Yao, Xiefeng; Li, Pingfang; Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Man; Ren, Runsheng; Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping
Didymella bryoniae is a pathogenic fungus that causes gummy stem blight (GSB) in Cucurbitaceae crops (e.g., cantaloupe, muskmelon, cucumber, and watermelon). GSB produces lesions on the stems and leaves, and can also be spread by seeds. Here, we developed a rapid, visual, and sensitive loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay for D. bryoniae detection based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (GenBank accession nos GQ872461 and GQ872462) common to the two random amplification of polymorphic DNA group genotypes (RGI and RGII) of D. bryoniae; ideal conditions for detection were optimized for completion in 45 min at 63°C. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 1000-fold higher than that of conventional PCR with a detection limit of 0.1 fg μL-1 of targeted DNA. The LAMP assay could be accomplished in about 45 min, with the results visible to the naked eye. The assay showed high specificity in discriminating all D. bryoniae isolates from seven other fungal pathogens that occur in Cucurbitaceae crops. The LAMP assay also detected D. bryoniae infection in young muskmelon leaves with suspected early symptoms of GSB disease. Hence, the technique has great potential for developing rapid and sensitive visual detection methods for the D. bryoniae pathogen in crops and seeds. This method has potential application in early prediction of disease and reducing the risk of epidemics.
Yao, Xiefeng; Li, Pingfang; Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Man; Ren, Runsheng; Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping
Didymella bryoniae is a pathogenic fungus that causes gummy stem blight (GSB) in Cucurbitaceae crops (e.g., cantaloupe, muskmelon, cucumber, and watermelon). GSB produces lesions on the stems and leaves, and can also be spread by seeds. Here, we developed a rapid, visual, and sensitive loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay for D. bryoniae detection based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (GenBank accession nos GQ872461 and GQ872462) common to the two random amplification of polymorphic DNA group genotypes (RGI and RGII) of D. bryoniae; ideal conditions for detection were optimized for completion in 45 min at 63°C. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 1000-fold higher than that of conventional PCR with a detection limit of 0.1 fg μL(-1) of targeted DNA. The LAMP assay could be accomplished in about 45 min, with the results visible to the naked eye. The assay showed high specificity in discriminating all D. bryoniae isolates from seven other fungal pathogens that occur in Cucurbitaceae crops. The LAMP assay also detected D. bryoniae infection in young muskmelon leaves with suspected early symptoms of GSB disease. Hence, the technique has great potential for developing rapid and sensitive visual detection methods for the D. bryoniae pathogen in crops and seeds. This method has potential application in early prediction of disease and reducing the risk of epidemics. PMID:27625648
Edvar de Sousa da Silva
Full Text Available Chemical control of the fungus Didymella bryoniae, the causal agent of the disease gummy stem blight in melon, is frequently inefficient; thus, alternatives such as grafting and nutrition must be studied. Rootstocks and potassium levels were tested aimed at controlling this disease in net melon under protected environment. The melon hybrid 'Bônus II', ungrafted and grafted onto 'Dinero' melon and 'Strong Tosa' pumpkin rootstocks, was cultivated and inoculated by using the toothpick insertion method with 7-mm mycelial disks from the isolate D. bryoniae Dbr 37; for control, only toothpick insertion was used. The plants were subjected to the following potassium levels: 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, 250 mg L-1. Grafted 'Bônus II' melon plants were resistant to the fungus, whereas ungrafted ones were susceptible. The adopted potassium levels did not influence the stem lesion size or the survival of plants.
Ha, Y; Fessehaie, A; Ling, K S; Wechter, W P; Keinath, A P; Walcott, R R
To improve the simultaneous detection of two pathogens in cucurbit seed, a combination of magnetic capture hybridization (MCH) and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Single-stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting DNA of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, and Didymella bryoniae, causal agent of gummy stem blight, were covalently attached to magnetic particles and used to selectively concentrate template DNA from cucurbit seed samples. Sequestered template DNAs were subsequently amplified by multiplex real-time PCR using pathogen-specific TaqMan PCR assays. The MCH multiplex real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold of A. avenae subsp. citrulli at 10 CFU/ml and D. bryoniae at 10(5) conidia/ml in mixtures of pure cultures of the two pathogens, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the direct real-time PCR assays for the two pathogens separately. Although the direct real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold for A. avenae subsp. citrulli DNA of 100 fg/microl in 25% (1/4 samples) of the samples assayed, MCH real-time PCR demonstrated 100% detection frequency (4/4 samples) at the same DNA concentration. MCH did not improve detection sensitivity for D. bryoniae relative to direct real-time PCR using conidial suspensions or seed washes from D. bryoniae-infested cucurbit seed. However, MCH real-time PCR facilitated detection of both target pathogens in watermelon and melon seed samples (n = 5,000 seeds/sample) in which 0.02% of the seed were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli and 0.02% were infested with D. bryoniae. PMID:19453225
Dhouioui, Mouna; Boulila, Abdennacer; Jemli, Maroua; Schiets, Fréderic; Casabianca, Hervé; Zina, Mongia Saïd
The composition of the fatty acids of the roots and aerial parts of Aritolochia longa (Aristolacheae) and Bryonia dioïca (Cucurbutaceae) was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oils extracted from the aerial parts of both species were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with the essential linolenic and linoleic acids being the most prominent compounds. Oleic and linoleic acids were the majors fatty acids in the roots of both species. Whatever the plant part analyzed and the species, the saturated fatty acids were predominantly composed of palmitic and stearic acids. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the lipid extracts were determined against a panel of five bacterial strains. The results showed that the sensitivity to the lipid extracts was different for the test bacterial strains, and the susceptibility of gram positive bacteria was found to be greater than gram negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the root lipid extracts was particularly important against Enterococcus feacium (CMI value of 125 µg/mL; CMB values > 250 µg/mL) and Streptococcus agalactiae (CMI value of 125 µg/mL; CMB values 250 µg/mL for A. longa roots). These results indicate that A. longa and B. dioïca could be considered as good sources of essential fatty acids which can act as natural antibacterial agents. PMID:27430383
王红英; 钱春桃; 张永兵; 伊鸿平; 郭勤卫; 刘佳; 吴明珠; 陈劲枫
The content of chlorophyll,soluble sugar,soluble protein,and activities of three protective enzymes(PPO,PO and PAL)in leaves of the melons with different resistances were measured and analyzed after inoculation with Didymella bryoniae. The results showed that chlorophyll content increased at first and then decreased in both resistant and susceptible melons after inoculation. However,the level and increment of chlorophyll content were higher in resistant melon. The soluble sugar contents in both resistant and susceptible melons showed a similar pattern of reduce-increase-reduce-increase after inoculation. The soluble sugar content in the resistant melon was higher than that in the susceptible melon. The soluble protein content increased both in resistant and susceptible melons. The peak of soluble protein content occurred earlier in the susceptible melon. Activities of the three protective enzymes increased with different levels. The increase from the resistant melon was higher than that from the susceptible melon. The results obtained in this experiment could be used as indicators for gummy stem blight resistance in melon breeding.%对不同抗性甜瓜接种蔓枯病菌后测定叶片中叶绿素、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白含量和3种防御酶(PPO、PO、PAL)的活性.结果表明:叶绿素含量在接种后呈现先增加后减小趋势,抗病甜瓜增幅大,叶绿素含量高于感病甜瓜；可溶性糖含量在接种后先降低后升高、再降低再升高,抗病甜瓜可溶性糖含量高于感病甜瓜;可溶性蛋白含量在接种后逐渐升高,感病甜瓜峰值出现早于抗病甜瓜;3种酶活性在接种后都有不同程度提高,其中抗病甜瓜酶活性增幅高于感病甜瓜.几种酶活性变化可以用于甜瓜蔓枯病抗性鉴定.
Gil R dos Santos
Full Text Available The gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis are two foremost melon (Cucumis melo diseases, considering their effects on yield and fruit quality. Despite the importance of such diseases, relatively few studies have been done so far on the identification of resistance sources to D. bryoniae and P. cubensis in Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the resistance of commercial melon genotypes to the gummy stem blight and the downy mildew. Firstly, the most aggressive and representative D. bryoniae isolate was selected. Subsequently, the resistance of 86 melon genotypes to stem infection was studied upon greenhouse conditions by inoculating with the previously selected isolate. Afterwards, the resistance to mildew and leaf infection by D. bryoniae of 28 melon genotypes was evaluated in the field, under natural infection. In the greenhouse, all 86 melon genotypes were infected and showed stem infection symptoms caused by D. bryoniae four days after inoculation. Nevertheless, a significant variation on the resistance levels of the melon genotypes was found. Under field conditions and natural inoculation, genotypes Taslaki and Sary Juliabi were the most susceptible to leaf infection by D. bryoniae, significantly differing from the other genotypes. The lowest levels of susceptibility were identified in genotypes Perlita Busle S1, Valenciano Elíptico, Glaver, MR1, and 2526. All genotypes were susceptible to the downy mildew, albeit differing in susceptibility levels.O crestamento gomoso do caule (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis estão entre as principais doenças do meloeiro (Cucumis melo ocasionando redução da produtividade e da qualidade dos frutos. Apesar da importância dessas doenças, são poucos os trabalhos envolvendo a identificação de fontes de resistência a D. bryoniae e a P. cubensis no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de gen
Preliminary study of homeopathic treatment of subclinical mastitis evaluated through somatic cells count (SCC) and California mastitis test (CMT) Estudio preliminar del tratamiento homeopÃƒÂ¡tico de la mastitis sublÃƒÂnica evaluado mediante recuento de cÃƒÂ©lulas somÃƒÂ¡ticas (SCC) y California Mastitis Test (CMT) Estudo preliminar do tratamento homeopÃƒÂ¡tico da mastite subclÃƒÂnica avaliado por contagem de cÃƒÂ©lulas somÃƒÂ¡ticas (SCC) e California Mastitis Test (CMT)
Carlos Dias Barzon; Franciele de Medeiros; Roberson Eduardo Moraes; Luiz ClÃƒÂ¡udio Monteiro da Silva; Carlos Massambani; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Zilda Cristiani Gazim
The present paper presents the results of homeopathic treatment of 25 Holstein breed cows aged 3 to 8 years old diagnosed with subclinical mastitis through California Mastitis Test (CMT). Animals were divided into 3 groups according with infection level. A homeopathic complex was developed on the grounds of clinical aspects, including Phosphorus 30x, Phytolacca 30x, Silicea 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x and biotherapic of Staphylococcus aure...
Fürnkranz, Michael; Lukesch, Birgit; Müller, Henry; Huss, Herbert; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele
Recent and substantial yield losses of Styrian oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca Greb.) are primarily caused by the ascomycetous fungus Didymella bryoniae but bacterial pathogens are frequently involved as well. The diversity of endophytic microbial communities from seeds (spermosphere), roots (endorhiza), flowers (anthosphere), and fruits (carposphere) of three different pumpkin cultivars was studied to develop a biocontrol strategy. A multiphasic approach combining molecular, microscopic, and cultivation techniques was applied to select a consortium of endophytes for biocontrol. Specific community structures for Pseudomonas and Bacillus, two important plant-associated genera, were found for each microenvironment by fingerprinting of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. All microenvironments were dominated by bacteria; fungi were less abundant. Of the 2,320 microbial isolates analyzed in dual culture assays, 165 (7%) were tested positively for in vitro antagonism against D. bryoniae. Out of these, 43 isolates inhibited the growth of bacterial pumpkin pathogens (Pectobacterium carotovorum, Pseudomonas viridiflava, Xanthomonas cucurbitae); here only bacteria were selected. Microenvironment-specific antagonists were found, and the spermosphere and anthosphere were revealed as underexplored reservoirs for antagonists. In the latter, a potential role of pollen grains as bacterial vectors between flowers was recognized. Six broad spectrum antagonists selected according to their activity, genotypic diversity, and occurrence were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Disease severity on pumpkins of D. bryoniae was significantly reduced by Pseudomonas chlororaphis treatment and by a combined treatment of strains (Lysobacter gummosus, P. chlororaphis, Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Serratia plymuthica). This result provides a promising prospect to biologically control pumpkin diseases. PMID:21947430
de Jong, Tom J.; Batenburg, Judith C.; Klinkhamer, Peter G. L.
By applying hand pollination, we studied pollen limitation of seed set of female plants in four dioecious plant species with insect-pollination. The effect of hand pollination increased with distance to the nearest male plant. Distances at which seed set was 50% of its maximal value (after hand pollination) were: 2.3 m for Valeriana dioica, 5.3 m for Salix repens, 8.5 m for Asparagus officinale and 10.6 m for Bryonia dioica. We discuss to what extent the reduced seed set was caused by either fewer visits or by visits of a lower quality. We argue that quantifying distance-dependent seed set in dioecious plants may be a good way of studying effects of habitat fragmentation on the breakdown of mutualistic pollination systems.
Composição e fungitoxicidade do óleo essencial de capim citronela em função da adubação orgânica Composition and fungitoxicity of essential oil of citronella grass as affected by organic fertilization
Ronice Alves Veloso
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adubação orgânica sobre o teor e a composição do óleo essencial de capim citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, bem como a fungitoxicidade desse óleo ao crescimento micelial dos fungos Didymella bryoniae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Amphobotrys ricini. A extração do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação, a partir de plantas cultivadas em quatro doses de adubação orgânica (0, 3, 6 e 9 kg de esterco bovino curtido por cova, e a identificação dos constituintes químicos foi conduzida por cromatografia gasosa/espectrometria de massas. Para avaliar a inibição do crescimento micelial, o experimento foi instalado no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial. Foram testadas sete alíquotas do óleo essencial (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 µL, em cinco épocas de avaliação, com quatro repetições. O teor de óleo essencial do capim citronela não foi afetado pela adubação orgânica, e o óleo essencial do capim citronela apresentou 24 compostos químicos, entre estes monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos, com maior concentração dos compostos citronelal, β-citronelol, geraniol e elemol. O óleo essencial do capim citronela apresenta maior efeito de inibição a Amphobotrys ricini, em comparação aos fungos Didymella bryoniae e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of organic fertilization on the content and composition of the essential oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus, as well as to assess the fungitoxicity of this oil to the mycelial growth of the fungi Didymella bryoniae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Amphobotrys ricini. The extraction of the essential oil was done by hydrodistillation in plants cultivated with four doses of organic fertilizer (0, 3, 6, and 9 kg matured cattle manure per hole, and the identification of the chemical compounds was done by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. To
Ronice Alves Veloso
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adubação orgânica sobre o teor e a composição do óleo essencial de capim citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, bem como a fungitoxicidade desse óleo ao crescimento micelial dos fungos Didymella bryoniae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Amphobotrys ricini. A extração do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação, a partir de plantas cultivadas em quatro doses de adubação orgânica (0, 3, 6 e 9 kg de esterco bovino curtido por cova, e a identificação dos constituintes químicos foi conduzida por cromatografia gasosa/espectrometria de massas. Para avaliar a inibição do crescimento micelial, o experimento foi instalado no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial. Foram testadas sete alíquotas do óleo essencial (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 µL, em cinco épocas de avaliação, com quatro repetições. O teor de óleo essencial do capim citronela não foi afetado pela adubação orgânica, e o óleo essencial do capim citronela apresentou 24 compostos químicos, entre estes monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos, com maior concentração dos compostos citronelal, β-citronelol, geraniol e elemol. O óleo essencial do capim citronela apresenta maior efeito de inibição a Amphobotrys ricini, em comparação aos fungos Didymella bryoniae e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
The perception of thigmic stimuli is a widespread phenomenon among plants with decisive meaning for the ability to survive. Beside a general sensitivity for mechanical stimuli many plants have evolved specialized organs with highly developed mechanisms to perceive and transduce the applied forces. Tendrils of Bryonia dioica and Pisum sativum have been chosen to study the effects of mechanical stimulation on plant physiology. Both types of tendrils, although exhibiting different morphology, respond to such a stimulus with a rapid coiling response to the dorsal side of the organ within minutes. The actual perception of the stimulus is most likely coupled to the cytoskeleton serving as the mediator between the physical stimulus and the biochemical response. Drugs affecting the status of the cytoskeleton were used to get more insights into this specific process. The results indicate that microtubuli (MT) play the most important role in the perception of thigmic stimuli in tendrils. Colchicine-mediated disruption of MT lead to total inhibition of the response to the thigmic stimulus in tendrils of Pisum and to a reduced response in Bryonia. Alamethicin, an ionophore that can mimic action potentials in membranes, was able to bypass this inhibition suggesting a direct involvement of MT in depolarization of the membranes. Auxin, however, which is also supposed to be involved in the regulation of the coiling response, failed to bypass colchicine-dependent inhibition. Vinblastine, another microtubule depolimerizing agent, did induce tendril coiling in Pisum without further stimulation. Application of taxol and other MT-stabilizing drugs as well as disruption of the actin network did not affect the coiling response of tendrils. In Pisum indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is induced after mechanical stimulation during the coiling response, but not jasmonic acid. A further consequence of mechanical stimulation is the induction of an oxidative burst and an increase in soluble sugar. A
Carlos Henrique Cardon
Full Text Available RESUMO Uma das mais importantes doenças que atacam o melão (Cucumis melo L., é o Crestamento Gomoso do Caule, causada pelo fungo Didymella bryoniae que é altamente agressivo em condições de temperatura e umidade elevadas. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia de fungicidas associados a inseticidas no controle do crestamento gomoso do caule do meloeiro em condições de campo naturalmente infestado. O trabalho foi realizado em dois ensaios, sendo que no ensaio I, foi utilizada a cultivar Eldorado 300, com os tratamentos de inseticidas seletivos e não seletivos em mistura com fungicidas. Para o ensaio II, foi utilizado o híbrido Hibrix, com parte dos mesmos tratamentos do ensaio I. De acordo com os resultados, os tratamentos sem fungicida e as misturas de fungicida, inseticida seletivo e não seletivo com o uso de monitoramento de pragas e doenças, apresentaram níveis elevados de incidência do crestamento gomoso do caule do meloeiro e valores inferiores de produtividade de frutos. Ao contrario foi observado para os tratamentos com fungicida ou a mistura de fungicida com inseticida, mostraram maior eficiência no controle da doença, resultando em maiores índices produtivos.
Full Text Available Background : Repidly declining sex ratio has highlighted a strong son preference among many societies various methods are employed by people to get a son. Objective: To determine the use pattern of sex selection drugs (SSDs in rural North India. Methods: An integrated qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in rural North India. A rapid population and hospital based survey of women in their early reproductive life was done in the study area to enlist the respondents. Few SSD samples were collected and analyzed. Results: SSDs were freely available from grocers, chemist shops and specific people in villages. These contained Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria. SSD use rate was 46% and 30% in community based and hospital based studies respectively. Use rate was significantly higher in women who did not have any son. Of the SSD samples and two individual ingredients analyzed by thin layer chromatography, 3 contained testosterone and one progesterone; one ingredient contained testosterone and the other natural steroids. Conclusion: Use of SSDs seems to be very common in North India. Implication of presence of steroids in SSDs needs further evaluation.
Mehri Abdollahi Fard
Full Text Available Epilepsy is a brain disorder which affects about 50 million people worldwide. Ineffectiveness of the drugs in some cases and the serious side effects and chronic toxicity of the antiepileptic drugs lead to use of herbal medicine as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. In this review modern evidences for the efficacy of antiepileptic medicinal plants in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM will be discussed. For this purpose electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were searched for each of the antiepileptic plants during 1970-February 2013.Anticonvulsant effect of some of the medicinal plants mentioned in TIM like Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa, and Ferula gummosa was studied with different models of seizure. Also for some of these plants like Nigella sativa or Piper longum the active constituent responsible for antiepileptic effect was isolated and studied. For some of the herbal medicine used in TIM such as Pistacia lentiscus gum (Mastaki, Bryonia alba (Fashra, Ferula persica (Sakbinaj, Ecballium elaterium (Ghesa-al Hemar, and Alpinia officinarum (Kholanjan there is no or not enough studies to confirm their effectiveness in epilepsy. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different epileptic models should be performed.
Abdollahi Fard, Mehri; Shojaii, Asie
Epilepsy is a brain disorder which affects about 50 million people worldwide. Ineffectiveness of the drugs in some cases and the serious side effects and chronic toxicity of the antiepileptic drugs lead to use of herbal medicine as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. In this review modern evidences for the efficacy of antiepileptic medicinal plants in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) will be discussed. For this purpose electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were searched for each of the antiepileptic plants during 1970-February 2013.Anticonvulsant effect of some of the medicinal plants mentioned in TIM like Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa, and Ferula gummosa was studied with different models of seizure. Also for some of these plants like Nigella sativa or Piper longum the active constituent responsible for antiepileptic effect was isolated and studied. For some of the herbal medicine used in TIM such as Pistacia lentiscus gum (Mastaki), Bryonia alba (Fashra), Ferula persica (Sakbinaj), Ecballium elaterium (Ghesa-al Hemar), and Alpinia officinarum (Kholanjan) there is no or not enough studies to confirm their effectiveness in epilepsy. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different epileptic models should be performed. PMID:23936834
Shalini Srivastava; H N Verma; Aparana Srivastava; Vivek Prasad
Root extract of Boerhaavia diffusa L. induced systemic resistance in tobacco against Tobacco mosaic virus. A 30 kDa protein was isolated as the active component, called BDP-30 on the basis of the molecular weight and source plant. BDP-30, a glycoprotein, was found to be temperature and protease resistant. It was basic, possessing a pI greater than 9.0. In-gel proteolytic digestion of BDP-30 generated two peptides that possessed the amino acid sequence KLYDIPPLR and KVTLPYSGNYER by LC/MS/MS. Both peptides shared absolute sequence identity with trichosanthin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Trichosanthes kirilowii, and a 78% and 100% homology respectively with an RIP from Bryonia dioica, bryodin. Further, effort was made to look at the fate of TMV in induced resistant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi, a systemic host of the virus, at specified days after inoculation in control and treated plants. TMV coat protein (CP) was detected by immunoblot 7 days post inoculation up to 21 days in the control set, but not in treated resistant plants. TMV RNA was detected by RT-PCR using TMV-CP specific primers. Resistant tobacco did not show presence of TMV RNA up to 21 days of inoculation. This suggests that BDP-30 may be suppressing TMV replication.
Preliminary study of homeopathic treatment of subclinical mastitis evaluated through somatic cells count (SCC and California mastitis test (CMT Estudio preliminar del tratamiento homeopÃƒÂ¡tico de la mastitis sublÃƒÂnica evaluado mediante recuento de cÃƒÂ©lulas somÃƒÂ¡ticas (SCC y California Mastitis Test (CMT Estudo preliminar do tratamento homeopÃƒÂ¡tico da mastite subclÃƒÂnica avaliado por contagem de cÃƒÂ©lulas somÃƒÂ¡ticas (SCC e California Mastitis Test (CMT
Carlos Dias Barzon
Full Text Available The present paper presents the results of homeopathic treatment of 25 Holstein breed cows aged 3 to 8 years old diagnosed with subclinical mastitis through California Mastitis Test (CMT. Animals were divided into 3 groups according with infection level. A homeopathic complex was developed on the grounds of clinical aspects, including Phosphorus 30x, Phytolacca 30x, Silicea 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x and biotherapic of Staphylococcus aureus 200x. The remedy was added to salt and was administered to cattle 100g/cow/day for 75 days. CMT were carried out every 2 weeks to control incidence and severity of mastitis; somatic cells count (SCC was performed at the beginning and the end of treatment. CMT showed significant improvement in regression of infection level all throughout the study; final SCC showed decrease in 82% of animals, signaling thus efficacy of the homeopathic treatment. Keywords:Ã‚Â Subclinical mastitis; Dairy cows; Homeopathy; California Mastitis Test, Somatic Cells Count. Ã‚Â Estudo preliminar do tratamento homeopÃƒÂ¡tico da mastite subclÃƒÂnica avaliado por contagem de cÃƒÂ©lulas somÃƒÂ¡ticas (SCC e California Mastitis Test (CMT Resumo Este artigo apresenta os resultados do tratamento homeopÃƒÂ¡tico de 25 vacas raÃƒÂ§a Holstein entre 3 e 8 anos de idade diagnosticadas com mastite subclÃƒÂnica atravÃƒÂ©s do California Mastitis Test (CMT. Os animais foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o nÃƒÂvel da infecÃƒÂ§ÃƒÂ£o. Foi preparado um complexo homeopÃƒÂ¡tico com base nos achados clÃƒÂnicos, composto de: Phosphorus 30X, Phytolacca 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Silicea 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x s 30X, Phytolacca 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Silicea 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x e bioterÃƒÂ¡pico de Staphylococcus aureus 200x. O complexo foi acrescentado no
Dorly de F. Buchi
Full Text Available Paracelsus once wrote: "All things are poison and nothing is without poison, only the dose permits something not to be poisonous." Latter Hahnemann formulated the law of similars, preparations which cause certain symptoms in healthy individuals if given in diluted form to patients exhibiting similar symptoms will cure it. Highly diluted natural complexes prepared according to HahnemannÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s ancient techniques may represent a new form of immunomodulatory therapy. The lack of scientific research with highly diluted products led us to investigate the in vivo and in vitro actions of commonly used medications. Here we describe the results of experimental studies aimed at verifying the effects of Mercurius solubilis, Atropa Belladonna, Lachesis muta and Bryonia alba. All medications were at 200cH dilution. Animals were maintained for 7 days and were allowed to drink the medications, which were prepared in a way that the final dilution and agitation (200cH was performed in drinking water. The medication bottle was changed and sucussed every afternoon. Co-culture of non treated mice bone marrow cells and in vitro treated peritoneal macrophages were also performed. After animal treatment the bone marrow cells were immunophenotyped with hematopoietic lineage markers on a flow cytometer. We have determined CD11b levels on bone marrow cells after culture and co-culture with treated macrophages and these macrophages were processed to scanning electron microscopy. We have observed by morphological changes that macrophages were activated after all treatments. Mercurius solubilis treated mice showed an increase in CD3 expression and in CD11b on nonadherent bone marrow cells after co-culture with in vitro treatment. Atropa Belladonna increased CD45R and decreased Ly-6G expression on bone marrow cells after animal treatment. Lachesis muta increased CD3, CD45R and, CD11c expression and decreased CD11b ex vivo and in nonadherent cells from co
Marcus Zulian Teixeira
.7% of cases the potencies were described as below of the 12ª Centesimal, the point beyond which the likelihood of a single molecule being present in the remedy approaches zero”, the authors claim that “in the majority of cases, the possible mechanism of action involved allergic reactions or ingestion of toxic substances”. With this approach, the authors seek to dismiss the biological effects of ultra-high dilutions, because if they cause AEs would be confirming the plausibility of its possible therapeutic effects. However, toxicological tests are required to affirm that AEs are a consequence of toxic (allergic effects of the substances or of ‘imponderable’ effects of ultra-high dilutions. In view of the recent report cited in the review  in which a complex homeopathic medicine indicated for treating infant colic (Gali-col Baby, GCB caused apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs were described by the National Institutes of Health consensus group in 1986 as “an episode that is frightening to the observer and that is characterized by some combination of apnea (central or occasionally obstructive, color change (usually cyanotic or pallid but occasionally erythematous or plethoric, a marked change in muscle tone (usually marked limpness, choking or gagging”  in consequence of the ‘toxicity of active ingredients’ (Citrullus colocynthis, Matricaria chamomilla, Bryonia alba, Nux vomica, Veratrum album, Magnesia phosphorica and Cuprum metallicum at potencies between 4C and 5C, Oberbaum et al.  performed a toxicological study of these components showing that “doses ingested in the GCB series were 10-13 orders of magnitude smaller than those reported to cause toxic reactions in humans” and that “there was poor correlation between symptoms with GCB and toxic profiles of the components”. As alternative explanation, they suggest that “four components (Veratrum album, Cuprum metallicum, Bryonia alba and Matricaria chamomilla have an
Gil R dos Santos
Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is an important step for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus production due to its influence over yield, fruit quality, and disease severity. Currently, the gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis can be taken as the most important watermelon diseases, since they impose severe impairment to the crop. Furthermore, studies focusing on plant responses to nitrogen fertilization regarding fruit yield and quality, and disease resistance are rare. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of nitrogen doses on fruit yield and quality, and on disease prevalence in watermelon. Two experiments were carried out at the Universidade Federal de Tocantins, employing sprinkler irrigation, in an area previously used to grow watermelon. The experimental design was blocks at random, with five treatments (N doses, applied twice as side-dressing, in kg ha-1, as follows: T1= control treatment without N, T2= 20, T3= 40, T4= 80, and T5= 120, and four replications. Urea (45% N was used as the N source. In the first assay, the highest fruit yield and average weight were observed when 40 kg ha-1 of N were applied. The highest severity of the gummy stem blight was observed when the highest nitrogen doses were applied (80 and 120 kg ha-1. In the second assay, the highest severity levels of the gummy stem blight, as well as of mildew, were observed again when N doses were the highest (80 and 120 kg ha-1. The lowest severity levels for both diseases were observed in the control treatment.A adubação nitrogenada é importante para a cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus por afetar diretamente a produtividade, a qualidade dos frutos e a severidade de doenças. Atualmente, o crestamento gomoso (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis podem ser consideradas as doenças mais importantes da melancia devido aos prejuízos que podem causar na lavoura. Estudos envolvendo a aplicação de
Full Text Available Adaptogens possess anti-fatigue and anti-stress activities that can increase mental and physical working performance against a background of fatigue or stress. The aim of the present study was to ascertain which mediators of stress response are significantly involved in the mechanisms of action of adaptogens, and to determine their relevance as biochemical markers for evaluating anti-stress effects in rabbits subjected to restraint stress. Blood levels of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK, the phosphorylated kinase p-SAPK/p-JNK, nitric oxide (NO, cortisol, testosterone, prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 were determined in groups of animals prior to daily oral administration of placebo, rhodioloside or extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Schizandra chinensis, Rhodiola rosea, Bryonia alba and Panax ginseng over a 7 day period. Ten minutes after the fi nal treatment, animals were immobilized for 2 hours and blood levels of the markers re-determined. In the placebo group, only p-SAPK/p-JNK, NO and cortisol were increased significantly (by 200–300% cf basal levels following restraint stress, whilst in animals that had received multiple doses of adaptogens/stress-protectors, the levels of NO and cortisol remained practically unchanged after acute stress. Rhodioloside and extracts of S. chinensis and R. rosea were the most active inhibitors of stress-induced p-SAPK/p-JNK. E. senticosus, B. alba and P. ginseng exerted little effect on p-SAPK/p-JNK levels. It is suggested that the inhibitory effects of R. rosea and S. chinensis on p-SAPK/p-JNK activation may be associated with their anti-depressant activity as well as their positive effects on mental performance under stress.
Varshney, J P; Naresh, Ram
We report an uncontrolled observational study of the treatment of udder diseases of buffalo, using a homeopathic complex medicine. Mastitis is an economically important disease of buffaloes. In India economic losses due to mastitis are estimated at 526 million US dollars annually. Conventional veterinary treatment relies on costly antibiotics; cure rate is only 60% in field conditions with a problem of milk residues. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a homeopathic complex in the management of clinical udder health problems of riverine buffaloes. Cases of subclinical mastitis were excluded from the study. A total of 102 mastitic quarters (fibrosed--40, nonfibrosed--62) and five cases each of blood in milk and udder oedema in lactating buffaloes were treated with a homeopathic complex consisting of Phytolacca 200c, Calcarea fluorica 200c, Silicea 30c, Belladona 30c, Bryonia 30c, Arnica 30c, Conium 30c and Ipecacuanha 30c. The diagnosis of udder diseases and recovery criterion was based on physical examination of udder and milk and CMT/WST score. Bacteriological analysis and somatic cell count were not performed. Treatment was 80 and 96.72% effective in cases of fibrotic mastitis and nonfibrosed mastitis respectively. Recovery period was 21-42 days (fibrosed) and 4-15 days (nonfibrosed). Udder oedema and blood in milk responded favourably in 2-5 days. Cost of treatment was 0.07 US dollars per day. The homeopathic complex medicine may be effective and economical in the management of udder health problems of buffaloes. Definitive conclusions are premature due to the limited number of observations and lack of control group. PMID:14960098
刘亚男; 钱春桃; Shohret Maujude Daulet
bryoniae was below grade 2. Soil EC applied by compound fertilizer reached 1.53 mS/cm, and increased by 18.6% compared with the contrast. Soil pH reached 5.09, and decreased by 12.84% compared with the contrast. Dry weight of aboveground part, plant height and leaf area of cucumber were increased by 32.31%,-37.24% and 26.20% compared with the contrast. The incidence rank of cucumber Didymel a bryoniae was above grade 2. [Conclusion] The organic fertilizer could solve the problems of soil salinization and soil acidification of continuous crop-ping, improve the resistance ability of Didymel a bryoniae and promote the plant growth.
Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg
We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma
Solange Monteiro de Toledo Piza Gomes Carneiro
Full Text Available The radish is a short cycle crop, since it is harvested at 25-30 days after direct sowing. Under the economic point of view it is an important species, but there are few studies on germination of radish seeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high diluted substances on the germination of radish seeds. The trial was conducted at the Agricultural Research Institute of ParanÃƒÂ¡ (IAPAR in Londrina / ParanÃƒÂ¡. It was used a pesticide free cultivar named Cometa. The treatments were: Bryonia, hydroalcoholic solution, Arnica montana, Cina and Lupine + Oat, all of them diluted and agitated at 9x; distilled water and agitated distilled water were used as controls. The mother tincture of Lupine + Oat was prepared from plants collected at the experimental station of IAPAR in Londrina. The mother tincture and all treatments were prepared according to the guidelines in the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia, Part I . The agitations of the treatments were made by a mechanical equipment, model Denise 10-50 manufactured by Autic. The water was distilled the day before preparing the treatments. The experiment was performed with 300 seeds per treatment. The seeds were placed in gerbox with germitest paper, and 50 gerbox were used per treatment, with six seeds in each gerbox. The germitest papers were moistened with the treatments and the seeds were soaked for 2 hours previously set up the experiment. The substances in high dilutions were agitated 100 times on the machine before soaking the seeds and moistening the germitest paper. The experimental design was entirely randomized and the gerbox were kept at the bench at the Laboratory of Plant Protection of IAPAR. A person not involved in conduct of the experiment coded (blinded the treatments solutions with a random letter code. The code was kept secret until all measurements and data processing were finished. Seeds were observed daily for germination and counted only those
赵杰; 周超英; 顾振芳; 姚雷
By the mycelium growth rate methods, the inhibitory activities of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil was tested against Valsa ambiens (Pers. ) Fr, Diaporthe citri (Fazvcett) Wolf, Alternaria citri, Colletotrichum orbicalare, Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. Melonis, Alternaria alternate, Didymella bryoniae, and Cercospora fabae . The results showed that C. Citratus essential oil had good inhibition effects on 8 fungi and EC50 were 308. 052 2,433. 319 6,399. 733 8,319. 010 3,366. 895 7,279. 126 1,270. 738 8 and 333. 495 6 fiL/L respectively. In additions, inhibition zone experiment showed that C. Citratus essential oil had good inhibition effect on Xanthomonas pruni (Smith) Down with 500 μL/L of minimum inhibitory concentration MIC).%采用生长速率法测定了柠檬草精油对梨树腐烂病菌、柑橘树脂病菌、柑橘黑腐病菌、西瓜炭疽病菌、甜瓜枯萎病菌、甜瓜叶斑病菌、甜瓜蔓枯病菌、蚕豆轮纹病菌的抑菌活性.结果表明,柠檬草精油对8种病原真菌都具有很好的抑菌活性,其EC50分别为308.052 2、433.319 6、399.733 8、319.010 3、366.895 7、279.126 1、270.738 8和333.495 6μL/L；用抑菌圈法测定了柠檬草精油对桃细菌性穿孔病菌的抑菌活性,结果表明,柠檬草精油对桃细菌性穿孔病菌也具有一定的抑菌活性,其最低抑菌浓度为500 μL/L.
Gil R. dos Santos
Full Text Available O progresso do crestamento gomoso e as perdas na cultura da melancia foram estudados em ensaios de campo com inoculação artificial de Didymella bryoniae. Para o estudo do progresso da doença foram utilizadas duas áreas indenes, cada uma com 24 x 32 m, e nenhuma medida de controle foi adotada. Para obtenção das curvas de progresso, quantificou-se a percentagem média de área foliar afetada em uma área de 768 m², aos 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 74, 80 e 87 dias após o plantio (DAP. Ficou demonstrado que a doença progride segundo o modelo exponencial, mesmo sob condições não muito favoráveis, na ausência de chuvas e com baixo nível de inóculo inicial. Os valores máximos de severidade foram observados aos 87 DAP (12,5-13,6% da área foliar doente. No ensaio de perdas, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cinco níveis de doença foram obtidos pela aplicação de doses decrescentes da mistura clorotalonil e tiofanato metílico (g/100 L de água: (a 0,0 g i.a. (testemunha; (b clorotalonil 25 g + tiofanato metílico 10 g; (c clorotalonil 75 g + tiofanato metílico; 30 g; (d clorotalonil 125 g + tiofanato metílico 50 g; (e clorotalonil 250 g + tiofanato metílico 100 g. A doença foi avaliada uma única vez, aos 78 DAP por meio de uma escala de notas de 0 a 9, baseada na porcentagem de área foliar doente. A severidade máxima foi observada aos 78 DAP na testemunha (26,5% de área foliar doente. Houve alta (r=-0,96 correlação negativa entre os níveis da doença nas folhas e a produção de frutos, com redução de até 19,2% na produtividade da melancia devido ao crestamento gomoso do caule. O controle químico foi eficiente a partir da dosagem de clorotalonil 125 g + tiofanato metílico 50 g.Progress and losses due to gummy stem blight were studied in field plots artificially inoculated with Didymella bryoniae. For the temporal disease progress study, two fields (24 x
Manejo da adubação potássica e da irrigação no progresso de doenças fúngicas e produtividade da melancia Potassium fertilizer and irrigation management in the progress of fungal diseases and yield of watermelon
Gil R dos Santos
Full Text Available Entre as principais doenças da melancia, o crestamento gomoso do caule (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis se destacam devido às grandes perdas que causam na produtividade e qualidade de frutos. Para investigar a influência da adubação potássica no progresso do crestamento gomoso e na produtividade da melancia e a influência da lâmina de água e do intervalo de irrigação no progresso do míldio, foram conduzidos dois ensaios em condições de campo em Gurupi-TO, nos anos de 2009 e 2010. O ensaio I foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso e os tratamentos se constituíram em três doses de potássio aplicadas em cobertura (0, 50 e 100 kg ha-1 de KCl e 12 repetições, sendo avaliada a severidade do crestamento gomoso, por meio de uma escala de notas e os dados de produção e qualidade dos frutos. No ensaio II, utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial de 3 x 3, três lâminas de irrigação (100, 300 e 500 mm de água durante o ciclo da cultura e três intervalos de irrigação. Avaliou-se além da severidade do míldio, também a produção e a qualidade dos frutos. Constatou-se que as doses de potássio não influenciaram no progresso do crestamento gomoso e no número, peso médio e qualidade dos frutos. As lâminas de irrigação aplicadas influenciaram no progresso do míldio. Maiores níveis de severidade do míldio foram observados nas plantas mantidas sob irrigação com lâmina de 500 mm de água. As lâminas de água aplicadas também influenciaram significativamente na produção e qualidade dos frutos. Observou-se a presença de maior número de frutos deformados ou tortos nas plantas mantidas sob déficit hídrico, na lâmina de 100 mm. As maiores produtividades comerciais e totais foram obtidas nas plantas irrigadas com a lâmina de 500 mm de água.Among the major diseases of watermelon, gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and downy mildew