-01

    The photosynthetic and anatomical responses of bryophytes to changes in gravity will provide crucial information for estimating how these plant traits evolved to adapt to changes in gravity in land plant history. We performed long-term hypergravity experiments at 10 g for 4 and 8 weeks using the moss Physcomitrella patens with two centrifuges equipped with lighting systems that enable long-term plant growth under hypergravity with irradiance. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify changes in the anatomy and morphology of P. patens, and (2) to analyze the post-effects of hypergravity on photosynthesis by P. patens in relation to these changes. We measured photosynthesis by P. patens for a population of gametophores (e.g., canopy) in Petri dishes and plant culture boxes. Gametophore numbers increased by 9% for a canopy of P. patens, with 24-27% increases in chloroplast sizes (diameter and thickness) in leaf cells. In a canopy of P. patens, the area-based photosynthesis rate ( A canopy) was increased by 57% at 10 g. The increase observed in A canopy was associated with greater plant numbers and chloroplast sizes, both of which involved enhanced CO2 diffusion from the atmosphere to chloroplasts in the canopies of P. patens. These results suggest that changes in gravity are important environmental stimuli to induce changes in plant growth and photosynthesis by P. patens, in which an alteration in chloroplast size is one of the key traits. We are now planning an ISS experiment to investigate the responses of P. patens to microgravity.

  6. Musgos pleurocárpicos de mata serrana em Pernambuco, Brasil Pleurocarpous mosses of a Sub-montane Rain Forest in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir A. Valdevino

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o inventário dos musgos pleurocárpicos em uma área de Floresta Estacional Subcaducifólia Tropical Pluvionebular (mata serrana de brejo de altitude situada na propriedade Bituri Grande, município de Brejo da Madre de Deus (8º08'45''S, 36º22'16''W, Pernambuco. A propriedade possui ca. 700ha e situa-se a 900-1.120m s.m. A brioflora dos musgos pleurocárpicos é composta por 23 espécies pertencentes a 13 famílias. Constituem-se novos registros para a região Nordeste do Brasil: Aptychopsis subpungifolia (Broth. Broth., Erytrodontium longisetum (Hook. Par., Porothamnium flagelliferum (Hampe Fleisch., Sematophyllum beyrichii (Hornsch. Broth., S. galipense (C. Muell. Mitt. e Trichosteleum glaziovii (Hampe W.R. Buck. Para os táxons de ocorrência nova são apresentadas descrições, ilustrações, comentários e distribuição geográfica no Brasil.A floristic survey of bryophytes from a seasonal subdeciduous tropical forest was carried out in a remnant located in municipality of Brejo da Madre de Deus, State of Pernambuco (8º08'45''S, 36º22'16''W. The property has an area of 700ha, distributed over valleys and hills from 900-1120m altitude. Twenty three species belonging to 13 families of pleurocarpous mosses were registered. New references for Northeast region of Brazil are Aptychopsis subpungifolia (Broth. Broth., Erytrodontium longisetum (Hook. Par., Porothamnium flagelliferum (Hampe Fleisch., Sematophyllum beyrichii (Hornsch. Broth., S. galipense (C. Muell. Mitt. and Trichosteleum glaziovii (Hampe W. R. Buck. Descriptions, illustrations, comments and geographical distributions are given for each new record.

  7. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with briophytes in Brotas, State of São Paulo, Brazil Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associadas a briófitas em Brotas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Rossi Gorni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosses and liverworts can be colonized by various invertebrates, including fresh water oligochaete worms. However, little information is available on the habits and habitats of this oligochaetes in Brazil. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the occurrence of naidids in mosses, as well as to broaden the knowledge about the habitats of these oligochaetes. Sampling of bryophytes adhered to rock substrates in the rapids of the Jacaré Pepira River (municipality of Brotas, São Paulo, Brazil and to a vertical rock wall of a waterfall near the river revealed 191 Naididae individuals of the species Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 and Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. We believe this to be the first record of naidids associated with mosses in Brazil.Musgos e hepáticas podem ser colonizados por diversos invertebrados, incluindo os vermes Oligochaeta. Contudo, existe pouca informação na literatura brasielira sobre os hábitos e hábitats destes oligoquetos. Portanto, o presente trabalho foi realizado para examinar a ocorrência de naidídeos em musgos, bem como aumentar o conhecimento dos habitats destes anelídeos. A coleta de briófitas aderidas a substratos rochosos nas corredeiras do Rio Jacaré Pepira (Brotas-SP e à parede rochosa vertical de uma cachoeira localizada nas proximidades do referido rio revelou 191 indivíduos de três espécies de Naididae: Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 e Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. Acredita-se que este seja o primeiro registro de Naididae vivendo em briófitas no Brasil.

  8. Musgos (Bryophyta na Ilha Trambioca, Barcarena, PA, Brasil Mosses (Bryophyta in Trambioca Island, Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula da Silva Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o inventário dos musgos em diferentes ecossistemas da Ilha Trambioca, município de Barcarena, PA. Foram encontradas 40 espécies, pertencentes a 20 gêneros e 13 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp. e Leucobryaceae (5 spp., as quais destacaram-se também quanto ao número de indivíduos. As espécies mais comuns foram Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Taxithelium planum (Brid. Mitt., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr. e Trichosteleum papillosum (Hornsch. A. Jaeger. Evidenciou-se maior diversidade de espécies na mata de terra firme, confirmando a preferência das briófitas por este ecossistema. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. é citada como primeira referência para o Estado do Pará.This work presents a survey of mosses from different ecosystems of Trambioca Island, municipality of Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil. Forty taxa of mosses were found, belonging to 20 genera and 13 families. The families with highest number of species were Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp., and Leucobryaceae (5 spp., which also presented the highest number of individuals. The most common species were Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr., and Trichosteleum papillosum (Honrsch. A. Jaeger. It was observed a higher richness of species in the primary low land rainforest, confirming the preference of bryophytes for this ecosystem. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. is mentioned as the first report to Pará State.

  9. Musgos (Bryophyta de um fragmento de Mata Atlântica na Serra da Jibóia, município de Santa Terezinha, BA, Brasil Mosses (Bryophyta from a fragment of Atlantic Forest in the Jibóia Mountains, Santa Terezinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2009-06-01

    ., Orthostichella pentasticha (Brid. Buck, Pilotrichella flexilis (Hedw. Ångstr., Lepidopilidium portoricense (Müll. Hal. Crum & Steere, and Thuidium tomentosum Schimp. are new records for Bahia. As regards geografic distribuition, neotropical taxa predominate, while in relation to communities, corticicolous (70% and epixilous species (23% predominate. The local flora was considered rich for including 24% of the bryophytes that occur in Bahia State.

  10. The plant short-chain dehydrogenase (SDR) superfamily: genome-wide inventory and diversification patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moummou, Hanane; Kallberg, Yvonne; Tonfack, Libert Brice; Persson, Bengt; van der Rest, Benoît

    2012-11-20

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) form one of the largest and oldest NAD(P)(H) dependent oxidoreductase families. Despite a conserved 'Rossmann-fold' structure, members of the SDR superfamily exhibit low sequence similarities, which constituted a bottleneck in terms of identification. Recent classification methods, relying on hidden-Markov models (HMMs), improved identification and enabled the construction of a nomenclature. However, functional annotations of plant SDRs remain scarce. Wide-scale analyses were performed on ten plant genomes. The combination of hidden Markov model (HMM) based analyses and similarity searches led to the construction of an exhaustive inventory of plant SDR. With 68 to 315 members found in each analysed genome, the inventory confirmed the over-representation of SDRs in plants compared to animals, fungi and prokaryotes. The plant SDRs were first classified into three major types - 'classical', 'extended' and 'divergent' - but a minority (10% of the predicted SDRs) could not be classified into these general types ('unknown' or 'atypical' types). In a second step, we could categorize the vast majority of land plant SDRs into a set of 49 families. Out of these 49 families, 35 appeared early during evolution since they are commonly found through all the Green Lineage. Yet, some SDR families - tropinone reductase-like proteins (SDR65C), 'ABA2-like'-NAD dehydrogenase (SDR110C), 'salutaridine/menthone-reductase-like' proteins (SDR114C), 'dihydroflavonol 4-reductase'-like proteins (SDR108E) and 'isoflavone-reductase-like' (SDR460A) proteins - have undergone significant functional diversification within vascular plants since they diverged from Bryophytes. Interestingly, these diversified families are either involved in the secondary metabolism routes (terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolics) or participate in developmental processes (hormone biosynthesis or catabolism, flower development), in opposition to SDR families involved in primary

  11. Using Ordinary Digital Cameras in Place of Near-Infrared Sensors to Derive Vegetation Indices for Phenology Studies of High Arctic Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen B. Anderson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To remotely monitor vegetation at temporal and spatial resolutions unobtainable with satellite-based systems, near remote sensing systems must be employed. To this extent we used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI sensors and normal digital cameras to monitor the greenness of six different but common and widespread High Arctic plant species/groups (graminoid/Salix polaris; Cassiope tetragona; Luzula spp.; Dryas octopetala/S. polaris; C. tetragona/D. octopetala; graminoid/bryophyte during an entire growing season in central Svalbard. Of the three greenness indices (2G_RBi, Channel G% and GRVI derived from digital camera images, only GRVI showed significant correlations with NDVI in all vegetation types. The GRVI (Green-Red Vegetation Index is calculated as (GDN − RDN/(GDN + RDN where GDN is Green digital number and RDN is Red digital number. Both NDVI and GRVI successfully recorded timings of the green-up and plant growth periods and senescence in all six plant species/groups. Some differences in phenology between plant species/groups occurred: the mid-season growing period reached a sharp peak in NDVI and GRVI values where graminoids were present, but a prolonged period of higher values occurred with the other plant species/groups. In particular, plots containing C. tetragona experienced increased NDVI and GRVI values towards the end of the season. NDVI measured with active and passive sensors were strongly correlated (r > 0.70 for the same plant species/groups. Although NDVI recorded by the active sensor was consistently lower than that of the passive sensor for the same plant species/groups, differences were small and likely due to the differing light sources used. Thus, it is evident that GRVI and NDVI measured with active and passive sensors captured similar vegetation attributes of High Arctic plants. Hence, inexpensive digital cameras can be used with passive and active NDVI devices to establish a near remote sensing network for

  12. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  13. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Northern Vietnam: Hanoi and Thainguyen case study using the moss biomonitoring technique, INAA and AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet, Hung Nguyen; Frontasyeva, Marina Vladimirovna; Thi, Thu My Trinh; Gilbert, Daniel; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-06-01

    activities (75%). Besides, the scatter of factors in factor planes represents the greater diversity of activities in Hanoi than in Thainguyen. Good relationship between the result of factor analysis and the pollution sources evidences that the moss technique is a potential method to assess the air quality in Vietnam. Moss B. indica widely distributed in Vietnam and Indo-China is shown to be a reliable bryophyte for biomonitoring purposes in sub-tropic and tropic climate. However, the necessity of moss interspecies calibration is obvious for further studies in the area to provide results compatible with those for other Asian countries and Europe.

  14. Platinum metals in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zereini, Fathi [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Analytical Chemistry; Wiseman, Clare L.S. (ed.) [Toronto Univ. (Canada). School of the Environment

    2015-03-01

    Platinum/Aluminum Oxide Model Substance; Solid State Platinum Speciation from X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Studies of Fresh and Road Aged Three Way and Diesel Vehicle Emission Control Catalysts. 4. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOMONITORING OF PGE: Bioavailability of Platinum Group Elements to Plants-A Review; Monitoring of Platinum Group Element Deposition by Bryophytes; Field Studies on PGE in Aquatic Ecosystems; Laboratory Studies on the Uptake and Bioaccumulation of PGE by Aquatic Plants and Animals; Biological Effects of PGE on Aquatic Organisms; Mechanisms of Uptake and Interaction of Platinum Based Drugs in Eukaryotic Cells. 5. HUMAN HEALTH EXPOSURES TO PGE AND POSSIBLE RISKS: Biomonitoring of Platinum Group Elements (PGEs) in Occupational Medicine; Platinum Metals in Airborne Particulate Matter and Their Bioaccessibility; Occupational Health Aspects of Platinum.

  15. A fundamental plant evolutionary problem: the origin of land-plant sporophyte; is a new hypothesis possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennici, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The origin of the sporophyte in land plants represents a fundamental phase in the plant evolution. Today this subject is controversial and, in my opinion, scarcely considered in our textbooks and journals of botany, in spite of its importance. There are two conflicting theories concerning the origin of the alternating generations in land plants: the "antithetic" and the "homologous" theory. These have never been fully resolved. The antithetic theory maintains that the sporophyte and gametophyte generations are fundamentally dissimilar and that the sporophyte originated in an ancestor organism with haplontic cycle by the zygote dividing mitotically rather than meiotically, and with a developmental pattern not copying the developmental events of the gametophyte. The sporophyte generation was an innovation of critical significance for the land-plant evolution. By contrast, the homologous theory simply stated that a mass of cells forming mitotically from the zygote adopted the same developmental plan of the gametophyte, but giving origin to a diploid sporophyte. In this context, a very important question concerns the possible ancestor or ancestors of the land plants. Considerable evidences at morphological, cytological, ultrastructural, biochemical and, especially, molecular level, strongly suggest that the land plants or Embryophyta (both vascular and non-vascular) evolved from green algal ancestor(s), similar to those belonging to the genus Coleochaete, Chara and Nitella, living today. Their organism is haploid for most of their life cycle, and diploid only in the zygote phase (haplontic cycle). On the contrary, the land plants are characterized by a diplo-haplontic life cycle. Several questions are implied in these theories, and numerous problems remain to be solved, such as, for example, the morphological difference between gametophyte and sporophyte (heteromorphism, already present in the first land plants, the bryophytes), and the strong gap existing between

  16. The importance of the poikilohydric nature of lichens as natural tracers for delta18O of ambient vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartard, Britta; Cuntz, Matthias; Lakatos, Michael; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotope composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in poikilohydric organisms (i.e. lichens and bryophytes), where relative water content equilibrate with the surrounding humidity conditions and that are able to use distinct water sources such as precipitation, dew, fog and also water vapour. Moreover, lichens are ubiquitous organisms, and on a global scale, they are found in nearly all terrestrial ecosystems and also within these ecosystems they inhabit many microhabitats. As poikilohydric. especially green algal lichens are known to photosynthetically reactivate solely upon uptake of atmospheric moisture, even at non-saturated ambient humidity conditions. To understand basic isotope exchange processes on non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrates with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. We found that the thallus water of lichens exposed to high relative humidity shows fast isotopic equilibration with the surrounding vapour regardless of whether the lichen experiences water loss or vapour uptake. The time until isotopic equilibrium is achieved depends on the initial water status as well as on the lichen's specific morphology. It ranged from 5 to 12h in previously dried lichens to approximately 40h in lichens previously rehydrated with liquid water of distinct isotopic composition. Even though markedly slower, isotopic equilibration between leaf water and ambient vapour may also occur in homoiohydric plants exposed to high relative humidity. At low relative humidity, however, the apparent vapour pressure deficit between the evaporative sites and the ambient air and the increased stomatal diffusion resistance generally causes leaf water enrichment. In contrast, poikilohydric lichens lack

  17. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    terrestrial reference organisms are lichen and bryophytes. In all cases, the radio ecological risks are not likely to be discernible. This paper presents a pioneer data for ecological risk from ionizing contaminants due to mining activity in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Its methodology could be adopted for future work on radioecology of mining.

  18. Short-Term Summer Inundation as a Measure to Counteract Acidification in Rich Fens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan S Mettrop

    Full Text Available In regions with intensive agriculture, water level fluctuation in wetlands has generally become constricted within narrow limits. Water authorities are, however, considering the re-establishment of fluctuating water levels as a management tool in biodiverse, base-rich fens ('rich fens'. This includes temporary inundation with surface water from ditches, which may play an important role in counteracting acidification in order to conserve and restore biodiversity. Inundation may result in an increased acid neutralizing capacity (ANC for two reasons: infiltration of base-rich inundation water into peat soils, and microbial alkalinity generation under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to test whether short-term (2 weeks summer inundation is more effective than short-term winter inundation to restore the ANC in the upper 10 cm of non-floating peat soils, and to explain potential differences. Large-scale field experiments were conducted for five years in base-rich fens and Sphagnum-dominated poor fens. Winter inundation did not result in increased porewater ANC, because infiltration was inhibited in the waterlogged peat and evapotranspiration rates were relatively low. Also, low temperatures limit microbial alkalinity generation. In summer, however, when temperature and evapotranspiration rates are higher, inundation resulted in increased porewater Ca and HCO3- concentrations, but only in areas with characteristic rich fen bryophytes. This increase was not only due to stronger infiltration into the soil, but also to higher microbial alkalinity generation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, porewater ANC did not increase in Sphagnum-plots as a result of the ability of Sphagnum spp. to acidify their environment. In both rich and poor fens, flooding-induced P-mobilization remained sufficiently low to safeguard P-limited vegetation. NO3(- and NH4(+ dynamics showed no considerable changes either. In conclusion, short

  19. Historical peat loss explains limited short-term response of drained blanket bogs to rewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jennifer; Rowe, Edwin; Reed, David; Ruffino, Lucia; Jones, Peter; Dolan, Rachel; Buckingham, Helen; Norris, David; Astbury, Shaun; Evans, Chris D

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the short-term impacts of ditch blocking on water table depth and vegetation community structure in a historically drained blanket bog. A chronosequence approach was used to compare vegetation near ditches blocked 5 years, 4 years and 1 year prior to the study with vegetation near unblocked ditches. Plots adjacent to and 3 m away from 70 ditches within an area of blanket bog were assessed for floristic composition, aeration depth using steel bars, and topography using LiDAR data. No changes in aeration depth or vegetation parameters were detected as a function of ditch-blocking, time since blocking, or distance from the ditch, with the exception of non-Sphagnum bryophytes which had lower cover in quadrats adjacent to ditches that had been blocked for 5 years. Analysis of LiDAR data and the observed proximity of the water table to the peat surface led us to conclude that the subdued ecosystem responses to ditch-blocking were the result of historical peat subsidence within a 4-5 m zone either side of each ditch, which had effectively lowered the peat surface to the new, ditch-influenced water table. We estimate that this process led to the loss of around 500,000 m3 peat within the 38 km2 study area following drainage, due to a combination of oxidation and compaction. Assuming that 50% of the volume loss was due to oxidation, this amounts to a carbon loss of 11,000 Mg C over this area, i.e. 3 Mg C ha-1. The apparent 'self-rewetting' of blanket bogs in the decades following drainage has implications for their restoration as it suggests that there may not be large quantities of dry peat left to rewet, and that there is a risk of inundation (potentially leading to high methane emissions) along subsided ditch lines. Many peatland processes are likely to be maintained in drained blanket bog, including support of typical peatland vegetation, but infilling of lost peat and recovery of original C stocks are likely to take longer than is generally

  20. Mapping plant functional type distributions in Arctic ecosystems using WorldView-2 satellite imagery and unsupervised clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Z.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Sloan, V. L.; Norby, R. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    . Ground-truthing was performed using both sets of PFT estimates to characterize uncertainty. Early results show uncertainty exists in wet and inundated areas where bryophyte moss are overestimated. Further investigation will be done for areas of uncertainty and improving our upscaling algorithms.

  1. Biocrust spectral response as affected by changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Guirado, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Reyes, Andres; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Drylands are characterized by scarce vegetation coverage and low rates of biological activity, both constrained by water scarcity. Under these conditions, biocrusts form key players of ecosystem functioning. They comprise complex poikilohydric communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea and fungi, which cover the uppermost soil layer. Biocrusts can cope with prolonged phases of drought, being rapidly re-activated when water becomes available again. Upon reactivation, biocrusts almost immediately turn green, fixing atmospheric carbon and nitrogen and increasing ecosystem productivity. However, due to their inconspicuous growth they have only rarely been analysed and spatially and temporally continuous information on their response to water pulses is missing. These data are particularly important under changing climatic conditions predicting an increase in aridity and variations in precipitation patterns within most of the dryland regions. In the present study, we used multi-temporal series of NDVI obtained from LANDSAT images to analyze biocrust and vegetation response to water pulses within the South African Succulent Karoo and we predicted their future response under different climate change scenarios. The results showed that biocrust and vegetation greenness are controlled by aridity, solar radiation and soil water content, showing similar annual patterns, with minimum values during dry periods that increased within the rainy season and decreased again after the onset of drought. However, biocrusts responded faster to water availability and turned green almost immediately after small rains, producing a small NDVI peak only few days after rainfall, whereas more time was needed for vegetation to grow new green tissue. However, once the photosynthetic tissue of vegetation was restored, it caused the highest increase of NDVI values after the rain. Predicted changes in precipitation patterns and aridity

  2. The Plant Short-Chain Dehydrogenase (SDR superfamily: genome-wide inventory and diversification patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moummou Hanane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs form one of the largest and oldest NAD(P(H dependent oxidoreductase families. Despite a conserved ‘Rossmann-fold’ structure, members of the SDR superfamily exhibit low sequence similarities, which constituted a bottleneck in terms of identification. Recent classification methods, relying on hidden-Markov models (HMMs, improved identification and enabled the construction of a nomenclature. However, functional annotations of plant SDRs remain scarce. Results Wide-scale analyses were performed on ten plant genomes. The combination of hidden Markov model (HMM based analyses and similarity searches led to the construction of an exhaustive inventory of plant SDR. With 68 to 315 members found in each analysed genome, the inventory confirmed the over-representation of SDRs in plants compared to animals, fungi and prokaryotes. The plant SDRs were first classified into three major types — ‘classical’, ‘extended’ and ‘divergent’ — but a minority (10% of the predicted SDRs could not be classified into these general types (‘unknown’ or ‘atypical’ types. In a second step, we could categorize the vast majority of land plant SDRs into a set of 49 families. Out of these 49 families, 35 appeared early during evolution since they are commonly found through all the Green Lineage. Yet, some SDR families — tropinone reductase-like proteins (SDR65C, ‘ABA2-like’-NAD dehydrogenase (SDR110C, ‘salutaridine/menthone-reductase-like’ proteins (SDR114C, ‘dihydroflavonol 4-reductase’-like proteins (SDR108E and ‘isoflavone-reductase-like’ (SDR460A proteins — have undergone significant functional diversification within vascular plants since they diverged from Bryophytes. Interestingly, these diversified families are either involved in the secondary metabolism routes (terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolics or participate in developmental processes (hormone biosynthesis or

  3. Nanosilver emissions to the atmosphere: a new challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walser T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of silver in Switzerland decreased significantly between 1995 and 2010, but recent increases in nanosilver production present a potentially new emission source of silver. ’While nanosilver is usually integrated in a robust matrix and its release is either controlled, dampened (highly diluted silver in nanosilver textiles or prevented (computer modules, point source emissions of nanosilver can occur at the manufacturing sites. The emission of nanosize particles of particular concern because these particles penetrate deeply in the lungs, and have the potential of causing long-term adverse effects to humans. We investigated local silver emission patterns with bryophytes Brachythecium rutabulum and Hypnum cupressiforme and with bulk (dry and wet deposition measurements of silver, using Bergerhoff samplers, close to a nanosilver manufacturer. With mean values of 0.033 μg g−1, the silver concentrations in the mosses were the same as the background concentration of Switzerland (141 sites. The spatial distribution revealed a decrease in the silver concentrations in moss as a function of increasing distance from the nanosilver manufacturer. The monthly collected bulk depositions were higher in the area of nanosilver production (0.175 ± 0.13 μg m−2 day−1 in comparison to rural (0.105 ± 0.08 μg m−2 day−1 and urban areas (0.113 ± 0.05 μg m−2 day−1 of Eastern Switzerland. Contrary to other areas, the larger monthly variability of the deposition values close to the production site points towards highly variable silver emissions. Subtraction of the silver background deposition results in approximately 60 g deposited silver per year within a perimeter of 4 km from the nanoparticle manufacturer. Along with bulk deposition of silver, we also studied potential morphological changes of the deposited nanosilver. We found silver nanoparticles in the form of environmentally stable silver iodide. We conclude that the

  4. A Gompertz regression model for fern spores germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel y Galán, Jose María

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Germination is one of the most important biological processes for both seed and spore plants, also for fungi. At present, mathematical models of germination have been developed in fungi, bryophytes and several plant species. However, ferns are the only group whose germination has never been modelled. In this work we develop a regression model of the germination of fern spores. We have found that for Blechnum serrulatum, Blechnum yungense, Cheilanthes pilosa, Niphidium macbridei and Polypodium feuillei species the Gompertz growth model describe satisfactorily cumulative germination. An important result is that regression parameters are independent of fern species and the model is not affected by intraspecific variation. Our results show that the Gompertz curve represents a general germination model for all the non-green spore leptosporangiate ferns, including in the paper a discussion about the physiological and ecological meaning of the model.La germinación es uno de los procesos biológicos más relevantes tanto para las plantas con esporas, como para las plantas con semillas y los hongos. Hasta el momento, se han desarrollado modelos de germinación para hongos, briofitos y diversas especies de espermatófitos. Los helechos son el único grupo de plantas cuya germinación nunca ha sido modelizada. En este trabajo se desarrolla un modelo de regresión para explicar la germinación de las esporas de helechos. Observamos que para las especies Blechnum serrulatum, Blechnum yungense, Cheilanthes pilosa, Niphidium macbridei y Polypodium feuillei el modelo de crecimiento de Gompertz describe satisfactoriamente la germinación acumulativa. Un importante resultado es que los parámetros de la regresión son independientes de la especie y que el modelo no está afectado por variación intraespecífica. Por lo tanto, los resultados del trabajo muestran que la curva de Gompertz puede representar un modelo general para todos los helechos leptosporangiados

  5. The polyphenol oxidase gene family in land plants: Lineage-specific duplication and expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Lan T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs are enzymes that typically use molecular oxygen to oxidize ortho-diphenols to ortho-quinones. These commonly cause browning reactions following tissue damage, and may be important in plant defense. Some PPOs function as hydroxylases or in cross-linking reactions, but in most plants their physiological roles are not known. To better understand the importance of PPOs in the plant kingdom, we surveyed PPO gene families in 25 sequenced genomes from chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants. The PPO genes were then analyzed in silico for gene structure, phylogenetic relationships, and targeting signals. Results Many previously uncharacterized PPO genes were uncovered. The moss, Physcomitrella patens, contained 13 PPO genes and Selaginella moellendorffii (spike moss and Glycine max (soybean each had 11 genes. Populus trichocarpa (poplar contained a highly diversified gene family with 11 PPO genes, but several flowering plants had only a single PPO gene. By contrast, no PPO-like sequences were identified in several chlorophyte (green algae genomes or Arabidopsis (A. lyrata and A. thaliana. We found that many PPOs contained one or two introns often near the 3’ terminus. Furthermore, N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis using ChloroP and TargetP 1.1 predicted that several putative PPOs are synthesized via the secretory pathway, a unique finding as most PPOs are predicted to be chloroplast proteins. Phylogenetic reconstruction of these sequences revealed that large PPO gene repertoires in some species are mostly a consequence of independent bursts of gene duplication, while the lineage leading to Arabidopsis must have lost all PPO genes. Conclusion Our survey identified PPOs in gene families of varying sizes in all land plants except in the genus Arabidopsis. While we found variation in intron numbers and positions, overall PPO gene structure is congruent with the phylogenetic

  6. Biological soil crusts in Chile along the precipitation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolov, Elena; Glaser, Karin; Baumann, Karen; Leinweber, Peter; Jung, Patrick; Büdel, Burkhard; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Karsten, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    Biological soil crusts in Chile along a precipitation gradient Elena Samolov* (1), Karin Glaser (1), Karen Baumann (2), Peter Leinweber (2), Patrick Jung (3), Burkhard Büdel (3), Tatiana Mikhailyuk (4) and Ulf Karsten (1) (1) Institute of Biological Sciences - Applied Ecology and Phycology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany, (2) Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Soil Sciences, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany (3) University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany (4) M.H. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine * elena.samolov@uni-rostock.de Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an association of different microorganisms and soil particles in the top millimeters of the soil. They are formed by algae, cyanobacteria, microfungi, bacteria, bryophytes and lichens in various compositions; together with their by-products they create a micro-ecosystem that performs important ecological functions, e.g. primary production, nitrogen fixation, mineralization and stabilization of soils. These top-soil assemblages are almost unstudied in South America (Büdel et al. 2016). Therefore, our aim is to investigate for the first time biodiversity of the key photosynthetic organisms, green algae and cyanobacteria following a precipitation gradient along the west coast of Chile. We are applying polyphasic approach - a combination of microscopy, culture dependent (16S and 18S rRNA, ITS) and culture independent molecular techniques (NGS). First results, based on culturing and light microscopy, showed high diversity of eukaryotic algae in biocrusts from humid regions, followed by semi-arid regions. Lichen dominated biocrusts from arid regions were characterized by a high diversity of green algae, while cyanobacteria were scarcely present. The functional role of the BSCs in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorous (P) was evaluated using state of the art analytical methods including 31P-NMR (nuclear magnetic

  7. Erwinia carotovora elicitors and Botrytis cinerea activate defense responses in Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentancor Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular plants respond to pathogens by activating a diverse array of defense mechanisms. Studies with these plants have provided a wealth of information on pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the activation of defense responses. However, very little is known about the infection and defense responses of the bryophyte, Physcomitrella patens, to well-studied phytopathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine: i whether two representative broad host range pathogens, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (E.c. carotovora and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea, could infect Physcomitrella, and ii whether B. cinerea, elicitors of a harpin (HrpN producing E.c. carotovora strain (SCC1 or a HrpN-negative strain (SCC3193, could cause disease symptoms and induce defense responses in Physcomitrella. Results B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora were found to readily infect Physcomitrella gametophytic tissues and cause disease symptoms. Treatments with B. cinerea spores or cell-free culture filtrates from E.c. carotovoraSCC1 (CF(SCC1, resulted in disease development with severe maceration of Physcomitrella tissues, while CF(SCC3193 produced only mild maceration. Although increased cell death was observed with either the CFs or B. cinerea, the occurrence of cytoplasmic shrinkage was only visible in Evans blue stained protonemal cells treated with CF(SCC1 or inoculated with B. cinerea. Most cells showing cytoplasmic shrinkage accumulated autofluorescent compounds and brown chloroplasts were evident in a high proportion of these cells. CF treatments and B. cinerea inoculation induced the expression of the defense-related genes: PR-1, PAL, CHS and LOX. Conclusion B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora elicitors induce a defense response in Physcomitrella, as evidenced by enhanced expression of conserved plant defense-related genes. Since cytoplasmic shrinkage is the most common morphological change observed in plant PCD, and that harpins and B

  8. Exploring climatic controls on blanket