Nga, N T T; Giau, N T; Long, N T; Lübeck, M; Shetty, N P; de Neergaard, E; Thuy, T T T; Kim, P V; Jørgensen, H J L
To identify rhizobacteria from the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, which can systemically protect watermelon against Didymella bryoniae and elucidate the mechanisms involved in the protection conferred by isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa 23(1-1). Bacteria were isolated from watermelon roots and their antagonistic ability tested in vitro. Of 190 strains, 68 were able to inhibit D. bryoniae by production of antibiotics. Four strains were able to reduce foliar infection by D. bryoniae when applied to watermelon seeds before sowing. Strain Ps. aeruginosa 23(1-1) was chosen for investigations of the mechanisms involved in protection and ability to control disease under field conditions. In the field, the bacterium was able to significantly reduce disease in two consecutive seasons and increase yield. Furthermore, it colonized watermelon plants endophytically, with higher numbers in plants infected by D. bryoniae than in noninoculated plants. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in protection, the infection biology of the pathogen was studied in bacterially treated and control plants. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 23(1-1) treatment inhibited pathogen penetration and this was associated with hydrogen peroxide accumulation, increased peroxidase activity and occurrence of new peroxidase isoforms, thus indicating that resistance was induced. The endophytic bacterium Ps. aeruginosa 23(1-1) can control D. bryoniae in watermelon by antibiosis and induced resistance under greenhouse and field conditions. These findings suggest that rhizobacteria from native soils in Vietnam can be used to control gummy stem blight of watermelon through various mechanisms including induction of resistance.
Full Text Available Didymella bryoniae is a pathogenic fungus that causes gummy stem blight (GSB in Cucurbitaceae crops (e.g. cantaloupe, muskmelon, cucumber, and watermelon. GSB produces lesions on the stems and leaves, and can also be spread by seeds. Here, we developed a rapid, visual, and sensitive loop-mediated amplification (LAMP assay for D. bryoniae detection based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (GenBank accession nos GQ872461 and GQ872462 common to the two random amplification of polymorphic DNA group genotypes (RGI and RGII of D. bryoniae; ideal conditions for detection were optimized for completion in 45 min at 63°C. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 1000-fold higher than that of conventional PCR with a detection limit of 0.1 fg μL−1 of targeted DNA. The LAMP assay could be accomplished in about 45 min, with the results visible to the naked eye. The assay showed high specificity in discriminating all D. bryoniae isolates from seven other fungal pathogens that occur in Cucurbitaceae crops. The LAMP assay also detected D. bryoniae infection in young muskmelon leaves with suspected early symptoms of GSB disease. Hence, the technique has great potential for developing rapid and sensitive visual detection methods for the D. bryoniae pathogen in crops and seeds. This method has potential application in early prediction of disease and reducing the risk of epidemics.
K R Janardanan Nair
Conclusion: Bryonia alba 30C as genus epidemicus was better than placebo in decreasing the incidence of chikungunya in Kerala. The efficacy of genus epidemicus needs to be replicated in different epidemic settings.
Otlewski, J; Whatley, H; Polanowski, A; Wilusz, T
The amino-acid sequences of two trypsin inhibitors isolated from red bryony (Bryonia dioica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) seeds are reported. Both species represent different genera of the Cucurbitaceae family, which have not been previously investigated as a source of proteinase inhibitors. The sequences are unique but are very similar to those of other proteinase inhibitors which have been isolated from squash seeds. Based on structural homology we assume that the Arg5-Ile6 peptide bond represents the reactive site bond of both inhibitors.
Ha, Y; Fessehaie, A; Ling, K S; Wechter, W P; Keinath, A P; Walcott, R R
To improve the simultaneous detection of two pathogens in cucurbit seed, a combination of magnetic capture hybridization (MCH) and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Single-stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting DNA of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, and Didymella bryoniae, causal agent of gummy stem blight, were covalently attached to magnetic particles and used to selectively concentrate template DNA from cucurbit seed samples. Sequestered template DNAs were subsequently amplified by multiplex real-time PCR using pathogen-specific TaqMan PCR assays. The MCH multiplex real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold of A. avenae subsp. citrulli at 10 CFU/ml and D. bryoniae at 10(5) conidia/ml in mixtures of pure cultures of the two pathogens, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the direct real-time PCR assays for the two pathogens separately. Although the direct real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold for A. avenae subsp. citrulli DNA of 100 fg/microl in 25% (1/4 samples) of the samples assayed, MCH real-time PCR demonstrated 100% detection frequency (4/4 samples) at the same DNA concentration. MCH did not improve detection sensitivity for D. bryoniae relative to direct real-time PCR using conidial suspensions or seed washes from D. bryoniae-infested cucurbit seed. However, MCH real-time PCR facilitated detection of both target pathogens in watermelon and melon seed samples (n = 5,000 seeds/sample) in which 0.02% of the seed were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli and 0.02% were infested with D. bryoniae.
Oyama, Ryan K; Silber, Martina V; Renner, Susanne S
Relatively few species of flowering plants are dioecious and even fewer are known to have sex chromosomes. Current theory posits that homomorphic sex chromosomes, such as found in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), offer insight into the early stages in the evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes. Little is known about these early steps, but an accumulation of transposable element sequences has been observed on the Y-chromosomes of some species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Recombination, by which transposable elements are removed, is suppressed on at least part of the emerging Y-chromosome, and this may explain the correlation between the emergence of sex chromosomes and transposable element enrichment. We sequenced 2321 bp of the Y-chromosome in Bryonia dioica that flank a male-linked marker, BdY1, reported previously. Within this region, which should be suppressed for recombination, we observed a solo-LTR nested in a Copia-like transposable element. We also found other, presumably paralogous, solo-LTRs in a consensus sequence of the underlying Copia-like transposable element. Given that solo-LTRs arise via recombination events, it is noteworthy that we find one in a genomic region where recombination should be suppressed. Although the solo-LTR could have arisen before recombination was suppressed, creating the male-linked marker BdY1, our previous study on B. dioica suggested that BdY1 may not lie in the recombination-suppressed region of the Y-chromosome in all populations. Presence of a solo-LTR near BdY1 therefore fits with the observed correlation between retrotransposon accumulation and the suppression of recombination early in the evolution of sex chromosomes. These findings further suggest that the homomorphic sex chromosomes of B. dioica, the first organism for which genetic XY sex-determination was inferred, are evolutionarily young and offer reference information for comparative studies of other plant sex chromosomes.
Avenot, Hervé F; Thomas, Anna; Gitaitis, Ronald D; Langston, David B; Stevenson, Katherine L
Didymella bryoniae has a history of developing resistance to single-site fungicides. A recent example is with the succinate-dehydrogenase-inhibiting fungicide (SDHI) boscalid. In laboratory assays, out of 103 isolates of this fungus, 82 and seven were found to be very highly resistant (B(VHR) ) and highly resistant (B(HR) ) to boscalid respectively. Cross-resistance studies with the new SDHI penthiopyrad showed that the B(VHR) isolates were only highly resistant to penthiopyrad (B(VHR) -P(HR) ), while the B(HR) isolates appeared sensitive to penthiopyrad (B(HR) -P(S) ). In this study, the molecular mechanism of resistance in these two phenotypes (B(VHR) -P(HR) and B(HR) -P(S) ) was elucidated, and their sensitivity to the new SDHI fluopyram was assessed. A 456 bp cDNA amplified fragment of the succinate dehydrogenase iron sulfur gene (DbSDHB) was initially cloned and sequenced from two sensitive (B(S) -P(S) ), two B(VHR) -P(HR) and one B(HR) -P(S) isolate of D. bryoniae. Comparative analysis of the DbSDHB protein revealed that a highly conserved histidine residue involved in the binding of SDHIs and present in wild-type isolates was replaced by tyrosine (H277Y) or arginine (H277R) in the B(VHR) -P(HR) and B(HR) -P(S) variants respectively. Further examination of the role and extent of these alterations showed that the H/Y and H/R substitutions were present in the remaining B(VHR) -P(HR) and B(HR) -P(S) variants respectively. Analysis of the sensitivity to fluopyram of representative isolates showed that both SDHB mutants were sensitive to this fungicide as the wild-type isolates. The genotype-specific cross-resistance relationships between the SDHIs boscalid and penthiopyrad and the lack of cross-resistance between these fungicides and fluopyram should be taken into account when selecting SDHIs for gummy stem blight management. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Kislichenko, Viktoria; Naddaf, Ahmad; Cholak, Irina; Yemelianova, Oksana
To determine the elements in Bryonia alba L. roots, collected from the Crimean Peninsula region in Ukraine. Dry ashing was used as a flexible method and all elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and graphite furnace. The average concentrations of the determined elements, expressed as mg/100 g dry weight of the sample, were as follow: 13.000 for Fe, 78.000 for Si, 88.000 for P, 7.800 for Al, 0.130 for Mn, 105.000 for Mg, 0.030 for Pb, 0.052 for Ni, 0.030 for Mo, 210.000 for Ca, 0.130 for Cu, 5.200 for Zn, 13.000 for Na, 1170.000 for K, 0.780 for Sr, 0.030 for Co, 0.010 for Cd, 0.010 for As, and 0.010 for Hg. Toxic elements such as Cd and Pb were also found but at very low concentration. Among the analyzed elements, K was the most abundant followed by Ca, Mg, P, Si, Fe, Na, and Zn, whereas Hg, As, Cd, Co, Mo, and Pb were found in low concentration. The results suggest that the roots of Bryonia alba L. plant has potential medicinal property through their high element contents present. Moreover, it showed that the AAS method is a simple, fast, and reliable for the determination of elements in plant materials. The obtained results of the current study provide justification for the usage of such fruit in daily diet for nutrition and for medicinal usage in the treatment of various diseases.
Dhouioui, Mouna; Boulila, Abdennacer; Jemli, Maroua; Schiets, Fréderic; Casabianca, Hervé; Zina, Mongia Saïd
The composition of the fatty acids of the roots and aerial parts of Aritolochia longa (Aristolacheae) and Bryonia dioïca (Cucurbutaceae) was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oils extracted from the aerial parts of both species were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with the essential linolenic and linoleic acids being the most prominent compounds. Oleic and linoleic acids were the majors fatty acids in the roots of both species. Whatever the plant part analyzed and the species, the saturated fatty acids were predominantly composed of palmitic and stearic acids. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the lipid extracts were determined against a panel of five bacterial strains. The results showed that the sensitivity to the lipid extracts was different for the test bacterial strains, and the susceptibility of gram positive bacteria was found to be greater than gram negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the root lipid extracts was particularly important against Enterococcus feacium (CMI value of 125 µg/mL; CMB values > 250 µg/mL) and Streptococcus agalactiae (CMI value of 125 µg/mL; CMB values 250 µg/mL for A. longa roots). These results indicate that A. longa and B. dioïca could be considered as good sources of essential fatty acids which can act as natural antibacterial agents.
Gil R dos Santos
Full Text Available The gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis are two foremost melon (Cucumis melo diseases, considering their effects on yield and fruit quality. Despite the importance of such diseases, relatively few studies have been done so far on the identification of resistance sources to D. bryoniae and P. cubensis in Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the resistance of commercial melon genotypes to the gummy stem blight and the downy mildew. Firstly, the most aggressive and representative D. bryoniae isolate was selected. Subsequently, the resistance of 86 melon genotypes to stem infection was studied upon greenhouse conditions by inoculating with the previously selected isolate. Afterwards, the resistance to mildew and leaf infection by D. bryoniae of 28 melon genotypes was evaluated in the field, under natural infection. In the greenhouse, all 86 melon genotypes were infected and showed stem infection symptoms caused by D. bryoniae four days after inoculation. Nevertheless, a significant variation on the resistance levels of the melon genotypes was found. Under field conditions and natural inoculation, genotypes Taslaki and Sary Juliabi were the most susceptible to leaf infection by D. bryoniae, significantly differing from the other genotypes. The lowest levels of susceptibility were identified in genotypes Perlita Busle S1, Valenciano Elíptico, Glaver, MR1, and 2526. All genotypes were susceptible to the downy mildew, albeit differing in susceptibility levels.O crestamento gomoso do caule (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis estão entre as principais doenças do meloeiro (Cucumis melo ocasionando redução da produtividade e da qualidade dos frutos. Apesar da importância dessas doenças, são poucos os trabalhos envolvendo a identificação de fontes de resistência a D. bryoniae e a P. cubensis no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de gen
Arias, M C; Atteke, Christiane; Augusto, S C; Bailey, J; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Benoit, Laure; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Born, Céline; Brito, R M; Chen, Hai-kui; Covarrubias, Sara; de Vega, Clara; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Francisco, F O; García, Cristina; Gonçalves, P H P; González, Clementina; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Hammer, Michael P; Herrera, Carlos M; Itoh, H; Kamimura, S; Karaoglu, H; Kojima, S; Li, Shou-Li; Ling, Hannah J; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; McKey, Doyle; Mezui-M'Eko, Judicaël; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Park, R F; Pozo, María I; Ramula, Satu; Rigueiro, Cristina; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Santiago, L R; Seino, Miyuki M; Song, Chang-Bing; Takeshima, H; Vasemägi, Anti; Wellings, C R; Yan, Ji; Yu-Zhou, Du; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Tian-Yun
This article documents the addition of 142 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agriophyllum squarrosum, Amazilia cyanocephala, Batillaria attramentaria, Fungal strain CTeY1 (Ascomycota), Gadopsis marmoratus, Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata, Liriomyza sativae, Lupinus polyphyllus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, Puccinia striiformis and Xylocopa grisescens. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia candida, Amazilia rutila, Amazilia tzacatl, Amazilia violiceps, Amazilia yucatanensis, Campylopterus curvipennis, Cynanthus sordidus, Hylocharis leucotis, Juniperus brevifolia, Juniperus cedrus, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus thurifera, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Umesh B Mahajan
Full Text Available Context: The lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced cytokine release and oxidative stress are validated experimental parameters used to test anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the effects of homoeopathic mother tinctures, 6 CH, 30 CH and 200 CH dilutions of Arnica montana, Thuja occidentalis and Bryonia alba against LPS (1 μg/ml-induced cytokine release from RAW-264.7 cells and human whole-blood culture. Materials and Methods: For in vivo evaluations, mice were orally treated with 0.1 ml drug dilutions twice a day for 5 days followed by an intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg/kg LPS. After 24 h, the mice were sacrificed and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide were determined. The extent of oxidative stress was determined in the liver homogenates as contents of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Results: The tested drug dilutions significantly reduced in vitro LPS-induced release of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1 and IL-6 from the RAW-264.7 cells and human whole blood culture. Similar suppression of cytokines was evident in mice serum samples. These drugs also protected mice from the LPS-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue. Conclusions: Our findings substantiate the protective effects of Arnica, Thuja and Bryonia homoeopathic dilutions against LPS-induced cytokine elevations and oxidative stress. This study authenticates the claims of anti-inflammatory efficacy of these homoeopathic drugs.
Composição e fungitoxicidade do óleo essencial de capim citronela em função da adubação orgânica Composition and fungitoxicity of essential oil of citronella grass as affected by organic fertilization
Ronice Alves Veloso
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adubação orgânica sobre o teor e a composição do óleo essencial de capim citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, bem como a fungitoxicidade desse óleo ao crescimento micelial dos fungos Didymella bryoniae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Amphobotrys ricini. A extração do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação, a partir de plantas cultivadas em quatro doses de adubação orgânica (0, 3, 6 e 9 kg de esterco bovino curtido por cova, e a identificação dos constituintes químicos foi conduzida por cromatografia gasosa/espectrometria de massas. Para avaliar a inibição do crescimento micelial, o experimento foi instalado no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial. Foram testadas sete alíquotas do óleo essencial (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 µL, em cinco épocas de avaliação, com quatro repetições. O teor de óleo essencial do capim citronela não foi afetado pela adubação orgânica, e o óleo essencial do capim citronela apresentou 24 compostos químicos, entre estes monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos, com maior concentração dos compostos citronelal, β-citronelol, geraniol e elemol. O óleo essencial do capim citronela apresenta maior efeito de inibição a Amphobotrys ricini, em comparação aos fungos Didymella bryoniae e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of organic fertilization on the content and composition of the essential oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus, as well as to assess the fungitoxicity of this oil to the mycelial growth of the fungi Didymella bryoniae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Amphobotrys ricini. The extraction of the essential oil was done by hydrodistillation in plants cultivated with four doses of organic fertilizer (0, 3, 6, and 9 kg matured cattle manure per hole, and the identification of the chemical compounds was done by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. To
Ronice Alves Veloso
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adubação orgânica sobre o teor e a composição do óleo essencial de capim citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, bem como a fungitoxicidade desse óleo ao crescimento micelial dos fungos Didymella bryoniae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Amphobotrys ricini. A extração do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação, a partir de plantas cultivadas em quatro doses de adubação orgânica (0, 3, 6 e 9 kg de esterco bovino curtido por cova, e a identificação dos constituintes químicos foi conduzida por cromatografia gasosa/espectrometria de massas. Para avaliar a inibição do crescimento micelial, o experimento foi instalado no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial. Foram testadas sete alíquotas do óleo essencial (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 µL, em cinco épocas de avaliação, com quatro repetições. O teor de óleo essencial do capim citronela não foi afetado pela adubação orgânica, e o óleo essencial do capim citronela apresentou 24 compostos químicos, entre estes monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos, com maior concentração dos compostos citronelal, β-citronelol, geraniol e elemol. O óleo essencial do capim citronela apresenta maior efeito de inibição a Amphobotrys ricini, em comparação aos fungos Didymella bryoniae e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
Gil Rodrigues dos Santos
Full Text Available Face à importância do crestamento gomoso do caule e à escassez de relatos da reação de genótipos de melancia na literatura nacional e internacional, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a resposta de genótipos comerciais de melancia ao crestamento gomoso. No campo, estudou-se o nível de infecção nas folhas em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com nove cultivares de melancia e quatro repetições, com inoculação de duas plantas por parcela aos 43 dias após o plantio (DAP. Foram avaliadas as cultivares Crimson Sweet, Onix, Rubi, Safira, Eureka, Georgia, Sheila, Savana e Riviera. Em casa de vegetação, estudou-se a infecção no caule em vasos, com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial de 9 x 3, sendo o fator "a" = cultivares e o fator "b" = isolados. Foram avaliadas as mesmas cultivares do ensaio de campo, com inoculação artificial com disco de micélio aos 15 dias após a semeadura, quando do surgimento da primeira folha definitiva. Os isolados de D. bryoniae utilizados na inoculação das plântulas foram: UnB 76 (Melão-DF, UnB 75 (Melancia-PE e UnB 81 (Abóbora-DF. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas no campo, Riviera mostrou-se mais resistente e apresentou menores (PGummy stem blight, caused by Didymella bryoniae, is one of the most important watermelon diseases. Nevertheless, there are relatively few published studies on the response of watermelon genotypes to the disease. This paper reports results of studies on the response of commercially available watermelon cultivars to gummy stem blight. Leaf infection was studied in a randomized complete block field experiment with nine watermelon genotypes and four replicates. Two plants per experimental plot were inoculated 43 days after planting. Cultivars Crimson Sweet, Onix, Rubi, Safira, Eureka, Georgia, Sheila, Savana and Riviera were evaluated. Stem infection was studied in the greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with three
Siul D. Romero-Velazquez
Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusarium sp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.
Siul D. Romero Velazquez
Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusariumsp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.
Paris, A; Gonnet, N; Chaussard, C; Belon, P; Rocourt, F; Saragaglia, D; Cracowski, J L
Aims The efficacy of homeopathy is still under debate. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment (Arnica montana 5 CH, Bryonia alba 5 CH, Hypericum perforatum 5 CH and Ruta graveolens 3 DH) on cumulated morphine intake delivered by PCA over 24 h after knee ligament reconstruction. Methods This was an add-on randomized controlled study with three parallel groups: a double-blind homeopathic or placebo arm and an open-label noninterventional control arm. Eligible patients were 18–60 years old candidates for surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament. Treatment was administered the evening before surgery and continued for 3 days. The primary end-point was cumulated morphine intake delivered by PCA during the first 24 h inferior or superior/equal to 10 mg day−1. Results One hundred and fifty-eight patients were randomized (66 in the placebo arm, 67 in the homeopathic arm and 25 in the noninterventional group). There was no difference between the treated and the placebo group for primary end-point (mean (95% CI) 48% (35.8, 56.3), and 56% (43.7, 68.3), required less than 10 mg day−1 of morphine in each group, respectively). The homeopathy treatment had no effect on morphine intake between 24 and 72 h or on the visual analogue pain scale, or on quality of life assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire. In addition, these parameters were not different in patients enrolled in the open-label noninterventional control arm. Conclusions The complex of homeopathy tested in this study was not superior to placebo in reducing 24 h morphine consumption after knee ligament reconstruction. What is already known about this subject The efficacy of homeopathy is still under debate and a recent meta-analysis recommended further randomized double-blind clinical trials to identify any clinical situation in which homeopathy might be effective. What this study adds The complex of homeopathy tested in this study (Arnica montana 5 CH, Bryonia alba 5 CH
Full Text Available Dry heat treatment has been identified as a method for disinfecting seed-borne pathogens in vegetable seeds. This study demonstrated that three seed-borne pathogens of cucumber (Cladosporium cucumerinum that causes scabs, Ascochyta citrullina that results in gummy stem blight, and Colletotrichum orbiculare that induces anthracnose could be effectively eradicated from cucumber seeds by dry heat treatment. In vitro growth of these three pathogens was inhibited by dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 40 min. These pathogens were inactivated after exposing infected seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 90 min. Seed infection was significantly reduced by exposing the seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 40 min. Seed moisture content and germination were slightly reduced after 70 °C heat treatment for 40–120 min. Seed vigor remained at a high level after dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 90 min. In conclusion, 70 °C dry heat treatment for 90 min was determined to be the optimal method for eradication of C. cucumerinum, Didymella bryoniae, and C. orbiculare from cucumber seeds.
Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Boggian, Marisa; Vecchiati, Giorgio; Brandolini, Vincenzo
Among the compounds discussed for anti-microbial and anti-fungal use allicin (allylthiosulfinate, diallyl disulfide-S-monoxide), an active ingredient of garlic, has attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the antifungal activity of a local garlic ecotype (Voghiera) extracts against different pathogens. Primary screening was carried out by the agar plates technique using ethanol garlic extract at four final concentrations against the following organisms: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Colletotrichum acutatum, Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium gramineareum, Gliocladium roseum 47, Pythium splendens, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Stemphylium vesicarium, Trichoderma longibranchiatum, and Botrytis cinerea. Secondary screening was carried out using a lyophilized and a spray-dried preparation at different concentrations against the organisms selected for the high inhibition garlic effect in the primary screening and compared with the commercial fungicides mancozeb and iprodione. The best results were observed for the spray-dried garlic compound that showed a good fungicidal activity at the concentration of 1.5 g/10 mL while lyophilized garlic at the same concentration exhibited less inhibition activity against the four fungi analyzed in the second screening.
Zalucki, M P; Drew, R A I; Hooper, G H S
11 fruit fly species captured at 47 sites in a natural forest area at Cooloola (south-east Queensland) revealed specific patterns of spatial abundance. Although all species were collected throughout the study area, D. bryoniae, D. mayi, D. neohumeralis and D. tryoni were more prevalent (average number caught per trap) in the open Eucalypt forest than the rainforest, whereas C. aequalis, D. absonifacies and D. endiandrae were more prevalent in the rainforest. D. cacuminatus, D. choristus, D. quadratus and D. signatifrons were equally prevalent throughout both forest types. Fly numbers were not distributed randomly throughout the trap sites. The clumped dispersion patterns seemed to be species specific as assessed and summarised by Taylor's Power Law. The exponent (b) relating mean spatial abundance to its variance ranged from 1.6-5.11 for the 11 species captured. Changing patterns of trap catches from one sampling period to another were analysed using correlograms for the 6 most abundant species (D. tryoni, D. neohumeralis, D. endiandrae, C. aequalis, D. cacuminatus and D. mayi). These revealed changing patterns of relative spatial abundance which can be related, in part, to changing population abundance levels. The various spatial patterns recognised are related to each species movement, breeding and feeding behaviour. It is proposed that flies migrate into the rainforest area from distant locations and that the rainforest habitat is an important adult feeding site.
Full Text Available Background : Repidly declining sex ratio has highlighted a strong son preference among many societies various methods are employed by people to get a son. Objective: To determine the use pattern of sex selection drugs (SSDs in rural North India. Methods: An integrated qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in rural North India. A rapid population and hospital based survey of women in their early reproductive life was done in the study area to enlist the respondents. Few SSD samples were collected and analyzed. Results: SSDs were freely available from grocers, chemist shops and specific people in villages. These contained Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria. SSD use rate was 46% and 30% in community based and hospital based studies respectively. Use rate was significantly higher in women who did not have any son. Of the SSD samples and two individual ingredients analyzed by thin layer chromatography, 3 contained testosterone and one progesterone; one ingredient contained testosterone and the other natural steroids. Conclusion: Use of SSDs seems to be very common in North India. Implication of presence of steroids in SSDs needs further evaluation.
Gil R dos Santos
Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is an important step for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus production due to its influence over yield, fruit quality, and disease severity. Currently, the gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis can be taken as the most important watermelon diseases, since they impose severe impairment to the crop. Furthermore, studies focusing on plant responses to nitrogen fertilization regarding fruit yield and quality, and disease resistance are rare. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of nitrogen doses on fruit yield and quality, and on disease prevalence in watermelon. Two experiments were carried out at the Universidade Federal de Tocantins, employing sprinkler irrigation, in an area previously used to grow watermelon. The experimental design was blocks at random, with five treatments (N doses, applied twice as side-dressing, in kg ha-1, as follows: T1= control treatment without N, T2= 20, T3= 40, T4= 80, and T5= 120, and four replications. Urea (45% N was used as the N source. In the first assay, the highest fruit yield and average weight were observed when 40 kg ha-1 of N were applied. The highest severity of the gummy stem blight was observed when the highest nitrogen doses were applied (80 and 120 kg ha-1. In the second assay, the highest severity levels of the gummy stem blight, as well as of mildew, were observed again when N doses were the highest (80 and 120 kg ha-1. The lowest severity levels for both diseases were observed in the control treatment.A adubação nitrogenada é importante para a cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus por afetar diretamente a produtividade, a qualidade dos frutos e a severidade de doenças. Atualmente, o crestamento gomoso (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis podem ser consideradas as doenças mais importantes da melancia devido aos prejuízos que podem causar na lavoura. Estudos envolvendo a aplicação de
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Due to the high cancer mortality rates and side effects of different types of cancer treatments, discovering effective treatments without or with fewer side effects is the main purpose of many researchers all around the world. Plants play an important role in the discovery of new drugs. Iran owns rich and varied vegetation but the majority of these plants have not yet undergone chemical, pharmacological and toxicological studies. In the present study, some species from East Azarbaijan province of Iran were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects. Methods: Total methanol extract of 29 plants from 18 families were screened for their cytotoxic activities. The inhibition of cell growth for these extracts was evaluated against MCF-7, A-549, Hep-G2, HT-29 and MDBK cell lines. Their 50% inhibitions of growth (IC50 were determined by MTT assay. Moreover, cytotoxic evaluation of different fractions (ether de petrol, chloroform and methanol of the most potent species was performed. Results: Total extracts and fractions of Bryonia aspera, Centaurea salicifolia, Cuscuta chinensis, Ecbalium elaterium, Gypsophila ruscifolia, Ononis spinosa exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against one or more of the cell lines. Three of the mentioned total extracts presented cytotoxicity effects exclusively against HT-29 cells. Also three fractions (one ether de petrol and two chloroform fractions demonstrated selective cytotoxicity effects against MCF-7cells. Conclusion: It was concluded that these 6 potent species were proper candidates for identification and isolation of active ingredients with cytotoxic effects and further studies about these species are recommended.
GERFFESON THIAGO MOTA DE ALMEIDA SILVA
Full Text Available Cucurbits have great economic, nutritional and social importance in the Brazilian semiarid region. In this region, many factors can result in reduced productivity of these crops, especially fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, knowledge of cucurbits is crucial for proper disease management. The objective of this work was to identify the major diseases of cucurbits grown in some municipalities in the Hinterland of the state of Pernambuco. Thus, plant samples were collected with symptoms in crops in the municipalities of Salgueiro, Serra Talhada, Floresta, Petrolândia, Ibimirim, Custódia and Inajá. A questionnaire was also applied to gather information about the production profile of producers. Seven fungal pathogens infecting cucurbits were identified: Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Colletotrichum sp., Podosphaera xanthii, Rhizoctonia solani, Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium sp. e Alternaria sp., and three viruses as well: Papaya ringspot virus - watermelon strain (PRSV-W, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. It was found that in small crops, there is limited search for technical information om cropping, and these crops originate mostly from native seeds, in contrast to medium and large producers, who use improved cultivars. The melon and watermelon crops are the most commercially exploited, while pumpkins are used in subsistence agriculture. As for plant health problems, most respondents reported knowing the main diseases that occur in crops and perform disease control based on personal experience and / or through the help of the technical assistance provided by agricultural stores. In a few cases, in large farms, there was an agronomist to assist in this type of control.
Gil R. dos Santos
Full Text Available O progresso do crestamento gomoso e as perdas na cultura da melancia foram estudados em ensaios de campo com inoculação artificial de Didymella bryoniae. Para o estudo do progresso da doença foram utilizadas duas áreas indenes, cada uma com 24 x 32 m, e nenhuma medida de controle foi adotada. Para obtenção das curvas de progresso, quantificou-se a percentagem média de área foliar afetada em uma área de 768 m², aos 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 74, 80 e 87 dias após o plantio (DAP. Ficou demonstrado que a doença progride segundo o modelo exponencial, mesmo sob condições não muito favoráveis, na ausência de chuvas e com baixo nível de inóculo inicial. Os valores máximos de severidade foram observados aos 87 DAP (12,5-13,6% da área foliar doente. No ensaio de perdas, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cinco níveis de doença foram obtidos pela aplicação de doses decrescentes da mistura clorotalonil e tiofanato metílico (g/100 L de água: (a 0,0 g i.a. (testemunha; (b clorotalonil 25 g + tiofanato metílico 10 g; (c clorotalonil 75 g + tiofanato metílico; 30 g; (d clorotalonil 125 g + tiofanato metílico 50 g; (e clorotalonil 250 g + tiofanato metílico 100 g. A doença foi avaliada uma única vez, aos 78 DAP por meio de uma escala de notas de 0 a 9, baseada na porcentagem de área foliar doente. A severidade máxima foi observada aos 78 DAP na testemunha (26,5% de área foliar doente. Houve alta (r=-0,96 correlação negativa entre os níveis da doença nas folhas e a produção de frutos, com redução de até 19,2% na produtividade da melancia devido ao crestamento gomoso do caule. O controle químico foi eficiente a partir da dosagem de clorotalonil 125 g + tiofanato metílico 50 g.Progress and losses due to gummy stem blight were studied in field plots artificially inoculated with Didymella bryoniae. For the temporal disease progress study, two fields (24 x