WorldWideScience

Sample records for bryophytes

  1. Phytohormone Profiling across the Bryophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Záveská Drábková

    Full Text Available Bryophytes represent a very diverse group of non-vascular plants such as mosses, liverworts and hornworts and the oldest extant lineage of land plants. Determination of endogenous phytohormone profiles in bryophytes can provide substantial information about early land plant evolution. In this study, we screened thirty bryophyte species including six liverworts and twenty-four mosses for their phytohormone profiles in order to relate the hormonome with phylogeny in the plant kingdom.Samples belonging to nine orders (Pelliales, Jungermanniales, Porellales, Sphagnales, Tetraphidales, Polytrichales, Dicranales, Bryales, Hypnales were collected in Central and Northern Bohemia. The phytohormone content was analysed with a high performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.As revealed for growth hormones, some common traits such as weak conjugation of both cytokinins and auxins, intensive production of cisZ-type cytokinins and strong oxidative degradation of auxins with abundance of a major primary catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid were pronounced in all bryophytes. Whereas apparent dissimilarities in growth hormones profiles between liverworts and mosses were evident, no obvious trends in stress hormone levels (abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid were found with respect to the phylogeny.The apparent differences in conjugation and/or degradation strategies of growth hormones between liverworts and mosses might potentially show a hidden link between vascular plants and liverworts. On the other hand, the complement of stress hormones in bryophytes probably correlate rather with prevailing environmental conditions and plant survival strategy than with plant evolution.

  2. SAXICOLE BRYOPHYTES FROM VÂLSAN KEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Mihaela Dobrescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the saxicole species in the Vâlsan Keys and considerations regarding the bryophytic saxicole cenoses from the protected area. To analyze the diversity of the saxicole bryophytes, we considered the number of species, as well as the phytogeografical element, the growth form and the “life strategy” of each species. From the systematic perspective, Vâlsan Keys are featured by a high specific diversity of the saxicole bryophytes.

  3. New or otherwise interesting Bryophytes from Crete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.

    1971-01-01

    This report deals with the results of the determination of bryophytes collected by the author in 1967 in the western District of Chanià on the island of Crete. 33 species new to Crete were discovered and a number of bryophytes were collected for the first time in the District Chanià. Some species li

  4. BRYOPHYTES OF MOUNT PATUHA, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBBERT GRADSTEIN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available GRADSTEIN, R.    et al. 2010. Bryophytes of Mount Patuha, West  Java,  Indonesia.  Reinwardtia  13(2:  107–123. This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  two–day  survey  of  the  bryophyte  flora of Mt.  Patuha  and  its  surroundings  near Bandung, West Java, carried out in the framework of the 5th regional training course on bryophyte and lichen diversity and conservation organized by SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, in July 2009. A total of 159 bryophyte species were identi-fied,  including 98 mosses, 60  liverworts, and 1 hornwort, representing almost 1/6 of the  total bryophyte flora of Java. Three moss species, Bryohumbertia subcomosa (Dix. J.–P. Frahm, Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. and F. polypodioidesHedw., and one liverwort, Lejeunea pectinella Mizut., are new additions to the Javanese flora. The bryophyte diversity of Mt. Patuha is well representative of the Malesian flora and is rich in uncommon species. However, the relatively poor representation of shade epiphytes and commonness of sun epiphytes and generalists reflect disturbance of the forest by anthropogenic activities. Careful attention should be given  to conservation of  the  remaining natural  forest  in order  to prevent further losses of the rich bryophyte diversity of the area.

  5. Frequency of bryophytes occurrence in epiphytic communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gapon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Frequency of bryophytes occurrence in epiphytic communities of broad-leaved forests of Vorskla River valley and their ecology-biologic peculiarities are analysed. Distinct relations of bryophyte species to specific wood species are not found, while some species, i.e. Hypnum pallescens (Hedw. P. Beauv., Platygyrium repens (Brid. B. S. G., Bryum subelegans Kindb. are attached to Quercus robur L., but Radula complanata (L. Dum., Leskeеlla nervosa (Brid. Loeske and species of the Anomodon genus − to Fraxinus excelsior L.

  6. A checklist of the bryophytes of Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Bourell, Mona

    1992-01-01

    The vascular flora of Chiapas, Mexico, has been the subject of a long term study by Dennis Breedlove of the California Academy of Sciences. This has stimulated a related project dealing with the bryophyte flora of the region. A collecting expedition in 1988 generated 1420 collections of bryophytes. Specialists from 13 institutions assisted with identifications. Approximately 70% of the collections have been determined. Checklists of species of bryophytes of Chiapas are presented. These lists ...

  7. Life strategies of bryophytes on loess cliffs in Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević Marko S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The loess cliffs of Vojvodina present a special ecosystem type. The main plant components in these habitats are cryptogams (bryophytes and lichens. The biology and life strategies of bryophytes recorded on loess in Vojvodina are studied in the present work, whose results confirm a very special ecology in such habitats. Colonist species with xeropottioid characteristics are dominant among bryophytes. It is stressed that loess cliff habitats are especially important from the standpoint of conservation.

  8. Phylogenetic biogeography and taxonomy of disjunctly distributed bryophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen HEINRICHS; J(o)rn HENTSCHEL; Kathrin FELDBERG; Andrea BOMBOSCH; Harald SCHNEIDER

    2009-01-01

    More than 200 research papers on the molecular phylogeny and phylogenetic biogeography of bryophytes have been published since the beginning of this millenium. These papers corroborated assumptions of a complex ge-netic structure of morphologically circumscribed bryophytes, and raised reservations against many morphologically justified species concepts, especially within the mosses. However, many molecular studies allowed for corrections and modifications of morphological classification schemes. Several studies reported that the phylogenetic structure of disjunctly distributed bryophyte species reflects their geographical ranges rather than morphological disparities. Molecular data led to new appraisals of distribution ranges and allowed for the reconstruction of refugia and migra-tion routes. Intercontinental ranges of bryophytes are often caused by dispersal rather than geographical vicariance. Many distribution patterns of disjunct bryophytes are likely formed by processes such as short distance dispersal, rare long distance dispersal events, extinction, recolonization and diversification.

  9. Potential of Microsatellites Markers for the Genetic Analysis of Bryophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumy PANDEY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites have increasingly being used to study genetic diversity, phylogeny, population genetics, population ecology and genetic mapping of bryophytes. Due to co-dominant and highly reproducible features, microsatellites became markers of choice for several genetic analyses of bryophytes. However, the major limitation is de novo isolation of microsatellites from the interest species which were studied and gave genomic libraries. Initially, traditional methods of microsatellite development were tedious and time consuming, but due to the sequencing of several bryophytes available in public databases, advancement in PCR technologies and computer software, have cumulatively facilitated the development of microsatellites for bryophytes study. This review examines the features, strategies for the development of microsatellites and their utilization in many aspects of genetic and ecological studies of bryophytes.

  10. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations. PMID:17300893

  11. Threatened bryophytes of the neotropical rain forest : a status report

    OpenAIRE

    Gradstein, Stephan Robbert

    1992-01-01

    Tropical deforestation, inevitably, leads to the local loss of bryophyte species. Recent studies show that the degree of species loss may vary considerably and depends on the scale or amount of habitat change that has occurred. Predictably, the shade epiphytes are most seriously affected by disturbance. An estimated 10% of the bryophyte species of neotropical rain forests are under threat. Based on data from recent monographs, a first list of 19 endangered and 27 rare species of these forests...

  12. Therapeutic potential of bryophytes and derived compounds against cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhijit Dey; Anuradha Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Bryophytes, taxonomically placed between the algae and the pteridophytes, are divided into three classes such as Liverworts, Hornworts and Mosses. Indigenous use involves this small group of plants to treat various diseases. Bryophytes have been investigated pharmacologically for active biomolecules. Several constituents with therapeutic potential have been isolated, characterized and investigated for antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidative, antiinflamatory and anticancerous efficacy. The present review deals with the literature covering the anticancerous potential of bryophytes. Apart from the examples of the compounds and the containing bryophyte genera, the authors have tried to include the examples of cancer cell lines on which the efficacy have been tested and the mode of action of certain cytotoxic agents. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from bryophytes were found to possess potent cytotoxic properties. Different types of terpenoids and bibenzyls have been reported among the most potent cytotoxic compounds. Most of these compounds were found to induce apoptosis by activating a number of genes and enzymes. Biochemical markers such as DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, proteolysis of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, activation of caspases, inhibition of antiapoptotic nuclear transcriptional factor-kappaB, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase etc. have been found to be associated with apoptotic and necrotic response. This review summarizes recent scientific findings and suggests further investigations to evaluate the cytotoxic efficacy of bryophytes.

  13. Catalogue of the bryophytes of Sulawesi. Supplement 1: new species records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariyanti, N.S.; Gradstein, S.R.; Sporn, S.G.; Angelika, R.; Tan, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    We report 177 bryophyte species (61 mosses, 115 liverworts, 1 hornwort) new to Sulawesi, raising the total number of bryophytes species recorded from the island to 653. The new combination Chiloscyphus morobeanus (Piippo) Gradst. comb. nov. is made.

  14. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  15. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Sabovljević M.

    2006-01-01

    The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  16. Metal accumulation by stream bryophytes, related to chemical speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk; Vincent, C.D.; Lawlor, A.J.; Lofts, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Metal accumulation by aquatic bryophytes was investigated using data for headwater streams of differing chemistry. The Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) was applied to calculate chemical speciation, including competitive proton and metal interactions with external binding sites on the plants. The speciation modelling approach gives smaller deviations between observed and predicted bryophyte contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb than regressions based on total filtered metal concentrations. If all four metals, and Ni, are considered together, the WHAM predictions are superior at the 1% level. Optimised constants for bryophyte binding by the trace metals are similar to those for humic substances and simple carboxylate ligands. Bryophyte contents of Na, Mg and Ca are approximately explained by binding at external sites, while most of the K is intracellular. Oxide phases account for some of the Al, and most of the Mn, Fe and Co. - Speciation modelling can be used to interpret the accumulation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by bryophytes, supporting its use to quantify trace metal bioavailability in the field.

  17. Bryophytes of beach forests in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiangphak Sukkharak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of bryophyte diversity of three beach forests including Had Tung Prong, Had Tein Talay, and the beach forest in Thai Island and Sea Natural History Museum in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, was carried out. From 137 enumerated specimens, 16 species (6 mosses, 10 liverworts in 12 genera (5 mosses, 7 liverworts and eight families (5 mosses, 3 liverworts were found. Among those the most common families of mosses are Fissidentaceae (2 species and the most common families of liverwort are Lejeuneaceae (8 species. A comparison of species richness among the three areas revealed that the highest species richness of bryophytes was found in Had Tung Prong. Moreover, of all bryophyte species found, Weissia edentula Mitt. was the most common one.

  18. Predicting methane emission from bryophyte distribution in northern Canadian peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubier, J.L.; Moore, T.R. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada); Juggins, S. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    A predictive model for bryophyte distribution, water table position, and seasonal mean methane (CH{sub 4}) emission was developed for two areas of northern peatland: the Clay Belt of Ontario and the Labrador Trough of Quebec. Water table position and CH{sub 4} flux were the most important environmental variables in canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) of bryophyte data. Water chemistry constituted a second environmental gradient, independent of hydrology and CH{sub 4} flux. Weighted averaging regression and calibration were used to develop a model for predicting log CH{sub 4} flux from bryophyte distribution. The model showed an increase in log CH{sub 4} flux from hummock to carpet and pool species, corresponding with a decrease in height above the mean water table position. The exceptions were rich-fen pool species, which had low CH{sub 4} flux optima in spite of their moisture status. Tolerances were greatest for mid-hummock species and least for carpet and pool species. No overlap in tolerances occurred between hummock and pool species, suggesting that at either end of the height gradient are the best predictors of CH{sub 4} flux. Error analyses showed that bryophytes are equally as effective as water table position for predicting mean CH{sub 4} flux. Bryophytes are distributed in well-defined zones along microtopographic gradients: they integrate long-term changes in the water table, which fluctuates on a daily and seasonal basis along with CH{sub 4} flux, and may be more easily mapped with remote-sensing techniques. Bryophytes, however, are only useful for predicting CH{sub 4} flux within a region; similar species values cannot be extrapolated to other northern peatlands where different climatic and biogeochemical factors may exist. The model may be used in paleoreconstructions of methane emission and for biological monitoring of climate change. 62 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. A note on the Bryophytes of the Maltese Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.

    1972-01-01

    A small set of bryophytes collected on the islands of Malta and Gozo in April-May, 1968, and April, 1969, by K. U. Kramer and L. Y. Th. Westra (Utrecht) was handed to the author for identification. The results are presented here as a supplement to a paper on the vascular plants of the Maltese island

  20. Inventory of Bryophytes in the “Bulgarka” Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports data on the diversity of bryophytes in the Bulgarka Nature Park. The registered 55 species belonged to 23 families and 46 genera. Six species were with conservationstatus; 2 were assessed as Not Evaluated. The main threats were assessed and measures towardsbryophyte conservation were proposed.

  1. Patterns of bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danguolė Andriušaitytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research data on bryophyte diversity in arable land throughout the territory of Lithuania. The bryoflora was analyzed regarding systematic structure and morphological forms, life-history strategies, mode of reproduction and frequency of species. Bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania was compared with that of Slovakia and the British Isles, which are positioned in different geographical regions of Europe. A total of 97 species of bryophytes of 25 families and 48 genera were ascertained. Dominance of acrocarpous mosses and thalloid liverworts, high representation of Pottiaceae, Bryaceae, Mielichhoferiaceae and Ricciaceae families as well as Bryum, Dicranella, Pohlia and Riccia genera, wide distribution of annual shuttles and ephemeral colonists, high reproduction effort of the species (frequent sporophytes and asexual propagules were specific features of the bryophytes of the studied habitats as a result of adaptations to regular disturbances. The distribution of species into six frequency groups seemed to be uneven. The most abundant group of species with the lowest frequency (1–3 records covered 53.6% of all species. The group contained about 90% of all many-year potential life span species recorded in the habitat. Species with short life span were distributed quite evenly throughout frequency groups. No regionally-specific species were ascertained in the studied habitat. Most of arable-land-specific species recorded in Lithuania is distributed throughout different regions of Europe.

  2. Bacterial-biota dynamics of eight bryophyte species from different ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Koua, Faisal Hammad Mekky; Kimbara, Kazuhide; Tani, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of bryophyte-associated microorganisms in various ecological aspects including their crucial roles in the soil-enrichment of organic mass and N2 fixation, nonetheless, little is known about the microbial diversity of the bryophyte phyllospheres (epi-/endophytes). To get insights into bacterial community structures and their dynamics on the bryophyte habitats in different ecosystems and their potential biological roles, we utilized the 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE and subseque...

  3. N and P addition inhibits growth of rich fen bryophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Riis, Tenna

    2016-01-01

    vernicosus and paludella squarrosa) rich fen bryophytes were grown in mixed culture and subjected to rainwater or groundwater and three levels of N (0, 1 and 3 mg N L-1) and P (0, 0.05 and 0.1 mg P NL-1). All species responded negatively to higher N-levels and three of four species responded negatively...... to rainwater and higher P-levels. C. cuspidata had highest relative growth rate in all treatments, and the infrequently occurringrare species had lower relative growth rate and were more negatively affected by high levels of N than the frequently occurringcommon species. A negative effect of rainwater seemed...... to be caused by higher background levels of N in rainwater compared to groundwater rather than a pH-effect per se. We found a negative effect of high initial bryophyte density in three of four species indicating density dependent inhibition between species.We suggest that maintenance of oligotrophic conditions...

  4. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingimundardóttir, G. V.; Weibull, H.; Cronberg, N.

    2014-08-01

    The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963-1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis). Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata) while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum). Some species (especially Bryum spp.) benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments or dispersal agents

  5. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Ingimundardóttir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963–1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972. The number of observed species almost doubled between years with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis. Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum. Some species (especially Bryum spp. benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and unlikely to have dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative

  6. Species richness and distribution of understorey bryophytes in different forest types in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, J.C.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The first bryophyte survey results from Colombian Amazonia are presented. Bryophyte species, differentiated into mosses and liverworts, and further into four life-form classes, were sampled in 0.1-ha plots. These plots were distributed over four landscape units in the middle Caquetá area: floodplain

  7. Shifts in bryophyte carbon isotope ratio across an elevation × soil age matrix on Mauna Loa, Hawaii: do bryophytes behave like vascular plants?

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, Mashuri; Sack, Lawren

    2011-01-01

    The carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of vascular plant leaf tissue is determined by isotope discrimination, primarily mediated by stomatal and mesophyll diffusion resistances and by photosynthetic rate. These effects lead to predictable trends in leaf δ13C across natural gradients of elevation, irradiance and nutrient supply. Less is known about shifts in δ13C for bryophytes at landscape scale, as bryophytes lack stomata in the dominant gametophyte phase, and thus lack active control over CO2 diff...

  8. Higher photosynthetic capacity and different functional trait scaling relationships in erect bryophytes compared with prostrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xin; Bao, Weikai

    2016-02-01

    Ecophysiological studies of bryophytes have generally been conducted at the shoot or canopy scale. However, their growth forms are diverse, and knowledge of whether bryophytes with different shoot structures have different functional trait levels and scaling relationships is limited. We collected 27 bryophyte species and categorised them into two groups based on their growth forms: erect and prostrate species. Twenty-one morphological, nutrient and photosynthetic traits were quantified. Trait levels and bivariate trait scaling relationships across species were compared between the two groups. The two groups had similar mean values for shoot mass per area (SMA), light saturation point and mass-based nitrogen (N(mass)) and phosphorus concentrations. Erect bryophytes possessed higher values for mass-based chlorophyll concentration (Chl(mass)), light-saturated assimilation rate (A(mass)) and photosynthetic nitrogen/phosphorus use efficiency. N(mass), Chl(mass) and A(mass) were positively related, and these traits were negatively associated with SMA. Furthermore, the slope of the regression of N(mass) versus Chl(mass) was steeper for erect bryophytes than that for prostrate bryophytes, whereas this pattern was reversed for the relationship between Chl(mass) and A(mass). In conclusion, erect bryophytes possess higher photosynthetic capacities than prostrate species. Furthermore, erect bryophytes invest more nitrogen in chloroplast pigments to improve their light-harvesting ability, while the structure of prostrate species permits more efficient light capture. This study confirms the effect of growth form on the functional trait levels and scaling relationships of bryophytes. It also suggests that bryophytes could be good models for investigating the carbon economy and nutrient allocation of plants at the shoot rather than the leaf scale. PMID:26552378

  9. Bryophyte flora of the Uvac river gorge (Southwest Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the examined area, 165 taxa were found and identified: 139 taxa from the class Bryopsida and 26 taxa from the class Marchantiopsida. Nine species are red-listed in Serbia. Material was collected from 62 localities, which were analyzed for similarity of chorological and ecological features using the Jaccard similarity index. Analysis of floristic elements and phytogeographic distribution showed that the greatest number of taxa are temperate elements with Holarctic distribution. Results of ecological analysis showed that in regard to the substratum aspect, terricolous, basophilous, and indifferent species were dominant. In relation to the ecological parameter humidity, most species were mesophilous. The majority of identified bryophytes were sciophilous taxa. .

  10. Effects of bryophyte and lichen cover on permafrost soil temperature at large scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte and lichen cover on the forest floor at high latitudes exerts an insulating effect on the ground. In this way, the cover decreases mean annual soil temperature and can protect permafrost soil. Climate change, however, may change bryophyte and lichen cover, with effects on the permafrost state and related carbon balance. It is, therefore, crucial to predict how the bryophyte and lichen cover will react to environmental change at the global scale. To date, current global land surface models contain only empirical representations of the bryophyte and lichen cover, which makes it impractical to predict the future state and function of bryophytes and lichens. For this reason, we integrate a process-based model of bryophyte and lichen growth into the global land surface model JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere-Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg). The model simulates bryophyte and lichen cover on upland sites. Wetlands are not included. We take into account the dynamic nature of the thermal properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover and their relation to environmental factors. Subsequently, we compare simulations with and without bryophyte and lichen cover to quantify the insulating effect of the organisms on the soil. We find an average cooling effect of the bryophyte and lichen cover of 2.7 K on temperature in the topsoil for the region north of 50° N under the current climate. Locally, a cooling of up to 5.7 K may be reached. Moreover, we show that using a simple, empirical representation of the bryophyte and lichen cover without dynamic properties only results in an average cooling of around 0.5 K. This suggests that (a) bryophytes and lichens have a significant impact on soil temperature in high-latitude ecosystems and (b) a process-based description of their thermal properties is necessary for a realistic representation of the cooling effect. The advanced land surface scheme, including a dynamic bryophyte and lichen model, will be the basis for an improved

  11. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail: satu.huttunen@oulu.fi; Lappalainen, N.M. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland); Turunen, J. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2005-01-01

    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A{sub 280-320nm}) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time.

  12. Climate threat on the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Jairo; Mateo, Rubén G.; Zanatta, Florian; Marquet, Adrien; Aranda, Silvia C.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Dirkse, Gerard; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Juana M.; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of whether these areas will still be climatically suitable for the globally threatened endemic element in the coming decades remains open. Here, we make predictions on the fate of the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora in the context of ongoing climate change. The potential distribution of 35 Macaronesian endemic bryophyte species was assessed under present and future climate conditions using an ensemble modelling approach. Projections of the models under different climate change scenarios predicted an average decrease of suitable areas of 62–87% per species and a significant elevational increase by 2070, so that even the commonest species were predicted to fit either the Vulnerable or Endangered IUCN categories. Complete extinctions were foreseen for six of the studied Macaronesian endemic species. Given the uncertainty regarding the capacity of endemic species to track areas of suitable climate within and outside the islands, active management associated to an effective monitoring program is suggested. PMID:27377592

  13. Climate threat on the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Jairo; Mateo, Rubén G; Zanatta, Florian; Marquet, Adrien; Aranda, Silvia C; Borges, Paulo A V; Dirkse, Gerard; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Juana M; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of whether these areas will still be climatically suitable for the globally threatened endemic element in the coming decades remains open. Here, we make predictions on the fate of the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora in the context of ongoing climate change. The potential distribution of 35 Macaronesian endemic bryophyte species was assessed under present and future climate conditions using an ensemble modelling approach. Projections of the models under different climate change scenarios predicted an average decrease of suitable areas of 62-87% per species and a significant elevational increase by 2070, so that even the commonest species were predicted to fit either the Vulnerable or Endangered IUCN categories. Complete extinctions were foreseen for six of the studied Macaronesian endemic species. Given the uncertainty regarding the capacity of endemic species to track areas of suitable climate within and outside the islands, active management associated to an effective monitoring program is suggested. PMID:27377592

  14. [Rearing immature horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) by using a substrate of bryophytes and sand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ruth L M; Rafael, José A

    2006-01-01

    A new method for rearing immature horse flies by using a substrate of bryophytes and sand is described and the advantages of such substrate for maintenance of species with long development periods are discussed.

  15. Bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie Rivers, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie rivers in the Yukon territory of Canada. The distribution and general ecology of 263...

  16. Exsiccatae in the bryophyte collection of the National Herbarium, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Rooy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exsiccatae in the bryophyte collection of the National Herbarium in Pretoria (PRE are catalogued for the first time. Most of the 66 series represented in PRE were issued in Europe, but the USA is the country where the largest number of exsiccatae originated. The exsiccatae span three centuries, with the earliest specimens issued in 1845 and the latest in 2009. This indicates the long-standing exchange of material and transfer of knowledge between herbaria in South Africa and countries of the northern Hemisphere. Many of the exsiccatae in PRE are incomplete and specimens were received as duplicates in exchange sets rather than exsiccatae. PRE houses a number of important African and southern hemisphere exsiccatae including two different sets of A. Rehmann’s Musci Austro-Africani (1875–1877 and Musci Austro-Africani cont., and R. Ochyra’s Bryophyta Antarctica exsiccata.

  17. BRYOPHYTES NEW RECORDS FOR MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Antunes de Moura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, a pioneer in the region, is part of the bryoflora survey municipalities of Baron Melgaço, Cuiabá and Chapada dos Guimarães, located in the southern region of Mato Grosso, Brazil. All materials were collected as viewed Yano (1984. In the herbarium of Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT, the materials were compared with the species already identified in its different taxa. In this article, nine species are cited are presented for the first time for the state of Mato Grosso: Calymperes platyloma, Campylopus savannarum, C. surinamensis, Fabronia macroblepharis, Hyophyla involuta, Sematophyllum adnatum, S. demissum, Racopilum tomentosum and Vesicularia vesicularis. The results showed the high occurrence of species collected as first quote for the state of Mato Grosso, whereas sparse samples were collected in three municipalities of the state, demonstrating the wealth of species in the region. Keywords: bryophytes; liver; new records.

  18. Bryophyte species richness and composition along an altitudinal gradient in Gongga Mountain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qin Sun

    Full Text Available An investigation of terrestrial bryophyte species diversity and community structure along an altitudinal gradient from 2,001 to 4,221 m a.s.l. in Gongga Mountain in Sichuan, China was carried out in June 2010. Factors which might affect bryophyte species composition and diversity, including climate, elevation, slope, depth of litter, vegetation type, soil pH and soil Eh, were examined to understand the altitudinal feature of bryophyte distribution. A total of 14 representative elevations were chosen along an altitudinal gradient, with study sites at each elevation chosen according to habitat type (forests, grasslands and accessibility. At each elevation, three 100 m × 2 m transects that are 50 m apart were set along the contour line, and three 50 cm × 50 cm quadrats were set along each transect at an interval of 30 m. Species diversity, cover, biomass, and thickness of terrestrial bryophytes were examined. A total of 165 species, including 42 liverworts and 123 mosses, are recorded in Gongga mountain. Ground bryophyte species richness does not show any clear elevation trend. The terrestrial bryophyte cover increases with elevation. The terrestrial bryophyte biomass and thickness display a clear humped relationship with the elevation, with the maximum around 3,758 m. At this altitude, biomass is 700.3 g m(-2 and the maximum thickness is 8 cm. Bryophyte distribution is primarily associated with the depth of litter, the air temperature and the precipitation. Further studies are necessary to include other epiphytes types and vascular vegetation in a larger altitudinal range.

  19. Ground bryophyte diversity in secondary birch forests in western Sichuan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Yan; Weikai Bao

    2011-01-01

    Secondary birch (Betula spp.) forest is an important vegetation type in western Sichuan, China. These forests have naturally regenerated from primary fir (Abies spp.) forests after clear-cutting. However,little is known about ground bryophyte species composition and community structure during this succession sequence. In our study, we sampled three plots in 9-, 22-, and 42-year old secondary forests, and a primary fir forest, respectively, in Jinchuan County. We found that bryophyte coverage ...

  20. CONTRASTING ARBOREAL AND TERRESTRIAL BRYOPHYTES COMMUNITIES OF THE MOUNT HALIMUN SALAK NATIONAL PARK, WEST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    NUNIK S. ARIYANTI; SULISTIJORINI

    2011-01-01

    Bryophyte communities were compared between arboreal (trunk bases) and terrestrialhabitats in primary forest Mount Halimun Salak National Park, West Java. The communitieswere analyzed based on species diversity, abundance, and biomass. A total of 150 bryophytesspecies were identified, including 67 species of mosses (Bryopsida) and 83 of liverworts(Hepaticopsida). Both bryophyte groups varied in diversity and abundance between arborealand terrestrial communities as well as among different elev...

  1. Complex Mutation and Weak Selection together Determined the Codon Usage Bias in Bryophyte Mitochondrial Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Jing Liu; Liang Jin; Xue-Ying Feng; Jian-Qun Chen

    2010-01-01

    Mutation and selection are two major forces causing codon usage biases. How these two forces influence the codon usages in green plant mitochondrial genomes has not been well investigated. In the present study, we surveyed five bryophyte mitochondrial genomes to reveal their codon usagepatterns as well as the determining forces. Three interesting findings were made. First, comparing to Chara vulgaris, an algal species sister to all extant land plants, bryophytes have more G, C-ending codon usages in their mitochondrial genes. This is consistent with the generally higher genomic GC content in bryophyte mitochondria, suggesting an increased mutational pressure toward GC. Second, as indicated by Wright's Nc-GC3s plot, mutation, not selection, is the major force affecting codon usages of bryophyte mitochondrial genes. However, the real mutational dynamics seem very complex. Context-dependent analysis indicated that nucleotide at the 2nd codon position would slightly affect synonymous codon choices. Finally, in bryophyte mitochondria, tRNA genes would apply a weak selection force to finetune the synonymous codon frequencies, as revealed by data of Ser4-Pro-Thr-Val families. In summary,complex mutation and weak selection together determined the codon usages in bryophyte mitochondrial genomes.

  2. Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.S. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Bell, J.N.B. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); James, P.W. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Chimonides, P.J. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Rumsey, F.J. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Tremper, A. [Kings College, London (United Kingdom); Purvis, O.W. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: w.purvis@nhm.ac.uk

    2007-03-15

    Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes absent; (ii) a surrounding region with a more diverse flora including a high cover of nitrophyte lichens; and (iii) an outer region, characterised by species absent from central London, including acidophytes. Nineteen species were correlated with nitrogen oxides and 16 with bark pH, suggesting that transport-related pollution and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution in London today. Lichens and bryophytes are responding to factors that influence human and environmental health in London. Biomonitoring therefore has a practical role to assess the effects of measures to improve London's air quality. - Transport-related pollutants and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution and abundance in London today.

  3. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes - lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechmeister, H.G. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and ecotox-Austria, Fleschgasse 22, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: harald.zechmeister@univie.ac.at; Dirnboeck, T. [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: thomas.dirnboeck@umweltbundesamt.at; Huelber, K. [VINCA, Giessergasse 6/7, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: karl.huelber@vinca.at; Mirtl, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: michael.mirtl@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-06-15

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43 kg N*ha{sup -1}*yr{sup -1}) and sulphur (10 to 18 kg SO{sub 4}-S*ha{sup -1}*yr{sup -1}), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zoebelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S. - Bryophytes show ambiguous response to airborne pollutants during 14 years of monitoring in a forest ecosystem.

  4. Diversity and distribution of the bryophyte flora in montane forests in the Chapada Diamantina region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia de Brito Valente; Kátia Cavalcanti Pôrto; Cid José Passos Bastos; Jana Ballejos-Loyola

    2013-01-01

    Bryophytes constitute an important component of tropical rain forests, which provide microhabitats favorable for their establishment. Bryophytes are also quite responsive to changes in microclimate, which makes them good bioindicators. This study aimed to determine the diversity and distribution of bryophytes in upper and lower montane forests of the Chapada Diamantina region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To that end, we studied community aspects such as richness, diversity, substrates colon...

  5. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oldén

    Full Text Available Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L. retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old

  6. Comparison of bryophyte diversity in West Tianmu Mountain from 1977 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihua Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyte diversity plays an important role in forest ecosystems and is important in conservation. Based on two surveys of the bryophyte flora in West Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province, China, conductedbetween 1977 and 1980, and 2010 and 2011, respectively, an analysis was made of changes in bryophte diversity from 1977 to 2011. We found that: (1 in the past three decades, the number of species, genera andfamilies of bryophytes, especially of liverworts, has tended to decline; (2 Brachytheciaceae, Dicranaceae, Hypanceae and Pottiaceae remain as the dominant families; (3 the stability of families is higher than that of genera and species; and (4 the greatest changes have occurred in the buffer zone, where the number of species new to the nature reserve is the highest. Most bryophytes are distributed in the area around the entrance to the Old Openning Temple in the core zone. This area shows the highest Sørensen similarity and proportionof new liverwort species. In contrast, from the Old Openning Temple to Xianren Peak in the core zone, only a few species occur and the community exhibits the lowest Sørensen similarity. We suggest that the core zone should be regarded as a key area for bryophyte protection in the region.

  7. Medium term ecohydrological response of peatland bryophytes to canopy disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rhoswen; Kettridge, Nick; Krause, Stefan; Devito, Kevin; Granath, Gustaf; Petrone, Richard; Mandoza, Carl; Waddington, James Micheal

    2016-04-01

    Canopy disturbance in northern forested peatlands is widespread. Canopy changes impact the ecohydrological function of moss and peat, which provide the principal carbon store within these carbon rich ecosystems. Different mosses have contrasting contributions to carbon and water fluxes (e.g. Sphagnum fuscum and Pleurozium schreberi) and are strongly influenced by canopy cover. As a result, changes in canopy cover lead to long-term shifts in species composition and associated ecohydrological function. Despite this, the medium-term response to such disturbance, the associated lag in this transition to a new ecohydrological and biogeochemical regime, is not understood. Here we investigate this medium term ecohydrological response to canopy removal using a randomised plot design within a north Albertan peatland. We show no significant ecohydrological change in treatment plots four years after canopy removal. Notably, Pleurozium schreberi and Sphagnum fuscum remained within respective plots post treatment and there was no significant difference in plot resistance to evapotranspiration or carbon exchange. Our results show that canopy removal alone has little impact on bryophyte ecohydrology in the short/medium term. This resistance to disturbance contrasts strongly with dramatic short-term changes observed within mineral soils suggesting that concurrent shifts in the large scale hydrology induced within such disturbances are necessary to cause rapid ecohydrological transitions. Understanding this lagged response is critical to determine the decadal response of carbon and water fluxes in response to disturbance and the rate at which important medium term ecohydrological feedbacks are invoked.

  8. Bryophyte-like Fossil (Parafunaria sinensis) from Early-Middle Cambrian Kaili Formation in Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGRui-Dong; MAOJia-Rer; ZHANGWei-Hua; JIANGLi-Jun; GAOHui

    2004-01-01

    Abundant well-preserved animal and macroalgal fossils were discovered in the Early-MiddleCambrian Kaili Formation of Taijiang County, Guizhou Province, China, which constitute the Kaili Biota,named as one of the three important Burgess Shale-type faunas. The bryophyte-like fossil (Parafunariasinensis Yang gen. et sp. nov) was discovered in the horizon of occurrence of Macroalgal fossils. The fossilof P. sinensis possesses typical characters of bryophyte, such as whorled leaves, capsule and seta, andcomplex rhizoid or foot. We infer that the bryophyte-like fossil could be the ancestor of bryophyte. Thediscovery provides a new lead for further study on the origin and evolution of bryophyte or land plant.

  9. Quantifying the effect of lichen and bryophyte cover on permafrost soil within a global land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation near the surface, such as bryophytes and lichens, has an insulating effect on the soil at high latitudes and it can therefore protect permafrost conditions. Warming due to climate change, however, may change the average surface coverage of bryophytes and lichens. This can result in permafrost thawing associated with a release of soil carbon to the atmosphere, which may lead to a positive feedback on atmospheric CO2. Thus, it is important to predict how the bryophyte and lichen cover at high latitudes will react to environmental change. However, current global land surface models so far contain mostly empirical approaches to represent bryophytes and lichens, which makes it impractical to predict their future state and function. For this reason, we integrate a process-based model of bryophyte and lichen growth into the global land surface model JSBACH. We explicitly represent dynamic thermal properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover and their relation to climate. Subsequently, we compare simulations with and without bryophyte and lichen cover to quantify the insulating effect. We estimate an annual average cooling effect of the bryophyte and lichen cover of 2.7 K on topsoil temperature for the northern high latitudes under current climate. Locally, the cooling may reach up to 5.7 K. Moreover, we show that neglecting dynamic properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover by using a simple, empirical scheme only results in an average cooling of around 0.5 K. This suggests that bryophytes and lichens have a significant impact on soil temperature in high-latitude ecosystems and also that a process-based description of their thermal properties is necessary for a realistic representation of the cooling effect.

  10. Measurement and modeling of bryophyte evaporation in a boreal forest chronosequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Gower, Stith T.; Amiro, Brian; Ewers, Brent

    2011-01-19

    The effects of changing climate and disturbance on forest water cycling are not well understood. In particular bryophytes contribute significantly to forest evapotranspiration (ET) in poorly-drained boreal forests, but few studies have directly measured this flux and how it changes with stand age and soil drainage. We used large chambers to measure bryophyte evaporation (E) in Canadian Picea mariana forests of varying ages and soil drainages, as well under controlled laboratory conditions, and modeled daily E using site-specific meteorological data to drive a Penman-Monteith-based model. Field measurements of E averaged 0.37 mm day-1, and ranged from 0.03 (Pleurozium schreberii in a 77-year-old dry stand) to 1.43 mm day-1 (Sphagnum riparium in a 43-year-old bog). canopy resistance ranged from ~0 (at 25 °C, some values were <0) to ~1500 s m-1 for dry, cold (5 °C) mosses. In the laboratory, moss canopy resistance was constant until a moss water content of ~6 g g-1 and then climbed sharply with further drying; no difference was observed between the three moss groups (feather mosses, hollow mosses, and hummock mosses) tested. Modeled annual E fluxes from bryophytes ranged from 0.4 mm day-1, in the well-drained stands, to ~1 mm day-1 in the 43-year-old bog, during the growing season. Eddy covariance data imply that bryophytes contributed 18-31% and 49-69% to the total ET flux, at the well- and poorly-drained stands respectively. Bryophyte E was greater in bogs than in upland stands, was driven by low-lying mosses, and did not vary with stand age; this suggests that shifts in forest age due to increasing fire will have little effect on the bryophyte contribution to ET.

  11. Bryophytes and their distribution in the Blue Mountains region of New South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Andrew Jackson; Brown, E. A.; Oldfield, R. J.; Selkirk, P.M.; Coveny, R.

    2007-01-01

    The bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) that occur in the Blue Mountains region of New South Wales (latitude 33˚–34˚ S, longitude 151˚–151˚40’ E) are listed and information is provided on their distribution in the region. Species lists are based on herbarium specimens and field collections. 348 bryophyte taxa have been recorded from 70 families, including 225 moss taxa (in 108 genera from 45 families), 120 liverwort taxa (in 51 genera from 24 families) and 3 hornwort taxa (in 3 gene...

  12. A bryophyte checklist of the ecological reserve of Gurjaú, Pernambuco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Germano, Shirley Rangel; Pôrto, Kátia Cavalcanti

    2005-01-01

    A bryophyte checklist of the Ecological Reserve of Gurjaú (08º10’00'’-08º15’00"S; 35º02’30"- 35º05’00"W), a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in the State of Pernambuco, has been compiled. The Reserve covers an area of approximately 1362 ha, including several forest fragments of diverse sizes and stages of conservation. Specimens collected during the years 2000 and 2001, and voucher specimens from the UFP Herbarium at the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE) were analyzed. Bryophytes were col...

  13. 苔藓植物组织培养研究进展%Research progress on the bryophytes tissue culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 杜宝明; 季梦成

    2011-01-01

    苔藓植物种类繁多,分布广泛,资源丰富,但目前对苔藓的研究才刚刚起步,苔藓的许多应用价值尚未得到开发.根据国内外相关研究,综述了苔藓植物的应用价值,并就苔藓植物在组织培养方面的研究进展进行概述,介绍了苔藓植物组织培养的研究简史.同时,对苔藓植物培养材料、消毒方法、基本培养基和培养条件的研究进行了总结分析.建议加强苔藓植物生理、生化方面的研究,发掘苔藓的应用价值,并加强时苔藓快繁体系的研究,建立苔藓植物组织培养的快繁体系.对苔藓组织培养的应用前景进行了展望.%Bryophytes are widely spread plants with abundant resources and various species. However, the study on bryophytes has just started and many of its applications have not yet been developed. This paper reviewed the application values of bryophytes according to related researches at home and abroad. The research progress and history on tissue culture of bryophytes were introduced. Meanwhile, the studies of culture materials of bryophytes, disinfection methods, basic media and culture conditions were analyzed and summarized. It was suggested strengthening physiology research and biochemistry research of bryophytes, exploring the application value of bryophytes, establishing tissue culture and rapid propagation system of bryophytes. The application prospects of bryophytes were put forward.

  14. Water relations and gas exchange of fan bryophytes and their adaptations to microhabitats in an Asian subtropical montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Chen, Xi; Li, Su; Lu, Hua-Zheng; Wu, Chuan-Sheng; Tan, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Wen-Yao; Shi, Xian-Meng

    2015-07-01

    Fan life forms are bryophytes with shoots rising from vertical substratum that branch repeatedly in the horizontal plane to form flattened photosynthetic surfaces, which are well suited for intercepting water from moving air. However, detailed water relations, gas exchange characteristics of fan bryophytes and their adaptations to particular microhabitats remain poorly understood. In this study, we measured and analyzed microclimatic data, as well as water release curves, pressure-volume relationships and photosynthetic water and light response curves for three common fan bryophytes in an Asian subtropical montane cloud forest (SMCF). Results demonstrate high relative humidity but low light levels and temperatures in the understory, and a strong effect of fog on water availability for bryophytes in the SMCF. The facts that fan bryophytes in dry air lose most of their free water within 1 h, and a strong dependence of net photosynthesis rates on water content, imply that the transition from a hydrated, photosynthetically active state to a dry, inactive state is rapid. In addition, fan bryophytes developed relatively high cell wall elasticity and the osmoregulatory capacity to tolerate desiccation. These fan bryophytes had low light saturation and compensation point of photosynthesis, indicating shade tolerance. It is likely that fan bryophytes can flourish on tree trunks in the SMCF because of substantial annual precipitation, average relative humidity, and frequent and persistent fog, which can provide continual water sources for them to intercept. Nevertheless, the low water retention capacity and strong dependence of net photosynthesis on water content of fan bryophytes indicate a high risk of unbalanced carbon budget if the frequency and severity of drought increase in the future as predicted.

  15. Effects of acidification on bryophyte communities in West Virginia mountain streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, S.L.; Studlar, S.M.; McQuattie, C.J.; Edwards, P.J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) are often more responsive to water chemistry changes than are vascular plants. In this study, the relationships of bryophyte communities to stream pH and water chemistry were studied, using six streams on or near the Fernow Experimental Forest in Tucker County, West Virginia. Streams were surveyed with line transacts using stratified random sampling. Bryophyte communities, based on species composition and structure, fell into three groups, corresponding to basic, moderately acidic, and very acidic stream water. For streams with sandstone beds, species diversity declined with decreasing pH, and no bryophytes were present at pH 3.15. The dominant species in moderately acidic to highly acidic streams is Scapania undulate, a species found to have exceptional tolerance to high acidity and toxic metal levels in Europe and Japan. Scapania undulate was transplanted from a stream with a pH of 5.97 to one with a pH of 3.15. In 3 mo, ultrastructural damage was observed. Acidity (pH) probably was not the only factor involved in controlling species composition and cell ultrastructure, since the two most acidic streams are subject to acid mine drainage and have very high concentrations of dissolved solids, particularly SO{sub 4} and Al. Other trace metals commonly associated with acidic surface waters also may have contributed to the differences in species composition. 77 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Spruce forest bryophytes in central Norway and their relationship to environmental factors including modern forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisvoll, A.A. [Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prestoe, T. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Dept. of Botany, Trondheim (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    In this study of bryophyte diversity in 110 patches of spruce forests of bilberry, small fern, low herb, tall fern and tall herb type in Soer-Troendelag, central Norway, each patch (from 0.24 to 9.33 ha) was classified as one main vegetation type and one successional stage or cutting class. The bryophytes in each patch were censured in randomly established squares of 10 x 10 m, supplemented by complete sampling in the rest of the patch. A number of environmental variables was sampled, and the data sets treated with DCA and CCA. Altogether 210 bryophytes (71 liverworts and 139 mosses) were found in the squares, and 285 (96 liverworts and 189 mosses) in the forest patches. The average number of liverworts, mosses and bryophytes in forest patches increased gradually from the dry and poor to the moist and rich forest types. Several red listed and other interesting spruce forest species had their only or main occurrence in the rich and humid forest, and in old cutting classes. (au) 45 refs.

  17. Effects of wood ash on bryophytes and lichens in a Swedish pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, O.; Weibull, H. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Conservation Biology)

    1998-01-01

    The short-term effects of different wood ash products and lime on four common forest bryophytes and two reindeer lichens were investigated in a field experiment. Visible damage to and cover of the species were observed over a period of three years after treatment. Three of the four bryophytes showed visible damage during the first year after application of loose wood ash and crushed hardened wood ash, even at low doses. Two bryophytes decreased in cover for three years when treated with crushed ash at 4 to 8 t ha[sup -1]. Granulated wood ash and lime had no visible effect. The two reindeer lichens showed no visible negative response to any treatment. In a greenhouse experiment, the effect of different doses of crushed ash on the photosynthetic capacity of one of the bryophytes (Dicranum polysetum) was investigated. There was a highly significant negative relationship between the visually estimated degree of damage and the photosynthetic capacity 29 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Effects of wood ash on bryophytes and lichens in a Swedish pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, O.; Weibull, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Conservation Biology

    1998-12-31

    The short-term effects of different wood ash products and lime on four common forest bryophytes and two reindeer lichens were investigated in a field experiment. Visible damage to and cover of the species were observed over a period of three years after treatment. Three of the four bryophytes showed visible damage during the first year after application of loose wood ash and crushed hardened wood ash, even at low doses. Two bryophytes decreased in cover for three years when treated with crushed ash at 4 to 8 t ha{sup -1}. Granulated wood ash and lime had no visible effect. The two reindeer lichens showed no visible negative response to any treatment. In a greenhouse experiment, the effect of different doses of crushed ash on the photosynthetic capacity of one of the bryophytes (Dicranum polysetum) was investigated. There was a highly significant negative relationship between the visually estimated degree of damage and the photosynthetic capacity 29 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  19. HPLC–DAD of phenolics in bryophytes Lunularia cruciata, Brachytheciastrum velutinum and Kindbergia praelonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEBOJSA JOCKOVIC

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of bryophytes is not well known. The available data indicate interesting chemical constitutions of some bryophyte species, i.e., active and new compounds are to be found within bryophytes, especially liverworts. In this study, one liverwort and two moss species were studied: Lunularia cruciata (L. Dumort, Brachytheciastrum velutinum (Hedw Ignatov & Huttunen and Kindbergia praelonga (Hedw Ochyra. The phenolic compositions of these bryophyte species have not hitherto been reported. Their methanolic extracts were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, coupled to a diode-array detector (DAD. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside and quercetin were found in the L. cruciata extract. The extract obtained from B. velutinum contained four phenolic acids (4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic, caffeic and ellagic acids and three flavonoids (apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin and apigenin. The K. praelonga extract was characterized by the presence of several phenolic acids and their derivatives (4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and ellagic acids, and caffeic and p-coumaric acid derivatives and three flavonoids (apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin and an un-identified flavanone.

  20. Outdoor studies on the effects of solar UV-B on bryophytes : Overview and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, P.; de Boer, M.K.; de Bakker, N.; Rozema, Jelte

    2006-01-01

    In this review all recent field studies on the effects of UV-B radiation on bryophytes are discussed. In most of the studies fluorescent UV-B tubes are used to expose the vegetation to enhanced levels of UV-B radiation to simulate stratospheric ozone depletion. Other studies use screens to filter th

  1. Estimating global carbon uptake by lichens and bryophytes with a process-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Porada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lichens and bryophytes are abundant globally and they may even form the dominant autotrophs in (subpolar ecosystems, in deserts and at high altitudes. Moreover, they can be found in large amounts as epiphytes in old-growth forests. Here, we present the first process-based model which estimates the net carbon uptake by these organisms at the global scale, thus assessing their significance for biogeochemical cycles. The model uses gridded climate data and key properties of the habitat (e.g. disturbance intervals to predict processes which control net carbon uptake, namely photosynthesis, respiration, water uptake and evaporation. It relies on equations used in many dynamical vegetation models, which are combined with concepts specific to lichens and bryophytes, such as poikilohydry or the effect of water content on CO2 diffusivity. To incorporate the great functional variation of lichens and bryophytes at the global scale, the model parameters are characterised by broad ranges of possible values instead of a single, globally uniform value. The predicted terrestrial net carbon uptake of 0.34 to 3.3 (Gt C yr−1 and global patterns of productivity are in accordance with empirically-derived estimates. Considering that the assimilated carbon can be invested in processes such as weathering or nitrogen fixation, lichens and bryophytes may play a significant role in biogeochemical cycles.

  2. Bryophyte flora on the northern slopes of Zlatar Mountain (Southwest Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of Zlatar Mountain. A total of 127 taxa from 35 families were identified. The hepatics are represented by 18 and mosses by 109 taxa. Representatives of the Holarctic distribution type and the temperate floristic category are highly present the investigated area.

  3. Bryophyte DNA sequences from faeces of an arctic herbivore, barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stech, M.; Kolvoort, E.; Loonen, M. J. J. E.; Vrieling, K.; Kruijer, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    We tested DNA extraction methods and PCR conditions for the amplification of bryophyte DNA from barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) faeces collected from Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Both the Qiagen stool kit and a silica-based extraction method received sufficient DNA from fresh and older droppings, as in

  4. Diversity and composition of dead wood inhabiting fungal and bryophyte communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ódor, P.; Heilmann-Clausen, J.; Christensen, M.; Aude, E.; Dort, van K.W.; Piltaver, A.; Veerkamp, M.T.; Walleyn, R.; Standovár, T.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Kosec, J.; Matocec, N.; Kraigher, H.; Grebenc, T.

    2004-01-01

    Species composition and diversity of fungi and bryophyte communities occurring on dead beech trees were analysed in five European countries (Slovenia, Hungary, The Netherlands, Belgium and Denmark). Altogether 1009 trees were inventoried in 19 beech dominated forest reserves. The realized species po

  5. Selenium in soils, spermatophytes and bryophytes around a Zn-Pb smelter, New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi Jian; Gulson, Brian L

    2002-07-01

    Selenium concentrations and its spatial distribution in soils, spermatophytes and bryophytes (mosses) around the Cockle Creek Zn-Pb smelter, New South Wales were studied from May to November 2000. Selenium was determined by ICP-MS on soils digested in nitric and hydrochloric acid (HNO3:HCl = 3:1), and plant samples digested in distilled concentrated nitric acid. At distances greater than 3 km, selenium in soils, spermatophytes and bryophytes converge to uniform values, which are considered to represent the background value. Mean selenium in soils around the smelter is two times higher than the background value. Mean concentration of selenium in plants around the smelter is three times greater than that for background plants. Selenium from 'in site' bryophyte is twice that found in the background bryophyte. The transfer coefficients of selenium between plants and soils are low, especially at a distance less than 1 km from the smelter. However, mosses show the reverse trend. This study indicates that the Zn-Pb smelter is one of the anthropogenic point sources of selenium pollution in the Lake Macquarie district.

  6. Up in the tree--the overlooked richness of bryophytes and lichens in tree crowns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Boch

    Full Text Available Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments.

  7. Effects of restoration on instream bryophyte communities : Monitoring of two different restoration techniques in the Vindel River system

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration is the practice of assisting the recovery of a degraded, damaged or destroyed ecosystem. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of two different restoration techniques on instream bryophyte abundance, species richness and diversity as well as community composition, in streams channelized for timber-floating. Instream bryophytes were collected from 10 tributaries of the Vindel River in boreal northern Sweden, from five stream reaches each of channelized reaches...

  8. Use of ATLANTIS TIERRA 2.0 in mapping the biodiversity (invertebrates and bryophytes) of caves in the Azorean archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo A V Borges; Gabriel, Rosalina; Pereira, Fernando E. A. P.; Mendonça,Enésima; Sousa, Eva

    2008-01-01

    XII International Symposium on vulcanospeleology. Tepoztlan, Morelos, Mexico, July 2-7, 2006. In this contribution the software ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 is described as a promising tool to be used in the conservation management of the animal and plant biodiversity of caves in Macaronesia. In the Azores, the importance of cave entrances to bryophytes is twofold: i) since these are particularly humid, sheltered habitats, they support a diverse assemblage of bryophyte species and circa 25% of the ...

  9. Number of genera as a potential screening tool for assessing quality of bryophyte communities in Ohio wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, William; Stapanian, Martin A.; Andreas, Barbara; Gara, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) have numerous advantages as indicators of environmental quality. A quality assessment index for bryophyte species assemblages (BQAI) was developed for the State of Ohio, USA. Reliable identification of bryophytes to species often requires considerable training, practice, and time. In contrast, reliable identification to genera for most bryophytes in Ohio requires much less training. We identified 110 bryophyte species (14 liverworts and 96 mosses) belonging to 69 genera (13 liverwort and 56 moss) in 45 wetlands (27 emergent, 13 forested, and 5 shrub) in Ohio. As expected, there were more genera and higher BQAI scores in forested than in emergent wetlands. Number of genera was highly correlated (r ≥ 0.9) with BQAI in emergent and forested wetlands and for the combined set of wetlands. Number of genera and BQAI responded almost identically to an index of wetland disturbance. The results suggest that number of genera has potential as a screening tool for assessing bryophyte community quality in wetlands in some regions.

  10. Bryophytes from the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (West-Central Africa) : 2., bryophytes collected by Emilio Guinea (1907-1985) in the Island of Bioco in 1947

    OpenAIRE

    Infante, Marta; Heras, Patxi; Buck, William R.

    1997-01-01

    Some unidentified samples of bryophytes collected by Emilio Guinea in Bioco (Equatorial Guinea) in 1947 have been studied. Twenty-seven taxa are the result of this study, nine of them being new for Equatorial Guinea and two new for the island of Bioco. Se han estudiado varias muestras de briófitos sin identificar recogidas por Emilio Guinea en Bioco (Guinea Ecuatorial) en 1947. Veintisiete taxones son el resultado de este estudio, siendo nueve de ellos novedad para Guinea Ecuatorial y dos ...

  11. CONTRASTING ARBOREAL AND TERRESTRIAL BRYOPHYTES COMMUNITIES OF THE MOUNT HALIMUN SALAK NATIONAL PARK, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNIK S. ARIYANTI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyte communities were compared between arboreal (trunk bases and terrestrialhabitats in primary forest Mount Halimun Salak National Park, West Java. The communitieswere analyzed based on species diversity, abundance, and biomass. A total of 150 bryophytesspecies were identified, including 67 species of mosses (Bryopsida and 83 of liverworts(Hepaticopsida. Both bryophyte groups varied in diversity and abundance between arborealand terrestrial communities as well as among different elevations. Species diversity of arborealhabitats (116 species was higher than that of terrestrial habitats (64 species. Moss species weremore abundant in terms of coverage in terrestrial habitats whereas liverworts species weremore abundant in arboreal habitats. Species richness in both terrestrial and arboreal habitatsdecreased towards higher elevation, whereas the abundance increased.

  12. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Arróniz-Crespo

    Full Text Available Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1 very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1 but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years. N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous. We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  13. Bryophyte-Cyanobacteria Associations during Primary Succession in Recently Deglaciated Areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    María Arróniz-Crespo; Sergio Pérez-Ortega; Asunción De Los Ríos; Allan Green, T G; Raúl Ochoa-Hueso; Miguel Ángel Casermeiro; María Teresa de la Cruz; Ana Pintado; David Palacios; Ricardo Rozzi; Niklas Tysklind; Sancho, Leopoldo G.

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at...

  14. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De Los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T G Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition. PMID:24819926

  15. Accumulation of aluminium and iron by bryophytes in streams affected by acid-mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engleman, C.J.; McDiffett, W.F. [Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines the accumulation of two heavy metals (Al and Fe) by bryophytes in a northern Pennsylvania stream system affected by acid-mine drainage. Four sites within one watershed were selected on the basis of their pH and dissolved metal concentrations. Significant differences among sites were found with regard to bioaccumulation of Al an Fe. A negative relationship between pH and Fe concentrations in bryophyte tissues was found, with the highest accumulation of Fe observed at the most acidic site (pH 3.5), whereas accumulation of Al was highest at a site with an intermediate pH of 5.2. Bryophytes transplanted from a circum-neutral site to acidic sites showed highly significant increases in Fe and Al concentrations in tissues after 6 weeks, and transplants from more acidic sites to a circum-neutral site generally showed highly significant declines in Fe and Al concentration in tissues after the incubation period.

  16. Effects of air pollution from road transport on growth and physiology of six transplanted bryophyte species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignal, Keeley L. [Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.bignal@sussex.ac.uk; Ashmore, Mike R. [Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ma512@york.ac.uk; Headley, Alistair D. [Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: alistairheadley@aol.com

    2008-11-15

    Motor vehicles emit a cocktail of pollutants; however, little is known about the effects of these pollutants on bryophytes located in roadside habitats. Six bryophyte species were transplanted to either a woodland or a moorland site adjacent to a motorway, and were monitored over seven months from autumn through to spring. All species showed an increase in one or more of the following near the motorway: growth, membrane leakage, chlorophyll concentration, and nitrogen concentration. The strongest effects were observed in the first 50-100 m from the motorway: this was consistent with the nitrogen dioxide pollution profile, which decreased to background levels at a distance of 100-125 m. It is hypothesised that motor vehicle pollution was responsible for the effects observed, and that nitrogen oxides had a key influence. The observed effects may lead to changes in vegetation composition with significant implications for nature conservation and management of roadside sites. - Motor vehicle pollution has significant effects on the growth, membrane leakage, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of bryophytes.

  17. Changes in bryophyte and lichen communities on Scots pines along an alkaline dust pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtjarenko, Polina; Marmor, Liis; Randlane, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Dust pollution can cause a significant damage of environment and endanger human health. Our study aimed to investigate epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in relation to long-term alkaline dust pollution and provide new insights into the bioindicators of dust pollution. We measured the bark pH of Scots pines and the species richness and cover of two cryptogam groups in 32 sample plots in the vicinity of limestone quarries (up to ca. 3 km) in northern Estonia. The bark pH decreased gradually with increasing distance from quarries. We recorded the changes in natural epiphytic communities, resulting in diversified artificial communities on pines near the pollution source; the distance over 2 km from the quarries was sufficient to re-establish the normal acidity of the bark and natural communities of both lichens and bryophytes. The cover of lichens and the number of bryophytes are a more promising indicator of environmental conditions than individual species occurrence. We confirmed previously proposed and suggested new bioindicator species of dust pollution (e.g., Lecidella elaeochroma, Opegrapha varia, Schistidium apocarpum). Limestone quarrying activity revealed a "parapositive" impact on cryptogamic communities, meaning that quarrying might, besides disturbances of natural communities, temporarily contribute to the distribution of locally rare species.

  18. Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Helena E.L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: help@cdtn.br; Nalini Junior, Herminio A. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], E-mail: nalini@degeo.ufop.br; Friese, Kurt [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research- UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany). Dept. of Lake Research], E-mail: kurt.friese@ufz.de

    2007-07-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k{sub 0}-standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

  19. Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k0-standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

  20. Background concentrations of heavy metals in aquatic bryophytes used for biomonitoring in basaltic areas (a case study from central France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A. [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland). Dept. of Ecology and Nature Protection; Kempers, A.J. [Nijmegen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Aquatic Ecology and Biogeology

    1999-12-01

    Studies were made of the aquatic bryophytes Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., Plathypnidium rusciforme (Neck.)Fleisch and Chiloscyphus sp. (Hoffm.)Dum. from streams embedded in basaltic rocks (Le Puy, central France). Water from these streams possessed elevated levels of Cu, Zn, Sr, V, Ba, Ni and Co, reflecting the geochemistry of the basalts, a basic type of igneous rocks containing elevated levels of these elements. The concentration of elements in bryophytes is correlated to the chemical composition of water of their sampling sites. Contents of trace elements in plants were higher than background values. The elevated levels of these elements possibly caused disturbances in the ionic equilibrium within the bryophytes. The molar ratio between contents of Ca and Mg in water (from 0.44 to 1) was different from that typical for natural water. (orig.)

  1. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bryophytes on Bramley’s Seedling trees in East of England apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Whitelaw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic bryophytes on apple trees were investigated in relation to a selection of tree characteristics. Management of orchard trees for fruit production affects the habitats available for colonisation and growth of epiphytes on trunks and branches. Bryophytes recorded on Bramley’s Seedling apple trees in orchards in Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire showed a high level of similarity in species composition between the orchards. The similarity between orchards was, however, much reduced when relative species cover on the trees was taken into account. Twenty three species were recorded on the 71 trees sampled for detailed investigation. Tree structure, as determined by management, explained about 10% of the observed variation in bryophyte cover. Within that, trunk girth and distance to nearest neighbouring orchard trees were the most important factors. This information is of value to orchard managers aiming to become more proactive in managing their habitats for the benefit of biodiversity.

  2. Forests regenerating after clear-cutting function as habitat for bryophyte and lichen species of conservation concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Rudolphi

    Full Text Available The majority of managed forests in Fennoscandia are younger than 70 years old but yet little is known about their potential to host rare and threatened species. In this study, we examined red-listed bryophytes and lichens in 19 young stands originating from clear-cutting (30-70 years old in the boreal region, finding 19 red-listed species (six bryophytes and 13 lichens. We used adjoining old stands, which most likely never had been clear-cut, as reference. The old stands contained significantly more species, but when taking the amount of biological legacies (i.e., remaining deciduous trees and dead wood from the previous forest generation into account, bryophyte species number did not differ between old and young stands, and lichen number was even higher in young stands. No dispersal effect could be detected from the old to the young stands. The amount of wetlands in the surroundings was important for bryophytes, as was the area of old forest for both lichens and bryophytes. A cardinal position of young stands to the north of old stands was beneficial to red-listed bryophytes as well as lichens. We conclude that young forest plantations may function as habitat for red-listed species, but that this depends on presence of structures from the previous forest generation, and also on qualities in the surrounding landscape. Nevertheless, at repeated clear-cuttings, a successive decrease in species populations in young production stands is likely, due to increased fragmentation and reduced substrate amounts. Retention of dead wood and deciduous trees might be efficient conservation measures. Although priority needs to be given to preservation of remnant old-growth forests, we argue that young forests rich in biological legacies and located in landscapes with high amounts of old forests may have a conservation value.

  3. Diaspore bank of bryophytes in tropical rain forests: the importance of breeding system, phylum and microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-Silva, Adaíses S; Válio, Ivany Ferraz Marques; Rydin, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    Diaspore banks are crucial for the maintenance and resilience of plant communities, but diaspore banks of bryophytes remain poorly known, especially from tropical ecosystems. This is the first study to focus on the role of diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests. Our aim was to test whether microhabitat (substrate type) and species traits (breeding system, phylum) are important in explaining the diaspore bank composition. Using samples cultivated in the laboratory, we assessed the number of species and shoots emerging from bark, decaying wood and soil from two sites of the Atlantic rain forest (montane and sea level) in Brazil by comparing the contribution of species by phylum (mosses, liverworts) and breeding system (monoicous, dioicous). More species emerged from bark (68) and decaying wood (55) than from soil (22). Similar numbers of species were found at both sites. Mosses were more numerous in terms of number of species and shoots, and monoicous species dominated over dioicous species. Substrate pH had only weak effects on shoot emergence. Species commonly producing sporophytes and gemmae had a high contribution to the diaspore banks. These superficial diaspore banks represented the extant vegetation rather well, but held more monoicous species (probably short-lived species) compared to dioicous ones. We propose that diaspore bank dynamics are driven by species traits and microhabitat characteristics, and that short-term diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests contribute to fast (re)establishment of species after disturbances and during succession, particularly dioicous mosses investing in asexual reproduction and monoicous mosses investing in sexual reproduction. PMID:21842162

  4. Contribution of atmospheric deposition to tissue concentrations of mercury in aquatic bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Rubén; Díaz, Santiago; López, Jesús; Vázquez, Maria Dolores; Carballeira, Alejo

    2016-09-15

    In this biomonitoring study, we measured the temporal variations in concentrations of mercury in samples of aquatic bryophytes from rivers in a region that received large inputs of the metal via atmospheric deposition. In the first year of sampling, the presence of an important source of atmospheric deposition of Hg (a lignite-fired power plant) led, during the rainy season, to elevated concentrations of the metal in catchments situated downwind of the prevailing winds. High concentrations of the metal were even detected in samples from apparently clean rivers in isolated mountain sites within the downwind catchments. Substitution of the type of fuel (high quality imported carbon instead of brown coal) used in the power plant greatly reduced Hg emissions in subsequent years. Application of spatial interpolation techniques to dense monitoring networks with aquatic bryophytes, without taking into consideration the catchment borders, appears suitable for studying extensive atmospheric pollution derived from a large scale source of contamination. This study also demonstrates the importance of environmental specimen banks in retrospective studies of contamination, as they enable posterior analysis of contaminants that for various reasons cannot be analyzed at the time of sampling. PMID:27177131

  5. Differences in the growth response of three bryophyte species to nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salemaa, Maija [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa (Finland)], E-mail: maija.salemaa@metla.fi; Maekipaeae, Raisa [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa (Finland)], E-mail: raisa.makipaa@metla.fi; Oksanen, Jari [University of Oulu, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland)], E-mail: jarioksa@sun3.oulu.fi

    2008-03-15

    The effect of nitrogen on biomass production, shoot elongation and relative density of the mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens and Dicranum polysetum was studied in a chamber experiment. Monocultures were exposed to 10 N levels ranging from 0.02 to 7.35 g N m{sup -2} during a 90-day period. All the growth responses were unimodal, but the species showed differences in the shape parameters of the curves. Hylocomium and Pleurozium achieved optimum biomass production at a lower N level than Dicranum. Pleurozium had the highest biomass production per tissue N concentration. Tolerance to N was the widest in Dicranum, whereas Hylocomium had the narrowest tolerance. Dicranum retained N less efficiently from precipitation than the other two species, which explained its deviating response. All species translocated some N from parent to new shoots. The results emphasize that the individual responses of bryophytes to N should be known when species are used as bioindicators. - Boreal bryophytes display differences in their sensitivity to nitrogen.

  6. 山东苔藓植物新记录%New records of Shandong bryophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 任昭杰; 黄正莉; 郭萌萌; 赵遵田

    2013-01-01

    We identify more than 3000 specimens of bryophytes from Shandong province. We discover 1 new family, 10 new genera and 70 new species of bryophytes. The newly reported family is Trachypodaceae. The newly reported genera are Asterella, Kiaeria, Chenia, Epipterygium, Plagiobryum, etc. The newly reported species are Riccardia latifrons, Scapania massalongoi, Calypogeia tosana, Campylopus japonicus, C. schimperi, etc.%通过整理、鉴定采自于山东各山区的3 000余份苔藓植物标本,发现山东新记录科1个,为扭叶藓科(rrachypodaceae);山东新记录属10个,分别为花萼苔属(Asterella),凯氏藓属(Kiaeria),陈氏藓属(Chenia),小叶藓属(Epipterygium),平蒴藓属(Plagiobryum)等;山东新记录种70个,分别为宽片叶苔(Riccardia latifrons),腐木合叶苔(Scapania massalongoi),双齿护蒴苔(Calypogeia tosana),日本曲柄藓(Campylopus japonicus),辛氏曲柄藓(Campylopus schimperi)等.

  7. Briófitas de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram listadas 74 espécies de briófitas para a cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, sendo 41 espécies de musgos distribuídos em 24 gêneros e 15 famílias e 33 hepáticas em 17 gêneros e sete famílias. Destas, 17 espécies de briófitas são ocorrências novas para Manaus e para o estado do Amazonas. T. ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck é uma ocorrência nova para o Brasil. São apresentadas associações com outras briófitas e comparação com outras espécies urbanas.This survey lists 74 species of bryophytes from Manaus, Amazonas, namely, 41 species of mosses distributed in 24 genera and 15 families and 33 liverworts in 17 genera and seven families, of which, 17 species are new occurrences to Manaus. T. Ligulaefolium (Bartr. Buck is new occurrence to Brazil. Associations with other bryophytes and comparison with other regions are presented.

  8. Disentangling effects of uncertainties on population projections: climate change impact on an epixylic bryophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruete, Alejandro; Yang, Wei; Bärring, Lars; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Snäll, Tord

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of future ecosystem risks should account for the relevant uncertainty sources. This means accounting for the joint effects of climate variables and using modelling techniques that allow proper treatment of uncertainties. We investigate the influence of three of the IPCC's scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (special report on emission scenarios (SRES)) on projections of the future abundance of a bryophyte model species. We also compare the relative importance of uncertainty sources on the population projections. The whole chain global climate model (GCM)-regional climate model-population dynamics model is addressed. The uncertainty depends on both natural- and model-related sources, in particular on GCM uncertainty. Ignoring the uncertainties gives an unwarranted impression of confidence in the results. The most likely population development of the bryophyte Buxbaumia viridis towards the end of this century is negative: even with a low-emission scenario, there is more than a 65 per cent risk for the population to be halved. The conclusion of a population decline is valid for all SRES scenarios investigated. Uncertainties are no longer an obstacle, but a mandatory aspect to include in the viability analysis of populations.

  9. Organic-matter retention and macroinvertebrate utilization of seasonally inundated bryophytes in a mid-order Piedmont River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James; Pattillo, Meryom; Freeman, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased understanding of the role of bryophytes in supporting invertebrate biomass and for their influence on nutrient cycling and carbon balance in aquatic systems, but the structural and functional role of bryophytes growing in seasonally inundated habitats is substantially less studied. We conducted a study on the Middle Oconee River, near Athens, GA, to assess invertebrate abundance and organic-matter retention in seasonally inundated patches of the liverwort Porella pinnata, a species that tends to be submerged only when water levels in rivers are substantially above base flow. Aquatic invertebrate utilization of these seasonally inundated habitats has rarely been investigated. Macroinvertebrate biomass, insect density, and organic-matter content were significantly greater in patches of P. pinnata than on adjacent bare rock. Bryophyte biomass explained additional variation in organic matter, insect biomass, and density. The most abundant insects in P. pinnata patches were Dipterans and Plecopterans. Our results suggest an important structural role of seasonally inundated bryophyte habitats in riverine ecosystems.

  10. Analysis of Construction of Bryophytes landscape%苔藓植物景观营造探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晓波; 于红丽; 赖齐贤; 陈瑶; 何宝龙

    2012-01-01

    指出了苔藓植物不仅具有绿化、美化的作用,同时还具有独特的药用功效,在园林景观中具有广阔的应用前景。分析了苔藓植物的功能并初步探讨了苔藓植物在园林景观中的营造方式,以期为苔藓植物更好的在园林景观中广泛应用提供参考。%Bryophytes have bright prospects for landscape application not only because of their greening and beautitfying functions but also because of their unique medicinal function. There are more than 3400 species bryophytesin 670 genera and 125 families distributed in China . In this paper, it discusses the functions of the bryophytes and the construction of bryophytes landscape, so as to give better references for the application of bryophytes to landscaping.

  11. Seasonality of reproduction of epiphytic bryophytes in flooded forests from the Caxiuanã National Forest, Eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA R. CERQUEIRA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to recognize the reproductive biology of the epiphytic bryoflora of phorophytes of Virola surinamensis (Rol. ex. Rottb. Warb. in várzea and igapó forests in the Caxiuanã National Forest, to answer the following question: The reproductive period of the bryophyte species is influenced by the environment due the climatic seasonality present in flooded forests, being higher the occurrence of the sexual and asexual reproduction in the rainiest months? The bryophytes were identified and analyzed for the type of reproduction, sexual system and reproductive structures. In total, 502 samples of bryophytes were analyzed, resulting in 54 species, of which 34 were fertile. The comparison of the fertility of the species in different environmental conditions (dry or rainy, and igapó or várzea forest was assessed using the chi-square test. The fertility of the seven studied species could not be defined by a pattern, considering the forest type and the seasonality. However, two species were associated to the forest type and two further species to the seasonality, showing that, for some bryophyte species, invest in constant fertility may be favoring the maintenance of their populations in tropical forests.

  12. Epiphytic bryophytes growing on Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco in three laurel forest areas in Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mancebo, Juana M.; Romaguera, Francisco; Losada-Lima, Ana; Suárez, Andrés

    2004-05-01

    We examined bryophyte species growing on Laurus azorica, in three localities of the laurel forest in Tenerife (Canary Islands), in order to determine differences in species composition, richness and cover, that depend on variations in mist frequency and density. Among the 35 bryophyte species found (26 liverworts and nine mosses), 16 occurred in all three locations while nine species occurred in only one location. Detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the epiphyte-phorophyte relationship varied in terms of cover, richness and bryophyte composition, depending on the humidity conditions (related to mist frequency and plot height) and tree age. In spite of differences in the dominant species found at each locality, the community types have many species in common and may be seen as a natural unit of the communities involved. Variation in the dominant species at each locality is mainly related to a trade off between humidity conditions and tree diameter, and the speed of the successional processes. Plot aspect was the only variable among those considered with no significant influence, which might be related to the closed canopy conditions. Variation in cover, richness and bryophyte composition related to plot height and tree diameter increased in the drier location. Cover was positively related to species richness in all analyses. This is related to low diversity during initial colonization and the fact that the highest biomass species, related to later successional stages, also occur on younger trees, especially in the more humid areas.

  13. Arctic warming on two continents has consistent negativ effects on lichen diversity and mixed effects on bryophyte diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, S.I.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Shaver, G.R.; Ahrens, M.; Callaghan, T.V.; Molau, U.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Hölzer, A.; Aerts, R.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of changing temperature regimes on composition and diversity of cryptogam communities in the Arctic and Subarctic, despite the well-known importance of lichens and bryophytes to the functioning and climate feedbacks of northern ecosystems. We investigated changes in

  14. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in species of frequent and abundant bryophytes in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV). The concentration of the studied metals was determined in two different seasons (cold-dry and warm-humid) in 11 sites of the MATV, 7 of them classified as urban areas, 2 as transition areas and 2 as protected natural areas. Only epiphyte organisms found to a superior height of 100 cm of the floor were considered and the species determination was realized in the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, while the processing of the samples was carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The samples processing consisted on separating the bryophytes of the bark of the trees, later on each one of the samples was washed, milled and homogenized, at the end they were subjected to a digestion process accelerated by microwaves. The concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bryophytes was determined applying the X-rays Fluorescence technique, using a spectrometer Tx-2000 Ital-Structures, with a detector type Si (Li), a tube of Mo (40 kV, 30 m A) with 17,4 keV like excitement energy. Each sample was analyzed six times with a counting time of 500 seconds. Additionally enrichment factors were obtained using reference soils considered as not impacted by anthropogenic activities. With the obtained results space and temporary differences were established through descriptive statistic, also the enrichment factor to infer the possible origin of the metals was calculated, as well as the sites that could represent a risk for the health. The species more frequent and abundant were F. ciliaris and L. angustata, presenting the following tendency in their metals concentration Fe>Ti>Mn>Zn>Pb>V ≅ Cu>Cr, being observed that the temporality is a factor that influences in the metals concentration and that in general F. ciliaris

  15. The impact of bryophytes on the carbon stocks of northern boreal forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, U.; Moroni, M. T.; Shaw, C. H.; Kurz, W. A.

    2012-04-01

    -CFS3 default parameters. Modeled estimates of mainly wood- and bryophyte-derived organic layer C stocks were improved by reducing the respective base decay rate to 50% of default (0.0075 yr-1), thus reflecting the impact of bryophytes on organic layer decay rates. Mineral soil C stocks modeled using a preliminary soil type-specific decay rate (0.00207 yr-1) optimised for Humo-Ferric Podzols were in better agreement with field-measured values than default estimates. However, the incorporation of WD burial, which results in an increased transfer of C from the WD to the organic layer C pool, would require structural changes of the model. The model evaluation process highlighted the importance of accounting for bryophyte C dynamics, the physical burial of WD by bryophytes, and associated changes in organic layer and mineral soil decay rates in northern boreal forests.

  16. 新疆园林绿化苔藓植物资源探析%Exploration of Landscaping Bryophyte Resources in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古再丽努尔·阿布都艾尼; 阿力甫·托呼提; 买买提明·苏来曼

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of Bryophytes in Xinjiang and the Moss gardens of Japan were introduced,as well as application prospect of Bryophytes in environmental greening in Xinjiang.%主要介绍新疆苔藓植物以及日本苔藓公园的特点及环境友好型苔藓植物在新疆园林绿化中的应用前景.

  17. New Results of Angiosperm Bryophytes of Inner Mongolia in the Post-Bryophytes Time%内蒙古苔藓植物志后时期苔藓植物区系研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫智霞; 徐杰; 白学良; 田桂泉; 李琴琴

    2012-01-01

    本文综述了《内蒙古苔藓植物志》出版之后内蒙古苔藓植物区系研究的新成果.结果表明,在《内蒙古苔藓植物志》出版之后的十多年间,以白学良教授为领导的研究团队,对内蒙古地区苔藓植物的分布、种类多样性等方面进行了深入研究,特别是沙漠地区.在此期间,发现内蒙古苔藓植物新记录1纲;新记录科3科;新记录属16属;新记录种76种、订正种9种.内蒙古苔藓植物区系研究取得了显著成果,为《内蒙古苔藓植物志》的再版编著奠定了坚实的基础.%The paper has overviewed the research new result of angiosperm bryophytes of Inner Mongolian after the publishing edition of "bryophytes Intramongolica".The results indicate: after the "bryophytes Intramongolica " publish ten more years,under the leadership of the professor Bai Xueliang,distribution and species variety of the Inner Mongolia bryophytes go ahead intensive study,especially in desert area.During this time: 1 new record class,3 new record family;16 new record genus;76 new record species,9 revised species were found.In the post-flora time,the research on angiosperm flora of Inner Mongolia has achieved notable progress,which has provide a strong base of the second edition of " Flora Intramongolica ".

  18. Phytochemical screening and synergistic interactions between aminoglycosides, selected antibiotics and extracts from the bryophyte Octoblepharum albidum Hedw (Calymperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal C.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is the first to describe the modulation of antibiotic activity of the bryophyte Octoblepharum albidum Hedw extract. The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of O. albidum (EEOa, alone and in association with aminoglycosides, was determined against six bacterial strains by a microdilution test. The results showed a similar inhibitory activity of EEOa against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 33018 (MICs 512 μg/mL. The synergistic effect of the extracts and aminoglycosides was also verified. The most pronounced effects were obtained with EEOa + gentamicin against E. coli and EEOa + kanamycin against K. pneumoniae with MICs reduction (128 to 32 μg/mL. The data from this study are indicative of the antibacterial activity of the bryophyte O. albidum extracts and its potential in modifying the resistance of aminoglycosides analyzed.

  19. Characteristics of vascular and bryophyte flora in the landscape reserve «Grofa» (The Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Pozynych

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about the landscape reserve of statewide value «Grofa» is presented. The floristic composition of forest and meadow associations of the reserve has been investigated. Typical and rare species for these phytocenoses have been revealed. The rare species and plants from the Red Data Book have been described. As a results of our investigation 117 species (87 Bryophyta and 30 Marshantiophyta have been recorded. Species representation of bryophytes in widespread communities has been described.

  20. Evaluation and long-term conservation perspectives of woodland key habitat bryophyte and lichen indicators in Latgale

    OpenAIRE

    Mežaka, Anna; Putna, Sanita; Erta, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays human impact to habitats and species are stronger then ever before. Latvia is typical example of fragmented landscape, where forest patches are mixed with agricultural land and waterbodies. Latgale is one of typical such a fragmented landscape parts of Latvia. Around 6.41 % of Latgalian forests were evaluated as Woodland Key Habitats (WKHs) or potential WKHs (P)WKHs  after WKH inventory. In total 16 WKH types, suitable for bryophyte and lichen indicator species existence were identif...

  1. Species richness and phytogeography of the bryophyte flora of the Guianas, with special reference to the lowland forest

    OpenAIRE

    Gradstein, Stephan Robbert; Montfoort, D.; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.

    1990-01-01

    The Guianas (French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana) are probably one of the last areas of the world covered largely by virgin lowland rain forest. Species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes was investigated in dry evergreen forest and mixed forest using mountaineering techniques to ascend into the canopy. The results indicate that the lowland rain forest is richer in species than previously believed due to neglect of the canopy flora, which may hold more than 50% of the local species. The mixed fore...

  2. Limits of survival: The effect of mars-like conditions, irradiation and humidity on the vitality of bryophyte species

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, A.; B. Huwe; de Vera, J.-P.; Joshi, J

    2014-01-01

    Due to their ability of desiccation tolerance Bryophytes are able to colonize extreme habitats. Pretests show the remarkable resistance of Grimmia sessitiana to simulated space vacuum, Mars-like atmosphere, extreme temperatures, UVC radiation and desiccation. These are results from the BIOMEX-project (Biology and Mars Experiment)- a space experiment on the exposure platform EXPOSE-R2 on the International Space Station (ISS) (unpublished). As a contribution to the BIOMEX-project, we inve...

  3. Physiological Responses of Two Epiphytic Bryophytes to Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur Addition in a Subtropical Montane Cloud Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Wen-Yao; Song, Liang; Li, Su; Wu, Yi; Shi, Xian-Meng; Huang, Jun-Biao; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric depositions pose significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood, and few studies have considered the combined effects and interactions of multiple pollutants. This in situ study explored the physiological responses of two epiphytic bryophytes to combined addition of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. We investigated the electrical conductivity (EC), total chlorophyll concentration (Chl), nutrient stoichiometry and chlorophyll fluorescence signals in a subtropical montane cloud forest in south-west China. The results showed that enhanced fertilizer additions imposed detrimental effects on bryophytes, and the combined enrichment of simulated fertilization exerted limited synergistic effects in their natural environments. On the whole, EC, Chl, the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching (qP) were the more reliable indicators of increased artificial fertilization. However, conclusions on nutrient stoichiometry should be drawn cautiously concerning the saturation uptake and nutrient interactions in bryophytes. Finally, we discuss the limitations of prevailing fertilization experiments and emphasize the importance of long-term data available for future investigations. PMID:27560190

  4. Diversity and distribution of the bryophyte flora in montane forests in the Chapada Diamantina region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes constitute an important component of tropical rain forests, which provide microhabitats favorable for their establishment. Bryophytes are also quite responsive to changes in microclimate, which makes them good bioindicators. This study aimed to determine the diversity and distribution of bryophytes in upper and lower montane forests of the Chapada Diamantina region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To that end, we studied community aspects such as richness, diversity, substrates colonized, life forms and floristic similarity between areas and regions. In 2007 and 2008, we collected specimens from six forest sites, located from the north to the south of the Chapada Diamantina region. We identified a total of 205 infrageneric taxa. In comparison with the lower montane forests, the upper montane forests presented higher diversity and species richness, as well as greater numbers of substrates colonized, life form types, species of restricted geographic distribution and species typical of shaded areas. We also found low similarity in the species composition, the populations of the upper and lower montane forests forming two large and distinct groups. Although presenting relatively high floristic homogeneity among themselves, the Chapada Diamantina areas presented little similarity with those of the Atlantic Forest. This can be explained by the differences between the two regions in terms of environmental conditions, precipitation, seasonality, elevation and continentality.

  5. Investigating the impact of light and water status on the exchange of COS, 13CO2, CO18O and H218O from bryophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa; Royles, Jessica; Ogee, Jerome; Jones, Samuel; Burlett, Regis; West, Jason; Sauze, Joana; Wohl, Steven; Genty, Bernard; Griffiths, Howard; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial surfaces are often covered by photoautotrophic communities that play a significant role in the biological fixation of C and N at the global scale. Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) are key members in these communities and are especially adapted to thrive in hostile environments, by growing slowly and surviving repeated dehydration events. Consequently, bryophyte communities can be extremely long-lived (>1500yrs) and can serve as valuable records of historic climate change. In particular the carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of mosses can be used as powerful proxies describing how growing season changes in atmospheric CO2 and rainfall have changed in the distant past over the land surface. Interpreting the climate signals of bryophyte biomass requires a robust understanding of how changes in photosynthetic activity and moisture status regulate the growth and isotopic composition of bryophyte biomass. Thus theoretical models predicting how changes in isotopic enrichment and CO2 discrimination respond to dehydration and rehydration are used to tease apart climatic and isotopic source signals. Testing these models with high resolution datasets obtained from new generation laser spectrometers can provide more information on how these plants that lack stomata cope with water loss. In addition novel tracers such as carbonyl sulfide (COS) can also be measured at high resolution and precision (CO2, CO18O and H218O fluxes by a bryophyte species (Marchantia sp.) in the light and during the dark, through complete desiccation cycles. Our measurements consistently reveal a strong enrichment dynamic in the oxygen isotope composition of transpired water over the dessication cycle that caused an increase in the oxygen isotope discrimination of CO2. These data followed closely values predicted by our process-based model. We also observed a consistent pattern in the fluxes of CO2 and COS during the desiccation cycle. Initially when the bryophyte was wet

  6. Horizontal transfer of an adaptive chimeric photoreceptor from bryophytes to ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fay-Wei; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Kelly, Steven; Rothfels, Carl J; Melkonian, Michael; Frangedakis, Eftychios; Ruhsam, Markus; Sigel, Erin M; Der, Joshua P; Pittermann, Jarmila; Burge, Dylan O; Pokorny, Lisa; Larsson, Anders; Chen, Tao; Weststrand, Stina; Thomas, Philip; Carpenter, Eric; Zhang, Yong; Tian, Zhijian; Chen, Li; Yan, Zhixiang; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Jun; Stevenson, Dennis W; Crandall-Stotler, Barbara J; Shaw, A Jonathan; Deyholos, Michael K; Soltis, Douglas E; Graham, Sean W; Windham, Michael D; Langdale, Jane A; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Mathews, Sarah; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2014-05-01

    Ferns are well known for their shade-dwelling habits. Their ability to thrive under low-light conditions has been linked to the evolution of a novel chimeric photoreceptor--neochrome--that fuses red-sensing phytochrome and blue-sensing phototropin modules into a single gene, thereby optimizing phototropic responses. Despite being implicated in facilitating the diversification of modern ferns, the origin of neochrome has remained a mystery. We present evidence for neochrome in hornworts (a bryophyte lineage) and demonstrate that ferns acquired neochrome from hornworts via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Fern neochromes are nested within hornwort neochromes in our large-scale phylogenetic reconstructions of phototropin and phytochrome gene families. Divergence date estimates further support the HGT hypothesis, with fern and hornwort neochromes diverging 179 Mya, long after the split between the two plant lineages (at least 400 Mya). By analyzing the draft genome of the hornwort Anthoceros punctatus, we also discovered a previously unidentified phototropin gene that likely represents the ancestral lineage of the neochrome phototropin module. Thus, a neochrome originating in hornworts was transferred horizontally to ferns, where it may have played a significant role in the diversification of modern ferns.

  7. The mossy north: an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in European bryophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Petitpierre, Blaise; Araújo, Miguel B.; Svenning, Jens-C.; Baselga, Andrés; Fernández-González, Federico; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; Muñoz, Jesús; Suarez, Guillermo M.; Luoto, Miska; Guisan, Antoine; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-01

    It remains hotly debated whether latitudinal diversity gradients are common across taxonomic groups and whether a single mechanism can explain such gradients. Investigating species richness (SR) patterns of European land plants, we determine whether SR increases with decreasing latitude, as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change. Nevertheless, although the extent of liverwort species turnover in the south is substantially and significantly lower than in spermatophytes, liverworts share with the latter a higher nestedness in the north and a higher turn-over in the south, in contrast to mosses and ferns. The extent to which the similarity in the patterns displayed by spermatophytes and liverworts reflects a similar assembly mechanism remains, however, to be demonstrated.

  8. A Preliminary Study on Resource and Efficacy of Medicinal Bryophytes in Guiy- ang%贵阳市药用苔藓植物资源及药效调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩敏敏; 熊源新; 杨冰; 杨林

    2012-01-01

    对责阳市药用苔藓植物资源的种类与主要药用功效进行研究,据统计,贵阳市药用苔藓共有36种,隶属于21科28属。并且提供了该地区药用苔藓的药效。为进一步开发贵阳市苔藓植物资源和中草药资源提供新的资料。%The study is about resource and efficacy and medicinal function of medicinal bryophytes in Guiyang city, It is about medicinal function of each bryophyte. There are 36 species medicinal bryophytes, belonging to 28 genera of 21 families. The efficacy of medicinal bryophytes is provided. New data are afforded to further develop medicinal bryophytes resource of Guiyang.

  9. 苔藓植物生态学研究的数量分析方法%On The Methods of Quantitative Analysis for Ecological Research of Bryophyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元明; 郭水良; 曹同; 潘伯荣

    2001-01-01

    植被数量分析方法在苔藓植被中的应用起步较晚,仅有20多年的研究历史,但发展却十分迅速。这里介绍了目前苔藓植物生态学研究中应用较为普遍的数量分析方法,并探讨了各自的优缺点。%The method of quantitative analysis applied in research of bryophyte ecology becomes increasingly prevailing nowadays, though it used in bryophyte only 20 years long. The present paper mainly deals with those methods, which are applied rather commonly in the research of bryophyte ecology.

  10. 苔藓植物对酸性恶劣土壤环境的适应性研究%Adaptability of Bryophytes to Acidic Soil Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张啸天

    2016-01-01

    苔藓植物结构简单,对土壤环境的变化反应敏感,是良好的生物指示植物。该研究通过室内模拟实验的方法,分析苔藓植物对富含酸的恶劣土壤环境的适应性。结果表明,苔藓植物对酸性恶劣土壤环境的适应性较差,但苔藓植物具有一定改善生存环境基质的能力,因而能作为恶劣土壤环境下的植物物种先锋,以帮助其它物种的安全进入。同时对本地区苔藓植物的多样性保护以及合理利用苔藓植物进行酸性环境污染监测有一定理论和实践价值。%Bryophytes are simple in organic structures and sensitive to changes of soil environment so they can be used as excellent bioindicators.Conducting simulation experiment indoors,this study analyzes the adaptive ability of bryophytes to the soil environment rich in acid.The result shows that bryophytes have poor adaptive ability to undesir⁃able acidic soil environment,but they are capable of improving poor soil environment.Therefore,it is possible to plant bryophytes as the initiatives in undesirable soil for other plants settling in.This study has theoretical and practi⁃cal values in multidimensional protection of local bryophytes and making good use of bryophytes to monitor acidic en⁃vironment pollution.

  11. Bryophytes as Climate Indicators: moss and liverwort photosynthetic limitations and carbon isotope signals in organic material and peat deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, H.; Royles, J.; Horwath, A.; Hodell, D. A.; Convey, P.; Hodgson, D.; Wingate, L.; Ogeé, J.

    2011-12-01

    Bryophytes make a significant contribution to carbon sequestration and storage in polar, boreal, temperate and tropical biomes, and yet there is limited understanding of the determinants of carbon isotope composition. Bryophytes are poikilohydric and lack stomata in the vegetative (gametophyte) stage, and lack of roots and reliance on liquid water to maintain hydration status also imposes diffusional limitations on CO2 uptake and extent of carbon isotope discrimination. Real-time gas exchange and instantaneous discrimination studies can be used to quantify responses to liquid phase limitation. Thus, wetted tissues show less negative δ13C signals due to liquid phase conductance and, as the thallus surface dries, maximum CO2 assimilation and discrimination are attained when the limitation is primarily the internal (mesophyll) conductance. Continued desiccation then leads to additional biochemical limitation in drought tolerant species, and low discrimination, although the carbon gain is low at this time. In this paper we explore the extent of carbon isotope discrimination in bulk organic material and cellulose as a function of climatic and environmental conditions, in temperate, tropical and Antarctic bryophytes. Field studies have been used to investigate seasonal variations in precipitation and water vapour inputs for cloud forest formations as a function of bryophyte biomass, diversity and isotope composition in epiphytes (particularly leafy liverworts) along an altitudinal gradient in Peru. In the Antarctic, moss banks sampled on Signy Island consisted of only two species, primarily Chorisodontium aciphyllum and some Polytrichum strictum, allowing the collection of shallow and deep cores representative of growth over the past 200 to 2000 years. The well-preserved peat has provided data on growth (14C) and stable isotopic proxies (13C, 18O) for material contemporary with recent anthropogenic climate forcing (over the past 200 years), for comparison with longer

  12. The rehydration transcriptome of the desiccation-tolerant bryophyte Tortula ruralis: transcript classification and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauget Steven A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cellular response of plants to water-deficits has both economic and evolutionary importance directly affecting plant productivity in agriculture and plant survival in the natural environment. Genes induced by water-deficit stress have been successfully enumerated in plants that are relatively sensitive to cellular dehydration, however we have little knowledge as to the adaptive role of these genes in establishing tolerance to water loss at the cellular level. Our approach to address this problem has been to investigate the genetic responses of plants that are capable of tolerating extremes of dehydration, in particular the desiccation-tolerant bryophyte, Tortula ruralis. To establish a sound basis for characterizing the Tortula genome in regards to desiccation tolerance, we analyzed 10,368 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from rehydrated rapid-dried Tortula gametophytes, a stage previously determined to exhibit the maximum stress induced change in gene expression. Results The 10, 368 ESTs formed 5,563 EST clusters (contig groups representing individual genes of which 3,321 (59.7% exhibited similarity to genes present in the public databases and 2,242 were categorized as unknowns based on protein homology scores. The 3,321 clusters were classified by function using the Gene Ontology (GO hierarchy and the KEGG database. The results indicate that the transcriptome contains a diverse population of transcripts that reflects, as expected, a period of metabolic upheaval in the gametophyte cells. Much of the emphasis within the transcriptome is centered on the protein synthetic machinery, ion and metabolite transport, and membrane biosynthesis and repair. Rehydrating gametophytes also have an abundance of transcripts that code for enzymes involved in oxidative stress metabolism and phosphorylating activities. The functional classifications reflect a remarkable consistency with what we have previously established with regards to the

  13. The influence of nitrogen in stemflow and precipitation on epiphytic bryophytes, Isothecium myosuroides Brid., Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp of Atlantic oakwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leith, I.D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: idl@ceh.ac.uk; Mitchell, R.J.; Truscott, A.-M. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Banchory, Hill of Brathens, Banchory, Aberdeenshire, AB31 4BW (United Kingdom); Cape, J.N.; Dijk, N. van; Smith, R.I.; Fowler, D.; Sutton, M.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    The spatial relationship between the concentration and deposition of the major ions in precipitation and stemflow and their influence on the tissue nitrogen concentration of three epiphytic bryophytes on Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl. and Q. robur L. was investigated at seven UK Atlantic oak woodland sites with a range of total N deposition of 55-250 mmol m{sup -2}. The main driver of change in tissue N concentrations of three epiphytic bryophytes (Isothecium myosuroides Brid. (Eurhynchium myosuroides (Brid.) Schp.), Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp.) was total N deposition in stemflow, dominated by ammonium deposition. The three epiphytic species also showed strong relationships between tissue N concentration and total N deposition in rainfall but a poor correlation with total N ion concentration in rainfall. This study shows that epiphytic bryophytes utilise stemflow N and thus increase their risk from inputs of total N deposition compared to terricolous species at the same site. - Stemflow increases the tissue N concentration of epiphytic bryophytes.

  14. The estimation of species richness of Dutch bryophytes between 1900 and 2011. Documentation of VBA-procedures based on the Frescalo program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 the Ministery of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation asked the BLWG to update the Dutch Red List of bryophytes. The Red List is derived from distribution data recorded between 1900 and 2011 on a quadrant basis (5 x 5 km squares). The Dutch recording grid for distribution data consis

  15. Study on Bryophytes in Lateritic Lold Ore of Southwest Guizhou%贵州黔西南红土型金矿苔藓植物的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洪; 张朝晖

    2012-01-01

    为了探明黔西南红土型金矿苔藓植物种类,为进一步利用苔藓植物作为先锋植物研究红土型金矿区植被修复提供较好的材料,采用梅花采样法对黔西南18个红土型金矿苔藓植物进行全面调查、收集、鉴定.结果表明:金矿区共有苔藓植物14科53属124种,其中,苔类植物1科1属2种,藓类植物13科52属122种;金矿区苔藓植物共有1 2种区系类型,以世界广布种占主体;金矿区苔藓植物丰富度指数、种相似性指数均较低,苔藓植物生活型主要以矮丛集型为主;在18个矿中寻找到5种广泛分布的苔藓植物种类:银叶真藓(Bryum argentenm)、卵蒴丝瓜藓(Pohlia proligera)、纤枝短月藓(Brachymenium exile)和土生对齿藓(Didymodon vinealis)、硬叶小金发藓(Pogonatum neesii).%In order to clarify the species of bryophytes at laterite gold deposits in Southwest Guizhou, provide good material for further use of bryophytes as a pioneer plant of laterite gold deposits of vegetation restoration. The comprehensive investigation with plum sampling, collection, identification of the bryophyte at 18 lateritic gold deposit in Southwest Guizhou. The results showed that 124 mosses species in 53 genera of 14 families were found at the 18 lateritic gold deposits. Thereinto, two liverwort species in one genus of one family, 122 mosses species in 53 genera of 13 families. There are 12 flora types of bryophytes in the lateritic gold deposits area, the main type of flora distribution is cosmopolitan. Richness index and similarity coefficient of bryophyte are all relatively low at the gold area; The life-forms of bryophyte is mainly short turfs. At the same time, there are five species of widespread bryophytes found in the 18 mine: B. argentenm, P. proligera, B. ymenium exile , D. vinealis and P. neesii.

  16. Investigating the impact of light and water status on the exchange of COS, 13CO2, CO18O and H218O from bryophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa; Royles, Jessica; Ogee, Jerome; Jones, Samuel; Burlett, Regis; West, Jason; Sauze, Joana; Wohl, Steven; Genty, Bernard; Griffiths, Howard; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial surfaces are often covered by photoautotrophic communities that play a significant role in the biological fixation of C and N at the global scale. Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) are key members in these communities and are especially adapted to thrive in hostile environments, by growing slowly and surviving repeated dehydration events. Consequently, bryophyte communities can be extremely long-lived (>1500yrs) and can serve as valuable records of historic climate change. In particular the carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of mosses can be used as powerful proxies describing how growing season changes in atmospheric CO2 and rainfall have changed in the distant past over the land surface. Interpreting the climate signals of bryophyte biomass requires a robust understanding of how changes in photosynthetic activity and moisture status regulate the growth and isotopic composition of bryophyte biomass. Thus theoretical models predicting how changes in isotopic enrichment and CO2 discrimination respond to dehydration and rehydration are used to tease apart climatic and isotopic source signals. Testing these models with high resolution datasets obtained from new generation laser spectrometers can provide more information on how these plants that lack stomata cope with water loss. In addition novel tracers such as carbonyl sulfide (COS) can also be measured at high resolution and precision (<5ppt) and used to constrain understanding of diffusional and enzymatic limitations during dehydration and rehydration events in the light and the dark. Here, we will present for the first time simultaneous high-resolution chamber measurements of COS, 13CO2, CO18O and H218O fluxes by a bryophyte species (Marchantia sp.) in the light and during the dark, through complete desiccation cycles. Our measurements consistently reveal a strong enrichment dynamic in the oxygen isotope composition of transpired water over the dessication cycle that caused an increase

  17. Estimation de la pollution par métaux lourds dans la Somme par l'analyse des bryophytes aquatiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMPAIN A.

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available L'intérêt des bioindicateurs fixés à cycle de vie long réside dans leur indépendance marquée vis-à-vis des saisons ; ils intègrent les grandes variations des paramètres physico-chimiques sur une durée de temps appréciable et procurent une estimation stable et sensible de l'impact des multiples pollutions sur l'écosystème aquatique. Les bryophytes aquatiques seront utilisés ici pour leur pouvoir intégrateur et accumulateur des métaux lourds.

  18. Plant mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a bryophyte: Fissidens minutus and its anti-microbial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRIVASTAVA A.A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological methods of synthesis have paved way for the “greener synthesis” of nanoparticles. These have proven to be better methods due to slower kinetics, they offer better manipulation and control over crystal growth and their stabilization. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by a Bryophyte, Fissidens minutus is reported in this paper. Aqueous Extract of Fissidens minutus treated with 0.5 mM silver nitrate solution produced silver nanoparticles at room temperature rapidly. Nanoparticles were characterized by means of UV–Vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS. Nanosilver has proved as a potent antibacterial agent showing its activity against both gram positive and gram negative organisms. The present study emphasizes the use of primitive plant form for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

  19. A primary survey on bryophyte species reveals two novel classes of nucleotide-binding site (NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yu Xue

    Full Text Available Due to their potential roles in pathogen defense, genes encoding nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain have been particularly surveyed in many angiosperm genomes. Two typical classes were found: one is the TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL class and the other is the CC-NBS-LRR (CNL class. It is seldom known, however, what kind of NBS-encoding genes are mainly present in other plant groups, especially the most ancient groups of land plants, that is, bryophytes. To fill this gap of knowledge, in this study, we mainly focused on two bryophyte species: the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, to survey their NBS-encoding genes. Surprisingly, two novel classes of NBS-encoding genes were discovered. The first novel class is identified from the P. patens genome and a typical member of this class has a protein kinase (PK domain at the N-terminus and a LRR domain at the C-terminus, forming a complete structure of PK-NBS-LRR (PNL, reminiscent of TNL and CNL classes in angiosperms. The second class is found from the liverwort genome and a typical member of this class possesses an α/β-hydrolase domain at the N-terminus and also a LRR domain at the C-terminus (Hydrolase-NBS-LRR, HNL. Analysis on intron positions and phases also confirmed the novelty of HNL and PNL classes, as reflected by their specific intron locations or phase characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis covering all four classes of NBS-encoding genes revealed a closer relationship among the HNL, PNL and TNL classes, suggesting the CNL class having a more divergent status from the others. The presence of specific introns highlights the chimerical structures of HNL, PNL and TNL genes, and implies their possible origin via exon-shuffling during the quick lineage separation processes of early land plants.

  20. Bryophyte flora in upland forests at different successional stages and in the various strata of host trees in northeastern Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Caldeira Tavares-Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the northeastern region of the Brazilian state of Pará, approximately 90% of the forested areas are secondary forests. Secondary forests are interesting areas for floristic studies aimed at determining the effects that clear-cutting has on bryophyte communities. The aim of this study was to compare upland forests at different successional stages and the various strata of host trees, in terms of the bryophyte species composition. Bryophyte specimens were collected between August 2005 and September 2006 from host trees in primary and secondary forests of different ages and of different heights, within the municipality of Capitão Poço, in the state of Pará. The vertical distribution of bryophytes was evaluated in 15 host trees within the primary forest. We identified a total of 99 bryophyte species: 33 mosses and 66 liverworts. The dominant family was Lejeuneaceae, with 56 species. Most of the species (n = 60 had a neotropical distribution, and 3 species were endemic to Brazil. Cololejeunea minutissima var. myriocarpa (Nees & Mont. R.M.Schust., Pycnolejeunea papillosa X.-L. He, Radula mammosa Spruce and Verdoornianthus marsupiifolius (Spruce Gradst. represent new records for the state of Pará. In the successional forests evaluated, we identified 78 species, most of which (n = 38 occurred in primary forest. On the host tree trunks evaluated in the primary forest, we observed 31 species occurring at heights ranging from 2 m to 20 m. Despite the fact that secondary forests account for such a large proportion of the forested areas in Capitão Poço, we found that the bryoflora was relatively rich, comprising 31% of the species recorded for the state. The fact that 40% of the species recorded occurred exclusively in the secondary forests and the fact that 45.5% of the species recorded in primary forest occurred within the 2-20 m height range show the importance of studies focusing on bryophytes in secondary forests and in the upper strata of

  1. 苔藓植物DNA条形码的研究进展%The Review on the Study of Bryophytes DNA Barcode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 张安世

    2012-01-01

    [目的]概述DNA条形码在苔藓植物中的研究进展,为将该技术更广泛地用于苔藓植物研究提供参考.[方法]结合DNA务形码技术的发展及其在动、植物研究中的应用.概述了该技术在苔藓植物研究中的现状及研究进展,并呼吁建立专门的机构对苔藓植物进行系统的DNA条形码研究策略,加快苔藓植物的研究.[结果]DNA条形码技术已在动植物研究中得到了广泛的应用,在植物研究中尚未获得理想的被广泛认同的DNA条形码.但研究发现.各种候选片段为苔藓植物分子生物学的发展提供了便利的检测手段.随着该技术的逐步发展完善,其将会在苔藓植物的科学研究中发挥越来越大的作用.[结论]DNA条形码技术是近年来生物学研究的热点,该技术在生命科学、法医学、流行病学、医药及食品质量控制等领域均具有广泛的应用前景.其将极大地促进人类监测、了解以及利用生物多样性的能力.该研究为DNA条形码技术在苔藓植物研究中的应用提供了参考.%[Objective] The aim was to summarize the research progress of DNA barcode in bryophytes,to provide reference for using this technology in bryophytes research widely. [ Methods] Combining the development of DNA barcode technology and its application in animal and plant research,the status rjuo and the research progress of the technology in bryophytes research were reviewed,and calling for establishing the specialized institutions to study the DNA barcode in bryophytes systematically .expediting the study of bryophytes. [ Result] DNA barcode has been widely used in animal and plant research,however,in plant research,the ideal and widely accepted DNA barcode has not yet been obtained. But the research find that each candidate segment provide convenient detection means for the development of molecular systpmatics of bryophytes. With the gradually development and perfection of the technology, the technology

  2. 丽水市药用苔藓植物资源调查%Investigation on Medicinal Bryophytes in Lishui City, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓青; 王军峰; 纪佳娜

    2013-01-01

    The resources of medicinal bryophytes in Iishui were firstly surveyed, 59 species belonging to 46 genera in 33 families were reported as medicinal resources. A preliminary investigation of the habitat, distribution and therapeutic effect of 41 species was given, which can provide basis for further development and utilization of medicinal bryophyte in Lishui City.%对丽水市药用苔藓植物资源进行野外调查和研究,首次报道了丽水市药用苔藓植物33科46属59种,并对其中41种药用苔藓植物的生境、分布及药用功效进行了初步探讨,为丽水市药用苔藓植物的进一步开发利用提供依据.

  3. Rhynchostegium megapolitanum (Web. et Mohr) B.S.G.-A rare bryophyte in dune ecosystems of Zealand, Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Rhynchostegium megapolitanum was observed during a study of the effects of the invasive non-native Rosa rugosa in a sand dune. The vascular as well as the epiphytic and epigeic cryptogam vegetation was recorded., and soil properties were measured. Epihytic lichens were abundant on dead or dying branches of Rosa rugosa scrubs, under which the stable substrate and high light exposure provided growth conditions for an epigeic community dominated by lichens and bryophytes. The occurrence of the r...

  4. The Present Situation and Prospect of Bryophyte Research in Xinjiang%新疆苔藓植物的研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元明; 曹同; 潘伯荣

    2001-01-01

    新疆苔藓植物系统、全面的研究起步较晚。到目前为止,主要研究仅限于苔藓植物区系、形态解剖学的研究,同国内其它地区的苔藓植物区系研究尚有较大的差距。目前已记录的新疆苔藓植物有55科、163属、419种,而且昆仑山和阿尔泰山的区系研究还有待于进一步深入。尤其是在新疆苔藓植物生态学和多样性方面的研究仍处于空白状态。本文介绍了新疆苔藓植物研究的现状、存在的问题及对今后研究工作的展望。%The study of bryophyte in Xinjiang has become relatively lat e. The main research work only focus on bryophyte flora and morphological observ ation so far, and falls behind those reaserch work in some other provinces in Ch ina. The bryoflora in Xinjiang consists of 419 species belonging to 163 genera o f 55 families, while the bryoflora of Altai Mountains and Kunlun Mountains still need more investigations. Especially, the research of bryophyte ecology and bio diversity are still in blank field. This paper mainly deals with the prese nt situation, problems and prospect of bryophyte research in Xinjiang.

  5. 苔藓植物化感作用研究综述%Review on the Study of Allelopathy Effects of Bryophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊华; 王书平; 马海玲

    2014-01-01

    化感作用是自然界广泛存在的一种物种克生现象,对各生态系统类型具有重要影响。苔藓植物广泛分布于陆地生态系统中,已有的苔藓化感作用研究主要为化感作用的生物测定,整体上尚处起步阶段。该文简要阐述了苔藓植物化感研究的基础,介绍了近年来取得的主要进展,并重点就苔藓植物化感作用研究中存在的问题和今后的发展进行了探讨。%Allelopathy refers to the chemical inhibition of one species by another species,with releasing the inhibitory chemicals into the environment where it affects the development and growth of neighboring plants,and the plant allelopathy has an important influence on all ecosystems. Bryophytes are widespread in terrestrial ecosystems,but the researches on plant allelopathy are just beginning,which rest on the bioas-say of allelopathy. This paper introduced the feasibility of bryophytes allelopathy research ,elucidated the progress of research on the bryophytes allelopathy in the past decades,discussed the existing problems and direction in the field of bryophytes allelopathy.

  6. 一种新型生物能源发光苔藓的研究%Research on a New Kind of Biological Energy Luminous Bryophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚义; 张欣妮

    2012-01-01

    利用转基因技术将萤火虫的荧光基因和苔藓融合,产生一种新的生物替代能源,其原理是通过荧光现象和光合作用的协同,实现低消耗的能量循环,成为一个自给自足的供光体系。作为地下的供光系统,苔藓的某些生活特性可以有效地解决矿难的发生。其衍生品光苔灯,可以应用到公共环境照明中。以光苔能源改善社会的能源结构,从而达到可持续发展的目的,实现绿色能源的广泛普及。%By the transgene technology,the bryophytes trangensis can be done with the luciferase gene. Ultimately ,we can get a new kind of biological energy. The combination between photosynthesis and photoluminescence create a energy cycle with low consumption,providing a self- sufficiency illumination system for plants. As a lighting system underground, some fixed features of bryophytes can avoid mine disaster. Its derivative, the lamp made by luminous bryophytes, can be used in city life. In the end,the exist of luminous bryophytes will ameliorate the energy structure, aiming at realizing sustainable development and the availability of green energy.

  7. THE MEDICINAL BRYOPHYTES FROM SHANDONG PROVINCE%山东省的药用苔藓植物及开发利用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣艳君

    2000-01-01

    Report 20 species of medicinal bryophytes in Shandong Privince. They are belong to 15 families and 19 genera. Suggestions of the exploitation and utilizationwere also proposed.%报道了山东药用苔藓植物20种,隶属于15科19属;对进一步开发利用药用苔藓资源提出了建议。

  8. 山西省苔藓植物的研究概况及展望%The Present Situation and Prospect of Bryophyte Tesearch in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张二芳

    2009-01-01

    对山西省苔藓植物的研究现状进行了总结并依据现有文献资料整理出山西省苔藓植物名录,现已知山西省苔藓植物43科111属265种(含11变种,2亚种),其中,藓类34科100属250种(含11变种,2亚种),苔类9科11属15种.%This paper has summarized the present situation of bryophyte research in Shanxi Province. There are 265 species of bryophytes, 11 varieties and 2 subspecies belong to 111 genera and 43 families in Shanxi Province at present. Among them, there are 15 species of liverworts belong to 11 genera and 9 families, 250 species of mosses, 11 varieties and 2 subspecies belong to 100 genera and 34 families. The checklist of bryophyte in Shanxi Province is listed after this paper.

  9. Investigation on Bryophytes in Wansan Mercury Mining Area in Guizhou Province%贵州万山汞矿区苔藓植物物种调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美会; 龙正标; 谭琪明; 高扬

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to investigate bryophyte resources in Wanshan mercury mining area in Guizhou Province.[Method] Accord-ing to the appearance features and a variety of reference books,bryophyte resources in Wanshan mercury mining area in Guizhou Province were i-dentified.[Result] There was a total of 95 species(including subspecies and varieties),belonging to 52 genera of 27 families,comprised 84 spe-cies of moss,belonging to 45 genera of 21 families,and 11 species of liverworts,belonging to 7 genera of 11 species.[Conclusion] The diversity of bryophyte species in Wanshan mercury mining area in Guizhou is not abundant .%[目的]了解贵州万山汞矿区苔藓植物物种资源状况。[方法]根据外形特征并参考各种苔藓植物分类的工具书,对贵州万山汞矿区苔藓植物资源进行鉴定。[结果]该地区苔藓植物共有27科52属95种(包括亚种和变种),其中包括藓类21科45属84种,苔类6科7属11种。[结论]贵州万山汞矿区苔藓植物物种多样性不丰富。

  10. Brief Analysis of the Application of Bryophyte in Courtyard Landscape%苔藓植物在庭院景观中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李劲廷

    2015-01-01

    指出了由于庭院空间受到光照不足、排水不畅、面积较小等自身因素的限制,在造景时能选择的观赏植物种类较少、品种单一,导致部分的庭园景观出现了同一性。从苔藓植物的特点、优点出发,对苔藓植物在庭院景观中的应用进行了初步探索,以期对我国苔藓绿化和庭园景观的融合起到促进作用。%Due to the courtyard space has the disadvantages of insufficient lighting ,poor drainage and small areas ,it can only choose few ornamental plant species and varieties ,which cause that some of the courtyard landscapes are quite similar .Starting from the characteristics and advantages of bryophytes ,the article preliminarily explores the application of bryophytes in the courtyard ,which aims to promote the fusion of bryophytes and courtyard landscape in China .

  11. Distribution and Analysis on the Resource of Bryophytes in Luliang District%吕梁市区苔藓植物资源分布及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张二芳; 邵丽华; 刘永英; 赵建成

    2011-01-01

    The Bryophytes resources at six sampling sites in Luliang district of Shanxi province were investigated,collected , identified and analysed statistically. The results showed that there were 11 species under 8 genera and 3 families of bryophytes. Aloina rigida ( Hedw. ) Limpr is a new record of Shanxi province. As a typical drought-resistant type of moss, Aloina rigida is distributed in large number in five of sampling sites. And this reflected the Liiliang arid climatic conditions. The results showed that the bryophyte richness was related to human disturbance.%在山西省吕梁市离石城区选取6个样地,对苔藓植物资源进行了野外调查、标本采集、鉴定和数据统计.结果表明,吕梁市区共有苔藓植物11种,隶属于3科,8属.其中芦荟藓(Aloinarigida (Hedw.) Limpr.)属于山西省新纪录种.研究发现,属于典型耐旱型的芦荟藓在其中5个样地均有大量分布,反映了吕梁市干旱的气候条件.吕梁市苔藓植物的多样性还与人为干扰密切相关.

  12. Ecological functions of bryophyte:Recent research progress%苔藓植物生态功能研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田维莉; 孙守琴

    2011-01-01

    苔藓植物是一种形体微小、结构简单的高等植物,是水生向陆生的一种过渡形式,是高等植物中最原始的类群.随着研究的发展,人们越来越意识到苔藓植物在生态系统结构和功能中具有非常重要的作用,而且对苔藓在生物监测、水土保持、森林更新等方面已有一些研究和综述.本文针对目前环境科学研究中的一些热点问题,从全球气候变化、生态系统C、N、P循环等方面对近年来苔藓植物的生态功能研究方面的新进展进行了综述,以期加深人们对苔藓的认识并促进苔藓植物生态功能的进一步深入研究.%Bryophyte is a kind of higher plants with small size and simple structure, being the transitional form from aquatic to terrestrial and the most original group of existing higher plants.With the development of scientific research, people realized more and more the important roles of bryophyte in the structure and function of ecosystem.Some researches were made on the roles of bryophyte in environmental bio-monitoring, water and soil conservation, and forest regeneration.Aiming at the hotspots in environmental sciences research, and from the viewpoints of global climate change and ecosystem carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles, this paper summarized the recent research progress in the ecological functions of bryophyte, which could be helpful to deepen our understanding on bryophyte and to promote the researches of its ecological functions.

  13. Small-scale hydropower plants and rare bryophytes and lichens. Knowledge and lack of knowledge; Smaakraftverk og sjeldne moser og lav. Kunnskap og kunnskapsmangler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evju, Marianne; Hassel, Kristian; Hagen, Dagmar; Erikstad, Lars

    2011-08-15

    There is a large and increasing interest for the development of small-scale hydropower in Norway. Small-scale hydropower plants may impact the biological diversity negatively through destruction, degradation or fragmentation of habitats. Both the environmental investigations and the treatment of applications for small-scale hydropower plants put a great emphasis on red listed species, and in particular on red-listed bryophytes and lichens growing in stream ravines and in meadows and rock faces influenced by waterfalls. Bryophytes and lichens can be difficult to identify in the field, and knowledge of the species' ecology, distribution and population sizes is insufficient. A large review of environmental investigations of small-scale hydropower plants, documented that red-listed lichens were rarely recorded, and red-listed bryophytes were never recorded. In this report, we try to make visible the knowledge we have and the knowledge we lack of red listed bryophytes and lichens in areas in which the development of small-scale hydropower is relevant. Most focus is placed on bryophytes. The report is mainly a collation of existing knowledge. There is a great variation among stream ravines in the occurrence of species. Several factors, such as stability of moisture conditions, tree species composition and bedrock, interact to affect the occurrence of species. Red-listed bryophytes and lichens occur both in the forest and in affiliation with the stream. A reduction of local moisture, through e.g. logging of forest close to the stream or reduction of the water flow, will probably affect the species negatively. River regulation will change the frequency of flooding and affect the ice drift in the stream, which may negatively affect species living on dead wood in or close to the stream. Several species are vulnerable to deteriorated habitat quality and habitat fragmentation as their habitat requirements are narrow and their dispersal capacity is limited. However, we

  14. The vanguard role of bryophytes in the course of vegetation restoration of Karst degradation area%退化喀斯特地区植被恢复过程中苔藓的先锋作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王圳; 张金池; 于水强; 王潇; 王如岩; 崔晓晓

    2011-01-01

    在贵州花江喀斯特高原生态综合治理试验示范区内采集苔藓植物样品,鉴别了主要苔藓种类,测定苔藓植物的持水性能,分析了苔藓、岩石接触面形成土壤的化学性质.结果表明:试验区内苔藓植物共有11科26属65种,以藓类植物为主;自然状态下苔藓植物含水率为36%~89.8%;新鲜苔藓持水率为212.3%~515.9%;苔藓、岩石接触面的土壤属于土壤养分分级的一级标准,各项养分指标亦明显高于对照样地.苔藓植物对喀斯特石漠生境有极强的适应性,是石漠化及其他退化生态系统进行人工生态恢复中理想的物种选择.%In the comprehensive treatment ecological demonstration area of Huajiang Karst plateau in Guizhou province,by collecting samples of bryophytes, identifying the major bryophytes species, checking the water retention ability in bryophytes, analyzing the chemical properties of soil formation in rock contact surface. The results showed that: The bryophytes in experimental area consisted of 11 families, 26 genera, 65 species, were dominated by mosses. Water content of natural bryophytes was ranged from 36 % to 89. 8 %. The water holdup of fresh bryophytes was between 212. 3% and 515.9%. The soil in bryophytes and rock contact surface was in the first standard of the soil nutrients classification. The indicators of soil nutrient were much higher than the blank sample. The results indicate that bryophytes are strongly adaptable to the Karst area. It's an ideal choice to use bryophytes to restore vegetation to the stony desertification area.

  15. Briófitas de caatinga: 2. Agrestina, Pernambuco, Brasil Bryophytes of caatinga 2: Agrestina, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cavalcanti Pôrto

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área de caatinga do município de Agrestina (Lat. 8º27'28"S; Long. 35º57'13"W - PE foram identificadas 13 espécies de Bryophyta, pertencentes as famílias Frullaniaceae, Lejeuneaceae, Ricciaceae - Hepaticopsida-Bryaceae, Dicranaceae, Ephemeraceae, Fissidentaceae, Leucobryaceae, Pottiaceae e Stereophyllaceae - Bryopsida. Constituem-se novos registros para a região Nordeste Cololejeunea minutíssima (Sm. Schiffn. e Riccia brasiliensis Schiffn. e para Pernambuco Frullania dusenii Steph.In a caatinga area, located in Agrestina (Lat. 8º27'28"S; Long. 35º57'13"W - PE were identified 13 species of Bryophyte, distributed in the following families Frullaniaceae, Lejeuneaceae, Ricciaceae - Hepaticopsida - Bryaceae, Dicranaceae, Ephemeraceae, Fissidentaceae, Leucobryaceae, Pottiaceae e Stereophyllaceae - Bryopsida. Cololejeunea minutíssima (Sm. Schiffn. and Riccia brasiliensis Schiffn. are new records for the Northeast region, while Frullania dusenii Steph. represents a new record for the Pernambuco State.

  16. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  17. Research Progress in Bryophyte Sporogenesis%苔藓植物孢子发生的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于明; 周云龙

    2001-01-01

    Sporogenesis in bryophytes is a complex cytomorphogenetic process. It is characterized by precise nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions resulting in tetrads of haploid spores and the development of spore wall. The structure in cytoplasmic lobing, plastid and nuclear change, system of microtubules and the meiotic spindle, meiotic cytokinesis, spore wall development of bryophytesporogenesis are introduced in this paper.%苔藓植物孢子发生的过程是一个复杂的形态建成的过程,在此过程中,孢子母细胞经过减数分裂的两次精确的核分裂以及细胞质分裂,形成单倍体的四分孢子,再经孢子壁的发育过程,形成成熟的孢子。本文重点介绍了苔藓植物孢子发生过程中细胞质裂片、质体及核的变化、微管系统及纺锤体、胞质分裂和孢子壁形成过程的特点及其研究进展。

  18. 附生苔藓植物对城市大气环境的生态监测%Ecological monitoring of epiphytic bryophytes for air pollution in urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明昆

    2001-01-01

    伴随着工业化及城市化进程的推进而引发的大气污染问题正日益受到人们的重视。作为对大气污染敏感的附生苔藓植物在生态监测中起着十分重要的作用。文章探讨了附生苔藓植物与大气污染的关系及其在大气环境中的生态监测作用。%As indicators for environment, epiphytic bryophytes have an important role in air pollution. In this paper, the relationships between epiphytic bryophytes and urban air pollution, and the ecological monitoring methods of epiphytic bryophytes in urban air pollution are discussed.

  19. Analysis of Growth Situation of Two Types'Bryophytes on the Matrix of Building Materials%两种苔藓植物在建筑材料基质上的生长情况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金时超; 付茂; 郝钰斌; 刘宏涛

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years ,the application of the bryophytes is emerging .However ,the application of bryo‐phyte in building materials is still not mature enough .With the method of comparative experiments ,the arti‐cle chooses two kinds of common bryophytes in Wuhan ,namely Brachythecium albicans and Plagiomnium cuspidatum ,to study their growth on the many kinds of building materials .The article adopts the SPSS re‐gression analysis to predict the future growth .The results show that growth situations of bryophytes are both fine on the ecological concrete and clay bricks .Meanwhile ,by the growth of bryophytes on the slope and tree body ,the article preliminarily draws a conclusion that bryophytes can survive on the vertical space .Fi‐nally ,the article puts forward reasonable suggestions for the application of vertical greening in bryophytes .%采用对比实验的方法,对武汉市常见的青藓和尖叶走灯藓两种苔藓在多种建筑材料上进行了生长情况研究,运用SPSS回归分析,预测了未来可能的生长情况。结果表明:两种苔藓在生态砼和红土砖块上生长状况都比较好。通过苔藓在斜坡和树体上的生长情况,初步得出结论苔藓在垂直空间上可以生存生长,对苔藓的垂直绿化应用提出了合理的建议。

  20. A STUDY ON THE BRYOPHYTES OF KARST CAVE THRESHOLD AT KUNMING AREA IN YUNNAN PROVINCE, P.R.CHINA%中国昆明地区岩溶洞穴洞口带苔藓植物研究(摘要)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝晖; 彭涛; 李晓娜; 赵传海

    2004-01-01

    164 bryophyte specimens were collected from 12 karst caves in Yunnan Province, P.R. China. We found 25 species in 18 genera and 10 families which were listed with site, substrate, altitude, date, collectors . Fieldwork indicated the bryophytes grew within 0~26 m at the cave entrance. The cave luminous liverwort Cyathodium cavernarum Kunze was recorded in 6 caves. Two turf species, Gymnostomum aurantiacum (Mitt) Jaeg and G. recurvirostre Hedw. were associated with travertine deposition such as stalactite or wet stalagmite at thresholds.

  1. Study on Life Type and List of Bryophytes of Qixingguan Old Town in Bijie City%毕节市七星关老城区苔藓植物名录及生活型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋洁云; 朱娟; 张梦秋

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide a reference for other research and conservation urban bryophytes resources,this paper prepared lsit of bryophytes of Qixingguan Old Town in Bijie City and analyzed their life type.%该文编制了毕节市七星关老城区苔藓植物名录,并分析了其生活型类型,为毕节城区植物资源信息库补充资料以及苔藓植物资源的其它研究和保护提供参考依据。

  2. 内蒙古苔藓植物群落生态学研究综述%Review of Study on Community Ecology of Bryophyte in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌日嘎玛拉; 田桂泉

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the achievements in the community ecology of bryophyte research in Inner Mongolia are reviewed,which were floristic composition,geographical distribution,dominant species of different vegetations, reproduction and physiological ecology, and relationship between species distribution with environmental factors. Compared with other areas of China, fruitful results were achieved in the research of the bryophytes floristic and mosses reproductive ecology to reveal the formation and succession mechanism of bryophytes community, initial results of moss physioecology researches were achieved; meanwhile,we still have a long way to go in the research of community structure,pattern,niche,communities and patch development rate in different habitats,physiological ecology studies of bryophyte need to be extended further,and the research of reproduction ecology were short of studying on the adaptability difference and interspecies competition of the same and the different life form species in the process of population colonizing and expanding in different environments.%综述了内蒙古苔藓植物群落的物种组成、物种区系地理成分及优势种构成、藓类植物繁殖与生理生态学,以及苔藓植物群落生态分布与环境的关系等方面的研究进展.与国内其他地区相比,内蒙古苔藓植物群落区系研究,在以揭示群落形成和演替为目标的藓类植物繁殖生态学方面取得了丰富的成果,藓类植物生理生态学研究初见成效;群落结构、格局、生态位、不同生境群落及斑块发育速率方面的研究还有一定差距,生理生态学研究有待进一步拓展;在繁殖生态学方面,缺少不同物种、不同生活型物种的种群定居与扩展对环境的适应性差异和不同环境下种间竞争的研究.

  3. 河北省苔藓植物研究现状与展望%The Present Situation and Prospect of Bryophyte Research in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 王立宝; 王晓蕊; 赵建成

    2012-01-01

    在简要回顾河北省苔藓植物研究历史的基础上,重点介绍了河北省苔藓植物的研究现状,并指出了研究中存在的不足,为进一步的研究工作提出了建设性意见.%Based on the history of bryophyte study in Hebei province, the present situation was introduced in detail and the insufficiency was also pointed out.The prospect was put forward.

  4. Study on Bryophytes Flora in Tianma Nature Reserve of Anhui Province, China%天马自然保护区苔藓植物区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师雪芹; 陈家伟

    2012-01-01

    通过调查,天马自然保护区共有苔藓植物50科94属176种.保护区优势科为真藓科Bryaceae、曲尾藓科Dicranaceae、青藓科Brachytheciaceae、灰藓科Hypnaceae、提灯藓科Mniaceae、光萼苔科Porellaceae、锦藓科Sematophyllaceae、金发藓科Polytrichaceae、羽藓科Thuidiaceae和绢藓科Entodontaceae;优势属为光萼苔属Porella、曲柄藓属Campylopus、凤尾藓属Fissidens、真藓属Bryum、匐灯藓属Plagiomnium、泽藓属Philonotis和绢藓属Entodon.区系成分以东亚成分为主(37.04%),温带成分次之(33.33%),热带成分较少(25.31%).%176 species belonging to 94 genera in 50 families of bryophyte are reported in Tianma Nature Reserve located in the west of Anhui province. The predominant families are Bryaceae, Dicranaceae, Brachytheciaceae, Hypnaceae, Mniaceae, Porellaceae, Sematophyllaceae, Polytrichaceae, Thuidiaceae and Entodontaceae; predominant genera are Porella , Campylopus, Fissidens , Bryum , Plagiomnium , Philonotis , Entodon . Based on the analysis of geographic elements of species, the result shows the East Asiatic element is dominant, accounting for about 37. 04% , the temperate element accounts 33. 33% of the whole bryophyte flora and the proportion of the tropical element is 25.31 % .

  5. 6 New Genera Records of Bryophytes in Guangxi,China%广西苔藓植物6个新记录属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳雪; 曹同; 郭水良; 于晶

    2014-01-01

    在对广西上思十万大山进行野外调查和1000余份标本采集鉴定的基础上,报道了广西苔藓植物6个新记录属:白藓属( Leucomium Mitt.)、麻锦藓属( Taxithelium Spruce ex Mitt.)、拟绢藓属( Entodontopsis Broth.)、圆叶苔属( Jamensoniella ( Spruce) F.Lees.)、异鳞苔属( Tuzibeanthus S.Hatt.)和疣叶苔属( Horikawaella Hatt.&Amaka.),可为广西苔藓植物多样性研究和资源开发提供新的资料。%Based on field investigation and identification of the more than 1000 specimens collected from Shiwandashan,Shangsi, Guangxi.6 genera of bryophytes:Leucomium Mitt., Taxithelium Spruce ex Mitt., Entodontopsis Broth., Jamensoniella ( Spruce ) F.Lees.,Tuzibeanthus S.Hatt.and Horikawaella Hatt.&Amaka.were reported,which might provided the new datas for bryophyte's diversity research and data development in Guangxi.

  6. Progress and Application of Bryophyte Fossils Study%苔藓植物化石的研究进展及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇瑾; 白学良; 冯超; 福英; 张乐

    2012-01-01

    Bryophyte fossils provide very important scientific foundation to explore plant kingdom evolution and to reconstruct the ancient climatic environment. Here,through a lot of fossil materials,combining with nowadays advanced science technology and hot issues, we get these conclusions: (1)Bryophyte originated from the equator low latitude region of early Palaeozoic Era. The differentiation between mosses and liverworts took place in Ordovician period or even earlier. The trend of bryophyte diversity is increasing in the whole picture,and it is higher in the equator low latitude region, but the diversity of mosses is obviously different from liverworts diversity in individual geological,highlights. They have different sensitivity to the paleoclimate environment. (2)Both morphological and molecular evolution of bryophyte is slow, but to mosses,liverworts evolution is relatively faster. (3)For the changes and reconstruction of paleoclimate environment, the morphological characteristics, palynology studies, ancient molecular fossil analyses, and the isotope measure of C or O,all provide important scientific bases. Based on the above issues, constructive suggestions and views to the problems of these bryophyte fossil studies were provided.%苔藓植物化石为探索植物界物种进化发展和重建古气候环境提供了重要的科学基础.该文通过大量的化石资料,结合当今前沿科学技术和热点问题,从苔藓植物起源分化及物种多样性分布、形态表现及分子进化及古气候环境的重建等方面对该领域的研究成果进行了综述和总结.(1)苔藓植物起源于早古生代的赤道低纬度区,至少在奥陶纪时期就有了苔类与藓类的分化;其物种多样性总体上呈增加趋势,并具有低纬度区物种多样性高的特点,但个别地质年代苔类与藓类的物种多样性具有明显差异,凸显了二者对气候环境的敏感程度不同.(2)苔藓植物具有缓慢的形

  7. 新疆阿尔泰山苔藓植物生态特征及研究意义%Ecological Characteristics and Research Significance of Bryophytes in the Altai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买买提明·苏来曼; 帕孜来提·拜合提; 王建民; 王德萍; 努尔巴依·阿布都沙力克

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of the bryophytes into the Kanas Natural Reserve in the Altai Mountain,274 bryophtes species belongs to 130 genus,51 families and their characteristics were analysed and their ecological types and vertical distribution were discussed in this paper.It is concluded from the study that growth substrate and ecological water condition were the main factors effecting the distribution patterns of bryophytes,and we think it is of great significance to the study of bryophyte in Xinjiang, especially in bryophyte biodiversity, ecological protection and feasible approaches to the protection.%本文通过新疆阿尔泰山代表地区喀纳斯自然保护区苔藓植物调查,分析苔藓植物的物种组成特点,讨论该区苔藓植物的生态类型和苔藓植物的垂直分布,得出基质类型和水分生态因子是影响苔藓分布的主要因素,提出苔藓植物多样性和生态保护的意义,探求可行的保护途径.

  8. 苔藓植物matK基因PCR反应体系的建立和优化%Establishment and Optimization of matK gene-PCR Amplification System for Bryophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红建; 张安世

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To establish and optimize the matK gene-PCR reaction system for Bryophytes. [ Method ] Using genomic DNA of Bryo-phytes extracted via an improved CTAB method, single factor analysis was performed to investigate the impacts of DNA template concentration, primer concentration, 2 x Taq MasterMix concentration on matK gene-PCR amplification and to optimize this system for Bryophytes. [Result] The matK gene-PCR amplification(10.0 μl) suitable for Bryophytes was determined to be composed of 0.5 μl DNA, 0.2 μl primer and 5.6 μl 2 × Taq MasterMix. [ Conclusion] The study laid basis for analyzing the molecular systematics of Bryophytes.%[目的]建立和优化适合于苔藓植物matK基因的PCR反应体系.[方法]以鳞叶藓为材料,利用改良CTAB法提取了基因组DNA,利用单因素试验分析了DNA模板、引物和2×Taq MasterMix的浓度对苔藓植物matK基因PCR反应的影响,对适合苔藓植物的matK基因PCR反应条件进行了优化.[结果]适合苔藓植物的matK基因PCR反应体系为10.0 μl,其中含DNA模板0.5μl,正反引物各0.2μl,2×Taq MasterMix 5.6 μl.[结论]为苔藓植物的分子系统学等研究奠定了基础.

  9. 贵州早-中寒武世凯里组类似苔藓植物化石%Bryophyte-like Fossil (Parafunaria sinensis) from Early-Middle Cambrian Kaili Formation in Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞东; 毛家仁; 张位华; 姜立君; 高慧

    2004-01-01

    Abundant well-preserved animal and macroalgal fossils were discovered in the Early-Middle Cambrian Kaili Formation of Taijiang County, Guizhou Province, China, which constitute the Kaili Biota,named as one of the three important Burgess Shale-type faunas. The bryophyte-like fossil (Parafunaria sinensis Yang gen. et sp. nov) was discovered in the horizon of occurrence of Macroalgal fossils. The fossil of P. sinensis possesses typical characters of bryophyte, such as whorled leaves, capsule and seta, and complex rhizoid or foot. We infer that the bryophyte-like fossil could be the ancestor of bryophyte. The discovery provides a new lead for further study on the origin and evolution of bryophyte or land plant.%贵州台江早-中寒武世凯里组保存大量的生物化石,它构成了寒武纪重要的生物群之一--凯里生物群.在凯里生物群中保存有丰富的碳质薄膜藻类化石,新发现类似苔藓植物化石(Parafunaria sinensis Yang(gen.et sp.nov)),它具有藓类植物所拥有的典型的叶状体轮生现象、孢朔、孢朔柄和复杂的根系特征.推测它是藓类植物祖先,它为进一步研究藓类植物和陆生高等植物的起源和演化提供了新的线索.

  10. A study on bryophytes diversity in the main ecosystems in Changbai Mountain%长白山主要生态系统苔藓植物的多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹同; 郭水良

    2000-01-01

    长白山地区共有苔藓植物65科179属437种,32个变种和亚种.其中,石生和岩面薄土生种类(saxicolous bryophyte)最丰富,其次为腐木生种类(saprophytic bryophyte)和树生种类(epiphytic bryophyte),再次为土生种类(soil and humus bryophyte).沼泽地、水体等生境中的种类(peat, marsh and water bryophyte) 相对较少.地面生苔藓植物的物种丰富度以暗针叶林(dark conifer forest)最高,而多样性以落叶松-沼泽地(Larix olgensis-bogs)和暗针叶林为最高;腐木生苔藓植物的物种丰富度和多样性均以暗针叶林为最高,树附生苔藓植物的物种丰富度和多样性以暗针叶林以及红松阔叶混交林(Pinus koraiensis broad-leaved mixed forest) 与暗针叶林间的过渡林为最高.定性分析表明,海拔高度、林冠层郁闭度和林内湿度、土壤酸度、含水量、林下倒木的丰富程度等可能是影响本地区苔藓植物多样性的重要环境因子.

  11. 广西那佐自然保护区苔藓植物的组成与区系%Species and Floristic Composition of Bryophytes in Nazuo Nature Reserve in Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鹏; 熊源新; 王美会; 徐力; 马建鹏; 赵智艳

    2011-01-01

    为了解广西那佐自然保护区内苔藓植物的组成情况,对保护区内的苔藓植物进行调查研究,分析保护区内苔藓植物的物种组成及区系组成.结果表明,保护区内苔藓丰富性较低,有苔藓植物31科58属115种(含亚、变种),优势科为灰藓科Hypnaceae、丛藓科Pottiaceae、青藓科Brachytheciaceae和羽藓科Thuidiaceae,占优势的属为灰藓属Hypnum、曲柄藓属Campylopus、凤尾藓属Fissidens等;区系分析中温带与热带所占有的比例相当,说明该地苔藓植物具有温带向热带过渡分布的趋势.%Results from investigation of species and floristic composition of bryophytes in Nazuo Nature Reserve in Guangxi province showed that the bryophyte richness is low and there are 115 bryophytes species belonging to 58 genera and 31 families in Nazuo Nature Reserve in Guangxi province.The dominant families are Hypnaceae, Pottiaceae, Brachytheciaceae and Thuidiaceae. The dominant genera are Hypnum, Campylopus, Fissidens and so on. The proportion of bryophytes with temperate features is almost equal to that with tropical features, which indicate that distribution of bryophytes in Nazuo Nature Reserve have the trend of transition from temperate zone to tropical zone.

  12. Influence of sample size on bryophyte ecological indices%样方大小对苔藓植物生态学指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈蕾; 郭水良; 宋洪涛; 娄玉霞; 曹同

    2011-01-01

    为了分析样方大小对苔藓植物生态指标的影响,在环境相对一致的条件下,在各样点以巢式取样法调查苔藓植物盖度,取样的大小分别为20 cm× 20 cm,30 cm× 30 cm,40 cm×40 cm,50 cm× 50 cm,60 cm×60 cm.通过统计发现,随着取样面积的增加,目测法所获得的优势种、总的苔藓植物的盖度呈现下降趋势,但是非优势种和偶见种的盖度却有上升趋势;随着样方大小之间差异的扩大,所得调查数据间的差异也在扩大;随着取样面积的增加,样方中苔藓植物的多样性指数、生态位宽度和重叠值、苔藓植物的平均种数均符合饱和曲线的增加规律;取样面积大小对环境因子与苔藓植物分布之间关系的分析结果也有明显影响;在生境相对一致的土生环境下,苔藓植物的取样面积可考虑在40 cm×40 cm~50 cm× 50 cm的范围内.%In order to analyze the influences of sample sizes on byophyte ecological indices, plots were located using systematic sampling method under the similar ecological conditions,and the coverage of bryophytes were investigated by nested sampling method,the size of samples were 20 cm×20 cm,30 cm×30 cm,40 cm×40 cm,50 cm×50 cm and 60 cm× 60 cm, respectively. A total of 73 plots including 365 samples were surveyed in the present study. Bryophyrte coverages at each quadrat were recorded by vision estimation. Data analyses showed that the diversity indices,niche width and overlap,average species number of bryophyte per sample increased with the enlargement of sample size. Sampling size also affected the relationship between enviornmental varialbes and bryophyte distribution. In sites with relatively homogeneous habitats, sampling area for bryophyte communities could be considered from 40 cm× 40 cm to 50 cm× 50 cm.

  13. 杭州西溪湿地苔藓植物种类与群落调查%Investigation on Species and Communities of Bryophytes in Xixi Wetlands, Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季梦成; 缪丽华; 蒋跃平; 郑钢

    2015-01-01

    在野外调查、采集和标本检视基础上,记录杭州市西溪湿地苔藓植物33科48属58种1亚种1变种.其中,树生赤藓(Syntrichia laevipila)为浙江省分布新记录.该湿地苔藓植物种类丰富度及特有性较低,含5种的科只有齿萼苔科(Lophocoleaceae)和丛藓科(Pottiaceae),占总科数的6.1%;仅1种的科共18科,如缩叶藓科(Ptychomitriaceae)、牛毛藓科(Ditrichaceae)、珠藓科(Bartramiaceae)、木灵藓科(Orthotrichaceae)、疣冠苔科(Aytoniaceae)等,占总科数的54.5%.在苔藓群落中,土生苔藓群落占优势,而且土生苔藓群落的物种多样性也最丰富,其他依次为石生群落、木生群落、水生群落.生活型统计显示,交织型与丛集型占绝对优势,合计53种,占总种数的83.33%;漂浮型和悬垂型都只有2种,分别占总种数1.67%,基本不代表该区苔藓植物生活型特征.%Based on the field investigation and specimen examination,a total of 60 bryophytes species (including subspecies and varieties),belonging to 48 genera and 33 families were reported in Xixi wetlands of Hangzhou City.Syntrichia laevipila was considered as a new distribution record for Zhejiang Province.Diversity and endemic element of bryophytes was low in the study area.Lophocoleaceae and Pottiaceae both consisted of 5 species and accounted for 6.1% of all families.The 18 families (54.5% in total) including Ptychomitriaceae,Ditrichaceae,Bartramiaceae,Orthotrichaceae,Aytoniaceae etc.,only 1 genus was reported respectively in Xixi Wetlands.These bryophyte communities were grouped into 5 types:Bryo-Hydrophytia,Bryo-Geophytia,Bryo-Petrophytia and Bryo-Epixylophytia,among which Bryo-Geophytia was the dominant type.Statistical results indicated that wefts and turfs were most common bryophyte life forms.The 53 species belonged to the above two life forms,accounting for 83.33% of total species number;float ages and pendants had both 2 species which respectively contributed to 1.67

  14. Novas ocorrências de briófitas para vários estados do Brasil New records of bryophytes in the states of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cento e dezesseis espécies de briófitas são relatadas como novas ocorrências em vários estados do Brasil, sendo 62 de musgos, 53 de hepáticas e uma de antóceros. Estas espécies pertencem a 67 gêneros e 36 famílias. Para cada uma das espécies são apresentados dados quanto à distribuição geográfica no Brasil, localidade-tipo, basiônimo, bem como comentários sobre o substrato e as associações com outras espécies, quando pertinente. As espécies Acrolejeunea heterophylla (Evans Grolle & Gradst., Brachymenium wrightii var. mnioides (Besch. Florsch., Cheilolejeunea myriantha (Nees & Mont. Schust., Cololejeunea nigerica (E.W. Jones Schust., Lejeunea filipes Spruce, Leucodon julaceus (Hedw. Sull., Macromitrium clavatum Grout, Plagiochila asplenioides (L. Dumort., Polytrichum brachymitrium C. Muell. e Pylaisiadelpha tenuirostris (Bruch & Schimp. ex Sull. Buck estão sendo referidas pela primeira vez para o Brasil.One hundred and sixteen (116 species of bryophytes are reported as new records for certain Brazilian states, distributed in 62 mosses, 53 liverworts and one hornworts. Those species are distributed among 67 genera and 36 families. Geographical distribution in Brazil, type locality, basyonym, comments on substrate, and about association with other bryophytes, when possible. The species Acrolejeunea heterophylla (Evans Grolle & Gradst., Brachymenium wrightii var. mnioides (Besch. Florsch., Cheilolejeunea myriantha (Nees & Mont. Schust., Cololejeunea nigerica (E.W. Jones Schust., Lejeunea filipes Spruce, Leucodon julaceus (Hedw. Sull., Macromitrium clavatum Grout, Plagiochila asplenioides (L. Dumort., Polytrichum brachymitrium C. Muell. and Pylaisiadelpha tenuirostris (Bruch & Schimp. ex Sull. Buck are new records for Brazil.

  15. 黄山部分药用苔藓植物资源调查%Survey on Partial Resources of Medicinal Bryophytes in Mount Huangshan of Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明开; 师雪芹

    2011-01-01

    黄山地区药用苔藓植物资源丰富,种类多,分布广,蕴藏量较大,对其中的19种药用苔藓植物生境分布、药用功效作了初步调查,结果表明:鳞叶藓[Taxiphyllum taxirameum (Mitt.)Fleisch.]、金发藓(Polytrichum commune Hedw.)、东亚小金发藓[Pogonatum inflexum(Lindb.)Lac.]、大灰藓(Hypnum plumaeforme Wils.)、细叶小羽藓[Haplocladium microphyllum (Hedw.)Broth.]、大羽藓[Thuidium cymbifolium(Doz.et Molk.)B.S.G.]、匍灯藓[Plagiomnium cuspidatum(Hedw.)T.Kop.]、真藓(Bryum argenteum Hedw.)、葫芦藓(Funaria hygrometrica Hedw.)、黄牛毛藓[Ditrichum pallidum(Hedw.)Hampe]和地钱(Marchantia polymorpha L.)等蕴藏量较大,可供开发利用.%The resources of medicinal bryophytes in Huangshan Mountain are abundant with various species, wide distribution and plentiful re-serves. The distribution district and medicinal efficacies of nineteen species of medicinal bryophytes were investigated, and the results showed that: Taxiphyllum taxirameum (Mitt.) Fleisch. , Polytrichum commune Hedw), Pogonatum in flexum (Lindb.) Lac. , Hypnum plumaeforme Wils. , Haplocladium microphyllum ( Hedw. ) Broth. , Thuidium cymbifolium ( Doz. et Molk. ) B. S. G. , Plagiomnium cuspidatum ( Hedw. )T. Kop. , Bryum argenteum Hedw. , Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. , Ditrichum pallidum ( Hedw. ) Hampe and Marchantia polymorpha L. distributed in Mount Huangshan with vast reserves, which are capable of meeting the development.

  16. Improvement of boreal vegetation modelling and climate interactions through the introduction of new bryophyte and artic-shrub plant functional types in a land surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druel, Arsène; Krinner, Gerhard; Peylin, Philippe; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Peregon, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Boreal and tundra vegetation, which represents 22% of the global land area, has had a significant impact on climate through changes of albedo, snow cover, soil thermal dynamics, etc. However, it is frequently poorly represented in earth system models used for climate predictions. We improved the description of high-latitude vegetation and its interactions with the environment in the ORCHIDEE land surface model by creating new plant functional types with specific biogeochemical and biophysical properties: boreal shrubs, bryophytes (mosses and lichens) and boreal C3 grasses. The introduction of shrub specificities allows for an intermediate stratum between trees and grasses, with a new carbon allometry within the plant, inducing new interactions between wooden species and their environment, especially the complex snow-shrubs interaction. Similarly, the introduction of non-vascular plants (i.e. bryophytes) involves numerous changes both in physical and biological processes, such as the response of photosynthesis to surface humidity, the decomposition of carbon and the soil thermal conductivity. These changes in turn lead to new processes and interactions between vegetation and moisture (soil and air), carbon cycle, energy balance, etc. For the boreal C3 grasses we did not include new processes compared to the generic C3 grass PFT, but improved the realism of the carbon and water budgets with new boreal adjusted parameters. We assess the performance of the modified ORCHIDEE land surface model and in particular its ability to represent the new plant types (their phenology etc.), and evaluate the effects of these new PFTs on the simulated energy, water and carbon balances of boreal ecosystems. The potential impact of these refinements on future climate simulations will be discussed.

  17. 科尔沁沙地松树山地区苔藓植物物种多样性与分布特征分析%Species Diversity and Distribution of Bryophytes in Songshushan Region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田桂泉; 王子文

    2011-01-01

    通过标本采集和群落调查,探明科尔沁沙地松树山地区有苔藓植物76种(包括变种和亚种),可归为苔类(9种)和藓类(67种)两个大的类群,隶属于21科、41属;可划分为7种区系地理成分,以北温带成分、世界广布种和东亚成分为主要区系成分,分别有48种、12种和8种。石缝土层、岩面、树干小生境苔藓植物群落丰富,少数物种局限分布在一种小生境中,多数物种同时分布在两种以上小生境中。维管植物群落共有地面生苔藓植物39种,优势种有双色真藓(Bryum dichotomum)、土生对齿藓(Didymodon vinealis)、小疣冠苔(Mannia triandra)、西伯利亚疣冠苔(Mannia sibirica)、褶叶青藓(Brachythecium salebrosum)。随着水分条件改善,地面苔藓植物群落优势种构成发生有规律地变化,顶蒴藓类→顶蒴藓类+叶状体苔类→叶状体苔类+顶蒴藓类→侧蒴藓类+叶状体苔类+顶蒴藓类。认识群落随水分条件变化的特征对从更大尺度上认识苔藓植物结皮层形成和维持有重要参考价值。%Based on quadrat and community investigation in 2006 and 2008,76 species(including subspecies and varieties) of bryophytes were discovered in Songshushan region in Horqin Sandy Land,which can be classified into 2 taxonomical groups,namely liverwort(9 species) and mosses(67 species).These species are attached to 21 families and 41 genera,and can be categorized into 7 flora types,the majority of which are attached to North Temperate flora(48 species),Cosmopolitan flora(12 species),and East Asia flora(8 species).Many bryophyte species are distributed in the microhabitat such as stone crack soil,rock surface and trunk,among which most bryophyte species adapt to two or more than two kinds of microhabitat,only few to one kind of microhabitat.Thirty-nine species of the epigaeous bryophytes are discovered in different vascular plant community

  18. Advances in Studies on Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Bryophytes%苔藓植物化学成分及抑菌作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余治锦; 姜山

    2012-01-01

    苔藓植物是没有维管束的陆生植物,分为藓纲、苔纲和角苔纲3类。近年来的研究表明,苔藓植物能产生萜类、黄酮类及联苄类等生物活性物质,其中许多对病原真菌和细菌具有良好的抑制作用,是天然抗菌药物的重要来源。本文主要介绍苔藓植物的化学组成及其抑菌作用的研究情况。%Including Musci, Hepaticae and Anthocerotae, bryophytes are members of the land plants without vascular. Bryophytes can produce a great variety of bioactive compounds such as terpenoids, flavonoids and bibenzyls, some of which have obviously antifungal and antibacterial activities and are vital sources of naturally antimicrobial drugs. Chemical constituents of bryophyte and its antimicrobial activity are summarized and discussed in this paper.

  19. 苔藓监测空气重金属污染技术的研究进展%Research Advances in Bryophyte Monitoring Technology to Heavy Metal Pollution in the Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱霞; 方炎明

    2011-01-01

    苔藓是最敏感的大气污染指示植物之一,利用其可识别污染源,揭示大气重金属沉降随时间的变化规律及污染的时空变化格局,进而评价某地区的环境状况.从国内外发展概况入手,综述苔藓植物对大气重金属污染指示作用的研究进展.%Bryophyte is a group of the most sensitive indicator plants for air pollution monitoring. The application of bryophyte could help identify the pollution sources, indicate the deposition role of heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere and reflect the temporal and spatial change of the heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere. Based on the generalization of relevant researches both at home and in the world, this article summarized the studies on the indicating function of bryophyte to monitor heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere.

  20. Effect of Habitat Fragmentation on Bryophytes Diversity in the Thousand-Island Lake Region%千岛湖生境片断化对苔藓植物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹莹; 王幼芳; 汪岱华; 李敏; 左勤

    2011-01-01

    Based on an investigation of bryophytes on ten islands and one peninsula of the southeastern sub-region of the Thousand-Island Lake,the composition of bryophytes and the effects of habitat fragmentation on their diversity were studied. The results showed 129 species belonging to 71 genera and 37 families, among which 3 species were new to Zhejiang province. Geophytia, petrophytia and epixylophytia were dominant bryophyte communities. The bryoflora of the Thousand-Island Lake was characterized by East Asia elements represented by 39.45% of the entire species,followed by North Temperate elements and Tropical Asia elements which accounted for 20.18% and 18.35% .respectively. The distribution of 58 bryophyte species was affected by island area, while 29 species was unaffected. The relationship between island size and bryophyte richness showed a positive correlation.%选取浙江千岛湖东南湖区的10个岛屿和1个半岛,详细研究了苔藓植物组成及生境片断化对其多样性的影响.研究结果表明:该区域有苔藓植物37科71属129种,其中浙江新记录3种.群落类型主要包括土生群落、石生群落和树生群落.苔藓植物区系以东亚成分为主,其次为北温带成分和热带亚洲分布,分别占总种数的39.45%、20.18%和18.35%,说明该地区苔藓植物区系具有典型的东亚特征.岛屿面积对苔藓植物分布影响结果显示:不受岛屿面积影响的苔藓植物有29种,受岛屿面积影响的苔藓植物有58种;各岛屿苔藓植物物种数与岛屿累加面积存在明显正相关.

  1. Investigation on Bryophyte Resource in Qinyang Nature Reserve in Dushan County of Guizhou Province%贵州独山县琴阳自然保护区苔藓植物资源的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩敏敏; 熊源新; 孙中文; 杨冰; 杨林

    2012-01-01

    To enrich the bryophyte resource in Guizhou Province and provide the theoretical basis for this region to protect the bryophyte biodiversity, 407 bryophyte specimens from Qinyang Nature Reserve were collected and carefully identified. It was found that there were 204 species (including subspecies and variation) which belonged to 81 genera in 38 families. And five of them were newly recorded in Guizhou. According to the checklist, There were ten dominant families(Porellaceae, Frullaniaceae, Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiaceae, Pottiaceae, Thuidiaceae, Hypnaceae, Meteoriaceae, Neckeraceae and Brachytheciaceae) and nine dominant genera ( Porella, Frullania, Lejeunea, Marchantia, Thuidium, Plagiomnium, Brachythecium, Fissidens and Fissidens). The geographical distribution of various families and genera showed that the bryophytes in Qinyang Nature Reserve not only had temperate components, but also tropic and subtropical components. The bryophyte were all distributed on the centre transition zone from temperate zone to tropic zone no matter at which level of dominant families, genera or species.%为丰富贵州苔藓植物资料,并为该地区的苔藓植物生物多样性保护提供理论依据,对贵州琴阳自然保护区407份苔藓植物标本进行了整理和鉴定.结果表明:该地区苔藓植物共有38科81属204种(包括亚种和变种),其中,有5个贵州新纪录种;优势科10个,分别为光萼苔科、耳叶苔科、细鳞苔科、地钱科、丛藓科、羽藓科、灰藓科、蔓藓科、平藓科和青藓科;优势属9个,分别为光萼苔属、耳叶苔属、细鳞苔属、地钱属、羽藓属、匐灯藓属、青藓属、凤尾藓属和绢藓属.根据各科、属的地理分布状况可知,琴阳自然保护区苔藓植物既有温带成分,又有热带和亚热带成分,在优势科、属、种水平上,该地区苔藓植物都处于由温带向热带过渡的中心带上.

  2. 黔金丝猴活动区苔藓植物多样性研究%Studies on the diversity of bryophytes in the activity areas of Guizhou snub-nosed monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 牛克锋; 杨业勤; 杨传东; 熊源新

    2011-01-01

    Bryophytes diversity was studied at Yangaoping in the northeast of Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve. The results indicated that there were 46 families,85 genera.and 249 species (including the following categories units) of bryophytes,five species were new to Guizhou in this aera where Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys occur very frequently. The component with flora of temperate zone was the most abundant and accounted for 43. 32%, the bryophytes diversity in different altitude showed obvious differences,the broadleaved forest and evergreen mixed forest at higher altitude had more bryophytes than the bamboo forest at lower altitude. The altitude zone between 1200 m and 1800 m is used most frequently by Guizhou snub-nosed monkey. The bryophytes biodiversity also reflected that the stage of the elevation habitat was the most appropriate activity area of Guizhou snub-nosed monkey.%通过对梵净山东北部岩高坪区域苔藓植物以及对黔金丝猴活动区生境的研究,报道了黔金丝猴活动区苔藓植物46科,85属,249种(含种以下分类单位),其中贵州新记录种5个.从该区苔藓植物的组成看,温带区系成分最为丰富,占整个区系成分的43.32%;不同海拔的森林植被下苔藓植物的分布有明显的差异:阔叶林的苔藓植物多样性最高,竹林内苔藓植物多样性较低.在黔金丝猴活动最为频繁的海拔1 200~1 800 m范围内,苔藓植物的多样性也反映着该海拔阶段的生境是黔金丝猴最适宜的活动区.

  3. Briófitas do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ, Brasil Bryophytes of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Amitrano de Alencar Imbassahy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho representa uma síntese do conhecimento florístico de briófitas do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, com resultados de campo, material de herbário e publicações. Foram registrados 61 táxons de briófitas, pertencentes a 15 famílias e 33 gêneros. Para cada táxon foram analisados a distribuição geográfica, o tipo de substrato e a forma de vida. A família predominante foi Lejeuneaceae (25 espécies, seguida de Jubulaceae (sete, Calymperaceae (quatro e Sphagnaceae (quatro. Entre as espécies, predominaram as de distribuição Neotropical (35%. Com relação ao substrato preferencial, a maior parte dos táxons é corticícola. A forma de vida predominante foi o tapete, seguido pelo tufo e a trama. O Parque possui brioflora bastante representativa no que diz respeito à vegetação de restinga, com 45% dos táxons de briófitas conhecidas para as restingas no Brasil e 82% das conhecidas para as restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. É apresentada uma chave para identificação das espécies.We present a synthesis of the bryophyte flora in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, based on field work, herbaria material and bibliography. Sixty one taxa were recorded, in 15 families and 33 genera. For each taxa, we analyze geographic distribution, substrata and life form. The most species-rich family was Lejeuneaceae (25 species, followed by Jubulaceae (seven, Calymperaceae (four and Sphagnaceae (four. Most taxa have a Neotropical (35% distribution, and most taxa prefer the corticicolous substrate. Mat was the most common life form. The bryoflora of this National Park is an important reservoir of bryophyte diversity in the restingas, with 45% of the taxa known from the sandy coastal plains of Brazil and 82% known from the this habitat in Rio de Janeiro state. A key to identification of the species is given.

  4. Briófitas da caatinga 1: Estação Experimental do IPA, Caruaru - PE Bryophyte of caatinga 1: experimental station at the IPA, Caruaru - PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cavalcanti Pôrto

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento da brioflora de uma caatinga arbórea pertencente a Estação Experimental da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisas Agropecuárias (IPA, situada no município de Caruaru (8º08'00"-8º10'00"S, 36º02'00"-36º 10'00"W, Pernambuco. A área estudada compreende 20ha, tem altitude aproximada de 550m e médias anuais de precipitação e temperatura de 671 mm e 23ºC, respectivamente. As coletas foram realizadas durante as estações de estiagem (out-nov/1990 e chuvosa (mai-jun/1991, tendo sido investigados os seguintes substratos: solo, rocha, caules vivos e em decomposição. Registraram-se 16 espécies de briófitas, sendo 14 Bryopsida e 2 Hepaticopsida. Bryaceae e Fissidentaceae foram as famílias de maior representatividade específica na área. A maioria das coletas indicou a predominância de espécies terrícolas e saxícolas, seguindo-se as corticícolas e as epíxilas. O trabalho contém informações sobre distribuição geográfica e aspectos ecológicos das espécies.A floristic survey of bryophyte was carried out in a experimental station at the Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária at Caruaru (Lat. 8º08'00"-8º10'00"S; Long. 36º02'00"-36º10,00"W, Pernambuco State. This area has 20ha, an altitude of 550m, an annual rainfall average of 671mm and 23ºC of temperature. The bryophytes were collected during the dry season (oct-nov/1990 and the rain season (may-jui/1991, on the following substrata: soil, rocks, living and dead trunks. There were identified 16 species, 14 Bryopsida and 2 Hepaticopsida. Bryaceae and Fissidentaceae were the most rich families in number of species. In the studied area, the terricolous species were predominant followed by saxicolous, corticolous and the species of decaying wood. Geographical distribution and ecological informations about the species were included.

  5. Study of Bryophytes in Indigenous Lead and Zinc Mining Waste Land in Bijie Area%毕节地区土法冶炼铅锌废弃地苔藓植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洪; 向良志

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为进一步研究毕节地区铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物在废弃地的重金属修复的应用提供参考.[方法]对毕节地区铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物进行全面调查、标本采集和初步鉴定,并与铜矿、金矿、汞矿区苔藓植物进行比较.[结果]铅锌矿废弃地有苔藓植物4科、14属、30种,有丛藓科和真藓科2个优势科.与铜矿、金矿、汞矿区苔藓植物相比,铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物物种丰富度指数最低,为-0.958 0,种相似性指数也最低,为13.56%,铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物生活型以矮丛集型为主.在4个矿区中,有5种广泛分布的苔藓植物种类,分别是北地扭口藓、双色真藓、银藓、卵蒴丝瓜藓、硬叶对齿藓.[结论]这些种类为进一步利用苔藓植物研究铅锌矿废弃地植被修复提供较好的材料.%[Objective] The research aimed to provide the reference for the application of the bryophytes in the vegetation restoration of the heavy metals in lead and zinc mining waste land in Bijie Area. [ Method] The comprehensive investigation, the collection, and the identification of the bryophyte in lead and zinc mining waste land in Bijie area were carried out. And the bryophytes in lead and zinc mining waste land were compared with those of copper mine, gold mine and mercury mine. [ Result] 30 mosses species in 14 genera of 4 families were reported at the region. There were two dominiant families that were pottiaceae and bryaceae in the region. And species richness of the bryophytes was the lowest in lead and zinc mining waste land, and it was -0. 958 0. The similarity coefficient of the species was the lowest, too. It was 13.56%. Short turfs was the dominant life-forms of the bryophytes in lead and zinc mining waste land. At the same time, there were 4 species of widespread bryophytes found in the four mine. They were Barbula fallax Hedw. , Bryum dichotomum Hedw. , Anomobryum filiforme ( dicks. ) husn. , Pohlia proligera ( kindb

  6. Effect of Stand Structure on Epiphytic Bryophytes in Guizhou Yushe National Forest Park%贵州玉舍国家森林公园林分结构对树附生苔藓的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨再超; 谢斐; 林长松; 左经会; 向红; 廖雯

    2015-01-01

    Species of epiphytic bryophyte of three stands in Yushe National Forest Park were surveyed and the effect of stand structure on epiphytic bryophyte was studied by community diversity index and ordination method to further study the ecological system structure,function and ecological process of subtropical mountain forest and to provide the scientific basis for protection and management of forest resources in subtropical mountain area.The results showed that there are 18 epiphytic bryophytes (including 1 mutation).RDA reveals that the effect of tree density on epiphytic bryophyte community is higher than other factors,which can explain 71.7% of total variance.Stand type has the greatest impact on distribution of epiphytic bryophyte.The cover degree and diversity of epiphytic bryophyte is the highest and the lowest in conifer mixing forest at the tree level of different forest stand. Therefore, the management measures to keep complexity of stand structure and tree diversity are beneficial to protect diversity of epiphytic bryophyte according to different stands.%为深入研究亚热带山地森林生态系统结构、功能及生态过程,为亚热带山地森林资源的保护和管理提供科学依据,对玉舍国家森林公园3种林分树附生苔藓种类及相关因子进行调查和测定,并应用群落多样性特征指数和排序的方法研究林分结构对树附生苔藓的影响。结果表明:树附生苔藓种类有18种(含1变种);冗余分析(RDA)揭示树木密度对附生苔藓群落的影响超过其他因子,解释了总变量的71.7%;林分类型对附生苔藓的分布影响最大,在十齿花为优势群落的混合林中不同林分树木水平上树附生苔藓的盖度和多样性最高,而在针叶混合林中最低。因此,进行森林管理时,应注意对不同林分的选择管理,以维持林分结构复杂性和树种多样性,进而更好地保护树附生苔藓的多样性。

  7. 江西官山2种苔藓植物叶片氮磷化学计量学特征%The leaf nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry of two bryophyte species in Guanshan Mountain, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昕; 欧阳明; 黄兰; 徐佳文; 林国江; 杨清培

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) stoichiometry is crucial to plant growth, development and adaptive capacity. Bryophytes belong to ancient plant groups, can adapt to the change of the natural environment for a long time. However, The leaf N and P stoichiometry and adaptation mechanism for bryophytes are still unclear. In this study, two typical bryophytes (Marchantia polymorpha, Hypnum plumaeforme) and two kinds of angiosperms (Rubus buergeri, Schima superba) which as a control were selected in Guanshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi province, then comparatively analyzed the leaf N and P content, leaf N:P and coefficients of variation and so on. Results showed that: (1) Bryophytes leaf P average content was 2.58 mg/g, significantly higher than that was 1.97 mg/g in two angiosperms, while leaf N:P average was 5.99, obviously lower than 8.35 of angiosperms. (2) The variation range was great of leaf N, P and N:P in bryophytes, whose variation coefficients were 18.94%, 22.05%and 18.52%, respectively were higher than 13.16%, 10.69%, and 13.00% of angiosperms. Above results indicated that bryophytes owned high P content, low N:P and had strong plasticity, we suggest that the ecological adaptation and environmental transformation function of bryophyte should be continue to study in depth.%氮(N)、磷(P)化学计量学特征对植物的生长发育及适应能力至关重要,苔藓植物属古老的植物类群,能够长期适应自然环境的变化,但其氮磷化学计量学特征及适应机制尚不清楚. 本文在江西省官山国家级自然保护区选择2种典型苔藓植物地钱(Marchantia polymorpha) 和大灰藓(Hypnum plumaeforme), 并以2种被子植物寒莓(Rubus buergeri)和木荷(Schima superb)为对照,比较分析了叶片的N、P含量、N:P和变异系数等指标. 结果表明:(1)与2种被子植物相比,苔藓植物P含量较高,N:P较低,其叶片P含量平均值为2.58 mg/g显著高于被子植物的1.97 mg/g,而其

  8. Bryophytes of Karst caves in Guilin area, China%中国桂林岩溶洞穴苔藓植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝晖; 赵传海; 李晓娜; 彭涛; 黄文琥; 姜洪

    2005-01-01

    192 byophyte specimens were collected from 17 caves in the Guilin Karst area,Guangxi,China. 28 species in 18 genera and 13 families were listed with site,substrate,altitude,date,collectors. Among them,16 taxa are new records for Guangxi Autonomous Region. The fieldwork indicated the bryophytes grew within 0~32 m. distance with weak light from the cave entrance. Three turf species,including Gymnostonum calcareum Nees et Horsch.,G.recurvirostre Hedw. and Philonotis turneriana(Schwaegr.)Mitt. were associated with cave travertine deposition at thresholds.%对采自中国广西桂林17个岩溶洞穴的192份苔藓植物标本进行研究,报道了洞穴苔藓13科19属28种,其中含广西苔藓植物新记录16种.野外观察表明,桂林岩溶洞穴苔藓植物主要分布于洞穴洞口0~32 m弱光带范围内.三种丛集型藓类植物:净口藓、钩喙净口藓和东亚泽藓参与岩溶洞穴洞口带钙华沉积.

  9. Bryophyte and pteridophyte spores and other palynomorphs in quaternary marine sediments from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological descriptions and ecological data of cryptogam spores and other non-pollen palynomorphs from Quaternary sediments of Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. The ages were derived from biostratigraphy of planktonic foraminifers and two radiocarbon dates, and suggest that sediment deposition started in the last 140,000 years BP. Thirty different types of palynomorphs were identified, described, and photographed: two bryophyte spores (sensu lato; 21 pteridophyte spores; four freshwater microalgae; onePseudoschizaea; and two microfungi. Some of the identified spores (Sphagnum, Blechnum, Cyatheaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Lycopodiella, Microgramma, Polypodium, Acrostichum, Pityrogramma, and Lygodium are related to the modern flora found on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, at the Restinga of Jurubatiba, from vegetation types such as shrub swamp/coastal swamp formation, seasonally flooded forest, Clusia and Ericaceae woods, and disturbed vegetation. The freshwater microalgae and the microfungi are also presently recorded from the coastal lagoons of this region. The high spore concentration in slope sediments reflects the intense terrigenous influx, caused by a relative low sealevel during glacial stages. Palynological analysis suggests the presence of taxa from flooded forests and humid areas in the coastal plain during glacial and interglacial stages of the Late Pleistocene.

  10. 喀喇昆仑山—西昆仑山地区苔藓植物的生态地理分布特点%The Eco-geographical Distribution Pattern of Bryophytes from Karakorum-West Korum Area in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买买提明·苏来曼; 热西丹·尼格买提; 龚佐山; 艾克巴尔·阿布都拉

    2012-01-01

    喀喇昆仑山—昆仑山地区位于我国西北边疆,约为北纬33~39°、东经74~83°.是青藏高原西北隅及北部边缘的高山、高原区.作者于2008~2011年多次深入新疆喀喇昆仑山地区的叶城县,对苔藓植物进行详细的野外考察,采集标本3 000余份.经查阅有关资料和标本鉴定,确定新疆喀喇昆仑山共有苔藓植物32科、76属和178种(含5变种).其中苔类为7科、8属和11种,藓类25科、68属和167种,包括新疆苔类新记录2种,藓类新记录7种.根据野外调查,新疆喀喇昆仑山苔藓植物带可划分为山前荒漠草原苔藓植物带(1 870~3 200 m)、山地针叶林苔藓植物带(3 200 ~3 600 m)、亚高山灌丛草甸苔藓植物带(3 600~4000 m)、高山草甸苔藓植物带(4000~4500m)和高寒冻土苔藓植物带(4 500 ~5 000 m)5个苔藓分布带,其中山地针叶林苔藓植物带是苔藓植物分布最为丰富的地段.该山区的地理位置、植被类型、气候特点决定了苔藓植物垂直分布格局,而优越的水分条件是影响其分布的主要因素之一.%Karakorum-Westkorum area is located at the west of China between the latitudes 33~39 ° N and longitudes 74~83 ° E ,extending to the most northwestern part and northern fringe of Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Through the comprehensive field investigation of the bryophytes in Karakorum-West korum area during 2008 to 2011, we totally collected more than 3 thousand of specimens of bryophytes. After detailed examination, 32 families, 76 genera and 178 species (including 5 varieties) of bryophytes have been confirmed there. Among them, 7 families, 8 genera and 11 species are liverworts, and 25 families, 68 genera and 167 species are mosses. There are 9 newly recorded species(2 liverworts and 7 mosses) to Xinjiang. Based on field surveys, the vertical distribution pattern of bryophytes was divided into five parts: piedmont desert steppe zone with bryophytes (1 870~3 200 m), montane

  11. 重庆市不同功能区苔藓植物重金属含量及吸附特性研究%Heavy Metal Contents of Bryophytes and Their Adsorption Characteristics in Different Functional Zones of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进猛; 王定勇; 陈益; 刘超; 张迪男; 魏琴

    2012-01-01

    Bryophytes species in different functional zones of Chongqing were sampled to determine their heavy metal (Cu, Zn and Cd) contents, and several widely distributed species were selected to study their heavy metal adsorption characteristics. The results showed that the heavy metal contents in the bryophytes were different in different urban functional zones. The Cu, Zn and Cd contents in the industry zones were 2-3 times as high as in nature reserves. Marchantia was shown to have a very strong enrichment capacity for heavy metal ions (Cd>Zn>Cu). A significant positive correlation existed in the contents of heavy metals in Bryophytes (p><0.01). Heavy metal adsorption by the Bryophytes species studied could be well fitted by Freundlich and Temkin equations. Based on Langmuir equation, the maximum heavy metal ad sorptions were calculated. The results showed that Leucobryum had greater adsorptive capacity (4. 71 mg/ g) for Cu than other bryophytes, Marchantia had the greatest adsorptive capacity for Zn (4. 13 mg/g) and Brotherella had the greatest adsorptive capacity for Cd (4. 39 mg/g) , suggesting that Bryophytes in different functional zones of Chongqing had a good capacity of heavy metal adsorption and could be used for atmospheric heavy metal pollution monitoring.%采集了重庆不同城市功能区的主要苔藓类型,分析了其重金属(Cu,Zn和Cd)含量,并选择几种分布较广苔藓进行重金属等温吸附试验.结果表明,重庆城区苔藓中Cu,Zn和Cd三种重金属含量因所处城市功能区的不同而不同,工业园区苔藓中重金属的含量是自然保护区的2~3倍.地钱属苔藓对三种重金属的都具有较强的富集能力.对Cd的富集能力最强,其次是Zn和Cu.Cu,Zn和Cd在苔藓植物体内的含量都具有显著的正相关关系(P<0.01).几种苔藓植物对三种金属离子的等温吸附可以很好的用Freundlich和Temkin方程进行拟合.由Langmuir 方程计算苔藓植物对重金属的最大吸附量,

  12. Investigation on the flora of bryophytes in Yueliang Mountain Nature Reserve, Guizhou%月亮山自然保护区苔藓植物区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈洪英; 熊源新; 曹威; 钟世梅; 罗先真

    2015-01-01

    通过对贵州省月亮山自然保护区采集的约1000份标本的整理和鉴定,得出该地区苔藓植物有69科147属374种。对374种苔藓植物进行物种组成和区系成分的分析,得出优势科16个,优势属6个,区系划分为15种类型,其中中国—日本成分所占比例最大,并且区系成分具有由温带向热带过渡的特点。%Yueliang Mountain Nature Reserve is located at the junction of four counties:Chongjiang County, Rongjiang County, Sandu County and Libo County, at the longitude E 108°14′-109°12′, and latitude N 25°19′-26°03′, with a total area of 24800 hm2 . The flora of bryophytes is investigated for the first time through the study of 1000 collected specimens. A total of 374 species of bryophytes are identified, which be-long to 147 genera in 69 families. The species and floristic composition for the 374 species were analysed, with 16 families and six genera dominating the flora. The flora can be divided into 15 floristic elements, dom-inated by the Sino—Japan( SJ) element. The bryophytes flora in Yueliang Mountain Nature Reserve have the characteristics of transition from temperate to tropical elements.

  13. 苔藓植物对贵州丹寨汞矿区汞污染的生态监测%Ecological monitoring of bryophytes for mercury pollution in Danzhai Mercury Mine Area,Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣相; 王智慧; 张朝晖

    2011-01-01

    采用野外生态学系统取样方法和室内理化分析方法相结合,分别从苔藓植物地球化学特征、物种丰富度、群落类型、群落的结构等生物学特征上,探讨苔藓植物对丹寨汞矿区汞污染的生态监测.丹寨汞矿区苔藓植物共20个科,34属85种;真藓科和丛藓科占优势.在汞污染程度不同的4种生境梯度中,汞含量均超出国家土壤环境质量三级土标准的10倍以上.各研究生境梯度真藓(Bryum argenteum),丛生真藓(Bryum caespiticium)和狭叶小羽藓(Haplocladium angustifolium)体内的汞含量与其生境基质(土壤)的汞含量在P<0.01水平上呈显著的正相关;且信度系数履均大于0.9,表明被测苔藓植物在地球化学特征上具有监测环境汞污染的生态功能.物种丰富度特征方面,汞污染严重区域物种丰富度较低;而污染程度相对较轻区域物种丰富度则较大;表明了该区苔藓植物丰富度总体上可以作为环境中汞污染的监测指标之一.群落学特征方面,群落类型丰富度在汞污染较重的区域丰富度较低;而苔藓植物群落结构方面,在汞污染较重区域过渡到汞污染相对较轻区域,纯群落数在逐渐减少,但3种及3种以上组成的群落数却有所增加.表现了苔藓群落结构组成越简单则该区汞污染较严重,苔藓植物结构组成越复杂则该区的汞污染程度相对较轻.这说明厂苔藓植物群落特征也较适合作为汞矿区生态监测的指标.在汞污染区过渡到相对清洁区的污染过渡带,苔藓物种多样性和群落类型趋于多样化,产生了较明显群落边缘效应.%Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant and poses a worldwide concern due to its high ecological risk. Ecological monitoring of mercury pollution in Danzhai Mercury Mine Area was studied using bryophytes by means of a systematic sampling design in the field and a physicochemical analysis in the laboratory. Geochemical characteristics, species

  14. 重庆四面山自然保护区苔藓植物资源的调查%Investigation on Bryophytes in Simian Mountains Nature Reserve in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍彬

    2012-01-01

    Based on an investigation and preliminary taxonomy in Chongqing Simian Mountains nature reserve area, the results showed that there are totally 34 families,52 genera and 62 species of bryophytes in this area, the resources are very rich.%在调查、分类和鉴定的基础上,发现重庆四面山自然保护区苔藓植物有34科、52属、62种,蕴藏资源丰富.

  15. Briófitas de praias do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Bryophytes from sea-shores of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho compõe-se de uma lista de briófitas, um grupo de plantas ausente em ambientes marinhos, porém ocorrente em condições arenosas e salinas e sob ação das ondas e dos ventos nas praias de Ubatuba, Bertioga e Peruíbe, no Estado de São Paulo. O material coletado encontra-se depositado nos herbários SP e HRCB. As 108 exsicatas com 67 amostras de hepáticas e 59 amostras de musgos incluem 25 famílias, 49 gêneros e 77 espécies de briófitas. Os maiores números de gêneros e espécies foram observados em Lejeuneaceae e Lejeunea, respectivamente, entre as hepáticas. O mesmo pode ser dito para Orthotrichaceae e Bryum, quanto aos musgos. São citadas 29 espécies, pela primeira vez, para determinados tipos de substratos como solo, casca de arbustos e rochas. As hepáticas Ceratolejeunea laetefusca (Austin R.M. Schust., Colura ulei Ast., Lejeunea bermudiana (A. Evans R.M. Schust. e os musgos Calymperes afzelii Sw., Fissidens serratus Müll. Hal. e Weissia controversa Hedw. são citados pela primeria vez para o Estado de São Paulo. As hepáticas superaram os musgos em número de gêneros e espécies. Todas as espécies listadas são citadas pela primeira vez para praias.This paper is a list of the bryophytes found in sandy and saline conditions under action of waves and winds of sea-shores in Ubatuba, Bertioga and Peruíbe Municipalities, São Paulo State, Brazil. The group does not exist in marine environments. The material is deposited in SP and HRCB herbarium. The 108 exsiccatae with 67 samples of hepatics and 59 samples of mosses include 25 families, 49 genera and 77 species of bryophytes. Concerning to hepatics, the largest number of genera and species were found in Lejeuneaceae and Lejeunea, respectively. The same was observed on Orthotrichaceae and Bryum for mosses. Twenty-nine species are cited for the first time for these kind of substrates as soil, bark of shrubs and rocks. The hepatics Ceratolejeunea laetefusca (Austin R

  16. 近五十年内蒙古大学校园内苔藓植物物种组成变化%Changes of Species Composition of Bryophytes in the Campus of Inner Mongolia University in Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇瑾; 白学良; 福英

    2012-01-01

    The bryophyte is one important component of the plant flora,but the research on the diversity of bryophyte communities in campus is vacancy in China. Some bryophyte specimens in the campus of Inner Mongolia University in 1964 were kept in the plant herbarium)and in the same site new specimens were collected in 2010 by setting up sample plot. Old and new specimens were identified and examined. The results of species composition of bryophytes in different year were obtained. There are 9 families,19 genera and 31 species of bryophytes in the year 1964,most of the species are drought tolerant moss in large ecological amplitude. But in the year 2010,there are 12 families,20 genera and 42 species of bryophytes, some species favor wet environment increase. The main geographical elements of the bryophytic flora of the campus in the two different years are the same,and both are Northern temperate elements and cosmopolitan. This is determined by geography and climate of this city. Similarity coefficient of species composition of bryophytes in 1964 and 2010 is 0. 4384,and it shows that the similarity is in a high level. There was a single habitat type in 1964,and only a few species distributed. With the construction of campus, more habitat types emerged in 2010. The new settlers and most species distributed in the plantations, shade of the buildings and wet soil in the open ground. On the other hand, with bare earth area reduced, the lost of wet environment made some species disappear in the campus. This highlights the effects of microhabitats diversity on the plant diversity and distribution.%苔藓植物是植物区系的一个重要组成部分,但我国对校园微环境苔藓植物多样性变化的研究仍处于空白阶段.2010年通过样方布设法对内蒙古大学校园内的苔藓植物进行采集,并通过镜下观察,将2010年所采集的标本与内蒙古大学馆藏1964年同样地的标本进行鉴定与比较.整理出1964年有苔藓植物9科、19

  17. Bryophyte species diversity in seven typical forests of the West Tianmu Mountain in Zhejiang, China%浙江西天目山主要森林类型的苔藓多样性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪岱华; 王幼芳; 左勤; 李敏; 吴文英; 黄建花; 赵明水

    2012-01-01

    苔藓是森林的重要组分,是森林保护区的重要保护对象,在物种资源和生态系统功能维护中有重要作用.该研究以浙江西天目山国家自然保护区内7种主要森林类型(落叶矮林、落叶阔叶林、常绿-落叶阔叶混交林、常绿阔叶林、针阔混交林、针叶林和竹林)内的苔藓植物为对象,调查了32个10m× 10m的样地,记录地面生苔藓植物盖度和树附生苔藓植物多度,采用重要值、相似性系数、多样性指数分析了森林类型间的苔藓植物多样性差异.共采集969份标本,隶属41科84属142种,其中苔类植物13科18属33种,藓类植物28科66属109种,优势科为灰藓科、青藓科和羽藓科.2种混交林(常绿-落叶阔叶混交林和针阔混交林)的物种丰富度和多样性指数均高于其余5种森林,其中物种丰富度以针阔混交林最高,苔藓植物多样性则以常绿-落叶阔叶混交林最高,竹林两者均为最低.海拔等环境因子较为接近的植被类型的苔藓植物多样性相似性较高,常绿阔叶林与针叶林相似性最高,而落叶矮林和竹林相似性最小.%Aims Bryophytes are an important component of forest vegetation. Their species diversity is vital to protecting plant resources and ecosystem diversity. Our objective was to explore the diversity and distribution of bryophytes and the relationship between bryophyte diversity and environment factors in seven dominant forest vegetation types (deciduous broad-leaved shrubs, DBS; deciduous broad-leaved forest, DBF; evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, EDF; evergreen broad-leaved forest, EBF; coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest, CBF; coniferous forest, CF; bamboo forest, BF) of West Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province, China. Methods Thirty-two sites (10 m × 10 m) were established in the seven forest vegetation types. Sixteen plots were selected by systematic sampling in each sampling site. Coverage of floor bryophytes and abundance of

  18. Comparison of bryophyte diversity in West Tianmu Mountain from 1977 to 2011%浙江西天目山30年来苔藓物种多样性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪岱华; 王幼芳; 左勤; 李敏; 魏倩倩; 李晓芹; 赵明水

    2013-01-01

    Bryophyte diversity plays an important role in forest ecosystems and is important in conservation. Based on two surveys of the bryophyte flora in West Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province, China, conducted between 1977 and 1980, and 2010 and 2011, respectively, an analysis was made of changes in bryophte diversity from 1977 to 2011. We found that: (1) in the past three decades, the number of species, genera and families of bryophytes, especially of liverworts, has tended to decline; (2) Brachytheciaceae, Dicranaceae, Hypanceae and Pottiaceae remain as the dominant families; (3) the stability of families is higher than that of genera and species; and (4) the greatest changes have occurred in the buffer zone, where the number of species new to the nature reserve is the highest. Most bryophytes are distributed in the area around the entrance to the Old Openning Temple in the core zone. This area shows the highest Sθensen similarity and proportion of new liverwort species. In contrast, from the Old Openning Temple to Xianren Peak in the core zone, only a few species occur and the community exhibits the lowest Sφrensen similarity. We suggest that the core zone should be regarded as a key area for bryophyte protection in the region.%苔藓物种多样性变化对苔藓植物保护和森林生态系统健康起着重要的预警作用.基于1977-1980年和2010-2011年对西天目山国家自然保护区苔藓植物的两次详细调查,本文比较了该地区1977-2011年间苔藓植物物种多样性的变化.结果表明:(1)在过去的30年间,该地区苔藓植物的科、属、种数均呈下降趋势,苔类植物的属、种数减少尤为显著;(2)青藓科、曲尾藓科、灰藓科和丛藓科一直为该地区的优势科;(3)科的稳定性均高于属、种;(4)缓冲区的总物种数变化最大,新增物种数最多;核心区(进山门-老殿)苔藓植物种类始终最为丰富,两个时期的物种相似性最高,且苔类占

  19. Water Conservation and Pedogenic Function of Bryophytes in Abandoned Carlin Gold Mine%废弃卡林型金矿区结皮苔藓植物蓄水作用和成土功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登富; 王智慧; 张朝晖

    2012-01-01

    The bryophytes found in an abandoned Carlin gold mine of Xingyi City, Guizhou Province were in- vestigated in this study. According to field survey and identification of the bryophyte specimens, seven taxa in six genera of four families were found. Pottiaceae and Bryaceae were the dominant families and no Hepati- cae and Anthocerotae was identified. The life-forms of the bryophyte were mainly short turfs(85.71%) and the others were wefts(14.29%). The dominant bryophytes are Barbula rigidula (Hedw.) Mild., Bryum blindii B. S. G. , Trichostomu brachydontium Bruch. and Brachythecium perminusculum C. Muell. Of these species, the biomass range from 3.00 to 52.40 g/m2, with formed soil varying from 217.50 to 3 695. 80 g/m2, water holding capacity from 35.10 to 684.30 g/m2, and saturated water absorption ratio from 1 170.00% to 3 637.00%. These results indicate that the bryophyte crust found in the mine had great ability to absorb and reserve water and played an important role in soil formation, rock desertification control and ecological environment renovation in karst areas.%通过野外调查和实验室分析,对贵州省兴义市新路废弃卡林型金矿区苔藓植物进行了研究。结果显示,该矿区共计有苔藓植物4科6属7种,未发现苔类和角苔,种类组成较单调,其中丛藓科(Pottiaceae)和真藓科(Bryaceae)为优势科;生活型有2种类型:矮丛集型(85.71%)和交织型(14.29%),矮丛集型占有绝对优势;并对该矿区结皮优势苔藓植物硬叶扭口藓、卵蒴真藓、毛口藓和小青藓的生物量、成土量、饱和吸水率和饱和吸水量进行了测定分析。结果显示,该矿区生物量为3.00~52.40g/m2;成土量为217.50~3 695.80g/m2;饱和吸水量为35.10~684.30g/m2;饱和吸水率为1 170.00%~3 637.00%。研究表明,在喀斯特石漠化严重的废弃金矿区,对于在缺少土壤,水土流失严重和植被破坏大的环境区域,苔藓植物以其特有的

  20. 庐山自然保护区岩生苔藓植物资源及开发利用%Resources of Rock Bryophytes Plant and Their Exploitation and Utilizations in Lushan Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋满珍; 刘昊; 聂宏; 詹选怀

    2015-01-01

    The rock bryophytes plants resources in Lushan Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province were studied to provide scientific basis for utilization and protection of rock bryophytes plants resources .Characteristics and their exploitation and utilizations of rock bryophytes plants resources in Lushan Mountain were analyzed using field investigation and lit-erature materials including Flora of Jiangxi ,Moss Flora of China .The result showed that there were 64 species of rock bryophytes plants resources in Lushan Nature Reserve ,belonging to 41 genera and 29 families ,among which there were 39 species belonging to 27 genera and 15 families were found for Musci ,25 species belonging to 14 genera and 14 families were found for hepaticae .According to the checklist ,the main families were Pottiaceae ,Thuidiaceae ,Br-chyrtheciaceae ,Frullaniaceae ,Pore1laceae;And the main genera were Barbula ,Frullania ,Porella ,Thuidium ,Rhyn-chostegiella ,Herberta .The temperate elements took up a predominant position (34.38% ) ,the East-Asia elements and the tropic elements had a high inverse proportion ,taking up 26.56% and 23.43% of total species respectively .The rock bryophytes resources in Lushan Nature Reserve showed rich diversity at the aspects of species composition ,com-plex geographic components ,the transition characteristics from north to south .And their greening ,road slope and ec-ological restoration had the development and utilization of great value .%调查分析江西省庐山自然保护区岩生苔藓植物资源特征 ,为岩生苔藓植物合理开发利用及保护提供参考.通过野外调查和查阅《江西植物志》、《中国苔藓植物志》等文献资料 ,分析庐山岩生苔藓植物资源特征及开发利用.庐山自然保护区岩生苔藓植物有29科41属64种 ,其中藓类植物15科27属39种 ,苔类植物14科14属25种.在科属组成分析中 ,丛藓科 Pottiaceae、羽藓科 Thuidiaceae、青藓科 Brchyrtheciaceae

  1. 九龙瀑布群喀斯特河谷区的苔藓植物区系及生态学特征%Flora and Ecology of the Bryophytes in Jiulong-Waterfalls Karst River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓娜; 张朝晖; 龙明忠

    2014-01-01

    In order to comprehensively grasp the flora status of the bryophytes in Jiulong-waterfalls karst river valley,the bryophytes information of the studied area were extracted and reprocessed from the research findings in 2006 and 2010.The results were shown as follows: 1 )A total of 106 species (including subspecies and varieties)in 48 genera,19 families were found.Both the dominant bryophyte families and genera suggested that this area was with transitional characteristics between tropics and temperate zone.2)The bryoflora was dominated by East Asian elements (52%)and tropical elements (31%),in which areal patterns of East Asia (27%),tropical Asia (26%)and endemic to China (25%) occupied the highest percentages.Therefore,the bryoflora was with both characteristics of the warm temperate and south subtropical elements, and possessed very high endemism. 3 ) The ecological environment types of bryophytes in the study area were dominated by soil (67.92%),tufa (40.57%)and carbonate rock (33.02%).Because there was a large amount of silt deposited in the tufa,some soil and tufa environment types were difficult to be distinguished.4)70 species of bryophytes in 36 genera,17 families living on tufa or carbonate rocks played a part in karstic ecological processes of the study area though they were not very specific to the calcium environment.%为全面掌握云南苔藓植物区系状况,在2006年和2010年研究的基础上单独抽提云南省罗平县九龙瀑布群喀斯特河谷区的苔藓数据进行苔藓植物区系及其生态学特征分析。结果表明:1)该区共有苔藓植物19科48属106种(含变种和亚种),其优势科、属均体现了该地区由温带向热带过渡的特征。2)区内苔藓区系地理成分并不复杂,以东亚成分(52%)和热带成分(31%)占绝对优势,其中又以东亚分布型(27%)、热带亚洲分布型(26%)和中国特有分布型(25%)所占比例最高,反映了该区系

  2. Determination of Bisbibenzyls in Bryophytes Collected from Different Locations by RP-HPLC%RP-HPLC法分析不同种属和采集地点苔藓植物中双联苄类化合物成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕蓓蓓; 邢杰; 娄红祥

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To develop a rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of bisbibenzyls in four bryophytes. The effects of species and sample locations on the bisbibenzyi composition and con-tent were also evaluated. METHOD: Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil C18 column (150 mm×4.6 mm, I.D. 5μ m) with acetonitrile-water gradient elution (each containing 0.05% formic acid). UV detection was per-formed at 280 nm. RESULTS: A total of 6 bisbibenzyls were detected in four bryophytes, and the results show that the sample locations and species have an influence on the bisbibenzyl composition and the content of each bisbibenzyl. CONCLUSION: This method not only provides a useful tool for analyzing and quantifying the bisbibenzyls but also provides useful information on the phytochemical research of these bryophytes.%目的:建立一种反相高效液相色谱法以快速分析四种苔藓植物中双联苄类化合物,并对不同种属不同采集地点的苔藓植物中双联苄类化舍物进行分析比较.以考察种属及采集地点对该类化合物的种类和含量影响.方法:采用Hypersil C18柱(150mm×4.6 mm,I.D.5 μm)分离,以乙腈-水(各含0.05%酸)为流动相,线性梯度洗脱,于280 nm波长下检测.结果:共检测出6种双联苄类化合物,并且种属和采集地点差异对该类化合物的种类和含量有不同程度的影响.结论:建立了一种有效的分析及测定不同苔类植物中双联苄类化合物的方法,并可为苔藓植物化学成分研究提供参考信息.

  3. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley; Uso de briofitas como indicadores atmosfericos de metales pesados en la zona metropolitana del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poblano B, J.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in species of frequent and abundant bryophytes in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV). The concentration of the studied metals was determined in two different seasons (cold-dry and warm-humid) in 11 sites of the MATV, 7 of them classified as urban areas, 2 as transition areas and 2 as protected natural areas. Only epiphyte organisms found to a superior height of 100 cm of the floor were considered and the species determination was realized in the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, while the processing of the samples was carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The samples processing consisted on separating the bryophytes of the bark of the trees, later on each one of the samples was washed, milled and homogenized, at the end they were subjected to a digestion process accelerated by microwaves. The concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bryophytes was determined applying the X-rays Fluorescence technique, using a spectrometer Tx-2000 Ital-Structures, with a detector type Si (Li), a tube of Mo (40 kV, 30 m A) with 17,4 keV like excitement energy. Each sample was analyzed six times with a counting time of 500 seconds. Additionally enrichment factors were obtained using reference soils considered as not impacted by anthropogenic activities. With the obtained results space and temporary differences were established through descriptive statistic, also the enrichment factor to infer the possible origin of the metals was calculated, as well as the sites that could represent a risk for the health. The species more frequent and abundant were F. ciliaris and L. angustata, presenting the following tendency in their metals concentration Fe>Ti>Mn>Zn>Pb>V ≅ Cu>Cr, being observed that the temporality is a factor that influences in the metals concentration and that in general F. ciliaris

  4. Impoverishment of the bryophyte and lichen flora of the Dutch chalk grasslands in the thirty years 1953-1983. [Tortella spp. ; Trichostomum spp. ; Aloina spp. ; Pleurochaete squarrosa; Abietinella abietina; Camptothecium lutescens; Brachythecium rutabulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    During, H.J.; Willems, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Dutch chalk grasslands were formerly very rich in bryophyte and lichen species. A comparison of data from Barkman (1953) and more recent inventories yielded the following results: (a) Lichens have disappeared nearly completely from the Dutch chalk grasslands; (b) many characteristic acrocarps (e.g., Tortella spp., Trichostomum spp., Aloina spp., Pleurochaete squarrosa) and some pleurocarps (Abietinella abietina, Camptothecium lutescens) have decreased drastically; (c) some common litter-indicator species (Brachythecium rutabulum and others) are now increasing. It is hypothesized that this change is mainly a result of combined effects of the abandonment of the old grazing regime, which is in only a few places replaced by mowing, and of air pollution. The authors are strongly in favor of current attempts to reintroduce grazing by the old race of Mergelland sheep.

  5. Briófitas do Município de Poconé, Pantanal de Mato Grosso, MT, Brasil Bryophytes from Pocone county, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Aguiar Saraiva Câmara

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sofrendo influências de outros ecossistemas, tais como o Cerrado e a Floresta Amazônica, o Pantanal de Mato Grosso constitui um ecossistema único. Embora sua flora fanerogâmica seja relativamente bem conhecida, a brioflora ainda necessita ser estudada mais profundamente. Fazendo parte da bacia do bio Paraguai e localizado a 94,8km de Cuiabá nas coordenadas 16º15'24"S e 56º36'24"W, o Município de Poconé possui uma população de cerca de 30.000 habitantes. Foram realizadas coletas briológicas nos anos de 1984, 1999 e 2000, tendo sido encontradas 12 espécies pertencentes a 12 famílias de Bryophyta e 10 espécies distribuídas em duas famílias de Marchantiophyta, sendo Lejeuneaceae a melhor representada, com oito espécies. Foram encontradas cinco novas ocorrências para o região Centro-Oeste: Trichosteleum fluviale (Mitt. Jaeg., Frullania tetraptera Nees & Mont., Lejeunea glauscescens Gottsche, Lejeunea calcicola Schuster, Lejeunea caespitosa Lindenb. São ainda citadas nove novas ocorrências para o Estado do Mato Grosso: Hyophila involuta (Hook. A. Jaeg., Groutiella apiculata (Hook. Crum & Steere, Fabronia macroblepharis Schwaegr., Trichosteleum fluviale (Mitt. Jaeg., Frullania arecae (Spreng. Gottsche, Frullania tetraptera Nees & Mont., Lejeunea glauscencens Gottshe, Lejeunea calcicola Schuster e Lejeunea caespitosa Lindenb. Lejeunea calcicola Schuster é citada pela segunda vez para o Brasil.Under the influence of outer ecosystems, such as the Cerrado and Amazon rain forest, the Pantanal of Mato Grosso is a unique ecosystem. Otherwise his fanerogamic flora is well known, the bryoflora is yet to be properly discovered. As part of Paraguai river basin and located at 94.8km from Cuiabá at 16º15'24"S and 56º36'24"W, the county of Poconé has a population around 30,000 hab. Colects were taken in 1984, 1999 and 2000. Among the Division Bryophyte 12 species in 12 familie were founs. In the Division Marchantiophyta 10 species in two

  6. 长白山采集的中国东北新记录苔藓植物%New Records of Bryophytes to Northeast China Collected from Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹同; BELANDReneJ

    2002-01-01

    在对中国和加拿大苔藓学者联合于中国东北最高的长白山采集的2千余份标本鉴定的基础上,认定有苔藓植物59科,152属,300种.报道了中国大陆新记录1属-小曲柄藓属(Cam pylostelium ).中国东北新记录2属-直蓑衣藓属(Macrocoma )和同叶藓属(Iso pter ygium) ,中国东北新记录5种-褶叶裂叶苔(Lophozia incisa),假狗牙藓(Cynodontium f allax),细枝牛毛藓(Ditrichum gracile),散叶牛毛藓(Ditrichum divarcatum )和细叶棉藓(Plagiothecium latebricola).%Based on identification of more than 2000 specimens collected by joint expedition of Chinese and Canadian bryologists from Changbai Mountain .the highest peak in Northeast China.300 species belonging to 152 genera and 59 families of bryophytes are recognized.Among them,the genus Campylostelium (C saxicola (Web et Mohr) B S G) is new to mainland China;two genera are first records for Norheast China:Macrocoma (M tenus (Hook et Grev) Vitt spp sullivantii (C Muell) Vitt) and Isopterygium (I albescens (Hook) Jaeg).Five species of bryophytes are also new to Northeast China:Lophozia incisa (Schrad) Dum:Cynodontium fallax Limpr:Ditrichum gracile (Mitt) O Kuntze:Ditrichum divarcatum Mitt;and Plagiothecium latebricola (Wils) Schimp .

  7. 大板水国家森林公园苔藓植物种类的调查%Species Investigation of Bryophytes in Dabanshui National Forest Park of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何林; 黄正莉; 杨通冠; 向天敏

    2011-01-01

    215 specimens collected in Dabanshui National Forest Park were identified to study the species of bryophytes in Dabanshui National Forest Park. The results showed that 129 species (including subspecies and varieties, the same below) of bryophytes, belonging to 61 genera of 30 families were found. For mosses, there are 97 species, belonging to 43 genera of 18 families, while for liverworts, 32 species, belonging to 18 genera of 12 families were identified. The specie Neckeropsis nitidula is newly recorded in Guizhou. Brchytheciaceae, Lejeuneaceae、 Mniaceae, Dicranaceae, Hypnaceae and Entodontaceae are the predominant families in this region, and there are nine dominant genera such as Brachythecium、 Entodon、 Plagiotheciurn in this region.%为了解大板水国家森林公园的苔藓植物种类,对采自大板水国家森林公园的215个苔藓植物标本进行了鉴定.结果表明:大板水国家森林公园有苔藓植物129种,隶属于61属,30科,其中藓类植物18科43属97种,苔类植物12科18属32种,并发现光叶拟平藓[Neckeropsis nitidula(Mitt.)Fleisch]为贵州新记录种.青藓科(Brchytheciaceae)、细蜂苔科(Lejeuneaceae)、提灯藓科(M niaceae)、曲尾藓科(Dicranaceae)、灰藓科(Hypnaceae)和绢藓科(Entodontaceae)为该地区的优势科,青藓属(Brachythecium),绢藓属(Entodon),棉藓属(Plagiothecium)等9属为该区域优势属.

  8. Ground bryophyte diversity in secondary birch forests in western Sichuan, China%亚高山次生桦木林地表苔藓组成与多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓丽; 包维楷

    2011-01-01

    桦木林(Betula spp.)是我国原始冷杉林(Abies spp.)皆伐后自然恢复形成的主要次生林之一,为揭示其发育过程中地表苔藓组成与多样性差异,评估其自然恢复状况,我们选择了四川省金川县507林场地形条件基本一致的3个桦木林地以及1个原始岷江冷杉(Abies faxoniana)林地,调查了地表苔藓层结构和物种组成.结果显示:(1)桦木林的地表苔藓植物盖度低于原始林,不同年龄的桦木林之间其盖度没有差异(P>0.05),但优势种的组成差异及物种替代明显;(2)桦木林地表苔藓物种丰富度较原始林高,不同年龄相比,9年生和22年生较42年生桦木林地表苔藓种类丰富;(3)未郁闭桦木林(9年生)与郁闭林(22年生和42年生)间的地表苔藓物种组成相似程度(相似性系数为0.24-0.29)低于它与原始林间的相似程度(0.51);22年生和42年生桦木林间地表苔藓物种组成相似程度(相似性系数为0.50)高于它们与原始林间的相似性程度(0.13-0.24),在自然恢复过程中,桦木林与原始林下地表苔藓共有种数量逐渐减少,相似程度降低.原始林下35种地表苔藓植物中只有25种存在于迹地桦木林地.上述分析表明:迹地上自然恢复9-42年的桦木林下地表苔藓多样性虽然较云杉人工林高,但仅保存约70%的原始林下种类,而约有29%的敏感苔藓种类无法通过次生林自然恢复过程得以保育或恢复.%Secondary birch (Betula spp.) forest is an important vegetation type in western Sichuan, China.These forests have naturally regenerated from primary fir (Abies spp.) forests after clear-cutting. However,little is known about ground bryophyte species composition and community structure during this succession sequence. In our study, we sampled three plots in 9-, 22-, and 42-year old secondary forests, and a primary fir forest, respectively, in Jinchuan County. We found that bryophyte coverage in different aged secondary forests was

  9. Contribuição para o conhecimento da taxonomia, ecologia e fitogeografia de Briófitas da Amazônia Oriental Contribution to the taxonomy, ecology and phytogeographical knowledge of Bryophytes from Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisi Dámaris Pereira Alvarenga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho documenta o inventário da brioflora da Estação Científica Ferreira Penna (ECFPn, localizada na FLONA Caxiuanã (1º42'30"S - 51º31'45"W, Melgaço - Pará, realizado por ocasião da primeira chamada do Programa de Residência em Estudos Amazônicos, iniciativa do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Musgos e Hepáticas foram amostrados nos ecossistemas de mata de terra firme, várzea, igapó, capoeiras e campina, e analisadas quanto à composição, riqueza e diversidade. Foram registradas 1081 ocorrências de briófitas de 120 espécies, sendo 79 hepáticas e 41 musgos, das quais oito hepáticas são novas referências para o Estado do Pará. As famílias de maior riqueza e assiduidade foram Lejeuneaceae (58 spp., Calymperaceae (13 spp., Sematophyllaceae (9 spp. e Plagiochilaceae (7 spp.. As comunidades que melhor se fizeram representar foram a epífita (97 espécies/ 565 ocorrências e a epíxila (65 spp./ 242 ocorr., seguidas pelas comunidades epífila (27 spp./ 174 ocorr. e terrícola (15 spp./ 96 ocorr. e o ecossistema que apresentou maior riqueza e diversidade foi mata de terra firme. Quanto à composição nos substratos inventariados, foi observada uma inversão gradativa na proporção de riqueza entre hepáticas/musgos, sendo as primeiras fortemente dominantes em folha, moderadamente dominantes em tronco vivo e morto, ao passo que musgos predominaram nos demais. Os resultados obtidos neste inventário, inclusive as novas referências para o Estado, contribuem para o entendimento dos padrões de riqueza e diversidade na Floresta Amazônica e enriquecem a flora conhecida para o Estado do Pará.This paper presents the floristic survey of Bryophytes from Ferreira Penna Scientific Station (ECFPn, located in the FLONA Caxiuanã (1º42'30"S - 51º31'45"W, Melgaço - Pará, that was undertaken in the first stage of the Residence Program in Amazonian Studies, a project of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Mosses and

  10. Species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve,Beijing%北京百花山自然保护区树附生苔藓植物物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晔林; 李俊清; 石爱平; 于建军; 王文和

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve, Beijing in 2004-2010. A total of 495 specimens were recorded, belonging to 34 species, 21 genera, and 13 families, among which, Pottiaceae, Leskeaceae, Entodontaceae, Orthotrichaceae, and Hypnaceae were the dominant families, and Lindbergia sinensis, Pylaisiella polyantha, L. brachyptera, and Frullania musicicola were the dominant species. There were three peaks of the vertical distribution of the epiphytic bryophytes, i. e. , altitude 1700 m (10 species) , and only 5 species were distributed at altitude 1200-1300 m. Shannon index was the highest for Betula platyphylla ( 1. 816) and the smallest for Juglans mandshurica (1. 500) , Pielou evenness index was the highest for Populus davidiaria (0. 910) and the smallest for Q. liaotungensis (0.591) , Simpson index was the highest for Q. liaotungensis (0.335) and the smallest for P. davidiana (0. 181) , and Patrick index was the highest for Q. liaotungensis (13) and the smallest for P. davidiana and J. mandshurica (7). The species diversity indices of the epiphytic bryophytes were related to habitat, bark crack, and water availability.%北京百花山保护区树附生苔藓植物共有13科21属34种,其中优势科有丛藓科(Pottiaceae)、薄罗藓科(Leskeaceae)、绢藓科(Entodontaceae)、木灵藓科(Orthotrichaceae)和灰藓科(Hypnaceae),优势种有中华细枝藓(Lindbergia sinensis)、金灰藓(Pylaisiella polyantha)、细枝藓(L.brachyptera)、盔瓣耳叶苔(Frullania musicicola)等.海拔1200 m以下地带(14种)、海拔1400 ~ 1500 m地带(11种)以及海拔1700 m以上地带(10种)是百花山树附生苔藓植物垂直分布的3个高峰.海拔1200 ~ 1300 m为低谷(5种).树附生植物物种Shannon指数最大的是白桦(Betula platyphylla)(1.816),最小的是核桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)(1.500);山杨(Populus davidiana)树附生植物的Pielou均匀度指数最高(0

  11. Comparative study on bryophytes of Carlin gold mine and non-gold field area in Nipu, Guizhou%贵州泥堡卡林型金矿区与非金矿区苔藓植物比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文琥; 张朝晖

    2008-01-01

    首次报道了贵州普安县泥堡村韭菜烂滩的卡林型金矿区和非金矿区的苔藓.记录了泥堡韭菜烂滩卡林型金矿生苔藓3科8属15种,非金矿生苔藓9科15属20种.通过比较我们得到韭菜烂滩卡林型金矿区和泥堡非金矿区苔藓的相似性系数为11.4%.这表明这两个生境下的苔藓组成差异极大.在这个地区有13种苔藓植物(包括异芽丝瓜藓Pohlia leucostoma、卵蒴丝瓜藓P.proligera、长蒴藓Trematodon longicollis等)只生长在卡林型金矿上,这表明有一些苔藓植物适应卡林型金矿这种基质.也许,在泥堡地区某些苔藓植物的分布与卡林型金矿存在一定的关系.%In this paper,the bryophytes both on Carlin gold mine and non-gold field area of Jiueailantan in Nipu Vil- lage of Pu'an County in Guizhou Province were reported for the first time. 15 speciea belonging to 8 genera of 3 fami- lies were found on the Carlin gold mine of Jiucailantan, and 20 species belonging to 15 genera of 9 families on non-gold field area in Nipu. Through comparison, the similarity coefficient of species level was 11.4% between the two sample sites in Nipu. It showed the distinct diversity on bryophytes of Carlin gold mine and non-gold field area. Among these bryophytes, 13 species of them (Pohlia leucostoma, P. proligera, Trematodon longicollis, etc. ) only grew on Carlin gold mine, indicating that some bryophytes adapted to the substrate of Carlin gold mine, and there were some relations between bryophytes and Carlin gold mine distribution in Nipu area.

  12. Floristic composition and diversity of Amazonian rainforest bryophytes in the state of Acre, Brazil Composição florística e diversidade de briófitas em floresta no estado do Acre, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pinheiro da Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyte diversity in Amazonian Brazil is high, presently recorded at 514 species distributed among 36 families and 89 genera. Comparisions of species richness among the Amazonian states of Brazil suggests that the bryoflora of Acre is still underestimated, presently recorded at 106 species distributed among 33 families and 63 genera. After two field trips, the diversity increased 50% showing that the bryoflora is still poorly known. Collection data and comments on morphology, ecology and distribution are given for sixty-two species of bryophytes collected in the state of Acre, Brazil, which are new (fifty-two species or interesting floristic records (ten species. Microlejeunea crenulifolia (Gottsche Steph. and Stictolejeunea balfourdii Mitt. are new records for Brazil and fifty species are new records for Acre.A diversidade de briófitas na região Amazônica brasileira é alta, sendo citado atualmente, 514 espécies, em 36 famílias e 89 gêneros. Comparações entre a riqueza de espécies dos estados da Amazônia brasileira sugerem que a brioflora do Acre ainda é subestimada, contando atualmente com 106 espécies, distribuídas em 33 famílias e 63 gêneros. Após duas excursões científicas, a diversidade para o estado aumentou em 50 %, demonstrando que a brioflora ainda é pouco conhecida. Dados sobre a morfologia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica são apresentados para sessenta e duas espécies de briófitas coletadas no estado do Acre, Brasil, as quais são registros florísticos novos (cinquenta e duas espécies ou interessantes (dez espécies. Microlejeunea crenulifolia (Gottsche Steph. e Stictolejeunea balfourdii Mitt. são citadas pela primeira vez para o Brasil e cinquenta espécies são novas ocorrências para o estado do Acre.

  13. Briófitas do parque nacional de sete quedas, Guaíra, PR, Brasil Bryophytes from the National Park of Sete Quedas, Guaíra, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram encontradas no Parque 65 espécies de briófitas, sendo 24 (14 novas para o Estado de Hepatophyta, distribuídas em seis famílias e 14 gêneros, 41 espécies (sendo 12 novas para o Estado de Bryophyta em 23 famílias e 30 gêneros e Erytrophyllastrum andinum (Sull. Zand, nova para o Brasil. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de espécies foram Lejeuneaceae com 15 e Fissidentaceae com cinco, Meteoríaceae, Frullaniaceae e Bryaceae com quatro. São apresentados descrições e comentários para todas as espécies e ilustrações para algumas.Sixty-five species of bryophytes were found in the National Park of "Sete Quedas", Guaíra, Paraná, Brazil: Hepatophyta with 24 species (with 14 species new to State arranged in six families and 14 genera; Bryophyta with 41 species (with 12 new to the State arranged in 23 families and 30 genera, being Erythrophyllastrum andinum (Sull. Zand, new for Brazil. The families most represented are Lejeuneaceae with 15 species, Fissidentaceae with five, Meteoriaceae, Frullaniaceae and Bryaceae with four each. Description and comments for each species and illustrations for some species are presented.

  14. The rps4 locus as an alternative marker for barcoding bryophytes: evaluation based on data mining from GenBank%rps4作为苔藓植物候选条形码的可行性:基于GenBank数据的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 王建秀; 葛学军; 曹同

    2011-01-01

    Among the candidate DNA barcoding loci suggested for land plants, only rbcL and trnH-psbA are available for barcoding bryophytes. However, both loci have limitations in discriminating among species.The present study evaluated the feasibility of using the cpDNA rps4 locus as an additional marker to complement other candidate barcodes for bryophytes. We analyzed 3,365 rps4 sequences retrieved from GenBank using pair-wise distance and phylogenetic methods. Our results demonstrated the universality of rps4 in bryophytes; the locus covers 96% of moss families and 88% of liverwort families. The rps4 locus resolved 73.0% of the species we tested. The discriminatory ability of rps4 is better than that of rbcL-a in each of the six bryophyte genera (i.e. Plagiochila, Tortula, Plagiomnium, Pyrrhobryum, Pogonatum, Grimmia) most commonly represented in the database. Moreover, large numbers of rps4 sequences from individuals of known bryophyte identities have been compiled in GenBank, thereby providing a reference for species identification. Therefore, we propose rps4 as an additional barcode, especially when rbcL and trnH-psbA do not perform well in certain bryophyte taxa.%对于苔藓植物DNA条形码研究来说,目前已提议的可用片段只有rbcL和trnH-psbA,并且均具有一定局限性.本文基于GenBank中3,365条rps4序列,利用遗传距离法和分子系统学方法评价它作为苔藓植物候选条形码的可行性.结果显示:(1)rps4序列覆盖了藓纲96%的科和苔纲88%的科,具有通用性;(2)rps4物种分辨能力为73.0%,并且它在6个序列最丰富的苔藓植物属(Plagiochila,Tortula,Plagiomnium,Pyrrhobryum,Pogonatum,Grimmia)内的物种识别能力均高于rbcL-a在同属中的分辨能力;(3)GenBank中已经积累了大量已知物种米源的rps4序列,可为DNA条形码物种鉴定提供一个参考数据库.因此,本文建议将rps4作为苔藓植物候选DNA条形码.尤其是当rbcL和trnH-psbA在某个具体类群中无法

  15. Characteristics of bryophytes with gemmae from a karst bauxite mine:A case study of Lindai mine in Zhanj ie town,Qingzhen,Guizhou%贵州喀斯特铝土矿具芽胞苔藓种类特征--以贵州省清镇市林歹铝土矿区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷声锋; 王智慧; 张朝晖

    2014-01-01

    对贵州省清镇市站街镇林歹铝土矿第二矿区的油菜种植区、矿土上部树林区、废石堆积区、矿土堆积恢复区4类环境进行苔藓植物采集,并对具芽胞苔藓种类进行统计分析,结果表明:(1)经鉴定发现苔藓植物10科22属37种,优势种(频度大于10%)为日本大丛藓Molendoajaponica Broth.(18.72%)和银叶真藓Bryumargenteum Hedw.(11.06%);(2)发现8种具芽胞苔藓,占总种数的21.62%,隶属于丛藓科 Pottiaceae 和真藓科 Bryaceae,其中日本大丛藓和芽胞银藓Anomobryumgemmigerum Broth.为常见具芽胞苔藓;(3)油菜种植区中具芽胞苔藓种类最多(6种),但出现频度不高,非该类环境中的优势种,日本大丛藓在 4类环境中均有发现;(4)在 4类环境中,相对恶劣条件下具芽胞苔藓出现的几率更大;(5)瘤根真藓 Bryum bornholmense Winkelm.& Ruthe.和毛状真藓 Bryum apiculatum Schwagr.的芽胞长于假根上,其余种类芽胞均见于叶腋处,呈扫帚状,芽胞形态上呈现多样性,有球形、棒形、棒槌形、芽形、纺锤状和火炬状。%Bryophytes were collected from four different habitats in Lindai #2 bauxite mine in Zhanjie town, Qingzhen City,Guizhou Province,and the bryophytes with gemmae were statistically analyzed.The result showed that,(1)120 samples were collected from sampling sites,and 10 families,22 genera and 37 species were identified.The dominant species (frequency >10%)were Molendoa japonica Broth (18.72%)and Bryumargenteum Hedw.(11.06%).(2)8 kinds of bryophytes had gemmae,which were attached to Potti-aceae and Bryaceae,accounting for 21.62% of the total.Of these,Molendoajaponica Broth and Bryumar-genteum Hedw.were common bryophytes with gemmae,found in 44 samples and 16 samples respectively. (3)The largest quantities of bryophytes with gemmae were found in areas where rape was cultivated (6 spe-cies);however,frequency was low and there was no dominant species.Additionally,Molendoa japonica Broth

  16. 贵州省新路卡林型金矿区苔藓植物多样性及重金属污染监测%Bryophyte Diversity and Their Monitoring for Heavy Metal Pollution from Xinlu Carlin Gold Deposit in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付兰; 张朝晖

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-eight bryophyte taxa in 17 genera of 10 families from Xinlu Carlin gold field were investigated. Nine species belong to Pottiaceae and 8 species belong to Bryaceae. Among them, Pottiaceae and Bryaceae are the dominate families. By analyzing β diversity of four sites in this area, we found that β diversity difference between barren rock field-waste residue field and relatively polluted area-clear area is the largest, bryophyte community structure is the biggest difference, and similarity is the lowest. A particular regularity was proved by monitoring 6 kinds of heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As of bryophytes and their substrates from different areas in Xinlu Carlin gold deposit, that is waste residue field > barren rock field > relatively polluted area > clear area. It might be closely related to the mining and smelting. Obviously, further researches on bryophytes can be used to monitor the pollution of heavy metals in gold deposits.%研究发现新路卡林型金矿区苔藓植物有10科17属28种,其中,丛藓科有9种,占总数的32.14%,真藓科有8种,占总数的28.57%.真藓科和丛藓科为优势科.分析该卡林型金矿区4个生境的β多样性,发现废石区—废渣区与相对污染区—清洁区的β多样性指数差异最大,苔藓群落结构差异性最大,相似性成分最低.测定该矿区苔藓植物及相应基质的重金属元素Pb、Zn、Cu、Cd、Hg、As含量,发现这些重金属元素含量呈现了一定的规律性,即:废渣区>废石区>相对污染区>清洁区,这可能与金矿的开采和冶炼有密切联系.因此,通过对苔藓植物的深入研究,可用以监测卡林型金矿区重金属污染情况.

  17. 四川盆周西缘山地典型人工林下苔藓和凋落物的持水特性%Water Holding Capacities of Bryophyte and Litter Layer under Typical Artificial Stands of Western Sichuan Ba-sin Border

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玖金; 马海燕; 张晓庆; 张健; 朱必清

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the water holding capacities of artificial stands, the field survey and the water immersion were con-ducted to study the water holding capacities of bryophyte and litter layer including un-decomposed litter layer and incom-pletely and completely decomposed under typical artificial stands of western Sichuan basin border.The highest storage a-mount bryophyte was in mixed forest, and the lowest storage amount bryophyte was in Cryptomeria fortune artificial stands. Phoebe zhennan had the highest storage amount of litter, and C.fortune had the lowest storage amount of litter.There were no significant different water holding capacities between C.fortune and M.glyptostroboides, P.zhennan and mixed forest, respectively.The water holding capacities in F, H layer was higher than that in L layer in both C.fortune and M.glyp-tostroboides artificial stands, respectively, and F,H layer was lower than that in L layer were in both P.zhennan and mixed forest, respectively.The water holding rate of bryophyte decreased quickly in the first two hours, and litter decreased quickly in the first six hours.Water absorption rates of bryophyte layer under all stands decreased according to V=ktb with time immersed in water in significance level.%为了解人工林生态系统的持水性特征,采用野外实地观测和室内浸水法对3种主要人工林下苔藓和凋落物层(未分解层、半分解和分解层)的持水特性进行了研究。结果显示:①苔藓层蓄积量以混交林最高(0.52 t· hm-2),柳杉林最低(0.10 t· hm-2);凋落物层均以楠木林最高,柳杉林最低。②柳杉和水杉林间、楠木和混交林间苔藓层最大持水性差异均不明显;柳杉和水杉林凋落物半分解层和已分解层最大持水率大于未分解层,而楠木和混交林则是未分解层大于半分解层和已分解层。③各林分苔藓层吸水速率到2h后均趋于平缓,凋落物半分解层和已

  18. 北京百花山自然保护区不同植被地面生苔藓植物物种多样性%Species Diversity of Floor Bryophytes in Different Vegetations in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晔林; 王文和; 颜亭玉; 李俊清

    2013-01-01

    By means of species similarity coefficient and species diversity index,the characteristics of species diversity of floor bryophytes in the Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve in Beijing were studied.The results showed that there were 65 floor species (including subspecies and varieties) belonging to 31 genera of 13 families.Species composition,dominant families and dominant species were different in 8 kinds of vegetation,Pottiaceae and Bryaceae were the absolutefamilies in meadow and shrub,but the Entodontaceae was the most common family in forest vegetation.The species similarity between Pinus tabulaeformis forest and deciduous broadleaved forest was the highest (0.516 3),but meadow and Vitex negundo shrub between mostly forest vegetation were zero.The growth base was the most important environment factor related to the distribution of floor bryophytes,and the humidity,herbage coverage,litter coverage were also related to the distribution of the bryophytes on floor.Betula platyphylla forest and deciduous broadleaved forest were the center of bryophyte diversity and the key area for the bryophyte diversity conversation.%采用相似性系数和物种多样性指数对北京百花山自然保护区8种植被内地面生苔藓植物的物种多样性进行了研究,得知8种植被中地面生苔藓植物有13科31属65种(含种以下的单位),优势科6科,优势种12种.不同植被中苔藓植物的物种组成、优势科和优势种不同,丛藓科和真藓科植物在草甸和灌丛内占绝对优势,而森林植被内的绢藓科为绝对优势科;油松林和落叶阔叶混交林的物种相似性最高为51.63,草甸和荆条灌丛与大部分植被的物种相似为0.地面生苔藓植物的分布与其生长的基质相关性最大,另外水分条件、小生境、草本层盖度和凋落物盖度等也影响地面生苔藓植物的分布.白桦林和落叶阔叶混交林应成为生物多样性保护的重点植被类型.

  19. 张家湾子金矿苔藓植物物种多样性及其对重金属污染的监测%Bryophyte species diversity and its indicative roles in monitoring heavy metals pollution in Zhangjiawanzi gold deposit area of Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左思艺; 王智慧; 张朝晖

    2013-01-01

    调查了贵州省张家湾子金矿苔藓植物,并利用原子荧光光谱仪AF-640和AAnalyst800原子吸收光谱仪,对重污染区、相对污染区和清洁区苔藓植物优势种及土壤基质6种重金属元素(Cu、Zn、Cd、Pb、Hg、As)含量进行测定.在该金矿共采集苔藓样品75份,鉴定为9科16属23种.优势科为丛藓科和真藓科,生活型主要有4种:矮丛集型、高丛集型、交织型和平铺型,矮丛集型以80.3%占绝对优势.重金属含量测定结果表明,该矿区受Hg、As、Cd污染严重;硬叶净口藓对Cd的富集系数为5.58,属于强烈富集;匐灯藓对Cd富集系数为1.64,属于相对富集.苔藓与土壤重金属含量呈正相关,苔藓植物能监测该矿区重金属污染.%An investigation was conducted on the bryophytes in Zhangjiawanzi gold deposit area of Guizhou Province, and the fluorescence spectroscopy (AF-640 ) and absorption spectrophotom-eter AAnalyst 800 were used to measure the concentrations of 6 heavy metals (Cu, Zu, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As) in the dominant bryophyte species and soils in heavily polluted area, relatively pol-luted area, and clean area. A total of 75 bryophyte samples were collected, belonging to 23 spe-cies, 16 genera, and 9 families. The dominant families were Pottiaceae and Bryaceae, whose life-forms were mainly of short turfs, tall turfs, wefts, and mats. The short turfs were significantly dominant, taking up 80. 3% of the total life-forms. The measurement of the heavy metals concen-trations indicated that this gold deposit area was heavily polluted by Hg, As, and Cd. The en-richment coefficient of Cd by Cymnostomum subrigidulum and Plagiomnium cuspidatum was 5. 58 and 1.64, belonging to intensive and relative enrichment, respectively. The concentrations in the bryophytes and soils had a significant positive correlation, suggesting that bryophytes could be used for the monitoring of heavy metals pollution in this gold deposit area.

  20. 喀斯特石漠生态系统不同自然演替阶段中苔藓植物多样性特征分析%Analysis of Bryophytes Diversity Features in Various Successional Stages of a Karst Rocky Desertification Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍烨; 张朝晖

    2014-01-01

    以“空间代替时间”方法研究了贵州喀斯特石漠地区植被自然恢复演替过程中各演替阶段苔藓植物的群落特征及苔藓植物物种a和β多样性指数.研究结果表明:该区共有苔藓植物群落21种,并以美灰藓(Eurohypnum leptothallum)为优势物种.苔藓植物α多样性指数随演替阶段的发展,表现出先下降、再反弹(藤刺灌丛阶段)、最后再次降低的变化趋势.苔藓植物Pielou均匀度指数的大小表现为:苔藓群落阶段(0.9392)>乔灌丛阶段(0.8675)>藤刺灌丛阶段(0.8651)>草灌丛阶段(0.7677)>草丛阶段(0.7676).β多样性指数(So-renson多样性指数)分析表明,苔藓植物群落随着演替阶段的发展,相同种类的数目随之减少,群落间相似性系数也逐渐降低.虽然苔藓植物群落在草丛阶段和藤刺灌丛阶段的相似性高于草丛阶段和草灌丛阶段之间的相似性系数,但总的相似性系数却呈现下降趋势.该研究结果可为喀斯特石漠生态系统演替的研究提供依据.%Using ‘space replacing time’ method,we studied the characteristics of bryophyte communities,as well as the α diversity and β diversity indices of bryophytes in various successional stages in a karst rocky desertification region in Guizhou.Results showed 21 bryophyte communities,with Eurohypnum leptothallum the dominant species in this area.For successional stages,the α diversity index gradually changed,first showing a downward trend,then rebounding in the lianas and boscage stage,and at last continuing to decline.The Pielou index indicated bryophyte community stage (0.9392) > arbor and shrubs stage (0.8675) > lianas and boscage stage (0.8651) > herbosa and boscage stage (0.7677) >herbosa stage (0.7676).For successional stages,the β diversity index (Sorenson index)showed consequent reduction in the number of the same species,and between communities the similarity coefficient gradually decreased.The similarity of

  1. Bryophytes Diversity and Flora in the Southern Greater Khingan Mountains%大兴安岭南部山地苔藓植物区系多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨如拉; 白学良; 毕庚辰; 福英

    2013-01-01

    Bryological field investigations were carried out in the 6 nature reserves of Southern Greater Khingan Mountains during 2009~2012.We collected and identified approximately 1 800 specimens,then calculated and analyzed bryological composition and floristic characteristics of this area; similarity coefficient and euclidean distance of 10 mountains; the diversity index,the species richness,the evenness index and dominance index of 8 kinds of habitat.Our objectives were to provide basic data for construction and management of nature reserve.The results showed that:(1)There were a total of 330 species (including 15 varieties,2 forms and 1 subspecies) of bryophytes belonging to 134 genera and 48 families,among which there were 38 species and 1 varieties of liverworts belonging to 21 genera and 16 families and 274 species,14 varieties,2 forms and 1 subspecies of mosses belonging to 113 genera and 32 families in the 6 nature reserves of Southern Greater Khingan Mountains.(2)Reported 4 species new records of China (Grimmia longirostris Hook.,Schistidium lancifolium (Kindb.) Blom.,Bryum laevifilum Syed.,Homomallium adnatum (Hedw.) Broth.and 12 species new to this area.(3)Dominant families (e.g.Pottiaceae) in this area are adapted to arid habitats.The statistical analysis of the flora elements indicates that it has an absolutely dominant majority of north temperate elements and a proportion of East Asian elements,numbering 60.79%and 16.19%.(4)The region had the highest similarity with Northern Yanshan Mountains and Northern Greater Khingan Mountains;changes of the habitat conditions have certain effect on bryophytes diversity,which is the highest in wet soil habitat and wet rock habitat,the lowest in aquatic habitat.The study reflects that the bryoflora of Southern Greater Khingan Mountains is a transitional zone connecting North China region,North-Eastern China region,Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region and Yinshan area; compared with Northern Yanshan Mountains and Northern

  2. Relationships between terrestrial bryophytes and eco-environmental factors in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve in Beij ing%北京百花山自然保护区地面生苔藓植物与生态环境的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晔林; 王文和; 汪阗

    2014-01-01

    运用典范对应分析法,定量分析了北京百花山自然保护区37个森林植被样地中33种主要地面生苔藓植物与生态环境之间的关系,结果表明:该区森林植被样地与环境因子的关系呈现多元化特点:相同植被聚为一组、环境因子相似的植被聚为一组、植被相同环境因子不同归为不同组和生境特殊的植被自成一组。得出该区多数地面生苔藓植物的分布与乔木郁闭度的相关性最大且与人为干扰程度密切相关,少数种类与草本层盖度和灌木盖度呈正相关。此外凋落物盖度、海拔、苔藓植物的生长基质也直接影响苔藓植物的分布。%The method of Canonical Correspondence Analysis was used to analyzed the data of terrestrial bryophytes of 37 forest sites in Mt.Baihua.The relationships between the terrestrial bryophytes and the environmental variables were revealed in the biplots of CCA:same forests became a group,forests in similar environment get together,the same forest in different environment became a group and some forest in special environment gather a group.Bassed on the correlation coefficients of the environmental variables with the first two axes,the environmental variables that decided the distribution of the 33 bryophytes were canopy density,shrub coverage,altitude,base and human disturb-ance.CCA two-dimensional ordination diagram of 3 7 sites of forests-enviromental factors showed the diversities char-acter between the sites and environmental variables.

  3. Response and bioindicator of bryophyte and lichen as cryptogamae plants to environmental change%苔藓和地衣对环境变化的响应和指示作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳璐; 王中生; 周灵燕; 马元屾; 王志科; 营婷; 宋圆圆; 徐卫祥

    2012-01-01

    Non-vascular cryptogams, particularly bryophytes and lichens have been an important tool in the research of response and indicator to the global change because they are found in various habitats, their distributions as individual/ population/community are stable on a small-scale, and they are sensitive to environmental changes. The monitoring indices includes; (1) biomass of the species, abundance and diversity index of species; (2) correlation between certain element accumulation level within individual plant and the content of the element in the environment; (3) environment-induced changes in cell metabolic rate, photosynthetic rate and pigment content, and enzyme activities and concentrations; ( 4) integrated correlations between environmental factors and eco-physiological variables of monitored species and established monitoring models. However, responses of different species to environment changes were different. Research is needed in choosing suitable species for biomonitoring and the corresponding criteria, as well as in establishing reliable " specific pollutant-specific monitoring species-monitoring index" system.%隐花植物苔藓和地衣具有各类生境分布的广泛性、小范围内个体/种群/群落分布的稳定性、独特的生理特性及其对环境变化的生物敏感性,在环境变化响应与指示研究中已成为重要工具种.目前对隐花植物的监测指标包括:(1)物种生物量、种类组成及丰度指数等;(2)植株体内某元素积累量与环境含量间的相关性;(3)环境变化引起细胞代谢速率、光合速率、光合色素含量、各种酶含量及活性等的改变;(4)整合环境因子与监测种的生理生态指标间的相关性,构建监测模型.但不同物种对环境变化的响应存在差异性,选择合适的生物监测工具种及相应的监测指标,构建合理的“污染物类型-监测工具种-监测指标”的监测体系,将有利于进一步提升生物监测的可行性及可信度.

  4. Relative growth rate of rich fen bryophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Riis, Tenna

    Rigkær er blandt den nordlige halvkugles mest artsrige naturtyper, og en lang række sjældne og truede plantearter er knyttet til netop disse områder. I dette forsøg undersøges den relative vækstrate hos to almindelige og to sjældne rigkærsmosser i relation til forskellige niveauer af næringsstoff...

  5. Bryophytes as indicators of radiocesium deposition in northeastern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovani, C. (Servizio di Fisica Sanitaria, Lab. Radioattivita Ambientale, USL, Udine (Italy)); Nimis, P.L.; Bolognini, G. (Department of Biology, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)); Padovani, R. (Servizio di Fisica Sanitaria, Lab. Radioattivita Ambientale, USL, Udine (Italy)); Usco, A. (Department of Biology, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy))

    1994-10-14

    Samples of moss carpets growing in forest vegetation have been used to map radioactive fallout in northeastern Italy. The main factors affecting data variability are the inclination of the carpets, water absorbing power, and their thickness. The best suited bioindicator proved to be Ctenidium molluscum. The results indicate that these carpets were able to intercept most of the radiocesium deposited after the Chernobyl accident, and that the removal half-time in the survey area is of circa 46 months.

  6. Evolutionary analysis of five bryophyte families using virtual fossils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zander, Richard H.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional taxa paraphyletic or polyphyletic on a molecular phylogenetic tree may be interpreted as populations of surviving ancestors that are evolutionarily static in expressed traits though labile in DNA traits used to track genetic continuity. In those cases in which re-evolution (convergence of such taxa is deemed improbable, such heterophyly may be used to infer evolutionary series of virtual fossils reflecting macroevolution. Descent with modification of taxa is here demonstrated by reinterpreting published cladograms of molecular studies of Dicranaceae, Pottiaceae, Grimmiaceae, Hypopterygiaceae, and Mniaceae as taxon trees. Given this argument, superimposed inferred ancestors are support for the theory of punctuated equilibrium.

    Los táxones parafiléticos o polifiléticos tradicionales en un árbol molecular filogenético pueden interpretarse como poblaciones de ancestros supervivientes que están evolutivamente estáticos en los caracteres expresados a través de lábiles en los caracteres ADN que se emplean para seguir la continuidad genética. En esos casos en los cuales la re-evolución (convergencia de tales táxones se considere improbable, la heterofilia puede usarse para inferir series evolutivas de fósiles virtuales que reflejan la macroevolución. El descenso con modificación de táxones se demuestra con la interpretación publicada de los cladogramas de estudios moleculares de Dicranaceae, Pottiaceae, Grimmiaceae, Hypopterygiaceae y Mniaceae como árboles taxonómicos. En vista de este argumento, resulta que los ancestros inferidos superimpuestos apoyan la teoría del equilibrio puntuado.

  7. Problems of shape characterization and comparison in bryophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shapes of leaves of two liverwort species, viz. Lophozia ventricosa and Lophozia silvicola, were characterized by means of three different methods: polar coordinates, conics, and Fourier series. Results were then used to compare the leaf shapes of the two taxa, and differentiate between their leaves. Characterization by Fourier series gave the most reliable results.

  8. Bryophytes of Mona Island Natural Reserve, Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Colón, Carmen M.; Sastre-DJ, Inés

    1998-01-01

    This checklist provides in addition to a list of mosses and hepatics, a key to the species. We report 17 moss species of which 9 are new to Mona Island and 3 are new records for Puerto Rico (Fissidens minutus, Plaubelia sprengelii and Brymela callicostelloides). This report represents a 35% increase to the moss flora of Mona Island. Thirteen hepatics are reported of which 8 are new records, representing an increase of 31%. Two new synonyms (Bryum microdecurrens = Bryum coronatum, Riccia britt...

  9. Syntrichia minor (Pottiaceae and Cephaloziella integerrima (Cephaloziellaceae new to bryophyte flora of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ören Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Syntrichia minor (Bizot M.T. Gallego, J. Guerra, M.J. Cano, Ros & Sánchez-Moya (Pottiaceae, Bryophyta - mosses and Cephaloziella integerrima (Lindb. Warnst. (Cephaloziellaceae, Marchantiophyta - liverworts are recorded for the first time from Turkey. In addition, the rare C. integerrima is new to Southwest Asia. These species were collected from the northern part of Turkey, respectively Karabük (Safranbolu and Kastamonu (Bozkurt. Site description, synonyms, illustrations, ecology, distribution and diagnostic characters of these species are presented.

  10. Bryophyte-feeding of Litoleptis (Diptera: Rhagionidae) with descriptions of new species from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Yume

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the larval phytophagous habit of Litoleptis for the first time, and describe six new species of Litoleptis in Japan; L. japonica n. sp., L. kiiensis n. sp., L. niyodoensis n. sp., L. himukaensis n. sp., L. izuensis n. sp., and L. asterellaphile n. sp. All the species described here are thallus-miners of liverworts belonging to Aytoniaceae and Conocephalaceae (Marchantiopsida: Marchantiophyta). Each fly species mined thalli of only one of the following genera: Conocephalum, Reboulia, and Asterella. The descriptions of the Japanese Litoleptis species here expand the concept of this genus. The female genital morphology of Litoleptis strengthened the current placement of Litoleptis as a member of Spaniinae. PMID:27394524

  11. Bryophytes collected during a Dutch botanical East Greenland expedition to the Angmagsslalik area in 1966

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, de J.G.

    1968-01-01

    From a bryological point of view Greenland is not well known in detail. Unlike Siberia or Arctic America, it is not known through a few large collections, but through multitudes of mostly relatively small gatherings. In this arctic island that is almost 2000 miles long and extends from below 60° N.l

  12. From Trace Evidence to Bioinformatics: Putting Bryophytes into Molecular Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, Linda; Bougary, Azhar; Malott, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Students benefit most from their science education when they participate fully in the process of science in the context of real-world problems. We describe a student-directed open-inquiry lab experience that has no predetermined outcomes and requires students to engage in all components of scientific inquiry from posing a question through…

  13. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jia; Guo, Yuning; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wang, Guihua; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum. The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l−1 and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l−1 day−1, with favorable C16:0 (23.10%) and C18:1 (21.62%) fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production. PMID:27543061

  14. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Feng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum. The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l−1 and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l−1 day−1, with favorable C16:0 (23.10% and C18:1 (21.62% fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production.

  15. 贵州梵净山旅游线路苔藓植物及药用苔藓资源调查%Investigation on Bryophytes and Medicinal Bryophytes in Tourist Route of Fanjingshan Nature Reserve of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美会; 杨冰; 曹威; 陈敏

    2013-01-01

    为了摸清贵州梵净山自然保护区旅游线路苔藓植物资源状况,该文对贵州梵净山自然保护区旅游线路上的苔藓植物资源进行调查,结果发现该地区苔藓植物共有29科51属102种(包括亚种和变种),其中包括13种药用苔藓.

  16. Rhynchostegium megapolitanum (Web. et Mohr) B.S.G.-A rare bryophyte in dune ecosystems of Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Rhynchostegium megapolitanum was observed during a study of the effects of the invasive non-native Rosa rugosa in a sand dune. The vascular as well as the epiphytic and epigeic cryptogam vegetation was recorded., and soil properties were measured. Epihytic lichens were abundant on dead or dying b...

  17. Novos registros de briófitas para Pernambuco, Brasil New records of bryophytes for the Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Rangel Germano

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os novos registros são provenientes de um remanescente de Floresta Atlântica, a Reserva Ecológica do Gurjaú (08º10'00'' e 08º15'00''S; 35º02'30'' e 35º05'00''O, situada na região metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco. São oito espécies de Lejeuneaceae: Archilejeunea auberiana (Mont. A. Evans, Cololejeunea cardiocarpa (Mont. A. Evans, Colura greig-smithii Jovet-Ast, Diplasiolejeunea cobrensis Gottsche ex Steph., Harpalejeunea stricta (Lindenb. & Gottsche Steph., Lejeunea caespitosa Lindenb., L. monimiae (Steph. Steph., L. quinqueumbonata Spruce,e uma de Bryaceae: Bryum pabstianum C. Muell. São apresentadas ilustrações, comentários taxonômicos e ecológicos, e distribuição geográfica das espécies no Brasil.The new records were found in an Atlantic Forest remnant (tropical lowland rainforest, Reserva Ecológica do Gurjaú (08º10'00'' and 08º15'00''S; 35º02'30'' and 35º05'00''W, situated in the metropolitan area of Recife, Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. The new occurrence corresponds to eight species of Lejeuneaceae: Archilejeunea auberiana (Mont. A. Evans, Cololejeunea cardiocarpa (Mont. A. Evans, Coluragreig-smithii Jovet-Ast, Diplasiolejeunea cobrensis Gottsche ex Steph., Harpalejeunea stricta (Lindenb. & Gottsche Steph., Lejeunea caespitosa Lindenb., L. monimiae (Steph. Steph., L. quinqueumbonata Spruce, and a Bryaceae: Bryum pabstianum C. Muell. Illustrations, floristic and ecological comments, and geographical distribution in Brazil are given for each species.

  18. Briófitas da Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brasil The bryophytes from the Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Serra de Itabaiana, foram encontradas 15 espécies de musgos pertencentes a 14 gêneros de 11 famílias e 14 de hepáticas de oito gêneros de quatro famílias. Rectolejeunea pililoba (Spruce Schust. está sendo referida pela primeira vez para o Brasil. Destas espécies, 26 estão sendo referidas pela primeira vez para o estado.Fifteen species of mosses and fourteen species of liverworts are reported from Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil. The mosses are distributed among 14 genera and 11 families, and the liverworts for eight genera and four families. Rectolejeunea pililoba (Spruce Schust. is cited for the first time from Brazil. Altogether, 26 species are cited for the first time for the State.

  19. Regulation of methane production, oxidation, and emission by vascular plants and bryophytes in ponds of the northeast Siberian polygonal tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Evgrafova, Svetlana; Kutzbach, Lars; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) production, oxidation, and emission were studied in ponds of the permafrost-affected polygonal tundra in northeast Siberia. Microbial degradation of organic matter in water-saturated soils is the most important source for the climate-relevant trace gas CH4. Although ponds and lakes cover a substantial fraction of the land surface of northern Siberia, data on CH4 fluxes from these water bodies are scarce. Summer CH4 fluxes were measured with closed chambers at the margins of ponds vegetated by vascular plants and in their centers without vascular plants. Furthermore, CH4 and oxygen concentration gradients, stable carbon isotope signatures of dissolved and emitted CH4, and microbial CH4 production and CH4 oxidation were determined. Mean summer fluxes were significantly higher at the margins of the ponds (46.1 ± 15.4 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) than at the centers (5.9 ± 8.2 mg CH4 m-2 d-1). CH4 transport was dominated by diffusion in most open water sites, but substantial ebullitive fluxes (12.0 ± 8.1 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) were detected in one pond. Plant-mediated transport accounted for 70 to 90% of total CH4 fluxes above emerged vegetation. In the absence of vascular plants, 61 to 99% of the CH4 produced in the anoxic bottom soil was consumed in a layer of the submerged moss Scorpidium scorpioides, which covered the bottoms of the ponds. The fraction of CH4 oxidized was lower at sites with vascular plants since CH4 was predominantly transported through their aerenchyma, thereby bypassing the CH4 oxidation zone in the moss layer. These results emphasize the importance of moss-associated CH4 oxidation causing low CH4 fluxes from the studied Siberian ponds.

  20. Novas ocorrências de Briófitas para Pernambuco, Brasil New occurrences of Bryophytes to Pernambuco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi Dámaris Pereira Alvarenga; Mércia Patrícia Pereira Silva; Juliana Rosa do Pará Marques de Oliveira; Kátia Cavalcanti Pôrto

    2007-01-01

    Levantamentos da flora de briófitas em duas áreas remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica, a Reserva Ecológica (RE) Gurjaú (08°10'00''S e 35°02'30''O; 50-150 m n.a.m.) e a Reserva Particular de Patrimônio Natural (RPPN) Frei Caneca (08º42'37''S e 35º50'01''O; 500-750 m n.a.m.), resultaram no registro de 15 novas ocorrências para o Estado de Pernambuco. São elas 11 hepáticas das famílias Cephaloziaceae, Jubulaceae, Herbertaceae, Lejeuneaceae, Lepidoziaceae, Metzgeriaceae e quatro musgos da...

  1. Survey of the bryophytes of a gallery forest in the National Park of Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Viveiros de Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Serra do Cipó has attracted the interest of many researchers over the years because of its unique characteristics, particularly the fact that the site represents the transition between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. The study area of Serra do Cipó is located along a gallery forest "córrego Três Pontinhas," at 19°16'00" S and 43°32'49" W and an altitude of 1,188 m. The objective of this study was to survey the Division Bryophyta in a gallery forest within the National Park of Serra do Cipo, Minas Gerais. Collections were made during the months of November 2009 and July 2011. We found 15 families, 26 genera, 43 species, and 4 varieties of mosses. The families with the largest number of species were Leucobryaceae (10, Sematophyllaceae (9, and Calymperaceae (6. Other families included Fissidentaceae (3, Bryaceae, Pylaisiadelphaceae, Pottiaceae, and Orthotrichaceae (2 spp. each; Brachytheciaceae, Cryphaeaceae, Fabroniaceae, Helicophyllaceae, Hypnaceae, Polytrichaceae, and Sphagnaceae had only 1 sp. each. Three new records for the state of Minas Gerais were found: Acroporium caespitosum, A. longirostre, and Colobodontium vulpinum.

  2. Solid Phase Extraction of Bryophyte Lipids / Briofītu lipīdu cietfāzes ekstrakcijas frakcionēšana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klavina Laura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pētījuma ietvaros izstrādāta vienkārša, ātra un viegli atkārtojama analītiska metode briofītu lipīdu frakcionēšanai. Lipīdu frakcijas frakcionēšanai izmantoja cietfāzes ekstrakciju ar silikagēlu un ar NH2 grupām modificētu silikagēlu, iegūtās vielu grupas kvantificēja kā to trimetilsilil atvasinājumus, izmantojot gāzes hromatogrāfiju-masas spektrometriju. Frakcionēšanu veica, izmantojot eluentu polaritātes gradienta principu (eluenti: heksāns, heksāns/hloroforms 5:1, hloroforms, kā pēdējo eluentu ar NH2 grupām modificēta silikagēla gadījumā izmantojot skābes (etiķskābes šķīdumu. Izpētes objekti bija divi Latvijā plaši izplatīti sūnaugi (Polytrichum commune, Dicranum polysetum, kuru sastāvā identificēja vairāk nekā 45 dažādus savienojumus, daudzi no kuriem ir ar augstu bioloģisko aktivitāti. Sūnaugu sastāvā identificēja sterolus, tokoferolus, taukskābes un citi savienojumus. Izmantotā frakcionēšanas shēma pavēra iespējas identificēt daudzus savienojumus, kuri kopējā ekstrakta hromatogrammā nebija uzrādīti, piemēram, alkānu rindas savienojumi, vairāki steroli. Līdz ar to sūnaugu lipīdu cietfāzes frakcionēšanas metode ļāva noteikt vielu klātbūtni, kuras atrodas mikrodaudzumos, bet kuras varēja ļaut izsekot brīofītu pārvērtībām bioģeoķīmiskos procesos. Ieteiktā frakcionēšanas metode ļāva arī identificēt vairākas vielu grupas, kuras varētu būt perspektīvas kā jaunas bioloģiski aktīvas vielas, kā arī palīdzēja labāk izprast briofītu metabolismu, piemēram starpsugu atšķirības un sastāva sezonālās mainības raksturu.

  3. 四种中国苔藓植物的染色体观察%Chromosome observation on 4 species of bryophytes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜桂森; 赵新芳; 汪楣芝

    2001-01-01

    本文报道了4种中国苔藓植物配子体茎尖分生组织细胞有丝分裂中期的染色体数目:(1)Lepidozia reptans(L.)Dum.(n=9);(2)Apometzgeria pubescens(Schrank.)Kuwah.var.kinabaluensis Kuwah.(n=9);(3)Rhodobryum roseum(Hedw.)Limpr.(n=10);(4)Atrichum undulatum(Hedw.)P.Beauv.(n=7或14).

  4. Studies on the bryophyta plants resoucess in Hubei province--Ⅱ The bryophytes flora of Wuhan city%湖北省苔藓植物资源研究--Ⅱ武汉市苔藓植物区系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘双喜; 彭丹; 秦伟; 余小菁; 潘小玉; 刘胜祥

    2001-01-01

    通过对武汉市区的400余号苔藓植物标本的鉴定,得知武汉市区苔藓植物共有28科、53属、113种(包括3变种,4个中国特有种).其中藓类植物22科、45属、106种,苔类植物种类少,共6科、6属、7种. 占优势的有8个科,分别为丛藓科Pottiaceae,曲尾藓科Dicranaceae,羽藓科Thuidiaceae,青藓科Brachytheciaceae,金发藓科Polytrichaceae,凤尾藓科Fissidentaceae,真藓科Bryaceae,绢藓科 Entodontaceae.武汉市苔藓植物的区系属于泛北极植物区,中国-日本亚区,具有从亚热带向暖温带过渡的特征.

  5. Micro-pollutant exchanges at the water-bryophyta interface: monitoring of the copper concentration in nuclear power plants; Echanges de micropolluants a l`interface eau-bryophytes: suivi de la concentration en cuivre dans les centrales nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciffroy, P.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to calibrate and validate a descriptive model of the copper exchanges at the water-bryophyta interface. In theory, this model should allow calculation of the average concentrations of copper dissolved in water, using spot measurements on the bryophyta. The calibration procedure, based on mathematical use of laboratory data, demonstrated that the kinetic coefficients representing the processes of accumulation and release of the micro-pollutant by aquatic mosses, are effectively independent of the copper concentration in the water in contact with these latter, and that the reactional diagram proposed is thus well suited to representing exchanges at the water-bryophyta interface. The data collected during monitoring of the metal flows emitted by the nuclear power plants at Cattenom, Dampierre and Nogent/Seine enabled the validity of the model to be tested over a relatively large range of concentrations. The results obtained on the Cattenom and Dampierre sites would appear to be satisfactory: over the majority of control points selected, we noted good correlation between the measured and calculated concentrations of copper dissolved in water. In particular, the simulations run on periods of from 7 to 10 days show that the method is well suited to medium-term monitoring. On the other hand, the model proved inadequate for interpreting the measurements acquired during monitoring of releases from the Nogent/Seine plant set up for winter conditions. Consequently the dissolved copper estimates, calculated according to the model, considerably overestimate the actual values measured by atomic and absorption spectrometry and by voltametry. It would seem that these results can be attributed to a particular speciation of the copper on the site studied. Subsequent studies would seem necessary to confirm this point. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Adições à flora de briófitas de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Additions to the flora of bryophytes from Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nesse levantamento foram encontrados 133 táxons no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, sendo um pertencente à divisão Anthocerotophyta em um gênero e uma família, 83 pertencentes à divisão Bryophyta, distribuídos em 54 gêneros e 27 famílias, e 49 à divisão Hepatophyta, distribuídos em 27 gêneros e 13 famílias. Destes, 100 (1 antócero, 59 musgos e 40 hepáticas são novas citações para o Estado.In this taxonomic survey 133 taxa were found in Mato Grosso do Sul State, one belonging to Anthocerotophyta, distributed into one genus and one family, 83 belonging to Bryophyta, distributed into 54 genera and 27 families, and 49 belonging to Hepatophyta, distributed into 27 genera and 13 families. Of these, 100 (one hornworts, 59 mosses and 40 hepatics are new records for the State.

  7. 英国约克郡(Yorkshire Dale)国家公园钙华苔藓植物群落研究%BRYOPHYTE COMMUNITIES ASSOCIATED WITH TRAVERTINE FORMATION AT YORKSHIRE NATIONAL PARK, U.K.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝晖; 艾伦.培特客斯

    1999-01-01

    报道英国约克郡国家公园5个钙华沉积地点苔藓植物群落调查结果.该区域钙华苔藓群落共13个,由12科15属18种组成.区系地理成分由北温带和世界广布两种成分组成;生活型以垫状矮丛集型和交织型占优势.根据钙华沉积环境特征,划分Cron钙华苔藓群落、洞穴钙华苔藓群落、瀑华苔藓群落、峭壁钙华苔藓群落和泉华苔藓群落等5种类型.调查结果表明,研究区现代苔藓植物群落钙华沉积作用十分显著.

  8. 英国钙华苔藓植物区系特征及其主要钙华沉积类型%THE FLORISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TUFA BRYOPHYTES AND THE MAIN TRAVERTINE DEPOSITION TYPES IN UK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝晖; 艾伦·培特客斯

    2002-01-01

    根据1998-2000年作者采自英国39个钙华沉积区1245份的野外苔藓植物标本研究,英国钙华苔藓植物区系具有下列特征:(1)区系种类由19科34 属50 种 (含变种亚种)组成,其中含英国钙华苔藓新记录26 种;(2)区系生活型含高丛集型(10%)、矮丛集型(32%)、交织型(44%)、扇型(2%)和平埔型(12%)5种类型;(3)区系地理成分含北温带分布(46%)、温带欧洲分布(6%)、欧洲-非洲分布(2%)、欧洲-北美分布(10%)、旧世界温带分布(4%)和世界广泛分布(34%)等6种成分.根据钙华生长的环境特征,英国苔藓植物钙华可划分为泉华、瀑华、溪流钙华和洞穴弱光带钙华4种基本类型及12种小类型.

  9. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanka G. Hristeva; Gana M. Gecheva; Karin Pall

    2015-01-01

    Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type), mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The...

  10. Research on dynamics of tundra ecosystems and their potential response to energy research development. Progress report, 1 April 1982-March 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, W.C.

    1983-02-15

    Bryophyte species distributions were analyzed with respect to microtopography at an alpine tundra site in central Alaska which is dominated by tussocks of Eriophorum vaginatum. Bryophyte distributions were found to be significantly correlated with slope but not with azimuth. Different types of tussocks and hollows and mats between tussocks also supported different bryophyte floras. Water loss resistances of three species of moss did not account for differences in their distributions.

  11. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss ta...

  12. Nonvascular contribution to ecosystem NPP in a subarctic heath during early and late growing season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Samson, Roeland; Michelsen, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    Bryophytes and lichens abound in many arctic ecosystems and can contribute substantially to the ecosystem net primary production (NPP). Because of their growth seasonality and their potential for growth out of the growing season peak, bryophyte and lichen contribution to NPP may be particularly...

  13. Morphogeometric Approaches to Non-vascular Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Daniel E; Reeb, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Morphometric analysis of organisms has undergone a dramatic renaissance in recent years, embracing a range of novel computational and imaging techniques to provide new approaches to phenotypic characterization. These innovations have often developed piece-meal, and may reflect the taxonomic specializations and biases of their creators. In this review, we aim to provide a brief introduction to applications and applicability of modern morphometrics to non-vascular land plants, an often overlooked but evolutionarily and ecologically important group. The scale and physiology of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) differ in important and informative ways from more "traditional" model plants, and their inclusion has the potential to powerfully broaden perspectives in plant morphology. In particular we highlight three areas where the "bryophytic perspective" shows considerable inter-disciplinary potential: (i) bryophytes as models for intra-specific and inter-specific phenotypic variation, (ii) bryophyte growth-forms as areas for innovation in architectural modularity, and (iii) bryophytes as models of ecophysiological integration between organs, individuals, and stands. We suggest that advances should come from two-way dialog: the translation and adoption of techniques recently developed for vascular plants (and other organisms) to bryophytes and the use of bryophytes as model systems for the innovation of new techniques and paradigms in morphogeometric approaches. PMID:27446146

  14. Patterns of metal soil contamination and changes in terrestrial cryptogamic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuny, Damien; Denayer, Franck-Olivier; Foucault, Bruno de; Schumacker, Rene; Colein, Philippe; Haluwyn, Chantal van

    2004-05-01

    Correlations between terricolous bryophyte- and lichen- vegetation and edaphic parameters (pH, organic matter, nitrogen, Carbon/nitrogen ratio, Cation Exchange Capacity, and Cd, Pb and Zn soil contents) of soils submitted to a gradient of metal contamination in northern France were performed using statistical analysis. Six classes can be distinguished according to the low-, intermediate- and high-trace metal levels respectively, leading to the conclusion that bryophyte- and lichen-groupings have a strong bioindicative value of the heavy metal pollution of soils. - Bryophyte- and lichen-assemblages provide a bioindicative value of heavy metal polluted soils.

  15. Moss and liverwort epiphytes on trunks of Cyathea delgadii in a fragment of tropical rain forest, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, Daniel M.; Prado, Jefferson

    2006-01-01

    This study is a survey of the bryophyte species that occur on the trunks of Cyathea delgadii Sternb. (Cyatheaceae), a native tree fern, encountered in a fragment of Atlantic forest located in the area of the „Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI)“, São Paulo State, Brazil. Specimens of bryophytes were collected from March 2001 to October 2003. We found 35 bryophyte species (12 spp. of mosses and 23 of liverworts). Ceratolejeuenea dentacornuta Steph. is presented as a new record for Br...

  16. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1976-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae – b) Fungi & Lichens — c) Bryophytes — d) Pteridophytes — e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  17. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1972-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae – b) Fungi & Lichenes – c) Bryophytes – d) Pteridophytes – e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  18. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1971-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae – b) Fungi & lichenes – c) Bryophytes – d) Pteridophytes – e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  19. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1974-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae — b) Fungi & Lichenes — c) Bryophytes — d) Pteridophytes — e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  20. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1975-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae – b) Fungi & Lichenes – c) Bryophytes – d) Pteridophytes – e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  1. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1969-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae – b) Fungi & Lichenes – c) Bryophytes – d) Pteridophytes – e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  2. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: (a) Algae — (b) Fungi & Lichens — (c) Bryophytes — (d) Pteridophytes — (e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  3. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1983-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae — b) Fungi & Lichens — c) Bryophytes — d) Pteridophytes — e) Spermatophytes 8 General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  4. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1980-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae — b) Fungi & Lichens — c) Bryophytes — d) Pteridophytes — e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk: *.

  5. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: (a) Algae — (b) Fungi & Lichens — (c) Bryophytes — (d) Pteridophytes — (e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  6. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, T.U.

    1966-01-01

    For the first time the growing amount of entries has been split into five categories: a) Algae, b) Fungi & Lichenes, c) Bryophytes, d) Pteridophytes, e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. Books have been marked by an asterisk.

  7. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1977-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae – b) Fungi & Lichens — c) Bryophytes — d) Pteridophytes — e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  8. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: (a) Algae — (b) Fungi & Lichens — (c) Bryophytes — (d) Pteridophytes — (e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk.

  9. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1979-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae — b) Fungi & Lichens — c) Bryophytes — d) Pteridophytes — e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk: *.

  10. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1977-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae — b) Fungi & Lichens — c) Bryophytes — d) Pteridophytes — e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk: *.

  11. EcologicFauna_ATLAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This database contains town-level totals of documented species records for several plant and animal taxa including vascular plants, trees, bryophytes, ferns, fish,...

  12. Trace-element accumulation by Hygrohypnum ochraceum in the upper Rio Grande Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, L.F. [Geological Survey, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Porter, S.D. [Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center

    1997-12-01

    Accumulation of 12 trace elements by transplanted aquatic bryophytes (Hygrohypnum ochraceum) was determined at 13 sites in the Rio Grande and tributary streams in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico as part of the US Geological Survey`s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purposes of the study were to determine the spatial distribution of trace elements in relation to land-use practices in the upper Rio Grande Basin, compare accumulation rates of metals in bryophytes at sites contaminated by trace elements, and evaluate transplanted aquatic bryophytes as a tool for examining the bioavailability of trace elements in relation to concentrations in water and bed sediment. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in bryophytes, water, and bed sediment were significantly higher at sites that receive drainage from mining areas than at sites near agricultural or urban activities. Concentrations of most trace elements were lower in a tributary stream below an urban source than at sites near mining or agricultural use. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in bryophytes correlated with concentrations in water and bed sediment. In addition, bryophyte concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb correlated with concentrations in bed sediment. Transplanted bryophytes can provide an indication of bioavailability. Rates of accumulation were related to the magnitude of ambient trace-element concentrations; maximal uptake occurred during the first 10 d of exposure. Trace-element concentrations in transplanted bryophytes could potentially be used to predict water and sediment concentrations that represent an integration of conditions over short to intermediate lengths of time, rather than instantaneous conditions as measured using water samples.

  13. 植物学教科書にみるコケ植物の取り扱いと教材開発への示唆

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 崇之; 向, 平和; 大鹿, 聖公

    2007-01-01

    Bryophytes have some characteristics as teaching material, but it is very difficult to use them in secondary education. Nevertheless, from the latter term of Meiji to the beginning of Showa, there are many teaching materials for natural history.Therefore, we analyzed teaching materials on the textbook of botany that was published at the period, take suggestions for newly development of teaching material. We analyzed composition of textbooks and species of Bryophytes, and compared them to a ma...

  14. Patterns of aquatic macrophyte species composition and distribution in Bulgarian rivers

    OpenAIRE

    GECHEVA, Gana; Yurukova, Lilyana; Cheshmedjiev, Svetoslav

    2013-01-01

    The composition of aquatic bryophyte and vascular plant assemblages, and 4 environmental variables (water velocity, shading, mean depth, and substrate type), together with altitude, ecological status, and river type were monitored at 223 sites along 204 rivers during 2009 in the Pontic Province and Eastern Balkan Ecoregions, Bulgaria. The relationships between macrophytes themselves and the parameters studied were tested. Forty-nine bryophytes and 86 vascular plants were identified. Canonical...

  15. Moss species benefits from breakdown of cyclic rodent dynamics in boreal forests

    OpenAIRE

    Rydgren, K.; Okland, R.H.; Picó, F.X.; de Kroon, H.

    2007-01-01

    Bryophytes have increased in abundance in northern regions, and climate changes have been proposed to account for this change. However, changes in the population dynamics of microtine rodents may also contribute to changes in bryophyte abundance. New evidence indicates a tendency for microtine rodent population oscillations to change from periodicity of 3–5 years to become irregular or acyclic. The impact on ecosystem functioning is potentially great. We study the impact of var...

  16. 湖北省苔藓植物资源研究--Ⅳ浠水三角山地区苔藓植物区系研究%Studies on the Bryophyta Plants Resources in Hubei Province——Ⅳ The Bryophytes Flora of Triangle Hill in Xishui County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 刘胜祥; 喻融; 叶雯; 阙延福; 李烈俊

    2003-01-01

    通过对湖北浠水三角山300余份标本的初步鉴定,三角山共有苔藓植物137种(含2变种和1亚种),隶属于34科82属,其区系成分以东亚、北温带和世界广布成分为主,分别占该地区总种数的25.6%、24.8%和18.2%.分析了该地区苔藓植物的区系特征,并阐述了三角山与国内其它6个山体苔藓植物的亲缘关系.

  17. A study on bryophyte associated with formation of soil crust in south fringe of Gurbantunggut Desert in Xinjiang%新疆古尔班通古特沙漠南缘土壤结皮中苔藓植物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元明; 曹同; 潘伯荣

    2002-01-01

    对新疆古尔班通古特沙漠南缘土壤结皮中苔藓进行了研究,结果表明,该地区参与土壤结皮的有4种苔藓植物,即真藓(Bryum argenteum)、细叶真藓(Bryum capillare)、无齿紫萼藓(Grimmia anodon)和垫状紫萼藓(Grimmia pulvinata),并分析了其耐旱特性和分布特征;研究发现该地区苔藓结皮呈层片分布规律,由表及里依次为苔藓植物层、无机沙砾层Ⅰ、藻结皮层、无机沙砾层Ⅱ等4层.

  18. 英国英格兰西北部和威尔士北部岩溶地区钙华苔藓植物群落研究%The bryophyte communities associated with travertine depositon in Northwestern England and North Wales,U.K.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝晖; 艾伦·培特客斯

    2002-01-01

    报道了英国英格兰西北部和威尔士北部共6个岩溶沉积地点苔藓植物群落的研究结果.记载典型钙华苔藓群落10个,苔藓种类9科12属14种(含变种);区系地理成分含北温带分布(64.3%)、温带欧洲分布(14.3%)和世界广泛分布(21.4%)3种类型;生活型含高丛集型(7.1%)、垫状矮丛集型(42.9%)、交织型(35.8%)和平埔型(14.2%)4种.根据岩溶沉积环境特征,划分该地区苔藓群落为:泉华苔藓群落、瀑华苔藓群落、洞穴钙华苔藓群落、峭壁钙华苔藓群落和溪流钙华苔藓群落等5种生态类型.研究地点现代苔藓植物群落钙华沉积作用十分活跃.

  19. Richness of Marchantiophyta and Bryophyta in a protected area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Priscila Costa Macedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bryophytes of Gurupi Biological Reserve represent an important component of the biodiversity of the Amazon in the Brazilian state of Maranhão. This study aimed to investigate the richness of bryophytes (Marchantiophyta and Bryophyta from Gurupi Biological Reserve and compare it with that found in other surveys conducted in Maranhão and in the northeastern part of the state of Pará, because the latter shows similarities with the study area in terms of vegetation, geography, demography, and history of occupation. We recorded 983 occurrences of bryophytes (549 Marchantiophyta and 434 Bryophyta corresponding to 62 species (43 liverworts and 19 mosses, 39 genera, and 12 families. Of those 62 species, 25 have previously been collected from all regions of Brazil, two are restricted to two regions, and four are restricted to the northern (Amazon region. The bryophyte species identified within the reserve correspond to 28.9% of the known bryophytes in Maranhão and 31.3% of the known bryophytes in northeastern Pará, the reserve therefore more closely resembling the latter area. The exclusively Amazonian elements found in the reserve underscore their affinity for this biome and their presence in the state of Maranhão. The importance of this conservation area to Maranhão and to the Amazon region of the state is confirmed by the high number of new records for the state (41 species, five of which are also new records for northeastern Brazil.

  20. Effects of slash harvest on plant diversity in forests. Final report; Effekter av skogsbraensleuttag paa vaexters maangfald. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastroem, Marcus; Nilsson, Christer [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Uminova Science Park

    2003-10-01

    The project evaluates the effects of slash harvest on plant diversity in forests. This is made through comparisons between conventionally clear-cut stands and clear-cut and slash harvested stands. Two different studies have been started. The first study consists of a direct comparison between the two types of clear-cut areas. The results show that the total species richness of vascular plants and bryophytes is not affected by slash removal. On the other hand, mosses and liverworts as a group become more species-poor. In the other study, bryophytes have been transplanted to shady and exposed parts, respectively, of clear-cut areas. Thereafter, half of the plots have been covered by slash and another half has been left exposed. The preliminary results show a considerably reduced vitality for the bryophytes living in the exposed parts of the clear-cut area without slash cover. The slash-covered bryophytes, on the other hand, performed well. On the shady part of the clear-cut area the bryophytes were similarly vital irrespective of slash cover or not. The conclusion is that slash removal can have a negative effect on plant diversity, especially if it is practiced on large exposed areas. If slash harvest is restricted to north-facing, shady, small clear-cut areas the effects could probably be eliminated.

  1. 新疆苔藓植物的研究进展%Recent advances in Xinjiang Bryoligical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    热比也木·吾甫; 艾尼瓦尔·阿布都热衣木; 玛尔孜亚·阿不力米提; 买买提明·苏来曼

    2014-01-01

    苔藓植物是植物界的一个重要门类,植株矮小,适应性广。新疆苔藓植物的研究主要集中在经典分类学、苔藓植物区系、形态解剖学、专科、专属等方面。而苔藓植物生态学及苔藓植物多样性方面的研究才刚刚起步。本文扼要介绍了20多年来苔藓植物各个分支学科的研究现状,探讨了苔藓植物研究今后的发展趋势。文中,还对我区苔藓植物研究工作今后的研究方向提出了作者的见解。%Bryophyte is an important category of plant kingdom, has small body and extensive adaptability. Because the research bryophyte in Xinjiang starts late, the current research field is mainly in classical taxon-omy, moss flora, and study of morphological anatomy, specialized subject, exclusive research. The research of bryophyte ecology and moss plant diversity is rare. The article expounds the research of bryophyte in Xinjiang development course and present situation, research direction and prospect of bryophyte in Xinjiang.

  2. The anagenetic world of spore-producing land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Jairo; Carine, Mark; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Otto, Rüdiger; Schaefer, Hanno; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental challenge to our understanding of biodiversity is to explain why some groups of species diversify, whereas others do not. On islands, the gradual evolution of a new species from a founder event has been called 'anagenetic speciation'. This process does not lead to rapid and extensive speciation within lineages and has received little attention. Based on a survey of the endemic bryophyte, pteridophyte and spermatophyte floras of nine oceanic archipelagos, we show that anagenesis, as measured by the proportion of genera with single endemic species within a genus, is much higher in bryophytes (73%) and pteridophytes (65%) than in spermatophytes (55%). Anagenesis contributed 49% of bryophyte and 40% of endemic pteridophyte species, but only 17% of spermatophytes. The vast majority of endemic bryophytes and pteridophytes are restricted to subtropical evergreen laurel forests and failed to diversify in more open environments, in contrast with the pattern exhibited by spermatophytes. We propose that the dominance of anagenesis in island bryophytes and pteridophytes is a result of a mixture of intrinsic factors, notably their strong preference for (sub)tropical forest environments, and extrinsic factors, including the long-term macro-ecological stability of these habitats and the associated strong phylogenetic niche conservatism of their floras.

  3. Peat molecular fossils recording paleoclimatic change and organism replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of the dominant C23 n-alkane derived from bryophyte was demonstrated to be related to the cold climate, based on the GC and GC/MS analyses on a 40-cm long peat core, in which this compound exponentially varies in abundance with the depth corresponding to the well-known second Little Ice Age. Both the variation of the chemical components of modern bryophyte resulted from climatic change and the ecological data about the biological growth influenced by climate shed light on the point that the variation of this compound in the peat was related to the cold climate. This was also evidenced by the previously-reported lacustrine data. In addition, the variations of the ratios of ketones/esters and C24 n-alkene/n-alkane (C24: t/C24: 0) display the trend identical with that of organisms, implicating the replacement between bryophyte and monocotyledon occurring in the peatcore.

  4. Patterns and drivers of phytodiversity in steppe grasslands of Central Podolia (Ukraine)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzemko, Anna; Steinbauer, Manuel; Becker, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    We asked: (i) Which environmental factors determine the level of α-diversity at several scales and β-diversity in steppic grasslands? (ii) How do the effects of environmental factors on α- and β-diversity vary between the different taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens)? We sampled...... intermediate compared to those known from similar grasslands throughout the Palaearctic, but for 1 cm2 we found seven species of vascular plants, a new world record. Heat index was the most important factor for vascular plants and bryophytes (negative relation), while lichen diversity depended mainly on stone...

  5. The regional species richness and genetic diversity of Arctic vegetation reflect both past glaciations and current climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, L.; Alsos, Inger G.; Bay, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    correlated with each other, and both showed a positive relationship with landscape age. Plot species richness showed differing responses for vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. At this finer scale, the richness of vascular plants was not significantly related to landscape age, which had a small effect...... size compared to the models of bryophyte and lichen richness. Main conclusion Our study suggests that imprints of past glaciations in Arctic vegetation diversity patterns at the regional scale are still detectable today. Since Arctic vegetation is still limited by post-glacial migration lag...

  6. Analysis by neutron activation in moss samples for the determination of Cr, Se, As and Hg; Analisis por activacion neutronica en muestras de musgos para la determinacion de Cr, Se, As y Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia C, R.; Garcia R, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Departamento de Posgrado, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Fraccionamiento La Virgen, 52149 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez R, C.; Avila P, P.; Longoria G, L. C., E-mail: rosario.mejia@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento del Reactor, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    This research work, presents a study of environmental monitoring in the Metropolitan Area of Toluca Valley using as bio-monitors to the mosses (bryophytes) native of different sites, analyzing the concentrations of As, Cr, Hg and Se, present in its structure. The analysis technique used to identify and to quantify to these elements was the Analysis by Neutron Activation, a nuclear analytic technique that allowed determining the concentrations at track level for its great versatility. Likewise the morphological study of the bryophyte Leskea angustata is presented by scanning electron microscopy. (Author)

  7. Effects of experimental increase of temperature and drought on heathland vegetation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sass-Gyarmati, A.; Papp, B; A. Tietema

    2015-01-01

    Effects of simulated environmental changes on heathland vegeta-tion were investigated in Oldebroek, the Netherlands. As response to strong dis-turbance, decrease of the presence/coverage of lichen species was observed; bryophytes have shown various reactions. In the drought plots the normally pre-dominant species are decreasing, while others reach their maximum coverage here.

  8. Impact of trampling on the vegetation of subantarctic Marion Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, N.J.M.; Smith, V.; Van Tongeren, O.F.R.

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the impact of human trampling in three different habitats on Marion Island (46°50'S, 37°50'E). The habitats were (1) mires with wet, peaty soils and grass- and bryophyte-dominated vegetation; (2) slopes with relatively dry mineral soils, dominated by small ferns and dwarf shrub; and (3)

  9. Composition and structure of photosystem I in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Andreas; Petersen, Jørgen; Webber-Birungi, Miriam T.;

    2013-01-01

    Recently, bryophytes, which diverged from the ancestor of seed plants more than 400 million years ago, came into focus in photosynthesis research as they can provide valuable insights into the evolution of photosynthetic complexes during the adaptation to terrestrial life. This study isolated...

  10. Functional genomic analysis supports conservation of function among cellulose synthase-like a gene family members and suggests diverse roles of mannans in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liepman, Aaron H; Nairn, C Joseph; Willats, William G T;

    2007-01-01

    , the CslA genes are members of extended multigene families; however, it is not known whether all CslA proteins are glucomannan synthases. CslA proteins from diverse land plant species, including representatives of the mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms, gymnosperms, and bryophytes, were produced...

  11. Palaeoecology of Holocene peat deposits from Nordvestø, north-west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-01

    bryophyte Aplodon wormskioldii, and also contains frequent remains of feathers. The peat formed close to a large former sea bird colony, probably a puffin (Fratercula arctica) colony. Puffins are now rare in the region, but the population may have been larger during the mid Holocene, when the sea was ice...

  12. Biomonitoring with lichens on twigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsholm, René Larsen; Wolseley, Pat; Søchting, Ulrik;

    2009-01-01

    Two surveys of the lichen and bryophyte flora growing on oak twigs from a Welsh and a Danish locality were compared with additional data on bark pH and % nitrogen in thalli of Hypogymnia physodes. Despite differences in climate and lichen flora, both sites showed a shift in the lichen communities...

  13. In vivo assembly of DNA-fragments in the moss, Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Brian Christopher; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Ikram, Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul;

    2016-01-01

    enabled the complete replacement of eukaryotic chromosomes with heterologous DNA. The moss Physcomitrella patens, a non-vascular and spore producing land plant (Bryophyte), has a well-established capacity for homologous recombination. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo assembly of multiple DNA fragments...

  14. Studies on Moss Flora Make Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ A research group led by Prof. Gao Qian (Chien Gao) from the CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology was recently awarded a first prize in natural science by Liaoning Province in recognition of its many years of bryophyte studies. The award was conferred by S&T authorities of the northeast China province.

  15. Alkalinity and trophic state regulate aquatic plant distribution in Danish lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    of the elodeid growth form, lakes of intermediate alkalinity contained a variety of elodeids and vascular plants of the isoetid growth form, while lakes of low alkalinity and low pH had several isoetids and bryophytes, but very few elodeids. Alkalinity is a close descriptor of the bicarbonate concentration...

  16. Lake sediment multi-taxon DNA from North Greenland records early post-glacial appearance of vascular plants and accurately tracks environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, L. S.; Gussarova, G.; Boessenkool, S.;

    2015-01-01

    temperatures. Lake sediments contain DNA paleorecords of the surrounding ecosystems and can be used to retrieve a variety of organismal groups from a single sample. In this study, we analyzed vascular plant, bryophyte, algal (in particular diatom) and copepod DNA retrieved from a sediment core spanning...

  17. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1982-01-01

    The entries have been split into five categories: a) Algae — b) Fungi & Lichens — c) Bryophytes — d) Pteridophytes — e) Spermatophytes & General subjects. — Books have been marked with an asterisk. The SEM-observation of plant material normally requires dehydrated, dry specimens coated with carbon o

  18. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Caloplaca cerina group in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soun, J.; Vondrak, J.; Sochting, U.;

    2011-01-01

    cryptic or semi-cryptic species) and the monophyletic C. stillicidiorum s. lat. that grows mainly on plant debris, small shrubs and bryophytes and consists of at least four internal lineages. All lineages producing vegetative diaspores (soredia, blastidia, isidia or lobules) are phenotypically...

  19. Lophozia perssonii Buch & S. Arnell in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S. Rob; Rubers, Wim V.; Sipman, Harrie J.

    1976-01-01

    The first record of Lophozia perssonii for the Netherlands, from an old and deep limestone-quarry near Cadier en Keer, S. Limburg. Sterile L. perssonii grows here as a pioneer on shaded, calcareous tufa blocks together with Leiocolea badensis and other bryophytes. The differences with related specie

  20. Rode Lijst van in Nederland verdwenen en bedreigde mossen en korstmossen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebel, H.N.; Aptroot, A.; Dirkse, G.M.; Dobben, van H.F.; Melick, van H.M.H.; Touw, A.

    1992-01-01

    Red Data List of extinct, endangered and vulnerable mosses and lichens in the Netherlands. Lists are presented of threatened bryophytes and lichens in the Netherlands. The threatened species are classified into 5 Red Data categories (0 Extinct, 1 Endangered, 2 Most vulnerable, 3 Vulnerable, 4 Potent

  1. Determinants of cryptogam composition and diversity in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands: the importance of temporal, spatial and functional scales.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, S.I.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Hölzer, A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Ahrens, M.; Callaghan, T.V.; Aerts, R.

    2009-01-01

    1. Changing temperature regimes and precipitation patterns in the Subarctic will impact on vegetation composition and diversity including those of bryophyte and lichen communities, which are major drivers of high-latitude carbon and nutrient cycling and hydrology. 2. We investigated the relative imp

  2. Distribution of Grimmia Hedw. on Mediterranean islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    On the six largest Mediterranean islands: Corsica, Crete, Cyprus, Mallorca, Sardinia and Sicily, the moss genus Grimmia (Grimmiaceae, Musci) is represented by 29 species. Many of these are newly recorded. The importance of the islands for bryophyte conservation is stressed. -Author

  3. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  4. Effect of air pollution on the epiphytic bryophytae and lichens - distribution of epiphytic bryophytae and lichens in Omuta City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-03-01

    The species and coverage rate of epiphytic plants such as bryophytes and lichens on cherry trees, Cinnamomum camphora and Ile x rotunda in Omuta City were surveyed. The distribution of such plants showed somewhat similar trends to the distribution of falling dust. A direct correlation between the amount of falling dust and the distribution of epiphytic plants could not be studied.

  5. Disjunct Hepaticae in tropical America and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.; Pócs, T.; Váňa, J.

    1983-01-01

    An increasingly large number of macrodisjunct species is emerging from recent literature dealing with taxonomy and floristics of tropical bryophytes. This paper reviews present knowledge concerning Afro-American disjunctions in Hepaticae and seeks to interprete the data in the light of current phyto

  6. The capability to synthesize phytochelatins and the presence of constitutive and functional phytochelatin synthases are ancestral (plesiomorphic) characters for basal land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Alessandro; De Benedictis, Maria; Degola, Francesca; Pastore, Giovanni; Calcagno, Margherita; Ruotolo, Roberta; Mengoni, Alessio; Sanità di Toppi, Luigi

    2014-03-01

    Bryophytes, a paraphyletic group which includes liverworts, mosses, and hornworts, have been stated as land plants that under metal stress (particularly cadmium) do not synthesize metal-binding peptides such as phytochelatins. Moreover, very little information is available to date regarding phytochelatin synthesis in charophytes, postulated to be the direct ancestors of land plants, or in lycophytes, namely very basal tracheophytes. In this study, it was hypothesized that basal land plants and charophytes have the capability to produce phytochelatins and possess constitutive and functional phytochelatin synthases. To verify this hypothesis, twelve bryophyte species (six liverworts, four mosses, and two hornworts), three charophytes, and two lycophyte species were exposed to 0-36 μM cadmium for 72 h, and then assayed for: (i) glutathione and phytochelatin quali-quantitative content by HPLC and mass spectrometry; (ii) the presence of putative phytochelatin synthases by western blotting; and (iii) in vitro activity of phytochelatin synthases. Of all the species tested, ten produced phytochelatins in vivo, while the other seven did not. The presence of a constitutively expressed and functional phytochelatin synthase was demonstrated in all the bryophyte lineages and in the lycophyte Selaginella denticulata, but not in the charophytes. Hence, current knowledge according to phytochelatins have been stated as being absent in bryophytes was therefore confuted by this work. It is argued that the capability to synthesize phytochelatins, as well as the presence of active phytochelatin synthases, are ancestral (plesiomorphic) characters for basal land plants.

  7. Fotosyntéza, produkce a růst rostlin při časově proměnné ozářenosti

    OpenAIRE

    Kubásek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    In this Ph.D. thesis I am dealing with the effect of dynamic irradiance on (i) photosynthesis, growth and bundle sheath leakiness (for CO2) of C4 plants and (ii) bryophyte photosynthesis. Part of this thesis is literature review on broader aspects of the dynamic light effects on photosynthetic and growth processes in plants.

  8. The reproductive biology of Polytrichum formosum : clonal structure and paternity revealed by microsatellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, M; During, HJ; Van de Zande, L; Bijlsma, R

    2001-01-01

    Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we assessed clonal structure and paternity in a population of the bryophyte species Polytrichum formosum. Identical multilocus genotypes of individual shoots were almost never observed in spatially separated cushions, but were found to be highly clust

  9. Effects of vapours of chlorpropham and ethofumesate on wild species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franzaring, J.; Kempenaar, C.; Eerden, van der L.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of vapours of two herbicides on plantlets of fourteen wild higher plant species and two bryophytes were screened in fumigation experiments using foliar injury, chlorophyll fluorescence and growth as response parameters. After vaporisation of the herbicides for 48 h, concentrations in the cha

  10. A new view of Bermuda's mosses

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper (Olson, 2008) discussed the finding of Pireella cymbifolia (Sull.) Cardot in Bermuda, but also commented on the lack of research on the island. Fortunately further work on Bermuda bryophytes has continued over the years, and we now have a new moss list for the island.

  11. Effects of slash extraction on plant diversity in forests. Final report; Effekter av grotuttag paa vaexters maangfald. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastroem, Marcus; Nilsson, Christer [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2005-09-01

    This project includes three studies designed to investigate the effects of slash extraction on forest plant diversity. The first study explores the previously unknown effects of commercial slash harvest after clear-felling on bryophytes and vascular plants. Differences between conventionally harvested (i.e. slash left) and slash-harvested stands were investigated 5-10 years after clear-cutting through analysis of 28 paired stands. In each stand we studied vegetation patterns in 0.1 ha plots divided into five 0.02 ha subplots. Species composition of mosses and liverworts in 0.1 ha plots was significantly affected by slash harvest, whereas composition of vascular plant species showed no differences between conventional and slash harvested plots. Species richness of liverworts was significantly reduced by slash harvest in plots of both sizes (0.1 ha and 0.02 ha), whereas moss richness was reduced only in the smaller plot size. The loss of liverwort species was largest, with approximately one third of the species disappearing. The species richness of vascular plants was not significantly affected by slash harvest in either plot size. Slash harvest also reduced species richness of forest bryophytes and of bryophytes typically growing on organic substrates in open habitats. Species richness of non-forest bryophytes on inorganic substrates remained unchanged. The second study evaluates the effects of slash-cover on ground living bryophytes in seven different clear-cuts. By transplanting ten different species of bryophytes in manipulated plots located to north-facing forest edges and the centres of the clear-cuts) we evaluated the effects of branch cover and full exposure on bryophyte growth and vitality. In the more sheltered, north-facing plots there was no difference between treatments. In the centre of the clear-cuts, however, both growth and vitality of exposed bryophytes were significantly lowered in exposed compared to covered plots. The third study investigates the

  12. Phytosociological and ecological study of springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro PETRAGLIA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociological survey of the crenic vegetation was made in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, combining the field method of the Braun-Blanquet approach with a numerical syntaxonomical analysis. A set of 139 phytosociological relevés, including vascular plants and bryophytes, were classified using cluster analysis. The vegetation types were assigned to 7 different phytosociological classes: Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae, Montio-Cardaminetea, Adiantetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae, Molinio- Arrhenatheretea, Galio-Urticetea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea. The classes Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae and Montio- Cardaminetea represent the core of crenic vegetation, including permanently or intermittently submerged plant communities, mostly made up of bryophytes, or non-submerged communities dominated by bryophytes or vascular plants. The other classes include chasmophytic bryophyte-rich communities and hygrophilous or tall herb communities lying around the periphery of the springs. 23 vegetation types were identified and, whenever possible, classified at the association level, or as phytocoena. The environmental parameters showed different ranges among vegetation types. A number of environmental variables were recorded during the vegetation survey, including altitude, shading, discharge, flow velocity, with exhaustive hydrochemical sampling. Conductivity, alkalinity and pH showed similar distribution patterns, clearly separating the vegetation types into two distinct groups, differing in the nature of the substratum. The altitudinal range was very broad and shading was also very variable. Nitrate and phosphate levels showed that the majority of vegetation types were irrigated by oligotrophic crenic waters. Finally, the bryophyte-dominated vegetation types belonging to the class Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae occurred in springs with the highest discharge values and variation. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the

  13. Biomonitoring of nitrogen pollution. Possibilities and limitations of bioindication techniques; Biomonitoring von Stickstoffimmissionen. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen von Bioindikationsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, K. [Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Background and aim. Air pollution caused by oxidized and reduced nitrogen is distributed over wide areas of Europe at a high level. As an alternative or complement to physical measurements and modelling calculations, biomonitoring with plants provides techniques to assess amounts and effects of pollution from oxidized and reduced nitrogen compounds (depositions and concentrations). Many of the previously implemented techniques are based on well-proven standardised methods, e.g. documented in VDI guidelines, modified more or less for a biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen pollution. This paper gives a review of the techniques for a biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen pollution, their possibilities as well as their limitations. Main features - diversity of the ground vegetation - nitrogen accumulation in vascular plants - exposure of vascular plants - mapping of epiphytic lichens, bryophytes and algae - nitrogen accumulation in lichens and bryophytes - exposure of lichens and bryophytes. Results and Discussion. Important response parameters are nitrogen concentrations in plant tissue (shoot, needle, leave) and biodiversity of plant species. These responses of vascular plants in many cases are influenced by other local varying conditions, in particular the soil. The exposure of vascular plants over a short period provides a standardised quantification of the total atmospheric nitrogen input in a model ecosystem. The enrichment of nitrogen in the plant tissue of bryophytes and lichens from the ground vegetation is closely correlated with the amount of nitrogen deposition. The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the response of exposed Hypogymnia physodes is more sensitive to ammonia than to nitrous oxide, whereas with the diversity of epiphytic bryophytes or the abundance of algae no significant correlation with atmospheric N pollution were found. Conclusions. Some bioindication techniques provide a cause-effect related, partly standardised biomonitoring of nitrogen

  14. Recovery of three arctic stream reaches from experimental nutrient enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstead, J.P.; Green, A.C.; Deegan, Linda A.; Peterson, B.J.; Slavik, K.; Bowden, W.B.; Hershey, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    1. Nutrient enrichment and resulting eutrophication is a widespread anthropogenic influence on freshwater ecosystems, but recovery from nutrient enrichment is poorly understood, especially in stream environments. We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient enrichment (N + P or P only) in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). 2. Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2-13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of nutrients added or enrichment duration. Aquatic bryophyte cover, which increased greatly in the Kuparuk River only after long-term enrichment (8 years), took 8 years of recovery to approach reference levels, after storms had scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. 3. Multi-year persistence of bryophytes in the Kuparuk River appeared to prevent recovery of insect populations that had either been positively (e.g. the mayfly Ephemerella, most chironomid midge taxa) or negatively (e.g. the tube-building chironomid Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer. These lags in recovery (of >3 years) were probably driven by the persistent effect of bryophytes on physical benthic habitat. 4. Summer growth rates of Arctic grayling (both adults and young-of-year) in Oksrukuyik Creek (fertilised for 6 years with no bryophyte colonisation), which were consistently increased by nutrient addition, returned to reference rates within 1-2 years. 5. Rates of recovery of these virtually pristine Arctic stream ecosystems from low-level nutrient enrichment appeared to be controlled largely by duration of enrichment, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by eventual bryophyte colonisation, and subsequent physical disturbance that removed bryophytes. Nutrient

  15. Between a Rock and a Dry Place:The Water-Stressed Moss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audra J.Charron; Ralph S.Quatrano

    2009-01-01

    The earliest land plants faced a suite of abiotic stresses largely unknown to their aquatic algal ancestors.The descendants of these plants evolved two general mechanisms for survival in the relatively arid aerial environment.While the vascular plants or 'tracheophytes' developed tissue specializations to transport and retain water,the other main lin-eages of land plants,the bryophytes,retained a simple,nonvascular morphology.The bryophytes-mosses,hornworts,and liverworts-continually undergo a co-equilibration of their water content with the surrounding environment and rely to a great extent on intrinsic cellular mechanisms to mitigate damage due to water stress.This short review will focus on the cellular and molecular responses to dehydration and rehydration in mosses,and offer insights into general plant responses to water stress.

  16. Biologic diversity, forest fuels and silviculture: Effects of biomass harvesting in deciduous tree stands. Final report; Biologisk maangfald, skogsbraensle och skoetsel av bestaand: effekter av biomassauttag i loevskog. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Bjoern [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Botanical Inst.; Goetmark, Frank [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology

    2005-06-01

    This report concerns a research project studying biodiversity effects of partial cutting for biofuel harvest in temperate deciduous forest dominated by oaks (abandoned woodland pastures). Partial cutting (30%) resulted in fewer species of wood-decay fungi and bryophytes, but increase of vascular plants. It did not increase survival of oak seedlings in the short term. For epixylic bryophytes and lichens, wood-decay fungi, beetles and mycetophilids, area of valuable forest patches at the landscape level increased local species species richness, but not the number of red-listed and indicator species of vascular plants. We recommend that partial cutting for biofuel is not applied indiscriminantly, and a share of at least 25% of stands should be left as no intervention forests when oak grows mixed with other trees. More caution should be taken in regional areas rich in old deciduous forest, and in south-eastern Sweden.

  17. Remarkable findings of mosses from the Orthotrichaceae family in the Muránska planina National Park (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plášek Vítězslav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents recent findings of epiphytic bryophytes from the Orthotrichaceae family in the Muránska planina National Park. Field surveys were carried out between 2008 and 2016. In total, 111 localities were visited. Altogether, 19 taxa from the Orthotrichaceae family were recorded - 8 of them are new for the territory of the National Park (Dorcadion affine var. bohemicum, D. rupestre, Orthotrichum diaphanum, O. patens, O. scanicum, O. stramineum, Pulvigera lyellii, and Ulota bruchii and 1 as new for Slovakia (Dorcadion affine var. bohemicum. Eleven species are listed on the Red list of bryophytes of Slovakia – EX: Orthotrichum rogeri; CR: Nyholmiella gymnostoma, Orthotrichum patens, O. scanicum; VU: Dorcadion striatum, Ulota bruchii; NT: Dorcadion speciosum, Orthotrichum pallens, Pulvigera lyellii, Ulota crispa; DD: Orthotrichum stramineum. The most interesting findings are briefly discussed.

  18. Long-term addition of fertilizer, labile carbon, and fungicide alters the biomass of plant functional groups in a subarctic-alpine community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, M S; Michelsen, A.

    2011-01-01

    In subarctic ecosystems, plant growth is mostly limited by nutrient availability and harsh climate. Investigating how soil nutrient availability controls the plant community composition may therefore help to understand indirect effects of climate change. The study was conducted in a long-term field......, and the aboveground plant biomass was harvested 4 and 16 years after initiating the experiment. In addition, soil inorganic N and P concentration was analyzed the same years. Increased nutrient availability (NPK fertilizer) largely increased the biomass of graminoids and unexpectedly of bryophytes, but not of other...... experiment on a subarctic-alpine fellfield dominated by woody evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens. To manipulate nutrient availability additions of NPK fertilizer, labile C, and fungicide (benomyl) were done in a fully factorial design, replicated in six blocks. The treatments were run for 10 years...

  19. Studies of Physcomitrella patens reveal that ethylene-mediated submergence responses arose relatively early in land-plant evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yasumura, Yuki

    2012-10-18

    Colonization of the land by multicellular green plants was a fundamental step in the evolution of life on earth. Land plants evolved from fresh-water aquatic algae, and the transition to a terrestrial environment required the acquisition of developmental plasticity appropriate to the conditions of water availability, ranging from drought to flood. Here we show that extant bryophytes exhibit submergence-induced developmental plasticity, suggesting that submergence responses evolved relatively early in the evolution of land plants. We also show that a major component of the bryophyte submergence response is controlled by the phytohormone ethylene, using a perception mechanism that has subsequently been conserved throughout the evolution of land plants. Thus a plant environmental response mechanism with major ecological and agricultural importance probably had its origins in the very earliest stages of the colonization of the land. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Evolution of GOLDEN2-LIKE gene function in C3 and C4 plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Fouracre, Jim; Kelly, Steven; Karki, Shanta; Gowik, Udo; Aubry, Sylvain; Shaw, Michael K.; Westhoff, Peter; Slamet-Loedin, Inez H.; Quick, W. Paul; Hibberd, Julian M.; Langdale, Jane A.

    2012-01-01

    A pair of GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors is required for normal chloroplast development in land plant species that encompass the range from bryophytes to angiosperms. In the C4 plant maize, compartmentalized function of the two GLK genes in bundle sheath and mesophyll cells regulates dimorphic chloroplast differentiation, whereas in the C3 plants Physcomitrella patens and Arabidopsis thaliana the genes act redundantly in all photosynthetic cells. To assess whether the cell-specific functi...

  1. Diversity and community structure of testate amoebae (protista) in tropical montane rain forests of southern Ecuador: altitudinal gradient, aboveground habitats and nutrient limitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Krashevs'ka, Valentyna

    2009-01-01

    The tropical Andes in southern Ecuador constitute a hotspot of plant (especially trees and bryophytes) and animal (especially birds, bats, arctiid and geometrid mothes) diversity. However, data on small animals such as testate amoebae as an important component of the soil and aboveground community are lacking. Variations in density, diversity and community structure of testate amoebae along altitudinal transects in tropical regions are largely unknown. Testate amoebae colonize almost any habi...

  2. Plant mitochondrial genome peculiarities evolving in the earliest vascular plant lineages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker KNOOP

    2013-01-01

    In plants,the mitochondrial DNA has evolved in peculiar ways.Simple circular mitochondrial genomes found in most other eukaryotic lineages have expanded tremendously in size.Mitochondrial DNAs in some flowering plants may in fact be larger than genomes of free-living bacteria.Introns,retrotransposons,pseudogene fragments,and promiscuous DNA copied from the chloroplast or nuclear genome contribute to the size expansion but most intergenic DNA remains unaccounted for so far.Additionally,frequent recombination results in heterogeneous pools of coexisting,subgenomic mtDNA molecules in angiosperms.In contrast,the mitochondrial DNAs of bryophytes,the extant representatives of very early splits in plant phylogeny,are more conservative in structural evolution and seem to be devoid of active recombination.However,whereas mitochondrial introns are highly conserved among seed plants (spermatophytes),not a single one of more than 80 different introns in bryophyte mtDNAs is conserved among the three divisions,liverworts,mosses,and hornworts.Lycophytes are now unequivocally identified as living representatives of the earliest vascular plant branch in a crucial phylogenetic position between bryophytes and later diversifying tracheophytes including spermatophytes.Very recently,mtDNAs have become available for the three orders of extant lycophytes-Isoetales,Selaginellales,and Lycopodiales.As I will discuss here,the lycophyte mtDNAs not only show a surprising diversity of features but also previously unseen novelties of plant mitochondrial DNA evolution.The transition from a gametophyte-dominated bryophyte lifestyle to a sporophytedominated vascular plant lifestyle apparently gave rise to several peculiar independent changes in plant chondrome evolution.

  3. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  4. 甘肃省首次发现泥炭藓科(Sphagnaceae)植物%Discovery of a moss family Sphagnaceaein Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国营; 于宁宁; 任昭杰; 赵遵田

    2008-01-01

    Previously,more than 400 species of bryophytes in Gansu Province were reported;however,there was no any species of the moss family Sphagnaceae[1-5].In 2006,we collected a specimen of the family Sphag naceae from Baishuijiang National Nature Reserve in Gansu Province.Then three specimens of diferentcommunities were gathered again from this area in 2007.We provide the picture concerning its natural habitat in the paper(Fig.1).

  5. Winter forage selection by barren-ground caribou: Effects of fire and snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Saperstein

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Both long- and short-term consequences should be considered when examining the effects of fire on the foraging behavior of caribou. Post-fire increases in protein content, digestibility, and availability of E. vaginatum make burned tussock tundra an attractive feeding area for caribou in late winter. These benefits are likely short-lived, however. Lowered availability of lichens and increased relative frequency of bryophytes will persist for a much longer period.

  6. Data to the bryoflora of Mount Kenya, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Chuah-Petiot, Min S.

    1995-01-01

    194 species of bryophytes, belonging to 61 families are reported from Mount Kenya, of which 38 species are new for Mount Kenya and 30 records are new for the whole country, marked by * and ** respectively. The montane forests between 1600 and 3300m. asl., contain the greatest diversity of life forms and species. This is due to the abundant rainfall providing adequate humidity at relatively low temperature and altitude, coupled with frequent cloud cover. All vegetation belts above the montane ...

  7. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory L Hodd

    Full Text Available Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1 oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2 species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3 species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need

  8. Vegetation development on extensive vegetated green roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Emilsson, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Technology for establishment of vegetated roofs (green roofs) has developed rapidly over recent years but knowledge about how these systems will develop over time is still limited. This study investigates vegetation development on unfertilised thin extensive vegetated roofs during a 3-year period. The vegetation systems investigated were designed to be low maintenance and had a saturated weight of 50 kg/m2, a thickness of 4 cm and drought-resistant succulent and bryophyte vegetation. Vegetati...

  9. Research of Mosses Accumulation Properties Used for Assessment of Regional and Local Atmospheric Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda K. Ryzhakova; Rogova, Natalia S.; Borisenko, Alex L.

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of atmospheric heavy metal and other toxic element depositions by using widespread bryophytes as biomonitors has been widely used. Choosing most appropriate moss species in relation to their accumulation properties is the main goal of this research. The accumulation of heavy metals and other toxic elements by widespread mosses of midland have been studied. The research is focused on assessing accumulation properties of 4 species of terrestrial moss, 4 species of paludal moss an...

  10. Homologous Versus Antithetic Alternation of Generations and the Origin of Sporophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Haig, David Addison

    2008-01-01

    The late-nineteenth/early-twentieth century debate over homologous versus antithetic alternation of generations is reviewed. Supporters of both theories, at first, used Coleochaete as a model for the origin of land-plant life cycles. The early debate focused on the morphological interpretation of the sporophyte and on whether vascular cryptogams had bryophyte-like ancestors. The terms of the debate shifted after the discovery that the alternation of morphological generations was accompanie...

  11. Changes in lichen diversity and community structure with fur seal population increase on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Favero-Longo, Sergio E.; Cannone, Nicoletta; Worland, M. Roger; Convey, Peter; Piervittori, Rosanna; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Signy Island has experienced a dramatic increase in fur seal numbers over recent decades, which has led to the devastation of lowland terrestrial vegetation, with the eradication of moss turfs and carpets being the most prominent feature. Here we demonstrate that fur seals also affect the other major component of this region’s typical cryptogamic vegetation, the lichens, although with a lower decrease in variability and abundance than for bryophytes. Classification (UPGMA) and ordination (Pri...

  12. Impact of Bryo-Diversity depletion on Land Slides in Nilgiri Hills, Western Ghats (South India) –A Study

    OpenAIRE

    ALAM, AFROZ; Kambaska Kumar BEHERA; Vats, Sharad; Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    Since the existence of Nilgiri hills, bryophyte- the miniatures of plant kingdom play an important and crucial role in the stabilization of Blue Mountains ecology. Unlike Himalayas, the landslides were rare in the area, but with the time and changing global environment it had become a common sight. Significantly ever increasing population and vehicular traffic is the prime reason for them, to cater the need, roads are periodically broadened by cutting road sides destroying the habitat as also...

  13. Predicted protein-protein interactions in the moss Physcomitrella patens: a new bioinformatic resource

    OpenAIRE

    Schuette, Scott; Piatkowski, Brian; Corley, Aaron; Lang, Daniel; Geisler, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Background Physcomitrella patens, a haploid dominant plant, is fast becoming a useful molecular genetics and bioinformatics tool due to its key phylogenetic position as a bryophyte in the post-genomic era. Genome sequences from select reference species were compared bioinformatically to Physcomitrella patens using reciprocal blasts with the InParanoid software package. A reference protein interaction database assembled using MySQL by compiling BioGrid, BIND, DIP, and Intact databases was quer...

  14. Origin and radiation of the earliest vascular land plants

    OpenAIRE

    Steemans, Philippe; Le Herisse, A.; Melvin, J; M. Miller; Paris, F; Verniers, J.; Wellman, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Colonization of the land by plants most likely occurred in a stepwise fashion starting in the Mid-Ordovician. The earliest flora of bryophyte-like plants appears to have been cosmopolitan and dominated the planet, relatively unchanged, for some 30 million years. It is represented by fossilized dispersed cryptospores and fragmentary plant remains. In the Early Silurian, cryptospore abundance and diversity diminished abruptly as trilete spores appeared, became abundant, and underwent rapid dive...

  15. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Lycophyte Huperzia squarrosa: The Most Archaic Form in Vascular Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Liu; Bin Wang; Peng Cui; Libo Li; Jia-Yu Xue; Jun Yu; Yin-Long Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes have maintained some bacterial features despite their residence within eukaryotic cells for approximately two billion years. One of these features is the frequent presence of polycistronic operons. In land plants, however, it has been shown that all sequenced vascular plant chondromes lack large polycistronic operons while bryophyte chondromes have many of them. In this study, we provide the completely sequenced mitochondrial genome of a lycophyte, from Huperzia squarros...

  16. The relationships of vascular plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenrick, P

    2000-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic research indicates that vascular plants evolved from bryophyte-like ancestors and that this involved extensive modifications to the life cycle. These conclusions are supported by a range of systematic data, including gene sequences, as well as evidence from comparative morphology and the fossil record. Within vascular plants, there is compelling evidence for two major clades, which have been termed lycophytes (clubmosses) and euphyllophytes (seed plants, ferns, horsetails)...

  17. The Chloroplast Protein Translocation Complexes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A Bioinformatic Comparison of Toc and Tic Components in Plants, Green Algae and Red Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Kalanon, Ming; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2008-01-01

    The recently completed genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was surveyed for components of the chloroplast protein translocation complexes. Putative components were identified using reciprocal BlastP searches with the protein sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as queries. As a comparison, we also surveyed the new genomes of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, two prasinophyte green algae (Ostreococcus lucimarinus and Ostreococcus tauri), the red alga Cyanidioschizon merolae, and several cyanob...

  18. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin

    2000-01-01

    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  19. Characterization of reference genes for RT-qPCR in the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis in response to abiotic stress and desiccation/rehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Li, Haiyan; Gao, Bei; Yang, Honglan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wood, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant bryophyte of the biological soil crusts found in the Gurbantunggut desert. The extreme desert environment is characterized by prolonged drought, temperature extremes, high radiation and frequent cycles of hydration and dehydration. S. caninervis is an ideal organism for the identification and characterization of genes related to abiotic stress tolerance. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) expression analysis i...

  20. Macroinvertebrates associated with bryophyta in a first-order Atlantic Forest stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz F. J. V. Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the composition and structure of the benthic community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream, located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. During three months of the dry season of 2007 and three months of the rainy season of 2008, samples of bryophytes attached to stones were collected randomly, along a 100 m stream reach. The structure of the community was analyzed through the mean density of individuals, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness, family richness, dominance index, and the percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (% EPT. Chironomidae larvae were dominant in the two periods of study, followed by Ceratopogonidae in the rainy season, and Naididae in the dry season. The orders EPT contributed 14 families. The results showed that bryophytes constitute suitable habitat which is able to shelter an abundant and diversified benthic fauna in a small extension of the stream. This habitat provides refuge during spates, and thus minimizes downstream transport of the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  1. 黄土边坡苔藓植物防护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宪琳; 董琪; 何东升

    2011-01-01

    In combination with current analysis of ecological vegetation in slope protection and researches on relevant bryopbyte biology and ecology, this paper discusses the conditions and advantages of application of the bryophyte in Loess slope protection on the basis of investigation and analysis on some bryophyte vegetation on Loess Plateau. This paper also proposes the prospect of bryophyte vegetation in slope protection from the perspective of economy and environment.%在分析我国目前边坡植被生态护坡的基础上像据有关苔藓植物生物学、生态学特征的研究成果,结合对黄土高原部分边坡苔藓植物进行的护坡的调查与分析,讨论了将苔藓植物应用黄土边坡植被生态护坡的条件、优势;从经济、环境等方面提出苔藓植物在黄土边坡护坡应用中的前景。

  2. Forest roadsides harbour less competitive habitats for a relict mountain plant (Pulsatilla vernalis) in lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Katarzyna M.; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Grzyl, Andrzej; Rewicz, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    The long-term survival of relict populations depends on the accessibility of appropriate sites (microrefugia). In recent times, due to the mass extinction of rare species that has resulted from the loss of natural habitats, the question is – Are there any human-made sites that can act as refugial habitats? We examined forest roadside populations of the mountain plant Pulsatilla vernalis in the last large lowland refugium in Central Europe. We compared the habitat conditions and community structure of roadsides with P. vernalis against the forest interior. Light availability and bryophyte composition were the main factors that distinguished roadsides. Pulsatilla occurred on sites that had more light than the forest interior, but were also more or less shaded by trees, so more light came as one-side illumination from the road. Roadsides had also a lower coverage of bryophytes that formed large, dense carpets. At the same time, they were characterised by a greater richness of vascular plants and ‘small’ bryophytes, which corresponds to a higher frequency of disturbances. In a warming and more fertile Anthropocene world, competition plays the main role in the transformation of forest communities, which is why relict populations have found refugia in extensively disturbed human-made habitats.

  3. Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in the Plastid Genome is Unrelated to Gene Structure and Shows Evolutionary Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yueying; Xu, Wenjing; Xing, Tian; Zhao, Mingming; Li, Nana; Yan, Li; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) is the nonuniform usage of codons, occurring often in nearly all organisms. Our previous study found that SCUB is correlated with intron number, is unequal among exons in the plant nuclear genome, and mirrors evolutionary specialization. However, whether this rule exists in the plastid genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the plastid genomes of 25 species from lower to higher plants (algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and spermatophytes). We found NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons) are preferential in the plastid genomes of all plants. Interestingly, this preference is heterogeneous among taxonomies of plants, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in pteridophytes, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. In addition, SCUB frequencies are consistent among genes with varied introns and among exons, indicating that the bias of NNA and NNT is unrelated to either intron number or exon position. Further, SCUB is associated with DNA methylation-induced conversion of cytosine to thymine in the vascular plants but not in algae or bryophytes. These data demonstrate that these SCUB profiles in the plastid genome are distinctly different compared with the nuclear genome.

  4. Forensic botany as a useful tool in the crime scene: Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, Gabriele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Carnevali, Eugenia; Severini, Simona; Bacci, Mauro; Gabbrielli, Mario

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous presence of plant species makes forensic botany useful for many criminal cases. Particularly, bryophytes are useful for forensic investigations because many of them are clonal and largely distributed. Bryophyte shoots can easily become attached to shoes and clothes and it is possible to be found on footwear, providing links between crime scene and individuals. We report a case of suicide of a young girl happened in Siena, Tuscany, Italia. The cause of traumatic injuries could be ascribed to suicide, to homicide, or to accident. In absence of eyewitnesses who could testify the dynamics of the event, the crime scene investigation was fundamental to clarify the accident. During the scene analysis, some fragments of Tortula muralis Hedw. and Bryum capillare Hedw were found. The fragments were analyzed by a bryologists in order to compare them with the moss present on the stairs that the victim used immediately before the death. The analysis of these bryophytes found at the crime scene allowed to reconstruct the accident. Even if this evidence, of course, is circumstantial, it can be useful in forensic cases, together with the other evidences, to reconstruct the dynamics of events. PMID:26165654

  5. Forest roadsides harbour less competitive habitats for a relict mountain plant (Pulsatilla vernalis) in lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Katarzyna M; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Grzyl, Andrzej; Rewicz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The long-term survival of relict populations depends on the accessibility of appropriate sites (microrefugia). In recent times, due to the mass extinction of rare species that has resulted from the loss of natural habitats, the question is - Are there any human-made sites that can act as refugial habitats? We examined forest roadside populations of the mountain plant Pulsatilla vernalis in the last large lowland refugium in Central Europe. We compared the habitat conditions and community structure of roadsides with P. vernalis against the forest interior. Light availability and bryophyte composition were the main factors that distinguished roadsides. Pulsatilla occurred on sites that had more light than the forest interior, but were also more or less shaded by trees, so more light came as one-side illumination from the road. Roadsides had also a lower coverage of bryophytes that formed large, dense carpets. At the same time, they were characterised by a greater richness of vascular plants and 'small' bryophytes, which corresponds to a higher frequency of disturbances. In a warming and more fertile Anthropocene world, competition plays the main role in the transformation of forest communities, which is why relict populations have found refugia in extensively disturbed human-made habitats. PMID:27534690

  6. Contrasting growth responses of dominant peatland plants to warming and vegetation composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tom N; Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Bardgett, Richard D

    2015-05-01

    There is growing recognition that changes in vegetation composition can strongly influence peatland carbon cycling, with potential feedbacks to future climate. Nevertheless, despite accelerated climate and vegetation change in this ecosystem, the growth responses of peatland plant species to combined warming and vegetation change are unknown. Here, we used a field warming and vegetation removal experiment to test the hypothesis that dominant species from the three plant functional types present (dwarf-shrubs: Calluna vulgaris; graminoids: Eriophorum vaginatum; bryophytes: Sphagnum capillifolium) contrast in their growth responses to warming and the presence or absence of other plant functional types. Warming was accomplished using open top chambers, which raised air temperature by approximately 0.35 °C, and we measured air and soil microclimate as potential mechanisms through which both experimental factors could influence growth. We found that only Calluna growth increased with experimental warming (by 20%), whereas the presence of dwarf-shrubs and bryophytes increased growth of Sphagnum (46%) and Eriophorum (20%), respectively. Sphagnum growth was also negatively related to soil temperature, which was lower when dwarf-shrubs were present. Dwarf-shrubs may therefore promote Sphagnum growth by cooling the peat surface. Conversely, the effect of bryophyte presence on Eriophorum growth was not related to any change in microclimate, suggesting other factors play a role. In conclusion, our findings reveal contrasting abiotic and biotic controls over dominant peatland plant growth, suggesting that community composition and carbon cycling could be modified by simultaneous climate and vegetation change. PMID:25687830

  7. Geosites of Lithuania as an environment for dwelling of specific biota: geo- and biodiversity interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga; Jukoniene, Ilona; Prigodina Lukosiene, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Surface of Lithuania and surrounding countries is sculptured by five glaciations, which left behind morainic tills and melt water deposits, modified by erosion and later used for agriculture or overgrown by wild meadows or forests. The glaciations also left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields that are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and surrounding countries. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Though sparse, but of high scientific value, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic outcrops and quarries of Lithuania are variably protected. Quaternary scientists attempted to use single erratic boulders, their fields and abundances in tills to imply glacier dynamics. Some erratics came from known localities in Scandinavia and are called indicator boulders because they show the source and directions of ice sheet movements. Huge single boulders (e.g. 7 m long and 6 m high Puntukas, Anyksciai Regional Park) and wild boulder fields are natural monuments and attractive sites for visitors. Outcrops and quarries of Devonian dolomites and gypsium, Permian limestones and Jurassic sandstones widely used for a scientific research are parts of the protected geo-diversity in the Venta and Birzai regional parks, N and NW Lithuania. On the other hand, a large part of the c. 700 species of lichenized and allied fungi and of c. 500 bryophytes known in Lithuania are confined to natural or semi-natural (quarries) rocky habitats. Eight rock-dwelling lichen and nine bryophyte species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them are known from 1-2 localities or are thought to be extinct now. Besides, the recent investigations of dolomite quarries revealed them to be habitats for 7 bryophyte, 8 lichenized and lichenicolous species, previously unknown for Lithuania. One new lichenicolous species was discovered (Khodosovtsev et al., 2012). Some of the newfinds are rare or absent

  8. Unresolved problems on the origin and early evolution of land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennici, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The origin of land plants or embryophytes from the Charophyceae is generally accepted today by the botanists. In fact, numerous morphological, cytological, ultrastructural, biochemical and molecular characters are shared in these organisms. A fundamental problem is still constituted by the evolution of the sporophyte, i.e. the appearance of two different phase cycles (gametophyte/sporophyte alternance), although two theories ("antithetic" and "homologous") try to explain this evolutionary event.However, another phylogenetic dilemma is represented, in my opinion, either by the formation of bryophytes or by the transition from these first land plants to the pteridophytes, considering them at whole organism level. The bryophyte gametophyte is the most elaborate of the land plants. It presents several complex characters, principally the growth developmental form, the appearance of multicellular sex organs, antheridia and archegonia. Also the sporophyte shows a complicated structure that is not found in the other land plants or tracheophytes. The sporangium, in particular, exhibits some intricate morphological traits such as the peristome of true mosses for spore dispersion, the elaters of liverworts and the indeterminate growth in the hornworts. The pteridophytes are represented especially by their dominant sporophyte. This latter has the capacity to produce multiple sporangia and, in many cases, two kinds of spores which develop in male and female gametophyte (heterosporous pteridophytes). Another important characteristic of this sporophyte is its ability to become independent of the gametophyte. However, one of the most innovative character is the formation of true vascular elements (xylem and phloem). All these very large evolutionary jumps are discussed on the basis of the phyletic gradualistic neo-Darwinian theory and the punctuated equilibrium theory of Eldredge and Gould. In this context other genetic evolutionary mechanisms are also considered.Nevertheless, the

  9. 遵义海龙囤军事古堡苔藓植物区系研究%Study on the Bryoflora from Hailongtun Military Castle of Zunyi in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何林; 张素英; 张仁波

    2011-01-01

    After research on the 109 specimens of bryophytes collected in Hailongtun Military Castle, 25 families, 31 genera, 41 species (including subspecies and varieties) of bryophytes have been found in total. For mosses, there are 27 species, belonging to 20 genera of 15 families, while for liverworts, 10 families, 11 genera and 14 species are identified. After the floristic analysis, result shows that the East Asian elements are the most important one, which corresponding to 42.11% of the total. Followed by the East Asian elements, the North temperate elements corresponds 23.68% of the total. It can be concluded that the temperate elements are the main body of the Bryophytes of the Hailongtun military castle.%通过对采自遵义海龙囤军事古堡的苔藓植物标本109号进行鉴定,得到遵义海龙囤军事古堡有苔藓植物41种(含亚、变种,下同),隶属于31属,25科,其中藓类植物15科20属27种,苔类植物10科11属14种.对该区域苔藓植物进行区系分析发现,东亚成分占主体,占总种数的42.11%,北温带成分次之,占总种数23.68%,总体性质是温带的.

  10. Congruencies between photoautotrophic groups in springs of the Italian Alps: implications for conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco CANTONATI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though a number of studies have demonstrated the importance of photoautotrophic organisms in spring habitats, investigations that consider several photoautotrophic taxonomic groups are lacking. Within the framework of a multidisciplinary project on springs of the south-eastern Alps, we studied algae, diatoms, lichens, and bryophytes and (1 compared the alpha, beta and gamma diversity, and the composition of the studied groups between carbonate and siliceous springs, (2 estimated the nonrandomness of species combinations within organismal groups, and (3 examined the congruence in species assemblage patterns across taxonomic groups. In 40 springs, 69 species of algae, 110 species of diatoms, 29 species of lichens, and 62 species of bryophytes were found. Diatoms, lichens and bryophytes had higher species-richness in siliceous springs, while other algae had higher richness in carbonate springs. For all taxonomic groups, carbonate and siliceous springs host different assemblages, indicating that both types of substrata contribute to the overall regional diversity of spring photoautotrophs. In individual springs, the photoautotroph groups are characterised by a similar proportion of species of their regional pool, and form relatively speciespoor communities with a high turnover of species among springs. This pattern has important implications for conservation, suggesting that the protection of single sites might not be effective, and that a biodiversity conservation plan for spring habitats should be developed at the regional level, and include a network of sites. Interestingly, the co-occurrence indices suggested that, in individual springs, stochastic processes might the most important mechanisms in the establishment of local assemblages. A weak cross-taxon congruency was found, suggesting that a single taxon surrogate will not adequately represent other photoautotrophic groups. Therefore, spring conservation plans for photoautotrophs should

  11. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: Prospects for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favas, Paulo J.C., E-mail: pjcf@utad.pt [School of Life Sciences and the Environment, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Pratas, João [Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Varun, Mayank; D' Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S. [Department of Botany, St. John' s College, Agra 282 002 (India)

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n = 200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1217 μg L{sup −1}. The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4979 mg kg{sup −1}) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg{sup −1}), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg{sup −1}), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg{sup −1}). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg{sup −1}). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg{sup −1}) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • Exploration of U contamination extent in uraniferous province of Central Portugal • A group of previously untested species with the ability to accumulate U was assessed • U accumulation patterns in the species indicate their potential in bioindication and phytoremediation of U-contaminated water.

  12. Single-tree influence on understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu H-Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of individual canopy tree on the species composition and abundance of understorey vegetation in subtropical forests, by applying a model for tree influence on understorey vegetation of boreal spruce forests developed by Økland et al. (1999, according to the principles of Ecological Field Theory (EFT. The study was based upon five vegetation data sets, each with two subsets (vascular plants species and bryophytes species from subtropical forests in south and southwest China. Optimal value of tree influence model parameters was found by maximizing the eigenvalue of a Constrained Ordination (CO axis, obtained by use of the EFT-based tree influence index as the only constraining variable. One CO method, Redundancy Analysis (RDA, was applied to five vegetation data sets. The results showed that the optimal EFT tree influence models generally accounted for only a small part of the variation in species composition (the eigenvalues of RDA axes were low, amounted to 1-10% of total inertia. The higher eigenvalue-to­total-inertia ratio with RDA was interpreted as due mainly to the low species turnover along the tree influence gradient. Vascular plants and bryophytes species differed with respect to optimal parameters in the tree influence mo­del, especially in a conifer dominated forest. Compositional turnover asso­ciated with tree influence indices was also generally low, although somewhat varies among study areas. Thus, it was concluded that single-tree EFT models may have limited suitability for studied subtropical forests; different optimal parameters in the tree influence model obtained for vascular plants and bryo­phytes species in two studied areas indicates that subtropical trees may impact vascular plants and bryophytes species in different ways; and trees may influence the understorey species composition more in a collective manner than through the influence of single individuals in studied

  13. The ecological structure of the bryoflora of Wroclaw's parks and cemeteries in relation to their localization and origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Fudali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The ecological structure of the flora of 81 bryophytes found in 22 town parks and 6 cemeteries situated within the borders of the Wrocław town has been analyzed in relation to the localization of objects (within the center of the town and its suburbs and their origin (parks set up in the place of ruins, those built on the site of old cemeteries, objects established within former forests, and parks set up in open, previously rural areas, often as gardens of mansions. In general estimation, the bryoflora of parks and cemeteries appears to be rather ecologically highly specializated - more than 50% of species occurred only on one type of substratum. Epiphytes s.s. occurred rarely. More often bryophytes were noted at the bases and on the trunks of trees, up to 30 cm. Some of the mosses, described in literature as epiphytes, have adapted to terrestrial-epiphytic sites and have been found only at the base of trees. In parks, epigeits were found in abundance on the ground around the base of trees and in shaded lawns. The presence of specialized epixylics was insignificant, although some of the typical forest epixylics were noted, namely Aulacomnium androgynum, Herzogiella seligeri and Dicranum scoparium. However, only parks situated in the suburbs show a high ecological variety of bryoflora, while objects established within the center of the town do not differ in species composition of bryophytes from surrounding built-up areas, despite their origin. Only in the parks situated in the suburbs there was a pronounced presence of forest and meadow species. The factor of park's origin seems to influence the bryoflora's ecological structure and the species richness on objects situated in the suburbs. In the cemeteries a positive correlation between the high number of species, age of monuments and the dimensions of object areas was stated.

  14. A review of molecular-clock calibrations and substitution rates in liverworts, mosses, and hornworts, and a timeframe for a taxonomically cleaned-up genus Nothoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Renner, Susanne S

    2014-09-01

    Absolute times from calibrated DNA phylogenies can be used to infer lineage diversification, the origin of new ecological niches, or the role of long distance dispersal in shaping current distribution patterns. Molecular-clock dating of non-vascular plants, however, has lagged behind flowering plant and animal dating. Here, we review dating studies that have focused on bryophytes with several goals in mind, (i) to facilitate cross-validation by comparing rates and times obtained so far; (ii) to summarize rates that have yielded plausible results and that could be used in future studies; and (iii) to calibrate a species-level phylogeny for Nothoceros, a model for plastid genome evolution in hornworts. Including the present work, there have been 18 molecular clock studies of liverworts, mosses, or hornworts, the majority with fossil calibrations, a few with geological calibrations or dated with previously published plastid substitution rates. Over half the studies cross-validated inferred divergence times by using alternative calibration approaches. Plastid substitution rates inferred for "bryophytes" are in line with those found in angiosperm studies, implying that bryophyte clock models can be calibrated either with published substitution rates or with fossils, with the two approaches testing and cross-validating each other. Our phylogeny of Nothoceros is based on 44 accessions representing all suspected species and a matrix of six markers of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA. The results show that Nothoceros comprises 10 species, nine in the Americas and one in New Zealand (N. giganteus), with the divergence between the New Zealand species and its Chilean sister species dated to the Miocene and therefore due to long-distance dispersal. Based on the new tree, we formally transfer two species of Megaceros into Nothoceros, resulting in the new combinations N. minarum (Nees) J.C. Villarreal and N. schizophyllus (Gottsche ex Steph.) J.C. Villarreal, and we also

  15. Conservation and yield aspects of old European aspen Populus tremula L. in Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazell, Per [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    1999-06-01

    Biodiversity issues are becoming integrated parts of Swedish forest management. In this context, the amount and distribution of broadleaved species, including aspen, are important. This thesis summarises results of two studies in which species from the rich epiphytic flora on aspen were used to evaluate important features of aspens, and two studies relating these features to production losses due to retention of aspen. The presence and abundance of four epiphytic, bark-living bryophytes in relation to stand and host-tree characteristics, were investigated in four mixed forest stands in central Sweden. There was no general and consistent relation between aspen density and bryophyte presence. Large diameter and rough bark of the aspen host, together with site factors and stand density around the host, were important. On 35 clearfelled areas, the bryophyte Antitrichia curtipendula (Hedw.) Brid. and the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., species considered sensitive to clearfelling, were transplanted on retained aspen stems. As a reference, transplants were made on aspens in adjacent old stands. After two years the bryophyte showed its highest vitality in the forest, but was also vigorous on the north side of retained trees. The lichen thrived best on the clearfelled areas, on the north side of trees retained in groups. For conservation purposes, aspen are best retained in groups. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of retained large aspens (diameter 49.6{+-}7.0 cm and height 29.4{+-}1.0 m) were studied in a 110-year-old aspen stand. Twelve trees were destructively analysed to establish allometric equations relating stem, bark and branch biomass and current annual stem increment (CAI{sub s}) to diameter at breast height. Biomass of the mean tree was 1172 kg, of which 80% was stemwood. CAI{sub s} was 1.5% of total stem biomass. Finally, the yield of a 44-year-old Norway spruce stand under an aspen overstorey was compared with that of pure Norway spruce, estimated

  16. A catalog of Bryophyta types deposited at the National Museum of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E.A.S. Câmara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While visiting the Herbarium of the Botany Department of the National Museum of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (code, R, we located the types of 219 bryophyte names, most of which were published by Karl Müller (cited as Müller Hallensis, whose holotypes were lost during the bombing of the Berlin Herbarium in 1943. A total of 181 names (82% are possible candidates for lectotypification and most likely not to be found elsewhere. We also found the complete collection of Müller's "Bryologia Serrae Itatiaiae", made by Ernst Ule.

  17. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations to the inventory of about 24 000 species and infraspecific taxa of bryophytes and vascular plants in southern Africa are reported for the year 1987. The inventory, as presently maintained in the Taxon component of the PRECIS system, contains the accepted name for each taxon, synonyms previously in use as accepted names during the past half-century, and literature references necessary to identify species in each genus and to establish the synonymy. The inventory is updated as new research affecting plant classification in southern Africa is published. During 1987 there were 678 alterations, representing about 2,8% of the total number of taxa.a

  18. 苔藓植物化学元素营养富集与开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀敏

    2009-01-01

    苔藓植物(bryophytes)是绿色高等植物中最低等的陆生植物,种类繁多,是自然界重要组成部分。苔藓植物是对环境污染敏感的植物之一,具有监测环境质量的作用,研究苔藓植物中含有的地球化学元素的营养富集特征,对研究苔藓植物的生态功能与开发利用具有重要意义。

  19. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. de Wet

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations to the inventory of about 24 000 species and infraspecific taxa of bryophytes and vascular plants in southern Africa are reported for the year 1988. The inventory, as currently maintained in the Taxon component of the PRECIS system, contains the accepted name for each taxon, synonyms previously in use as accepted names during the past half-century, and literature references necessary to identify species in each genus and to establish the synonymy. The inventory is updated as new research affecting plant classification in southern Africa is published. During 1988 there were 744 alterations, affecting about 3% of the total number of taxa.

  20. LAMPENFLORA OF NOVOAFONSKAYA CAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazina S. E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Novoafonskaya cave is located in Abkhazia. It is equipped for visits in 1975. The cave has permanently installed lighting. In caves with artificial lighting, a vegetation of cyanobacteria and algae, bryophytes and ferns can be found around lamps. The development of lampenflora is a typical problem for cave management. We have identified 69 species of phototrophs in Novoafonskaya cave: Magnoliophyta 2 species, Pteridophyta 6 species, Bryophyta 11 species, Cyanobacteria 34 species, Bacillariophyta 9 species, Ochrophyta 2 species, Chlorophyta 5 species. The article considers main habitat of lampenflora and gives their characteristics. We have also revealed predominance of cyanobacteria in the cave

  1. Comparison of desiccation tolerance among mosses from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šinžar-Sekulić Jasmina B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Three moss species from the karst region were compared to establish their respective patterns of desiccation tolerance. Different life forms of bryophytes were chosen to obtain evidence of their life strategies during drought conditions. Comparative analyses of electrolyte leakage were performed to screen for tolerance of the membrane to water stress and for signs of damage to the fine structure of the protoplasm. The experiments were carried out by exposing the plants to water stress caused by PEG 600. The results show that the most desiccation tolerant species is Thamnobryum alopecurum, less but fairly tolerant is Anomodon viticulosus, while the aquatic Rhynchostegium riparioides is intolerant of desiccation.

  2. Distribution and floristics of moss- and lichen-dominated soil crusts in a patterned Callitris glaucophylla woodland in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, David J.

    1999-05-01

    The distribution and abundance of soil crust lichens and bryophytes was examined in a patterned Callitris glaucophylla woodland in eastern Australia. Twenty-one lichen species and 26 bryophyte species were collected within thirty quadrats along a sequence of runoff, interception and runoff zones. Crust cover was significantly greatest in the interception zones (79.0 %), followed by the runoff zones (24.0 %), and lowest in the groved, runon zones (6.6 %). Lichens and bryophytes were distributed across all geomorphic zones, and, although there were significantly more moss species in the interception zones (mean = 9.1) compared with either the runoff (4.2) or runon (3.2) zones, the number of lichen species did not vary between zones. Ordination of a reduced data set of 32 species revealed a separation of taxa into distinct groups corresponding to the three geomorphic zones. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the 32 species and thirteen environmental variables revealed that the most important factors associated with the distribution of species were sheet and scarp erosion, soil stability and coherence, litter cover and crust cover. Surface cracking, microtopography and plant cover were of intermediate importance. The CCA biplot revealed that the timbered runon zones (groves) were dominated by `shade-tolerant' mosses Fissidens vittatus and Barbula hornschuchiana, whilst the heavily eroded runoff zones supported sparse populations of `erosion tolerant' lichens ( Endocarpon rogersii) and mosses (Bryum argenteum and Didymodon torquatus). Interception zones supported a rich suite of `crust forming' mosses and lichens capable of tolerating moderate inundation by overland flow. Two other groups of taxa were identified by this analysis: the `pioneer' group, comprising mainly nitrogen-fixing lichens which occupy the zone of active erosion at the lower edge of the groves, and the `opportunists' dominated by liverworts, occupying the shallow depressions or bays at the

  3. Ribosomal protein L10 is encoded in the mitochondrial genome of many land plants and green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Bonen Linda; Mower Jeffrey P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The mitochondrial genomes of plants generally encode 30-40 identified protein-coding genes and a large number of lineage-specific ORFs. The lack of wide conservation for most ORFs suggests they are unlikely to be functional. However, an ORF, termed orf-bryo1, was recently found to be conserved among bryophytes suggesting that it might indeed encode a functional mitochondrial protein. Results From a broad survey of land plants, we have found that the orf-bryo1 gene is also ...

  4. Adaptation to metal-contaminated soils in populations of the moss, Ceratodon purpureus: Vegetative growth and reproductive expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jules, E.S.; Shaw, A.J. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Many observations suggest that morphological evolution occurs slowly in bryophytes, and this has been suggested to reflect low genetic diversity within species. Isozyme studies, however, stand in apparent contrast and have shown that bryophytes can contain high levels of genetic variability within and among populations. In light of this conflict, we tested the potential of the moss, Ceratodon purpureus, to undergo adaptive change (i.e., ecotypic differentiation) in response to soils that have been contaminated with high levels of metals for 90 years by measuring gametophytic growth and reproductive expression under experimental conditions. Variation in protonemal growth in sterile culture indicates that plants from one population growing on contaminated soil near a smelter are significantly more tolerant of zinc, cadmium, and lead than plants from uncontaminated sites. Results from a common garden experiment, in which plants were grown on soil from the smelter site, indicate that plants from near the smelter are significantly more tolerant of contaminated soils than plants from uncontaminated sites for vegetative growth. The same experiment suggests that plants from the smelter site are also more tolerant in terms of gametangial production (although we could not test this statistically). Our results demonstrate that C. purpureus has been able to undergo relatively rapid evolution in response to strong selective pressures. 29 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  6. A Decade of Plant Species Changes on a Mire in the Italian Alps. Vegetation-Controlled or Climate-Driven Mechanisms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragazza, L. [Department of Natural and Cultural Resources, University of Ferrara, Corso Porta Mare 2, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    Variation of plant species cover on a Sphagnum-dominated mire in the south-eastern Alps of Italy was assessed over a 10-year period in relation to depth to the water table, peat accumulation rate, and climate. Population dynamics of vascular species appeared to be primarily affected by the autogenic process of peat accumulation, which determined the lowering of water-table position at microhabitat scale. Increase of depth to the water table through peat accumulation resulted in increased cover of ericaceous shrubs at previously moister microhabitats. Conversely, graminoid species such as Eriophorum vaginatum, Trichophorum caespitosum, and Scheuchzeria palustris being negatively affected by autogenic peat growth, were forced to shift their niche towards the wetter end of the water-table gradient. Carex limosa and Carex rostrata decreased their cover along the whole gradient in depth to the water table, likely due to multiple processes related to peat accumulation, competition with bryophytes, and a negative feedback due to increased litter deposition. Bryophytes, in particular Sphagnum mosses, appeared more sensitive to climatic conditions, with higher precipitation favouring faster-growing species. Accordingly, Sphagnum fallax and Sphagnum magellanicum increased their cover much more than Sphagnum capillifolium, whereas Polytrichum strictum showed the strongest decrease at sites where S. magellanicum cover increased most.

  7. Recent and subrecent diatom flora of the Sudeten mountains: The Jeseníky Mts and The Jizerské hory Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisie Poulíčková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the summary of recent and subrecent diatom flora within Sudeten mountain wetlands - the Jizerské Mts and the Jeseníky Mts Recent samples were taken during the years 2003 and 2006 - 2010. Herbarized bryophytes and fixed samples deposited in museums from the period 1898 - 1995 were used as a source of subrecent diatom flora. A total of 163 diatom species occurred at 70 microsites within 26 mires along the Czech-Polish-German border areas. Recent diatom flora of both areas seems to be comparable in terms of species richness and dominant species. Subrecent samples (herbarized bryophytes contain some less frequent species (representation < 1%, which do not belong to mire flora and can represent a contamination (e.g. planktic genera. Frustulia saxonica and Eunotia paludosa were the most frequent species. E. exigua related in Western Europe to acidification caused by acid rains, was less frequent in both historic and modern samples. Unfortunately, we have few historical herbarium specimens from the 70-ies and 80- ies to trace changes associated with air pollution.

  8. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Floristic and phytosociological analysis of palm swamps in the central part of the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Lucia de Morais Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the floristics and phytosociology of three palm swamps in the municipality of Bela Vista de Goiás, located in the state of Goiás, Brazil, in the central part of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. The floristic surveys were conducted monthly from May 2008 to April 2009, and 310 species were recorded (seven bryophytes, 15 ferns and 288 angiosperms. Bryophytes belonged to five genera and five families; ferns belonged to nine genera and nine families; and angiosperms belonged to 134 genera and 45 families. The angiosperm families with the highest species richness were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae and Fabaceae. The palm swamps were divided into three zones of increasing humidity: edge, middle and core. The number of species was higher in the middle than at the edge and the core. The families with the highest cover values were Cyperaceae, Melastomataceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae. Although the palm swamps had been disturbed to varying degrees, those disturbances did not affect the flora in the middle or the core. Floristic similarity was high between these two zones within a given palm swamp and low between the edges of different palm swamps.

  10. New Checklist of Xinjiang Liverworts, Hornworts,and Mosses%新疆苔类,角苔类,藓类植物最新名录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买买提明·苏来曼

    2012-01-01

    本区系名录是根据迄今为至的有关新疆苔藓植物文献资料经过整理编写而成,包含了已记录和发表的新疆苔藓植物471种(含变种、亚种),它们隶属于61科,182属.其中,有22科31属62种是苔类;1科1属1种是角苔类;38科150属408种是藓类.%Based on the lists of liverworts and mosses of Xinjiang published in 1995 and in 1998 respectively,this new list of bryophytes from Xinjiang,comprising 61 families,182 genera,and 471 species,is presented to enrich the new information on bryophytes of Xinjiang for the future survey and research.Among them,22 families,31 genera and 62 species are liverworts,1 family,1 genus and 1 species is hornwort and 38 families,150 genera and 408 species are mosses.

  11. Monitoring atmospheric pollutants in the biosphere reserve Wienerwald by a combined approach of biomonitoring methods and technical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krommer, Viktoria; Zechmeister, Harald G; Roder, Ingrid; Scharf, Sigrid; Hanus-Illnar, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    In this study a combined approach of bioindication results correlated with an extensive set of data on air pollution and climate was used to assess the pollution status of the Man and Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald (Austria). Bryophytes served as impact indicators (via the Index of Atmospheric Purity-method IAP) at 30 sites as well as accumulation monitors for airborne trace elements (Al, Pb, V, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Mo, Cd, As, Sb and 16 EPA-PAHs) at 10 sites within the reserve. The results of these bioindication methods were subsequently correlated with further pollution (NO(2), SO(2) and dust) and climate data (precipitation, temperature and humidity). The findings obtained clearly indicate the following: Bryophyte distribution is solely influenced by the status of air quality, without interference by climatic or site-related factors, which is in contrast to several previous investigations. IAP-values correlated significantly with NO(2) (0.553; P=0.004), SO(2) winter values (0.511; P=0.013) and PM10 (dust) (0.561; P=0.013). The results obtained via chemical analyses revealed a strong correlation with data derived from the IAP methodology. In terms of the overall air quality within the biosphere reserve Wienerwald, the north-eastern part appears to be the most affected one with a most likely pollution contribution emitted by the capital city Vienna, agriculture and neighbouring countries.

  12. Elevational Patterns of Plant Richness in the Taibai Mountain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The elevational distribution of plant diversity is a popular issue in ecology and biogeography, and several studies have examined the determinants behind plant diversity patterns. In this study, using published data of the local flora of Taibai Mountain, we explored the effects of spatial and climatic factors on plant species richness. We also evaluated Rapoport’s elevational rule by examining the relationship between elevational range size and midpoint. Species richness patterns were regressed against area, middle domain effect (MDE, mean annual temperature (MAT, and mean annual precipitation (MAP. The results showed that richness of overall plants, seed plants, bryophytes, and ferns all showed hump-shaped patterns along the elevational gradient, although the absolute elevation of richness peaks differed in different plant groups. Species richness of each plant group was all associated strongly with MAT and MAP. In addition to climatic factors, overall plants and seed plants were more related to area in linear regression models, while MDE was a powerful explanatory variable for bryophytes. Rapoport’s elevational rule on species richness was not supported. Our study suggests that a combined interaction of spatial and climatic factors influences the elevational patterns of plant species richness on Taibai Mountain, China.

  13. The mitochondrial genome of the lycophyte Huperzia squarrosa: the most archaic form in vascular plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genomes have maintained some bacterial features despite their residence within eukaryotic cells for approximately two billion years. One of these features is the frequent presence of polycistronic operons. In land plants, however, it has been shown that all sequenced vascular plant chondromes lack large polycistronic operons while bryophyte chondromes have many of them. In this study, we provide the completely sequenced mitochondrial genome of a lycophyte, from Huperzia squarrosa, which is a member of the sister group to all other vascular plants. The genome, at a size of 413,530 base pairs, contains 66 genes and 32 group II introns. In addition, it has 69 pseudogene fragments for 24 of the 40 protein- and rRNA-coding genes. It represents the most archaic form of mitochondrial genomes of all vascular plants. In particular, it has one large conserved gene cluster containing up to 10 ribosomal protein genes, which likely represents a polycistronic operon but has been disrupted and greatly reduced in the chondromes of other vascular plants. It also has the least rearranged gene order in comparison to the chondromes of other vascular plants. The genome is ancestral in vascular plants in several other aspects: the gene content resembling those of charophytes and most bryophytes, all introns being cis-spliced, a low level of RNA editing, and lack of foreign DNA of chloroplast or nuclear origin.

  14. Biological soil crusts as soil stabilizers: Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Buedel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina; Buedel, Burkhard; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is of particular concern in dryland regions, as the sparse cover of vascular plants results in large interspaces unprotected from the erosive forces of wind and water. Thus, most of these soil surfaces are stabilized by physical or biological soil crusts. However, as drylands are extensively used by humans and their animals, these crusts are often disturbed, compromising their stabilizing abilities. As a result, approximately 17.5% of the global terrestrial lands are currently being degraded by wind and water erosion. All components of biocrusts stabilize soils, including green algae, cyanobacteria, fungi, lichens, and bryophytes, and as the biomass of these organisms increases, so does soil stability. In addition, as lichens and bryophytes live atop the soil surface, they provide added protection from raindrop impact that cyanobacteria and fungi, living within the soil, cannot. Much research is still needed to determine the relative ability of individual species and suites of species to stabilize soils. We also need a better understanding of why some individuals or combination of species are better than others, especially as these organisms become more frequently used in restoration efforts.

  15. Aluminium and iron burdens of aquatic biota in New Zealand streams contaminated by acid mine drainage. Effects of trophic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterbourn, M.J. [Department of Zoology, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); McDiffett, W.F.; Eppley, S.J. [Biology Department, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA (United States)

    2000-05-24

    Concentrations of Al and Fe were determined in samples of filamentous algae, bryophytes and invertebrates from 24 stream sites in North Westland, South Island, New Zealand. Sites were variably contaminated by acid coal mine drainage and ranged in pH from 2.6 to 6.2. Conductivity of stream water ranged from 16 to 944 {mu}S{sub 25} cm{sup -1} and maximum concentrations of total dissolved Al and total Fe measured in two successive years were 35.5 and 32.6 mg l{sup -1}, respectively. Metal burdens of algae and bryophytes were not correlated with pH, conductivity or the concentrations of Al and Fe observed in stream water. Metal concentrations in invertebrates were significantly lower than those in plants (mg per g dry wt.), and were similar in herbivore-detritivores (mainly mayfly larvae) and carnivorous species. No evidence was found for the biomagnification of either metal within aquatic food webs. However, invertebrate species exposed to very high concentrations of Al and Fe varied considerably in body burdens, suggesting that groups of insects differ considerably in their physiological or morphological ability to exclude potentially toxic metals.

  16. The decision to germinate is regulated by divergent molecular networks in spores and seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesty, Eleanor F; Saidi, Younousse; Moody, Laura A; Holloway, Daniel; Whitbread, Amy; Needs, Sarah; Choudhary, Anushree; Burns, Bethany; McLeod, Daniel; Bradshaw, Susan J; Bae, Hansol; King, Brian Christopher; Bassel, George W; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Coates, Juliet C

    2016-08-01

    Dispersal is a key step in land plant life cycles, usually via formation of spores or seeds. Regulation of spore- or seed-germination allows control over the timing of transition from one generation to the next, enabling plant dispersal. A combination of environmental and genetic factors determines when seed germination occurs. Endogenous hormones mediate this decision in response to the environment. Less is known about how spore germination is controlled in earlier-evolving nonseed plants. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the environmental and hormonal regulation of spore germination in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Aphanoregma patens). Our data suggest that the environmental signals regulating germination are conserved, but also that downstream hormone integration pathways mediating these responses in seeds were acquired after the evolution of the bryophyte lineage. Moreover, the role of abscisic acid and diterpenes (gibberellins) in germination assumed much greater importance as land plant evolution progressed. We conclude that the endogenous hormone signalling networks mediating germination in response to the environment may have evolved independently in spores and seeds. This paves the way for future research about how the mechanisms of plant dispersal on land evolved. PMID:27257104

  17. Controls of biological soil crust cover and composition shift with succession in sagebrush shrub-steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler-Robinson, E.; Bakker, J.D.; Grace, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Successional stage may determine strength and causal direction of interactions among abiotic and biotic factors; e.g., species that facilitate the establishment of other species may later compete with them. We evaluated multivariate hypotheses about abiotic and biotic factors shaping biological soil crusts (BSCs) in early and late successional stages. We surveyed vegetation and BSC in the shrub-steppe ecosystem of the Columbia Basin. We analyzed the relationships with bryophyte and lichen covers using structural equation models, and analyzed the relationships with BSC composition using Indicator Species Analysis and distance-based linear models. Cover, indicator species, and composition varied with successional stage. Increasing elevation and bryophyte cover had higher lichen cover early in succession; these relationships were negative in the later successional stage. Lichen cover did not appear to impede B. tectorum cover, but B. tectorum appeared to strongly negatively affect lichen cover in both stages. Biological soil crust composition varied with bunchgrass cover in the early successional stage, but with elevation and B. tectorum cover later in succession. Our findings support the hypotheses that as succession progresses, the strength and direction of certain community interactions shift, and B. tectorum leads to reductions in biological soil crust cover regardless of successional stage.

  18. Epiphytic Plants on Stand of Schima wallichii (D.C. Korth. at Mount Lawu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to know: (1 the diversity of epiphyte species at the stand of puspa trees (Schima wallichii (D.C. Korth. in Cemoro Sewu and Cemoro Kandang of mount Lawu, and (2 the distribution and cover abundance of the species based on its location from the land surface. The research objects were all species of epiphyte plants on the stand of puspa trees. The procedures of data collection were including species collection in the field, make up herbariums, observation of epiphyte vegetation using transect method and morphology observation in the laboratory. The results show that in the south slope of the mount Lawu were found 23 species of epiphyte consisting 4 species of lichenes, 2 species of Fungi, 3 species of Bryophyte, 10 species of Pterydophyte, 2 species of Orchidaceae and 2 species of liana. The species with the highest density was Bryophyte, and the highest diversity was Pterydophyte. The height of the trees affects the distribution, diversity and density of the epiphyte plants.

  19. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from cryptogamic covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Katharina; Weber, Bettina; Elbert, Wolfgang; Steinkamp, Jörg; Clough, Tim; Crutzen, Paul; Pöschl, Ulrich; Keppler, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Cryptogamic covers, which comprise some of the oldest forms of terrestrial life on Earth (Lenton & Huntingford, ), have recently been found to fix large amounts of nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Elbert et al., ). Here we show that they are also greenhouse gas sources with large nitrous oxide (N2 O) and small methane (CH4 ) emissions. Whilst N2 O emission rates varied with temperature, humidity, and N deposition, an almost constant ratio with respect to respiratory CO2 emissions was observed for numerous lichens and bryophytes. We employed this ratio together with respiration data to calculate global and regional N2 O emissions. If our laboratory measurements are typical for lichens and bryophytes living on ground and plant surfaces and scaled on a global basis, we estimate a N2 O source strength of 0.32-0.59 Tg year(-1) for the global N2 O emissions from cryptogamic covers. Thus, our emission estimate might account for 4-9% of the global N2 O budget from natural terrestrial sources. In a wide range of arid and forested regions, cryptogamic covers appear to be the dominant source of N2 O. We suggest that greenhouse gas emissions associated with this source might increase in the course of global change due to higher temperatures and enhanced nitrogen deposition. PMID:26152454

  20. Disentangling the effects of water chemistry and substratum structure on moss-dwelling unicellular and multicellular micro-organisms in spring-fens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal HORSÁK

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water chemistry is known to be one of the most important factors controlling species composition of many macro-organisms in wetlands. It is unclear to what extent micro-organisms respond to water chemistry as compared to chemistry-mediated substratum structure. We explored how the assemblages of different groups of micro-organisms in bryophyte tufts of spring-fens were determined by water chemistry and substratum structure. The aim was to compare unicellular autotrophic diatoms, unicellular heterotrophic testate amoebae and multicellular heterotrophic monogonont rotifers. Assemblages of all three groups showed a strong compositional gradient correlated with water pH and conductivity, calcium concentration and dominance of Sphagnum. While a second strong gradient in species composition of diatoms and testate amoebae was explained by factors such as substratum structure and water content, that of rotifers remained unexplained. Unlike the other two groups, testate amoeba assemblages were significantly determined by phosphates. Nitrates and iron were important species composition determinants for diatoms. Rotifers differed from the other groups in that they did not respond significantly to silica, iron or nutrients. When variation caused by substratum characteristics and water chemistry were partitioned out, testate amoebae were controlled more by substratum, while rotifers and diatoms were controlled more by water chemistry. Variation explained by individual effects of substratum or water chemistry, as compared to shared effects, was much lower for rotifers than for testate amoebae and diatoms. Our results show that, in semi-terrestrial ecosystems, pH and calcium concentrations are generally the main drivers of variation in species composition of unicellular and multicellular microorganisms, mirroring well described patterns for macro-organisms, providing support for general ecological hypotheses. Other water chemistry variables differed between

  1. A study on the bryophyta plants resources in Hubei, China --V A preliminary list of the mosses of Triangle Hill in Xishui County, Hubei Province, China%湖北省苔藓植物资源研究--V 湖北省三角山苔藓植物名录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文浪; 刘胜祥; 黄娟; 喻融; 郑飞翔; 李俊莉

    2002-01-01

    More than 300 specimens of bryophytes were collected from Triangle Hill in Xishui County, Hubei Province. The preliminary study shows that there are 137 species(including 1 subspecies and 2 varieties)in the area, belonging to 34 families and 82 genera.%湖北三角山位于长江中游北岸,是大别山系的一部分,属于副亚热带大陆季风湿润气候.通过对三角山三百余份标本的初步鉴定,三角山共有苔藓植物137种(含2变种1亚种),隶属于34科82属,其中苔类植物12科16属23种,藓类植物22科66属114种.

  2. Characterization of freshwater mosses as indicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of indicators of freshwater contamination has developed the interest for aquatic mosses. From a fundamental point of view, studying the influence of some biotic and abiotic factors has permitted to better know the mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation by these bryophytes. From a radioecological point of view, simulating real cases of water contamination has allowed to give results a very interesting representativeness. The use of mosses as bio-indicators was applied for two in situ experiments, the results of which have been interpreted from those obtained in laboratory. Finally, an approach by a mathematical model has showed that it is possible to have, in a middle term, an evaluation tool of freshwater contamination, based on the radionuclides concentrations measured in aquatic mosses. (author). refs., 57 figs., 24 tabs

  3. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN TYPICAL WETLAND PLANTS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-hai; WANG Qi-chao; WANG Yan; ZHANG Lei; SHAO Zhi-guo

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury concentration of typical wetland plants was analyzed in this paper. There were great differences of total mercury concentration among different plants: moss>hydrophyte>sedge>herbage>shrub. Total mercury concentrations show an increasing trend from vascular plants to bryophytes, and from dry to wet lands. The mercury concentration of wetland plants was higher than that of crops. The wetland soil was the source of mercury in the air close to the ground, so it affected the concentration of mercury in the plant. In different parts of a plant, mer-cury concentration was in the order of: dead stand>root>leaf>stem. Mercury concentration increased at the initial stage and decreased in the end of the growing season. According to the mercury content and biomass, mercury stock of plants was 39.4μg/m2 above ground in Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland and 35.8μg/m2 in Carex lasiocarpa wet-land.

  4. Characterization of freshwater mosses as indicators of radioactive contamination; Caracterisation de mousses dulcaquicoles comme indicateurs de contamination radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.

    1994-12-16

    The necessity of indicators of freshwater contamination has developed the interest for aquatic mosses. From a fundamental point of view, studying the influence of some biotic and abiotic factors has permitted to better know the mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation by these bryophytes. From a radioecological point of view, simulating real cases of water contamination has allowed to give results a very interesting representativeness. The use of mosses as bio-indicators was applied for two in situ experiments, the results of which have been interpreted from those obtained in laboratory. Finally, an approach by a mathematical model has showed that it is possible to have, in a middle term, an evaluation tool of freshwater contamination, based on the radionuclides concentrations measured in aquatic mosses. (author). refs., 57 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. High potential for weathering and climate effects of non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, P.; Lenton, T. M.; Pohl, A.; Weber, B.; Mander, L.; Donnadieu, Y.; Beer, C.; Pöschl, U.; Kleidon, A.

    2016-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that predecessors of today's bryophytes significantly increased global chemical weathering in the Late Ordovician, thus reducing atmospheric CO2 concentration and contributing to climate cooling and an interval of glaciations. Studies that try to quantify the enhancement of weathering by non-vascular vegetation, however, are usually limited to small areas and low numbers of species, which hampers extrapolating to the global scale and to past climatic conditions. Here we present a spatially explicit modelling approach to simulate global weathering by non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician. We estimate a potential global weathering flux of 2.8 (km3 rock) yr-1, defined here as volume of primary minerals affected by chemical transformation. This is around three times larger than today's global chemical weathering flux. Moreover, we find that simulated weathering is highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 concentration. This implies a strong negative feedback between weathering by non-vascular vegetation and Ordovician climate.

  6. Arsenic in soils and plants of woodland regenerated on an arsenic-contaminated substrate. A sustainable natural remediation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madejon, Paula; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Plant As accumulation at three As-polluted sites where spontaneous re-vegetation has taken place is examined. Each site had a different source of soil As (coal fly ash, LeBlanc process waste, canal dredging). Plant analysis indicates that soil-plant As transfer is poor at each site. Any mobile As is retained in root tissues, with little transfer to shoots. Bryophytes, pteridophytes, herbaceous and woody plants sampled at each site predominantly showed As concentrations of < 3 mg kg{sup -} {sup 1} dry wt, whilst total soil As ranged between 50 and 220 mg kg{sup -} {sup 1} dry wt. Risk associated with food chain transfer at these sites is low when compared to other routes such as direct ingestion/inhalation of As-contaminated particulates re-entrained from an unvegetated or unstable substrate. (author)

  7. 喀喇昆仑山-西昆仑山苔藓植物区系及物种多样性1)%Bryoflora and Species Diversity of Bryophy tes from Karakorum-West Korum Area in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尼瓦尔·阿布都热依木; 热比也木·吾甫; 玛尔孜亚·阿不力米提; 龚佐山; 买买提明·苏来曼

    2015-01-01

    We determined bryophytes areas in Karakorum-West Korum area, and analyzed the geographical elements by cluster analysis.After detailed examination, we determined 32 families, 76 genera and 178 species ( including 5 varieties) of bry-ophytes.Among them, 7 families, 8 genera and 11 species are liverworts, and 25 families, 68 genera and 167 species are mosses.The moss floristic element of Karakorum-West Korum area was divided into 10.Among them, the flora was domi-nated by North Temperate Zone types corresponding to 71.81%of the total, followed by East-Asian elements accounting for 8.85%, and the tropical element was little.By cluster analysis of ten regions, KarakorumW-estkorum area had the closest relatives of flora with Eastern Tianshan Mountain, and bryophytes flora of Karakorum-Westkorum area was closely associat-ed with Helan Mountain.Ten samples in Karakorum-Westkorum of bryophyte species diversity index analysis showed that in Shihshu and Gosas the distribution of bryophytes are most abundant.%对喀喇昆仑山—西昆仑山苔藓植物区系成分进行了划分,并对该区系与邻近9个地区的地理成分进行了聚类分析。经查阅有关资料和标本鉴定,确定新疆喀喇昆仑山共有苔藓植物32科、76属、178种(含5变种),其中苔类为7科、8属、11种,藓类25科6、8属、167种。喀喇昆仑山—西昆仑山苔藓植物区系成分可划分为10种类型,其中北温带成分居主导地位,占该地区苔藓植物总种数的71.81%,东亚成分次之,占8.85%,热带成分甚微。地理成分区系谱及聚类分析结果表明,新疆喀喇昆仑山—西昆仑山与东部天山苔藓植物区系关系最为接近,与贺兰山密切相关。对喀喇昆仑山—西昆仑山10个样点中苔藓植物多样性指数的分析结果表明,西合休和果萨斯苔藓植物分布较丰富。

  8. Palynomorphs in Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon in the coastal plain of extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebráilon Masetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.

  9. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations for the year 1986 to the inventory maintained in PRECIS are reported for bryophytes, pteridophytes and monocotyledons, and for a few dicotyledons. For the cryptogams and monocots there are 77 newly described species or infraspecific taxa, 27 names brought back into use, and nine species newly reported for southern Africa, resulting in 113 additions to the total list of species. Five species were removed because they were mistakenly recorded from the area. Seventy-five names have gone into synonymy, there are 52 new combinations, and there are 35 orthographic corrections, resulting in 237 alterations to the list of species. The total of 355 additions, deletions and alterations represents about 5% of the total species and infraspecific taxa for the cryptogams and monocots.

  10. Ring strain and total syntheses of modified macrocycles of the isoplagiochin type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Speicher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocycles of the bisbibenzyl-type are natural products that are found exclusively in bryophytes (liverworts. The molecular framework of the subtype “isoplagiochin” is of substantial structural interest because of the chirality of the entire molecule, which arises from two biaryl axes in combination with two helical two-carbon units in a cyclic arrangement. From a structural as well as a synthetic point of view we report on the total synthesis of compounds which possess more rigid two-carbon biaryl bridges like stilbene (E or Z or even tolane moieties which were introduced starting with a Sonogashira protocol. The McMurry method proved to be a powerful tool for the cyclization to these considerably ring-strained macrocycles.

  11. Self assembly of epicuticular waxes on living plant surfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kerstin; Neinhuis, Christoph; Ensikat, Hans-Jürgen; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2004-03-01

    The cuticle of terrestrial vascular plants and some bryophytes is covered with a complex mixture of lipids, usually called epicuticular waxes. Self-assembly processes of wax molecules lead to crystalline three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures that emerge from an underlying wax film. This paper presents the first AFM study on wax regeneration on the surfaces of living plants and the very early stages of wax crystal formation at the molecular level. Wax formation was analysed on the leaves of Euphorbia lathyris, Galanthus nivalis, and Ipheion uniflorum. Immediately after wax removal, regeneration of a wax film began, consisting of individual layers of, typically, 3-5 nm thickness. Subsequently, several different stages of crystal growth could be distinguished, and different patterns of wax regeneration as well as considerable variation in regeneration speed were found.

  12. Revised Flora and List of Threatened and Endangered Plants for the John F. Kennedy Space Center Area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Foster, Tammy E.; Duncan, Brean W.; Quincy, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The vascular flora of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) area was first studied in the 1970's, and the list was revised in 1990. Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes as well as additional collections required a revision of this list. The revised list includes 1024 taxa of which 803 are native and 221 are introduced. This appears to be a substantial proportion of the regional flora. Fifty taxa are endemic or nearly endemic, a level of endemism that appears high for the east coast of Florida. Of the 221 introduced plants, twenty-six are Category I invasive exotics and fifteen are Category II invasive exotics. Thirty-eight taxa are listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern on state lists. For some of these taxa, populations on KSC appear to be important for their regional and global survival. The bryophyte flora of the KSC area includes 23 mosses and 20 liverworts and hornworts. The lichen flora is currently unknown.

  13. A plant taxonomic survey of the Uranium City region, Lake Athabasca north shore, emphasizing the naturally colonizing plants on uranium mine and mill wastes and other human-disturbed sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A goal of this study was to acquire more complete baseline data on the existing flora of the Uranium City region, both in natural and human-disturbed sites. Emphasis was given to determining which plant species were naturally revegetating various abandoned uranium mine and mill waste disposal areas, other human-disturbed sites, and ecologically analogous sites. Another goal was to document the occurrence and distribution in the study region of rare and possibly endangered species. A further objective was to suggest regionally-occurring species with potential value for revegetating uranium mine and mill waste sites. Field investigations were carried out in the Uranium City region during August, 1981. During this time 1412 plant collections were made; a total of 366 plant species - trees, shrubs, forbs, graminoids, lichens, and bryophytes were recorded. The report includes an annotated checklist of plant species of the Uranium City region and a reference index of plant taxa indicating species that have high revegetation potential

  14. Tundra vegetation change near Barrow, Alaska (1972–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of how arctic plant communities will respond to change has been largely derived from plot level experimental manipulation, not from trends of decade time scale environmental observations. This study documents plant community change in 330 marked plots at 33 sites established during the International Biological Program near Barrow, Alaska in 1972. Plots were resampled in 1999, 2008 and 2010 for species cover and presence. Cluster analysis identified nine plant communities in 1972. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicates that plant communities have changed in different ways over time, and that wet communities have changed more than dry communities. The relative cover of lichens increased over time, while the response of other plant functional groups varied. Species richness and diversity also increased over time. The most dramatic changes in the cover of bryophytes, graminoids and bare ground coincided with a lemming high in 2008. (letter)

  15. High potential for weathering and climate effects of non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, P; Lenton, T M; Pohl, A; Weber, B; Mander, L; Donnadieu, Y; Beer, C; Pöschl, U; Kleidon, A

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that predecessors of today's bryophytes significantly increased global chemical weathering in the Late Ordovician, thus reducing atmospheric CO2 concentration and contributing to climate cooling and an interval of glaciations. Studies that try to quantify the enhancement of weathering by non-vascular vegetation, however, are usually limited to small areas and low numbers of species, which hampers extrapolating to the global scale and to past climatic conditions. Here we present a spatially explicit modelling approach to simulate global weathering by non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician. We estimate a potential global weathering flux of 2.8 (km(3) rock) yr(-1), defined here as volume of primary minerals affected by chemical transformation. This is around three times larger than today's global chemical weathering flux. Moreover, we find that simulated weathering is highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 concentration. This implies a strong negative feedback between weathering by non-vascular vegetation and Ordovician climate.

  16. Gibberellin influence on the morphogenesis of the moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. in in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević Aneta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. was treated with gibberellins as well as some inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis in order to investigate their influence on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Generally, gibberellins have not been chemically identified in bryophytes, while other groups of classical phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene have been chemically identified in these plants. The in vitro culture of the moss Bryum argenteum was established from sterilized spores. The apical shoots of untreated gametophytes grown in vitro were used to investigate the influence of different substances on secondary protonema and on the growth and multiplication of the gametophytes. B. argenteum reacts differently to the growth regulators applied. Both gibberellins applied in vitro (GA3 and GA7 have a positive effect on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Shoot multiplication was negatively affected by three tested growth retardants (ancymidol, BX-112 and chlorocholine chloride, while these substances did not have such strong effects on the moss protonema development.

  17. Using delta15N values to characterise the nitrogen nutrient pathways from intensive animal units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, R A; Ineson, P; Jones, H; Sleep, D; Rank, R

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on foliar delta15N values, in certain bryophytes, have indicated signature similarities to source pollutants. The object of this study was to investigate the effect further, by examining the mechanisms whereby isotopic fractionation occurs in systems such as atmospheric ammonia (NH3), throughfall, vegetation and soil. Measurements taken in and around point emission sources will then be used to characterise the various fractionation effects associated with these N transformations, as well as to demonstrate some of the issues associated with using delta15N values as pollution indicators. The atmospheric dispersion model UK-ADMS has also been used to model atmospheric delta15NH3 emissions, with signatures exhibiting marked negative shifts immediately downwind of an agricultural NH3 source. Similar dispersion patterns were mapped for NH3 concentration data illustrating the link between these two forms of measurement.

  18. Short-term physiological responses of mosses to atmospheric ammonium and nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A.; Pearson, J. [University College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1997-01-01

    Many bryophytes rely to a large extent on atmospheric deposition for their nutrient uptake. However, increasing levels of atmospheric ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) attract concern as to the possible harmful effects on bryophytes from these two nutrient sources. Changes in nitrate reductase (NR) activities, cation (Ca, K and Mg), total nitrogen (N) and organic acid concentrations were investigated for the mosses, Racomitrium lanuginosum, Rytidiadelphus loreus and Philonotis fontana, in response to a single field misting with 3 mol m{sup -3}NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Increases of 20% were recorded for tissue N content, 48hr after misting with 3 mol m{sup -3} NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -. Increase labelled {sup 15}NH{sub 4}sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -} were applied to R. Lanuginosum at 1, 3 and 6 mol m{sup -3} concentrations, partitioning of incorporated {sup 15}N between different tissue regions occurred, with the highest N uptake in the upper stem and leaves. High concentrations of applied N resulted in reduced efficiency of N uptake. NH{sup 4}{sup +} applications caused declines in NR activities, organic acids and cations, whereas, NO{sub 3}{sup -} treatments caused the reverse response. Changes in cation contents, organic acids and NR activity reflect short-term regulation of N metabolism in the presence of defined N sources, as well as potential mechanisms of regulating cell pH homoeostasis. The consistency of physiological responses, especially NR activities, over short-term pollution episodes, provides evidence for their use as indicators of both NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} pollution. 41 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Feather Moss Associated Nitrogen Fixation in Coniferous and Deciduous Dominated Alaskan Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Dominant canopy tree species have strong effects on the composition and function of understory species. In boreal forests, forest floor bryophytes and their associated microbes are a primary source of ecosystem nitrogen (N) inputs, and thus an important process regulating ecosystem productivity. Bryophyte composition and abundance varies with forest composition, yet how such changes can affect ecosystem processes such as N fixation is still poorly understood. Our goal is to investigate how cyanobacteria-based N fixation occurring in the two most common feather mosses in the Alaskan boreal forest (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) varies among coniferous and deciduous forest types, over the growing season, and across a nutrient availability gradient. Twelve patches of H. splendens and P. schreberi were identified in three pairs (blocks) of adjacent stands of paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) and black spruce (Picea mariana) near Fairbanks, interior Alaska. Sampling occurred in one block in June, July, August, and September 2014, and in the three blocks once in August 2014. Moss leaf area, moisture and weight, as well as environmental variables such as air temperature and canopy cover were recorded. Fixation rates were consistently higher for P. schreberi than for H. splendens. Overall, N fixation rates were lower in birch than in spruce stands and peaked in August, or July for P. schreberi in birch stands. Moreover, fixation rates varied along the nutrient availability gradient, with fixation rates higher where nutrient availability was lower. This difference was especially clear in spruce stands. Our preliminary results suggest that moss species, canopy type, and environmental factors all influence N fixation rates in Alaskan boreal forests. Our results will enhance the knowledge of the processes that drive N fixation in boreal forests, which is important for predicting ecosystem consequences of changing forest composition.

  20. Study on the Bryoflora in Yunmeng Mountain,south Hebei Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Weibin; Zhao Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    Mountain Yunmeng(37°20'N,113°54'E)is 1520m above sea level and part of the Taihang Mountains.With a temperate continental monsoon climate,the mountain area belongs to the warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region.This thesis was mostly based on the study of more than 2000 packages of bryophytes which were mainly collected by the authors in Mt.Yunmeng.Hebei Province.Of these specimens,there are 36 families,99 genera,and 244 species(including 17 varieties,5 formes,and 1 subspecies)which have been studied and identified.Moreover,it could be seen that Mt.Yunmeng has a diverse population of bryophytes.The bryoflora could be divided into 10 geographical elements:north temperate element make up the majority,accounting for 52.11% of the entire known bryoflora,and another belongs to the East Asian element,accounting for 19.25%.All temperate elements,not including 14 endemic to China and 31 Cosmopolitans,were added up to 188 species,which took 88.3% of all the entire known bryoflora in Mt.Yunmeng.However,there were only 11 Subtropical and Tropical elements.To all appearances,the bryoflora of Mt.Yunmeng showed obvious temperate characteristics.The authors conclude that the bryoflora in Mt.Yunmeng belongs to the middle type,between the warm and dry northern mountain area and the warm and damp southern mountain area.The microclimatic environment greatly influences the bryoflora.

  1. Dead wood quality influences species diversity of rare cryptogams in temperate broadleaved forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preikša Z

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood is one of the most important indicators of forest naturalness and the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests. Standing and lying dead wood, and especially coarse woody debris, plays an important part in creating habitats for many highly specialized organisms, e.g., insects, fungi, lichens and bacteria. Temperate mixed deciduous forests, rich in species, have been studied only to a small extent from the point of view of the ecology of wood-related cryptogams. Our study aimed at the reduction of the gap in knowledge about the ecological characteristics of dead wood-dependent organisms by focusing on species of cryptogams developing on various dead wood structures typical of temperate non-beech forests. Studies were performed in forests located in Lithuania, Poland, Belarus and Russia. We recorded 48 species of cryptogams: 18 species of bryophytes, 24 species of fungi and 6 species of lichens developing on dead wood. Our study stresses the importance of all types of dead wood as a substrate for the development of rare cryptogam species. Logs were the most important substratum type for cryptogams, followed by snags, dead trees and stumps. The cryptogam species richness on logs was several times higher than on the three other types of substrata. Coarse logs of intermediate decay stages hosted the highest number of cryptogams, followed by freshly fallen logs and, finally, well decayed logs. Assessing the importance of dead wood quality for the studied cryptogams, we found that intermediate decay stages are extremely important for fungi, while bryophytes or lichens do not show a clear preference. The highest number of cryptogams was found on Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur and Picea abies, while other tree species had less than half cryptogam species.

  2. Key Factors Influencing Rapid Development of Potentially Dune-Stabilizing Moss-Dominated Crusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongfeng Bu

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are a widespread photosynthetic ground cover in arid and semiarid areas. They have many positive ecological functions, such as increasing soil stability, and reducing water and wind erosion. Using artificial technology to achieve the rapid development of BSCs is expected to become a low-cost and highly beneficial ecological restoration measure. In the present study, typical moss-dominated crusts in a region characterized by mobile dunes (Mu Us Sandland, China were collected, and a 40-day cultivation experiment was performed to investigate key factors, including watering frequency, light intensity and a nutrient addition, which affect the rapid development of moss crusts and their optimal combination. The results demonstrated that watering frequency and illumination had a significant positive effect (P=0.049, three-factor ANOVA and a highly significant, complicated effect (P=0.000, three-factor ANOVA, respectively, on the plant density of bryophytes, and a highly significant positive effect on the chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharide contents (P=0.000, P=0.000; P=0.000, P=0.000; one-way ANOVA. Knop nutrient solution did not have a significant positive but rather negative effect on the promotion of moss-dominated crust development (P=0.270, three-factor ANOVA. Moss-dominated crusts treated with the combination of moderate-intensity light (6,000 lx + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days - Knop had the highest moss plant densities, while the treatment with high-intensity light (12,000 lx + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days + Knop nutrient solution had higher chlorophyll a contents than that under other treatments. It is entirely feasible to achieve the rapid development of moss crusts under laboratory conditions by regulating key factors and creating the right environment. Future applications may seek to use cultured bryophytes to control erosion in vulnerable areas with urgent needs.

  3. Climate-induced warming imposes a threat to north European spring ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Marttila, Hannu; Rossi, Pekka M; Ala-Aho, Pertti; Olofsson, Bo; Nisell, Jakob; Backman, Birgitta; Ilmonen, Jari; Virtanen, Risto; Paasivirta, Lauri; Britschgi, Ritva; Kløve, Bjørn; Muotka, Timo

    2015-12-01

    Interest in climate change effects on groundwater has increased dramatically during the last decade. The mechanisms of climate-related groundwater depletion have been thoroughly reviewed, but the influence of global warming on groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) remains poorly known. Here we report long-term water temperature trends in 66 northern European cold-water springs. A vast majority of the springs (82%) exhibited a significant increase in water temperature during 1968-2012. Mean spring water temperatures were closely related to regional air temperature and global radiative forcing of the corresponding year. Based on three alternative climate scenarios representing low (RCP2.6), intermediate (RCP6) and high-emission scenarios (RCP8.5), we estimate that increase in mean spring water temperature in the region is likely to range from 0.67 °C (RCP2.6) to 5.94 °C (RCP8.5) by 2086. According to the worst-case scenario, water temperature of these originally cold-water ecosystems (regional mean in the late 1970s: 4.7 °C) may exceed 12 °C by the end of this century. We used bryophyte and macroinvertebrate species data from Finnish springs and spring-fed streams to assess ecological impacts of the predicted warming. An increase in spring water temperature by several degrees will likely have substantial biodiversity impacts, causing regional extinction of native, cold-stenothermal spring specialists, whereas species diversity of headwater generalists is likely to increase. Even a slight (by 1 °C) increase in water temperature may eliminate endemic spring species, thus altering bryophyte and macroinvertebrate assemblages of spring-fed streams. Climate change-induced warming of northern regions may thus alter species composition of the spring biota and cause regional homogenization of biodiversity in headwater ecosystems.

  4. Biological soil crusts across disturbance-recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Reyes-Agüero, J. A.; Escudero, A.; Belnap, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Grazing represents one of the most common disturbances in drylands worldwide, affecting both ecosystem structure and functioning. Despite the efforts to understand the nature and magnitude of grazing effects on ecosystem components and processes, contrasting results continue to arise. This is particularly remarkable for the biological soil crust (BSC) communities (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes), which play an important role in soil dynamics. Here we evaluated simultaneously the effect of grazing impact on BSC communities (resistance) and recovery after livestock exclusion (resilience) in a semiarid grassland of Central Mexico. In particular, we examined BSC species distribution, species richness, taxonomical group cover (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichen, bryophyte), and composition along a disturbance gradient with different grazing regimes (low, medium, high impact) and along a recovery gradient with differently aged livestock exclosures (short-, medium-, long-term exclusion). Differences in grazing impact and time of recovery from grazing both resulted in slight changes in species richness; however, there were pronounced shifts in species composition and group cover. We found we could distinguish four highly diverse and dynamic BSC species groups: (1) species with high resistance and resilience to grazing, (2) species with high resistance but low resilience, (3) species with low resistance but high resilience, and (4) species with low resistance and resilience. While disturbance resulted in a novel diversity configuration, which may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning, we observed that 10 years of disturbance removal did not lead to the ecosystem structure found after 27 years of recovery. These findings are an important contribution to our understanding of BCS dynamics from a species and community perspective placed in a land use change context.

  5. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  6. Conserved Organisation of 45S rDNA Sites and rDNA Gene Copy Number among Major Clades of Early Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Kovařík, Aleš; Garilleti, Ricardo; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown. This is especially true for the three earliest land plant lineages Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). In this work, we report the extent of rDNA variation in early land plants, assessing the number of 45S rDNA loci and gene copy number in 106 species and 25 species, respectively, of mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Unexpectedly, the results show a narrow range of ribosomal locus variation (one or two 45S rDNA loci) and gene copies not present in vascular plant lineages, where a wide spectrum is recorded. Mutation analysis of whole genomic reads showed higher (3-fold) intragenomic heterogeneity of Marchantia polymorpha (Marchantiophyta) rDNA compared to Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tomentosifomis) suggesting the presence of rDNA pseudogenes in its genome. No association between phylogenetic position, taxonomic adscription and the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number was found. Our results suggest a likely evolutionary rDNA stasis during land colonisation and diversification across 480 myr of bryophyte evolution. We hypothesise that strong selection forces may be acting against ribosomal gene locus amplification. Despite showing a predominant haploid phase and infrequent meiosis, overall rDNA homogeneity is not severely compromised in bryophytes.

  7. The advantage of growing on moss: facilitative effects on photosynthetic performance and growth in the cyanobacterial lichen Peltigera rufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colesie, Claudia; Scheu, Sarah; Green, T G Allan; Weber, Bettina; Wirth, Rainer; Büdel, Burkhard

    2012-07-01

    Facilitative effects and plant-plant interactions are well known for higher plants, but there is a lack of information about their relevance in cryptogams. Additional information about facilitative effects between bryophytes and lichens would be an important contribution to recent research on positive plant-plant interactions, as these can have striking influences not only on the organisation of early successional terrestrial communities but also on succession dynamics by kick-starting ecosystem development through the import of key nutrients. We investigated and quantified these mechanisms between Peltigera rufescens and its associated mosses. Moss-associated thalli had a different morphology that led to several benefits from the association. They had 66% higher net photosynthetic rate and, because the majority of the gas exchange of lichen thalli took place through the lower surface, there was a further increase as the CO(2) concentration was >25% higher beneath moss-associated thalli. Microclimatic measurements showed that mean light levels were substantially lower and temperature extremes slightly ameliorated for moss-associated thalli. As a consequence, desiccation was slower which is, together with an increase in thallus thickness and water storage, the reason for extended periods of optimal net photosynthesis for the moss-associated thalli. All these benefits combined to produce a growth rate of the moss-associated thalli which was significantly higher, twice that of non-associated thalli [0.75 ± 0.4 vs. 0.30 ± 0.1 mm/month (mean ± SD)]. This appears to be the first demonstration of a strong mechanistic basis for facilitative effects between lichens and bryophytes. PMID:22183705

  8. The first complete chloroplast genome sequence of a lycophyte,Huperzia lucidula (Lycopodiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Paul G.; Karol, Kenneth G.; Mandoli, Dina F.; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Arumuganathan, K.; Ellis, Mark W.; Mishler, Brent D.; Kelch,Dean G.; Olmstead, Richard G.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    We used a unique combination of techniques to sequence the first complete chloroplast genome of a lycophyte, Huperzia lucidula. This plant belongs to a significant clade hypothesized to represent the sister group to all other vascular plants. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate the organelles, rolling circle amplification (RCA) to amplify the genome, and shotgun sequencing to 8x depth coverage to obtain the complete chloroplast genome sequence. The genome is 154,373bp, containing inverted repeats of 15,314 bp each, a large single-copy region of 104,088 bp, and a small single-copy region of 19,671 bp. Gene order is more similar to those of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts than to gene order for other vascular plants. For example, the Huperziachloroplast genome possesses the bryophyte gene order for a previously characterized 30 kb inversion, thus supporting the hypothesis that lycophytes are sister to all other extant vascular plants. The lycophytechloroplast genome data also enable a better reconstruction of the basaltracheophyte genome, which is useful for inferring relationships among bryophyte lineages. Several unique characters are observed in Huperzia, such as movement of the gene ndhF from the small single copy region into the inverted repeat. We present several analyses of evolutionary relationships among land plants by using nucleotide data, amino acid sequences, and by comparing gene arrangements from chloroplast genomes. The results, while still tentative pending the large number of chloroplast genomes from other key lineages that are soon to be sequenced, are intriguing in themselves, and contribute to a growing comparative database of genomic and morphological data across the green plants.

  9. Conserved Organisation of 45S rDNA Sites and rDNA Gene Copy Number among Major Clades of Early Land Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Kovařík, Aleš; Garilleti, Ricardo; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown. This is especially true for the three earliest land plant lineages Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). In this work, we report the extent of rDNA variation in early land plants, assessing the number of 45S rDNA loci and gene copy number in 106 species and 25 species, respectively, of mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Unexpectedly, the results show a narrow range of ribosomal locus variation (one or two 45S rDNA loci) and gene copies not present in vascular plant lineages, where a wide spectrum is recorded. Mutation analysis of whole genomic reads showed higher (3-fold) intragenomic heterogeneity of Marchantia polymorpha (Marchantiophyta) rDNA compared to Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tomentosifomis) suggesting the presence of rDNA pseudogenes in its genome. No association between phylogenetic position, taxonomic adscription and the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number was found. Our results suggest a likely evolutionary rDNA stasis during land colonisation and diversification across 480 myr of bryophyte evolution. We hypothesise that strong selection forces may be acting against ribosomal gene locus amplification. Despite showing a predominant haploid phase and infrequent meiosis, overall rDNA homogeneity is not severely compromised in bryophytes. PMID:27622766

  10. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transformations of species composition in the main plant communities of the Karkonosze Mts. subalpine and alpine belts during the last 35 years. The investigations of floristic changes were performed in associations: Carici (rigidae-Nardetum, Carici-Festucetum supinae, Crepidi-Calamagrostietum villose and Empetro-Vaccinietum. Signalized are also some vegetation transformations in the remaining belts. The progressing floristic degradation of plant communities in the subalpine and alpine belts consists in: (a expansion of grasses, (b decline of rare vascular plants, and (c elimination of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. In spruce forest belts declining are species connected with old-growth spruce forests like: Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora. The changes of plant communities of low mountain swards (Nardetalia caused by cessation of pasture and mowing in the cause of retreat of many rare plants, like e.g., Arnica montana. The main cause of the still lasting in the Karkonosze Mts. community transformations is the changes in soil environment connected with anthropogenic nitrogen fertilization. The large inflow of mineral nitrogen from the atmosphere (1138 mg/m2 sum for vegetation season is the reason of accelerated rate of decomposition of organic matter and intensified nitrification. The high content of nitrates in soil (5 times higher than in the Tatra Mts. swards is the reason of expansion of graminoids, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa, Calamagrostis villosa and Carex bigelowii subsp. rigida. The overfertilisation of habitats causes the retreat of rare high mountain vascular plants and the decline of terricolous bryophytes and lichens.

  11. INSECTICIDAL POTENTIALITY OF FLAVONOIDS FROM CELL SUSPENSION CULTURE OF MARCHANTIA LINEARIS LEHM. & LINDENB AGAINST SPODOPTERA LITURA F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remya Krishnan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes were diverse, primitive non vascular am phibious taxa distributed worldwide and form the second largest category of plants. Bryophytes synthesize an array of phytochemicals to combat against the unhospitable environmental conditions including predation, UV radiation, high temperature and pest and pathogens. The present investigation was undertaken to elucidate flavonoids from in vitro cell cultures of the liverwort Marchantia linearis Lehm. & Lindenb. its fractionation and analysis of insecticidal potentialities. Initially, callus culture was initiated from spores in MS/5 media containing gr owth regulators BAP and NAA at the concentration of 2 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L. Agitation of the friable callus at lowe r rpm bring about lower leve l of cell dispersion, on the contrary at higher rpm might have risk of cell collision that is why rpm was kept at moderate speed i.e., 110 rpm. Continuous sub culturing process substantially improves cell growth and biomass. In the second phase, the flavonoids were isolated from cell suspension cultures of M. linearis and were fractionated by TLC and HPLC PAD chromatogram, which revealed the presence of quer cetin, luteolin, apigenin , rutin and kaempferol. In vivo insecticidal analysis revealed significant antifeedan t, larvicidal and pupicidal activities at all the concentrations against 5 th instar larvae of Spodoptera litura . The extract also exhibited feeding deterrent activity with M. linearis. Similarly, the nutritional parameters were also affected i.e., reduced ECI (Efficiency of conversion of ingested food and ECD (Efficiency of conversion of digested food and increased AD (Approximate digestibility and metabolic cost for the larvae, when compared with the control. The consumption of the basal diet with the incorporation of flavonoids by S. litura larvae was not significantly different compared to the co nsumption of the control diet by the larvae. Faecal production reduced proportionally with

  12. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution. PMID:27321879

  13. The advantage of growing on moss: facilitative effects on photosynthetic performance and growth in the cyanobacterial lichen Peltigera rufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colesie, Claudia; Scheu, Sarah; Green, T G Allan; Weber, Bettina; Wirth, Rainer; Büdel, Burkhard

    2012-07-01

    Facilitative effects and plant-plant interactions are well known for higher plants, but there is a lack of information about their relevance in cryptogams. Additional information about facilitative effects between bryophytes and lichens would be an important contribution to recent research on positive plant-plant interactions, as these can have striking influences not only on the organisation of early successional terrestrial communities but also on succession dynamics by kick-starting ecosystem development through the import of key nutrients. We investigated and quantified these mechanisms between Peltigera rufescens and its associated mosses. Moss-associated thalli had a different morphology that led to several benefits from the association. They had 66% higher net photosynthetic rate and, because the majority of the gas exchange of lichen thalli took place through the lower surface, there was a further increase as the CO(2) concentration was >25% higher beneath moss-associated thalli. Microclimatic measurements showed that mean light levels were substantially lower and temperature extremes slightly ameliorated for moss-associated thalli. As a consequence, desiccation was slower which is, together with an increase in thallus thickness and water storage, the reason for extended periods of optimal net photosynthesis for the moss-associated thalli. All these benefits combined to produce a growth rate of the moss-associated thalli which was significantly higher, twice that of non-associated thalli [0.75 ± 0.4 vs. 0.30 ± 0.1 mm/month (mean ± SD)]. This appears to be the first demonstration of a strong mechanistic basis for facilitative effects between lichens and bryophytes.

  14. Study on Germination Characteristics of Perilla frutescens under Simulation Environment of Acid Rain and Bryophyta%模拟酸雨及苔藓植物化感条件下紫苏种子萌发特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢天; 江安娜; 王曼君; 颜凤; 方元平; 项俊

    2012-01-01

    通过模拟酸雨胁迫及苔藓化感作用两种不同的生长环境,初步探讨了模拟酸雨及3种苔藓凤尾藓(Fissidens bryoides)、提灯藓(Mnium hornum)、缩叶藓(Ptychomitrium)种植水对紫苏(Perilla frutescens)种子萌发特性的影响.结果表明,pH为5.0及以上的低浓度模拟酸雨环境对紫苏种子的萌发及幼苗生长影响不大,但随着酸化程度的加深,对紫苏种子萌发的抑制作用明显增加,当pH降到1.0时种子不发芽.紫苏幼苗叶片POD活力随胁迫时间的延长呈先升后降的趋势.而叶片MDA含量除pH为5.0处理组与对照组相近外,其他胁迫浓度下均有显著增加,说明pH低于5.0紫苏幼苗生长受到较严重损害.在苔藓种植水培养环境中,与对照组相比,紫苏种子发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数均随苔藓植物种植水浓度的升高而升高,在浓度为100%时对种子萌发的促进效果最为显著.%By simulating two different growth environment, acid rain stress and moss allelopathy, the effects of acid rain and three bryophyte cultivate water (Fissidens bryoides ,Mnium hornum,Ptychomitrium) on Perilla frutescens seed germination was studied. The results showed that the simulated acid rain with pH lower than 5.0 had little effect on P. frutescens seed germination and seedling growth; as the increasing of acidification, there was a significant inhibition of seed germination, and the seed could not germinate under the pH lower than 1.0. The POD activity in P. frutescens blade increased firstly and then decreased as the stress time prolonged, and the MDA content was decreased when pH was lower than 5.0, suggesting that P. frutescens seedling growth was affected by pH lower than 5.0. In the culture water environment, compared to the control, P. frutescens germination rate, germination index, vigor index increased as the bryophyte planting concentration increasing, and the treatment with the most significant effect was 100% bryophyte planting

  15. Palynology of the dinosaur beds of Tendaguru (Tanzania – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schrank

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tendaguru Beds, southeastern Tanzania, have yielded two palynological assemblages of Kimmeridgian to Tithonian age: (1 the Anapiculatisporites-Densoisporites-Trisaccites assemblage from the Middle Saurian Beds and (2 the Barbatacysta-Pareodinia assemblage from the overlying Smeei Beds. A third assemblage with Rhizophagites and rare angiosperm pollen from the Upper Saurian Beds is contaminated by recent and subrecent material. The Anapiculatisporites-Densoisporites-Trisaccites assemblage is characterized by the presence of freshwater algae (Ovoidites, pteridopyhtic-bryophytic spores and gymnosperm (conifer pollen, with Classopollis as the most abundant element. Among the rare elements of this assemblage is the questionable dinoflagellate Mendicodinium? quadratum, possibly a Kimmeridgian-Tithonian marker. The miospores show palaeobiogeographic links to Southern Gondwana, especially Madagascar, Australia, Argentina and India. Deposition of this assemblage took place in an aquatic environment with strong palynological influx from a terrestrial source and questionable marine influence. The Barbatacysta-Pareodinia assemblage contains a considerable number of dinoflagellates suggesting deposition in a marine environment. The terrestrially-derived miospores are impoverished and dominated by conifer pollen, while pteridophytic-bryophytic spores form a very subordinate element or are absent. Die Tendaguru-Schichten, Südost-Tansania, haben zwei palynologische Assoziationen, deren Alter als Kimmeridge bis Tithon interpretiert wird, geliefert. Die Anapiculatisporites-Densoisporites-Trisaccites-Assoziation stammt aus den Mittleren Saurierschichten, und die Barbatacysta-Pareodinia-Assoziation charakterisiert die darüberlagernden Smeei-Schichten. Eine dritte Vergesellschaftung mit Rhizophagites und seltenen Angiospermen-Pollen aus den Oberen Saurierschichten ist durch rezentes bis subrezentes Material kontaminiert. Die Anapiculatisporites

  16. Biological soil crusts emit large amounts of NO and HONO affecting the nitrogen cycle in drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Elbert, Wolfgang; Behrendt, Thomas; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul J.; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Dryland systems currently cover ˜40% of the world's land surface and are still expanding as a consequence of human impact and global change. In contrast to that, information on their role in global biochemical processes is limited, probably induced by the presumption that their sparse vegetation cover plays a negligible role in global balances. However, spaces between the sparse shrubs are not bare, but soils are mostly covered by biological soil crusts (biocrusts). These biocrust communities belong to the oldest life forms, resulting from an assembly between soil particles and cyanobacteria, lichens, bryophytes, and algae plus heterotrophic organisms in varying proportions. Depending on the dominating organism group, cyanobacteria-, lichen-, and bryophyte-dominated biocrusts are distinguished. Besides their ability to restrict soil erosion they fix atmospheric carbon and nitrogen, and by doing this they serve as a nutrient source in strongly depleted dryland ecosystems. In this study we show that a fraction of the nitrogen fixed by biocrusts is metabolized and subsequently returned to the atmosphere in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO). These gases affect the radical formation and oxidizing capacity within the troposphere, thus being of particular interest to atmospheric chemistry. Laboratory measurements using dynamic chamber systems showed that dark cyanobacteria-dominated crusts emitted the largest amounts of NO and HONO, being ˜20 times higher than trace gas fluxes of nearby bare soil. We showed that these nitrogen emissions have a biogenic origin, as emissions of formerly strongly emitting samples almost completely ceased after sterilization. By combining laboratory, field, and satellite measurement data we made a best estimate of global annual emissions amounting to ˜1.1 Tg of NO-N and ˜0.6 Tg of HONO-N from biocrusts. This sum of 1.7 Tg of reactive nitrogen emissions equals ˜20% of the soil release under natural vegetation according

  17. Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stith T.Gower

    2010-03-03

    A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground

  18. Composition of late summer diet by semi-domesticated reindeer in different grazing conditions in northernmost Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Bezard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the diet composition of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in late summer in different kinds of grazing conditions in northernmost Finland. The composition of diet by reindeer was determined on the grounds of microhistological analysis of feces samples collected in early August in different seasonal grazing areas (winter or summer/year-round grazing areas in three reindeer management districts. Although the proportion of different plant groups varied between the studied districts, the quantified group of ground lichens (which also contained small amounts of mushrooms was the most abundant, varying from 33.0 to 46.4% in the analyzed samples. In general, there were significant differences in the proportions of lichen between districts, but not between grazing areas. The proportion of lichen in samples increased significantly when the amount of lichen pasture around a sample site increased. The proportion of dwarf shrubs and leaves in samples varied from 24.9 to 37.9% and differed significantly between districts, but not between grazing areas. In the same way, the proportion of graminoids varied between 20.9 and 36.2% and differed significantly between districts and also between grazing areas. Higher amounts of graminoids in feces were observed in summer/year-round grazing areas than in winter grazing areas. Finally, the proportion of bryophytes varied between 2.9 and 6.5% and was significantly different between districts, but not between grazing areas. An increase in old and mature coniferous forest around a sample site significantly increased the amounts of bryophytes in samples. The results indicate that reindeer adapt their summer diet composition according to the availability of food plants. The results also show that when reindeer are allowed to select their summer ranges freely, reindeer tend to use lichen pastures intensively also during summer, which causes a considerable reduction in

  19. Ecology of some mire and bog plant communities in the Western Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio BUFFA

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available During a mire vegetation study, conducted mainly in the subalpine-alpine sector of the Western Italian Alps, the ecology of several plant communities and numerous moss species of this kind of vegetation was evaluated. The study area covered the Piedmontese sector of the Graian Alps, the eastern sector of the Aosta Valley as well as certain localities of the Pennine Alps, the Canavese district and the Maritime Alps. They have a rocky substratum representative of the various regional lithologies and include the main sectors characterised by the highest precipitation. Three hundred and twenty two relevées were made using the phytosociological method and the pH and the conductivity of the water table and its depth were measured directly. Cluster Analysis allowed a classification of the samples and the identification of various groups of plant communities. Ordination performed by DCA and CCA allowed us to identify the ecological features of the various plant communities by using the values of the main environmental parameters, measured directly in the field, and certain climatic parameters (altitude and mean annual precipitation available. The use of climatic parameters is an important result for identifying communities which show greater oceanicity, something that is underlined also by the presence of indicator species such as Sphagnum papillosum and S. subnitens. Furthermore the communities are arranged in a "poor-rich" gradient, and are also profoundly influenced by depth to water table which is inversely correlated to the pH. Therefore we find certain kinds of communities all with a very low water table and which are little affected by its chemistry. Other groups share the fact that the water table is outcropping or near the surface and are distinguishable for their pH values and conductivity. We discuss the different response of the bryophytes and vascular plants of these communities to the environmental parameters considered, in light of their

  20. An unexpectedly large and loosely packed mitochondrial genome in the charophycean green alga Chlorokybus atmophyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Claude

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Streptophyta comprises all land plants and six groups of charophycean green algae. The scaly biflagellate Mesostigma viride (Mesostigmatales and the sarcinoid Chlorokybus atmophyticus (Chlorokybales represent the earliest diverging lineages of this phylum. In trees based on chloroplast genome data, these two charophycean green algae are nested in the same clade. To validate this relationship and gain insight into the ancestral state of the mitochondrial genome in the Charophyceae, we sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of Chlorokybus and compared this genome sequence with those of three other charophycean green algae and the bryophytes Marchantia polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens. Results The Chlorokybus genome differs radically from its 42,424-bp Mesostigma counterpart in size, gene order, intron content and density of repeated elements. At 201,763-bp, it is the largest mtDNA yet reported for a green alga. The 70 conserved genes represent 41.4% of the genome sequence and include nad10 and trnL(gag, two genes reported for the first time in a streptophyte mtDNA. At the gene order level, the Chlorokybus genome shares with its Chara, Chaetosphaeridium and bryophyte homologues eight to ten gene clusters including about 20 genes. Notably, some of these clusters exhibit gene linkages not previously found outside the Streptophyta, suggesting that they originated early during streptophyte evolution. In addition to six group I and 14 group II introns, short repeated sequences accounting for 7.5% of the genome were identified. Mitochondrial trees were unable to resolve the correct position of Mesostigma, due to analytical problems arising from accelerated sequence evolution in this lineage. Conclusion The Chlorokybus and Mesostigma mtDNAs exemplify the marked fluidity of the mitochondrial genome in charophycean green algae. The notion that the mitochondrial genome was constrained to remain compact during charophycean

  1. Large-scale proteome analysis of abscisic acid and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3-dependent proteins related to desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsui, Izumi; Serada, Satoshi; Naka, Tetsuji; Saruhashi, Masashi; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Quatrano, Ralph S; Sakata, Yoichi

    2016-03-18

    Desiccation tolerance is an ancestral feature of land plants and is still retained in non-vascular plants such as bryophytes and some vascular plants. However, except for seeds and spores, this trait is absent in vegetative tissues of vascular plants. Although many studies have focused on understanding the molecular basis underlying desiccation tolerance using transcriptome and proteome approaches, the critical molecular differences between desiccation tolerant plants and non-desiccation plants are still not clear. The moss Physcomitrella patens cannot survive rapid desiccation under laboratory conditions, but if cells of the protonemata are treated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to desiccation, it can survive 24 h exposure to desiccation and regrow after rehydration. The desiccation tolerance induced by ABA (AiDT) is specific to this hormone, but also depends on a plant transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). Here we report the comparative proteomic analysis of AiDT between wild type and ABI3 deleted mutant (Δabi3) of P. patens using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification). From a total of 1980 unique proteins that we identified, only 16 proteins are significantly altered in Δabi3 compared to wild type after desiccation following ABA treatment. Among this group, three of the four proteins that were severely affected in Δabi3 tissue were Arabidopsis orthologous genes, which were expressed in maturing seeds under the regulation of ABI3. These included a Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, a short-chain dehydrogenase, and a desiccation-related protein. Our results suggest that at least three of these proteins expressed in desiccation tolerant cells of both Arabidopsis and the moss are very likely to play important roles in acquisition of desiccation tolerance in land plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulatory machinery of ABA- and ABI3-mediated gene expression for desiccation

  2. Rainfall interception in a lower montane forest in Ecuador: effects of canopy properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischbein, Katrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Goller, Rainer; Boy, Jens; Valarezo, Carlos; Zech, Wolfgang; Knoblich, Klaus

    2005-04-01

    Rainfall interception in forests is influenced by properties of the canopy that tend to vary over small distances. Our objectives were: (i) to determine the variables needed to model the interception loss of the canopy of a lower montane forest in south Ecuador, i.e. the storage capacity of the leaves S and of the trunks and branches St, and the fractions of direct throughfall p and stemflow pt; (ii) to assess the influence of canopy density and epiphyte coverage of trees on the interception of rainfall and subsequent evaporation losses.The study site was located on the eastern slope of the eastern cordillera in the south Ecuadorian Andes at 1900-2000 m above sea level. We monitored incident rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow between April 1998 and April 2001. In 2001, the leaf area index (LAI), inferred from light transmission, and epiphyte coverage was determined.The mean annual incident rainfall at three gauging stations ranged between 2319 and 2561 mm. The mean annual interception loss at five study transects in the forest varied between 591 and 1321 mm, i.e. between 25 and 52% of the incident rainfall. Mean S was estimated at 1.91 mm for relatively dry weeks with a regression model and at 2.46 mm for all weeks with the analytical Gash model; the respective estimates of mean St were 0.04 mm and 0.09 mm, of mean p were 0.42 and 0.63, and of mean pt were 0.003 and 0.012. The LAI ranged from 5.19 to 9.32. Epiphytes, mostly bryophytes, covered up to 80% of the trunk and branch surfaces. The fraction of direct throughfall p and the LAI correlated significantly with interception loss (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = -0.77 and 0.35 respectively, n = 40). Bryophyte and lichen coverage tended to decrease St and vascular epiphytes tended to increase it, although there was no significant correlation between epiphyte coverage and interception loss. Our results demonstrate that canopy density influences interception loss but only explains part of the total variation

  3. Life form and water source interact to determine active time and environment in cryptogams: an example from the maritime Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlensog, Mark; Green, T G Allan; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2013-09-01

    Antarctica, with its almost pristine conditions and relatively simple vegetation, offers excellent opportunities to investigate the influence of environmental factors on species performance, such information being crucial if the effects of possible climate change are to be understood. Antarctic vegetation is mainly cryptogamic. Cryptogams are poikilohydric and are only metabolically and photosynthetically active when hydrated. Activity patterns of the main life forms present, bryophytes (10 species, ecto- and endohydric), lichens (5 species) and phanerogams (2 species), were monitored for 21 days using chlorophyll a fluorescence as an indicator of metabolic activity and, therefore, of water regime at a mesic (hydration by meltwater) and a xeric (hydration by precipitation) site on Léonie Island/West Antarctic Peninsula (67°36'S). Length of activity depended mainly on site and form of hydration. Plants at the mesic site that were hydrated by meltwater were active for long periods, up to 100 % of the measurement period, whilst activity was much shorter at the xeric site where hydration was entirely by precipitation. There were also differences due to life form, with phanerogams and mesic bryophytes being most active and lichens generally much less so. The length of the active period for lichens was longer than in continental Antarctica but shorter than in the more northern Antarctic Peninsula. Light intensity when hydrated was positively related to the length of the active period. High activity species were strongly coupled to the incident light whilst low activity species were active under lower light levels and essentially uncoupled from incident light. Temperatures were little different between sites and also almost identical to temperatures, when active, for lichens in continental and peninsular Antarctica. Gradients in vegetation cover and growth rates across Antarctica are, therefore, not likely to be due to differences in temperature but more likely to

  4. 小立碗藓MADS-box基因家族的系统进化分析%Phylogenetic Analysis of MADS-box Gene Family inPhyscomitrella patens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易吉明; 黄婷; 黄勇; 陈东红

    2015-01-01

    苔藓植物作为最早出现的陆生植物的代表,生活周期仍以配子体为主,在植物进化史上占据着重要的地位。另外,同源异型基因MADS-box家族广泛参与植物的生长发育和形态构建。因此,对苔藓植物MADS-box家族的分析有助于了解苔藓植物出现过程中发生的重要分子事件和关键器官革新。我们基于最新公布的小立碗藓基因组数据库确定了20个带有典型MADS结构域的MADS-box基因,其中11个MIKC*型、5个MIKCC型、4个I型,并对它们进行了染色体定位、外显子-内含子基因结构、蛋白结构域组成、系统进化构建等分析,为进一步阐明小立碗藓MADS-box基因的功能提供了准确的信息资源。%On behalf of the earliest land plant with the predominant gametophyte generation in the life cycle, bryophyte takes up the important position during plant evolution. Additionally, MADS-box homoetic gene fam-ily is widely involved in plant growth and development or morphological architecture. Therefore, it is informa-tive to understand the important molecular events and key organ innovations during the emergence of bryophyte by analyzing moss MADS-box family. Here, we identiifed 20 MADS-box genes with typical MADS domain in Physcomitrella patens, including 11 members of MIKC*-type, 5 of MIKCC-type, and 4 of type-I based on the latest genomic database. Then we investigated the chromosome location, exon-intron gene structure, domain ar-chitecture, and phylogenetic relationship on moss MADS-box members. These results provide an accurate in-formation platform for further unveiling the function of moss MADS-box genes.

  5. Effects of aqueous extract of four mosses on seed germination and early seedling growth of two Polygonaceae plants%四种苔藓植物提取液对二种蓼科植物种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞英; 郭水良; 陈建华; 方芳

    2009-01-01

    研究卵叶泥炭藓(Sphagnum ovatum),卷叶凤尾藓(Fissidens cristatus),弯叶灰藓(Hypnum callichroum)和大金发藓(Polytrichum commune)的水粗提取液对维管植物虎杖和皱叶酸模种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果显示:四种苔藓植物的粗提取液对两种植物的种子萌发率并没有显著影响.然而,弯叶灰藓,、卵叶泥炭藓和卷叶凤尾藓的提取液抑制了皱叶酸模种子的活力指数.除此之外,卷叶凤尾藓还显著地抑制了它幼苗的干重.四种藓类的提取液对虎杖的种子活力指数和干重,但是卷叶凤尾藓的提取液对幼苗的生长有显著的影响.苔藓植物粗提取液对种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响的机制并不清楚,有待进一步研究.%In this paper,the possible influences of the aqueous extracts of four bryophytes(Sphagnum ovatum,Fissidens cristatus,Hypnum callichroum and Polytrichum commune)on the seed germination and young seedling growth of two vascular plants(Rumex crispus,Polygonum cuspidatum)were investigated.The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these four mosses didn't affect seed germination.However,the crude aqueous extracts of H.callichroum,S.ovatum and F.cristatus inhibited the vigor indices of R.crispus.Furthermore,the crude aqueous extract of F.cristatus significantly enhanced its dry seedling mass,and F.cristatus and S.ovatum significantly inhibited its seedling elongation.For P.cuspidatum,the crude aqueous extracts of four mosses had little effects on its vigor indices and dry mass,but the aqueous extract of F.cristatu had significantly negative influences on its seedling elongation.The possible mechanism that the aqueous extracts of these four bryophytes influencing seed germination and seedling growth of these two vascular plants was not determined.More studies are needed.

  6. Spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in an aquatic liverwort and their usefulness as biomarkers of current and past UV radiation: A case study in the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier, E-mail: javier.martinez@unirioja.es; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-06-15

    The spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVACs) in the freshwater liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia was studied in mid-latitudes (the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition) across a wide lati-altitudinal gradient, with the aim of testing the usefulness of UVACs as biomarkers of current ambient levels of UV radiation. We analysed 17 samples from streams located in the main mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula, differentiating methanol-soluble (SUVACs, mainly located in the vacuoles) and methanol-insoluble (IUVACs, bound to cell walls) compounds, since they represent different manners to cope with UV radiation. In both fractions, the bulk level of UVACs and the concentrations of several individual compounds were measured. In addition, we measured F{sub v}/F{sub m}, DNA damage and sclerophylly index (SI) as possible additional UV biomarkers. UVACs showed a high variability, probably due not only to the gradients of macroenvironmental factors (UV radiation, PAR, and water temperature), but also to microenvironmental factors inherent to the dynamic nature of mountain streams. Two soluble coumarins were positively correlated with UV levels and could be used for ambient UV biomonitoring in the spatial scale. In contrast to the variability in UVACs, the relatively homogeneous values of F{sub v}/F{sub m} and the lack of any DNA damage made these variables useless for ambient UV biomonitoring, but suggested a strong acclimation capacity of this liverwort to changing environmental conditions (in particular, to UV levels). Finally, UVACs of fresh samples of the liverwort were compared to those of herbarium samples collected in the same lati-altitudinal gradient. SUVACs were significantly higher in fresh samples, whereas IUVACs generally showed the contrary. Thus, IUVACs were more stable than SUVACs and hence more adequate for retrospective UV biomonitoring. In conclusion, UVAC compartmentation should be taken into account for bryophyte

  7. Effects of nitrogen deposition and empirical nitrogen critical loads for ecoregions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Goodale, C.L.; Geiser, L.H.; Driscoll, C.T.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, J.S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.L.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.J.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K.C.; Dennis, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a significant increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and atmospheric deposition. This N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations to the structure and function of many ecosystems across the United States. One approach for quantifying the deposition of pollution that would be harmful to ecosystems is the determination of critical loads. A critical load is defined as the input of a pollutant below which no detrimental ecological effects occur over the long-term according to present knowledge. The objectives of this project were to synthesize current research relating atmospheric N deposition to effects on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in the United States, and to estimate associated empirical N critical loads. The receptors considered included freshwater diatoms, mycorrhizal fungi, lichens, bryophytes, herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees. Ecosystem impacts included: (1) biogeochemical responses and (2) individual species, population, and community responses. Biogeochemical responses included increased N mineralization and nitrification (and N availability for plant and microbial uptake), increased gaseous N losses (ammonia volatilization, nitric and nitrous oxide from nitrification and denitrification), and increased N leaching. Individual species, population, and community responses included increased tissue N, physiological and nutrient imbalances, increased growth, altered root : shoot ratios, increased susceptibility to secondary stresses, altered fire regime, shifts in competitive interactions and community composition, changes in species richness and other measures of biodiversity, and increases in invasive species. The range of critical loads for nutrient N reported for U.S. ecoregions, inland surface waters, and freshwater wetlands is 1-39 kg N.ha -1.yr -1, spanning the range of N deposition observed over most of the country. The empirical critical loads for N tend to

  8. Transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring trace metal mobilization in acidified streams of the Vosges Mountains, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mersch, J.; Guerold, F.; Rousselle, P.; Pihan, J.C. (Univ. of Metz (France))

    1993-08-01

    As a result of acid depositions, trace metals are mobilized from the soils to the aquatic environment. Especially in poorly mineralized waters, elevated metal concentrations may rapidly have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In particular, it has been shown that aluminium, a key element in the acidification process, is a toxic cofactor for fish and other biota. An accurate assessment of this specific form of water pollution may not be possible when only based on analyses of single water samples. On the one hand, water metal concentrations are often close to the detection limit of usual analytical techniques, and on the other hand, levels in acidified streams undergo strong temporal variations caused by acid pulses following meteorological events such as heavy rainfall and snowmelt. Compared to water analyses, indirect monitoring methods provide undeniable advantages for assessing water contamination. Aquatic bryophytes, in particular, have been regarded as interesting indicator organisms for trace metal pollution. However, their use has mainly been restricted to the lower course of streams for evaluating the impact of industrial discharges. The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring aluminium and four other trace metals (copper, iron, lead and zinc) in the particular context of acidifed streams draining a forested headwater catchment. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Genetic structure of the rare moss species Rhodobryum ontariense in Vojvodina (Serbia as inferred by isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodobryum ontariense (Kindb. Kindb. (Bryaceae, Bryophyta is a rare moss, only recently discovered in Serbia (at Deliblatska Sands. After a revision of the genus Rhodobryum in Serbia, it was concluded that all high-mountain records belong to R. roseum, while R. ontariense is confined to the one known locality at Deliblatska Sands. It is listed in the bryophyte red-list of Serbia and Montenegro. Within the single known locality we have counted 15 small sub-populations over a total surface area of 6 hectares. The species is always in sterile condition and has been recorded only on dunes exposed to the north, at the edge of shrub-grassland transition interspersed with fragments of steppe vegetation. No propagules are known. This raised the question of whether the population was once continuous, or whether vectors exist that spread detached plants or fragments to establish new subpopulations. To answer this question an isozyme analysis was performed to estimate the genetic structure of this isolated population. Based on the isozyme forms of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase at least six haplotypes were determined within the population. It can be concluded that the present patches of the moss do not derive from one subpopulation. Some kind of short-distance dispersal exists, but it remains unclear what structures act as propagules and what is the vector for them.

  10. Sensitivity of understorey vegetation to nitrogen and sulphur deposition in a spruce stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekipaeae, Raisa [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    The response of understorey vegetation to addition of nitrogen and sulphur was examined in a 60-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand in southern Finland. The understorey vegetation was studied on experimental plots receiving nitrogen (25 kg N ha{sup -1}) and sulphur (30 kg S ha{sup -1}) as ammonium sulphate once a year for 4 years. The dominant moss species on the site were Pleurozium schreberi (Mitt.) and Dicranum polysetum (Sw.). The biomass of the dominant moss species was decreased significantly by sulphur and nitrogen deposition during the study period. Due to the addition of nitrogen and sulphur, the biomass of P. schreberi was decreased by 60% and the biomass of D. polysetum by 78%. Over a 4-year study period the responses of vascular plants to addition of nitrogen and sulphur were not significant. Forest-floor mosses seemed to be more sensitive to nitrogen and sulphur deposition than vascular plants. Since bryophytes lack a cuticle and absorb water very rapidly after rain, they are exposed more to the direct effects of acid deposition than other plants. Thus, mosses may indicate changes in forest vegetation due to acid deposition

  11. Morphological Characteristics and New Distribution Records of Andreaea densifolia (Bryophyta)%密叶黑藓的形态特征和新分布记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐; 白学良; 任冬梅; 寇瑾

    2013-01-01

    对四川省黑水县达古冰川苔藓植物的调查采集和标本鉴定过程中,发现了密叶黑藓(Andreaea densi folia)的一个新的地理分布记录.该文对密叶黑藓的形态特征进行了详细记录与拍照,并对以往描述和绘图进行了比较分析,丰富了密叶黑藓的研究资料,对研究中国黑藓属植物具有重要的意义.%In the process of the investigation,collection and study of Bryophytes from the Dagu Glacier of Heishui County in Sichuan Province,discovered a new geographic distribution records of Andreaea densifolia.This paper describes its morphological characteristics and pictures is taken under the microscope.Description and drawing of the past had been corrected.Enriched our study information on Andreaea densifolia and it has an important significance on the study of diversity of moss flora of China.

  12. Bryoflora of the municipalities of Soure and Cachoeira do Arari, on Marajó Island, in the state of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete da Silva Brito

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the richness and ecological aspects (ecosystem and substrate of mosses and liverworts at two municipalities on Marajó Island, in the state of Pará, Brazil. The study area (6615 km² encompasses the municipalities of Soure and Cachoeira do Arari. Bryophytes were collected from the 10th to the 16th of January, 2007, during random visits along existing trails or during the forging of new trails, from all possible types of vegetation, regardless of the type of substrate. The ecosystems visited in the study area were capoeira (secondary vegetation, growing on land that has been burned or cleared, teso (vegetation growing on areas of land at an elevation slightly higher than the water line during flood season, floodplain forest, mangrove forests, cerrado (savanna and natural grasslands (pure and mixed. In total, 11 families, 30 genera, and 67 species were recorded, of which 39 represented new records for the island. Cololejeunea panamensis G. Dauphin & Pocs represented a new record for South America; Microlejeuneasubulistipa Steph. represented a new record for the northern region of Brazil, and Cololejeuneaverwimpii Tixier and Mastigolejeuneainnovans (Spruce Steph. represented new records for the state of Pará.

  13. A late-Middle Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage 6) vegetated surface buried by Old Crow tephra at the Palisades, interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A.V.; Jensen, B.J.L.; Zazula, G.D.; Ager, T.A.; Kuzmina, S.; La, Farge C.; Froese, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    A 40??cm thick primary bed of Old Crow tephra (131??????11??ka), an important stratigraphic marker in eastern Beringia, directly overlies a vegetated surface at Palisades West, on the Yukon River in central Alaska. Analyses of insect, bryophyte, and vascular plant macrofossils from the buried surface and underlying organic-rich silt suggest the local presence of an aquatic environment and mesic shrub-tundra at the time of tephra deposition. Autochthonous plant and insect macrofossils from peat directly overlying Old Crow tephra suggest similar aquatic habitats and hydric to mesic tundra environments, though pollen counts indicate a substantial herbaceous component to the regional tundra vegetation. Trace amounts of arboreal pollen in sediments associated with the tephra probably reflect reworking from older deposits, rather than the local presence of trees. The revised glass fission-track age for Old Crow tephra places its deposition closer to the time of the last interglaciation than earlier age determinations, but stratigraphy and paleoecology of sites with Old Crow tephra indicate a late Marine Isotope Stage 6 age. Regional permafrost degradation and associated thaw slumping are responsible for the close stratigraphic and paleoecological relations between Old Crow tephra and last interglacial deposits at some sites in eastern Beringia. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. E. A. C. L. E. (Ted Scheipe (1924-1985 — a biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Prof. E.A.C.L.E. Scheipe was born in Durban on 27 July 1924 and died in Cape Town on  12 October 1985. He studied at the University of Natal and at Oxford, England. He was awarded an M.Sc. (S. Afr. for a thesis on the ecology of the Natal Drakensberg and a D. Phil. (Oxon. for a thesis on the ecology of bryophytes. For a brief period he was Curator of the Fielding Herbarium, Oxford. In  1953 he was appointed Lecturer in Botany at the University of Cape Town, until in  1973 he was awarded a full professorship (ad hominem and the title of Director of the Bolus Herbarium. Here he established a school of taxonomy and promoted  22  theses. His main fields of research were the taxonomy and phytogeography of Pteridophyta (especially African groups and of Orchidaceae.He has  112 publications to his credit and collected over 7 000 numbers in various regions of Africa, in Europe and the Himalayas. He was a keen gardener and was active in several societies promoting horticulture, orchidology and nature conservation. He was a member of several scientific committees and was repeatedly honoured for his work.Three children were born from his marriage to Sybella Gray, also a botanist.

  15. Protein-Repairing Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Photosynthetic Organisms: Gene Organization, Reduction Mechanisms, and Physiological Roles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lionel Tarrago; Edith Laugier; Pascal Rey

    2009-01-01

    Methionine oxidation to methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) is reversed bytwo types of methionine sulfoxide reduc-rases (MSRs), A and B, specific to the S- and R-diastereomers of MetSO, respectively. MSR genes are found in most organisms from bacteria to human. In the current review, we first compare the organization of the MSR gene families in photosynthetic organisms from cyanobacteria to higher plants. The analysis reveals that MSRs constitute complex families in higher plants, bryophytes, and algae compared to cyanobacteria and all non-photosynthetic organisms. We also perform a classification, based on gene number and structure, position of redox-active cysteines and predicted sub-cellular localization. The various catalytic mechanisms and potential physiological electron donors involved in the regeneration of MSR activity are then de-scribed. Data available from higher plants reveal that MSRs fulfill an essential physiological function during environmental constraints through a role in protein repair and in protection against oxidative damage. Taking into consideration the ex-pression patterns of MSR genes in plants and the known roles of these genes in non-photosynthetic cells, other functions of MSRs are discussed during specific developmental stages and ageing in photosynthetic organisms.

  16. Water-table-dependent hydrological changes following peatland forestry drainage and restoration: Analysis of restoration success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menberu, Meseret Walle; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Marttila, Hannu; Irannezhad, Masoud; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Penttinen, Jouni; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    A before-after-control approach was used to analyze the impact of peatland restoration on hydrology, based on high temporal resolution water-table (WT) data from 43 boreal peatlands representative of a south-boreal to north-boreal climate gradient. During the study, 24 forestry drained sites were restored and 19 pristine peatlands used as control sites. Different approaches were developed and used to analyze WT changes (mean WT position, WT fluctuation, WT hydrograph, recession, and storage characteristics). Restoration increased WT in most cases but particularly in spruce mires, followed by pine mires and fens. Before restoration, the WT fluctuation (WTF) was large, indicating peat temporary storage gain (SG). After restoration, the WT hydrograph recession limb slopes and SG coefficients (Rc) declined significantly. Drainage or restoration did not significantly affect mean diurnal WT fluctuations, used here as a proxy for evapotranspiration. Overall, the changes in WT characteristics following restoration indicated creation of favorable hydrological conditions for recovery of functional peatland ecosystems in previously degraded peatland sites. This was supported by calculation of bryophyte species abundance thresholds for WT. These results can be used to optimize restoration efforts in different peatland systems and as a qualitative conceptual basis for future restoration operations.

  17. THE PLANT-DERIVED FRAGMENTS OF THE LATE SILURIAN FROM GUANGYUAN, SICHUAN, SOUTH CHINA%四川广元晚志留世植物碎片

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怿; 朱怀诚; 李军

    2004-01-01

    A palynological study of Upper Silurian deposits from Guangyuan, Sichuan, P.R. China, revealed not only cryptospores, miospores, tubular structures and cuticle-like sheets but also numerous plant-derived fragments. Three types of plant-derived fragment are described in this paper. Type Ⅰ consists of thallus with pores,and branches with center band. Type Ⅱ is characterized by the branch with spines on the surface. Type Ⅲ is composed of the branch with three times dichotomies. Type I might resemble the bryophyte in some morphology, and may grow in a desiccating environment. It is suggested that the parent plant of Type Ⅱ may live in an environment with herbivory.%本文初步研究了产自四川广元晚志留世地层中植物碎片,共分为三个类型.Type Ⅰ具有叶状体,表面具有孔,叶状体上着生有具有中间加厚带的枝.TypeⅡ的枝表面具有刺.TypeⅢ的枝二歧分叉三次.通过研究认为,Type Ⅰ与苔藓类植物可以对比,具有一定的相似性,可能生活在比较干燥的环境中.TypeⅡ的母体植物可能生活在具有食草动物的环境中.

  18. Biodiversity of Microorganisms from a Tufa Fan in Guizhou Province, China%石灰华扇(Tufa Fan)沉积物中的微型生物多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智慧; 张朝晖; 李建华

    2008-01-01

    为了探索石灰华扇沉积物中微型生物多样性特征, 作者2006年7~9月对贵州中部马脚冲瀑布石灰华扇进行了野外生态学调查,釆集样品和标本50份.经室内初步分析和鉴定, 该瀑布石灰华扇中含有4大微型生物多样性类群共25个物种,它们是蓝细菌(Cyanobacteria)1个种,原生动物(Protozoan) 16个种,绿藻(Green algae) 1个种,硅藻(Diatoms)7个种.此外,石灰华扇中还发现了苔藓植物(Bryophytes)6个种.石灰华扇沉积物的形成,是微型生物多样性-石灰华扇沉积相互作用的地质生态学结果.

  19. Response of stable carbon isotope in epilithic mosses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xueyan, E-mail: liuxueyan@vip.skleg.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Xiao Huayun; Liu Congqiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li Youyi; Xiao Hongwei; Wang Yanli [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Epilithic mosses are characterized by insulation from substratum N and hence meet their N demand only by deposited N. This study investigated tissue C, total Chl and delta{sup 13}C of epilithic mosses along 2 transects across Guiyang urban (SW China), aiming at testing their responses to N deposition. Tissue C and total Chl decreased from the urban to rural, but delta{sup 13}C{sub moss} became less negative. With measurements of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and delta{sup 13}CO{sub 2}, elevated N deposition was inferred as a primary factor for changes in moss C and isotopic signatures. Correlations between total Chl, tissue C and N signals indicated a nutritional effect on C fixation of epilithic mosses, but the response of delta{sup 13}C{sub moss} to N deposition could not be clearly differentiated from effects of other factors. Collective evidences suggest that C signals of epilithic mosses are useful proxies for N deposition but further works on physiological mechanisms are still needed. - Photosynthetic {sup 13}C discrimination of bryophytes might increase with elevated N deposition.

  20. Consequences of stand age and species’ functional trait changes on ecosystem water use of forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, Brent; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Mackay, D. Scott

    2011-07-22

    We tested whether using stomatal conductance could capture the dynamic in transpiration with forest age. To do this we by answered the question “If we chose a reference stomatal conductance from one stand age of the entire chronosequence to put into a model, would modeled transpiration be biased from the other ages?” with a resounding yes. We found that obtaining the right stomatal conductance was crucial for accurate models in two different chronosequences. This strongly suggests that stomatal conductance is the appropriate integrator of inter- and intra-species change in tree transpiration with forest age. If we had tried to use a single reference canopy stomatal conductance, it would not have been able to capture the variability in transpiration with stand age despite the suggestion that hydraulic limitation was consistently acting on the trees; the situation is even more complex in many boreal systems, where a transition to nonstomatal bryophytes may occur over the course of succession. Because we used a biophysical approach, even if our and other researchers’ chronosequences do not fit the assumptions, the results are still useful. Further, our synthesis of sap flux based estimates of tree transpiration showing a large dynamic suggest that our approach to modeling is crucial in the face of anthropogenic changes to forest age structure. We have now provided the framework for a mechanistically rigorous yet simple approach based on simple tree hydraulics to measuring and modeling stand transpiration with changing forest age and/or species composition.

  1. Fenología de Tayloria dubyi (Splachnaceae en las turberas de la Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos Phenology of Tayloria dubyi (Splachnaceae in the peatlands of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOCELYN JOFRE

    2010-03-01

    diversity of bryophytes, greater than the species richness of vascular plants. Despite this fact, phenological studies on bryophytes are lacking for this ecoregion and Chile. Based on the study of the sporophytic phase of Tayloria dubyi, an endemic moss from the sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion, we propose a methodology for phonological studies on austral bryophytes. We defined five phenophases, easily distinguishable with a hand-lens, which were monthly recorded during 2007 and 2008 in populations of T. dubyi at the Omora Ethnobotanical Park and Mejillones Bay on Navarino Island (55º S in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve. The sporophytic (or reproductive phase of T. dubyi presented a clear seasonality. After growing in November, in three months (December-February of the austral reproductive season the sporophytes mature and release their spores; by March they are already senescent. T. dubyi belongs to the Splachnaceae family for which entomochory (dispersal of spores by insects, specifically Diptera has been detected in the Northern Hemisphere. The period of spores release in T. dubyi coincides with the months of highest activity of Diptera which are potential dispersers of spores; hence, entomochory could also take place in sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion. In sum, our work: (i defines a methodology for phenological studies in austral bryophytes, (ii it records a marked seasonality ion the sporophyte phase of T. dubyi, and (iii it proposes to evaluate in future research the occurrence of entomochory in Splachnaceae species growing in the sub-Antarctic peatlands and forest ecosystems in the Southern Hemisphere.

  2. Molecular Properties and Functional Divergence of the Dehydroascorbate Reductase Gene Family in Lower and Higher Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, which reduces oxidized ascorbate, is important for maintaining an appropriate ascorbate redox state in plant cells. To date, genome-wide molecular characterization of DHARs has only been conducted in bryophytes (Physcomitrella patens and eudicots (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, to gain a general understanding of the molecular properties and functional divergence of the DHARs in land plants, we further conducted a comprehensive analysis of DHARs from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, gymnosperm Picea abies and monocot Zea mays. DHARs were present as a small gene family in all of the land plants we examined, with gene numbers ranging from two to four. All the plants contained cytosolic and chloroplastic DHARs, indicating dehydroascorbate (DHA can be directly reduced in the cytoplasm and chloroplast by DHARs in all the plants. A novel vacuolar DHAR was found in Z. mays, indicating DHA may also be reduced in the vacuole by DHARs in Z. mays. The DHARs within each species showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, subcellular localizations, and enzymatic characteristics. This study provides new insights into the molecular characteristics and functional divergence of DHARs in land plants.

  3. Evidence for changing the critical level for ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cape, J.N. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Bush Estate, Penicuik, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jnc@ceh.ac.uk; Eerden, L.J. van der [Foundation OBRAS, Centre for Art and Science, Evoramonte (Portugal); Sheppard, L.J.; Leith, I.D.; Sutton, M.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Bush Estate, Penicuik, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    The current critical level for ammonia (CLE{sub NH3}) in Europe is set at 8 {mu}g NH{sub 3} m{sup -3} as an annual average concentration. Recent evidence has shown specific effects of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) on plant community composition (a true ecological effect) at much smaller concentrations. The methods used in setting a CLE{sub NH3} are reviewed, and the available evidence collated, in proposing a new CLE{sub NH3} for different types of vegetation. For lichens and bryophytes, we propose a new CLE{sub NH3} of 1 {mu}g NH{sub 3} m{sup -3} as a long-term (several year) average concentration; for higher plants, there is less evidence, but we propose a CLE{sub NH3} of 3 {+-} 1 {mu}g NH{sub 3} m{sup -3} for herbaceous species. There is insufficient evidence to provide a separate CLE{sub NH3} for forest trees, but the value of 3 {+-} 1 {mu}g NH{sub 3} m{sup -3} is likely to exceed the empirical critical load for N deposition for most forest ecosystems. - The long-term critical level for NH{sub 3} has been revised down to 1 {mu}g m{sup -3} for the most sensitive plant species.

  4. Temporal trends (1990-2005 in heavy metal accumulation in mosses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Maòkovská

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring of multielement atmospheric deposition using terrestrialmoss is a well-established technique in Europe. The moss samples of Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum sp. were collected in Slovakia. Separately we evaluated the atmospheric deposition in the National Parks (Vysoké Tatry, Nízke Tatry, Západné Tatry -Jelenec, Slovenský raj and in a landscape protection area (Ve¾ká Fatra. In comparison to the median northern Norway values ofheavy metal contents in moss, the Slovak atmospheric deposition loads of elements were found to be higher. The survey has been repeated and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn between 1990 and 2005. Metal- and sites-specific temporal trends were observed. In general, the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in mossesdecreased between 1990 and 2005; the decline was higher for Pb than for Cd. The observed temporal trends for the concentrations in mosses were similar to the trends reported for the modelled total deposition of cadmium, lead and mercury in Europe. The level of elements, determined in bryophytes reflects the relative atmosphericdeposition loads of elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian mosses.

  5. Microbial and plant ecology of a long-term TNT-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, Emma R. [Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bower Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.travis@bio.gla.ac.uk; Bruce, Neil C. [CNAP, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5YW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ncb5@york.ac.uk; Rosser, Susan J. [Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bower Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.rosser@bio.gla.ac.uk

    2008-05-15

    The contamination of the environment with explosive residues presents a serious ecological problem at sites across the world, with the highly toxic compound trinitrotoluene (TNT) the most widespread contaminant. This study examines the soil microbial community composition across a long-term TNT-contaminated site. It also investigates the extent of nitroaromatic contamination and its effect on vegetation. Concentrations of TNT and its metabolites varied across the site and this was observed to dramatically impact on the extent and diversity of the vegetation, with the most heavily contaminated area completely devoid of vegetation. Bryophytes were seen to be particularly sensitive to TNT contamination. The microbial population experienced both a reduction in culturable bacterial numbers and a shift in composition at the high concentrations of TNT. DGGE and community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) revealed a clear change in both the genetic and functional diversity of the soil when soil was contaminated with TNT. - Long-term contamination of soil with TNT reduces the extent and diversity of vegetation, decreases culturable bacterial numbers and shifts the microbial community composition.

  6. Briófitas rupícolas de um trecho do rio Bethary, Iporanga, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram encontradas 19 espécies de briófitas, sendo 14 espécies de musgos e 5 espécies de hepáticas, cobrindo uma maior extensão de rochas das margens que do centro do leito do rio. As rochas das margens do rio, bem üuminadas, porém sem receber luz direta do sol, apresentaram uma maior número de espécies, muito emaranhadas entre si. Já as rochas do centro do leito do rio, iluminadas pela luz direta do sol, apresentaram um menor número de espécies, formando tufos isolados ou pouco emaranhados entre si.Nineteen species of bryophytes were found being 14 species mosses and 5 species liverworts. These plants occured in greater extension on the rocks of the riverbank than on the rocks of riverbed. The rocks on the riverbank which received indirect sun light showed a larger number of species very entangled among themselves. The rocks of the riverbed which received direct sun light showed a smaller number of species forming isolated turfs or were nor very entangled among themselves.

  7. Synonymous codon usage bias in plant mitochondrial genes is associated with intron number and mirrors species evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xu

    Full Text Available Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB is a common event that a non-uniform usage of codons often occurs in nearly all organisms. We previously found that SCUB is correlated with both intron number and exon position in the plant nuclear genome but not in the plastid genome; SCUB in both nuclear and plastid genome can mirror the evolutionary specialization. However, how about the rules in the mitochondrial genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome, based on 24 plant species ranging from algae to land plants. The frequencies of NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons are higher than those of NNG and NNC, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in land plants, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. The preference for NNA and NNT is more evident in genes harboring a greater number of introns in land plants, but the bias to NNA and NNT exhibits even among exons. The pattern of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome differs in some respects to that present in both the nuclear and plastid genomes.

  8. Practical application of methanol-mediated mutualistic symbiosis between Methylobacterium species and a roof greening moss, Racomitrium japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Tani

    Full Text Available Bryophytes, or mosses, are considered the most maintenance-free materials for roof greening. Racomitrium species are most often used due to their high tolerance to desiccation. Because they grow slowly, a technology for forcing their growth is desired. We succeeded in the efficient production of R. japonicum in liquid culture. The structure of the microbial community is crucial to stabilize the culture. A culture-independent technique revealed that the cultures contain methylotrophic bacteria. Using yeast cells that fluoresce in the presence of methanol, methanol emission from the moss was confirmed, suggesting that it is an important carbon and energy source for the bacteria. We isolated Methylobacterium species from the liquid culture and studied their characteristics. The isolates were able to strongly promote the growth of some mosses including R. japonicum and seed plants, but the plant-microbe combination was important, since growth promotion was not uniform across species. One of the isolates, strain 22A, was cultivated with R. japonicum in liquid culture and in a field experiment, resulting in strong growth promotion. Mutualistic symbiosis can thus be utilized for industrial moss production.

  9. Research of Mosses Accumulation Properties Used for Assessment of Regional and Local Atmospheric Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda K. Ryzhakova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of atmospheric heavy metal and other toxic element depositions by using widespread bryophytes as biomonitors has been widely used. Choosing most appropriate moss species in relation to their accumulation properties is the main goal of this research. The accumulation of heavy metals and other toxic elements by widespread mosses of midland have been studied. The research is focused on assessing accumulation properties of 4 species of terrestrial moss, 4 species of paludal moss and 2 species of epiphytic moss. The concentrations of 32 elements have been determined in moss samples by neutron activation analysis (NAA and atom emission spectrometry (AES. Interspecies and intraspecies comparison revealed significant differences in accumulation properties. The accumulation capacity of Dicranum polysetum was higher than other terrestrial mosses and Aulacomnium palustre had higher accumulation capacity than other paludal mosses. These moss species have been used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory, particularly for research of transboundary transfer of heavy metal pollution. The accumulation property of epiphytic moss was higher than others. The epiphytic moss could be found on the bark of old trees (aspens, poplars, birch that are of frequent occurrence in urban areas. Therefore, epiphytic moss can be used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory and for research of atmospheric pollution in industrial centers, inhabited locations as well as assessment of atmospheric contamination in local pollution source. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.69.3.5566

  10. The flora of the highest building in Poland (the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Galera

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the Palace of Culture and Science, which is the highest office building in Poland, was analysed. The exterior horizontal surfaces of the building (roofs, terraces, stairs could be regarded as polyhemerobic habitats. A total of 111 species of vascular plants (native species - 65% and 6 species of bryophytes were recorded from an area of 16 500 m2. It was found that the flora was relatively rich in species, of which some occurred in considerable quantities (over 1000 individuals of such species as: Eragrostis minor, Sagina procumbens, Chaenarrhinum minus were encountered. Moreover anemochorous species dominated (85% in the flora of the Palace. Thermophilous species and species indifferent to temperature were also strongly represented. The relatively high incidence of hygrophilous species was noteworthy. With regard to life forms an increased proportion of therophytes and phanerophytes (40% and 22%, respectively was observed. No significant differences were found between the flora of roofs situated on different floors of the building. However, slight differences between - the flora of north-facing and south-facing horizontal roof surfaces were marked.

  11. Vegetational Diversity Analysis across Different Habitats in Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan Singh Rawat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four forest sites varying in vegetation types were studied along an altitudinal range between 2200 and 2500 m. Maximum tree, shrub, and herb species were recorded on stream bank site (22, 25, and 54, resp.. Pteridophytes and bryophytes species richness was maximum on moist site (4 and 5, resp.. The number of climbers was greater in moist and dry habitats (7 species each. Parasitic species were restricted only on dry and stream bank habitats. Restricted tree and shrub species were greater on stream bank site and dry site, respectively. The herb and climber species were greater on moist site. The distribution and species richness pattern in this elevational range largely depend on the altitude and climatic variables. Along the entire range of Garhwal Himalaya, the overlapping among species regimes is broad; therefore, transitional communities having mixture of many species and zones are present. The present study indicates that the opening canopies increase the richness of tree, shrub, herb, and climbers.

  12. Trade-Offs in Resource Allocation Among Moss Species Control Decomposition in Boreal Peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Crow, S. E.; Evans, R. J.; Vitt, D. H.; Wieder, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    We separated the effects of plant species controls on decomposition rates from environmental controls in northern peatlands using a full factorial, reciprocal transplant experiment of eight dominant bryophytes in four distinct peatland types in boreal Alberta, Canada. Standard fractionation techniques as well as compound-specific pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry were used to identify a biochemical mechanism underlying any interspecific differences in decomposition rates. We found that over a 3-year field incubation, individual moss species and not micro-environmental conditions controlled early stages of decomposition. Across species, Sphagnum mosses exhibited a trade-off in resource partitioning into metabolic and structural carbohydrates, a pattern that served as a strong predictor of litter decomposition. Decomposition rates showed a negative co-variation between species and their microtopographic position, as species that live in hummocks decomposed slowly but hummock microhabitats themselves corresponded to rapid decomposition rates. By forming litter that degrades slowly, hummock mosses appear to promote the maintenance of macropore structure in surface peat hummocks that aid in water retention. Many northern regions are experiencing rapid climate warming that is expected to accelerate the decomposition of large soil carbon pools stored within peatlands. However, our results suggest that some common peatland moss species form tissue that resists decomposition across a range of peatland environments, suggesting that moss resource allocation could stabilize peatland carbon losses under a changing climate.

  13. Microbiotic crusts on soil, rock and plants: neglected major players in the global cycles of carbon and nitrogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Elbert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbiotic crusts consisting of bacteria, fungi, algae, lichens, and bryophytes colonize most terrestrial surfaces, and they are able to fix carbon and nitrogen from the atmosphere. Here we show that microbiotic crusts are likely to play major roles in the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen, and we suggest that they should be further characterized and taken into account in studies and models of the Earth system and climate.

    For the global annual net uptake of carbon by microbiotic crusts we present a first estimate of ~3.6 Pg a−1. This uptake corresponds to ~6% of the estimated global net carbon uptake by terrestrial vegetation (net primary production, NPP: ~60 Pg a−1, and it is of the same magnitude as the global annual carbon turnover due to biomass burning. The estimated rate of nitrogen fixation by microbiotic crusts (~45 Tg a−1 amounts to ~40% of the global estimate of biological nitrogen fixation (107 Tg a−1. With regard to Earth system dynamics and global change, the large contribution of microbiotic crusts to nitrogen fixation is likely to be important also for the sequestration of CO2 by terrestrial plants (CO2 fertilization, because the latter is constrained by the availability of fixed nitrogen.

  14. Responses to ammonium and nitrate additions by boreal plants and their natural enemies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Annika [Umeaa Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: annika.nordin@genfys.slu.se; Strengbom, Joachim [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: joachim.strengbom@ebc.uu.se; Ericson, Lars [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: lars.ericson@eg.umu.se

    2006-05-15

    Separate effects of ammonium (NH{sub 4} {sup +}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3} {sup -}) on boreal forest understorey vegetation were investigated in an experiment where 12.5 and 50.0 kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} was added to 2 m{sup 2} sized plots during 4 years. The dwarf-shrubs dominating the plant community, Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea, took up little of the added N independent of the chemical form, and their growth did not respond to the N treatments. The grass Deschampsia flexuosa increased from the N additions and most so in response to NO{sub 3} {sup -}. Bryophytes took up predominately NH{sub 4} {sup +} and there was a negative correlation between moss N concentration and abundance. Plant pathogenic fungi increased from the N additions, but showed no differences in response to the two N forms. Because the relative contribution of NH{sub 4} {sup +} and NO{sub 3} {sup -} to the total N deposition on a regional scale can vary substantially, the N load a habitat can sustain without substantial changes in the biota should be set considering specific vegetation responses to the predominant N form in deposition. - Biota will respond to nitrogen deposition depending on the form of nitrogen.

  15. Abiotic determinants of the historical buildings biodeterioration in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Piotrowska

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study conducted at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim on the occurrence of biodeterioration. Visual assessment of the buildings revealed signs of deterioration of the buildings in the form of dampness, bulging and crumbling plaster, and wood fiber splitting. The external surfaces, and especially the concrete strips and ground immediately adjoining the buildings, were colonized by bryophytes, lichens, and algae. These organisms developed most intensively close to the ground on the northern sides of the buildings. Inside the buildings, molds and bacteria were not found to develop actively, while algae and wood-decaying fungi occurred locally. The factors conducive to biological corrosion in the studied buildings were excessive dampness of structural partitions close to the ground and a relative air humidity of above 70%, which was connected to ineffective moisture insulation. The influence of temperature was smaller, as it mostly affected the quantitative composition of the microorganisms and the qualitative composition of the algae. Also the impact of light was not very strong, but it was conducive to algae growth.

  16. Phylogeny and evolution of charophytic algae and land plants%轮藻和陆地植物系统发育及其进化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇寅龙

    2008-01-01

    Charophytic algae and land plants together make up a monophyletic group, streptophytes, which represents one of the main lineages of multicellular eukaryotes and has contributed greatly to the change of the environment on earth in the Phanerozoic Eon. Significant progress has been made to understand phylogenetic relationships among members of this group by phylogenetic studies of morphological and molecular data over the last twenty-five years. Mesostigma viride is now regarded as among the earliest diverging unicellular organisms in streptophytes. Characeae are the sister group to land plants. Liverworts represent the first diverging lineage of land plants. Hornworts and lycophytes are extant representatives of bryophytes and vascular plants, respectively, when early land plants changed from gametophyte to sporophyte as the dominant generation in the life cycle. Equisetum, Psilotaceae, and ferns constitute the monophyletic group of monilophytes, which are sister to seed plants. Gnetales are related to conifers, not to angiosperms as previously thought. Amborella, Nymphaeales, Hydatellaceae, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya represent the earliest diverging lineages of extant angiosperms. These phylogenetic results, together with recent progress on elucidating genetic and developmental aspects of the plant life cycle, multicellularity, and gravitropism, will facilitate evolutionary developmental studies of these key traits, which will help us to gain mechanistic understanding on how plants adapted to environmental challenges when they colonized the land during one of the major transitions in evolution of life.

  17. Source of and potential bio-indicator for the heavy metal pollution in Ny-(A)lesund, Arctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of tundra plant samples including Dicranum angnstum(a type of boreal bryophyte) , PuccineUia phryganodes (a type of fringy p/ant),Salix polaris (a type of vascular plant) and surface soil were samples in 200 at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic.The levels of eight heavy metal elements (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe and Mn) and three metal-like dements (As, Se, Sr) in the plant and soil samples of the areas within previous coal mining activities are significantly higher than those of other areas.The relative accumulation of these elements in these tundra plant samples is consistent with the one in the soft samples, especially in the areas affected by previous coal-mining activities.Thus, the pollution is apparently from local coal mining activity.Dicranum angustum has the highest concentrations among those elements, and it can be a good bio-indicator for heavy metal pollution in Ny(A)lesund.Though Ny(A)lesund is less polluted by heavy metal than nearby Northern European human living areas, but much more than the tundras of the Alaska, Greenland and the Antarctic.

  18. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Boelen, Peter [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Blokker, Peter [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions.

  19. Assessing impacts of unconventional natural gas extraction on microbial communities in headwater stream ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Ryan; Solomon, Caroline; Brislawn, Colin J; Wright, Justin R; Rosenberger, Abigail; McClure, Erin E; Grube, Alyssa M; Peterson, Mark P; Keddache, Mehdi; Mason, Olivia U; Hazen, Terry C; Grant, Christopher J; Lamendella, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have increased dramatically in Pennsylvania Marcellus shale formations, however the potential for major environmental impacts are still incompletely understood. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the microbial community structure of water, sediment, bryophyte, and biofilm samples from 26 headwater stream sites in northwestern Pennsylvania with different histories of fracking activity within Marcellus shale formations. Further, we describe the relationship between microbial community structure and environmental parameters measured. Approximately 3.2 million 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from a total of 58 samples. Microbial community analyses showed significant reductions in species richness as well as evenness in sites with Marcellus shale activity. Beta diversity analyses revealed distinct microbial community structure between sites with and without Marcellus shale activity. For example, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within the Acetobacteracea, Methylocystaceae, Acidobacteriaceae, and Phenylobacterium were greater than three log-fold more abundant in MSA+ sites as compared to MSA- sites. Further, several of these OTUs were strongly negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with the number of wellpads in a watershed. It should be noted that many of the OTUs enriched in MSA+ sites are putative acidophilic and/or methanotrophic populations. This study revealed apparent shifts in the autochthonous microbial communities and highlighted potential members that could be responding to changing stream conditions as a result of nascent industrial activity in these aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25408683

  20. Conservation of biotrophy in Hygrophoraceae inferred from combined stable isotope and phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzman, Brian H; Ouimette, Andrew; Mixon, Rachel L; Hobbie, Erik A; Hibbett, David S

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional modes of genera in Hygrophoraceae (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), apart from the ectomycorrhizal Hygrophorus and lichen-forming taxa, are uncertain. New δ(15)N and δ(13)C values were obtained from 15 taxa under Hygrophoraceae collected in central Massachusetts and combined with isotopic datasets from five prior studies including a further 12 species using a data standardization method to allow cross-site comparison. Based on these data, we inferred the probable nutritional modes for species of Hygrophorus, Hygrocybe, Humidicutis, Cuphophyllus and Gliophorus. A phylogeny of Hygrophoraceae was constructed by maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear ribosomal 28S and 5.8S sequences and standardized δ(15)N and δ(13)C values were used for parsimony optimization on this phylogeny. Our results supported a mode of biotrophy in Hygrocybe, Humidicutis, Cuphophyllus and Gliophorus quantitatively unlike that in more than 450 other fungal taxa sampled in the present and prior studies. Parsimony optimization of stable isotope data suggests moderate conservation of nutritional strategies in Hygrophoraceae and a single switch to a predominantly ectomycorrhizal life strategy in the lineage leading to Hygrophorus. We conclude that Hygrophoraceae of previously unknown nutritional status are unlikely to be saprotrophs and are probably in symbiosis with bryophytes or other understory plants. PMID:21139028

  1. Homologous Comparisons of Photosynthetic System 1 Genes among Cyanobacteria and Chloroplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yu; Pei-Jun Ma; Ding-Ji Shi; Shi-Ming Li; Chang-Lu Wang

    2008-01-01

    It has now believed that chloroplasts arose from cyanobacteria,however,during endosymbiosis,the photosynthetic genes in chloroplasts have been reduced.How these changes occurred during plant evolution was the focus of the present study.Beginning with photosystem Ⅰ (PSI) genes,a homologous comparison of amino acid sequences of 18 subunits of PSI from 10 species of cyanobacteria,chloroplasts in 12 species of eucaryotic algae,and 28 species of plants (including bryophytes,pteridophytes,gymnospermae,dicotyledon and monocotyledon) was undertaken.The data showed that 18 genes of PSIcan be divided into two groups: Part Ⅰ including seven genes (psaA,psaB,psaC,psaI,psaJ,yct3 and ycf4) shared both by cyanobacteria and plant chloroplasts;Part Ⅱ containing another 11 genes (psaD,psaE,psaF,psaK,psaL,psaM,btpA,ycf37,psaG,psaH and psaN) appeared to have diversified in different plant groups.Among Part I genes,psaC,psaA and psaB had higher homology in all species of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts.Among Part II genes,only psaG,psaH and psaN emerged in seed plants.

  2. Bisbibenzyls, a new type of antifungal agent, inhibit morphogenesis switch and biofilm formation through upregulation of DPP3 in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available The yeast-to-hypha transition plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule (QSM secreted by the fungal itself, could prevent the formation of hyphae and subsequently lead to the defect of biofilm formation. The DPP3, encoding phosphatase, is a key gene in regulating farnesol synthesis. In this study, we screened 24 bisbibenzyls and 2 bibenzyls that were isolated from bryophytes or chemically synthesized by using CLSI method for antifungal effect. Seven bisbibenzyls were found to have antifungal effects with IC(80 less than 32 µg/ml, and among them, plagiochin F, isoriccardin C and BS-34 were found to inhibit the hyphae and biofilm formation of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. To uncover the underlying relationship between morphogenesis switch and QSM formation, we measured the farnesol production by HPLC-MS and quantified Dpp3 expression by detecting the fluorescent intensity of green fluorescent protein tagged strain using Confocal Laser Scanning microscopy and Multifunction Microplate Reader. The DPP3 transcripts were determined by real-time PCR. The data indicated that the bisbibenzyls exerted antifungal effects through stimulating the synthesis of farnesol via upregulation of Dpp3, suggesting a potential antifungal application of bisbibenzyls. In addition, our assay provides a novel, visual and convenient method to measure active compounds against morphogenesis switch.

  3. Assessing Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction on Microbial Communities in Headwater Stream Ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eTrexler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have increased dramatically in Pennsylvania Marcellus shale formations, however the potential for major environmental impacts are still incompletely understood. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the microbial community structure of water, sediment, bryophyte, and biofilm samples from 26 headwater stream sites in northwestern Pennsylvania with different histories of fracking activity within Marcellus shale play. Further, we describe the relationship between microbial community structure and environmental parameters measured. Approximately 3.2 million 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from a total of 58 samples. Microbial community analyses showed significant reductions in species richness as well as evenness in sites with Marcellus shale activity (MSA+. Beta diversity analyses revealed distinct microbial community structure between sites with and without Marcellus shale activity (MSA-. For example, OTUs within the Acetobacteracea, Methylocystaceae, Acidobacteriaceae, and Phenylobacterium were greater than three log-fold more abundant in MSA+ sites as compared to MSA- sites. Further, several of these OTUs were strongly negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with the number of wellpads in a watershed. It should be noted that many of the OTUs enriched in MSA+ sites are putative acidophilic and/or methanotrophic populations. This study revealed apparent shifts in the autochthonous microbial communities and highlighted potential members that could be responding to changing stream conditions as a result of nascent industrial activity in these aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Biodiversity and importance of floating weeds of Dara Ismail, Khan District of KPK, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Khan, Mir Ajab; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is based on the results of taxonomic research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan District of KPK, Pakistan, during 2005 - 2007. The area was extensively surveyed in order to collect floating aquatic weeds. From the study area 11 floating aquatic weed species belonging to 9 genera and 9 families were collected and identified in the light of available literature. These plants include Bryophytes: 1 species, Ricciocarpus natans (L.) Corda; Pteridophytes: 2 species, Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Marselia quadrifolia L., and Spermatophytes: 8 species, Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., L. gibba L., Marselia quadrifoliata L. Nelumbo nucifera Gaerth., Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ketze. Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze:, Pistia stratiotes L. Potamogeton nodosus Poiret and Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. Floating weeds on one hand cause serious problems and on the other hand they are used for various purposes. Data inventory consists of botanical name, family, major group, habit and habitat, flowering period, availability, distribution in D.I.Khan, Pakistan and world, beneficial and harmful effects. Key to the floating aquatic species of the area was developed for easy and correct identification and differentiation.

  5. The Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll a/b Binding Proteins Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 Play Complementary Roles during State Transitions in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzykowska, Malgorzata; Suorsa, Marjaana; Semchonok, Dmitry A.; Tikkanen, Mikko; Boekema, Egbert J.; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting in plants is regulated by phosphorylation-driven state transitions: functional redistributions of the major trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to balance the relative excitation of photosystem I and photosystem II. State transitions are driven by reversible LHCII phosphorylation by the STN7 kinase and PPH1/TAP38 phosphatase. LHCII trimers are composed of Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3 proteins in various trimeric configurations. Here, we show that despite their nearly identical amino acid composition, the functional roles of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 are different but complementary. Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking only Lhcb2 contain thylakoid protein complexes similar to wild-type plants, where Lhcb2 has been replaced by Lhcb1. However, these do not perform state transitions, so phosphorylation of Lhcb2 seems to be a critical step. In contrast, plants lacking Lhcb1 had a more profound antenna remodeling due to a decrease in the amount of LHCII trimers influencing thylakoid membrane structure and, more indirectly, state transitions. Although state transitions are also found in green algae, the detailed architecture of the extant seed plant light-harvesting antenna can now be dated back to a time after the divergence of the bryophyte and spermatophyte lineages, but before the split of the angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages more than 300 million years ago. PMID:25194026

  6. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: The Importance of Topography and Geographical Location in Supporting Higher Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason’s richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM’s area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM’s area was in the 10°–20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM. PMID:25763820

  7. DUF581 is plant specific FCS-like zinc finger involved in protein-protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Muhammed Jamsheer; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2014-01-01

    Zinc fingers are a ubiquitous class of protein domain with considerable variation in structure and function. Zf-FCS is a highly diverged group of C2-C2 zinc finger which is present in animals, prokaryotes and viruses, but not in plants. In this study we identified that a plant specific domain of unknown function, DUF581 is a zf-FCS type zinc finger. Based on HMM-HMM comparison and signature motif similarity we named this domain as FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) domain. A genome wide survey identified that FLZ domain containing genes are bryophytic in origin and this gene family is expanded in spermatophytes. Expression analysis of selected FLZ gene family members of A. thaliana identified an overlapping expression pattern suggesting a possible redundancy in their function. Unlike the zf-FCS domain, the FLZ domain found to be highly conserved in sequence and structure. Using a combination of bioinformatic and protein-protein interaction tools, we identified that FLZ domain is involved in protein-protein interaction.

  8. DUF581 is plant specific FCS-like zinc finger involved in protein-protein interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jamsheer K

    Full Text Available Zinc fingers are a ubiquitous class of protein domain with considerable variation in structure and function. Zf-FCS is a highly diverged group of C2-C2 zinc finger which is present in animals, prokaryotes and viruses, but not in plants. In this study we identified that a plant specific domain of unknown function, DUF581 is a zf-FCS type zinc finger. Based on HMM-HMM comparison and signature motif similarity we named this domain as FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ domain. A genome wide survey identified that FLZ domain containing genes are bryophytic in origin and this gene family is expanded in spermatophytes. Expression analysis of selected FLZ gene family members of A. thaliana identified an overlapping expression pattern suggesting a possible redundancy in their function. Unlike the zf-FCS domain, the FLZ domain found to be highly conserved in sequence and structure. Using a combination of bioinformatic and protein-protein interaction tools, we identified that FLZ domain is involved in protein-protein interaction.

  9. Downstream effects of a hydroelectric reservoir on aquatic plant assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernez, Ivan; Haury, Jacques; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2002-03-16

    Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d'Armor Department, western France) to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants" adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  10. Downstream Effects of a Hydroelectric Reservoir on Aquatic Plant Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bernez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d’Armor Department, western France to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants’ adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  11. Evolution of the B3 DNA binding superfamily: new insights into REM family gene diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisson A C Romanel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The B3 DNA binding domain includes five families: auxin response factor (ARF, abscisic acid-insensitive3 (ABI3, high level expression of sugar inducible (HSI, related to ABI3/VP1 (RAV and reproductive meristem (REM. The release of the complete genomes of the angiosperm eudicots Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa, the monocot Orysa sativa, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens,the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri and the red algae Cyanidioschyzon melorae provided an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of this superfamily. METHODOLOGY: In order to better understand the origin and the diversification of B3 domains in plants, we combined comparative phylogenetic analysis with exon/intron structure and duplication events. In addition, we investigated the conservation and divergence of the B3 domain during the origin and evolution of each family. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that showed that the B3 containing genes have undergone extensive duplication events, and that the REM family B3 domain has a highly diverged DNA binding. Our results also indicate that the founding member of the B3 gene family is likely to be similar to the ABI3/HSI genes found in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri. Among the B3 families, ABI3, HSI, RAV and ARF are most structurally conserved, whereas the REM family has experienced a rapid divergence. These results are discussed in light of their functional and evolutionary roles in plant development.

  12. Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Membrane Lipid Peroxidation of Polytrichum commune and Plagiomnium acutum during Fast Drying and Rehydration%快速脱水与复水过程中2种藓类植物的活性氧代谢与脂质过氧化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓濛; 李菁; 田向荣; 李朝阳

    2012-01-01

    Polytrichum commune from relative drought habitat and Plagiomnium acutum from wet habitat were used as materials, their difference in reactive oxygen species metabolism, lipid peroxidation and response of antioxidative system were studied under dehydration and rehydration stress. (l)During process of dehydration and rehydration,moisture content alternation under summer sunlight is similar to changes on silica gel fast desiccation. (2) Membrane permeability of P. acutum recovered rapidly after rehydration, but its alternation was dramatic. On contrary,permeability of P. commune sustained a stable lower level. (3)In the procedure of desiccation and rehydration,malondiadehyde (MDA) content of both bryophytes displayed opposite trends of moisture content alternation, that is to say, increased under desiccation and then decreased under rehydration,and content in P. commune was obviously lower than that in P. acutum. (4)Dur-ing dehydration and rehydration,superoxide anion (O-2) reproductive rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of both species manifested a tendency similar to MDA content,and their value in P. commune was obviously higher than that in P. acutum. (5) Induced by ROS, activities of antioxidative enzymes of both bryophytes,such as superoxide dismutasc (SOD) ,catalase (CAT) and ascorbic peroxidase (APX) manifested the same tendency of ROS alternation, in other words, possessed a peak during dehydration and rehy-dration,and their activities in P. commune was much more sensitive to dehydration oxidative stress than that in P. acutum. (6)The ascorbic acid (AsA) content decreased under desiccation and then increased under rehydration, and content in P. commune was obviously lower than that in P. acutum. Results mentioned above indicated that both bryophytes contains powerful ability to adapt desiccation oxidative stress, especially, the repair ability in rehydration process. Nevertheless, bryophytes from deferent habitat should reflect distinct response on

  13. Early evolutionary acquisition of stomatal control and development gene signalling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Caspar; Gray, Julie E; Beerling, David J

    2013-10-01

    Fossil stomata of early vascular land plants date back over 418 million years and exhibit properties suggesting that they were operational, including differentially thickened guard cells and sub-stomatal chambers. Molecular studies on basal land plant groups (bryophytes and lycophytes) provide insight into the core genes involved in sensing and translating changes in the drought hormone abscisic acid (ABA), light and concentration of CO2 into changes in stomatal aperture. These studies indicate that early land plants probably possessed the genetic tool kits for stomata to actively respond to environmental/endogenous cues. With these ancestral molecular genetic tool kits in place, stomatal regulation of plant carbon and water relations may have became progressively more effective as hydraulic systems evolved in seed plant lineages. Gene expression and cross-species gene complementation studies suggest that the pathway regulating stomatal fate may also have been conserved across land plant evolution. This emerging area offers a fascinating glimpse into the potential genetic tool kits used by the earliest vascular land plants to build and operate the stomata preserved in the fossil record.

  14. Conservation of AtTZF1, AtTZF2 and AtTZF3 homolog gene regulation by salt stress in evolutionarily distant plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eD'Orso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arginine-rich tandem zinc-finger proteins (RR-TZF participate in a wide range of plant developmental processes and adaptive responses to abiotic stress, such as cold, salt and drought. This study investigates the conservation of the genes AtTZF1-5 at the level of their sequences and expression across plant species. The genomic sequences of the two RR-TZF genes TdTZF1-A and TdTZF1-B were isolated in durum wheat and assigned to chromosomes 3A and 3B, respectively. Sequence comparisons revealed that they encode proteins that are highly homologous to AtTZF1, AtTZF2 and AtTZF3. The expression profiles of these RR-TZF durum wheat and Arabidopsis proteins support a common function in the regulation of seed germination and responses to abiotic stress. In particular, analysis of plants with attenuated and overexpressed AtTZF3 indicate that AtTZF3 is a negative regulator of seed germination under conditions of salt stress. Finally, comparative sequence analyses establish that the RR-TZF genes are encoded by lower plants, including the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The regulation of the Physcomitrella AtTZF1-2-3-like genes by salt stress strongly suggests that a subgroup of the RR-TZF proteins has a function that has been conserved throughout evolution.

  15. Record of environmental change by a-cellulose δ~(13)C of sphagnum peat at Shennongjia, 4000-1000 aBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yun; CHEN Ye; ZHAO ZhiJun; XlAO JiaYi; ZHANG MaoHeng; SHU Qiang; ZHAO HongYan

    2009-01-01

    The Dajiuhu Basin at Shennongjia, located within typical East Asian Monsoon region, preserves a sub-alpine sphagnum peat deposition in its central area. The topmost 120 cm of the peat covers the last 4000 years according to AMS ~(14)C dating of pollen concentration. Carbon isotope of a-cellulose, ex-tracted from sphagnum peat, provides a quantitative reconstruction of atmospheric relative humidity, based on transfer functions of C_3 plants carbon isotopic fractionation equation and the bryophyte photosynthesis CO_2 absorption rate equation. δ~(13)C, TOC and C/N variations reveal that the Dajiuhu area has experienced a long-term tendency to dry during 4000-1000 aBP, with a major transition happening around 3000 aBP. Four relative dry events are identified at 3400-3200, 3000-2600, 2200-2000 and 1600-1400 aBP, respectively, corresponding to those climate events documented in many global records. Three periodicities, 664 a, 302 a and 277 a enclosed in the atmospheric humidity of Dajiuhu are correlated to the cycles of solar activities. The weakening of East Asia summer monsoon during this period registered in the Dajiuhu peat is consistent with the synchronous weakening of Indian Monsoon. This trend may be attributed to gradual decrease of Northern Hemispheric summer solar insolation and the consequently southward migration of Intertropical Convergent Zone (ITCZ).

  16. Surface Activity of Humic Acids Depending on Their Origin and Humification Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaviņš Māris

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are able to reduce the surface tension of their solutions and thus can act as surface-active substances in the natural environment, which may have industrial application. The ability to influence the surface tension of humic acid solutions depends on the origin of the humic acids. The objective of this study was comparison of the ability of humic acids of different origin (soil, water, peat, lignite etc. to influence the surface tension of their solutions, and identification of the structural characteristics of peat humic acids that determine their surfactant properties. Industrially produced humic materials demonstrated no or insignificant impact on the surface tension of their solutions. However, humic acids isolated from peat had significant impact of the surface tension of their solutions, acting as weak surfactants. The surface tension of humic acid solutions decreased with increasing concentration, and depended on solution pH. Using a well-characterised bog profile, the ability to influence the surface tension of peat humic acids was shown to depend on age and humification degree. With increase of the humification degree and age, molecular complexity of humic acids and their ability to influence surface tension decreased; but nevertheless, the impact of the biological precursor (peat-forming bryophytes and plants could be identified.

  17. Tracing decadal environmental change in ombrotrophic bogs using diatoms from herbarium collections and transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central European mountain bogs, among the most valuable and threatened of habitats, were exposed to intensive human impact during the 20th century. We reconstructed the subrecent water chemistry and water-table depths using diatom based transfer functions calibrated from modern sampling. Herbarium Sphagnum specimens collected during the period 1918–1998 were used as a source of historic diatom samples. We classified samples into hummocks and hollows according to the identity of dominant Sphagnum species, to reduce bias caused by uneven sampling of particular microhabitats. Our results provide clear evidence for bog pollution by grazing during the period 1918–1947 and by undocumented aerial liming in the early 90-ies. We advocate use of herbarized epibryon as a source of information on subrecent conditions in recently polluted mires. -- Highlights: •We reconstruct the subrecent ecological variables using transfer functions. •Calibration was based on long-term averages and modern diatom sampling. •Herbarized bryophytes were used as a source of historic diatom samples. •Bogs were influenced by grazing in the period 1918–1947. •We provide clear evidence of bog pollution by aerial liming in early 90-ies. -- We provide clear evidence that the recent pH/calcium gradient appeared ca 20 years ago owing to aerial liming of forests

  18. Decadal warming causes a consistent and persistent shift from heterotrophic to autotrophic respiration in contrasting permafrost ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks Pries, Caitlin E; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Schuur, Edward A G; Natali, Susan M; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Aerts, Rien; Dorrepaal, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    Soil carbon in permafrost ecosystems has the potential to become a major positive feedback to climate change if permafrost thaw increases heterotrophic decomposition. However, warming can also stimulate autotrophic production leading to increased ecosystem carbon storage-a negative climate change feedback. Few studies partitioning ecosystem respiration examine decadal warming effects or compare responses among ecosystems. Here, we first examined how 11 years of warming during different seasons affected autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration in a bryophyte-dominated peatland in Abisko, Sweden. We used natural abundance radiocarbon to partition ecosystem respiration into autotrophic respiration, associated with production, and heterotrophic decomposition. Summertime warming decreased the age of carbon respired by the ecosystem due to increased proportional contributions from autotrophic and young soil respiration and decreased proportional contributions from old soil. Summertime warming's large effect was due to not only warmer air temperatures during the growing season, but also to warmer deep soils year-round. Second, we compared ecosystem respiration responses between two contrasting ecosystems, the Abisko peatland and a tussock-dominated tundra in Healy, Alaska. Each ecosystem had two different timescales of warming (permafrost ecosystems. PMID:26150277

  19. Increased plant biomass in a High Arctic heath community from 1981 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J M G; Henry, G H R

    2009-10-01

    The Canadian High Arctic has been warming for several decades. Over this period, tundra plant communities have been influenced by regional climate change, as well as other disturbances. At a site on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, we measured biomass and composition changes in a heath community over 13 years using a point-intercept method in permanent plots (1995-2007) and over 27 years using a biomass harvest comparison (1981-2008). Results from both methods indicate that the community became more productive over time, suggesting that this ecosystem is currently in transition. Bryophyte and evergreen shrub abundances increased, while deciduous shrub, forb, graminoid, and lichen cover did not change. Species diversity also remained unchanged. Because of the greater evergreen shrub cover, canopy height increased. From 1995 to 2007, mean annual temperature and growing season length increased at the site. Maximum thaw depth increased, while soil water content did not change. We attribute the increased productivity of this community to regional warming over the past 30-50 years. This study provides the first plot-based evidence for the recent pan-Arctic increase in tundra productivity detected by satellite-based remote-sensing and repeat-photography studies. These types of ground-level observations are critical tools for detecting and projecting long-term community-level responses to warming. PMID:19886474

  20. Substantial compositional turnover of fungal communities in an alpine ridge-to-snowbed gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fang; Vik, Unni; Brysting, Anne K; Carlsen, Tor; Halvorsen, Rune; Kauserud, Håvard

    2013-10-01

    The main gradient in vascular plant, bryophyte and lichen species composition in alpine areas, structured by the topographic gradient from wind-exposed ridges to snowbeds, has been extensively studied. Tolerance to environmental stress, resulting from wind abrasion and desiccation towards windswept ridges or reduced growing season due to prolonged snow cover towards snowbeds, is an important ecological mechanism in this gradient. The extent to which belowground fungal communities are structured by the same topographic gradient and the eventual mechanisms involved are less well known. In this study, we analysed variation in fungal diversity and community composition associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal plant Bistorta vivipara along the ridge-to-snowbed gradient. We collected root samples from fifty B. vivipara plants in ten plots in an alpine area in central Norway. The fungal communities were analysed using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of tag-encoded ITS1 amplicons. A distinct gradient in the fungal community composition was found that coincided with variation from ridge to snowbeds. This gradient was paralleled by change in soil content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. A large proportion (66%) of the detected 801 nonsingleton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were ascomycetes, while basidiomycetes dominated quantitatively (i.e. with respect to number of reads). Numerous fungal OTUs, many with taxonomic affinity to Sebacinales, Cortinarius and Meliniomyces, showed distinct affinities either to ridge or to snowbed plots, indicating habitat specialization. The compositional turnover of fungal communities along the gradient was not paralleled by a gradient in species richness. PMID:23962113

  1. Abiotic determinants of the historical buildings biodeterioration in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Otlewska, Anna; Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Koziróg, Anna; Hachułka, Mariusz; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Wolski, Grzegorz J; Gutarowska, Beata; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Zydzik-Białek, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study conducted at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim on the occurrence of biodeterioration. Visual assessment of the buildings revealed signs of deterioration of the buildings in the form of dampness, bulging and crumbling plaster, and wood fiber splitting. The external surfaces, and especially the concrete strips and ground immediately adjoining the buildings, were colonized by bryophytes, lichens, and algae. These organisms developed most intensively close to the ground on the northern sides of the buildings. Inside the buildings, molds and bacteria were not found to develop actively, while algae and wood-decaying fungi occurred locally. The factors conducive to biological corrosion in the studied buildings were excessive dampness of structural partitions close to the ground and a relative air humidity of above 70%, which was connected to ineffective moisture insulation. The influence of temperature was smaller, as it mostly affected the quantitative composition of the microorganisms and the qualitative composition of the algae. Also the impact of light was not very strong, but it was conducive to algae growth. PMID:25279789

  2. In silico assessment of primers for eDNA studies using PrimerTree and application to characterize the biodiversity surrounding the Cuyahoga River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M. V.; Hester, J.; Shalkhauser, A.; Chan, E. R.; Logue, K.; Small, S. T.; Serre, D.

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) enables the detection of species of interest from water and soil samples, typically using species-specific PCR. Here, we describe a method to characterize the biodiversity of a given environment by amplifying eDNA using primer pairs targeting a wide range of taxa and high-throughput sequencing for species identification. We tested this approach on 91 water samples of 40 mL collected along the Cuyahoga River (Ohio, USA). We amplified eDNA using 12 primer pairs targeting mammals, fish, amphibians, birds, bryophytes, arthropods, copepods, plants and several microorganism taxa and sequenced all PCR products simultaneously by high-throughput sequencing. Overall, we identified DNA sequences from 15 species of fish, 17 species of mammals, 8 species of birds, 15 species of arthropods, one turtle and one salamander. Interestingly, in addition to aquatic and semi-aquatic animals, we identified DNA from terrestrial species that live near the Cuyahoga River. We also identified DNA from one Asian carp species invasive to the Great Lakes but that had not been previously reported in the Cuyahoga River. Our study shows that analysis of eDNA extracted from small water samples using wide-range PCR amplification combined with high-throughput sequencing can provide a broad perspective on biological diversity.

  3. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China’s Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region’s specific conditions.

  4. The invention of WUS-like stem cell-promoting functions in plants predates leptosporangiate ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardmann, Judith; Werr, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The growth of land plants depends on stem cell-containing meristems which show major differences in their architecture from basal to higher plant species. In Arabidopsis, the stem cell niches in the shoot and root meristems are promoted by WUSCHEL (WUS) and WOX5, respectively. Both genes are members of a non-ancestral clade of the WUS-related homeobox (WOX) gene family, which is absent in extant bryophytes and lycophytes. Our analyses of five fern species suggest that a single WUS orthologue was present in the last common ancestor (LCA) of leptosporangiate ferns and seed plants. In the extant fern Ceratopteris richardii, the WUS pro-orthologue marks the pluripotent cell fate of immediate descendants of the root apical initial, so-called merophytes, which undergo a series of stereotypic cell divisions and give rise to all cell types of the root except the root cap. The invention of a WUS-like function within the WOX gene family in an ancestor of leptosporangiate ferns and seed plants and its amplification and sub-functionalisation to different stem cell niches might relate to the success of seed plants, especially angiosperms.

  5. Monitoring the heavy metal atmospheric deposition in Romania using the neutron activation analysis of bio-indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is the direct result of a protocol between NIPNE-HH Bucharest, Romania and JINR-Dubna, Russia on one side, and NIPNE-HH Bucharest, Romania and the University of Trondheim, Norway on the other side. Since the summer of 1995, a systematic sampling of bio-indicators has been carried out. The bio-indicators are represented by three species of bryophytes with an endemic development in the Romanian area: Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupresiforme and Pleurozium schreberi. A large area of 45,000 km2, including the Carpathian Arch between the Olt River Gorge (Southern Carpathian Mountains) and the northern Romanian border (Eastern Carpathian Mountains) was covered. Some of the samples were prepared in the laboratory and analyzed by nuclear analysis methods of a high sensitivity and accuracy i.e., neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Other samples are to be prepared and analyzed. The results will be shown as distribution maps for heavy metal concentrations in the studied area. The analysis were carried out at NIPNE-HH-Bucharest, JINR-Dubna and Trondheim University. Part of the results have already been included in the European Atlas of the Heavy Metal Atmospheric Depositions, published by the Northern Countries Council. The distribution maps of atmospheric depositions in Romania will also be included in the above mentioned Atlas. (author)

  6. Exclusion of brown lemmings reduces vascular plant cover and biomass in Arctic coastal tundra: resampling of a 50 + year herbivore exclosure experiment near Barrow, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the role lemmings play in structuring plant communities and their contribution to the 'greening of the Arctic', we measured plant cover and biomass in 50 + year old lemming exclosures and control plots in the coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska. The response of plant functional types to herbivore exclusion varied among land cover types. In general, the abundance of lichens and bryophytes increased with the exclusion of lemmings, whereas graminoids decreased, although the magnitude of these responses varied among land cover types. These results suggest that sustained lemming activity promotes a higher biomass of vascular plant functional types than would be expected without their presence and highlights the importance of considering herbivory when interpreting patterns of greening in the Arctic. In light of the rapid environmental change ongoing in the Arctic and the potential regional to global implications of this change, further exploration regarding the long-term influence of arvicoline rodents on ecosystem function (e.g. carbon and energy balance) should be considered a research priority.

  7. Identification of proteins involved in desiccation tolerance in the red seaweed Pyropia orbicularis (Rhodophyta, Bangiales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cristoffanini, Camilo; Zapata, Javier; Gaillard, Fanny; Potin, Philippe; Correa, Juan A; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto

    2015-12-01

    Extreme reduction in cellular water content leads to desiccation, which, if persistent, affects the physiology of organisms, mainly through oxidative stress. Some organisms are highly tolerant to desiccation, including resurrection plants and certain intertidal seaweeds. One such species is Pyropia orbicularis, a rhodophycean that colonizes upper intertidal zones along the Chilean coast. Despite long, daily periods of air exposure due to tides, this alga is highly tolerant to desiccation. The present study examined the proteome of P. orbicularis by 2DE and LC-MS/MS analyses to determine the proteins associated with desiccation tolerance (DT). The results showed that, under natural conditions, there were significant changes in the protein profile during low tide as compared to naturally hydrated plants at high tide. These changes were mainly in newly appeared proteins spots such as chaperones, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and manganese superoxide dismutase, among others. Previously undescribed proteins under desiccation conditions included phycobiliproteins, glyoxalase I, and phosphomannomutase. These changes evidenced that several physiological responses involved in DT are activated during low tide, including decreased photosynthetic activity, increased antioxidant capacity, and the preservation of cell physiology by regulating water content, cell wall structure, and cell volume. Similar responses have been observed in resurrection plants and bryophytes exposed to desiccation. Therefore, the coordinated activation of different desiccation tolerance pathways in P. orbicularis could explain the successful biological performance of this seaweed in the upper intertidal rocky zones. PMID:26154304

  8. Natural recovery of biological soil crusts after disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Bowker, Matthew A.; Zhang, Yuanming; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Natural recovery of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) is influenced by a number of different parameters, such as climate, soil conditions, the severity of disturbance, and the timing of disturbance relative to the climatic conditions. In recent studies, it has been shown that recovery is often not linear, but a highly dynamic process directly influenced by non-linear external parameters as extraordinary climatic conditions (e.g., particularly dry or wet year). Natural recovery often follows a general succession pattern, starting out with cyanobacteria and algae, which is then followed by lichens and bryophytes at a later stage. However, this general sequence can be altered by parameters like dust deposition, fire effects, and special climatic conditions as in fog deserts and under mesic climates. Recent studies have proposed that under favorable, stable soil conditions, the initial soil-stabilizing cyanobacteria-dominated succession stages may be omitted and moss-dominated biocrusts can develop in the initial phases of biocrust development. During natural recovery of biocrusts, soil properties change, e.g., soil nutrient and organic matter contents increase. Also, silt and clay contents of encrusted soils increase with biocrust maturity, which may be caused by two mechanisms, i.e. entrapment of fine soil particles by biocrusts and the new formation of smaller particles by weathering of the existing substrate.

  9. Something old, something new: auxin and strigolactone interact in the ancient mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Eloise

    2013-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, formed between more than 80% of land plants and fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota, is an ancient association that is believed to have evolved as plants moved onto land more than 400 mya. Similarly ancient, the plant hormones auxin and strigolactone are thought to have been present in the plant lineage since before the divergence of the bryophytes in the case of auxin and before the colonisation of land in the case of strigolactones. The discovery of auxin in the 1930s predates the discovery of strigolactones as a plant hormone in 2008 by over 70 y. Recent studies in pea suggest that these two signals may interact to regulate mycorrhizal symbiosis. Furthermore, the first quantitative studies are presented that show that low auxin content of the root is correlated with low strigolactone production, an interaction that has implications for how these plant hormones regulate several developmental programs including shoot branching, secondary growth and root development. With recent advances in our understanding of auxin and strigolactone biosynthesis, together with the discovery of the fungal signals that activate the plant host, the stage is set for real breakthroughs in our understanding of the interactions between plant and fungal signals in mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  10. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  11. Tardigrada from a sub-Andean forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia) with the description of Itaquascon pilatoi sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Oscar; Londoño, Rosana; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-07-29

    Currently only 32 species of limno-terrestrial tardigrades have been reported in the literature for Colombia. Our study focused on both heterotardigrades and eutardigrades, which were extracted from eight samples of bryophytes and lichens collected in a sub-Andean forest transect in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Fourteen species were found, six of which are new records for Colombia: Echiniscus madonnae Michalczyk & Kaczmarek, 2006, Echiniscus virginicus Riggin, 1962, Milnesium krzysztofi Kaczmarek & Michalczyk, 2007, Doryphoribius amazzonicus Lisi, 2011, Isohypsibius sattleri (Richters, 1902) and Diphascon higginsi Binda, 1971; and one new to science. Itaquascon pilatoi sp. nov., is characterized by having smooth cuticle, no eyes, buccal tube almost as long as the pharyngeal tube, well developed, obvious stylet furcae with long branches, slender claws, no lunules and no cuticular bars on the legs. The new species differs from I. umbellinae Barros, 1939, the most similar species, in having the stylet supports inserted precisely at the border between buccal and pharyngeal tube, more slender claws and more pronounced length differential between the external and internal claws of each leg. The total number of Colombian limno-terrestrial tardigrade species is raised to 37. 

  12. A Review and Evaluation of Forest Canopy Epiphyte Roles in the Partitioning and Chemical Alteration of Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, J. T., II; Pypker, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between precipitation and forest canopy elements (bark, leaves, and epiphytes) control the quantity, spatiotemporal patterning, and the chemical concentration, character and constituency of precipitation to soils. Canopy epiphytes are an element that exerts a range of storm-related hydrological and biogeochemical effects due to their diversity of morphological traits and nutrient acquisition mechanisms. We reviewed and evaluated the state of knowledge regarding epiphyte interactions with precipitation partitioning (into interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow) and the chemical alteration of net precipitation fluxes (throughfall and stemflow). As epiphyte species are quite diverse, this review categorized findings by common paraphyletic groups: lichens, bryophytes, and vascular epiphytes. Of these groups, vascular epiphytes have received the least attention and lichens the most. In general, epiphytes decrease throughfall and stemflow and increase interception loss. Epiphytes alter the spatiotemporal pattern of throughfall and increase the overall latent heat fluxes from the canopy. Epiphytes alter biogeochemical processes by impacting the transfer of solutes through the canopy; however, the change in solute concentration varies with epiphyte type and chemical species. We discuss several important knowledge gaps across all epiphyte groups. We also explore innovative methods that currently exist to confront these knowledge gaps and past techniques applied to gain our current understanding. Future research addressing the listed deficiencies will improve our knowledge of epiphyte roles in water and biogeochemical processes coupled within forest canopies—processes crucial to supporting microbe, plant, vertebrate and invertebrate communities within individual epiphytes/epiphyte assemblages, host trees, and even the forest ecosystem as a whole.

  13. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    Full Text Available Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae, which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  14. Linking biological soil crust diversity to ecological functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Karin; Borchhardt, Nadine; Schulz, Karoline; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Baumann, Karen; Leinweber, Peter; Ulf, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an association of different microorganisms and soil particles in the top millimeters of the soil. They are formed by algae, cyanobacteria, microfungi, bacteria, bryophytes and lichens in various compositions. Our aim was to determine and compare the biodiversity of all occurring organisms in biogeographically different habitats, ranging from polar (both Arctic and Antarctic), subpolar (Scandinavia), temperate (Germany) to dry regions (Chile). The combination of microscopy and molecular techniques (next-generation sequencing) revealed highly diverse crust communities, whose composition clustered by region and correlates with habitat characteristics such as water content. The BSC biodiversity was then linked to the ecological function of the crusts. The functional role of the BSCs in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous is evaluated using an array of state of the art soil chemistry methods including Py-FIMS (pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry) and XANES (x-ray absorbance near edge structure). Total P as well as P fractions were quantified in all BSCs, adjacent soil underneath and comparable nearby soil of BSC-free areas revealing a remarkable accumulation of total phosphorous and a distinct pattern of P fractions in the crust. Further, we observed an indication of a different P-speciation composition in the crust compared with BSC-free soil. The data allow answering the question whether BSCs act as sink or source for these compounds, and how biodiversity controls the biogeochemical function of BSCs.

  15. The late winter diets of barren-ground caribou in North-Central Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Thomas

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Rumen samples from 104 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus collected in March 1980 and 1981 at 18 sites on the winter range in south-central Northwest Territories (NWT and northern Saskatchewan were examined microscopically for relative occurrence of plant fragments. The composition of plant fragments in the rumens of calves did not differ from that in older caribou. Samples were homogeneous within sites and among them. Therefore we analyzed composite samples for each site and then pooled the data. Terricolous fruticose and foliose lichens averaged 68.5 ± 1.5% (SE ot tallied fragments at all 18 sites, followed by conifer needles (11.9 ± 1.2%, green leaves of Vactinium spp., Ledum spp., and other shrubs and iorbs (5.6 ± 0.6%, twigs and bark (5.5 ± 0.4%, bryophytes (4.9 ± 0.6% and 3.6% unidentified. The lichen component consisted of 8.4 ± 1.5% Stereocaulon spp., 46.9 ± 2.6% other fruticose lichens (largely Cladina spp., Cladonia spp., and Cetraria spp., and 13.2 ± 1.5% foliose lichens (largely Peltigera spp.. A comparison of rumen contents with the average relative abundance of plants found in feeding craters at 13 sites suggests that use of plant species was not always proportionate to their occurrence.

  16. Long-term carbon accumulation in two tropical mountain peatlands, Andes Mountains, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Chimner

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peatlands form in at least two distinct altitudinal zones, namely lowlands and high mountains. Unlike lowland tropical peatlands, which are typically forested, tropical mountain peatlands are dominated by cushion plants, bryophytes and herbaceous plants. Tropical mountain peatlands are poorly understood and little information is available on their ages, whether their peat bodies are relicts or actively accumulating carbon, the amount of carbon they contain, or the rate at which they can accumulate carbon. Our objective in this paper is to quantify carbon accumulation rates in two peatlands in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador, South America. At each site, we collected peat cores which were analysed for bulk density, mineral content and % C and we calculated the amount of carbon stored. Due to the high amount of mineral sediment in the Cotopaxi peatland, carbon dating was not done at this site. The Cayambre-Coca peat body was 4 m thick, ca. 3,000 years old, and had accumulated 140 kgC m-2. The approximate long-term rate of carbon accumulation (LARCA is 46 gC m-2 yr-1. However, a significant part of the depth of accumulation is due to high levels of mineral sediment input from steep side slopes and volcanic ash input.

  17. Color characterization of Arctic Biological Soil Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Giacono; Gargiulo, Laura; Ventura, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change makes large areas lacking the vegetation coverage continuously available to primary colonization by biological soil crusts (BSCs). This happens in many different environments, included high mountains and Polar Regions where new areas can become available due to glaciers retreat. Presence of BSCs leads to the stabilization of the substrate and to a possible development of protosoil, with an increase of fertility and resilience against erosion. Polar BSCs can exhibit many different proportions of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens, and bryophytes which induce a large variability of the crust morphology and specific ecosystem functions. An effective and easy way for identifying the BSCs in the field would be very useful to rapidly recognize their development stage and help in understanding the overall impact of climate change in the delicate polar environments. Color analysis has long been applied as an easily measurable physical attribute of soil closely correlated with pedogenic processes and some soil functions. In this preliminary work we used RGB and CIE-L*a*b* color models in order to physically characterize fourteen different BSCs identified in Spitsbergen island of Svalbard archipelago in Arctic Ocean at 79° north latitude. We found that the "redness parameter "a*" of CIE-L*a*b* model was well correlated to the succession process of some BSCs at given geomorphology condition. Most of color parameters showed, moreover, a great potential to be correlated to photosynthetic activity and other ecosystem functions of BSCs.

  18. Europe's other debt crisis caused by the long legacy of future extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullinger, Stefan; Essl, Franz; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Gingrich, Simone; Haberl, Helmut; Hülber, Karl; Jarosík, Vojtech; Krausmann, Fridolin; Kühn, Ingolf; Pergl, Jan; Pysek, Petr; Hulme, Philip E

    2013-04-30

    Rapid economic development in the past century has translated into severe pressures on species survival as a result of increasing land-use change, environmental pollution, and the spread of invasive alien species. However, though the impact of these pressures on biodiversity is substantial, it could be seriously underestimated if population declines of plants and animals lag behind contemporary environmental degradation. Here, we test for such a delay in impact by relating numbers of threatened species appearing on national red lists to historical and contemporary levels of socioeconomic pressures. Across 22 European countries, the proportions of vascular plants, bryophytes, mammals, reptiles, dragonflies, and grasshoppers facing medium-to-high extinction risks are more closely matched to indicators of socioeconomic pressures (i.e., human population density, per capita gross domestic product, and a measure of land use intensity) from the early or mid-, rather than the late, 20th century. We conclude that, irrespective of recent conservation actions, large-scale risks to biodiversity lag considerably behind contemporary levels of socioeconomic pressures. The negative impact of human activities on current biodiversity will not become fully realized until several decades into the future. Mitigating extinction risks might be an even greater challenge if temporal delays mean many threatened species might already be destined toward extinction. PMID:23589873

  19. Comparative Genomic Study of the Thioredoxin Family in Photosynthetic Organisms with Emphasis on Populus trichocarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamel Chibani; Gunnar Wingsle; Jean-Pierre Jacquot; Eric Gelhaye; Nicolas Rouhier

    2009-01-01

    The recent genome sequencing of Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera, two models of woody plants, of Sorghum bicolor, a model of monocot using C4 metabolism, and of the moss Physcomitrella patens, together with the availability of photosynthetic organism genomes allows performance of a comparative genomic study with organisms having different ways of life, reproduction modes, biological traits, and physiologies. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiq-uitous proteins involved in the reduction of disulfide bridges in a variety of target enzymes present in all sub-cellular compartments and involved in many biochemical reactions. The genes coding for these enzymes have been identified in these newly sequenced genomes and annotated. The gene content, organization and distribution were compared to other photosynthetic organisms, leading to a refined classification. This analysis revealed that higher plants and bryo-phytes have a more complex family compared to algae and cyanobacteria and to non-photosynthetic organisms, since poplar exhibits 49 genes coding for typical and atypical thioredoxins and thioredoxin reductases, namely one-third more than monocots such as Oryza sativa and S. bicolor. The higher number of Trxs in poplar is partially explained by gene duplication in the Trx m, h, and nucleoredoxin classes. Particular attention was paid to poplar genes with emphasis on Trx-like classes called Clot, thioredoxin-like, thioredoxins of the lilium type and nucleoredoxins, which were not described in depth in previous genomic studies.

  20. Genetic Analysis of Physcomitrella patens Identifies ABSCISIC ACID NON-RESPONSIVE, a Regulator of ABA Responses Unique to Basal Land Plants and Required for Desiccation Tolerance[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Trinh, Chi H.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Muchero, Wellington; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J.; Li, Fay-Wei; Larsson, Anders; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomically simple plants that first colonized land must have acquired molecular and biochemical adaptations to drought stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) coordinates responses leading to desiccation tolerance in all land plants. We identified ABA nonresponsive mutants in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and genotyped a segregating population to map and identify the ABA NON-RESPONSIVE (ANR) gene encoding a modular protein kinase comprising an N-terminal PAS domain, a central EDR domain, and a C-terminal MAPKKK-like domain. anr mutants fail to accumulate dehydration tolerance-associated gene products in response to drought, ABA, or osmotic stress and do not acquire ABA-dependent desiccation tolerance. The crystal structure of the PAS domain, determined to 1.7-Å resolution, shows a conserved PAS-fold that dimerizes through a weak dimerization interface. Targeted mutagenesis of a conserved tryptophan residue within the PAS domain generates plants with ABA nonresponsive growth and strongly attenuated ABA-responsive gene expression, whereas deleting this domain retains a fully ABA-responsive phenotype. ANR orthologs are found in early-diverging land plant lineages and aquatic algae but are absent from more recently diverged vascular plants. We propose that ANR genes represent an ancestral adaptation that enabled drought stress survival of the first terrestrial colonizers but were lost during land plant evolution. PMID:27194706

  1. Biotic nitrogen fixation in the bryosphere is inhibited more by drought than warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Jonathan A; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The boreal forest is of particular interest to climate change research due to its large circumpolar distribution and accumulated soil carbon pool. Carbon uptake in this ecosystem is nitrogen (N)-limited, therefore factors affecting carbon or nitrogen dynamics in the boreal forest can have consequences for global climate. We used a 2-year field experiment to investigate the response of biotic nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria associated with boreal forest bryophytes, in a factorial experiment combining simulated climate change with habitat fragmentation treatments. We simulated climate change conditions using open-top greenhouse chambers in the field, which increased mean and maximum temperatures, and created a precipitation gradient from ambient levels in the center to extreme drought conditions at the periphery of the chamber. The dry patches near the chamber walls exhibited almost no N-fixation, despite having similar densities of cyanobacteria (predominantly Stigonema sp.) as other patches. Rates of N-fixation were best explained by a model containing moisture, fragmentation, cyanobacteria density and time; warming was not a significant variable affecting N-fixation. There was no significant interaction between warming and fragmentation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria responded physiologically to drought by reducing N-fixation activity long before any changes in density. Ecosystem processes, such as N-fixation, can respond in the short term to environmental change much more rapidly than changes in the underlying community structure. Such rapid physiological responses may occur faster than demographic insurance effects of biodiversity. PMID:27098528

  2. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: the importance of topography and geographical location in supporting higher biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Chen, Bao-Ming; Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason's richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM's area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM's area was in the 10°-20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM.

  3. Long-term ecological behaviour of abandoned uranium mill tailings. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inactive uranium mill tailings were surveyed in the Province of Ontario to describe their surface characteristics, identify naturally invading biota, and determine essential chemical and physical parameters associated with the tailings. Inactive tailings sites can have wet areas, tailings completely covered with water, and dry areas. In the wet areas of most sites, wetland vegetation stands were found which were dominated by species of cattails (Typhaceae), along with some species of rushes (Juncaceae) and sedges (Cyperceae). Dry areas of the tailings exhibited a variety of surface features which are often a reflection of different amelioration efforts. Most of the indigenous species of vascular plants identified on dry areas of the tailings occurred only sporadically. Invading plants found on most sites were the tree species, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Elemental concentration and some physical characteristics of the tailings collected from a depth of 0-20 cm were determined. Uptake of heavy metals and radionuclides were evaluated in trees found in the dry areas and in cattails (Typha latifolia) in the wetland areas. Water bodies on tailings and surface water leaving the tailings, before and after treatment, were characterized in this survey. Aquatic bryophytes have invaded some water bodies on the tailings, and acid tolerant algae were evident in most of the water associated with the tailings. Ecological processes occurring on inactive uranium mill tailings which were identified in this survey are essential in evaluating the long-term fate of these waste sites

  4. Biodiversity and importance of floating weeds of Dara Ismail, Khan District of KPK, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Khan, Mir Ajab; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is based on the results of taxonomic research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan District of KPK, Pakistan, during 2005 - 2007. The area was extensively surveyed in order to collect floating aquatic weeds. From the study area 11 floating aquatic weed species belonging to 9 genera and 9 families were collected and identified in the light of available literature. These plants include Bryophytes: 1 species, Ricciocarpus natans (L.) Corda; Pteridophytes: 2 species, Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Marselia quadrifolia L., and Spermatophytes: 8 species, Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., L. gibba L., Marselia quadrifoliata L. Nelumbo nucifera Gaerth., Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ketze. Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze:, Pistia stratiotes L. Potamogeton nodosus Poiret and Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. Floating weeds on one hand cause serious problems and on the other hand they are used for various purposes. Data inventory consists of botanical name, family, major group, habit and habitat, flowering period, availability, distribution in D.I.Khan, Pakistan and world, beneficial and harmful effects. Key to the floating aquatic species of the area was developed for easy and correct identification and differentiation. PMID:22754062

  5. Trophic transfer of mercury and methylmercury in an aquatic ecosystem impacted by municipal sewage effluents in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-01-01

    Gaobeidian Lake, located in Beijing, China, serves as a recipient lake for effluents from a large municipal sewage treatment plant (MSTP). In order to evaluate the effects of discharging MSTP effluent on the mercury contamination of the local aquatic ecosystem, sediment cores, water, plankton, fish, and turtle samples were collected from Gaobeidian Lake for mercury speciation analysis. High concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) were detected in sediment cores (5.24-17.0 microg/g dry weight (dw), average: 10.1 microg/g). The ratio of methylmercury (MeHg) to T-Hg was less than 0.3% in sediments and ranged from 35% to 76% in biota samples. The highest level of T-Hg and MeHg were found in aquatic bryophyte and crucian carp (3673 and 437 ng/g dw, respectively). The relative contents of MeHg were significantly correlated with trophic levels (R2 = 0.5506, p < 0.001), which confirmed that MeHg can be bio-transferred and biomagnified via food chain in this aquatic ecosystem.

  6. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S Robbert; Shaw, Blanka; Patiño, Jairo; Désamoré, Aurélie; Goffinet, Bernard; Cox, Cymon J; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Shifts in sexual systems are one of the key drivers of species diversification. In contrast to angiosperms, unisexuality prevails in bryophytes. Here, we test the hypotheses that bisexuality evolved from an ancestral unisexual condition and is a key innovation in liverworts. We investigate whether shifts in sexual systems influence diversification using hidden state speciation and extinction analysis (HiSSE). This new method compares the effects of the variable of interest to the best-fitting latent variable, yielding robust and conservative tests. We find that the transitions in sexual systems are significantly biased toward unisexuality, even though bisexuality is coupled with increased diversification. Sexual systems are strongly conserved deep within the liverwort tree but become much more labile toward the present. Bisexuality appears to be a key innovation in liverworts. Its effects on diversification are presumably mediated by the interplay of high fertilization rates, massive spore production and long-distance dispersal, which may separately or together have facilitated liverwort speciation, suppressed their extinction, or both. Importantly, shifts in liverwort sexual systems have the opposite effect when compared to angiosperms, leading to contrasting diversification patterns between the two groups. The high prevalence of unisexuality among liverworts suggests, however, a strong selection for sexual dimorphism. PMID:27074401

  7. Mini Review of Phytochemicals and Plant Taxa with Activity as Microbial Biofilm and Quorum Sensing Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieu Anh Kim Ta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms readily form on many surfaces in nature including plant surfaces. In order to coordinate the formation of these biofilms, microorganisms use a cell-to-cell communication system called quorum sensing (QS. As formation of biofilms on vascular plants may not be advantageous to the hosts, plants have developed inhibitors to interfere with these processes. In this mini review, research papers published on plant-derived molecules that have microbial biofilm or quorum sensing inhibition are reviewed with the objectives of determining the biosynthetic classes of active compounds, their biological activity in assays, and their families of occurrence and range. The main findings are the identification of plant phenolics, including benzoates, phenyl propanoids, stilbenes, flavonoids, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins and coumarins as important inhibitors with both activities. Some terpenes including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes also have anti-QS and anti-biofilm activities. Relatively few alkaloids were reported. Quinones and organosulfur compounds, especially from garlic, were also active. A common feature is the polar nature of these compounds. Phytochemicals with these activities are widespread in Angiosperms in temperate and tropical regions, but gymnosperms, bryophytes and pteridophytes were not represented.

  8. Mini Review of Phytochemicals and Plant Taxa with Activity as Microbial Biofilm and Quorum Sensing Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Chieu Anh Kim; Arnason, John Thor

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms readily form on many surfaces in nature including plant surfaces. In order to coordinate the formation of these biofilms, microorganisms use a cell-to-cell communication system called quorum sensing (QS). As formation of biofilms on vascular plants may not be advantageous to the hosts, plants have developed inhibitors to interfere with these processes. In this mini review, research papers published on plant-derived molecules that have microbial biofilm or quorum sensing inhibition are reviewed with the objectives of determining the biosynthetic classes of active compounds, their biological activity in assays, and their families of occurrence and range. The main findings are the identification of plant phenolics, including benzoates, phenyl propanoids, stilbenes, flavonoids, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins and coumarins as important inhibitors with both activities. Some terpenes including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes also have anti-QS and anti-biofilm activities. Relatively few alkaloids were reported. Quinones and organosulfur compounds, especially from garlic, were also active. A common feature is the polar nature of these compounds. Phytochemicals with these activities are widespread in Angiosperms in temperate and tropical regions, but gymnosperms, bryophytes and pteridophytes were not represented. PMID:26712734

  9. Dehydration-responsive features of Atrichum undulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruoyang; Xiao, Lihong; Bao, Fang; Li, Xuedong; He, Yikun

    2016-09-01

    Drought is an increasingly important limitation on plant productivity worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in plants can lead to new strategies for developing drought-tolerant crops. Many moss species are able to survive desiccation-a more severe state of dehydration than drought. Research into the mechanisms and evolution of desiccation tolerance in basal land plants is of particular significance to both biology and agriculture. In this study, we conducted morphological, cytological, and physiological analyses of gametophytes of the highly desiccation-tolerant bryophyte Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv during dehydration and rehydration. Our results suggested that the mechanisms underlying the dehydration-recovery cycle in A. undulatum gametophytes include maintenance of membrane stability, cellular structure protection, prevention of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, elimination of ROS, protection against ROS-induced damage, and repair of ROS-induced damage. Our data also indicate that this dehydration-recovery cycle consists not only of the physical removal and addition of water, but also involves a highly organized series of cytological, physiological, and biochemical changes. These attributes are similar to those reported for other drought- and desiccation-tolerant plant species. Our findings provide major insights into the mechanisms of dehydration-tolerance in the moss A. undulatum. PMID:27255889

  10. The Contribution of Moss to Plot-Based Spectral Signals in Moist Acidic Low Arctic Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. L.; Beamish, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    To determine the contribution of moss to peak season normalized difference index (NDVI) field measurement of intact vegetation communities were compared to communities with individual species and litter successively removed until only the moss layer remained. Spectral measurements (n=3) were collected using a field radiometer in five upland and five lowland plots in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem at the Imnaviat Creek Watershed, North Slope Alaska. After spectral measurements were taken individual species were removed in the same order in each plot by clipping them at the moss layer. As individual species were removed NDVI values decreased. Decreases were greatest when dwarf shrub species Salix richardsonii sb. pulchra and Betula nana were removed. Notable increases in NDVI were observed once standing litter was removed. The NDVI values of the moss layer were comparable to intact vegetation communities depending on the bryophyte species composition. This suggests that the NDVI signal of moss is largely masked by vascular species but represents a significant factor missing from overall, large-scale NDVI signals. The results of this study corroborate recent data that points to the mismatch between ground based NDVI and aerial and satellite derived NDVI. This preliminary case study provides a strong basis for better characterization of the contribution of moss to NDVI for improved correction of air and space borne imagery.

  11. Something old, something new: auxin and strigolactone interact in the ancient mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Eloise

    2013-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, formed between more than 80% of land plants and fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota, is an ancient association that is believed to have evolved as plants moved onto land more than 400 mya. Similarly ancient, the plant hormones auxin and strigolactone are thought to have been present in the plant lineage since before the divergence of the bryophytes in the case of auxin and before the colonisation of land in the case of strigolactones. The discovery of auxin in the 1930s predates the discovery of strigolactones as a plant hormone in 2008 by over 70 y. Recent studies in pea suggest that these two signals may interact to regulate mycorrhizal symbiosis. Furthermore, the first quantitative studies are presented that show that low auxin content of the root is correlated with low strigolactone production, an interaction that has implications for how these plant hormones regulate several developmental programs including shoot branching, secondary growth and root development. With recent advances in our understanding of auxin and strigolactone biosynthesis, together with the discovery of the fungal signals that activate the plant host, the stage is set for real breakthroughs in our understanding of the interactions between plant and fungal signals in mycorrhizal symbiosis. PMID:23333973

  12. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S Robbert; Shaw, Blanka; Patiño, Jairo; Désamoré, Aurélie; Goffinet, Bernard; Cox, Cymon J; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Shifts in sexual systems are one of the key drivers of species diversification. In contrast to angiosperms, unisexuality prevails in bryophytes. Here, we test the hypotheses that bisexuality evolved from an ancestral unisexual condition and is a key innovation in liverworts. We investigate whether shifts in sexual systems influence diversification using hidden state speciation and extinction analysis (HiSSE). This new method compares the effects of the variable of interest to the best-fitting latent variable, yielding robust and conservative tests. We find that the transitions in sexual systems are significantly biased toward unisexuality, even though bisexuality is coupled with increased diversification. Sexual systems are strongly conserved deep within the liverwort tree but become much more labile toward the present. Bisexuality appears to be a key innovation in liverworts. Its effects on diversification are presumably mediated by the interplay of high fertilization rates, massive spore production and long-distance dispersal, which may separately or together have facilitated liverwort speciation, suppressed their extinction, or both. Importantly, shifts in liverwort sexual systems have the opposite effect when compared to angiosperms, leading to contrasting diversification patterns between the two groups. The high prevalence of unisexuality among liverworts suggests, however, a strong selection for sexual dimorphism.

  13. Evolutionary analysis of iron (Fe) acquisition system in Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jing-Chi; Tsednee, Munkhtsetseg; Lo, Ying-Chu; Yang, Shun-Chung; Hu, Jer-Ming; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Lee, Der-Chuen; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

    2016-07-01

    To acquire appropriate iron (Fe), vascular plants have developed two unique strategies, the reduction-based strategy I of nongraminaceous plants for Fe(2+) and the chelation-based strategy II of graminaceous plants for Fe(3+) . However, the mechanism of Fe uptake in bryophytes, the earliest diverging branch of land plants and dominant in gametophyte generation is less clear. Fe isotope fractionation analysis demonstrated that the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha uses reduction-based Fe acquisition. Enhanced activities of ferric chelate reductase and proton ATPase were detected under Fe-deficient conditions. However, M. polymorpha did not show mugineic acid family phytosiderophores, the key components of strategy II, or the precursor nicotianamine. Five ZIP (ZRT/IRT-like protein) homologs were identified and speculated to be involved in Fe uptake in M. polymorpha. MpZIP3 knockdown conferred reduced growth under Fe-deficient conditions, and MpZIP3 overexpression increased Fe content under excess Fe. Thus, a nonvascular liverwort, M. polymorpha, uses strategy I for Fe acquisition. This system may have been acquired in the common ancestor of land plants and coopted from the gametophyte to sporophyte generation in the evolution of land plants. PMID:26948158

  14. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions. PMID:26490883

  15. Photosynthesis, growth and competitive ability of some coniferous forest mosses and the influence of herbicides and heavy metals (Cu, Zn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stjernquist, I.

    1981-12-01

    The importance of morphological characteristics and environmental variables as controlling factors for photo- synthesis and growth of Dicranum polysetum, Pleurozium schreberi and Ptilium crista-castrensis were studied. The three mosses had maximum assimilation capacity in different segments of the shoot and the growth form determined to what degree the capacity could be utilized. CO/sub 2/ fixation was limited by nutrient supply and selectivity affected by the environmental variables. In situ growth in a certain habitat or during a certain season closely corresponded to the oscillation of the variables important for CO/sub 2/ fixation. Application of 2,4-D,MCPA,Triclopyr and Glyphosate to populations of Dicranum, Pleurozium and five co-existing species gave selective effects on assimilation and respiration depending on bryophyte and herbicide. Generally, Glyphosate had negative long-term effects on photosynthesis of coniferous mosses with the exception of Sphagnum squarrosum. MCPA, 2,4-D and Triclopyr immediately decreased CO/sub 2/ fixation to maximally 30% of the control (Pleurozium and Hylocomium splendens). After one month CO/sub 2/ assimilation increased. Effects of varying concentrations of 2,4-D, and Glyphosate were studied and the influence on growth discussed. Assimilation and respiration of Dicranum was negatively related to increasing content of Cu+Zn in the shoot. The effect was significant at concentrations twice the background level.

  16. Botanical inventory of the Rocky Flats AEC site. Final report, April 29, 1976--July 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, P.J.

    1979-04-01

    The present plant life of the Rocky Flats site and surrounding area was documented. This documentation is intended as a base-line description which may be used by researchers and managers. The analysis of natural vegetation, including plant species inventory, vegetation composition study, and identification of major environmental control factors at the Rocky Flats site provides a data base on which future environmental decisions concerning, for example, future construction and handling of disturbance on this site can be made. The establishment of morphological norms for potential plant indicators of mutagenic hazards serves as a start for development of a vegetation-based system for detection of possible changes in plant life induced by accidental plutonium release around the plant. This study is not directed towards assessing any past or present industrial impacts of plutonium processing. The principal products from the contract are a list of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens, a 1:12,000 color vegetation map, five large scale (1:500) maps of special study and experimental areas, and a description of the morphological norms of two common vascular plant species.

  17. Sphagnum physiology in the context of changing climate: emergent influences of genomics, modelling and host-microbiome interactions on understanding ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David J; Timm, Collin M; Walker, Anthony P; Gu, Lianhong; Muchero, Wellington; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shaw, A Jonathan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Warren, Jeffrey M; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2015-09-01

    Peatlands harbour more than one-third of terrestrial carbon leading to the argument that the bryophytes, as major components of peatland ecosystems, store more organic carbon in soils than any other collective plant taxa. Plants of the genus Sphagnum are important components of peatland ecosystems and are potentially vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. However, the response of Sphagnum to rising temperatures, elevated CO2 and shifts in local hydrology have yet to be fully characterized. In this review, we examine Sphagnum biology and ecology and explore the role of this group of keystone species and its associated microbiome in carbon and nitrogen cycling using literature review and model simulations. Several issues are highlighted including the consequences of a variable environment on plant-microbiome interactions, uncertainty associated with CO2 diffusion resistances and the relationship between fixed N and that partitioned to the photosynthetic apparatus. We note that the Sphagnum fallax genome is currently being sequenced and outline potential applications of population-level genomics and corresponding plant photosynthesis and microbial metabolic modelling techniques. We highlight Sphagnum as a model organism to explore ecosystem response to a changing climate and to define the role that Sphagnum can play at the intersection of physiology, genetics and functional genomics. PMID:25266403

  18. The use of Leptodyctium riparium (Hedw.) Warnst in the estimation of minimum postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancia, Massimo; Conforti, Federica; Aleffi, Michele; Caccianiga, Marco; Bacci, Mauro; Rossi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) is still one of the most challenging issues in forensic investigations, especially in cases in which advanced transformative phenomena have taken place. The dating of skeletal remains is even more difficult and sometimes only a rough determination of the PMI is possible. Recent studies suggest that plant analysis can provide a reliable estimation for skeletal remains dating, when traditional techniques are not applicable. Forensic Botany is a relatively recent discipline that includes many subdisciplines such as Palynology, Anatomy, Dendrochronology, Limnology, Systematic, Ecology, and Molecular Biology. In a recent study, Cardoso et al. (Int J Legal Med 2010;124:451) used botanical evidence for the first time to establish the PMI of human skeletal remains found in a forested area of northern Portugal from the growth rate of mosses and shrub roots. The present paper deals with a case in which the study of the growth rate of the bryophyte Leptodyctium riparium (Hedw.) Warnst, was used in estimating the PMI of some human skeletal remains that were found in a wooded area near Perugia, in Central Italy.

  19. Culturable bacteria in hydroponic cultures of moss Racomitrium japonicum and their potential as biofertilizers for moss production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Akio; Akita, Motomu; Murase, Haruhiko; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2011-07-01

    The use of Racomitrium japonicum, a drought resistant bryophyte used for roof-greening, is gradually increasing. However, its utilization is hampered by slow growth rate. Here we isolated culturable bacteria from hydroponic cultivation samples to identify isolates that could promote moss growth. Most of the isolates belonged to Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Duganella species. The isolates were biochemically characterized according to their type of interaction with plants, i.e., production of auxin, siderophores, or hydrogen cyanate, growth in the absence of an added nitrogen source, calcium phosphate solubilization, utilization of sugars, polymers, or aliphatic compounds, and antifungal activity. The isolates were applied to sterile protonemata and non-sterile adult gametophytes of R. japonicum to evaluate their effect on plant growth. Furthermore, we isolated fungi that inhibited moss growth. Our results suggest that the microbial community structure in hydroponic cultures is important to stabilize moss production and the isolates that promote moss growth have potential to be utilized as biofertilizers for moss production.

  20. The impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the Atlantic region of Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Carly J., E-mail: c.j.stevens@open.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Dupre, Cecilia [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Dorland, Edu [Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Department of Biology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.058, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Gaudnik, Cassandre [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Gowing, David J.G. [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bleeker, Albert [Department of Air Quality and Climate Change, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Diekmann, Martin [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Alard, Didier [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Bobbink, Roland [B-WARE Research Centre, Radboud University, PO Box 9010, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fowler, David [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Corcket, Emmanuel [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Mountford, J. Owen [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, MacLean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Vandvik, Vigdis [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2011-10-15

    A survey of 153 acid grasslands from the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is changing plant species composition and soil and plant-tissue chemistry. Across the deposition gradient (2-44 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) grass richness as a proportion of total species richness increased whereas forb richness decreased. Soil C:N ratio increased, but soil extractable nitrate and ammonium concentrations did not show any relationship with nitrogen deposition. The above-ground tissue nitrogen contents of three plant species were examined: Agrostis capillaris (grass), Galium saxatile (forb) and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (bryophyte). The tissue nitrogen content of neither vascular plant species showed any relationship with nitrogen deposition, but there was a weak positive relationship between R. squarrosus nitrogen content and nitrogen deposition. None of the species showed strong relationships between above-ground tissue N:P or C:N and nitrogen deposition, indicating that they are not good indicators of deposition rate. - Highlights: > N deposition is negatively correlated with forb richness as a proportion of species richness. > Soil C:N ratio increased with increasing N deposition. > Soil extractable nitrate and ammonium were not related to nitrogen deposition. > Plant-tissue N content was not a good indicator of N deposition. - Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects soils, plant-tissue chemistry and plant species composition in acid grasslands in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe.