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Sample records for bryophyta

  1. Analyses of transcriptome sequences reveal multiple ancient large-scale duplication events in the ancestor of Sphagnopsida (Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Nicolas; Szövényi, Péter; Weston, David J; Rothfels, Carl J; Johnson, Matthew G; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate whether there has been a whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the ancestry of Sphagnum (peatmoss) or the class Sphagnopsida, and to determine if the timing of any such duplication(s) and patterns of paralog retention could help explain the rapid radiation and current ecological dominance of peatmosses. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data were generated for nine taxa in Sphagnopsida (Bryophyta). Analyses of frequency plots for synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks ) between paralogous gene pairs and reconciliation of 578 gene trees were conducted to assess evidence of large-scale or genome-wide duplication events in each transcriptome. Both Ks frequency plots and gene tree-based analyses indicate multiple duplication events in the history of the Sphagnopsida. The most recent WGD event predates divergence of Sphagnum from the two other genera of Sphagnopsida. Duplicate retention is highly variable across species, which might be best explained by local adaptation. Our analyses indicate that the last WGD could have been an important factor underlying the diversification of peatmosses and facilitated their rise to ecological dominance in peatlands. The timing of the duplication events and their significance in the evolutionary history of peat mosses are discussed.

  2. Preliminary Research on Bryophyta Resources In the Heicha Mountain Nature Reserve%黑茶山自然保护区苔藓植物资源初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振军

    2012-01-01

    Through field investigation,literature review,data collation and analysis,a preliminary research for Bryophyta resources was conducted in the Heicha Mountain Natural Reserve.The results showed that,there are 223 species of moss in the Heicha Mountain Reserve,belonging to 74 genus of 33 families,among which Hepaticae has 15 species,10 genus of 9 families,and moss has 2 variants,11 varieties,195 species,64 genus of 24 families;Bryophyta temperate flora composition has 32 genus and 74.3% of the region's,the temperate zone property has an absolute advantage.Tropical flora composition for 2 genus,showed certain tropical origin.Bryophyta community are divided into four types,namely aquatic community,rock community,soil communities and wood community.For bryophyta,the protection should be adopted predominantly,and its utilization should be strictly controlled.%通过实地调查、查阅文献、数据整理和分析,对黑茶山自然保护区苔藓植物资源进行了初步研究。结果表明,黑茶山保护区内共有苔藓植物33科74属223种,其中苔类植物9科10属15种,藓类植物24科64属195种11个变种2个变型;苔藓植物温带区系成分有26属,占该地区的74.29%,温带性质占有绝对优势,热带区系成分为2属,表明了一定的热带渊源;本区苔藓植物群落有4种类型,即水生群落、石生群落、土生群落和木生群落。对保护区苔藓植物要以保护为主,严格控制开发利用。

  3. Diversidade, taxonomia e distribuição por estados brasileiros das famílias Bartramiaceae, Brachytheciaceae, Bryaceae, Calymperaceae, Fissidentaceae, Hypnaceae e Leucobryaceae (Bryophyta da Estação Científica Ferreira Penna, Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil Diversity, taxonomy and distribution for brazilian states of the families Bartramiaceae, Brachytheciaceae, Bryaceae, Calymperaceae, Fissidentaceae, Hypnaceae and Leucobryaceae (Bryophyta of the Scientific Station Ferreira Penna, Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil

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    Eryka de Nazaré Rezende Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o inventário das espécies de musgos (Bryophyta da Estação Científica Ferreira Penna, município de Melgaço, estado do Pará. Esta estação possui 85% de sua área ocupada por mata de terra firme, bem conservada. Sua vegetação de fanerógamas já está relativamente estudada. Porém o estudo dos musgos está avançando agora com este trabalho. Além de inventariar as espécies de musgos ocorrentes na área, outros objetivos são ampliar a distribuição geográfica das espécies ainda não referidas para a região, registrar o tipo de substrato e ecossistema onde elas ocorrem. Foram identificadas 84 espécies, 37 gêneros e 19 famílias. Esse trabalho é parte dos estudos realizados com os musgos da ECFPn, tratando apenas das 47 espécies pertencentes às famílias Bartramiaceae, Brachytheciaceae, Bryaceae, Calymperaceae, Fissidentaceae, Hypnaceae e Leucobryaceae. Para cada táxon foram citados, herbário, referências de descrições, comentários com as características diagnósticas, habitats, distribuição geográfica brasileira e material examinado. São novas referências para Amazônia Brasileira, Fissidens pauperculus M. Howe e Octoblepharum costatum H. A.Crum e para o estado do Pará, Syrrhopodon incompletus Schwägr. var. berteroanus (Brid. W. D. Reese e Leucobryum crispum Müll. Hal.The inventory of the species of mosses (Bryophyta was conducted in the Scientific Station Ferreira Penna, municipality of Melgaço, state of Pará. This station possesses 85% of its area of well conserved, terra-firme vegetation. Although the phanerogams are relatively well studied, the mosses are only now moving forward with this work. Besides inventorying the species of mosses inhabiting the area, other objectives are to expand knowledge regarding the geographical distribution of the species reported for the area, and to register the substratum type and ecosystem where they occur. There were identified 84 species, 37 genera and 19

  4. Translocation in Polytrichum commune (Bryophyta). II. Clonal integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.J.; Schiele, E.M.; Damberg, D.T. (Bates College, Lewiston, ME (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Polytrichum commune is a perennial moss that grows by rhizomatous production of interconnected shoots. It possesses a well-developed internal system of food-conducting tissue. Liquid scintillation determinations following pulse-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} treatment of a single shoot in rhizomatously connected groups indicate that tagged photoassimilates are transported into: (1) newly developing stems during the early growing season; (2) shared rhizomes (with an increase observed in rhizome allocation toward the end of the year, as well as a year-end percentage increase in starch reserves); and (3) mature neighboring shoots. Over the course of the growing season, photoassimilate export from pulse-labeled shoots ranges between 12.9% and 21.4% of total tagged. The amount of export is significantly influenced by defoliation, shading, stem tip removal, and 50 ppm indole-3-acetic acid treatments performed on rhizomatously connected neighbor shoots. Physiological integration within P. commune can be inferred from these results. Control is exerted by endogenous hormones or by changes in the activity of sources and sinks.

  5. Are Orthotrichum and Dorcadion (Orthotrichaceae, Bryophyta heterotypic generic names?

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    Plášek Vítězslav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The generic name Dorcadion Adans. ex Lindb. is a superfluous and illegitimate name for Orthotrichum Hedw. The new generic name Dorcadionella Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra is proposed for a segregate of Orthotrichum which comprises species with superficial stomata that are always monoicous and only occasionally produce gemmae on leaves. Dorcadionella affinis (Schrad. ex Brid. Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra is selected as a type of this new generic name. The genus Dorcadionella consists of 63 species and one variety that have a worldwide distribution. Traditionally, they were all placed in Orthotrichum and the relevant transfers to the new genus are effected in the present account.

  6. Philonotis calcarea (Bryophyta) in the Opole Province (Poland)

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    Stebel Adam

    2014-01-01

    Philonotis calcarea (Bruch & Schimp.) Schimp. in Poland is a montane species, very rarely occurring in lowland, strictly protected by law. In the Opole Province till this time it has been known from four localities, reported from the 19th and first half of the 20th century. The paper presents description of the new locality and list of stations of P. calcarea in the Opole Province. Current distribution of this species is presented on the map.

  7. Philonotis calcarea (Bryophyta in the Opole Province (Poland

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    Stebel Adam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Philonotis calcarea (Bruch & Schimp. Schimp. in Poland is a montane species, very rarely occurring in lowland, strictly protected by law. In the Opole Province till this time it has been known from four localities, reported from the 19th and first half of the 20th century. The paper presents description of the new locality and list of stations of P. calcarea in the Opole Province. Current distribution of this species is presented on the map.

  8. Musgos (Bryophyta na Ilha Trambioca, Barcarena, PA, Brasil Mosses (Bryophyta in Trambioca Island, Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil

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    Adriana Paula da Silva Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o inventário dos musgos em diferentes ecossistemas da Ilha Trambioca, município de Barcarena, PA. Foram encontradas 40 espécies, pertencentes a 20 gêneros e 13 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp. e Leucobryaceae (5 spp., as quais destacaram-se também quanto ao número de indivíduos. As espécies mais comuns foram Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Taxithelium planum (Brid. Mitt., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr. e Trichosteleum papillosum (Hornsch. A. Jaeger. Evidenciou-se maior diversidade de espécies na mata de terra firme, confirmando a preferência das briófitas por este ecossistema. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. é citada como primeira referência para o Estado do Pará.This work presents a survey of mosses from different ecosystems of Trambioca Island, municipality of Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil. Forty taxa of mosses were found, belonging to 20 genera and 13 families. The families with highest number of species were Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp., and Leucobryaceae (5 spp., which also presented the highest number of individuals. The most common species were Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr., and Trichosteleum papillosum (Honrsch. A. Jaeger. It was observed a higher richness of species in the primary low land rainforest, confirming the preference of bryophytes for this ecosystem. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. is mentioned as the first report to Pará State.

  9. Helicophyllaceae (Bryophyta, nova ocorrência para o Estado do Pará, Brasil Helicophyllaceae (Bryophyta, a new record to Pará State, Brazil

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    Regina C. L. Lisboa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicophyllaceae, família monotípica neotropical, é registrada pela primeira vez no Estado do Pará. Sua única espécie, Helicophyllum torquatum (Hook. Brid., registrada anteriormente no Estado do Amazonas e que recentemente havia sido excluída da lista de musgos amazônicos, é apresentada como nova ocorrência para toda a Amazônia brasileira.Helicophyllaceae, a monotypic family of Neotropics, is presented for the Pará State. Helicophyllum torquatum (Hook. Brid., the single species, was recorded for the Amazonas State, but recently was excluded of checklist of Amazonian mosses. H. torquatum is considered a new report for all Brazilian Amazônia.

  10. Macroinvertebrates associated with bryophyta in a first-order Atlantic Forest stream

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    Beatriz F. J. V. Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the composition and structure of the benthic community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream, located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. During three months of the dry season of 2007 and three months of the rainy season of 2008, samples of bryophytes attached to stones were collected randomly, along a 100 m stream reach. The structure of the community was analyzed through the mean density of individuals, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness, family richness, dominance index, and the percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (% EPT. Chironomidae larvae were dominant in the two periods of study, followed by Ceratopogonidae in the rainy season, and Naididae in the dry season. The orders EPT contributed 14 families. The results showed that bryophytes constitute suitable habitat which is able to shelter an abundant and diversified benthic fauna in a small extension of the stream. This habitat provides refuge during spates, and thus minimizes downstream transport of the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  11. A catalog of Bryophyta types deposited at the National Museum of Brazil

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    Paulo E.A.S. Câmara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While visiting the Herbarium of the Botany Department of the National Museum of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (code, R, we located the types of 219 bryophyte names, most of which were published by Karl Müller (cited as Müller Hallensis, whose holotypes were lost during the bombing of the Berlin Herbarium in 1943. A total of 181 names (82% are possible candidates for lectotypification and most likely not to be found elsewhere. We also found the complete collection of Müller's "Bryologia Serrae Itatiaiae", made by Ernst Ule.

  12. Translocation in Polytrichum commune (Bryophyta) I. Conduction and allocation of photoassimilates

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    Thomas, R.J.; Schiele, E.M.; Scheirer, D.C. (Bates College, Lewiston, ME (USA) Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA))

    1988-02-01

    Leafy stems and connecting underground rhizomes of Polytrichum commune Hedw. contain leptome tissues similar in structure to phloem. Isolated stems in clonal groupings were pulse labelled with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Labelled sugar, mostly sucrose, glucose, and fructose, appeared in the pulse labelled stems 30 min after treatment. A small amount (3.3%) of labelled sugar was transported to neighboring stems. Silver grain deposition in microautoradiographs of interconnecting rhizomes occurred predominantly over leptome tissues. Increased amounts of translocated radioactivity appeared in starch and cell wall polysaccharide pools one week and six weeks after treatment. These results (1) indicate that transport of photoassimilate occurs through the leptome of perennating rhizomes, (2) demonstrate that translocated carbon is subsequently utilized or stored, and (3) raise important questions about the significance of long distance transport in the life strategy of this complex clonal moss.

  13. Present Status of Family Dicranaceae (Bryophyta in Pachmarhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Central India

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    Reesa Gupta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study outlines the current status of moss family Dicranaceae in Pachmarhi Sanctuary, a part of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. During the taxonomic evaluation of the moss flora of this Reserve, eight taxa of Dicranaceae have been encountered belonging to three genera viz. Campylopus Bridel, Dicranella C. Muell. And Leuculoma Bridel. Among these, Campylopus gracilis (Mitt. A. Jaeger, Campylopus flexuosus (Hedw. Bridel, Dicranella leptoneura Dixon and Leucoloma taylorii (Schwaegr. Mitt., are new additions to the moss flora of central Indian bryogeographical region.

  14. New taxonomical arrangement of the traditionally conceived genera Orthotrichum and Ulota (Orthotrichaceae, Bryophyta

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    Plášek Vítězslav

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditionally conceived genera Orthotrichum Hedw. and Ulota F.Weber are here reclassified into six genera, Orthotrichum, Dorcadion Lindb., Nyholmiella Holmen & E.Warncke, Pulvigera Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra, Plenogemma Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra, and Ulota, based on morphological differences and partially on molecular evidence. The genus Pulvigera includes P. lyellii (Hook. & Taylor Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra (Orthotrichum lyellii Hook. & Taylor which was selected as its generitype. The genus Plenogemma includes P. phyllantha (Brid. Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra (Ulota phyllantha Brid. which was selected as its generitype.

  15. Dilutineuron, a new moss genus of the subfamily Racomitrioideae (Grimmiaceae, Bryophyta

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    Bednarek-Ochyra Halina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on available molecular and morphological evidence, the genus Codriophorus P.Beauv. (Grimmiaceae subfam. Racomitrioideae proved to be a polyphyletic taxon. It consists of two distinct genera which correspond to two sections of Codriophorus, namely sect. Codriophorus and sect. Fascicularia (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra. The latter section is raised to generic rank as Dilutineuron Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek. The new genus consists of the following five species: D. fasciculare (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. brevisetum (Lindb. Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. anomodontoides (Cardot Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. corrugatum (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov. and D. laevigatum (Mitt. Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov.

  16. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta).

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    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the rare and endangered Orthotrichum rogeri (Orthotrichaceae, Bryophyta).

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    Jakub, Sawicki; Szczecińska, Monika; Kulik, Tomasz; Myszczyński, Kamil; Ślipiko, Monika; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Plášek, Vítězslav

    2016-09-01

    The mitogenome of the Orthotrichum rogeri (GenBank accession number KM873610) has a total length of 106,634 bp and consist of 40 protein-coding genes, 3 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 24 transfer RNA. The gene order is identical to other known moss mitogenomes. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of O. rogeri will help the development of primers for examining mitochondrial variation across bryophytes.

  18. New mosses records (Bryophyta) for Goiás and Tocantins states, Brazil

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    Peralta,Denilson Fernandes; Bordin,Juçara; Yano, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five moss taxa are new records for Goiás and Tocantins States. Of these, 44 are new records (40 - Goiás; four - Tocantins) and 23 are new sites in each of the states (19 -Goiás; four - Tocantins). Ptychostomum pallescens (Schleich. ex Schwägr.) Spence and Philonotis fontana (Hedw.) Brid. are new records for Brazil, and are illustrated.

  19. New mosses records (Bryophyta for Goiás and Tocantins states, Brazil Ocorrências novas de musgos (Bryophyta para os Estados de Goiás e Tocantins, Brasil

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    Denilson Fernandes Peralta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-five moss taxa are new records for Goiás and Tocantins States. Of these, 44 are new records (40 - Goiás; four - Tocantins and 23 are new sites in each of the states (19 -Goiás; four - Tocantins. Ptychostomum pallescens (Schleich. ex Schwägr. Spence and Philonotis fontana (Hedw. Brid. are new records for Brazil, and are illustrated.Após o estudo da coleção do herbário SP, foram encontradas 65 novas ocorrências de musgos para Goiás e Tocantins. Deste total, 44 táxons são primeiras referências (40 - Goiás e quatro - Tocantins e 23 táxons tiveram a distribuição geográfica ampliada em cada um dos estados (19 - Goiás e quatro - Tocantins. As espécies Ptychostomum pallescens (Schleich. ex Schwägr. Spence e Philonotis fontana (Hedw. Brid. são novas citações para o Brasil e apresentam ilustração.

  20. New mosses records (Bryophyta) for Goiás and Tocantins states, Brazil Ocorrências novas de musgos (Bryophyta) para os Estados de Goiás e Tocantins, Brasil

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    Denilson Fernandes Peralta; Juçara Bordin; Olga Yano

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five moss taxa are new records for Goiás and Tocantins States. Of these, 44 are new records (40 - Goiás; four - Tocantins) and 23 are new sites in each of the states (19 -Goiás; four - Tocantins). Ptychostomum pallescens (Schleich. ex Schwägr.) Spence and Philonotis fontana (Hedw.) Brid. are new records for Brazil, and are illustrated.Após o estudo da coleção do herbário SP, foram encontradas 65 novas ocorrências de musgos para Goiás e Tocantins. Deste total, 44 táxons são primeiras ref...

  1. Notes on Orthothecium (Bryophyta)of China%中国灰石藓属研究新资料

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    马婧; 左勤; 章博远; 魏倩倩; 王幼芳

    2015-01-01

    中国灰石藓属长期缺乏系统的形态特征描述和种间区分特征研究,分类鉴定较为困难。该研究采用经典分类学方法,通过查阅灰石藓属内相关物种的原始文献,借阅该属在中国有记载的3个物种的相关模式标本,同时搜集和观察来自美国、加拿大、俄罗斯、瑞典、瑞士、挪威、尼泊尔的标本以及中国内蒙古、四川、新疆等地的地方标本,确认了该属物种在中国的分布,增加了直叶灰石藓在内蒙古和新疆以及灰石藓在四川的新分布记录,并提供了详细的形态描述和图版,编制了中国灰石藓属植物的分种检索表。这3个物种在植物大小、叶是否具褶皱、茎叶和枝叶是否同形等特征上具有区别。该文增补的分布信息及种间区分特征可为中国灰石藓属及棉藓科相关类群的鉴定工作提供依据。%The long-term lack of systematic morphological characteristic descriptions and species distinctions of Or-thothecium Bruch & Schimp in China resulted in the difficult taxonomy.For further understanding of the classifica-tion of this genus,in addition to the study of original literatures of the related Orthothecium species,morphological characters of types and general specimens were observed.The specimens examined were collected from the United States,Canada,Russia,Sweden,Switzerland,Norway,Nepal and China(Inner Mongolia,Sichuan and Xinjiang). This study confirmed this genus species distribution in China.O .intricatum (Hartm.)Schimp was newly recorded in Inner Mongolia and Xinjing,O .rufescens (Dicks.Ex Brid.)Schimp newly recorded in Sichuan.Detailed morpho-logical descriptions,illustrations and a key of three Orthothecium species were provided,promoting for the taxonomy study of Orthothecium and Plagiotheciaceae.

  2. Identification guide to Nordic aphids associated with mosses, horsetails and ferns (Bryophyta, Equisetophyta, Polypodiophyta (Insecta, Hemiptera, Aphidoidea

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    Anders Christian Albrecht

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Keys and diagnoses of North European aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea associated with mosses, horsetails and ferns are given, based on fresh and freeze-dried material. Numerous externally visible and thus informative characters, that are absent in cleared, slide-mounted specimens, such as body shape colours, wax coating and pattern etc., are utilized. Most of the species are illustrated by photographs of live specimens and drawings. Root-feeding species living in the moss layer or otherwise often present in moss samples are also included, even if their hosts were spermatophytes. The combination of colour images and diagnoses, utilizing easily observed characters, allows the identification of a large number of species already in the field, and many more at home with the aid of a stereo microscope. Host plant relationships and association with ants are summarised, including new records. Brief accounts on aphid life cycles, freeze-drying preparation techniques, etc. are also given to support the use of the keys.

  3. Electrospinning Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) nanofiber for dye sensitized solar cells based on Bryophyta as a sensitizer

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    Asma Ilahi, Novita; Suryana, Risa; Nurrosyid, Fahru; Kusuma, N. T. Linda

    2017-01-01

    From an engineering and economic perspective, immobilized TiO2 nanocatalysts are preferred in a variety of applications. In this study, TiO2 polymer solution was synthesized using ethanol, acetic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP). TiO2 solution was deposited on the FTO substrate by electrospinning method to obtain nano-sized layer. Capillary of syringes given a positive DC voltage of 6 kV to produce nanofiber, then annealed at 450 °C for 3 hours. Chlorophyll has obtained from extracted moss through a chromatographic process to used for dye. TiO2 nanofiber layer manufactured with varied by time and characterized by UV-Vis and IV-meter. The result exhibited a maximum efficiency of 0,0036% and significant absorption at 350 nm-500 nm wavelength.

  4. Pre-meiotic bands and novel meiotic spindle ontogeny in quadrilobed sporocytes of leafy liverworts (Jungermannidae, Bryophyta).

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    Brown, Roy C; Lemmon, Betty E

    2009-10-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to study the nucleation and organization of microtubules during meiosis in two species of leafy liverworts, Cephalozia macrostachya and Telaranea longifolia. This is the first such study of sporogenesis in the largest group of liverworts important as living representatives of some of the first land plant lineages. These studies show that cytoplasmic quadrilobing of pre-meiotic sporocytes into future spore domains is initiated by girdling bands of gamma-tubulin and microtubules similar to those recently described in lobed sporocytes of simple thalloid liverworts. However, spindle ontogeny is not like other liverworts studied and is, in fact, probably unique among bryophytes. Following the establishment of quadrilobing, numerous microtubules diverge from the bands and extend into the enlarging lobes. The bands disappear and are replaced by microtubules that arise from gamma-tubulin associated with the nuclear envelope. This microtubule system extends into the four lobes and is gradually reorganized into a quadripolar spindle, each half spindle consisting of a pair of poles straddling opposite cleavage furrows. Chromosomes move on this spindle to the polar cleavage furrows. The reniform daughter nuclei, each curved over a cleavage furrow, immediately enter second meiotic division with spindles now terminating in the lobes. Phragmoplasts that develop in the interzones among the haploid tetrad nuclei guide deposition of cell plates that join with the pre-meiotic furrows resulting in cleavage of the tetrad of spores. These observations document a significant variation in the innovative process of sporogenesis evolved in early land plants.

  5. 河北省芦荟藓属和盐土藓属植物初步研究%Preliminarily Study on Aloina Kindb.and Pterygoneurum Jur.(Pottiaceae, Bryophyta) in Hebei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓蕊; 黄士良; 李敏; 赵建成

    2014-01-01

    报道了河北省丛藓科典型旱生藓类芦荟藓属(Aloina Kindb.)和盐土藓属(Pterygoneurum Jur.)植物4种,其中盐土藓属为河北新记录属,盐土藓[Pterygoneurum subsessile (Brid.) Jur.]和刺叶芦荟藓(Aloina corni folia Delgad.)为河北新记录种.讨论了各种的主要识别特征、生境和地理分布特点,绘制了形态结构图,并编写了河北省丛藓科芦荟藓属的分种检索表.

  6. 世界砂藓属植物地理分布格局及其系统演化意义%Geographical Distribution Pattern of Racomitrium (Grimmiaceae, Bryophyta)in the World and Its Evolutionary Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 于晶; 郭水良; 曹同

    2013-01-01

    Based on the distribution data of 84 species of the genus Racomitrium in 20 geographical unites (suggested by "Index Muscorum") in the world,Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and 3-Dimensional scatter plots were applied to study the distribution pattern of the genus.The results showed that 20 geographical units in relation to the distribution of Racomitrium in the world could be divided into north hemisphere region and south hemisphere region.The north hemisphere region (mainly from Laurasia) includes Am.1,Eur.,As.1,As.2,As.3,As.5,Afr.1 and Oc.,while the south region (mainly from Gondwana) includes Am.2,Am.3,Am.4,Am.5,Am.6,Afr.2,Afr.3,Afr.4,Austr.1,Austr.2,As.4,Ant..The floristic characteristics of the two regions were also analyzed.The results show that the flora of the genus Racomitrium between North and South Hemispheres are obviously different.The groups of Niphotrichum and Codriophorus with lamina papillae mainly distributed in the North Hemisphere,and the taxa of the genus without lamina papillae widely distributed on both the hemispheres.Based on the distribution patterns of the genus Ptychomitrium in the world,the origination of the genus was also speculated,and it is possible that the genus Racomitrium originated before the division of the Pangaea,and the ancestors of Racomitrium are those without laminal papilliae.%以“Index Muscorum”中的20个藓类植物地理分布单位为分析区域,基于标本信息和相关文献,统计了世界砂藓属84种植物在20个地理单位的分布数据,应用除趋势对应分析法和三维空间图直观地展示了世界砂藓属植物的地理分布格局.发现世界砂藓属植物分布明显地分为南半球区和北半球区,并与岗瓦纳古陆和劳亚古陆有较好的对应性.南半球区包括Am.2,Am.3,Am.4,Am.5,Am.6,Afr.2,Afr.3,Afr.4,Austr.1,Austr.2,As.4和Ant.等12个地理单位;北半球区包括Am.1,Eur.,As.1,As.2,As.3,As.5,Afr.1和Oc.等8个地理单位.砂藓属中的无瘤类群在南、北半球分布广泛,而叶片细胞壁具瘤的Niphotrichu和Codriophorus 亚属的种类主要分布在北半球.推测砂藓属植物的起源应早于联合古陆分裂以前,其祖先类群的叶片细胞表面光滑无瘤.

  7. Study on Germination Characteristics of Perilla frutescens under Simulation Environment of Acid Rain and Bryophyta%模拟酸雨及苔藓植物化感条件下紫苏种子萌发特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢天; 江安娜; 王曼君; 颜凤; 方元平; 项俊

    2012-01-01

    通过模拟酸雨胁迫及苔藓化感作用两种不同的生长环境,初步探讨了模拟酸雨及3种苔藓凤尾藓(Fissidens bryoides)、提灯藓(Mnium hornum)、缩叶藓(Ptychomitrium)种植水对紫苏(Perilla frutescens)种子萌发特性的影响.结果表明,pH为5.0及以上的低浓度模拟酸雨环境对紫苏种子的萌发及幼苗生长影响不大,但随着酸化程度的加深,对紫苏种子萌发的抑制作用明显增加,当pH降到1.0时种子不发芽.紫苏幼苗叶片POD活力随胁迫时间的延长呈先升后降的趋势.而叶片MDA含量除pH为5.0处理组与对照组相近外,其他胁迫浓度下均有显著增加,说明pH低于5.0紫苏幼苗生长受到较严重损害.在苔藓种植水培养环境中,与对照组相比,紫苏种子发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数均随苔藓植物种植水浓度的升高而升高,在浓度为100%时对种子萌发的促进效果最为显著.%By simulating two different growth environment, acid rain stress and moss allelopathy, the effects of acid rain and three bryophyte cultivate water (Fissidens bryoides ,Mnium hornum,Ptychomitrium) on Perilla frutescens seed germination was studied. The results showed that the simulated acid rain with pH lower than 5.0 had little effect on P. frutescens seed germination and seedling growth; as the increasing of acidification, there was a significant inhibition of seed germination, and the seed could not germinate under the pH lower than 1.0. The POD activity in P. frutescens blade increased firstly and then decreased as the stress time prolonged, and the MDA content was decreased when pH was lower than 5.0, suggesting that P. frutescens seedling growth was affected by pH lower than 5.0. In the culture water environment, compared to the control, P. frutescens germination rate, germination index, vigor index increased as the bryophyte planting concentration increasing, and the treatment with the most significant effect was 100% bryophyte planting solution.

  8. Characteristics of vascular and bryophyte flora in the landscape reserve «Grofa» (The Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Pozynych

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about the landscape reserve of statewide value «Grofa» is presented. The floristic composition of forest and meadow associations of the reserve has been investigated. Typical and rare species for these phytocenoses have been revealed. The rare species and plants from the Red Data Book have been described. As a results of our investigation 117 species (87 Bryophyta and 30 Marshantiophyta have been recorded. Species representation of bryophytes in widespread communities has been described.

  9. Cloning, molecular characterization, and phylogeny of two evolutionary distinct glutamine synthetase isoforms in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Diana L; Zarka, Aliza; Leu, Stefan; Boussiba, Sammy

    2016-12-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyta) is a widely used microalga of great economic potential, yet its molecular genetics and evolution are largely unknown. We present new detailed molecular and phylogenetic analysis of two glutamine synthetase (GS) enzymes and genes (gln) under the Astaxanthin-inducing conditions of light- and nitrogen-stress. Structure analysis identified key residues and confirmed two decameric GS2 holoenzymes, a cytoplasmic enzyme, termed GS2c , and a plastidic form, termed GS2p , due to chloroplast-transit peptides at its N-terminus. Gene expression analysis showed dissociation of mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels for both GS2 under different growth conditions, indicating the strong post-transcriptional regulation. Data-mining identified novel and specified published gln genes from Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae, Charophyceae, Bryophyta, Lycopodiophyta, Spermatophyta, and Rhodophyta. Phylogenetic analysis found homologues to the cytosolic GS2c of H. pluvialis in all other photo- and non-photosynthetic Eukaryota. The chloroplastic GS2p was restricted to Chlorophyta, Bryophyta, some Proteobacteria and Fungii; no homologues were identified in Spermatophyta or other Eukaryota. This indicates two independent prokaryotic donors for these two gln genes in H. pluvialis. Combined phylogenetic analysis of GS, chl-b synthase, elongation factor, and light harvesting complex homologues project a newly refined model of Viridiplantae evolution. Herein, a GS1 evolved into the cytosolic GS2c and was passed on to all Eukaryota. Later, the chloroplastic GS2p entered the Archaeplastida lineage via a horizontal gene transfer at the divergence of Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta lineages. GS2p persisted in Chlorophyta and Bryophyta, but was lost during Spermatophyta evolution. These data suggest the revision of GS classification and nomenclature, and extend our understanding of the photosynthetic Eukaryota evolution.

  10. Investigations on the flora of hornworts (Anthocerotopsida) and liverworts (Marchantiopsida) of Bafa Lake Natural Park (C11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiremit, Hatice Ozenoiğlu

    2007-06-15

    This study covers investigations on the hornworts and liverworts of Bafa Lake Natural Park, included in the C11th grid square. A total of 1 species belonging to a family of the class Anthocerotopsida and 26 species belonging to 15 families of the class Marchantiopsida of the division Bryophyta were collected and their habitat characteristics and taxonomical features were recorded. In addition, very rare collected species, as Targionia lorbeeriana, Mannia androgyna, Oxymitra incrassata, Riccia gougetiana, Petalophyllum ralfsii and Gonylanthus ericetarum, exist in this study.

  11. Syntrichia minor (Pottiaceae and Cephaloziella integerrima (Cephaloziellaceae new to bryophyte flora of Turkey

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    Ören Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Syntrichia minor (Bizot M.T. Gallego, J. Guerra, M.J. Cano, Ros & Sánchez-Moya (Pottiaceae, Bryophyta - mosses and Cephaloziella integerrima (Lindb. Warnst. (Cephaloziellaceae, Marchantiophyta - liverworts are recorded for the first time from Turkey. In addition, the rare C. integerrima is new to Southwest Asia. These species were collected from the northern part of Turkey, respectively Karabük (Safranbolu and Kastamonu (Bozkurt. Site description, synonyms, illustrations, ecology, distribution and diagnostic characters of these species are presented.

  12. LAMPENFLORA OF NOVOAFONSKAYA CAVE

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    Mazina S. E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Novoafonskaya cave is located in Abkhazia. It is equipped for visits in 1975. The cave has permanently installed lighting. In caves with artificial lighting, a vegetation of cyanobacteria and algae, bryophytes and ferns can be found around lamps. The development of lampenflora is a typical problem for cave management. We have identified 69 species of phototrophs in Novoafonskaya cave: Magnoliophyta 2 species, Pteridophyta 6 species, Bryophyta 11 species, Cyanobacteria 34 species, Bacillariophyta 9 species, Ochrophyta 2 species, Chlorophyta 5 species. The article considers main habitat of lampenflora and gives their characteristics. We have also revealed predominance of cyanobacteria in the cave

  13. Brioflora de duas florestas de terra firme na Área de Proteção Ambiental do Lago de Tucuruí, PA, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a riqueza da brioflora (Marchantiophyta e Bryophyta) de duas Zonas de Proteção da Vida Silvestre na Área de Proteção Ambiental Lago de Tucuruí, comparando os resultados encontrados com os de outras áreas de terra firme no Estado do Pará. O esforço amostral por área coletada foi de 200 amostras botânicas. No total, foram registradas 90 espécies, 29 musgos e 61 hepáticas, o que representa 2...

  14. [Relationships between understory vegetation coverage and environmental factors in Pinus massoniana plantations from aerial seeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ouyang, Xun-zhi

    2015-04-01

    The relationships between understory vegetation coverage and environmental factors in Pinus massoniana plantations from aerial seeding were studied by using principal component analysis, redundancy analysis and variation partitioning. The selected environmental factors in total explained 74.2% variation of the understory vegetation coverage. At low altitude, stand characteristics were the key factor to influence the understory vegetation coverage. Stand characteristics, soil property and topographic factor were respectively explained 55.0% (including 29.1% for separateness and 25.9% for interaction with other factors), 38. 9% (including 12.1% for separateness and 26.8% for interaction with other factors) and 9.0% (including 5.6% for separateness and 3.4% for interaction with other factors) of the total variation. Average diameter at breast height and canopy density affected mostly and positively correlated with the coverage of bryophyta, graminoid and shurb groups at significant level. Noncapillary porosity and soil water content showed a highly significant positive correlation to dicranopteris coverage, whereas average diameter at breast height, canopy density, soil nutrients and enzyme activity significantly negatively correlated with it. The coverage of graminoid, bryophyta and shurb groups showed the positive correlations, which indicated the three groups could promote each other, while the dicranopteris coverage had significant negative correlation with the three groups mentioned above.

  15. Adições à flora de briófitas de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Additions to the flora of bryophytes from Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nesse levantamento foram encontrados 133 táxons no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, sendo um pertencente à divisão Anthocerotophyta em um gênero e uma família, 83 pertencentes à divisão Bryophyta, distribuídos em 54 gêneros e 27 famílias, e 49 à divisão Hepatophyta, distribuídos em 27 gêneros e 13 famílias. Destes, 100 (1 antócero, 59 musgos e 40 hepáticas são novas citações para o Estado.In this taxonomic survey 133 taxa were found in Mato Grosso do Sul State, one belonging to Anthocerotophyta, distributed into one genus and one family, 83 belonging to Bryophyta, distributed into 54 genera and 27 families, and 49 belonging to Hepatophyta, distributed into 27 genera and 13 families. Of these, 100 (one hornworts, 59 mosses and 40 hepatics are new records for the State.

  16. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Silva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga, Bryophyta (mosses, Psilophyta (whisk ferns, Lycopodophyta (club mosses, Sphenopsida (horsetails, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution.

  17. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L B; Santos, S S S; Azevedo, C R; Cruz, M A L; Venâncio, T M; Cavalcante, C P; Uchôa, A F; Astolfi Filho, S; Oliveira, A E A; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga), Bryophyta (mosses), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Sphenopsida (horsetails), gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution.

  18. Exsiccatae in the bryophyte collection of the National Herbarium, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Rooy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exsiccatae in the bryophyte collection of the National Herbarium in Pretoria (PRE are catalogued for the first time. Most of the 66 series represented in PRE were issued in Europe, but the USA is the country where the largest number of exsiccatae originated. The exsiccatae span three centuries, with the earliest specimens issued in 1845 and the latest in 2009. This indicates the long-standing exchange of material and transfer of knowledge between herbaria in South Africa and countries of the northern Hemisphere. Many of the exsiccatae in PRE are incomplete and specimens were received as duplicates in exchange sets rather than exsiccatae. PRE houses a number of important African and southern hemisphere exsiccatae including two different sets of A. Rehmann’s Musci Austro-Africani (1875–1877 and Musci Austro-Africani cont., and R. Ochyra’s Bryophyta Antarctica exsiccata.

  19. Toward a better knowledge of the molecular evolution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by comparison of partial cDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, H H; Heute, V; Kluge, M

    1998-01-01

    To get deeper insight into the evolution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase we have identified PEPC fragments (about 1,100 bp) of another 12 plants species not yet investigated in this context. The selected plants include one Chlorophyta, two Bryophyta, four Pteridophyta, and five Spermatophyta species. The obtained phylogenetic trees on PEPC isoforms are the most complete ones up to now available. Independent of their manner of construction, the resulting dendrograms are very similar and fully consistent with the main topology as it is postulated for the evolution of the higher terrestrial plants. We found a distinct clustering of the PEPC sequences of the prokaryotes, the algae, and the spermatophytes. PEPC isoforms of the archegoniates are located in the phylogenetic trees between the algae and spermatophytes. Our results strengthen the view that the PEPC is a very useful molecular marker with which to visualize phylogenetic trends both on the metabolic and organismic levels.

  20. Phytochemical and biological studies of bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Nagashima, Fumihiro

    2013-07-01

    The bryophytes contain the Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses) and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). Of these, the Marchantiophyta have a cellular oil body which produce a number of mono-, sesqui- and di-terpenoids, aromatic compounds like bibenzyl, bis-bibenzyls and acetogenins. Most sesqui- and di-terpenoids obtained from liverworts are enantiomers of those found in higher plants. Many of these compounds display a characteristic odor, and can have interesting biological activities. These include: allergenic contact dermatitis, antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral, cytotoxic, insecticidal, insect antifeedant, superoxide anion radical release, 5-lipoxygenase, calmodulin, hyaluronidase, cyclooxygenase, DNA polymerase β, and α-glucosidase and NO production inhibitory, antioxidant, piscicidal, neurotrophic and muscle relaxing activities among others. Each liverwort biosynthesizes unique components, which are valuable for their chemotaxonomic classification. Typical chemical structures and biological activity of the selected liverwort constituents as well as the hemi- and total synthesis of some biologically active compounds are summarized.

  1. Conserved Organisation of 45S rDNA Sites and rDNA Gene Copy Number among Major Clades of Early Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Kovařík, Aleš; Garilleti, Ricardo; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown. This is especially true for the three earliest land plant lineages Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). In this work, we report the extent of rDNA variation in early land plants, assessing the number of 45S rDNA loci and gene copy number in 106 species and 25 species, respectively, of mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Unexpectedly, the results show a narrow range of ribosomal locus variation (one or two 45S rDNA loci) and gene copies not present in vascular plant lineages, where a wide spectrum is recorded. Mutation analysis of whole genomic reads showed higher (3-fold) intragenomic heterogeneity of Marchantia polymorpha (Marchantiophyta) rDNA compared to Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tomentosifomis) suggesting the presence of rDNA pseudogenes in its genome. No association between phylogenetic position, taxonomic adscription and the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number was found. Our results suggest a likely evolutionary rDNA stasis during land colonisation and diversification across 480 myr of bryophyte evolution. We hypothesise that strong selection forces may be acting against ribosomal gene locus amplification. Despite showing a predominant haploid phase and infrequent meiosis, overall rDNA homogeneity is not severely compromised in bryophytes.

  2. Conserved Organisation of 45S rDNA Sites and rDNA Gene Copy Number among Major Clades of Early Land Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Kovařík, Aleš; Garilleti, Ricardo; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown. This is especially true for the three earliest land plant lineages Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). In this work, we report the extent of rDNA variation in early land plants, assessing the number of 45S rDNA loci and gene copy number in 106 species and 25 species, respectively, of mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Unexpectedly, the results show a narrow range of ribosomal locus variation (one or two 45S rDNA loci) and gene copies not present in vascular plant lineages, where a wide spectrum is recorded. Mutation analysis of whole genomic reads showed higher (3-fold) intragenomic heterogeneity of Marchantia polymorpha (Marchantiophyta) rDNA compared to Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tomentosifomis) suggesting the presence of rDNA pseudogenes in its genome. No association between phylogenetic position, taxonomic adscription and the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number was found. Our results suggest a likely evolutionary rDNA stasis during land colonisation and diversification across 480 myr of bryophyte evolution. We hypothesise that strong selection forces may be acting against ribosomal gene locus amplification. Despite showing a predominant haploid phase and infrequent meiosis, overall rDNA homogeneity is not severely compromised in bryophytes. PMID:27622766

  3. Evolutionary genomics revealed interkingdom distribution of Tcn1-like chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons among fungi and plants

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    Blinov Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons or chromoviruses are widely distributed among eukaryotes and have been found in plants, fungi and vertebrates. The previous comprehensive survey of chromoviruses from mosses (Bryophyta suggested that genomes of non-seed plants contain the clade which is closely related to the retrotransposons from fungi. The origin, distribution and evolutionary history of this clade remained unclear mainly due to the absence of information concerning the diversity and distribution of LTR retrotransposons in other groups of non-seed plants as well as in fungal genomes. Results In present study we preformed in silico analysis of chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons in 25 diverse fungi and a number of plant species including spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii (Lycopodiophyta coupled with an experimental survey of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons from diverse non-seed vascular plants (lycophytes, ferns, and horsetails. Our mining of Gypsy LTR retrotransposons in genomic sequences allowed identification of numerous families which have not been described previously in fungi. Two new well-supported clades, Galahad and Mordred, as well as several other previously unknown lineages of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons were described based on the results of PCR-mediated survey of LTR retrotransposon fragments from ferns, horsetails and lycophytes. It appeared that one of the clades, namely Tcn1 clade, was present in basidiomycetes and non-seed plants including mosses (Bryophyta and lycophytes (genus Selaginella. Conclusions The interkingdom distribution is not typical for chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons clades which are usually very specific for a particular taxonomic group. Tcn1-like LTR retrotransposons from fungi and non-seed plants demonstrated high similarity to each other which can be explained by strong selective constraints and the

  4. Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA: computerization and representativeness of its collection

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    Italo F. Treviño

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific collections and herbaria are essential sources of information and education for researchers and practitioners in biological sciences. The Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA, registered at Index Herbariorum since 2004, holds one of the most important collections in Peru. In this paper we provide information about the collection, and its representativeness for the Peruvian flora. HUSA has more than 11000 specimens recorded to date, with more than 2300 determined species, consisting mostly of Magnoliophyta and Pteridophyta (ca. 98%, and a smaller proportion of Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes (fungi and lichens and Bryophyta (mosses. The collection includes specimens from 23 departments of Peru, where the samples belonging to Arequipa have the largest number of individuals collected (3375 accounting for 31% of the collection. Asteraceae and Solanaceae are the most collected with 1571 and 964 specimens, respectively. The majority of geo-referenced specimens came from the tropical wet forest with 15%, followed by the tropical pre-montane wet forest with 8%. We also provide a list of the nomenclatural types and a brief summary of the history and development of HUSA since its creation.

  5. Briófitas de caatinga: 2. Agrestina, Pernambuco, Brasil Bryophytes of caatinga 2: Agrestina, Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Kátia Cavalcanti Pôrto

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área de caatinga do município de Agrestina (Lat. 8º27'28"S; Long. 35º57'13"W - PE foram identificadas 13 espécies de Bryophyta, pertencentes as famílias Frullaniaceae, Lejeuneaceae, Ricciaceae - Hepaticopsida-Bryaceae, Dicranaceae, Ephemeraceae, Fissidentaceae, Leucobryaceae, Pottiaceae e Stereophyllaceae - Bryopsida. Constituem-se novos registros para a região Nordeste Cololejeunea minutíssima (Sm. Schiffn. e Riccia brasiliensis Schiffn. e para Pernambuco Frullania dusenii Steph.In a caatinga area, located in Agrestina (Lat. 8º27'28"S; Long. 35º57'13"W - PE were identified 13 species of Bryophyte, distributed in the following families Frullaniaceae, Lejeuneaceae, Ricciaceae - Hepaticopsida - Bryaceae, Dicranaceae, Ephemeraceae, Fissidentaceae, Leucobryaceae, Pottiaceae e Stereophyllaceae - Bryopsida. Cololejeunea minutíssima (Sm. Schiffn. and Riccia brasiliensis Schiffn. are new records for the Northeast region, while Frullania dusenii Steph. represents a new record for the Pernambuco State.

  6. Shifts in methanogenic community composition and methane fluxes along the degradation of discontinuous permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Susanne; Ganzert, Lars; Kiss, Andrea; Yang, Sizhong; Wagner, Dirk; Svenning, Mette M

    2015-01-01

    The response of methanogens to thawing permafrost is an important factor for the global greenhouse gas budget. We tracked methanogenic community structure, activity, and abundance along the degradation of sub-Arctic palsa peatland permafrost. We observed the development of pronounced methane production, release, and abundance of functional (mcrA) methanogenic gene numbers following the transitions from permafrost (palsa) to thaw pond structures. This was associated with the establishment of a methanogenic community consisting both of hydrogenotrophic (Methanobacterium, Methanocellales), and potential acetoclastic (Methanosarcina) members and their activity. While peat bog development was not reflected in significant changes of mcrA copy numbers, potential methane production, and rates of methane release decreased. This was primarily linked to a decline of potential acetoclastic in favor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Although palsa peatland succession offers similarities with typical transitions from fen to bog ecosystems, the observed dynamics in methane fluxes and methanogenic communities are primarily attributed to changes within the dominant Bryophyta and Cyperaceae taxa rather than to changes in peat moss and sedge coverage, pH and nutrient regime. Overall, the palsa peatland methanogenic community was characterized by a few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs). These OTUs seem to be indicative for methanogenic species that thrive in terrestrial organic rich environments. In summary, our study shows that after an initial stage of high methane emissions following permafrost thaw, methane fluxes, and methanogenic communities establish that are typical for northern peat bogs.

  7. Soil surface colonization by phototrophic indigenous organisms, in two contrasted soils treated by formulated maize herbicide mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Pierre; Misson, Benjamin; Perrière, Fanny; Bonnemoy, Frédérique; Joly, Muriel; Donnadieu-Bernard, Florence; Aguer, Jean-Pierre; Bohatier, Jacques; Mallet, Clarisse

    2014-11-01

    Soil phototrophic microorganisms, contributors to soil health and food webs, share their particular metabolism with plants. Current agricultural practices employ mixtures of pesticides to ensure the crops yields and can potentially impair these non-target organisms. However despite this environmental reality, studies dealing the susceptibility of phototrophic microorganisms to pesticide mixtures are scarce. We designed a 3 months microcosm study to assess the ecotoxicity of realistic herbicide mixtures of formulated S-metolachlor (Dual Gold Safeneur(®)), mesotrione (Callisto(®)) and nicosulfuron (Milagro(®)) on phototrophic communities of two soils (Limagne vertisol and Versailles luvisol). The soils presented different colonizing communities, with diatoms and chlorophyceae dominating communities in Limagne soil and cyanobacteria and bryophyta communities in Versailles soil. The results highlighted the strong impairment of Dual Gold Safeneur(®) treated microcosms on the biomass and the composition of both soil phototrophic communities, with no resilience after a delay of 3 months. This study also excluded any significant mixture effect on these organisms for Callisto(®) and Milagro(®) herbicides. We strongly recommend carrying on extensive soil studies on S-metolachlor and its commercial formulations, in order to reconsider its use from an ecotoxicological point of view.

  8. Comparative sequence analysis of CP12, a small protein involved in the formation of a Calvin cycle complex in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groben, René; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Raines, Christine A; Offmann, Bernard; Maberly, Stephen C; Gontero, Brigitte

    2010-03-01

    CP12, a small intrinsically unstructured protein, plays an important role in the regulation of the Calvin cycle by forming a complex with phosphoribulokinase (PRK) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). An extensive search in databases revealed 129 protein sequences from, higher plants, mosses and liverworts, different groups of eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria. CP12 was identified throughout the Plantae, apart from in the Prasinophyceae. Within the Chromalveolata, two putative CP12 proteins have been found in the genomes of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi, but specific searches in further chromalveolate genomes or EST datasets did not reveal any CP12 sequences in other Prymnesiophyceae, Dinophyceae or Pelagophyceae. A species from the Euglenophyceae within the Excavata also appeared to lack CP12. Phylogenetic analysis showed a clear separation into a number of higher taxonomic clades and among different forms of CP12 in higher plants. Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyceae, Rhodophyta and Glaucophyceae, Bryophyta, and the CP12-3 forms in higher plants all form separate clades. The degree of disorder of CP12 was higher in higher plants than in the eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria apart from the green algal class Mesostigmatophyceae, which is ancestral to the streptophytes. This suggests that CP12 has evolved to become more flexible and possibly take on more general roles. Different features of the CP12 sequences in the different taxonomic groups and their potential functions and interactions in the Calvin cycle are discussed.

  9. Peatmoss (Sphagnum) diversification associated with Miocene Northern Hemisphere climatic cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Jonathan; Devos, Nicolas; Cox, Cymon J; Boles, Sandra B; Shaw, Blanka; Buchanan, Alex M; Cave, Lynette; Seppelt, Rodney

    2010-06-01

    Global climate changes sometimes spark biological radiations that can feed back to effect significant ecological impacts. Northern Hemisphere peatlands dominated by living and dead peatmosses (Sphagnum) harbor almost 30% of the global soil carbon pool and have functioned as a net carbon sink throughout the Holocene, and probably since the late Tertiary. Before that time, northern latitudes were dominated by tropical and temperate plant groups and ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of mosses (phylum Bryophyta) based on nucleotide sequences from the plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes indicate that most species of Sphagnum are of recent origin (ca. <20 Ma). Sphagnum species are not only well-adapted to boreal peatlands, they create the conditions that promote development of peatlands. The recent radiation that gave rise to extant diversity of peatmosses is temporally associated with Miocene climatic cooling in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of Sphagnum has had profound influences on global biogeochemistry because of the unique biochemical, physiological, and morphological features of these plants, both while alive and after death.

  10. Bacterial and eukaryotic biodiversity patterns in terrestrial and aquatic habitats in the Sør Rondane Mountains, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbels, Dagmar; Verleyen, Elie; Mano, Marie-José; Namsaraev, Zorigto; Sweetlove, Maxime; Tytgat, Bjorn; Fernandez-Carazo, Rafael; De Wever, Aaike; D'hondt, Sofie; Ertz, Damien; Elster, Josef; Sabbe, Koen; Willems, Anne; Wilmotte, Annick; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-06-01

    The bacterial and microeukaryotic biodiversity were studied using pyrosequencing analysis on a 454 GS FLX+ platform of partial SSU rRNA genes in terrestrial and aquatic habitats of the Sør Rondane Mountains, including soils, on mosses, endolithic communities, cryoconite holes and supraglacial and subglacial meltwater lenses. This inventory was complemented with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis targeting Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. OTUs belonging to the Rotifera, Chlorophyta, Tardigrada, Ciliophora, Cercozoa, Fungi, Bryophyta, Bacillariophyta, Collembola and Nematoda were present with a relative abundance of at least 0.1% in the eukaryotic communities. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, FBP and Actinobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla. Multivariate analyses of the pyrosequencing data revealed a general lack of differentiation of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes according to habitat type. However, the bacterial community structure in the aquatic habitats was dominated by the filamentous cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya and appeared to be significantly different compared with those in dry soils, on mosses, and in endolithic habitats. A striking feature in all datasets was the detection of a relatively large amount of sequences new to science, which underscores the need for additional biodiversity assessments in Antarctic inland locations.

  11. Reconsideration of Plant Morphological Traits: From a Structure-Based Perspective to a Function-Based Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shu-Nong

    2017-01-01

    This opinion article proposes a novel alignment of traits in plant morphogenesis from a function-based evolutionary perspective. As a member species of the ecosystem on Earth, we human beings view our neighbor organisms from our own sensing system. We tend to distinguish forms and structures (i.e., "morphological traits") mainly through vision. Traditionally, a plant was considered to be consisted of three parts, i.e., the shoot, the leaves, and the root. Based on such a "structure-based perspective," evolutionary analyses or comparisons across species were made on particular parts or their derived structures. So far no conceptual framework has been established to incorporate the morphological traits of all three land plant phyta, i.e., bryophyta, pteridophyta and spermatophyta, for evolutionary developmental analysis. Using the tenets of the recently proposed concept of sexual reproduction cycle, the major morphological traits of land plants can be aligned into five categories from a function-based evolutionary perspective. From this perspective, and the resulting alignment, a new conceptual framework emerges, called "Plant Morphogenesis 123." This framework views a plant as a colony of integrated plant developmental units that are each produced via one life cycle. This view provided an alternative perspective for evolutionary developmental investigation in plants.

  12. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  13. Downstream effects of a hydroelectric reservoir on aquatic plant assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernez, Ivan; Haury, Jacques; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2002-03-16

    Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d'Armor Department, western France) to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants" adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  14. Downstream Effects of a Hydroelectric Reservoir on Aquatic Plant Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bernez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d’Armor Department, western France to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants’ adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  15. Diversity of endolithic fungal communities in dolomite and limestone rocks from Nanjiang Canyon in Guizhou karst area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuan; Lian, Bin

    2012-06-01

    The endolithic environment, the tiny pores and cracks in rocks, buffer microbial communities from a number of physical stresses, such as desiccation, rapid temperature variations, and UV radiation. Considerable knowledge has been acquired about the diversity of microorganisms in these ecosystems, but few culture-independent studies have been carried out on the diversity of fungi to date. Scanning electron microscopy of carbonate rock fragments has revealed that the rock samples contain certain kinds of filamentous fungi. We evaluated endolithic fungal communities from bare dolomite and limestone rocks collected from Nanjiang Canyon (a typical karst canyon in China) using culture-independent methods. Results showed that Ascomycota was absolutely dominant both in the dolomite and limestone fungal clone libraries. Basidiomycota and other eukaryotic groups (Bryophyta and Chlorophyta) were only detected occasionally or at low frequencies. The most common genus in the investigated carbonate rocks was Verrucaria. Some other lichen-forming fungi (e.g., Caloplaca, Exophiala, and Botryolepraria), Aspergillus, and Penicillium were also identified from the rock samples. The results provide a cross-section of the endolithic fungal communities in carbonate rocks and help us understand more about the role of microbes (fungi and other rock-inhabiting microorganisms) in rock weathering and pedogenesis.

  16. Endolithic diversity of microorganisms on sandstone and implications for biogenic weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, C.; Friedenberger, H.; Hoppert, M.

    2012-04-01

    Molecular methods allow a comprehensive view on uncultured microbial communities in dimension stone. In the presented study, we focus on depth profiles of microbial colonization in sandstones with different porosity and overall durability. All sandstones were taken from quarries where they were exposed to the environment for several years. Approximately 0.1 g of material from the stone surface, from 5 mm and from 30 mm depths was taken under sterile conditions and subjected to analysis of microbial DNA and culturing experiments. In particular, DNA was extracted from the material, the phylogenetic marker gene of eukaryotic organisms (18S rDNA) was amplified and used for generation of clone libraries, which were then analysed by sequencing. "Roter Wesersandstein" was just colonized at the material surface, predominantly with algal and fungal microorganisms. No environmental DNA could be isolated from depth profiles. From "Nebraer Sandstein" with high pore size (shown by thin sections), environmental DNA from depths down to 3 cm could be retrieved. Though the uppermost layer is dominated by microalgae (as concluded from the retrieved clones), the percentage of algal clones from 5 mm and 30 mm depths drop to 10 % of all clones. There, apart from filamentous fungi, moss clones clearly dominate the microbial community. At a depth of 30 mm, 70-80 % of the retrieved clones match to various mosses (Bryophyta). Though mosses do not form layers on the stone surfaces, moss rhizoids or protonemata must be abundant as endoliths inside the stone material. It is reasonable to assume that the rhizoids may contribute to an increase in pore size by active penetration of the clastic material, even though colonization of the surface by mosses is not obvious. This feature may imply stronger impact of stone decay induced by endolithic growth of bryophytes than hitherto observed.

  17. Restricted variation in plant barcoding markers limits identification in closely related bryophyte species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Kristian; Segreto, Rossana; Ekrem, Torbjørn

    2013-11-01

    Species-level identification and delimitation of bryophytes using the proposed general barcode markers for land plants has been challenging. Bryophyta (mosses) is the second most species-rich group of land plants after angiosperms, and it is thus of great importance to find useful barcoding regions also for this group of plants. We investigated how the plastid regions atpF-atpH, rbcL and trnH-psbA and the nuclear ITS2 region performed as barcode markers on closely related bryophyte taxa of selected moss (Bartramia, Distichium, Fissidens, Meesia and Syntrichia) and liverwort (Blepharostoma) genera from boreal and arctic regions. We also evaluated how sequencing success of herbarium specimens is related to length of the sequenced fragment, specimen age and taxonomic group. Sequencing success was higher for shorter fragments and younger herbarium specimens, but was lower than expected in the genera Distichium and Fissidens, indicating imperfect universality of the primers used. None of the studied DNA barcode regions showed a consistent barcode gap across the studied genera. As a single locus, the region atpF-atpH performed slightly better than rbcL and ITS2 and much better than trnH-psbA in terms of grouping conspecific sequences in monophyletic groups. This marker also gave a higher percentage of correct hits when conducting blast searches on a local database of identified sequences. Concatenated data sets of two and three markers grouped more conspecific sequences in monophyletic groups, but the improvement was not great compared with atpF-atpH alone. A discussion of recent studies testing barcode regions for bryophytes is given. We conclude that atpF-atpH, rbcL and ITS2 are to be the most promising barcode markers for mosses.

  18. Long-term patterns of chironomid assemblages in a high elevation stream/lake network (Switzerland – Implications to global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Lods-Crozet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A long-term monitoring program was initiated in 2002 on running and standing waters in a high elevation cirque landscape (Macun in the Swiss National Park. The region comprises contrasting basins with different water sources, a glacier-fed basin and two precipitation-fed basins. Sampling of 26 permanent and temporary ponds (or small lakes and of interconnecting streams (10 sites was conducted from 2002 to 2010. Pond macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by chironomids with 42 taxa. The Orthocladiinae were the dominant subfamily in richness and abundance with 22 taxa. The greatest diversity was found in ponds located in the south and outlet basins. The inter-year variability for the same pond is high, but no clear temporal trend was noticed in ponds frequently monitored ponds. The Orthocladiinae subfamily was also the richest in the stream sites where 33 taxa were collected. The north and south basins were separated on the basis of chironomid assemblages. The chironomid assemblages in the stream network shows a temporal trend from 2002 but it cannot be linked to any clear change at the community structure level. The higher richness and abundance in stream sites and ponds of the south basin could be related to a greater heterogeneity in water physico-chemistry and substrata, and by the presence of Bryophyta. The understanding of the environmental factors that influence faunal assemblages is crucial for the protection of this sensitive alpine pond network where a relatively high overall regional diversity (49 taxa is detected. From the literature, temperature is recognized as the driving force on changes in chironomid assemblages in alpine systems. Our results support the use of chironomids as flagship indicators in the assessment of climatic change in alpine landscapes.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1361.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  19. Molecular evolution of glutamine synthetase II: Phylogenetic evidence of a non-endosymbiotic gene transfer event early in plant evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartar Aurélien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamine synthetase (GS is essential for ammonium assimilation and the biosynthesis of glutamine. The three GS gene families (GSI, GSII, and GSIII are represented in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we examined the evolutionary relationship of GSII from eubacterial and eukaryotic lineages and present robust phylogenetic evidence that GSII was transferred from γ-Proteobacteria (Eubacteria to the Chloroplastida. Results GSII sequences were isolated from four species of green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, and additional green algal (Chlorophyceae and Prasinophytae and streptophyte (Charales, Desmidiales, Bryophyta, Marchantiophyta, Lycopodiophyta and Tracheophyta sequences were obtained from public databases. In Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses, eubacterial (GSIIB and eukaryotic (GSIIE GSII sequences formed distinct clades. Both GSIIB and GSIIE were found in chlorophytes and early-diverging streptophytes. The GSIIB enzymes from these groups formed a well-supported sister clade with the γ-Proteobacteria, providing evidence that GSIIB in the Chloroplastida arose by horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses suggest that GSIIB and GSIIE coexisted for an extended period of time but it is unclear whether the proposed HGT happened prior to or after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages (the Archaeplastida. However, GSIIB genes have not been identified in glaucophytes or red algae, favoring the hypothesis that GSIIB was gained after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages. Duplicate copies of the GSIIB gene were present in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri f. nagariensis, and Physcomitrella patens. Both GSIIB proteins in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri f. nagariensis had N-terminal transit sequences, indicating they are targeted to the chloroplast or mitochondrion. In contrast, GSIIB proteins of P. patens lacked transit sequences, suggesting

  20. Palynostratigraphy of the Nayband Formation, Tabas, Central Iran Basin: Paleogeographical and paleoecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, F.; Hashemi, H.; Borzuee, E.

    2015-11-01

    paleozoological evidence, slightly deviates from that previously envisioned (Early Jurassic) for upper part of the Nayband Formation at the section examined. Moreover, lack of such Early Jurassic (Hettangian) key taxa as Trachysporites fuscus, Cerebropollenites thiergartii, Heliosporites reissingeri, and Pinuspollenites minimus in the assemblages studied upholds this conclusion. Apparent taxonomical dissimilarity between the Norian and Rhaetian palynofloras examined and joint occurrence in the latter of several Rhaetian miospore species known as independently occurring in assemblages from either southern or northern hemisphere is interpreted to reflect geodynamic history of the Iran Plate during Late Triassic. Inferred natural relationships of the Nayband sporae dispersae imply derivation from such diverse parental flora as, in descending quantitative order, Pterophyta, Lycopodophyta, Arthrophyta, Coniferophyta, Ginkgophyta, Pteridospermophyta, and Bryophyta. Abundance of ferns and coniferophytes in parent flora of the palynofloras investigated implies that the host strata accumulated under a moist warm climate with progressively decreasing temperature during late Late Triassic.

  1. Seafloor mapping at Olkiluoto western coast of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilmarinen, K.; Leinikki, J.; Oulasvirta, P. (Alleco Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate the seafloor of shallow areas around Olkiluoto island, western Finland. The surveys were carried out by Alleco Ltd. Posiva will use the data for modeling purposes. The investigations included bathymetric surveys, sediment sampling and assessment of benthic macrophytes and macrozoobenthos in the underwater parts of six pre-defined survey transects extending from land to the sea. Sediment sampling and the assessment of benthic organisms were done by SCUBA diving. The study area showed a great variation in environmental conditions. Olkiluoto stands between almost open sea and extremely sheltered river mouth area of Lapinjoki. Two of the transects were more than 7 meters deep and included both hard and soft sand bottom. Whereas rest of the transects were shallow with mostly soft clay, mud and silt bottom. Altogether 27 species of algae including five species of stoneworts (Charophyta), one species of water moss (Bryophyta) and 16 species of vascular plants (Tracheophyta) were found. The most abundant group was vascular plants, between the other groups of macroalgae big differences in the abundance were not seen. Furthermore altogether 43 species of macrozoobenthos (Invertebrata) were found, of which six species were sessile bottom fauna (permanently attached fauna). The most abundant groups in the bottom samples were bivalves (Lamellibranchiata) (996 individuals per m2), snails (Gastropoda) (739 individuals per m2) and polychaetes (Polychaeta) (542 individuals per m2). The total abundance of macrozoobenthos on all transects was 2 899 individuals per m2. The biggest groups by biomass were bivalves (fresh weight 87 054 mg per m2) and polychaetes (fresh weight 12 983 mg per m2). Transect 1 was the richest in number of species of the deep and exposed transects 1 and 2. The transect 5 had the highest diversity of all the shallow soft bottom transects 3, 4, 5 and 5a. The high diversity of the transect 1 and 5 may be explained by

  2. Analysis of Algae Growing on the Surface of the North City Wall of Liangzhu Site%良渚北城墙考古土遗址表面藻类的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武发思; 汪万福; 贺东鹏; 徐瑞红; 苏伯民

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to better clarify the major algal groups that have caused biofouling to earthen sites preserved in humid environments and to provide evidence for studying biodeterioration while establishing ap-propriate countermeasures for later periods. Modern molecular biology research methods were applied for: the extraction of total DNA of the samples, amplification of the targeted fragments, construction of the clone library, determination of sequences, and analysis of phylogeny. Lab results show that three phylums and five genuses of algae might cause biofouling to the earthen sites. Among them, the Nostoc group which belongs to the phylum Cyanophyta is most dominant, the groups of Nitzschia and Phaeodactylum that belong to the phylum Bacillario-phyta are less dominant, and the Microcoleus of the phylum Cyanophyta and other unidentified genus of the phy-lum Chlorophyta are the least dominant. In addition, most sequences retrieved from some samples are similar to Leptobryum, which belongs to the Bryopsida class of the Bryophyta phylum. The differences in community com-ponents between photosynthetic algae and mosses are greatly influenced by the spatial positions of sampling sites and by the water contents of the soil. To reduce the lighting intensity and water penetration in the environment of the earthen sites might be the most efficient way to control the photosynthetic organism erosion.%为了探明造成潮湿环境土遗址生物污损的主要藻类类群,给后期生物退化机理的研究和防治体系的构建提供可靠依据,本研究采用现代分子生物学技术,对杭州良渚北城墙考古土遗址表面的藻类进行了检测和分析。结果表明,引起土遗址生物污损的病害藻类共3门5属,主要为蓝藻门念珠藻属类群,硅藻门菱形藻属与褐指藻属类群次之,蓝藻门壳藻属与绿藻门的未鉴定属最少。另外,苔藓植物门藓纲与薄囊藓属相近的类群在部分样品中占

  3. 一个编码含VQ模序蛋白的基因AtARVQ1参与拟南芥对砷酸盐的响应调控%AtARVQ1 encodes a novel VQ motif-containing protein involved in arsenate stress response regulation in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安娜; 腾瑶; 徐文忠; 麻密

    2011-01-01

    Arsenate is a highly toxic heavy metal containing compound poisonous to most living organisms, including human and plants. We report that the AtARVQl gene encodes a plant-specific VQ motif-containing protein involved in the response and resistance of Arabidopsis to arsenate stress. The expression of AtARVQl was strongly downregulated by arsenate stress. To determine the function of AtARVQl in planta, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AtARVQl driven by a CaMV-35S promoter were generated. Overexpressing transgenic lines with high levels of AtARVQl expression were observed to be more resistant to arsenate stress. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis showed that all homologs of AtARVQl were plant-specific and evolved from two primitive branches, which were classified into four clusters. The AtARVQl-like proteins in dicots and bryophyta were segregated into the two branches, whereas those in monocot plants all fall into one sub-branch. These results suggest that AtARVQl and its homologs may have important roles in the plant response to arsenate stress.%砷酸盐(Asv)是一种对包括人类和植物在内大部分生物具有剧毒的重金属.结果显示,编码含植物特有VQ模序蛋白基因AtARVQl (arsenate-_repressed V__Q motif-containing protein 1)参与拟南芥对Asv应答和抗性调控.结果表明,砷酸盐胁迫强烈抑制AtARVQ1基因在拟南芥中的转录表达.进一步利用组成型启动子CaMV 35S驱动AtARVQ1基因在拟南芥中的表达,获得在砷酸盐处理条件下增强AtARVQ1基因转录的超表达植株,发现超表达AtARVQ1可以明显提高拟南芥对砷酸盐的抗性水平.系统进化分析发现,含VQ模序结构的AtARVQ1同源基因为植物特有,并进化出两大分支4个子分支,这类同源基因在双子叶植物和苔藓中分布于两大分支上,而在单子叶植物中仅分布在同一子分支上.这些结果表明,AtAR VQ1基因在拟南芥对砷酸盐的抗性应答上有着重要作用,而其同源基因

  4. 基于GIS和MaxEnt比较中国砂藓属与紫萼藓属植物地理分布%Comparison of the Geographical Distribution of Racomitrium and Grimmia in China Using ArcGis and MaxEnt Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晶; 唐艳雪; 郭水良

    2012-01-01

    Grimmia and Racomitrium are two important genera of the family Grimmiaceae (Musci,Bryophyta). To predict and compare their potential distribution regions in relation to climatic conditions in China,and thereby help their conservation and subsequent field investigations,we modeled the geographical distribution at the genus level by using a maximum entropy algorithm modeling program (MaxEnt) based on 172 presence-only data for Grimmia and 181 data for Racomitrium, as well as 19 bioclimatic variables. We found Grimmia had higher habitat suitability in Zhejiang (0. 7099, integrated habitat suitability index), Jiangsu (0. 6212),Beijing (0. 5987) Jianjin (0. 5648),Yunnan (0. 5532) ,Liaoning (0. 5515),Taiwan (0. 5422) ,Anhui (0. 5398) ,and Jilin (0. 4945),while Racomitrium had higher habitat suitability in Zhejiang (0. 889 ), Shanghai (0. 6564), Hong Kong (0. 5897 ), Taiwan ( 0. 5858 ), Guizhou ( 0. 5354 ), Hubei ( 0. 5039 ), Yunnan (0. 4885 ), Chongqing ( 0. 4871 ), Jiangsu (0. 4793) ,and Anhui (0. 4552). Comparison between the predicted distribution of Racomitrium and that of Grimmia showed that Racomitrium had higher distribution probability in Hong Kong,Chongqing, Guizhou, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hainan, and Taiwan than Grimmia,similar distribution probability to that of Grimmia in Jiangxi,Fujian,Hunan,and lower than Grimmia in the other provinces (municipality autonomous regions). Grimmia belonged to the typical moderate geographical element,mainly in the high altitude and cold districts.%基于19个生物气候因子和紫萼藓属(Grimmia) 172个、砂藓属(Racomitrium) 181个国内分布记录,应用MaxEnt模型和ArcGis 9.3软件,定量预测了紫萼藓属与砂藓属植物在“属”水平上在我国各省区的生境适应性特点.预测结果表明,紫萼藓属植物在浙江(0.7099,综合生境适宜性指数,下同)、江苏(0.6212)、北京(0.5987)、天津(0.5648)、云南(0.5532)、辽宁(0.5515)、台湾(0.5422)、安徽(0.5398)和吉林(0.4945)

  5. 脱水和复水过程中金发藓(Polytrichum commune)与湿地匐灯藓(Plagiomnium acutum)叶绿素荧光特性变化的比较研究%Comparison on Alternation of Chlorophyll Fluoroscence Between Polytrichum commune and Plagiomnium acutum During Dehydration and Rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓濛; 田向荣; 李菁; 石进校

    2012-01-01

    Polytrichum commune from relative drought habitat and Plagiomnium acutum from wet habitat were used as materials, and their chlorophyll fluroscence characteristics, such as ETR-PAR (Photosyntheti-cally Active Radiation-electron transportation rate) light respond curves, Fv/Fm (ratio of chlorophyll variation fluorescence), Y( II) (quantum yielding of PS II), qP (photochemical quenching) and NPQ (none-photochemical quenching) in diferent dehydration and rehydration treatments were detected by IMAGING-PAM analyzer (WALZ). In the procedure of desiccation, P. commune could sustain a higher inhibit light intensity (over 800 μmol/(m2·s)) and a stable ETR value (about 20), but inhibit light intensity of P. acutum menifested a dramatic decline and decreased to about 400 μmol/(m2·s), and ETR value could be inhibited to null. Fv/Fm, Y (II), qP of both two bryophyta species displayed a drop trends, nevertheless, P. commune contain a higher value. NPQ of two bryophytes manifested an obvious peak, and the peak of P. commune occured early and possess a lower alternative range. In the process of rehydration, inhibit light intensity and ETR value of both species recover rapidly, and P. commnue menifested slowly and was provide with less alternation. Fv/Fm, Y (II) of both species recover to normal state, and values of P. commune was higher. Results indicated that desiccation tolerance of bryophytes primarily rely on the repair ability in recovery process. But bryophytes from difer-ent habitat should reflect distinct response on desiccation, P. commune from relative drought habitat possess stronger desicccation tolerance than P. acutum from wet habitat.%以来自不同水分生境的金发藓(Polytrichum commune)和湿地匐灯藓(Plagiomnium acutum)为材料,利用叶绿素荧光成像技术比较了脱水和复水过程中两种藓类的荧光光响应曲线、光系统Ⅱ光能转化效率(ratio of chlorophyll variation fluorescence,Fv/Fm)、

  6. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hill beech forests cover most of the woody area in the Doftana Valley. The present study refers, for the first time, to two beech forests typical to this belt, which belong to the phytocoenological associations Epipactieto-Fagetum (Resmeriţă, 1972, in the Lunca Mare area, and Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum (Vida 1983, Täuber 1987 in the Sotrile area, from floristic, structural, biomass and necromass accumulation point of view, within the framework of the vertical structure of biocoenosis. The limestone substratum, occasionally with small outcrops in the first beech forest, differs chiefly through the pH levels (6.34-5.67 from the siliceous substratum (pH 5.11-4.36 in the second beech forest. The layer of trees is dominated by Fagus sylvatica in both forests; this species is associated with Cerasus avium (4.5%, Acer pseudoplatanus (2% and Sorbus torminalis (2% in the first beech forest, and is monodominant in the second. Although the forest underwent selective cuts, more intense in the Lunca Mare area, the aboveground ligneous biomass reaches nowadays 222 t/ha in the Lunca Mare area compared to only 163 t/ha in the Sotrile area; the average height is 28.8ą2.49 m and 23.7ą1.12 m, respectively, and the diameter is 33.30ą7.9 cm and 31.60ą6.28 cm, respectively. The species of macrofungi, not very numerous during the study because of scarce precipitations (6 and 7 species, respectively, are predominant on the rhytidoma trees in the beech forest rooted on the limestone ground; in the Sotrile beech forest they are joined by mycorrhizal and parasite species. The layer of shrub is underdeveloped. The herbaceous layer is discontinuous, and includes, along herbs, small plants and saplings belonging to the ligneous species and to liana Hedera helix. The maximal value of the aboveground biomass of the layer is 317 kg/ha DM in the Lunca Mare area and 235 kg /ha DM in the Sotrile area. Bryophyta is present in large quantities, especially in the Sotrile

  7. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - 2003 - Teses Defendidas - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências, UFRJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    vegetação no holoceno da região norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil - 167 p. A investigação da dinâmica da vegetação do norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro nos últimos 7.000 amos baseou-se nos resultados obtidos pelas análises palinológicas de (1 sedimentos superficiais do fundo de duas lagoas situadas no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, (2 sedimentos recentes de solos periféricos a estas lagoas e (3 sedimentos de dois testemunhos, um coletado na Lagoa de Cima e um na Lagoa do Campelo. Foram considerados como palinomorfos os grãos de pólen, os esporos de Pteridophyta e Bryophyta, zigósporos e cenóbios de algas verdes. De acordo com os resultados obtidos foram caracterizados: 1. A dinâmica espacial na deposição recente de palinomorfos na superfície de fundo das lagoas. Foram analisadas 15 amostras de um transect de direção nordeste/sudoeste pela Lagoa de Cima. Os grãos de pólen em sua maioria refletiram a floresta que beira a lagoa e os afluentes Imbé e Urubu, com contribuição expressiva dos taxa regionais, bem como a importante contribuição de plantas hidrófitas e palustres e de plantas ruderais das vastas pastagens encontradas na área. Indicaram que na atualidade a tendência deposicional dos palinomorfos na Lagoa de Cima está condicionada pelos influxos dos rios Imbé e Urubu ocasionando uma diferenciação espacial na sedimentação conforme o tamanho dos palinomorfos, a proximidade do local de sedimentação em relação a desembocadura desses rios e a batimetria do leito da lagoa. Já na Lagoa do Campelo as 4 amostras de superfície de fundo, também retiradas na direção nordeste/sudoeste, revelaram um padrão diferenciado de deposição dos palinomorfos em relação à Lagoa de Cima. A análise palinológica revelou alta deposição de pólen de plantas hidrófitas e palustres. Os tipos arbóreos e arbustivos devem ter sua "área-fonte" de pólen em um pequeno fragmento florestal contíguo à borda nordeste da lagoa. Os