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Sample records for brycon opalinus cuvier

  1. Relação peso-comprimento e fator de condição de Brycon opalinus (Pisces, Characiformes no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar- Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Mata Atlântica, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1034 Length-weight relationship and condition factor for Brycon opalinus (Pisces, Characiformes in Serra do Mar State Park – Santa Virgínia Unit, Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1034

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Muller Gomiero

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados a relação peso-comprimento e o fator de condição de Brycon opalinus, em três rios do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Estado de São Paulo. Foram constatadas diferentes condições nos três ambientes abordados e determinadas a sazonalidade, a época reprodutiva e as diferenças entre fêmeas e machos, segundo os parâmetros que evidenciam as melhores condições fisiológicas dos peixes. Essa espécie apresentou fator de condição variável ao longo das estações, nos três locais de coletas, influência do comprimento de primeira maturação gonadal e longo período reprodutivo com maior intensidade na primavera e verão.In this study, the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of Brycon opalinus were analyzed in three rivers within the Santa Virgínia Unit, at Serra do Mar State Park, in São Paulo State. The different conditions in these three environments were evidenced, such as the seasonality, reproductive period, and the differences between females and males according to the parameters which evidenced the best physiological condition of the fish. In this species, the condition factor varied along the seasons at all three collection sites. The length of the first gonadal maturation and the reproductive period were long, with the highest intensity in the spring and summer.

  2. Water Retention Curves of Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Romero, F. J.

    2012-11-01

    The water retention curve of Opalinus clay samples was determined under different conditions: total and matric suction, stress or no-stress conditions, wetting and drying paths. Through the fitting of these results to the van Genuchten expression the P parameter, related to the air entry value (AEV), was obtained. The AEV is the suction value above which air is able to enter the pores of the sample, and consequently, above which 2-phase flow can take place in the soil pore structure. The samples used in this research came from two different boreholes, BHT-1 and BHG-D1, but the behaviour of them did not depend on their location, what was probably due to the fact that both were drilled in the shay facies of the Opalinus clay. There was not a distinct difference between the results obtained under total or matric suctions. In the drying paths, both the water contents and the degrees of saturation tended to be higher when total suction was applied, however the reverse trend was observed for the water contents reached in wetting paths. As well, no clear difference was observed in the water retention curves obtained in odometers under matric and total suctions, what points to the osmotic component of suction in Opalinus clay not being significant. Overall, the water contents were lower and the degrees of saturation higher when suction was applied under vertical stress, what would indicate that the water retention capacity was lower under 8 MPa vertical stress than under free volume conditions. This vertical stress value is slightly higher than the maximum in situ stress. Also, the samples showed hysteresis according to the expected behaviour, i.e. the water contents for a given suction were higher during a drying path than during a wetting path. The P values obtained were between 6 and 34 MPa, and tended to be higher for the samples tested under stress, in drying paths and when total suction was used. The air entry value calculated from the mercury intrusion porosimetry

  3. Gas injection laboratory experiments on Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Understanding gas transport processes is one of the key issues in the assessment of radioactive waste repository performance and is the focus of this research. If the gas production rate (generated by the anaerobic corrosion of the ferrous metal liner) exceeds the rate of diffusion of gas in the host rock pore water, gas would continue to accumulate and pressure increase until it becomes sufficiently large to create pathways. Despite its importance, information at laboratory scale on gas pressure-induced pathways and breakthrough pressures in geological barriers under controlled gas volume rate and stress conditions is rather scarce. To this aim, the present study was started with the following specific objectives. 1) To develop and calibrate an experimental set-up to perform controlled volume-rate gas injection experiments using a high-pressure triaxial cell to apply isotropic/anisotropic stress states. 2) To carry out a series of tests on Opalinus clay OPA samples to study the conditions under which gas breakthrough processes occur, to analyse the influence of the gas injection rate, the stress state, the orientation of rock discontinuities and other relevant hydro-mechanical variables (porosity and degree of saturation); as well as the observation of the induced desaturation (pore water displacement by gas), in-going and outgoing gas fluxes, and aperture and preferential paths created. For example, local desaturation is a critical issue, since previous tests performed on compacted clay barriers evidenced that no significant water displacement occurred inside the specimen, despite the fact that the observed breakthrough pressure appeared to be higher than the air entry pressure of the material. An instrumented high-pressure triaxial cell was used, which was specifically designed to apply isotropic/ anisotropic stress states (up to a maximum of 20 MPa) while injecting gas at controlled volume rate. Each cap of the

  4. The ternary system U(VI) / humic acid / Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Claudia

    2013-07-23

    The storage of nuclear waste in deep geological formations is discussed worldwide as the main strategy for nuclear waste management. To ensure the confinement of the nuclear waste, a multiple barrier system which consists of engineered, geo-engineered, and geological barriers will be applied. Thereby, in Germany the definition of the isolating rock zone represents an important safety function indicator. Clay rock is internationally investigated as potential host rock for a repository and represents a part of the geological barrier. In the present work, the natural clay rock Opalinus Clay from the Mont Terri rock laboratory, Switzerland, was studied. In Germany, the direct disposal of the spent nuclear fuel without the reprocessing of the spent fuel is preferred. In case of water ingress, radionuclides can be released from the nuclear waste repository into its surroundings, namely the host rock of the repository. Humic acids, ubiquitous in nature, can be found associated with the inorganic components in natural clay rock (1.5 x 10{sup -3} wt.% in Opalinus Clay). They can be released under certain conditions. Due to their variety of functional groups, humic acids are very strong complexing agents for metal ions. They have inherent redox abilities and a colloidal conformation in solution. Because of these characteristics, humic acids can affect the mobility of metal ions such as actinides. Furthermore, in the near-field of a repository elevated temperatures have to be considered due to the heat production resulting from the radioactive decay of the various radionuclides in the nuclear waste. This work focuses on the interaction of uranium, as main component of spent nuclear fuel, with Opalinus Clay and studies the influence of humic acid and elevated temperature on this interaction. Thus, the collected sorption and diffusion data are not only relevant for safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories but also for any clay-containing system present in the environment

  5. Cyclic deformations in the Opalinus clay: a laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Emanuel; Huggenberger, Peter; Möri, Andreas; Meier, Edi

    2015-04-01

    The influence of tunnel climate on deformation cycles of joint openings and closings is often observed immediately after excavation. At the EZ-B niche in the Mt. Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland), a cyclic deformation of the shaly Opalinus clay has been monitored for several years. The deformation cycles of the joints parallel to the clay bedding planes correlate with seasonal variations in relative humidity of the air in the niche. In winter, when the relative humidity is the lowest (down to 65%), the joints open as the clay volume decreases, whereas they tend to close in the summer when the relative humidity reaches up to 100%. Furthermore, in situ measurements have shown the trend of an increasingly smaller aperture of joints with time. A laboratory experiment was carried out to reproduce the observed cyclic deformation in a climate chamber using a core sample of Opalinus clay. The main goal of the experiment was to investigate the influence of the relative humidity on the deformation of the Opalinus clay while excluding the in situ effects (e.g. confining stress). The core sample of Opalinus clay was put into a closed ended PVC tube and the space between the sample and the tube was filled with resin. Then, the sample (size: 28 cm × 14 cm × 6.5 cm) was cut in half lengthways and the open end was cut, so that the half-core sample could move in one direction. The mounted sample was exposed to wetting and drying cycles in a climate chamber. Air temperature, air humidity and sample weight were continuously recorded. Photographs taken at regular time intervals by a webcam allowed the formation/deformation of cracks on the surface of the sample to be monitored. A crackmeter consisting of a double-plate capacitor attached to the core sample was developed to measure the dynamics of the crack opening and closing. Preliminary results show that: - Deformation movements during different climate cycles can be visualized with the webcam - The crackmeter signal gives a

  6. Milt quality and spermatozoa morphology of captive Brycon siebenthalae (Eigenmann) broodstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Lombo-Rodríguez, Dora A.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop artificial reproduction in freshwater fish for potential species to be developed in South American aquaculture, milt quality and sperm morphology were studied in yamu (Brycon siebenthalae) under captive conditions during the natural middle spermiation period. The volume of milt...

  7. Project Opalinus Clay: Sorption Data Bases For Opalinus Clay Influenced By A High pH Plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B

    2004-11-01

    The interaction of groundwater with the large quantities of cement/concrete used in the construction and backfilling of emplacement tunnels containing long-lived intermediate level radioactive waste may give rise to the release of a pulse of hyper alkaline fluid (pH plume) into the surrounding rock. Since the pH of this plume could remain in excess of 12.5 for tens of thousands of years, many minerals in a sedimentary host rock would be unstable leading to dissolution reactions, secondary mineral precipitation and changes in groundwater chemistry. An Opalinus day formation in the Zuercher Weinland, is under consideration by Nagra as a potential host rock for a repository of spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of spent fuel and long-lived intermediate-Ievel radioactive waste (ILW). The purpose of this report is to assess the effects of the interactions between a pH plume and Opalinus day on the sorption properties of the formation and to provide appropriate sorption data bases. (author)

  8. In situ characterization of the microstructure and porosity of Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Houben, Maria Engelina

    2013-01-01

    Clay rich formations are investigated thoroughly as candidate host rocks for the deep geological storage of radioactive waste. In the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (Switzerland) Opalinus Clay is investigated with the aim to analyse its hydrological, geochemical and rock mechanical properties. Detailed investigation of the pore morphology and pore space contributes to the understanding of the sealing capacity, coupled flow, and associated deformation in clay. The Opalinus Clay formation is a fine...

  9. Embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakauth, A C S Sampaio; Villacorta-Correa, M A; Figueiredo, M R; Bernardino, G; França, J M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus, featuring the main events up to 50 hours after fertilization (AF). The material was provided by the Aquaculture Training, Technology and Production Center, Presidente Figueiredo (AM). The characterization was based on stereomicroscopic examination of the morphology of eggs, embryos and larvae and comparison with the literature. Matrinxã eggs are free, transparent, and spherical, with a perivitelline space of 0.56 ± 0.3 mm. The successive divisions give rise to cells with 64 blastomeres during the first hour AF. The gastrula stage, beginning 02 h 40 min AF, was characterized by progressive regression cells and the formation of the embryonic axis, leading to differentiation of the head and tail 05 h 30 min AF. From 06 to 09 h AF the somites, notochord, otic and optic vesicles and otoliths were observed, in addition to heart rate and the release of the tail. The larvae hatched at 10 h 30 min AF (29.9 °C), with a total length of 3.56 ± 0.46 mm. Between 19 and 30 h AF, we observed 1) pigmentation and gut formation, 2) branchial arches, 3) pectoral fins, 4) a mouth opening and 5) teeth. Cannibalism was initiated earlier (34 h AF) which was associated with rapid yolk absorption (more than 90% until 50 h AF), signaling the need for an exogenous nutritional source. The environmental conditions (especially temperature) influenced the time course of some events throughout the embryonic and larval development, suggesting the need for further studies on this subject. PMID:26909629

  10. Curvas de crescimento morfométrico de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Morphometric growth curves of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Juliana Sampaio Guedes Gomiero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras M.G., com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de crescimento morfométrico em função do peso corporal para a piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Alevinos de piracanjuba foram cultivados em viveiros de terra e alimentados com ração comercial até atingirem peso aproximado de 1 kg. Durante o período experimental realizaram-se amostragens aleatórias, onde foram avaliadas as medidas morfométricas comprimento da cabeça (CCAB, comprimento padrão (CP, altura (AND e largura (LND tomada no 1ºraio da nadadeira dorsal e as razões morfométricas (CCAB/CP, AND/CP, LND/CP, AND/LND utilizando-se as funções de Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz e Logística. As funções estudadas apresentaram bom ajuste para todas as medidas morfométricas e para a razão CCAB/CP. As funções de Brody, von Bertalanffy e Gompertz apresentaram qualidades de ajuste semelhantes e superiores à função Logística para as medidas morfométricas. Para a razão CCAB/CP a função Logística apresentou-se superior às demais. A taxa de crescimento da CCAB e LND foi superior às do CP e AND, indicando um crescimento mais rápido da cabeça e largura do que do comprimento padrão e altura. Conclui-se que todos os modelos estudados apresentaram bom ajuste, sendo o de Brody e o de von Bertalanffy os que descrevem melhor o crescimento morfométrico da piracanjuba.An experiment was carried out at the fish farming sector of the Universidade Federal de Lavras M.G., with the objective of establishing morphometric growth curves as a function of the body weight of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Fingerlings of piracanjuba were cultivated in earthen ponds and fed a commercial diet (ad libitum until they reached weight of about 1 kg. During the experimental period, samplings were randomly selected to take morphometric measures of the head length (CCAB, standard length (CP, height (AND, and breadth (LND

  11. In situ interaction between different concretes and Opalinus Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, A.; Mäder, U.; Lerouge, C.; Gaboreau, S.; Schwyn, B.

    Interactions between cementitious materials and claystone are driven by chemical gradients in pore water and might lead to mineralogical modifications in both materials. In the context of a radioactive waste repository, this alteration might influence safety-relevant clay properties like swelling pressure, permeability, or specific retention. In this study, interfaces of Opalinus Clay, a potential host-rock in Switzerland, and three concrete formulations emplaced in the Cement-Clay Interaction (CI) Experiment at the Mont Terri Underground Laboratory (St. Ursanne, Switzerland) were analysed after 2.2 years of interaction. Sampling techniques with interface stabilisation followed by inclined intersection drilling were developed. Element distribution maps of the concrete-clay interfaces show complex zonations like sulphur enrichment, zones depleted in Ca but enriched in Mg, strong Mg enrichment adjacent to the interface, or carbonation. Consistently, the carbonated zone shows a reduced porosity. Properties of the complex zonation strongly depend on cement properties like water content and pH (ordinary Portland cement vs. low-pH cement). An increased Ca or Mg content in the first 100 μm next to the interface is observed in Opalinus Clay. The cation occupancy of clay exchanger phases next to the ordinary Portland cement interface is depleted in Mg, but enriched in Na, whereas porosity shows no changes at all. The current data suggests migration of CO2/HCO3-, SO42-, and Mg species from clay into cement. pH decrease in the cement next to the interface leads to instability of ettringite, and the sulphate liberated diffuses towards higher pH regions (away from the interface), where additional ettringite can form.

  12. Latitudinal variation in Atlantic Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804 (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1972-01-01

    The existence of clinal variation in some morphological characters of Atlantic Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804, is reported. The number of muscle fibres of both aggregate and solitary individuals is subjected to a decrease from higher to lower latitudes. Size and reproduction also seem to vary accordi

  13. Speciation of neptunium after diffusion in Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, Tobias; Amayri, Samer; Drebert, Jakob; Froehlich, Daniel R.; Grolimund, Daniel; Rosemann, Jonathan [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Kaplan, Ugras [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland). Swiss Light Source

    2015-07-01

    Argillaceous rock formations are under consideration as a potential host rock for the construction of high-level nuclear waste repositories. Under environmental conditions the most stable oxidation states of {sup 237}Np (t{sub 1/2}=2.1 x 10{sup 6} a) are Np(IV) and Np(V). We have investigated the sorption and diffusion of the more mobile Np(V) in Opalinus Clay (OPA, Mont Terri, Switzerland) (Wu et al. 2009, Froehlich et al. 2011 and 2012 a). OPA, which is present in Switzerland and southern Germany, possesses a micro-scale heterogeneity and is composed of several types of clay minerals, but also of calcite, quartz and iron(II)-bearing minerals. In our previous diffusion (Wu et al. 2009) and anaerobic sorption experiments (Froehlich et al. 2011), we observed higher distribution coefficients, K{sub d}, than expected from batch experiments performed in air, indicating that a partial reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) had occurred. To test this hypothesis, different sorption and diffusion samples with Np(V) were prepared at pH 7.6 for spatially resolved molecular-level investigations at the microXAS beamline at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) (Froehlich et al. 2012 b). Elemental distributions of Ca, Fe and Np have been determined by μ-XRF mapping. Regions of high Np concentration were subsequently investigated by Np L{sub III}-edge μ-XANES. In most samples Np spots with considerable amounts of tetravalent Np could be found, even when the experiments were performed under ambient-air conditions. In some cases, almost pure Np(IV) L{sub III}-edge XANES spectra were recorded. In case of the anaerobic sorption sample, a clear correlation between Np and Fe was observed by μ-XRF, indicating that iron(II)-bearing minerals could be responsible for the reduction of Np(V). μ-XRD measurements of this sample showed that pyrite is at least one of the redox-active phases determining the speciation of Np in OPA. In this case, Np was accumulated on pyrite, indicating

  14. Variations of body geometry in Brycon henni (Teleostei: Characiformes, Bryconidae) in different rivers and streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Escobar, N; Hurtado-Alarcón, J C; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Márquez, E J

    2016-07-01

    Landmark-based geometric morphometrics were used to evaluate the effect of flow and depth in the water column on the body size and shape of Brycon henni from river and stream populations. The dendrogram showed that stream populations clustered apart and showed significantly smaller centroid size and narrower bodies than river populations, indicating a role for flow and depth on whole body morphometric variation. The results are concordant with morphometric variation described in other fish species and provide the first insights into phenotypic variation in natural populations of B. henni. PMID:27117920

  15. Characterisation of gas transport properties of the Opalinus Clay, a potential host rock formation for radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Marschall, P; Horseman, S.; Gimmi, T.

    2005-01-01

    The Opalinus Clay in Northern Switzerland has been identified as a potential host rock formation for the disposal of radioactive waste. Comprehensive understanding of gas transport processes through this low-permeability formation forms a key issue in the assessment of repository performance. Field investigations and laboratory experiments suggest an intrinsic permeability of the Opalinus Clay in the order of 10-20 to 10-21 m2 and a moderate anisotropy ratio < 10. Porosity depends on clay con...

  16. Genetic evidence of population structuring in the neotropical freshwater fish Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, A; Galetti Jr, P M

    2007-12-01

    Brycon hilarii is a migratory fish widely distributed throughout the Paraguay River Basin. It is appreciated in sport fishing and for its superior meat quality. It is also the main species for tourist attraction in the Bonito region (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Considering the lack of information on the genetic structure of the fish of this species, the aim of the present study was to detect the genetic variability of Brycon hilarii through RAPD markers. A total of eighty specimens collected in different seasons at four sites of the Miranda River sub-basin (Paraguay River Basin, Brazil) were used for analysis. The results of genetic similarity, Shannon diversity, and AMOVA revealed differences between the sampling sites. Through AMOVA, differences between populations were more evident among the animals collected during the non-reproductive season, corresponding to a time of less movement of these fish. A population structuring model in which B. hilarii appears organized into genetically differentiated reproductive units that coexist and co-migrate through the studied system was suggested, contrasting the currently accepted idea that freshwater migratory fish form large panmictic populations in a determined hydrographic system. Despite the lack of a complete picture regarding the distribution of B. hilarii in the studied region, this initial idea on its population genetic structure could be an important contribution to providing aid for management and conservation programs of these fish. PMID:18278356

  17. Water quality and zooplankton in tanks with larvae of Brycon Orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1949).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Alvarez, E J da S; Braga, F M de S

    2008-02-01

    Due to the importance of water variables conditions and available food in the development and survival of fish larvae, the current research evaluates the effects of two different food treatments (ration + zooplankton and only zooplankton) and water quality in tanks with Brycon orbignyanus larvae. Total water transparency (45 cm) has been mainly associated with short residence time, continuous water flow and shallowness. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.32 and 7.00 mg.L(-1) in tanks with ration + zooplankton and between 1.82 and 7.60 mg.L(-1) in tanks with only zooplankton treatments. Nutrients were directly affected by the addition of ration in water, with the exception of nitrite. Ten Rotifera species were found represented by high densities, ranging between 8.7 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(6) org.m(-3), throughout the experimental period (January to March/1996). Cladocera had the lowest density in the four tanks under analysis and ranged between 4.7 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(5) org.m(-3) for the six species. Diaphanosoma birgei has been classified as the most frequent species. Since ration + zooplankton produced better larvae yield, this treatment is recommended for Brycon orbignyanus larvae.

  18. Microstructure and porosity of Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, M. E.; Laurich, B.; Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    The Mont Terri rock laboratory (Canton Jura, Switzerland) is an international scientific platform of research on radioactive waste disposal in Opalinus Clay and results provide input for assessing the feasibility and safety of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in argillaceous formations [1]. A main safety issue is to accurately investigate mass transport rates. To date several methods analyzed bulk permeability and porosity of Opalinus Clay. However, detailed quantitative investigation of microstructure and pore morphology is necessary to understand sealing capacity, coupled flow, capillary processes and associated deformation. To produce high quality cross-sections without microstructural damage that enable investigation of microstructure and porosity down the nm scale a combination of Broad Ion Beam (BIB) milling and SEM imaging has been used [2]. This method allowed direct imaging of the clay fabric and porosity on ca. 1 mm2 areas. The lateral variability of Opalinus Clay is low on the regional scale [1], whereas vertically the Opalinus Clay can be subdivided into six different lithological subfacies [3] based on variable silt layers, sandstone layers and siderite concretions present, where the end-members are the Shaly and Sandy facies. In this contribution microstructures and pore space in Opalinus Clay from the undisturbed Shaly and Sandy facies are studied and compared to disturbed samples from the "Main fault" within the Mont Terri rock laboratory. The Shaly facies in the lower half of the sequence constitutes of dark grey silty calcerous shales and argillaceous marls, whereas the Sandy facies comprises silty to sandy marls with sandstone lenses cemented with carbonate [3]. The qualitative mineralogical composition of all Opalinus Clay facies is similar, whereas the "Main Fault" shows calcite, celestite and pyrite veins. Although the overall microfabric differs per layer and per facies we observe low variability of microstructure and porosity in

  19. Speciation of plutonium during sorption and diffusion in Opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented work was carried out in the framework of the BMWi-project ''Interaction and migration of actinides in natural clay rocks taking into account humic substances and clay organic matter - Interactions of neptunium and plutonium with natural clay rocks''. For the long-term safety assessments of nuclear repositories, the possible migration of the radiotoxic wastes into the environment must be considered. Due to its long half-life (T1/2 = 24000 y) 239Pu has a significant contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel in a repository after long periods of storage. The redox-sensitive plutonium has a very complicated chemical behavior. In aqueous solution under environmental relevant conditions Pu can exist in oxidation states +III to +VI and it can exist in up to four oxidation states simultaneously in a solution. Clays are considered as a possible host rock formation for of high-level radioactive waste disposal. Therefore, detailed information on the mobilization and immobilization of plutonium through / into the groundwater from a repository are of special interest. In this work new insights into the interaction between Pu and natural Opalinus clay (OPA, Mont Terri, Switzerland) are obtained with regard to the disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in a deep geological repository.rnThe focus of this work was on the determination of the speciation of Pu on the mineral surface after sorption and diffusion process by different synchrotron based techniques (μ-XRF, μ-XANES/-EXAFS, μ-XRD, and EXAFS/XANES). The interaction between Pu and OPA was studied in batch sorption and diffusion experiments in dependence of various experimental parameters (e.g. pH, Pu oxidation state). Sorption experiments showed that some experimental parameters (e.g. temperature, humic acid) have a significant impact on the sorption of Pu on OPA. Speciation studies were performed as a function of various chemical parameters on powder samples form batch experiments as

  20. Reconstructing a hydrogen-driven microbial metabolic network in Opalinus Clay rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; Chourey, Karuna; Hettich, Robert L.; de Bruijn, Ino; Andersson, Anders F.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Schwyn, Bernhard; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2016-01-01

    The Opalinus Clay formation will host geological nuclear waste repositories in Switzerland. It is expected that gas pressure will build-up due to hydrogen production from steel corrosion, jeopardizing the integrity of the engineered barriers. In an in situ experiment located in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, we demonstrate that hydrogen is consumed by microorganisms, fuelling a microbial community. Metagenomic binning and metaproteomic analysis of this deep subsurface community reveals a carbon cycle driven by autotrophic hydrogen oxidizers belonging to novel genera. Necromass is then processed by fermenters, followed by complete oxidation to carbon dioxide by heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, which closes the cycle. This microbial metabolic web can be integrated in the design of geological repositories to reduce pressure build-up. This study shows that Opalinus Clay harbours the potential for chemolithoautotrophic-based system, and provides a model of microbial carbon cycle in deep subsurface environments where hydrogen and sulfate are present. PMID:27739431

  1. Reconstructing a hydrogen-driven microbial metabolic network in Opalinus Clay rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; Chourey, Karuna; Hettich, Robert L.; de Bruijn, Ino; Andersson, Anders F.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Schwyn, Bernhard; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2016-10-01

    The Opalinus Clay formation will host geological nuclear waste repositories in Switzerland. It is expected that gas pressure will build-up due to hydrogen production from steel corrosion, jeopardizing the integrity of the engineered barriers. In an in situ experiment located in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, we demonstrate that hydrogen is consumed by microorganisms, fuelling a microbial community. Metagenomic binning and metaproteomic analysis of this deep subsurface community reveals a carbon cycle driven by autotrophic hydrogen oxidizers belonging to novel genera. Necromass is then processed by fermenters, followed by complete oxidation to carbon dioxide by heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, which closes the cycle. This microbial metabolic web can be integrated in the design of geological repositories to reduce pressure build-up. This study shows that Opalinus Clay harbours the potential for chemolithoautotrophic-based system, and provides a model of microbial carbon cycle in deep subsurface environments where hydrogen and sulfate are present.

  2. Microbial diversity in opalinus clay and interaction of dominant microbial strains with actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Henry; Luetke, Laura; Bachvarova, Velina; Steudtner, Robin; Geissler, Andrea; Krawczyk-Baersch, Evelyn; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja; Bernhardt, Gert

    2013-07-01

    For the first time microbial tDNA could be isolated from 50 g unperturbed Mont Terri Opalinus Clay. Based on the analysis of the tDNA the bacterial diversity of the unperturbed clay is dominated by representatives of Firmicutes, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. Firmicutes also dominate after treatment of the clay with R2A medium. Bacteria isolated from Mont Terri Opalinus Clay on R2A medium were related to Sporomusa spp., Paenibacillus spp., and Clostridium spp. All further investigations are concentrated on the unique isolates Sporomusa sp. MT-2 and Paenibacillus sp. MT-2. Cells of the type Sporomusa sp. MT-2 and Paenibacillus sp. MT-2 were comprehensively analyzed in terms of growing, morphology, functional groups of the cell envelope, and cell membrane structure. Strong actinide(An)/lanthanide(Ln)-interactions with the Opalinus Clay isolates and the Aespoe-strain Pseudomonas fluorescens (CCUG 32456) could be determined within a broad pH range (2-8). The metals bind as a function of pH on protonated phosphoryl, carboxyl and deprotonated phosphoryl sites of the respective cell membrane. The thermodynamic surface complexation constants of bacterial An/Ln-species were determined and can be used in modeling programs. Depending on the used An different interaction mechanisms were found (U(VI): biosorption, partly biomineralisation; Cm(III): biosorption, indications for embedded Cm(III); Pu: biosorption, bioreduction and indications for embedded Pu). Different strategies of coping with U(VI) were observed comparing P. fluorescens planktonic cells and biofilms under the chosen experimental conditions. An enhanced capability of the biofilm to form meta-autunite in comparison to the planktonic cells was proven. Conclusively, the P. fluorescens biofilm is more efficient in U(VI) detoxification. In conclusion, Mont Terri Opalinus Clay contains bacterial communities, that may influence the speciation and hence the migration behavior of selected An/Ln under

  3. Microbial diversity in opalinus clay and interaction of dominant microbial strains with actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time microbial tDNA could be isolated from 50 g unperturbed Mont Terri Opalinus Clay. Based on the analysis of the tDNA the bacterial diversity of the unperturbed clay is dominated by representatives of Firmicutes, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. Firmicutes also dominate after treatment of the clay with R2A medium. Bacteria isolated from Mont Terri Opalinus Clay on R2A medium were related to Sporomusa spp., Paenibacillus spp., and Clostridium spp. All further investigations are concentrated on the unique isolates Sporomusa sp. MT-2 and Paenibacillus sp. MT-2. Cells of the type Sporomusa sp. MT-2 and Paenibacillus sp. MT-2 were comprehensively analyzed in terms of growing, morphology, functional groups of the cell envelope, and cell membrane structure. Strong actinide(An)/lanthanide(Ln)-interactions with the Opalinus Clay isolates and the Aespoe-strain Pseudomonas fluorescens (CCUG 32456) could be determined within a broad pH range (2-8). The metals bind as a function of pH on protonated phosphoryl, carboxyl and deprotonated phosphoryl sites of the respective cell membrane. The thermodynamic surface complexation constants of bacterial An/Ln-species were determined and can be used in modeling programs. Depending on the used An different interaction mechanisms were found (U(VI): biosorption, partly biomineralisation; Cm(III): biosorption, indications for embedded Cm(III); Pu: biosorption, bioreduction and indications for embedded Pu). Different strategies of coping with U(VI) were observed comparing P. fluorescens planktonic cells and biofilms under the chosen experimental conditions. An enhanced capability of the biofilm to form meta-autunite in comparison to the planktonic cells was proven. Conclusively, the P. fluorescens biofilm is more efficient in U(VI) detoxification. In conclusion, Mont Terri Opalinus Clay contains bacterial communities, that may influence the speciation and hence the migration behavior of selected An/Ln under

  4. Demonstration of high-level radioactive waste disposal on the basis of the Opalinus clay project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep borings allow determining the position and the extent of the geologic layers which constitute the ground until the granite basement. The intermediate layers are formed principally of clay; in particular through the borehole in Benken (Zuercher Weinland), Switzerland a layer of Opalinus clay of 113 m thickness was detected. For the construction of a repository for deep underground disposal of radioactive waste, Opalinus clay is especially interesting because it is perfectly watertight. The information given by the boring corroborates the results of seismic studies. Seismic measurements were carried out between the Aare River and the Lake of Constance; they delivered an accurate profile of the geological layers over a domain of 50 km2. The method of seismic optics allows bringing to light small irregularities of the geologic structures. It was established that the studied layers are very little deformed. In the course of 180 million years the mud at the bottom of the former sea was solidified into a perfectly watertight sediment rock. This characteristic is used for the safe storage of radioactive wastes. Besides the technical barriers, it contributes to isolate the wastes from the vital space for a long-time period. Opalinus clay has been comprehensively studied in underground laboratories by international teams of scientists

  5. A comparative study of representative 2D microstructures in Shaly and Sandy facies of Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri, Switzerland) inferred form BIB-SEM and MIP methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.E.; Desbois, G.; Urai, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    A combination of Broad-Ion-Beam (BIB) polishing and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has been used to study qualitatively and quantitatively the microstructure of Opalinus Clay in 2D. High quality 2D cross-sections (ca. 1mm2), belonging to the Shaly and Sandy facies of Opalinus Clay, were investig

  6. Liposarcoma in clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced in indoor aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, G; Benharroch, D; Kachko, L; Reis-Hevlin, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-06-01

    Clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced and grown in an experimental indoor aquaculture facility, presented with lipomatous tumours. A total of 14 affected fish were examined. Based on the total number of fish at the aquaculture facility at the time of outbreak of this pathology, the scope of the incident is estimated to be 1 of 300 fish. The tumours were characterized by the presence of mature adipocytes of variable sizes, lipoblasts and by an invasive behaviour, which affected internal organs, muscle, central nervous system and, in one case, an eye. Detailed macroscopic and histopathological features are presented. The suggested diagnosis is that of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, a diagnosis so far never applied to fish. The limited outbreak of the neoplasm lasted a few months in 2011 and did not recur. Possible factors leading to this phenomenon, notably the metastasis, are discussed.

  7. Coupled Transport Phenomena in the Opalinus Clay: Implications for Radionuclide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, J.M.

    1999-09-01

    Coupled phenomena (thermal and chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration, coupled diffusion, thermal diffusion, thermal filtration, Dufour effect) may play an important role in fluid, solute and heat transport in clay-rich formations, such as the Opalinus Clay (OPA), which are being considered as potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. In this study, the potential effects of coupled phenomena on radionuclide transport in the vicinity of a repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF) hosted by the Opalinus Clay, at times equal to or greater than the expected lifetime of the waste canisters (about 1000 years), have been addressed. Firstly, estimates of the solute fluxes associated with chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration, thermal diffusion and thermal osmosis have been calculated. Available experimental data concerning coupled transport phenomena in compacted clays, and the hydrogeological and geochemical conditions to which the Opalinus Clay is subject, have been used for these estimates. These estimates suggest that thermal osmosis is the only coupled transport mechanism that could have a strong impact on solute and fluid transport in the vicinity of the repository. Secondly, estimates of the heat fluxes associated with thermal filtration and the Dufour effect in the vicinity of the repository have been calculated. The calculated heat fluxes are absolutely negligible compared to the heat flux caused by thermal conduction. As a further step to obtain additional insight into the effects of coupled phenomena on solute transport, the solute fluxes associated with advection, chemical diffusion, thermal and chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration and thermal diffusion have been incorporated into a simple one-dimensional transport equation. The analytical solution of this equation, with appropriate parameters, shows again that thermal osmosis is the only coupled transport mechanism that could have a strong effect on repository

  8. Modelling of an in-situ ventilation experiment in opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydraulic properties of the host-rock and the excavation damage zone (EDZ) of Opalinus Clay have been derived by means of numerical modelling based on measurements of pressure, humidity and deformation in the wall rock of a ventilated tunnel. The ventilation experiment (VE), located in the Mont Terri URL in Switzerland (Opalinus Clay formation, is aimed at investigating in-situ the effect of tunnel ventilation on the hydro-mechanical conditions i n the rock around the excavations. For this purpose a hermetically separated tunnel section is ventilated under well-controlled condition. Humidity, temperature and volumetric airflow are measured in the tunnel, pore water pressure, water content and deformation are monitored in the wall rock. Three major experimental phases have been accomplished to date, a saturation phase between July 2002 and April 2003, a desaturation phase between July 2003 and February 2004 and a re-saturation phase, which is still ongoing (October 2004. The focus of this paper is on the desaturation phase comprising of 3 periods of varying humidity and flow-rates of the air entering the tunnel. (authors)

  9. Multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model of the ventilation experiment in Opalinus clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Major, J.C.

    2008-10-15

    During the construction and operational phases of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository constructed in a clay formation, ventilation of underground drifts will cause desaturation and oxidation of the rock. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) was performed in a 1.3 m diameter unlined horizontal microtunnel on Opalinus clay at Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland to evaluate the impact of desaturation on rock properties. A multiphase flow and reactive transport model of VE is presented here. The model accounts for liquid, vapor and air flow, evaporation/condensation and multicomponent reactive solute transport with kinetic dissolution of pyrite and siderite and local-equilibrium dissolution/precipitation of calcite, ferrihydrite, dolomite, gypsum and quartz. Model results reproduce measured vapor flow, liquid pressure and hydrochemical data and capture the trends of measured relative humidities, although such data are slightly overestimated near the rock interface due to uncertainties in the turbulence factor. Rock desaturation allows oxygen to diffuse into the rock and triggers pyrite oxidation, dissolution of calcite and siderite, precipitation of ferrihydrite, dolomite and gypsum and cation exchange. pH in the unsaturated rock varies from 7.8 to 8 and is buffered by calcite. Computed changes in the porosity and the permeability of Opalinus clay in the unsaturated zone caused by oxidation and mineral dissolution/precipitation are smaller than 5%. Therefore, rock properties are not expected to be affected significantly by ventilation of underground drifts during construction and operational phases of a HLW repository in clay.

  10. Os modos da teleologia em Cuvier, Darwin e Claude Bernard The modes of teleology in Cuvier, Darwin and Claude Bernard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caponi

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A biologia pré-darwiniana reconhecia nos seres vivos uma finalidade dupla: as diferentes estruturas orgânicas, além de estar constituídas e articuladas de modo a integrar um ser organizado, possibilitavam também a adequação desse ser a seu entorno. Todavia, esta dupla conformidade a fim, que Cuvier ainda concebe como um único conjunto de condições que definem a própria possibilidade de um organismo, na biologia contemporânea aparecerá cindida em duas ordens de fenômenos diferentes. Assim, após a identificação do ponto de inflexão na história das ciências da vida, no qual se gerou essa cisão, investigamos neste trabalho as condições conceituais que a exigiram e possibilitaram. Propomos como resposta que essa "mitose conceitual" teve sua razão de ser no fim da idéia clássica de economia natural; e sugerimos ainda que a mesma deve ser considerada no contexto de uma mudança no ideal de ordem natural próprio da história natural.Pre-Darwinian biology acknowledged the existence in living beings of a double finality: different structures were not only constituted and articulated in such a way as to integrate an organized being, but they also allowed the fit of this being into its environment. However, this double conformity to ends, still conceived by Cuvier as an unique set of conditions that defined the very possibility of an organism, will in contemporary biology appear split into two different kinds of phenomena. Thus, after identifying the turning point in the history of life sciences where that partition happened, we shall analyze the conceptual conditions that made it both possible and necessary. We hold that this "conceptual mitosis" had its raison d'être in the end of the classical idea of natural economy; and we shall also argue that it must be considered in the context of a change in the ideal of natural order of natural history.

  11. Cryopreservation of yamú (Brycon amazonicus) sperm for large scale fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Medina-Robles, Mauricio; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

      To determine the effect of straw size and thawing temperature on cryopreserved sperm quality of yamú (Brycon amazonicus), ovulation and spermiation were induced in sexually mature broodstock using Carp Pituitary Extract. Sperm quality was evaluated by motility, activation time and fertility...... (35 °C or 80 °C water bath) were evaluated. To assess fertility, 2 g of eggs (ca. 2800) were inseminated with 500 μL of frozen-thawed sperm (ca. 75,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) from each straw thawed at 35 °C or 80 °C, or 160 μL (ca. 50,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) of fresh sperm. Large scale fertility...... assays consisted of 40 g eggs inseminated with approximately 5.0 mL (ca. 75,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) of cryopreserved sperm in large straws thawed at 35 °C. The fertilization rate was estimated 6 h post-insemination. In all straws, postthaw motility was significantly lower than for fresh sperm (pb0...

  12. Stocking densities of juvenile Brycon orthotaenia: production parameters and economic benefits in net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Assis Lago

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing a rearing technology requires the determination of the optimum stocking density. This study aimed to determine the best stocking density for Brycon orthotaenia juveniles grown in net cages, during the rearing phase. The research was conducted at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG, in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais State, in the Três Marias Reservoir. 9,000 fingerlings were distributed into 12 net cages, 2 m3each, according to a completely randomized design with three replications and four different stocking densities (150, 300, 450, 600 fish m-3. Random samples were taken from each net cage, at the onset of the experiment and at 60 rearing days, to assess production parameters, specific growth rate and uniformity. We verified a positive linear relationship (p 0.05 for growth parameters, uniformity and final weight. It can be concluded that the density of 300 fish m-3 is the most suitable, because it provides higher net revenue, survival, and a good feed conversion.

  13. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Swiss programme for high-level radioactive-waste disposal, a Jurassic shale (Opalinus Clay) is being investigated as a potential host rock. Observations in clay pits and the results of a German research programme focusing on hazardous waste disposal have demonstrated that, at depths of 10-30 m, the permeability of the Opalinus Clay decreases by several orders of magnitude. Hydraulic tests in deeper boreholes (test intervals below 300 m) yielded hydraulic conductivities base - part of which derives from particularly unfavourable geological environments - provides arguments that advective transport through faults and joints is not a critical issue for the suitability of Opalinus Clay as a host rock for deep geological waste disposal. Résumé. Dans le cadre du programme suisse de stockage de déchets hautement radioactifs, une formation argileuse du Jurassique, l'argile à Opalinus, a été étudiée en tant que roche hôte potentielle. Des observations dans des cavités dans l'argile et les résultats du programme de recherche allemand consacré au stockage de déchets à risques ont démontré que, à des profondeur de 10 à 30 m, la perméabilité des argiles à Opalinus décroît de plusieurs ordres de grandeur. Des essais hydrauliques dans des forages plus profonds (intervalles de test á une profondeur de plus de 300 m) ont donné des conductivités hydrauliques inférieures à 10-12 m/s, même lorsque des fractures et des failles existaient dans certains des intervalles d'essais. Ces mesures sont conformes aux données hydrogéologiques tirées du recoupement des argiles à Opalinus par dix tunnels du Jura plissé du nord de la Suisse. Malgré une tectonique intense, peu de manifestations de faibles venues d'eau ont été rencontrées dans plus de 6600 m de tunnel. Toutes les venues d'eau se sont produites dans des sections de tunnel où le recouvrement est inférieur à 200 m. Les données hydrauliques sont en bon accord avec les donn

  14. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Swiss programme for high-level radioactive-waste disposal, a Jurassic shale (Opalinus Clay) is being investigated as a potential host rock. Observations in clay pits and the results of a German research programme focusing on hazardous waste disposal have demonstrated that, at depths of 10-30 m, the permeability of the Opalinus Clay decreases by several orders of magnitude. Hydraulic tests in deeper boreholes (test intervals below 300 m) yielded hydraulic conductivities base - part of which derives from particularly unfavourable geological environments - provides arguments that advective transport through faults and joints is not a critical issue for the suitability of Opalinus Clay as a host rock for deep geological waste disposal. Résumé. Dans le cadre du programme suisse de stockage de déchets hautement radioactifs, une formation argileuse du Jurassique, l'argile à Opalinus, a été étudiée en tant que roche hôte potentielle. Des observations dans des cavités dans l'argile et les résultats du programme de recherche allemand consacré au stockage de déchets à risques ont démontré que, à des profondeur de 10 à 30 m, la perméabilité des argiles à Opalinus décroît de plusieurs ordres de grandeur. Des essais hydrauliques dans des forages plus profonds (intervalles de test á une profondeur de plus de 300 m) ont donné des conductivités hydrauliques inférieures à 10-12 m/s, même lorsque des fractures et des failles existaient dans certains des intervalles d'essais. Ces mesures sont conformes aux données hydrogéologiques tirées du recoupement des argiles à Opalinus par dix tunnels du Jura plissé du nord de la Suisse. Malgré une tectonique intense, peu de manifestations de faibles venues d'eau ont été rencontrées dans plus de 6600 m de tunnel. Toutes les venues d'eau se sont produites dans des sections de tunnel où le recouvrement est inférieur à 200 m. Les données hydrauliques sont en bon accord avec les donn

  15. Comportamento reprodutivo do acará bandeira, Pterophyllum scalare Cuvier & Valenciennes (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae) Reproductive behaviour of Pterophyllum scalare Cuvier & Valenciennes (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria do Socorro R.F Cacho; Maria Emília Yamamoto; Sathyabama Chellappa

    1999-01-01

    Acará bandeira, Pterophyllum scalare Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1831 is a Neotropical cichlid fish, which has not been studied under a scientific approach. The objective of this work was to identify and describe the reproductive behaviour involved in the various phases of its reproductive cycle, such as territorial disputes and its establishment, substrate selection for spawning, courtship and mating, selection of mate and parental care. Twenty males and ten females of the study species were obse...

  16. Citrobacter freundii septicemia in a stranded newborn Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Antonio; Vela, Ana Isabel; Andrada, Marisa; Herraez, Pedro; Díaz-Delgado, Josue; Domínguez, Lucas; Arbelo, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Citrobacter freundii, a gram-negative enterobacterium, may cause fatal septicemia in humans and animals. Its potential pathogenic role in cetaceans (bottlenose dolphins and beluga whales) has been hypothesized. Here we describe fatal C. freundii septicemia in a stranded newborn Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris).

  17. Three-dimensional FDEM numerical simulation of failure processes observed in Opalinus Clay laboratory samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first step of a research project that aims at using a three-dimensional (3D hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM to investigate the development of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ around tunnels in a clay shale formation known as Opalinus Clay. The 3D FDEM was first calibrated against standard laboratory experiments, including Brazilian disc test and uniaxial compression test. The effect of increasing confining pressure on the mechanical response and fracture propagation of the rock was quantified under triaxial compression tests. Polyaxial (or true triaxial simulations highlighted the effect of the intermediate principal stress (σ2 on fracture directions in the model: as the intermediate principal stress increased, fractures tended to align in the direction parallel to the plane defined by the major and intermediate principal stresses. The peak strength was also shown to vary with changing σ2.

  18. [Effect of pluviosity and sun shine on sperm production and seminal characteristics of the fish Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabares, C J; Montoya, A F; Arboleda, L; Echeverri, A; Restrepo, L F; Olivera-Angel, M

    2006-03-01

    Effect of pluviosity and sun shine on sperm production and seminal characteristics of the fish Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae). In Colombia the fish Brycon henni is a protected endemic species. It inhabits water bodies in coffee producing areas (700-1900 ma.s.l.; 4 degrees 35'56" N - 74 degrees 04'51" W; 18-28 degrees C). Insufficient knowledge of its basic biology and behavior prevent the commercial culture of this promising fish. We studied the production and sperm physiology of captive males. Along a year 20 samples were taken from each of 10 males. The sample was obtained by abdominal cefalo-caudal massage and transported to the laboratory at 4 degrees C. Except for September and October (maximum rainfall), sperm was always obtained in at least 50% of the males. Color, osmolality and pH were similar in all the samples. Volume, concentration, viability, motility and activation time were variable: sunshine had a positive effect on volume (Spearman p < 0.05) and on sperm concentration (Spearman p < 0.05) while pluviosity had a negative effect on volume and viability. The proportion of ions (Na, K, Mg, Ca) was constant along the year; Na being 10-fold higher than K and 100-fold higher than Mg and Ca; however the absolute concentration of all ions was slightly higher in April and in July (with no apparent relation with the other variables analyzed). PMID:18457186

  19. Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

    2014-11-01

    Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity.

  20. Dinâmica populacional da matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae na Amazônia Central Population dynamics of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae in Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leocy C. dos Santos Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 is one of the most important fishery resources of the Amazonas state. Its population dynamics in Central Amazon was analyzed based on total landing and biometry data registered in the main landing port of Manaus, between 1994 and 2002. Growth and mortality rates were estimated separately for the rivers Purus, Madeira and Solimões. Differences in size structure and growth curves suggest that different population units exist among these rivers, requiring individualized evaluation and fisheries management strategies. The analysis of the yield per recruit does not indicate overexploitation. However, the highest relative exploitation rate was observed in the Madeira river. The suggested management strategies are related to restrictions to the fishery in the main fishing grounds during the migratory dispersal period, instead of restrictions during reproductive periods.

  1. Population genetic structure revealed by a school of the freshwatermigratory fish, Brycon hilarii Estructura genética poblacional revelada por un cardumen del pez migratorio de agua dulce, Brycon hilarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sanches

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that different genetic populations of migratory fishes can co-exist in a single hydrographic system. Although different populations may occupy and explore the river together, they segregate during the spawning season and consequently the population genetic structuring is maintained. Genetic variation of a Brycon hilarii spawning school and samples from different collection sites in the Miranda River basin were surveyed using seven microsatellites. Population structuring was revealed by a significant differentiation of the spawning school related to the supposed local populations. The genetic differentiation detected may be supported by behavior during the reproductive season that promotes the maintenance of the genetic integrity of different populations. These data may contribute toward the understanding of the behavior and biology of these fish as well as fishery management and species conservation programs.Se ha documentado que diferentes poblaciones genéticas de peces migratorios pueden coexistir en un único sistema hidrográfico. Diferentes poblaciones pueden ocupar y explorar el río juntas, pero se segregan durante la temporada de desove y consecuentemente la estructuración genética poblacional se mantiene. La diversidad genética de un cardumen reproductivo de Brycon hilarii y muestras de diferentes sitios en la cuenca del Río Miranda fueron analizadas mediante siete microsatélites. La estructura poblacional fue revelada por una diferenciación genética significativa del cardumen reproductivo con las muestras de las poblaciones locales. La diferenciación genética detectada puede ser resultado de un probable comportamiento durante la temporada reproductiva, que promueve el mantenimiento de la integridad genética de las diferentes poblaciones. Estos datos pueden contribuir a la comprensión del comportamiento y biología de estos peces, así como amparar programas de gestión de la pesca y conservación de las

  2. Effect of methyl parathion on the muscle and brain acetylcholinesterase activity of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Luciana Cristina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming of the freshwater fish is emerging in Brazil and many species from the wild are promising. The teleost matrinxã (Brycon cephalus holds several characteristics such as fast growth rate, high commercial value and adaptability to artificial raring conditions, which make it a promising species for commerce. The use of pesticides in aquatic environment is frequent in Brazil, and methyl parathion is very common in aquaculture. We have determined the enzymatic activity of acetyl cholinesterase in white muscle and brain of matrinxã exposed to 2ppm of environmental methyl parathion for 24 hours. There was 64% and 69% of acetyl cholinesterase inhibition in muscle and brain respectively. These activities were not recovered after 8 days from exposure to this pesticide. It can be concluded that acetyl cholinesterase from those tissues was inhibited by small amounts of methyl parathion, and the main effect was observed in the brain.

  3. LEVANTAMENTO DE PARASITOS EM INFRAPOPULAÇÃO DE Brycon insignis STEINDACHNER, 1876 (PISCES, CHARACIDAE), CRIADA NA REGIÃO NORTE FLUMINENSE, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton Garcia de Mattos Júnior; Maria Angélica Vieira da Costa Pereira; Guilherme Quintanilha Fernandes; Guilherme Souza

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo fazer um levantamento de parasitos na piabanha, um peixe da família Characidae e do gênero Brycon, o mesmo do matrinxã, da piraputanga e de outras sessenta espécies. Nativa do rio Paraíba do Sul, Região Norte Fluminense do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, trata-se de espécie ameaçada de extinção. Analisaram-se sessenta espécimes de Brycon insignis Steindachner, 1876, com peso médio de 6,0 a 8,0 kg e comprimento total de 15,0 a 45,0 cm no período compreendido e...

  4. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 56. New species of Anacanthorus (Dactylogyridae) from the gills of matrinchã, Brycon orthotaenia (Characiformes: Characidae), in the Rio São Francisco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cassandra M; Kritsky, Delane C; Brasil-Sato, Marilia C

    2010-09-01

    Anacanthorus franciscanus sp. n. and Anacanthorus brevicirrus sp. n. (Dactylogyridae) are described from the gills of the matrinchã, Brycon orthotaenia Günther (Characidae), from the Rio São Francisco in Brazil. Anacanthorusfranciscanus most closely resembles Anacanthorus e[egans and A. kruidenieri from the matrinchõ, Brycon melanopterus, of the Amazon River Basin. It differs from these species in part by having the bulbous proximal end of the hook shank with two translucent regions. Anacanthorus brevicirrus resembles A. franciscanus, A. kruidenieri and A. elegans but is differentiated from these species by its short straight male copulatory organ and by having one translucent region in the bulbous base of the hook shank. PMID:20941907

  5. Reef-Fidelity and Migration of Tiger Sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the Coral Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Werry, Jonathan M.; Serge Planes; Berumen, Michael L.; Lee, Kate A.; Camrin D Braun; Eric Clua

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the habitat use and migration patterns of large sharks is important for assessing the effectiveness of large predator Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), vulnerability to fisheries and environmental influences, and management of shark-human interactions. Here we compare movement, reef-fidelity, and ocean migration for tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the Coral Sea, with an emphasis on New Caledonia. Thirty-three tiger sharks (1.54 to 3.9 m total length) were tagged with passive...

  6. Intraspecific variation in vertical habitat use by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in the western North Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Vaudo, Jeremy J; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Harvey, Guy; Nemeth, Richard S.; Aming, Choy; Burnie, Neil; Lucy A Howey-Jordan; Mahmood S Shivji

    2014-01-01

    Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are a wide ranging, potentially keystone predator species that display a variety of horizontal movement patterns, making use of coastal and pelagic waters. Far less, however, is known about their vertical movements and use of the water column. We used pop-up satellite archival tags with two data sampling rates (high rate and standard rate tags) to investigate the vertical habitat use and diving behavior of tiger sharks tagged on the Puerto Rico–Virgin Islands ...

  7. Growth and Maximum Size of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Carl G.; Joseph M. O'Malley; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; Dale, Jonathan J.; Hutchinson, Melanie R.; Anderson, James M.; Royer, Mark A.; Holland, Kim N.

    2014-01-01

    The authors acknowledge the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Marine Sanctuaries Program), University of Hawaii Sea Grant and the State of Hawaii (Department of Land and Natural Resources) for providing funding to support a variety of shark research projects that collectively made this study possible. Tiger sharks (Galecerdo cuvier) are apex predators characterized by their broad diet, large size and rapid growth. Tiger shark maximum size is typically between 380 & ...

  8. Three-dimensional tracking of Cuvier's beaked whales' echolocation sounds using nested hydrophone arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2015-10-01

    Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) were tracked using two volumetric small-aperture (∼1 m element spacing) hydrophone arrays, embedded into a large-aperture (∼1 km element spacing) seafloor hydrophone array of five nodes. This array design can reduce the minimum number of nodes that are needed to record the arrival of a strongly directional echolocation sound from 5 to 2, while providing enough time-differences of arrivals for a three-dimensional localization without depending on any additional information such as multipath arrivals. To illustrate the capabilities of this technique, six encounters of up to three Cuvier's beaked whales were tracked over a two-month recording period within an area of 20 km(2) in the Southern California Bight. Encounter periods ranged from 11 min to 33 min. Cuvier's beaked whales were found to reduce the time interval between echolocation clicks while alternating between two inter-click-interval regimes during their descent towards the seafloor. Maximum peak-to-peak source levels of 179 and 224 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m were estimated for buzz sounds and on-axis echolocation clicks (directivity index = 30 dB), respectively. Source energy spectra of the on-axis clicks show significant frequency components between 70 and 90 kHz, in addition to their typically noted FM upsweep at 40-60 kHz.

  9. Three-dimensional tracking of Cuvier's beaked whales' echolocation sounds using nested hydrophone arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2015-10-01

    Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) were tracked using two volumetric small-aperture (∼1 m element spacing) hydrophone arrays, embedded into a large-aperture (∼1 km element spacing) seafloor hydrophone array of five nodes. This array design can reduce the minimum number of nodes that are needed to record the arrival of a strongly directional echolocation sound from 5 to 2, while providing enough time-differences of arrivals for a three-dimensional localization without depending on any additional information such as multipath arrivals. To illustrate the capabilities of this technique, six encounters of up to three Cuvier's beaked whales were tracked over a two-month recording period within an area of 20 km(2) in the Southern California Bight. Encounter periods ranged from 11 min to 33 min. Cuvier's beaked whales were found to reduce the time interval between echolocation clicks while alternating between two inter-click-interval regimes during their descent towards the seafloor. Maximum peak-to-peak source levels of 179 and 224 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m were estimated for buzz sounds and on-axis echolocation clicks (directivity index = 30 dB), respectively. Source energy spectra of the on-axis clicks show significant frequency components between 70 and 90 kHz, in addition to their typically noted FM upsweep at 40-60 kHz. PMID:26520330

  10. Derivation of in situ opalinus clay porewater compositions from experimental and geochemical modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are considering argillaceous sedimentary rocks as potential formations for the disposal of high level radioactive waste. One of the main attractions of such formations from a waste management viewpoint are their generally low groundwater flow rates. However, porewater chemistry constitutes an important basic data set for performance assessment studies and the low transmissivities often mean that it is very difficult, or even impossible, to obtain good in situ water samples. This report describes procedures based on physico-chemical characterisation of whole rock samples and geochemical modelling which were developed as an additional tool for determining porewater compositions in low porosity/permeability clay rich systems. The methodology was applied to core samples of opalinus clay within the framework of an international investigation being carried out at Mt. Terri, Canton Jura, Switzerland. The calculated porewater compositions are described and discussed in relation to experimental data from the analyses of borehole seepage water and water samples obtained from squeezing tests. Because the latter two waters were clearly out of the equilibrium, only a comparison based on general aqueous features was attempted. In all three cases the groundwaters were high ionic strength Na-Cl types. The experimentally determined pH values were in the range 7.5-8 whereas for the modelled porewater a value near 6 was calculated. This discrepancy was explained by postulating that the sampled waters lost dissolved CO2 through out-gassing. (author) 5 figs., 11 tabs., refs

  11. Diffusion Experiments in Opalinus Clay: Laboratory, Large-Scale Diffusion Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso de los Rios, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2008-08-06

    The Opalinus Clay (OPA) formation in the Zurcher Weiland (Switzerland) is a potential host rock for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Samples collected in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL), where the OPA formation is located at a depth between -200 and -300 m below the surface, were used to study the radionuclide diffusion in clay materials. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), to understand the transport properties of the OPA and to enhance the methodologies used for in situ diffusion experiments. Through-Diffusion and In-Diffusion conventional laboratory diffusion experiments were carried out with HTO, 36{sup C}l-, I-, 22{sup N}a, 75{sup S}e, 85{sup S}r, 233{sup U}, 137{sup C}s, 60{sup C}o and 152{sup E}u. Large-scale diffusion experiments were performed with HTO, 36{sup C}l, and 85{sup S}r, and new experiments with 60{sup C}o, 137{sup C}s and 152{sup E}u are ongoing. Diffusion experiments with RBS technique were done with Sr, Re, U and Eu. (Author) 38 refs.

  12. In situ analysis of microbial reduction of a nitrate plume in Opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In several countries, such as Belgium, France and Switzerland, clay formations are foreseen as the host rock for geological disposal of bituminized low-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. Suitable clay formations exhibit favorable hydro-mechanical and geochemical characteristics, which are expected to retard the migration of leached radionuclides. Along with radionuclides, certain classes of bituminized radioactive waste may also contain high concentrations of NaNO3, dispersed into the hydrophobic bitumen matrix used to stabilize the waste. During and after saturation of the disposal gallery, this bituminized waste will start to take up water due to osmosis, resulting in the leaching of significant amounts of NaNO3 and soluble organic bitumen degradation products (BDP) into the clay pore water. This nitrate plume could cause several geochemical and biochemical processes in the clay surrounding the waste disposal gallery, potentially affecting the barrier function of the host rock. To study these processes, an in situ experiment in the Opalinus Clay, named the Bitumen-Nitrate-Clay interaction (BN) experiment, is being performed at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (CH). The experiment consists of a vertical borehole rigged with a downhole equipment containing three packed-off intervals, each lined with a cylindrical sintered stainless steel filter screen to allow contact with the surrounding clay. Prior to the start of the tests, the intervals were injected with an artificial Opalinus Clay pore water, containing all major ions at pore water concentrations at Mont Terri, but no organic matter, and were equilibrated with the surrounding clay for ∼8 months. To ensure a continuous water flow during the tests, each interval is connected to a stainless steel water circulation unit, equipped with water sampling containers, circulation pumps and flow meters. In addition, to continuously monitor the

  13. Multistep triaxial strength tests: Investigating strength parameters and pore pressure effects on Opalinus Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräsle, W.

    Natural variability between rock samples often hampers a detailed analysis of material properties. For the investigation of strength parameters the concept of multistep triaxial strength tests was developed to avoid the impact of sample variability. The limit of linear elastic behavior, shear strength and residual strength were measured at different confining pressure on a single specimen. Appropriate tools for near real time data analysis were developed to facilitate a precise and timely control of the test procedure. This is essential to minimize the problem of sample degradation during the test. The feasibility of the test concept was proven on three samples of Opalinus Clay from the Mont Terri rock laboratory. Each investigated strength parameter displayed a distinct deviation from a linear dependency on confining pressure or mean stress respectively. Instead, curves consisting of two linear branches almost perfectly fit the test results. These results could be explained in the framework of poroelastic theory. Although it is not possible to determine Skempton’s B-parameter ( Skempton, 1954) and the Biot-Willis poroelastic parameter ( Biot and Willis, 1957) separately from multistep strength tests, the product of both parameters can be derived from the test results. Although material anisotropy was found by the test results, numerous simple strength tests ( Gräsle and Plischke, 2010) as well as true triaxial tests ( Naumann et al., 2007) provide a more efficient way to investigate anisotropy.

  14. Three-dimensional FDEM numerical simulation of failure processes observed in Opalinus Clay laboratory samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omid Mahabadi; Patrick Kaifosh; Paul Marschall; Tim Vietor

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first step of a research project that aims at using a three-dimensional (3D) hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM) to investigate the development of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around tunnels in a clay shale formation known as Opalinus Clay. The 3D FDEM was first calibrated against standard laboratory experiments, including Brazilian disc test and uniaxial compression test. The effect of increasing confining pressure on the mechanical response and fracture propagation of the rock was quantified under triaxial compression tests. Polyaxial (or true triaxial) simulations highlighted the effect of the intermediate principal stress (s2) on fracture directions in the model: as the intermediate principal stress increased, fractures tended to align in the direction parallel to the plane defined by the major and intermediate principal stresses. The peak strength was also shown to vary with changing s2. ? 2014 Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Boring and excavation technologies for Opalinus clay in the rock laboratories at Mont Terri; Techniques de forages et d'excavations dans les argiles à Opalinus, laboratoire souterrain du Mont Terri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, P.; Nussbaum, Ch. [Swiss Federal Office of Topography swisstopo, Wabern (Switzerland); Burrus, F. [Groupe Grands Travaux GGT, Porrentruy (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    This comprehensive article discusses the work done since 1996 at the rock laboratories at Mont Terri in the Swiss Jura Mountains. The work being done by fifteen international partners on the characterisation of the Opalinus clay with regard to its geological, hydro-geological, geochemical and geotechnical characteristics is reported on. Various methods of drilling are described that are able to preserve any tectonic crevices in the rock. Drilling under special conditions, including the use of nitrogen and argon atmospheres to prevent bacterial contamination, is looked at, as are the methods used in tunnelling without having to use water.

  16. Probiotic in feeding of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus: economic viability=Probiótico na alimentação de juvenis de matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus: viabilidade econômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Tachibana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic feasibility of supplement probiotics Bacillus subtilis to “matrinxã” Brycon amazonicus, raised in cages. The experiment was conducted at the Polo Regional Vale do Ribeira, in Pariquera-açu municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to July 2009. A total of 960 juvenile matrinxã were stocked in twelve 2.7 m³-net cages (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.2 m, in ponds with a total area of 600 m2 and an average depth of 1.50 m. The tests were conducted with a control treatment (T1 and two probiotic doses (T2 = 5 g and T3 = 10 g kg-1 of diet with four replicates. Results showed that T2 produced better economic performance for matrinxã at the juvenile stage in intensive rearing system.Objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade econômica do uso do probiótico Bacillus subtilis na alimentação de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus, em tanques-rede. O experimento foi conduzido no Polo Regional do Vale do Ribeira, no município de Pariquera-Açu, São Paulo, Brasil, entre fevereiro e julho de 2009. Foram avaliados 960 peixes juvenis, divididos em 12 tanques-rede de 2,7 m³ (1,5 x 1,5 x 1,2 m em uma área total de 600 m2, com profundidade média de 1,50 m. Os testes foram conduzidos com um tratamento testemunha (T1, duas doses de probiótico (T2 = 5 g e T3 = 10 g kg-1 de ração e quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que o T2 proporcionou melhor desempenho zootécnico e econômico da matrinxã na fase de engorda no sistema intensivo de criação.

  17. Effects of clove oil on the stress response of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus subjected to transport Efeito do óleo de cravo na resposta de estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus submetido ao transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish transport is one of the most stressful procedures in aquaculture facilities. The present work evaluated the stress response of matrinxã to transportation procedures, and the use of clove oil as an alternative to reduce the stress response to transport in matrinxã (Brycon cephalus. Clove oil solutions were tested in concentrations of 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg/L during matrinxã transportation in plastic bags, supplied with water and oxygen as the usual field procedures in Brazil. Clove oil reduced some of the physiological stress responses (plasma cortisol, glucose and ions that we measured. The high energetic cost to matrinxã cope with the transport stress was clear by the decrease of liver glycogen after transport. Our results suggest that clove oil (5 mg/l can mitigate the stress response in matrinxã subjected to transport.O transporte de peixes vivos é certamente um dos principais estímulos adversos à homeostase dos peixes nas condições de criação em cativeiro. O presente trabalho mensurou o estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, quando submetido ao transporte em sacos plásticos, bem como avaliou os efeitos do uso do anestésico óleo de cravo nessa etapa do manejo. Foram testadas as concentrações de 0, 1, 5 e 10 mg/L de óleo de cravo em bolsas plásticas preenchidas com água e oxigênio, de acordo com as práticas comumente utilizadas no Brasil. O óleo de cravo reduziu algumas das principais respostas ao estresse (cortisol, glicose plasmática e íons mensuradas. O alto gasto de energia para o matrinxã tolerar o transporte foi evidenciado pela diminuição dos valores de glicogênio hepático. Os resultados sugerem que o óleo de cravo em concentração de 5 mg/L pode atenuar as principais respostas de estresse do matrinxã durante o transporte.

  18. Characterization of the porosity in Opalinus Clay using ion beam polishing and SEM imaging - First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text entered in this record: In trying to cope with the increasing energy demand and at the same time trying to reduce CO2 emissions, there is renewed interest in the use of nuclear energy. Clay rich formations are known for their low permeability, illustrated by the fact that they form seals for hydrocarbons, confine and separate aquifers and protect deep groundwater resources from contamination, and clay-stones can hence act as a potentially good candidate for the long-term storage of radioactive waste. In the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, Switzerland, the Opalinus Clay is investigated thoroughly (since 1996), with the aim to analyze its geological, hydrogeological, geochemical and rock mechanical properties and to observe how these properties change during the excavation of galleries, heating of the formation and emplacement of buffer material. Detailed investigation of the morphology of the pore space in clay is a key factor in understanding the sealing capacity, coupled flows, capillary processes and associated deformation present in clay rich layers. Using novel methods, our study reports direct, high-resolution observations and description of porosity in Opalinus Clay. Since clay is a delicate material, one of the key problems when observing the porosity of clay under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is the sample preparation. To protect the microstructure of the clay, our samples are slowly dried at room temperature and under controlled conditions. Thereafter, an ion beam polisher (Broad Ion Beam - BIB) is used to produce high quality cross-sections without damages of microstructures. The produced cross-sections are then suitable for pore space investigation at high resolution by using a SEM. In order to optimize the processing of samples, the representative elementary area (REA) of BIB-polished cross-sections need to be determined first. A first step, in determining the REA for the mineral

  19. Microbiological analysis of the in situ bitumen-nitrate-Opalinus clay interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clay formations like the Opalinus Clay are foreseen to serve as the host rock for geological disposal of high and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste in several countries, because of their favourable properties to delay the migration of radionuclides over time. However, bituminized intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste may physico-chemically perturb the clay barrier properties because in time it will leach substantial amounts of nitrate and organic bitumen degradation products (BDP). To study the physico-chemical impact of intermediate-level radioactive waste containing bitumen and nitrate, an in situ experiment in the Opalinus Clay (Saint Ursanne, Switzerland) named the Bitumen-Nitrate- Clay interaction (BN) experiment, is being performed at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. The in situ equipment of the BN-experiment consists of three separate packed-off intervals, supplied with a filter screen. Each interval is equipped with its own stainless steel water circulation unit. Such water circulation unit contains water sampling containers, circulation pumps and flow meters. One of the circulation units is equipped with an on-line UV spectrophotometer and pH electrode intervals, allowing a continuous monitoring of nitrate, nitrite concentrations, organic carbon level and pH. In a first series of tests, the microbial and biogeochemical effect of a nitrate and/or acetate perturbation is studied. Acetate is used as it a good representation of BDP. Hereto, nitrate was injected in interval 1 while a mixture of nitrate and acetate is injected in interval 2. As an active microbial community can have a significant impact on the physical and (geo)chemical conditions of the clay surrounding the disposal gallery, microbial analyses were performed on samples taken from the interval solutions before, during and after this first series of tests. Our microbial investigations which included Scanning Electron

  20. Fracture transmissivity as a function of normal and shear stress: First results in Opalinus Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuss, Robert J.; Milodowski, Antoni; Harrington, Jon F.

    Fracture transmissivity has been investigated along an idealised fracture for the influence of normal stress and for the transient behaviour during a slow shear experiment. A linear trend for the relationship between effective stress and transmissivity has been proposed for normal loads between 1 and 5 MPa; as effective stress increases transmissivity decreases. Transmissivity was very low throughout the complete spectrum of effective stresses examined and was close to the permeability for intact Opalinus Clay, suggesting that the fracture had effectively closed. During active shearing at a constant normal load, fracture transmissivity was seen to initially reduce, probably due to clear smearing. A series of flux events were seen, with transmissivity increasing by a factor of four. Some of the flux events corresponded with dilation, whilst others did not. This suggests that the opening flow paths were localised and did not result in bulk dilatancy. During the course of the shear test the sample formed its own series of fractures and a complex pattern of deformation occurred along the fracture surface to a depth of less than 1 mm. The impression of the end of the injection hole clearly shows that the block underwent at least 5 mm of the total 6 mm of shear displacement. The injection of fluorescein showed that flow along the fracture was not uniformly radial, as one might expect for such an experimental geometry. At the time of injection there were a number of dominant flow features, mainly in the direction of shear and only perpendicular on one side of the fracture surface. Flow occurred along the original fracture surface as well as the newly formed shear surface, indicating multiple pathways in a complex manner. The evolution of fracture transmissivity is very complex, even along initially planar surfaces. Fracture transmissivity has been seen to be a function of normal stress and porewater pressure, and has also been seen to be a dynamic feature during shear.

  1. Distribution coefficients for the sorption of Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am on Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amayri, Samer; Froehlich, Daniel R.; Kaplan, Ugras; Trautmann, Norbert; Reich, Tobias [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2016-04-01

    The distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) are determined for the sorption of Th(IV), U(VI), Np(V), Pu(III/IV/VI), and Am(III) in the system natural Opalinus Clay (OPA) from Mont Terri, Switzerland, and synthetic OPA pore water at pH 7.6 as a function of solid-to-liquid ratio and element concentration. A linear sorption behavior under the chosen experimental conditions was obtained. The K{sub d} values strongly depend on the oxidation state of the actinide. The K{sub d} values for the tri- and tetravalent actinides are in the range of 29-159 m{sup 3}/kg. U and Np in the oxidation states six and five, respectively, are weakly sorbed on OPA with K{sub d} values of 0.04-0.05 m{sup 3}/kg. The K{sub d} values for the redox-stable Am(III) and Th(IV) are in the same range as for Pu(III) and Pu(IV) which are redox sensitive. The K{sub d} value of Pu(VI) (13 ± 3 m{sup 3}/kg) is about one order of magnitude lower than the K{sub d} values of Pu(III) and Pu(IV), but still more than two orders of magnitude higher compared to the values obtained for U(VI) and Np(V). This discrepancy is attributed to the partial reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) during sorption.

  2. Influence of humic acid on neptunium(V) sorption and diffusion in Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, D.R.; Amayri, S.; Drebert, J.; Reich, T. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    The influence of {sup 14}C-labeled M42 humic acid (HA) on the interaction between neptunium(V) and natural clay rock (Opalinus Clay (OPA), Switzerland) has been investigated in batch sorption and diffusion experiments under ambient air conditions. The effect of 10 mg/L HA on the diffusion of 8 {mu}M Np(V) in OPA has been investigated in synthetic OPA pore water (pH 7.6, I = 0.4M) for the first time. Batch sorption experiments as a function of solid-to-liquid ratio (4-20 g/L) were performed under same experimental conditions to compare distribution coefficients obtained from both diffusion and sorption experiments. These experiments showed only a slight influence of HA on Np(V) uptake by OPA in both cases and provided comparable distribution coefficients (presence of HA: K{sub d} = 22-32 L/kg, absence of HA: K{sub d} = 30-46 L/kg). As it is known that the interactions of humic substances with actinides depend on various experimental parameters, the effect of HA on Np(V) sorption on 15 g/L OPA was also investigated as a function of pH (6-10) and initial Np concentration (8 {mu}M and 7 pM). A saturated calcite solution was used as a background electrolyte in this case to prevent any dissolution of calcite contained in OPA at low pH. The results showed that the presence of M42 HA increases Np(V) sorption at pH < 7 while lower sorption was obtained above pH 8. Higher sorption at acidic pH can be attributed to strong sorption of HA which increases the number of sorption sites, while sorption decreases at higher pH probably due to formation of soluble ternary neptunium humate carbonate species. (orig.)

  3. Pore morphology and distribution in the Shaly facies of Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri, Switzerland): Insights from representative 2D BIB-SEM investigations on mm to nm scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.E.; Desbois, G.; Urai, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    We used Broad-Ion-Beam polishing in combination with Scanning Electron Microscopy to study the microstructure and porosity in the Shaly facies of Opalinus Clay (northern Switzerland). With resolutions of a few nm, we studied areas of around 1 mm2, sufficiently large to be statistically representativ

  4. Stock assessment of sin croaker Johnieops sina (Cuvier) from Bombay waters

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Chakraborty

    1996-01-01

    Growth, mortality and stock parameters of Johnieops sina (Cuvier) based on the data collected from 1989 to 1994 from Sassoon Dock and New Ferry Wharf landing centres of Greater Bombay has been discussed here. The von Bertallanffy's growth parameters for this species were estimated as follows, L∞= 266 mm, K=0.91 per year and W∞=193 g. This species grows to 159 and 223 mm at the end of first and second year of its life. The mortality parameters estimated were Z=6.17, M=2. 03 and F=4.14. The E ...

  5. X-ray computed tomography investigation of structures in Opalinus Clay from large-scale to small-scale after mechanical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufhold, Annette; Halisch, Matthias; Zacher, Gerhard; Kaufhold, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    In the past years X-ray computed tomography (CT) has became more and more common for geoscientific applications and is used from the µm-scale (e.g. for investigations of microfossils or pore-scale structures) up to the dm-scale (full drill cores or soil columns). In this paper we present results from CT imaging and mineralogical investigations of an Opalinus Clay core on different scales and different regions of interest, emphasizing especially the 3-D evaluation and distribution of cracks and their impact on mechanical testing of such material. Enhanced knowledge of the testing behaviour of the Opalinus Clay is of great interest, especially since this material is considered for a long-term radioactive waste disposal and storage facility in Switzerland. Hence, results are compared regarding the mineral (i.e. phase) contrast resolution, the spatial resolution, and the overall scanning speed.With this extensive interdisciplinary scale-down approach it has been possible to characterize the general fracture propagation in comparison to mineralogical and textural features of the Opalinus Clay. Additionally, and as far as we know, a so-called mylonitic zone, located at an intersect of two main fractures, has been observed for the first time for an experimentally deformed Opalinus sample. The multi-scale results are in good accordance to data from naturally deformed Opalinus Clay samples, which enables us to perform systematical research under controlled laboratory conditions. Accompanying 3-D imaging greatly enhances the capability of data interpretation and assessment of such a material.

  6. Trackline and point detection probabilities for acoustic surveys of Cuvier's and Blainville's beaked whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jay; Tyack, Peter L; Johnson, Mark P; Baird, Robin W; Schorr, Gregory S; Andrews, Russel D; Aguilar de Soto, Natacha

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic survey methods can be used to estimate density and abundance using sounds produced by cetaceans and detected using hydrophones if the probability of detection can be estimated. For passive acoustic surveys, probability of detection at zero horizontal distance from a sensor, commonly called g(0), depends on the temporal patterns of vocalizations. Methods to estimate g(0) are developed based on the assumption that a beaked whale will be detected if it is producing regular echolocation clicks directly under or above a hydrophone. Data from acoustic recording tags placed on two species of beaked whales (Cuvier's beaked whale-Ziphius cavirostris and Blainville's beaked whale-Mesoplodon densirostris) are used to directly estimate the percentage of time they produce echolocation clicks. A model of vocal behavior for these species as a function of their diving behavior is applied to other types of dive data (from time-depth recorders and time-depth-transmitting satellite tags) to indirectly determine g(0) in other locations for low ambient noise conditions. Estimates of g(0) for a single instant in time are 0.28 [standard deviation (s.d.) = 0.05] for Cuvier's beaked whale and 0.19 (s.d. = 0.01) for Blainville's beaked whale.

  7. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN Genetic Variability in Brycon orbignyanus Stocks Used in Stocking Programs: Management and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON M LOPERA-BARRERO

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar.Environmental alterations caused by the global heating and mainly caused by man's action, have reduced natural fish populations. As a conservation measure, stocking programs have been used; however, without scientific orientation these measures can generate genetic disturbances on the genetic diversity of natural fish populations and the

  8. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/PCO2. In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab→Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some appreciation of the uncertainties

  9. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P{sub CO{sub 2}}. In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab{yields}Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some

  10. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes around a bentonite buffer embedded in Opalinus Clay - Comparison between measurements and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heater Experiment at the Mont Terri Underground Laboratory consists of an engineered barrier system composed of compacted bentonite blocks around a heater. The bentonite barrier is embedded in Opalinus Clay. The aim of the project is improved understanding of thermo-hydro mechanically (THM) coupled processes. Calculations are performed by 2 Finite-Element programs, CODE-BRIGHT and MHERLIN, the former for the near-field modeling and the latter for the rock modeling. Numerical modeling is carried out during all phases of the project to give input for design tasks such as cooling and dismantling, and to finally produce verified models of the THM coupled engineered barrier system. Results of both programs are discussed in the light of the experimental findings. (authors)

  11. Microbial investigations in Opalinus clay from Mont Terri and in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis deals with research achieved in the context of the Axis 2 of the law Bataille voted on December 30, 1991 about the possibility of building a deep geological repository for medium or high activity and long living nuclear waste. Nearby such a site, some microorganisms may influence the mobility of radionuclides coming from the waste canisters. This work consisted in looking for autochthonous microorganisms in the Opalinus clay formation from Mont Terri (Switzerland) and in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne (France). Microbial Investigations in these unknown unperturbed environments suggested very low microbial densities in the clayey sediments. However, new bacterial species could be isolated from those samples. In addition, a part of the allochthonous population, which has been introduced by air and human activity, could be identified in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. (author)

  12. VALOR AGREGADO DE LAS ESPECIES Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE y Agouti paca (MAJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doylith Vásquez Jurafo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo  la obtención de  productos mínimamente procesados (PMP de Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE, y Agouti paca (MAJAS congelado y empacado al vacio. Para las especies piscícolas, se ha aplicado un diseño factorial de 32 con dos factores de estudios: concentración de NaCl en la solución osmótica con tres niveles (15, 20 y 25 % y temperatura de proceso  con tres niveles de estudio (5, 10 y 15 °C. Para el Agouti paca (majas se aplico un diseño factorial completamente aleatorizado con tres factores de estudio: tiempo de proceso (30, 60 y 90 minutos, método de ahumado (ahumado líquido y ahumado en caliente y tipo de corte del músculo (partes y filetes. Para trabajar se ha diseñado y montado un deshidratador Osmótico teniendo en cuenta, diámetro de tubería, deshidratador propiamente dicho con doble chaqueta, capacidad del deshidratador en función del volumen de la Salmuera.  Todos los productos se obtuvieron  en procesos con 10 °C y tiempos entre 30 min y  90 min. El tiempo de vida en almacenamiento en las evaluaciones de aroma y color en majas tienen una vida útil de 4 meses de almacenados a -18 °C. Los análisis microbiológicos realizados a los PMP no pasan los límites de la NTS Nº 071 MINSA/DIGESA V01.

  13. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGAS LAURO

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar

  14. Project Opalinus clay Zuercher Weinland of Nagra. Evaluation of the geo-scientific data base and of the construction engineering aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the Commission for Nuclear Waste Management (KNE) assesses the geological and engineering aspects of the project Opalinus Clay, in which Nagra demonstrates the postclosure safety of geological disposal of spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level wastes (HLW) and intermediate-level wastes (ILW) in a repository in the Opalinus Clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland. After in-depth examination of the geological database, KNE concludes that the demonstration of a suitable geological site for final disposal of SF, HLW and ILW in the Opalinus Clay of the Zuercher Weinland has been achieved. The geological assumptions Nagra uses for the assessment of long-term safety are based on data that have been carefully collected and interpreted. KNE acknowledges that Nagra interpreted the geological data correctly and adequately using state-of-the-art techniques. In case of lacking information, Nagra has used conservative or worst-case assumptions. The information documented by Nagra represents a good synthesis of field, laboratory and literature data. The tectonic situation of the Zuercher Weinland was examined in great details by Nagra. In the centre of the investigated region, where the Opalinus Clay occurs at 600 to 750 meters depth, the 3D-seismic data confirm its undisturbed stratification in an area of about 15 km2. Analysis and interpretation of the available information on the geological evolution provides no indication that erosion would expose the confining units above the Opalinus Clay within the next million years. The Opalinus Clay in the Zuercher Weinland is quite homogeneous and about 110 m thick. The properties of this rock are examined and found to be favourable for a repository. The dominance of the fine grain size and the high clay content indicate a very low hydraulic conductivity suitable for the isolation of radioactive wastes. Pore water extracted from drill-core samples is saline and has remained trapped for millions of years. Its

  15. Gastrointestinal helminths of Cuvier's beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris, from the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, F Javier; Montero, Francisco E; Georgiev, Boyko B; Raga, Juan A

    2004-04-01

    We examined the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 2 Cuvier's beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris, stranded on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Information regarding intestinal parasites of this species is provided for the first time. Six helminth taxa were identified. Thirty type II larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. were found in the stomach and the intestine of both hosts; 2 type I larvae of Anisakis sp. were found in the intestine of 1 host. One juvenile of the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma vasculosum was found in the intestine; the metacestode Scolex pleuronectis was found mainly in the terminal colon and the anal crypts of both hosts; adult cestodes of Tetrabothrius sp., which may represent a new species, were collected from the duodenum of 1 host. Composition of the intestinal parasitic community is similar to that of other oceanic cetaceans, which mostly include species of Bolbosoma and tetrabothriids (Cestoda).

  16. Alimentação de Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier) (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Feeding of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier) (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) at the Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Vendel; Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves

    1998-01-01

    Seasonal variation of food items of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier, 1830) classified by size was analysed based on monthly samples between september/1993 and september/1996 at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazil. The stomach contents of a hundred eighty-two fishes were analysed by the Occunence Frequency Method and Point Count for a Lot Method. The individuais were divided in two groups, smaller and longer than 140mm, and a comparative study of digestive tract and branchial are was performed for t...

  17. Mont Terri Project - Ventilation experiment in Opalinus Clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ventilation of the underground drifts during the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository could produce the partial desaturation of the rock around the drifts, modifying its thermo-hydro-mechanical properties, especially in clayey rocks. This change of rock properties may have an impact on the design of the repositories (drifts spacing and repository size), which depends on the thermal load that the clay barrier and the rock can accept. To evaluate 'in situ' and better understand the desaturation process of a hard clay formation, the Ventilation Experiment (VE) has been carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland), generating a flow of dry air during several months along a section of a microtunnel. Specifically, the VE test has been performed, under practically isothermal conditions (T ≅ 15-16 oC), in a 10 m long section of a non-lined horizontal microtunnel (diameter = 1.3 m), excavated in 1999 in the shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay of Mont Terri. The microtunnel is oriented perpendicular to the bedding strike direction of the rock (mean value of the bedding dip ≅ 25o). The VE experiment real data and its modelling have shown that the desaturation of clayey rocks of low hydraulic conductivity (K -12 m/s) due to ventilation is very small. Under real repository conditions, the thermal and hydro-mechanical rock characteristics will not be practically affected by the ventilation. Specifically, the monitoring of the VE test (mainly the hygrometer data, confirmed also by the geoelectrical measurements) indicates that, after about 5 months of ventilation with almost dry air, the rock relative humidity (and then the degree of saturation) was less than 95% only in a ring of thickness less than 40 cm. Nevertheless, a suction state (subatmospheric liquid pressures) developed up to a distance of about 2 m, but it should be kept in mind that a clayey rock such as the Opalinus Clay is quasi-saturated for suction values up to

  18. Mont Terri Project - Ventilation experiment in Opalinus Clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J. C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Velasco, M. [DM Iberia SA, Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Hernandez, J. [Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Escuela de Ingenieros de Caminos (UPV), Valencia (Spain); Lloret, A.; Matray, J.-M. [IRSN/DEI/SARG/LETS, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Coste, F. [Aradis ESG, Sevres Cedex (France); Giraud, A. [LAEGO-ENSG, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Rothfuchs, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Marschall, P. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Roesli, U. [Solexperts AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Mayer, G. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The ventilation of the underground drifts during the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository could produce the partial desaturation of the rock around the drifts, modifying its thermo-hydro-mechanical properties, especially in clayey rocks. This change of rock properties may have an impact on the design of the repositories (drifts spacing and repository size), which depends on the thermal load that the clay barrier and the rock can accept. To evaluate 'in situ' and better understand the desaturation process of a hard clay formation, the Ventilation Experiment (VE) has been carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland), generating a flow of dry air during several months along a section of a microtunnel. Specifically, the VE test has been performed, under practically isothermal conditions (T {approx_equal} 15-16 {sup o}C), in a 10 m long section of a non-lined horizontal microtunnel (diameter = 1.3 m), excavated in 1999 in the shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay of Mont Terri. The microtunnel is oriented perpendicular to the bedding strike direction of the rock (mean value of the bedding dip {approx_equal} 25{sup o}). The VE experiment real data and its modelling have shown that the desaturation of clayey rocks of low hydraulic conductivity (K < 10{sup -12} m/s) due to ventilation is very small. Under real repository conditions, the thermal and hydro-mechanical rock characteristics will not be practically affected by the ventilation. Specifically, the monitoring of the VE test (mainly the hygrometer data, confirmed also by the geoelectrical measurements) indicates that, after about 5 months of ventilation with almost dry air, the rock relative humidity (and then the degree of saturation) was less than 95% only in a ring of thickness less than 40 cm. Nevertheless, a suction state (subatmospheric liquid pressures) developed up to a distance of about 2 m, but it should be kept in mind that a clayey rock such as the

  19. Desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae) - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660 Embryonic and larvae development of piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae) - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ramón Esquivel; Evoy Zaniboni-Filho; David Reynalte-Tataje

    2004-01-01

    O conhecimento do desenvolvimento embrionário e larval das espécies de peixes é de extrema importância por permitir um melhor estudo da biologia e sistemática da espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus). Foram realizadas amostragens contínuas de 15 a 20 embriões durante toda a embriogênese. Os ovos se apresentaram semidensos, transparentes, esféricos e com um grande espaço perivitelínico. Depois de 18...

  20. Utilização da fibra bruta na nutrição da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Effect of crude fiber on the nutrition of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evoy Zaniboni Filho

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho da piracanjuba, quando arraçoada com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra bruta. Empregou-se um lote de 60 alevinos, com peso médio de 17,40±3,06g e comprimento padrão médio de 11,70±0,73cm, alojados em 12 aquários circulares de fibra de vidro com capacidade para 150L e numa lotação de cinco peixes por aquário, com abastecimento de água proporcionado por um sistema de circulação fechada. Utilizaram-se rações com semelhante composição em proteína (32%, níveis de energia que variaram de 3.037 a 3.356 kcal ED/kg de ração e níveis crescentes de fibra bruta (5%, 7%, 8% e 9% por 105 dias. Constatou-se que os peixes apresentaram melhor resposta de ganho de peso, quando arraçoados com dietas contendo 9% de fibra bruta e que a utilização de níveis de fibra bruta, acima dos convencionalmente empregados, proporcionou baixos níveis de gordura na carcaça, sem que houvesse prejuízos ao desempenho zootécnico, e que as rações podem ser elaboradas empregando-se subprodutos de origem vegetal ricos em fibra bruta.The present experiment evaluated the performance of Brycon orbignyanus fed on diets with different levels of crude fiber. Fish with mean weight of 17.40±3.06 g and total length of 11.70±0,73cm were stocked in 12 fiberglass aquariums (150 L fitted with center standpipes in a recirculating system at a density of 5 fish/aquarium. The fish were fed four diets containing similar levels of protein (32%, energy levels varyng from 3,037 to 3,356 kcal DE/kg, and crude fiber levels of 5%; 7%; 85 and 9% for 105 days. The fish had better weight gain when fed diet containing 9% of crude fiber, and it can be concluded that fish fed diets containing higher levels of crude fiber than usually used result in fish with less fat on carcass without loss of growth, and by products of plant origin rich in fiber could be used to produce diets for this kind of fish.

  1. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Catches of Tiger Sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, in the Pelagic Longline Fishery Around the Hawaiian Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Lau, Boulderson B.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-five tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, have been reported caught in pelagic longline gearfrom 25 to 265 n.mi. off the Hawaiian Archipelago during December 1990-May 1993. Fifteen sharks were caught farther than 50 n.mi. offshore, indicating that tiger sharks do occur well offshore and removed from benthic topography. About 89% of the sharks were caught during October-March, while only 56% of the fishing effort occurred during that period.

  2. Comportamento reprodutivo do acará bandeira, Pterophyllum scalare Cuvier & Valenciennes (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae Reproductive behaviour of Pterophyllum scalare Cuvier & Valenciennes (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro R.F Cacho

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Acará bandeira, Pterophyllum scalare Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1831 is a Neotropical cichlid fish, which has not been studied under a scientific approach. The objective of this work was to identify and describe the reproductive behaviour involved in the various phases of its reproductive cycle, such as territorial disputes and its establishment, substrate selection for spawning, courtship and mating, selection of mate and parental care. Twenty males and ten females of the study species were observed in the laboratory, over a period of six consecutive months. Behaviour descriptions resulting from these observations were analysed and the results show that the reproductive males are very agressive in the initial phase of reproduction. Agressiveness is a constant variable in encounters between territorial fishes, and possession of territory is of fundamental importance for reproduction of this species. Males with established territories were those which very successful in atracting the females during courtship. The selection of the females were influenced by the possession of territory, the type of substrate available for spawning and the body size. The fish preferred aquatic plants with broad leaves as an adequate substrate for spawning. It was observed that there was a short-term biparental care, before the eggs hatched, during which period the males played an important role in protecting them. After the eggs hatched, the male continued to protect the hatchling in his mouth, but played a lesser role, possibly to seek other females for mating so as to increase his reproductive output. Selection of a good mate by the female and the high degree of parental care were the factors which influence the reproductive success of the study species.

  3. Fracture transmissivity as a function of normal and shear stress: first results in Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Rock-mass failure around openings is usually observed in the form of a highly complex fracture network (EDZ), which is heterogeneous in distribution around a circular tunnel opening because of the heterogeneous stress distribution. The orientation of stress with respect to the fracture network is known to be important. The complex heterogeneous stress trajectory and heterogeneous fracture network results in a broad range of stresses and stress directions acting on the open fracture network. During the open stage of a repository, stress will slowly alter as shear movements occur along the fractures, as well as other time-dependent phenomena. As the repository is back filled, the stress field is further altered as the backfill settles and changes volume because of re-saturation. Therefore, a complex and wide ranging stress regime and stress history will result. In a purely mechanical sense, fracture transmissivity is a function of normal stress, shear stress, and fracture aperture. The Selfrac test from Mont Terri showed the change in transmissivity with effective normal stress. This work showed that fracture transmissivity decreased with increasing normal load and that an effective normal stress of 2.5 MPa is sufficient to yield a transmissivity similar to that seen in intact Opalinus clay (OPA). Therefore fracture closure because of normal stresses has been proven to be a quite efficient mechanism in OPA. A new shear rig was designed to investigate the detail of fracture transmissivity in OPA. The experimental configuration uses two prepared blocks that are 60 x 60 mm in size and approximately 20 mm thick. The first test sample had machine ground surfaces in contact with each other, with pore fluid being delivered through the centre of the top block directly to the fracture surface. The experimental programme included two distinct stages. In the first normal load was altered to investigate fracture transmissivity

  4. Dose inseminante utilizada na fertilização artificial de ovócito de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Oliveira Felizardo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 é uma espécie de peixe migratória, ameaçada de extinção. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a dose inseminante na fertilização artificial de ovócitos de piracanjuba. Para isso, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Três casais de piracanjuba, selecionados dos tanques de reprodutores da Estação Ambiental de Itutinga (EAI - CEMIG, no período de piracema 2006/2007, receberam aplicação de hormônio extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa (EBHC para obtenção dos gametas. Adotaram-se quatro tratamentos diferentes para a fertilização de 0,1 grama de ovócitos: 10µL, 20µL, 30µL e 40µL de sêmen. As amostras foram ativadas com 5 mL de água do próprio tanque e, em seguida, levadas para incubadoras, dotadas de renovação constante de água, à temperatura de 28ºC. Após 8 e 16 horas, analisaram-se as taxas de fertilização (ovos viáveis e de eclosão dos ovos, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. As relações sêmen-ovócitos testadas não alteraram as taxas de fertilização e eclosão (P>0,05. O número de espermatozoides-ovócitos, variando de 10,4 x10(5 a 41,6 x10(5, foi eficiente para obtenção de boas taxas de fertilidade.

  5. Evaluación del cultivo de la dorada ( Brycon moorei sinuensis en jaulas flotantes utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinsón Rosado

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se inició el 30 de septiembre del2000 con el cultivo de Dorada (Brycon mooreisinuensis en jaulas flotantes en el reservorio de laGranja Piscícola Tamarindo (El Espinal, Colombia,utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados durante 180días. Se determinó el crecimiento mediante laganancia en longitud, ganancia en peso, tasa decrecimiento específico, sobre-vivencia final, biomasatotal, factor de condición, factor de conversiónalimenticia. Se sembraron 816 juveniles con longitudpromedio de 17.8 cm y peso promedio de 78.9 g,divididos en cuatro tratamientos con densidad desiembra de 25 peces/cm3 y tres réplicas cada uno.Las dietas balanceadas (proteína bruta y la cantidadde energía (Kcal/Kg suministrada fueron: Tratamiento1: 20% y 2637; tratamiento 2: 32% y 3127;tratamiento 3: 28% y 2852; y tratamiento 4: 24% y2751, respectivamente. El diseño experimental fuecompletamente aleatorio y se aplicó la técnica deanálisis de varianza a los datos biométricos yparámetros físico-químicos. Como prueba designificancia se usó la prueba de Tukey-Kramer con95% de confiabilidad. El modelo matemático de VIONBERTALANFY y la transformación de FOR-WALFORDfueron válidos para el ajuste de las curvas decrecimiento en longitud, peso y la relación longitud– peso. Se puede afirmar que la Dorada consumiólas dietas de origen vegetal de igual manera que lasde origen animal, sin embargo la dieta del 28% deproteína bruta (tratamiento 3 muestra los mejoresresultados, sin diferencias significativas entretratamientos (p > 0.05. De acuerdo con la literaturacitada no hay investigaciones que muestren losrequerimientos nutricionales óptimos para laalimentación de esta especie. En todos los trabajosanteriores, la ganancia de peso diaria fue baja, peromejores que las obtenidas en esta investigación.Mientras que el rendimiento en biomasa fue mayorque los reportados para cultivo en tierra, para todoslos tratamientos en este estudio fue muy bajo.

  6. Analysis of tectonic structures and excavation induced fractures in the Opalinus Clay, Mont Terri underground rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaum, Ch.; Bossart, P. [Federal Office of Topography swisstopo, Wabern (Switzerland); Amann, F. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Aubourg, Ch. [Laboratoire des fluides complexes et leurs reservoirs, Centre National de la Recherche Scientitfique CNRS, Universite de Pau, Pau (France)

    2011-09-15

    Excavated in the Opalinus Clay formation, the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in the Jura Mountains of NW Switzerland is an important international test site for researching argillaceous formations, particularly in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. The rock laboratory is intersected by naturally formed tectonic structures, as well as artificial fractures primarily formed as a consequence of tunnel excavation and the associated stress redistribution. The description and characterisation of tectonic and artificial structures is, in many cases, of key importance for interpreting the results of the various in situ experiments conducted in the rock laboratory. Systematic small-scale mapping of the tunnel walls and floor, and adjacent niches, provides basic information about the geometry and the kinematics of the geological fractures intersecting the underground laboratory. A compilation of all tectonic structures identified is presented in this paper. The underground laboratory is located in the backlimb of the Mont Terri anticline, a NNW-vergent imbricate fault-bend fold, which is characterised by a pronounced along-strike asymmetry resulting from variously oriented inherited faults. The total shortening accommodated by this structure was estimated by mass (area) balancing to be approximately 2.1 km. The Mont Terri area is significantly affected by N- to NNE-striking normal faults of the Eo-Oligocene Rhine-Bresse transfer zone and by ENE-striking faults of Late Variscan age. Depending on their orientation with respect to the transport direction towards the NNW, these faults served as oblique and frontal ramps during the subsequent Jura thrusting in the Late Miocene. The various fault systems identified in the underground rock laboratory clearly correlate with the regional-scale structures. In addition to classical structural analysis, the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility was measured to determine the magnetic fabric and strain

  7. Optimization of sustaining swimming speed of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus: performance and adaptive aspects Otimização da velocidade de nado sustentado em matrinxã Brycon amazonicus: rendimento e aspectos adaptativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arbeláez-Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious changes in metabolism, growth performance and body composition may be observed if fish are constrained to swimming continuously or intermittently at over-speeds. This study evaluates effects of four water speeds on growth, body composition and hematologic profile of juvenile matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. Fish (33.3 ± 0.9 g and 13.44 ± 0.1 cm were held for 90 days in five water speeds (0.0 - control, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 body lengths per second - BLAt swimming speeds ranging on 1.0 and 1.5 BL s–1, in fish growth was 20% higher. Hemoglobin and red blood cells at 1.5 BL s–1 increased 24% and 18% respectively; hematocrit was 17% higher in all exercised fish; protein content of white muscle at 1.0 BL s–1 was 2% higher; lipid deposition in red muscle at 1.0 BL s–1 was 22% higher and water retention 3% lower. Crude energy levels enhanced 10% in all exercised fish; liver water retention was 6% lower at 1.0 BL s–1; liver lipid composition was 29% higher than control and 34% higher than 1.5 BL s–1; liver crude energy increased at 1.0 BL s–1 as compared with control and 2.5 BL s–1. Lipid deposition in ventral muscle was 9% higher at 2.0 BL s–1. Although high lipid deposition of matrinxã has been achieved in moderate swimming speeds, lipids may be the main fuel source to maintain the metabolic demands of exercised matrinxã. The best water flow speed for optimized growth of matrinxã ranged on 1.0 and 1.5 BL s–1.Modificações deletérias no metabolismo, rendimento de crescimento e composição corporal podem ser observadas em peixes forçados à natação contínua ou intermitente sob velocidades excessivas. Neste trabalho, os efeitos de quatro velocidades de água no crescimento, composição corporal e perfil hematológico foram avaliados em matrinxãs juvenis, Brycon amazonicus. Os peixes (33,3 ± 0,9 g e 13,44 ± 0,1 cm foram mantidos durante 90 dias em cinco velocidades de água (0,0 – controle; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2

  8. Viabilidade espermática do sêmen de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus resfriado a 4°C Spermatic viability of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus semen cooled at 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Solis Murgas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de três meios diluidores (BTS+KCl - D1, BTS+2KCL - D2 e BTS+Citrato de Sódio - D3, considerando três diferentes tempos de resfriamento (0, 72 e 144 horas, foram analizados no sêmen de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus a 4°C. Testou-se, ainda, a utilidade do meio diluidor BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution, adicionado a citrato de sódio e cloreto de potássio, na manutenção da imobilidade dos espermatozóides e na conservação de características do sêmen. Resultados satisfatórios foram encontrados até 144 horas de resfriamento. A motilidade espermática média do sêmen in natura foi de 94 ± 5,48%, com duração média de 55,6 ± 32,25 segundos (s. Para o sêmen diluído, as médias da motilidade e sua duração foram de 76,00 ± 1,86% e 56,6 ± 6,54 s, 77,00 ± 1,86% e 54,6 ± 6,54 s, e 74,33 ± 1,86% e 75,0 ± 6,54 s, respectivamente, para os diluidores D1, D2 e D3. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os diluidores, que apresentaram efeitos semelhantes nos diferentes tempos. As análises nos tempos 0 e 72 horas mostraram motilidades espermáticas superiores àquelas nas 144 horas, embora as durações da motilidade espermática não tenham diferido nesses tempos. A concentração espermática média do sêmen foi de 8,21 ± 2,26 X 10(9 sptz/mL. Algumas amostras evidenciaram motilidade espermática antes da ativação do sêmen (pré-ativação, principalmente a partir das 96 horas de resfriamento. O meio diluidor BTS pode ser recomendado para conservação de sêmen de piracanjuba (B. orbignyanus, desde que sua osmolaridade seja elevada.The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of 3 diluents BTS+KCl - D1, BTS+2KCL - D2 and BTS+Sodium Citrate - D3 and three different times (hour 0, 72 hours and 144 hours in Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus semen at 4°C. The assay aimed to test usefulness of BTS (Betsville Thawing Solution diluent medium, added to Sodium citrate and Potassium clorate, in maintenance

  9. Exigência Protéica e Relação Energia/Proteína para Alevinos de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Dietary Protein Requirement and Energy to Protein Ratio for Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a exigência protéica e correspondente relação energia/proteína em dietas para alevinos de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus. Seis dietas semi-purificadas isocalóricas foram formuladas para conter 3.000 kcal de energia metabolizável (EM/kg e concentrações de proteína bruta (PB de 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42%. Para essas concentrações, as relações E/P das dietas foram de 12,3; 11,6; 10,4; 9,2; 8,5 e 7,1 kcal EM/g PB, respectivamente. As fontes de proteína, lipídios e carboidratos digestíveis foram, respectivamente, caseína/gelatina, óleo de fígado de bacalhau/óleo de soja e dextrina. Após condicionamento de cinco dias, as dietas foram fornecidas, até a saciedade, em duas alimentações diárias, a 162 alevinos (27 peixes/dieta, que apresentaram 8,38 ± 0,09 g de peso médio inicial, distribuídos em 18 tanques de fibra-de-vidro de 100 L, conectados a um sistema de recirculação de água. A temperatura média da água foi de 26,3°C, com extremos de 23,7 e 30,2°C. Após 90 dias, a concentração de proteína na dieta que proporcionou ganho em peso máximo aos peixes foi 29% PB, com relação E/P igual a 10,4 kcal EM/g PB. As dietas com concentrações de PB iguais a 32, 36 e 42% não se mostraram superiores para conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, valor produtivo da proteína e retenção de energia bruta. A deposição corporal de proteína e gordura não sofreu influência da concentração de PB da dietaThe aim of this study was to determine the dietary protein requirement and associated energy to protein (E/P ratio for "Piracanjuba", Brycon orbignyanus, fingerlings. Casein-gelatin semipurified diets were formulated to contain six crude protein (CP concentrations: 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42% at one energy level, 3,000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg. These diets resulted in E/P ratios of 12.3, 11.6, 10.4, 9.2, 8.5 and 7.1 kcal ME/g CP, respectively. The protein, lipid

  10. Probiotic in feeding of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus: economic viability - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.13257

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Romagosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic feasibility of supplement probiotics Bacillus subtilis to “matrinxã” Brycon amazonicus, raised in cages. The experiment was conducted at the Polo Regional Vale do Ribeira, in Pariquera-açu municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to July 2009. A total of 960 juvenile matrinxã were stocked in twelve 2.7 m³-net cages (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.2 m, in ponds with a total area of 600 m2 and an average depth of 1.50 m. The tests were conducted with a control treatment (T1 and two probiotic doses (T2 = 5 g and T3 = 10 g kg-1 of diet with four replicates. Results showed that T2 produced better economic performance for matrinxã at the juvenile stage in intensive rearing system.

  11. Efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus) durante cortos períodos de almacenamiento

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Corredor-Santamaría, Wilson; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

    seminal. Oocitos obtenidos de la misma hembra fueron sometidos a tres sistemas de conservación: in situ (IS, mantenidos dentro de la cavidad ovárica), ex situ a temperatura ambiente (T°A) y ex situ a temperatura de refrigeración (T°R). El diámetro ovocitario (DO) y la viabilidad fueron evaluados a los 0......El objetivo fue evaluar los efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus) durante cortos períodos de almacenamiento. Se utilizaron hembras y machos adultos tratados con extracto de hipófisis de carpa para estimular la ovulación y aumentar el volumen...... larvas. Bajo los tres sistemas de conservación, DO aumentó con el tiempo, siendo mayor (pconservación IS y a T°A, la...

  12. Ecología trófica de la Sabaleta Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae en el río Portugal de Piedras, Alto Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Botero-Botero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la ecología trófica de la sabaleta (Brycon henni en el río Portugal de Piedras, cordillera Oriental, departamento del Valle del Cauca. Materiales y métodos. Desde octubre de 2008 hasta junio de 2009 se realizaron pescas exploratorias y se determinaron parámetros físico y químicos del hábitat. Los ejemplares capturados fueron eviscerados y el contenido estomacal fue determinado hasta el mínimo taxón posible. Resultados. La especie presenta una dieta generalista que incluye 35 categorías alimenticias, con tendencia al consumo de larvas y ninfas de insectos acuáticos entre los cuales se destacan tricópteros, dípteros y odonatos; también, consume organismos alóctonos al cauce como hormigas (Hymenoptera, escarabajos (Coleoptera y material vegetal: frutos, semillas y hojas. La relación longitud intestino (LI vs. longitud estándar (LS indican que la especie presenta características propias de una especie carnívora (LI = -13.8728 + 1.02377*LS, r= 0.35, n= 22, a su vez, el peso total (PT depende directamente de la longitud total (LT y LS del pez (PT = -49.308 + 0.609962*LT; r= 0.92 n=30; PT = -41.6011 + 0.672529*LS; r= 0.89, n=30, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La sabaleta (Brycon henni presentó caracteristicas de una especie carnivora.

  13. Comparing Microstructure and Pore Size Distribution of the Shaly and Sandy Facies in Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri, Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broad-Ion-Beam polishing is used in combination with Scanning Electron Microscopy to study the microstructure and porosity in the Shaly and Sandy facies of Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri, northern Switzerland). With resolutions of a few nm, areas of around one mm2 were studied, sufficiently large to be statistically representative for the microstructure of this clay. Qualitative description of the minerals present is combined with quantitative description of porosity present in the different minerals. Pores are mainly elongated, oriented along the bedding and follow a power law distribution with an exponent of 2.3. A combination of BIB-milling and SEM imaging allows large representative area investigation of porosity, morphology and pore size distribution of undamaged clay microstructures. This approach is able to provide a qualitative study of porosity as well as quantification of the pores directly from images at the μm - nm scale. It allows prediction of pore characteristics. Although microstructure differs per layer and per facies, the pores are in all facies mainly oriented along the bedding and are elongated (in minerals) to very elongated in the clay matrix. The pores in the clay matrix are furthermore distributed following a power law with an exponent of 2.3 and this value is similar in all studied cross-sections. (authors)

  14. Numerical Modelling of the Anisotropic Mechanical Behaviour of Opalinus Clay at the Laboratory-Scale Using FEM/DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisjak, Andrea; Tatone, Bryan S. A.; Grasselli, Giovanni; Vietor, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The Opalinus Clay (OPA) is an argillaceous rock formation selected to host a deep geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in Switzerland. It has been shown that the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in this formation is heavily affected by the anisotropic mechanical response of the material related to the presence of bedding planes. In this context, the purpose of this study is twofold: (i) to illustrate the new developments that have been introduced into the combined finite-discrete element method (FEM/DEM) to model layered materials and (ii) to demonstrate the effectiveness of this new modelling approach in simulating the short-term mechanical response of OPA at the laboratory-scale. A transversely isotropic elastic constitutive law is implemented to account for the anisotropic elastic modulus, while a procedure to incorporate a distribution of preferentially oriented defects is devised to capture the anisotropic strength. Laboratory results of indirect tensile tests and uniaxial compression tests are used to calibrate the numerical model. Emergent strength and deformation properties, together with the simulated damage mechanisms, are shown to be in strong agreement with experimental observations. Subsequently, the calibrated model is validated by investigating the effect of confinement and the influence of the loading angle with respect to the specimen anisotropy. Simulated fracture patterns are discussed in the context of the theory of brittle rock failure and analyzed with reference to the EDZ formation mechanisms observed at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory.

  15. Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913 Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Martha

    2007-04-01

    +, Mg2+ and Na+ as well as the effect of channel blocking agents. The parameters measured were cells with motility (%, duration of motility (s, plasma membrane potential, and the effect of channel blockers on activation time and on motility. There was an increased motility when the semen was incubated in solutions containing K+ (p<0.05 compared with the control (CaNaMgK solution; the longest duration of motility was attained when the incubation was performed in solutions containing Na+ and Mg2+ (p<0.05. All solutions induced a change in membrane potential detected
    after 15 s of activation. Blocking K+, Ca2+ and Na+ channels did not alter motility but decreased the activation time (p<0.05. Potassium induced activation at all concentrations up to 105 mM, but motility was drastically decreased at concentrations higher than 140 mM (p<0.05. The conclusion is that interaction of the ionic environment with the cell membrane leads to changes in membrane potential and intracellular signalling that trigger sperm motility in Brycon henni.

  16. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean. We also used a DNA barcoding approach by COI gene fragment to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the specimens here investigated and the ones whose sequences are available in literature. Our results reveal high levels of allelic richness and moderate heterozygosity in all samples investigated, and a pronounced differentiation of the Atlantic and Sicilian specimens. This latter aspect seems to support the isolation of the biota within the Strait of Messina. A certain degree of differentiation was detected among the other geographic samples within the Mediterranean Sea, which is more compatible with an island model than isolation by distance. The occurrence of null alleles affected more genetic diversity indices than population structure estimations. This study provides new insights about the genetic diversity and structure of O. vulgaris in the area of interest, which can be used as guidelines for a fisheries management perspective.

  17. Acoustic pathways revealed: simulated sound transmission and reception in Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Ted W; Krysl, Petr; Hildebrand, John A

    2008-03-01

    The finite element modeling (FEM) space reported here contains the head of a simulated whale based on CT data sets as well as physical measurements of sound-propagation characteristics of actual tissue samples. Simulated sound sources placed inside and outside of an adult male Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) reveal likely sound propagation pathways into and out of the head. Two separate virtual sound sources that were located at the left and right phonic lips produced beams that converged just outside the head. This result supports the notion that dual sound sources can interfere constructively to form a biologically useful and, in fact, excellent sonar beam in front of the animal. The most intriguing FEM results concern pathways by which sounds reach the ears. The simulations reveal a previously undescribed 'gular pathway' for sound reception in Ziphius. Propagated sound pressure waves enter the head from below and between the lower jaws, pass through an opening created by the absence of the medial bony wall of the posterior mandibles, and continue toward the bony ear complexes through the internal mandibular fat bodies. This new pathway has implications for understanding the evolution of underwater hearing in odontocetes. Our model also provides evidence for receive beam directionality, off-axis acoustic shadowing and a plausible mechanism for the long-standing orthodox sound reception pathway in odontocetes. The techniques developed for this study can be used to study acoustic perturbation in a wide variety of marine organisms.

  18. First direct measurements of behavioural responses by Cuvier's beaked whales to mid-frequency active sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuiter, Stacy L; Southall, Brandon L; Calambokidis, John; Zimmer, Walter M X; Sadykova, Dinara; Falcone, Erin A; Friedlaender, Ari S; Joseph, John E; Moretti, David; Schorr, Gregory S; Thomas, Len; Tyack, Peter L

    2013-08-23

    Most marine mammal- strandings coincident with naval sonar exercises have involved Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris). We recorded animal movement and acoustic data on two tagged Ziphius and obtained the first direct measurements of behavioural responses of this species to mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar signals. Each recording included a 30-min playback (one 1.6-s simulated MFA sonar signal repeated every 25 s); one whale was also incidentally exposed to MFA sonar from distant naval exercises. Whales responded strongly to playbacks at low received levels (RLs; 89-127 dB re 1 µPa): after ceasing normal fluking and echolocation, they swam rapidly, silently away, extending both dive duration and subsequent non-foraging interval. Distant sonar exercises (78-106 dB re 1 µPa) did not elicit such responses, suggesting that context may moderate reactions. The observed responses to playback occurred at RLs well below current regulatory thresholds; equivalent responses to operational sonars could elevate stranding risk and reduce foraging efficiency.

  19. Echolocation clicks of free-ranging Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Walter M. X.; Johnson, Mark P.; Madsen, Peter T.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-06-01

    Strandings of beaked whales of the genera Ziphius and Mesoplodon have been reported to occur in conjunction with naval sonar use. Detection of the sounds from these elusive whales could reduce the risk of exposure, but descriptions of their vocalizations are at best incomplete. This paper reports quantitative characteristics of clicks from deep-diving Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) using a unique data set. Two whales in the Ligurian Sea were simultaneously tagged with sound and orientation recording tags, and the dive tracks were reconstructed allowing for derivation of the range and relative aspect between the clicking whales. At depth, the whales produced trains of regular echolocation clicks with mean interclick intervals of 0.43 s (+/-0.09) and 0.40 s (+/-0.07). The clicks are frequency modulated pulses with durations of ~200 μs and center frequencies around 42 kHz, -10 dB bandwidths of 22 kHz, and Q3 dB of 4. The sound beam is narrow with an estimated directionality index of more than 25 dB, source levels up to 214 dBpp re: 1 μPa at 1 m, and energy flux density of 164 dB re: 1 μPa2 s. As the spectral and temporal properties are different from those of nonziphiid odontocetes the potential for passive detection is enhanced. .

  20. Anatomic geometry of sound transmission and reception in Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Ted W; McKenna, Megan F; Soldevilla, Melissa S; Wiggins, Sean M; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Shadwick, Robert E; Krysl, Petr; St Leger, Judy A; Hildebrand, John A

    2008-04-01

    This study uses remote imaging technology to quantify, compare, and contrast the cephalic anatomy between a neonate female and a young adult male Cuvier's beaked whale. Primary results reveal details of anatomic geometry with implications for acoustic function and diving. Specifically, we describe the juxtaposition of the large pterygoid sinuses, a fibrous venous plexus, and a lipid-rich pathway that connects the acoustic environment to the bony ear complex. We surmise that the large pterygoid air sinuses are essential adaptations for maintaining acoustic isolation and auditory acuity of the ears at depth. In the adult male, an acoustic waveguide lined with pachyosteosclerotic bones is apparently part of a novel transmission pathway for outgoing biosonar signals. Substitution of dense tissue boundaries where we normally find air sacs in delphinoids appears to be a recurring theme in deep-diving beaked whales and sperm whales. The anatomic configuration of the adult male Ziphius forehead resembles an upside-down sperm whale nose and may be its functional equivalent, but the homologous relationships between forehead structures are equivocal.

  1. Vertical movement patterns and ontogenetic niche expansion in the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2015-01-01

    Sharks are top predators in many marine ecosystems and can impact community dynamics, yet many shark populations are undergoing severe declines primarily due to overfishing. Obtaining species-specific knowledge on shark spatial ecology is important to implement adequate management strategies for the effective conservation of these taxa. This is particularly relevant concerning highly-mobile species that use wide home ranges comprising coastal and oceanic habitats, such as tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier. We deployed satellite tags in 20 juvenile tiger sharks off northeastern Brazil to assess the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on depth and temperature usage. Sharks were tracked for a total of 1184 d and used waters up to 1112 m in depth. The minimum temperature recorded equaled 4°C. All sharks had a clear preference for surface (sharks used mostly shallow (sharks spending considerably more time in surface (shark habitat was observed, with generalized linear models estimating a ~4-fold increase in maximum diving depth from 150- to 300-cm size-classes. The time spent in the upper 5 m of the water column did not vary ontogenetically but shark size was the most important factor explaining the utilization of deeper water layers. Young-of-the-year tiger sharks seem to associate with shallow, neritic habitats but they progressively move into deeper oceanic habitats as they grow larger. Such an early plasticity in habitat use could endow tiger sharks with access to previously unavailable prey, thus contributing to a wider ecological niche. PMID:25629732

  2. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean. We also used a DNA barcoding approach by COI gene fragment to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the specimens here investigated and the ones whose sequences are available in literature. Our results reveal high levels of allelic richness and moderate heterozygosity in all samples investigated, and a pronounced differentiation of the Atlantic and Sicilian specimens. This latter aspect seems to support the isolation of the biota within the Strait of Messina. A certain degree of differentiation was detected among the other geographic samples within the Mediterranean Sea, which is more compatible with an island model than isolation by distance. The occurrence of null alleles affected more genetic diversity indices than population structure estimations. This study provides new insights about the genetic diversity and structure of O. vulgaris in the area of interest, which can be used as guidelines for a fisheries management perspective. PMID:26881847

  3. Vertical movement patterns and ontogenetic niche expansion in the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2015-01-01

    Sharks are top predators in many marine ecosystems and can impact community dynamics, yet many shark populations are undergoing severe declines primarily due to overfishing. Obtaining species-specific knowledge on shark spatial ecology is important to implement adequate management strategies for the effective conservation of these taxa. This is particularly relevant concerning highly-mobile species that use wide home ranges comprising coastal and oceanic habitats, such as tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier. We deployed satellite tags in 20 juvenile tiger sharks off northeastern Brazil to assess the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on depth and temperature usage. Sharks were tracked for a total of 1184 d and used waters up to 1112 m in depth. The minimum temperature recorded equaled 4°C. All sharks had a clear preference for surface (sharks used mostly shallow (sharks spending considerably more time in surface (shark habitat was observed, with generalized linear models estimating a ~4-fold increase in maximum diving depth from 150- to 300-cm size-classes. The time spent in the upper 5 m of the water column did not vary ontogenetically but shark size was the most important factor explaining the utilization of deeper water layers. Young-of-the-year tiger sharks seem to associate with shallow, neritic habitats but they progressively move into deeper oceanic habitats as they grow larger. Such an early plasticity in habitat use could endow tiger sharks with access to previously unavailable prey, thus contributing to a wider ecological niche.

  4. Project Entsorgungsnachweis, 'Demonstration of disposal feasibility for SF/HLW/ILW in the Opalinus Clay of the Zuercher Weinland', Background, Objectives and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juerg Schneider (Nagra, Switzerland) described the project on the Opalinus Clay (Project Entsorgungsnachweis, demonstration of disposal feasibility for SF/HLW/ILW in the Opalinus Clay of the Zuercher Weinland) for which the main objective is to demonstrate disposal feasibility and to provide input to the decision how to proceed. The report structure was described, the focus of the presentation being the report that aimed to provide a comprehensive assessment of long-term safety. The current situation was described in the presentation as follows: - The key need is to provide arguments for having proposed a good system for which there is sufficient understanding to allow a credible safety evaluation. - Alternative options exist, on which attention is maintained by a task-force. However, Nagra is confident in its results on Project Entsorgungsnachweis, given the knowledge base that currently exists, and has put forward a proposal, for consideration by the Swiss Government, to focus future work on the Opalinus Clay (OPA) of the Zuercher Weinland. - Making the safety case requires a proper integration of science, engineering and safety assessment. - Three key issues were identified in making a safety case: completeness, sufficient safety, and robustness to diminish the importance of uncertainties. - A safety case needs to be adequate to support a decision to proceed to the next stage in the programme, with multiple arguments including the existence of reserve FEP's. - The interacting functions of the relevant teams were viewed as a key component of the process of preparing a safety case: management; science; safety assessment; bias audit. During the discussion, the role of the bias team was recognised as being helpful to ensure completeness, as well as using the NEA FEP database as a check list. When speaking about sufficient safety, it should not imply predictive capability but rather that there is enough confidence in the current level of understanding to

  5. Variability of microstructure characteristics in sandy and shaly facies of Opalinus clay inferred by BIB-SEM - An alternative concept of porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The understanding of the clay stone performances in the context of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations would strongly benefit from a better understanding of sealing capacity, coupled flow, capillary processes and deformation mechanisms occurring at micro-level. However, the direct characterization of microstructures in representative elementary areas (REA) and below μm-scale resolution remains challenging. Moreover, the heterogeneity of clay material from underground research laboratories is often invoked as a limitation of microstructural studies. To investigate directly the mm- to nm-scale porosity, SEM is certainly the most direct approach, but it is limited by the poor quality of the investigated surfaces. The recent development of Argon - Broad Ion Beam (Ar-BIB) milling tools, which produce polished cross-sections of exceptional high quality offers a new alternative for high resolution SEM imaging of porosity down to nm-scale on 2D flat surface. In addition, BIB milled area (up to 2 mm2) allows the quantification of microstructures in REA. This contribution focuses on the SEM description of typical pore microstructures in 2D Ar-BIB-polished cross-sections of Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri, Switzerland) down to the SEM resolution. Pores detected in images are statistically analyzed to perform the quantification of microstructure in REA in order to check the variability of microstructure characteristics over different facies of Opalinus Clay (e.g. Sandy and Shaly). At the scale of BIB cross-sections, Opalinus clay consists of mineral grains (quartz, calcite, fossils, mica, framboid pyrite, etc..) embedded into a clay matrix. Surprisingly, each of these different phases is defined by only few variable pore and morphology characteristics, independently of the facies and the sample investigated. From a microstructural point of view, the heterogeneity of Opalinus Clay

  6. Diffusion Experiments with Opalinus and Callovo-Oxfordian Clays: Laboratory, Large-Scale Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolidated clays are potential host rocks for deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste. Diffusion is the main transport process for radionuclides (RN) in these clays. Radionuclide (RN) diffusion coefficients are the most important parameters for Performance Assessment (PA) calculations of clay barriers. Different diffusion methodologies were applied at a laboratory scale to analyse the diffusion behaviour of a wide range of RN. Main aims were to understand the transport properties of different RNs in two different clays and to contribute with feasible methodologies to improve in-situ diffusion experiments, using samples of larger scale. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed, together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), for diffusion analyses at the micrometer scale. The main experimental and theoretical characteristics of the different methodologies, and their advantages and limitations are here discussed. Experiments were performed with the Opalinus and the Callovo-Oxfordian clays. Both clays are studied as potential host rock for a repository. Effective diffusion coefficients ranged between 1.10-10 to 1.10-12 m2/s for neutral, low sorbing cations (as Na and Sr) and anions. Apparent diffusion coefficients for strongly sorbing elements, as Cs and Co, are in the order of 1.10-13 m2/s; europium present the lowest diffusion coefficient (5.10-15 m2/s). The results obtained by the different approaches gave a comprehensive database of diffusion coefficients for RN with different transport behaviour within both clays. (Author) 42 refs

  7. Characteristic properties and CM(3) complexation of humic and fulvic acids from callovo-oxfordian and opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay is foreseen both as back-fill material and host rock for nuclear waste disposal. It contains organic matter that can be released and form dissolved organic matter (DOC). Part of this DOC consists of humic and fulvic acids. Humic substances in natural water are present in the form of humic colloids, consisting of the organic entities, associated mineral structures and complexed metal ions. These humic colloids can play a major role in the radionuclide migration in natural aquifer systems. Cement may be present in a nuclear waste repository as a waste form or as part of engineered structures. In case of water intrusion, cement dissolution will, amongst others, lead to high pH values (initial pH>13). On a short time scale, a minor fraction (few percent) of the clay organic matter is dissolved. With prolonged contact time with alkaline solution, the hydrophobic clay organic matter becomes chemically converted and a large portion (up to around 50% after about 1.5 years) is forming hydrophilic humic and fulvic acids. In this paper, humic and fulvic acids initially released from Callovo-Oxfordian and Opalinus Clay under near-field high pH conditions are quantified and characterised. Furthermore, their complexation with Cm3+ is investigated. The humic and fulvic acids are characterised by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The latter technique can offer practically the same level of information as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) but require very low amount of samples (∼ 10-3 mg). The complexation with the Cm3+ ion is studied by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFLS). It is shown that humic and fulvic acids may result in enhanced radionuclide migration in clay under cement dissolution conditions. (authors)

  8. Diffusion Experiments with Opalinus and Callovo-Oxfordian Clays: Laboratory, Large-Scale Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2009-09-25

    Consolidated clays are potential host rocks for deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste. Diffusion is the main transport process for radionuclides (RN) in these clays. Radionuclide (RN) diffusion coefficients are the most important parameters for Performance Assessment (PA) calculations of clay barriers. Different diffusion methodologies were applied at a laboratory scale to analyse the diffusion behaviour of a wide range of RN. Main aims were to understand the transport properties of different RNs in two different clays and to contribute with feasible methodologies to improve in-situ diffusion experiments, using samples of larger scale. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed, together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), for diffusion analyses at the micrometer scale. The main experimental and theoretical characteristics of the different methodologies, and their advantages and limitations are here discussed. Experiments were performed with the Opalinus and the Callovo-Oxfordian clays. Both clays are studied as potential host rock for a repository. Effective diffusion coefficients ranged between 1.10{sup -}10 to 1.10{sup -}12 m{sup 2}/s for neutral, low sorbing cations (as Na and Sr) and anions. Apparent diffusion coefficients for strongly sorbing elements, as Cs and Co, are in the order of 1.10-13 m{sup 2}/s; europium present the lowest diffusion coefficient (5.10{sup -}15 m{sup 2}/s). The results obtained by the different approaches gave a comprehensive database of diffusion coefficients for RN with different transport behaviour within both clays. (Author) 42 refs.

  9. Hybrid Finite-Discrete Element Simulation of the EDZ Formation and Mechanical Sealing Process Around a Microtunnel in Opalinus Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisjak, Andrea; Tatone, Bryan S. A.; Mahabadi, Omid K.; Grasselli, Giovanni; Marschall, Paul; Lanyon, George W.; Vaissière, Rémi de la; Shao, Hua; Leung, Helen; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    The analysis and prediction of the rock mass disturbance around underground excavations are critical components of the performance and safety assessment of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste. In the short term, an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) tends to develop due to the redistribution of stresses around the underground openings. The EDZ is associated with an increase in hydraulic conductivity of several orders of magnitude. In argillaceous rocks, sealing mechanisms ultimately lead to a partial reduction in the effective hydraulic conductivity of the EDZ with time. The goal of this study is to strengthen the understanding of the phenomena involved in the EDZ formation and sealing in Opalinus Clay, an indurated claystone currently being assessed as a host rock for a geological repository in Switzerland. To achieve this goal, hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM) simulations are performed. With its explicit consideration of fracturing processes, FDEM modeling is applied to the HG-A experiment, an in situ test carried out at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory to investigate the hydro-mechanical response of a backfilled and sealed microtunnel. A quantitative simulation of the EDZ formation process around the microtunnel is first carried out, and the numerical results are compared with field observations. Then, the re-compression of the EDZ under the effect of a purely mechanical loading, capturing the increase of swelling pressure from the backfill onto the rock, is considered. The simulation results highlight distinctive rock failure kinematics due to the bedded structure of the rock mass. Also, fracture termination is simulated at the intersection with a pre-existing discontinuity, representing a fault plane oblique to the bedding orientation. Simulation of the EDZ re-compression indicates an overall reduction of the total fracture area as a function of the applied pressure, with locations of ineffective sealing associated with self

  10. Effects of post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel, high-level waste and long-lived intermediate level waste sited in opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel and highly radioactive wastes in Opalinus clay strata. This study provides a comprehensive treatment of the issue of gas generation in a repository for spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW), sited in the Opalinus clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland. The issue of how gas generation in and transport from waste repositories may influence disposal system performance has been under study for many years, both at Nagra and internationally. The report consists of three main parts: (i) A synthesis of basic information on the host rock and on details of repository construction; (ii) A discussion on gas transport characteristics of the engineered barrier system and the geosphere; (iii) A discussion on the effects of gas on system performance, based on the available information on gas generation, gas transport properties and gas pathways provided in the previous parts of the report. Simplified model calculations based on a mass balance approach for the gas generated within the repository are presented and discussed

  11. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier's Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Moreno

    Full Text Available Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive population of Cuvier's gazelle managed under a European Endangered Species Programme since 1975. Previous results in this population have shown that highly inbred mothers tend to produce more daughters, and this fact was used in 2006 to reach a more appropriate sex-ratio in this polygynous species by changing the pairing strategy (i.e., pairing some inbred females instead of keeping them as surplus individuals in the population. Here, by using studbook data we explore whether purging has occurred in the population by investigating whether after the change in pairing strategy a inbreeding and homozygosity increased at the population level, b fitness (survival increased, and c the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, was positive. Consistent with the existence of purging, we found an increase in inbreeding coefficients, homozygosity and juvenile survival. In addition, we showed that in the course of the breeding programme the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival was not uniform but rather changed over time: it was negative in the early years, flat in the middle years and positive after the change in pairing strategy. We highlight that by allowing inbred individuals to mate in captive stocks we may favour sex-ratio bias towards females, a desirable managing strategy to reduce the surplus of males that force most zoos to use ethical culling and euthanizing management tools. We discuss these possibilities but also acknowledge that many

  12. Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) head tissues: physical properties and CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldevilla, Melissa S; McKenna, Megan F; Wiggins, Sean M; Shadwick, Robert E; Cranford, Ted W; Hildebrand, John A

    2005-06-01

    Tissue physical properties from a Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) neonate head are reported and compared with computed tomography (CT) X-ray imaging. Physical properties measured include longitudinal sound velocity, density, elastic modulus and hysteresis. Tissues were classified by type as follows: mandibular acoustic fat, mandibular blubber, forehead acoustic fat (melon), forehead blubber, muscle and connective tissue. Results show that each class of tissues has unique, co-varying physical properties. The mandibular acoustic fats had minimal values for sound speed (1350+/-10.6 m s(-1)) and mass density (890+/-23 kg m(-3)). These values increased through mandibular blubber (1376+/-13 m s(-1), 919+/-13 kg m(-3)), melon (1382+/-23 m s(-1), 937+/-17 kg m(-3)), forehead blubber (1401+/-7.8 m s(-1), 935+/-25 kg m(-3)) and muscle (1517+/-46.8 m s(-1), 993+/-58 kg m(-3)). Connective tissue had the greatest mean sound speed and density (1628+/-48.7 m s(-1), 1087+/-41 kg m(-3)). The melon formed a low-density, low-sound-speed core, supporting its function as a sound focusing organ. Hounsfield unit (HU) values from CT X-ray imaging are correlated with density and sound speed values, allowing HU values to be used to predict these physical properties. Blubber and connective tissues have a higher elastic modulus than acoustic fats and melon, suggesting more collagen structure in blubber and connective tissues. Blubber tissue elastic modulus is nonlinear with varying stress, becoming more incompressible as stress is increased. These data provide important physical properties required to construct models of the sound generation and reception mechanisms in Ziphius cavirostris heads, as well as models of their interaction with anthropogenic sound.

  13. Reef-fidelity and migration of tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the Coral Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werry, Jonathan M; Planes, Serge; Berumen, Michael L; Lee, Kate A; Braun, Camrin D; Clua, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the habitat use and migration patterns of large sharks is important for assessing the effectiveness of large predator Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), vulnerability to fisheries and environmental influences, and management of shark-human interactions. Here we compare movement, reef-fidelity, and ocean migration for tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the Coral Sea, with an emphasis on New Caledonia. Thirty-three tiger sharks (1.54 to 3.9 m total length) were tagged with passive acoustic transmitters and their localised movements monitored on receiver arrays in New Caledonia, the Chesterfield and Lord Howe Islands in the Coral Sea, and the east coast of Queensland, Australia. Satellite tags were also used to determine habitat use and movements among habitats across the Coral Sea. Sub-adults and one male adult tiger shark displayed year-round residency in the Chesterfields with two females tagged in the Chesterfields and detected on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, after 591 and 842 days respectively. In coastal barrier reefs, tiger sharks were transient at acoustic arrays and each individual demonstrated a unique pattern of occurrence. From 2009 to 2013, fourteen sharks with satellite and acoustic tags undertook wide-ranging movements up to 1114 km across the Coral Sea with eight detected back on acoustic arrays up to 405 days after being tagged. Tiger sharks dove 1136 m and utilised three-dimensional activity spaces averaged at 2360 km³. The Chesterfield Islands appear to be important habitat for sub-adults and adult male tiger sharks. Management strategies need to consider the wide-ranging movements of large (sub-adult and adult) male and female tiger sharks at the individual level, whereas fidelity to specific coastal reefs may be consistent across groups of individuals. Coastal barrier reef MPAs, however, only afford brief protection for large tiger sharks, therefore determining the importance of other oceanic Coral Sea reefs should be a

  14. Reef-fidelity and migration of tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the coral sea

    KAUST Repository

    Werry, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-08

    Knowledge of the habitat use and migration patterns of large sharks is important for assessing the effectiveness of large predator Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), vulnerability to fisheries and environmental influences, and management of shark-human interactions. Here we compare movement, reef-fidelity, and ocean migration for tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the Coral Sea, with an emphasis on New Caledonia. Thirty-three tiger sharks (1.54 to 3.9 m total length) were tagged with passive acoustic transmitters and their localised movements monitored on receiver arrays in New Caledonia, the Chesterfield and Lord Howe Islands in the Coral Sea, and the east coast of Queensland, Australia. Satellite tags were also used to determine habitat use and movements among habitats across the Coral Sea. Sub-adults and one male adult tiger shark displayed year-round residency in the Chesterfields with two females tagged in the Chesterfields and detected on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, after 591 and 842 days respectively. In coastal barrier reefs, tiger sharks were transient at acoustic arrays and each individual demonstrated a unique pattern of occurrence. From 2009 to 2013, fourteen sharks with satellite and acoustic tags undertook wide-ranging movements up to 1114 km across the Coral Sea with eight detected back on acoustic arrays up to 405 days after being tagged. Tiger sharks dove 1136 m and utilised three-dimensional activity spaces averaged at 2360 km3. The Chesterfield Islands appear to be important habitat for sub-adults and adult male tiger sharks. Management strategies need to consider the wide-ranging movements of large (sub-adult and adult) male and female tiger sharks at the individual level, whereas fidelity to specific coastal reefs may be consistent across groups of individuals. Coastal barrier reef MPAs, however, only afford brief protection for large tiger sharks, therefore determining the importance of other oceanic Coral Sea reefs should be a

  15. Vertical movement patterns and ontogenetic niche expansion in the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André S Afonso

    Full Text Available Sharks are top predators in many marine ecosystems and can impact community dynamics, yet many shark populations are undergoing severe declines primarily due to overfishing. Obtaining species-specific knowledge on shark spatial ecology is important to implement adequate management strategies for the effective conservation of these taxa. This is particularly relevant concerning highly-mobile species that use wide home ranges comprising coastal and oceanic habitats, such as tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier. We deployed satellite tags in 20 juvenile tiger sharks off northeastern Brazil to assess the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on depth and temperature usage. Sharks were tracked for a total of 1184 d and used waters up to 1112 m in depth. The minimum temperature recorded equaled 4°C. All sharks had a clear preference for surface (< 5 m waters but variability in depth usage was observed as some sharks used mostly shallow (< 60 m waters whereas others made frequent incursions into greater depths. A diel behavioral shift was detected, with sharks spending considerably more time in surface (< 10 m waters during the night. Moreover, a clear ontogenetic expansion in the vertical range of tiger shark habitat was observed, with generalized linear models estimating a ~4-fold increase in maximum diving depth from 150- to 300-cm size-classes. The time spent in the upper 5 m of the water column did not vary ontogenetically but shark size was the most important factor explaining the utilization of deeper water layers. Young-of-the-year tiger sharks seem to associate with shallow, neritic habitats but they progressively move into deeper oceanic habitats as they grow larger. Such an early plasticity in habitat use could endow tiger sharks with access to previously unavailable prey, thus contributing to a wider ecological niche.

  16. Reef-fidelity and migration of tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the Coral Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Werry

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the habitat use and migration patterns of large sharks is important for assessing the effectiveness of large predator Marine Protected Areas (MPAs, vulnerability to fisheries and environmental influences, and management of shark-human interactions. Here we compare movement, reef-fidelity, and ocean migration for tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, across the Coral Sea, with an emphasis on New Caledonia. Thirty-three tiger sharks (1.54 to 3.9 m total length were tagged with passive acoustic transmitters and their localised movements monitored on receiver arrays in New Caledonia, the Chesterfield and Lord Howe Islands in the Coral Sea, and the east coast of Queensland, Australia. Satellite tags were also used to determine habitat use and movements among habitats across the Coral Sea. Sub-adults and one male adult tiger shark displayed year-round residency in the Chesterfields with two females tagged in the Chesterfields and detected on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, after 591 and 842 days respectively. In coastal barrier reefs, tiger sharks were transient at acoustic arrays and each individual demonstrated a unique pattern of occurrence. From 2009 to 2013, fourteen sharks with satellite and acoustic tags undertook wide-ranging movements up to 1114 km across the Coral Sea with eight detected back on acoustic arrays up to 405 days after being tagged. Tiger sharks dove 1136 m and utilised three-dimensional activity spaces averaged at 2360 km³. The Chesterfield Islands appear to be important habitat for sub-adults and adult male tiger sharks. Management strategies need to consider the wide-ranging movements of large (sub-adult and adult male and female tiger sharks at the individual level, whereas fidelity to specific coastal reefs may be consistent across groups of individuals. Coastal barrier reef MPAs, however, only afford brief protection for large tiger sharks, therefore determining the importance of other oceanic Coral Sea reefs

  17. Growth and maximum size of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier in Hawaii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl G Meyer

    Full Text Available Tiger sharks (Galecerdo cuvier are apex predators characterized by their broad diet, large size and rapid growth. Tiger shark maximum size is typically between 380 & 450 cm Total Length (TL, with a few individuals reaching 550 cm TL, but the maximum size of tiger sharks in Hawaii waters remains uncertain. A previous study suggested tiger sharks grow rather slowly in Hawaii compared to other regions, but this may have been an artifact of the method used to estimate growth (unvalidated vertebral ring counts compounded by small sample size and narrow size range. Since 1993, the University of Hawaii has conducted a research program aimed at elucidating tiger shark biology, and to date 420 tiger sharks have been tagged and 50 recaptured. All recaptures were from Hawaii except a single shark recaptured off Isla Jacques Cousteau (24°13'17″N 109°52'14″W, in the southern Gulf of California (minimum distance between tag and recapture sites  =  approximately 5,000 km, after 366 days at liberty (DAL. We used these empirical mark-recapture data to estimate growth rates and maximum size for tiger sharks in Hawaii. We found that tiger sharks in Hawaii grow twice as fast as previously thought, on average reaching 340 cm TL by age 5, and attaining a maximum size of 403 cm TL. Our model indicates the fastest growing individuals attain 400 cm TL by age 5, and the largest reach a maximum size of 444 cm TL. The largest shark captured during our study was 464 cm TL but individuals >450 cm TL were extremely rare (0.005% of sharks captured. We conclude that tiger shark growth rates and maximum sizes in Hawaii are generally consistent with those in other regions, and hypothesize that a broad diet may help them to achieve this rapid growth by maximizing prey consumption rates.

  18. Retour sur la série type de Gomphotherium angustidens (Proboscidea, Mammalia: de Daubenton à Cuvier, et après

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göhlich, U. B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the specimens used by Cuvier to describe in 1806 his «mastodonte à dents étroites», named by him Mastodon angustidens later in 1817. Some of them – molars and partial molars from Simorre (Gers – were already mentioned by Réaumur and Daubenton during the 18th century. What is considered as the original type series of Gomphotherium angustidens (CUVIER, 1817 is presented and newly interpreted.[fr] Les spécimens qui ont permis à Cuvier de décrire le «mastodonte à dents étroites» en 1806, dénommé par lui Mastodon angustidens en 1817, sont révisés. Certains d’entre eux (molaires et fragments de molaires, provenant de Simorre (Gers, avaient déjà été mentionnés par Réaumur et par Daubenton au 18e siècle. La série type de Gomphotherium angustidens (CUVIER, 1817 est présentée, discutée et réinterprétée.

  19. Mont Terri Project - Engineered barrier emplacement experiment in Opalinus Clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J. C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E. [Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria (CIMNE), Barcelona (Spain); Alheid, H.-J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Bluemling, P. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The Engineered Barrier (EB) experiment was a full-scale test for the demonstration, in a horizontal drift, of an emplacement technics of the clay barrier, using a granular bentonite material in the upper part of this barrier and bentonite blocks at the bottom. The test has been carried out in a 6 m long section of a niche excavated in Opalinus Clay of the Mont Terri underground laboratory. A steel dummy canister, with the same dimensions and weight as the real reference canisters, was placed on top of a bed of highly compacted bentonite blocks (in turn lying on a concrete bed), and the rest of the clay barrier volume was backfilled with a Granular Bentonite Material (GBM), made of very highly compacted pellets of different sizes. Hydro-mechanical instrumentation and an artificial hydration system (to accelerate the saturation of the clay barrier) were installed, and the test section sealed with a concrete plug. The evolution of the hydro-mechanical parameters along the hydration, both in the barrier and in the clayey rock formation, has been monitored during about 1.5 years, and modelled using the CODE-BRIGHT code. The EB experiment has proved that fully automated production of a Granular Bentonite Material (GBM) is possible and large quantities can be produced in due time in the required quality. Only minor modifications of existing production lines in industry for other applications were necessary to achieve this result. In the EB test section, a dry density of 1.36 g/cm{sup 3} of the emplaced GBM has been obtained. With this value it is estimated that the hydraulic conductivity of this material is lower than 5 x 10{sup -12} m/s and the swelling pressure is about 1.3 MPa. Even though the EB test section conditions are now not considered as representative of a true demonstration, it is deemed that the model emplacement testing results (dry density of about 1.40 g/cm{sup 3}) serve well to demonstrate the achievable densities expected in the real world setting. The

  20. Discontinuity networks in mud stones: an apparent contradiction for boom clay at Mol, opalinus clay at Mont Terri, Callovo-Oxfordian silty clay at Bure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Centre de Geologie de l' Ingenieur, 75 - Paris (France); Mazurek, M. [Bern Univ., Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences (Switzerland); Vandenberghe, N. [Katholieke Universiteit (KU), Lab. voor stratigrafie Leuven (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The Rupelian Boom Clay at Mol, Belgium, the lower Aalenian Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri Switzerland and the Callovo-Oxfordian silty clay at Bure, France, are currently studied in the framework of deep geological radioactive waste confinement. These three mud-stones are calcareous to variable degrees. They vary from plastic clay at Mol to hard rock at Bure. All three have similar mineralogical constituents, especially with regards to the clay minerals and include mixed layers of illite and montmorillonite. Remarkably, in outcrop sections of massive clay formations and mud-stone in general, it is very common to observe a network of discontinuities resembling the jointing in hard rock. As such jointing clearly would influence underground works it is imperative to examine whether or not the three mud-rock formations under discussion have such a discontinuity network in all their mass. (authors)

  1. Gouge marks on deep-sea mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean: Caused by Cuvier's beaked whales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, J. M.; David, L.; Frantzis, A.; Hooker, S. K.

    2006-11-01

    Enigmatic seafloor gouge marks at depths of 1700-2100 m have been observed from submersible during geological survey work studying mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The marks consist of a central groove (about 10 cm deep and 1-2 m long), superimposed on a broader bowl-shaped depression (1-2 m long by about 50 cm wide) with raised rims (up to 10 cm high) to either side of the central groove. We discuss the potential biological causes of these marks, and conclude that they are probably created by Cuvier's beaked whales ( Ziphius cavirostris) during foraging dives to these depths. The mud volcanoes have a comparatively rich and diverse benthic ecology associated with methane-rich fluid seeps and thus could be the base of food chains that reach top predators like the deep-diving whales. The characteristic high acoustic backscatter of the mud volcanoes would facilitate their detection by the echolocation system of these whales.

  2. Women peers in the scientific realm: Sarah Bowdich (Lee)'s expert collaborations with Georges Cuvier, 1825–33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The accepted rule for women contributing to nineteenth-century science before 1851 was that they could play only secondary roles in its production and authorship—as translators, illustrators, popularizers—and these by virtue of kinship or marriage to eminent scientists in the field or the laboratory. Sarah Bowdich (Lee) (1791–1856) presents an important amendment to this rule. As an explorer of West Africa on an equal scientific footing with her husband, and then a writer of science independently after his early death, she had other key roles as Georges Cuvier's cross-Channel scientific collaborator and as his first biographer. This article investigates and reframes Sarah's many individual achievements in science and its writing, to examine the larger questions of her case. How were her publications and ‘uneasy career’ in science possible? Can research on women in science today find inspiration in her example? PMID:26489182

  3. The male and female complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798) (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froufe, Elsa; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Carneiro, João; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Zieritz, Alexandra; Sousa, Ronaldo; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae exhibit a particular form of mitochondria inheritance called double uniparental inheritance (DUI), in which the mitochondria are inherited by both male and female parents. The (M)ale and (F)emale mitogenomes are highly divergent within species. In the present study, we determine and describe the complete M and F mitogenomes of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798). The complete M and F mitogenomes sequences are 16 451 bp and 15 787 bp in length, respectively. Both F and M have the same gene content: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (trn) and 2 ribosomal RNA (rrn) genes. Bayesian analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs and 2 rrn genes of both genomes, including mitogenome sequences available from related species, were performed. Male and Female lineages are monophyletic within the family, but reveal distinct phylogenetic relationships. PMID:27158872

  4. SOBRE LA UNIDAD DE COMPOSICIÓN Y EL DEBATE ENTRE CUVIER Y GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE

    OpenAIRE

    CERVANTES RUIZ DE LA TORRE, EMILIO

    2015-01-01

    Presento aquí la primera traducción al español del libro titulado De l'Unité de Composition et du Debat entre Cuvier et Geoffroy Saint Hilaire (1865), última obra publicada de Pierre Flourens. Justo es comenzar por responder a esta pregunta: ¿Quíén era Pierre Flourens? Pierre Flourens nació el 13 de abril de 1794 en Maureilhan, un pueblo próximo a Béziers, en el sudeste francés. Estudió Medicina en la Universidad de Montpellier y en 1814 fue a París a estudiar fisiología con Georges Cuv...

  5. Worldwide structure of mtDNA diversity among Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris): implications for threatened populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebout, Merel L; Robertson, Kelly M; Frantzis, Alexandros; Engelhaupt, Dan; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Rosario-Delestre, Raul J; Baker, C Scott

    2005-10-01

    We present the first description of phylogeographic structure among Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) worldwide using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences obtained from strandings (n = 70), incidental fisheries takes (n = 11), biopsy (n = 1), and whale-meat markets (n = 5). Over a 290-base pair fragment, 23 variable sites defined 33 unique haplotypes among the total of 87 samples. Nucleotide diversity at the control region was relatively low (pi = 1.27%+/- 0.723%) compared to wide-ranging baleen whales, but higher than strongly matrifocal sperm, pilot and killer whales. Phylogenetic reconstruction using maximum likelihood revealed four distinct haplotype groups, each of which displayed strong frequency differences among ocean basins, but no reciprocal monophyly or fixed character differences. Consistent with this phylogeographic pattern, an analysis of molecular variance showed high levels of differentiation among ocean basins (F(ST) = 0.14, Phi ST = 0.42; P < 0.001). Estimated rates of female migration among ocean basins were low (generally < or = 2 individuals per generation). Regional sample sizes were too small to detect subdivisions within oceans except in the North Atlantic, where the Mediterranean Sea (n = 12) was highly differentiated due to the presence of two private haplotypes. One market product purchased in South Korea grouped with other haplotypes found only in the North Atlantic, suggesting a violation of current agreements banning international trade in cetacean species. Together, these results demonstrate a high degree of isolation and low maternal gene flow among oceanic, and in some cases, regional populations of Cuvier's beaked whales. This has important implications for understanding the threats of human impact, including fisheries by-catch, direct hunting, and disturbance or mortality from anthropogenic sound.

  6. Speciation of plutonium during sorption and diffusion in Opalinus clay; Speziation von Plutonium bei der Sorption und Diffusion in Opalinuston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Ugras

    2013-08-22

    The presented work was carried out in the framework of the BMWi-project ''Interaction and migration of actinides in natural clay rocks taking into account humic substances and clay organic matter - Interactions of neptunium and plutonium with natural clay rocks''. For the long-term safety assessments of nuclear repositories, the possible migration of the radiotoxic wastes into the environment must be considered. Due to its long half-life (T{sub 1/2} = 24000 y) {sup 239}Pu has a significant contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel in a repository after long periods of storage. The redox-sensitive plutonium has a very complicated chemical behavior. In aqueous solution under environmental relevant conditions Pu can exist in oxidation states +III to +VI and it can exist in up to four oxidation states simultaneously in a solution. Clays are considered as a possible host rock formation for of high-level radioactive waste disposal. Therefore, detailed information on the mobilization and immobilization of plutonium through / into the groundwater from a repository are of special interest. In this work new insights into the interaction between Pu and natural Opalinus clay (OPA, Mont Terri, Switzerland) are obtained with regard to the disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in a deep geological repository.rnThe focus of this work was on the determination of the speciation of Pu on the mineral surface after sorption and diffusion process by different synchrotron based techniques (μ-XRF, μ-XANES/-EXAFS, μ-XRD, and EXAFS/XANES). The interaction between Pu and OPA was studied in batch sorption and diffusion experiments in dependence of various experimental parameters (e.g. pH, Pu oxidation state). Sorption experiments showed that some experimental parameters (e.g. temperature, humic acid) have a significant impact on the sorption of Pu on OPA. Speciation studies were performed as a function of various chemical parameters on powder

  7. Project Opalinus clay Zuercher Weinland of Nagra. Evaluation of the geo-scientific data base and of the construction engineering aspects; Projekt Opalinuston Zuercher Weinland der Nagra. Beurteilung der erdwissenschaftlichen Datengrundlagen und der bautechnischen Machbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    In this report the Commission for Nuclear Waste Management (KNE) assesses the geological and engineering aspects of the project Opalinus Clay, in which Nagra demonstrates the postclosure safety of geological disposal of spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level wastes (HLW) and intermediate-level wastes (ILW) in a repository in the Opalinus Clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland. After in-depth examination of the geological database, KNE concludes that the demonstration of a suitable geological site for final disposal of SF, HLW and ILW in the Opalinus Clay of the Zuercher Weinland has been achieved. The geological assumptions Nagra uses for the assessment of long-term safety are based on data that have been carefully collected and interpreted. KNE acknowledges that Nagra interpreted the geological data correctly and adequately using state-of-the-art techniques. In case of lacking information, Nagra has used conservative or worst-case assumptions. The information documented by Nagra represents a good synthesis of field, laboratory and literature data. The tectonic situation of the Zuercher Weinland was examined in great details by Nagra. In the centre of the investigated region, where the Opalinus Clay occurs at 600 to 750 meters depth, the 3D-seismic data confirm its undisturbed stratification in an area of about 15 km{sup 2}. Analysis and interpretation of the available information on the geological evolution provides no indication that erosion would expose the confining units above the Opalinus Clay within the next million years. The Opalinus Clay in the Zuercher Weinland is quite homogeneous and about 110 m thick. The properties of this rock are examined and found to be favourable for a repository. The dominance of the fine grain size and the high clay content indicate a very low hydraulic conductivity suitable for the isolation of radioactive wastes. Pore water extracted from drill-core samples is saline and has remained trapped for millions of

  8. Criação e domesticação de fêmeas de Brycon siebenthalae destinadas a reprodução - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1860 Breeding and domesticating Brycon siebenthalae females for reproduction - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Vásquez-Torres

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Brycon siebenthalae (yamú (Characidae tem uma natureza indomável, apresentando respostas ao estresse intensas e duradouras. Três grupos de fêmeas foram tratados com hormônios gonadotróficos para induzir a maturação final e desova, buscando avaliar o efeito da manipulação das fêmeas durante o período de maturação gonadal. O primeiro e segundo grupo eram formados por peixes de quatro anos de idade criados em viveiros de terra. As fêmeas do primeiro grupo foram submetidas ao manejo mensal de “domesticação” a partir do sexto mês de idade. O segundo grupo foi submetido a esse manejo com freqüência anual. O terceiro grupo de fêmeas foi capturado do ambiente natural. As fêmeas submetidas ao manejo mensal apresentaram melhores resultados referente a resposta ao tratamento hormonal, a fecundiade relativa e a sobrevivência após o manejo da reprodução. Os distintos procedimentos de manejo das fêmeas durante a maturação gonadal não afetaram (p>0,05 a taxa de fertilização e a sobrevivência dos ovos e larvas provenientes dos diferentes grupos.Brycon siebenthalae (yamú (Characidae have quite an untamable “nature”, with intense, enduring responses to stress. Three groups of females were induced to spawn in order to study the effects of manipulation during breeding. Groups one and two were formed by four year-old specimens bred in earth ponds. Females from group one and two were subjected to monthly and anual “domestication” practices, respectively, from the time they were six months old. The third group of females was brought from the natural environment. It was observed that females bred and monthly tamed had better induction responses, relative fecundity and post-spawn survival. The physiological responses to different stress situations during the reproductive procedure did not significantly affect (p>0.05 fertility and embryonic and larval survival among groups.

  9. Comparative study on hematological parameters of farmed matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Characidae: Bryconinae with others Bryconinae species Estudo comparativo sobre parâmetros hematológicos de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz, 1892(Characidae: Bryconinae criados em cativeiro, com outras espécies de Bryconinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was not only to determine the red blood cells parameters, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts in farmed Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, to compare these parameters among Bryconinae species from literature, and also to investigate the presence of special granulocytic cells in these fish. The results of the blood cells parameters here established for farmed B. amazonicus, a species of great economic importance in Brazilian aquaculture, could help a better understanding of the blood features in natural populations of this Amazon species. Blood parameters varied between Bryconinae species investigated, mainly the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. The presence of the blood granulocytes, neutrophils and heterophils in matrinxã suggest that both leukocytes can be a characteristic for Bryconinae family. Furthermore, it indicates that the existence of special granulocytic cells in the blood of Bryconinae species from literature is an artifact, and this was herein discussed.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os parâmetros eritrocíticos, as contagens de trombócitos e de leucócitos de espécimes de Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, criados em cativeiro e compará-los com aqueles descritos na literatura para outras espécies de Bryconinae. Além disso, foi ainda investigada a presença de células granulocíticas especiais nestes peixes. Os resultados dos parâmetros sangüíneos apresentados para B. amazonicus podem ajudar a entender melhor as características sangüíneas em população natural desta espécie de grande importância para a aqüicultura brasileira. Os parâmetros sangüíneos das espécies de Bryconinae investigadas apresentaram variação interespecíficas principalmente a contagem de eritrócitos, hemoglobina, hematócrito e volume corpuscular médio (VCM. A presença dos granulócitos sangüíneos, neutrófilos e heterófilos em matrinxã sugere que esta pode ser uma

  10. Desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660 Embryonic and larvae development of piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Esquivel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do desenvolvimento embrionário e larval das espécies de peixes é de extrema importância por permitir um melhor estudo da biologia e sistemática da espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Foram realizadas amostragens contínuas de 15 a 20 embriões durante toda a embriogênese. Os ovos se apresentaram semidensos, transparentes, esféricos e com um grande espaço perivitelínico. Depois de 18 horas e 30 minutos da fertilização, mantidos a 25 ± 0,8°C aconteceu a eclosão. O comprimento total das larvas recém eclodidas foi de 4,46 ± 0,39mm e o peso de 2,56 ± 0,73mg. As larvas de piracanjuba apresentaram forte canibalismo depois de 36 horas da eclosão, quando foi observada também a presença de olhos bem desenvolvidos e pigmentados, assim como uma abertura vertical da boca de 15,2 ± 1,9% do comprimento corporalThe knowledge of embryonic and larvae development of fishes is a fundamental key which enables a closer approach to their biology and taxonomy. The present study aims to characterize piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus embryonic and larvae development. During the whole embryogenesis, 15 to 20 embryos were sampled and analyzed. Eggs of B. orbignyanus are semidense, transparent, spherical, and bear a large perivitelline space. Hatching takes place 18 hours and 30 minutes after fertilization at 25 ± 0.8ºC. Total length and weight of just hatched larvae were 4.46 ± 0.39mm and 2.56 ± 0.73mg, respectively. Larvae presented entirely developed and pigmented eyes, as well as a vertical mouth opening of 15.2 ± 1.9% of body length, 36 hours after hatching, period from which intense cannibalism was observed

  11. Development of fingerlings of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae in tanks fertilized with organic manures/ Desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae em tanques experimentais fertilizados com adubação orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmino Hayashi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the development of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus in tanks under differents organic fertilizers. The experiment, entirely randomized, was accomplished in 16 tanks of 1000 liters, fertilized with manures of bovine (BOV, pigs (SUI, chickens (FRG and others without fertilizer (SAO, using 15 fish/m3 with an initial average weight and length of 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. After 30 days, the experiment showed a uniform development of the fish and high survival rate in thestudied density. The treatments presented significant statistical differences (PO objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, em tanques com adubações orgânicas. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado, foi realizado em 16 tanques de 1000 litros, adubados com estercos de bovinos (BOV, suínos (SUI, frangos de corte (FRG e outros sem adubação (SAO, utilizando 15 peixes/m3 com peso e comprimento médios iniciais de 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. Após 30 dias, o experimento mostrou um desenvolvimento uniforme dos peixes e alta taxa de sobrevivência na densidade estudada. Os tratamentos apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05 para ganho de peso e crescimento diário, com exceção dos tratamentos BOV e SUI quando comparados entre si. A temperatura e o oxigênio dissolvido foram os fatores abióticos que exerceram maior influência sobre a biota aquática, afetando o desenvolvimento dos peixes. Entre o fitoplâncton houve maior abundância de organismos nanoplanctônicos favorecendo o desenvolvimento do zooplâncton, destacando-se as clorófitas, com o gênero Scenedesmus, e as cianofíceas, com o gênero Microcystis, e entre o zooplâncton, a maior abundância foi de rotíferos dos gêneros Brachionus e Keratella, seguido por copépodas. O tratamento adubado com esterco de frangos possibilitou um maior desenvolvimento da comunidade planctônica, e melhores

  12. Alterações bioquímicas post-mortem de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura, mantido em gelo Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Machado Batista

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foram estudadas as alterações bioquímicas post-mortem que ocorreram em matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura e mantido em gelo em Manaus - AM. Foi determinado o tempo de estocagem em gelo por meio das avaliações sensoriais físicas e gustativas, das análises de pH, Nitrogênio das Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT e bacteriológicas durante 29 dias. Foram determinados os índices de rigor-mortis, as concentrações de ATP e seus produtos de degradações e o valor K. De acordo com a composição química, o peixe foi classificado como "semi-gordo". Os peixes entraram em rigor-mortis aos 75 minutos após a morte por hipotermia, tendo permanecido durante 10 dias. As avaliações sensoriais (físicas e gustativas mostraram que os peixes apresentaram condição de consumo até 26 dias. As análises de ATP e de seus produtos de degradação mostraram que a referida espécie foi considerada formadora de inosina (HxR, nas condições de experimento. O valor K mostrou que os exemplares de matrinxãs permaneceram "muito frescos" até 16 dias de estocagem em gelo, concordante com a avaliação sensorial gustativa.Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice in Manaus-AM, were studied in this paper. The storage time on ice was determined through tasting and physical sensory evaluations, pH, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVB-N and bacteriological analyses during 29 days. Rigor-mortis index, ATP-related compounds and K value were also determined. Chemical composition demonstrated that fish was classified as "semi-fat". The specimens presented rigor-mortis 75 minutes after death caused by hypothermia and remained that way for 10 days. Shelf life time on ice was 26 days, according to sensory evaluations, pH, TVBN determinations and bacteriological analyses. ATP-related compounds pointed out that the referred species was considered to

  13. Screening and characterization of sex-specific DNA fragments in the freshwater fish matrinchã, Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eder Marques; Wong, Marina Sek Lien; Martins, Cesar; Wasko, Adriane Pinto

    2012-10-01

    The matrinchã Brycon amazonicus, a commercially important freshwater fish resource, has no heteromorphic sex chromosomes so far described. In the present study, we performed a screening of sex-associated DNA markers in this species, through the use of a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and a genomic DNA restriction digestion analysis. DNA digestions evidenced no differences between sexes. Sixty-six random primers were used in pooled and individual DNA samples of males and females, and the analysis of the RAPD fingerprints revealed one female sex-associated band. Cloning and sequencing of this band led to the identification of two distinct DNA segments. While one of the isolated fragments showed a significant identity with a described protein gene (phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class W), the other fragment, composed of 535 bp, corresponds to a novel DNA marker. Further experiments were performed with this second DNA fragment in order to verify its sex-specificity. Data on dot blot hybridization, using total DNA of both sexes, confirmed its female-specificity in B. amazonicus. A primer set was designed based on its sequence data and used in PCR with DNA samples of this species, leading to diagnose the animals' sexes with a 100 % overall accuracy through a sequence characterized amplified region approach. No amplification results were found for two other species of the genus--B. orbignyanus and B. lundii. The obtained data can lead to the hypothesis that B. amazonicus may present heteromorphic sex chromosomes that should be in an early phase of differentiation. PMID:22527611

  14. Anatomia funcional e morfometria dos intestinos e dos cecos pilóricos do teleostei (pisces de água doce Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae. Foram conduzidos estudos anatomofuncionais e morfométricos nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos dessa espécie com hábito alimentar onívoro. Constatou-se, por meio destes estudos, que o padrão de enrolamento das alças intestinais em arranjo em N apresentou, na segunda classe de tamanho, freqüentes variações no intestino médio, mas foi compatível com os de outras espécies de hábitos alimentares similares. Os estudos da morfometria mostraram que o comprimento total do intestino e das alças intestinais e seus calibres, provavelmente, exercem função específica na absorção dos nutrientes. As relações entre o arranjo das pregas da mucosa e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio sugerem que os padrões transversal e oblíquo retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, possibilitando maior período digestivo e melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes, contribuindo para a preparação do bolo fecal. O comprimento e o calibre dos cecos pilóricos aumentam com o desenvolvimento do peixe, e o seu padrão de mucosa possui características anatômicas semelhantes às do intestino.

  15. Methyl glycol, methanol and DMSO effects on post-thaw motility, velocities, membrane integrity and mitochondrial function of Brycon orbignyanus and Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, Ana T M; Nascimento, Ariane F; Leal, Marcelo C; Gonçalves, Antônio C S; Orfão, Laura H; Cosson, Jacky

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to use more accurate techniques to investigate the effects of cryoprotectants (CPAs) and extenders on post-thaw sperm quality of Brycon orbignyanus and Prochilodus lineatus. Six freezing media comprising the combination of three CPAs (DMSO, methanol and methyl glycol) and two extenders (BTS and glucose) were used. Sperm was diluted in each medium, loaded into 0.5-mL straws, frozen in a nitrogen vapor vessel (dry-shipper), and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196 °C. Post-thaw sperm motility rate and velocities (curvilinear = VCL; straight line = VSL; average path = VAP) were evaluated using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. Membrane integrity and mitochondrial function were determined using fluorochromes. Post-thaw quality was considered high when samples presented the following minimum values: 60 % motile sperm, 140 µm/s of VCL, 50 % intact sperm membrane and 50 % mitochondrial function integrity. High post-thaw quality was observed in B. orbignyanus sperm frozen in BTS-methyl glycol and in P. lineatus sperm frozen in BTS-methyl glycol, glucose-methyl glycol and glucose-methanol. All samples frozen in DMSO yielded low quality. The presence of ions in the BTS extender affected post-thaw sperm quality positively in B. orbignyanus and negatively in P. lineatus. Methyl glycol was the most suitable CPA for both fish species, leading to a good protection of cell membrane, mitochondrial function and motility apparatus during the cryopreservation process. For an improved protection, B. orbignyanus sperm should be frozen in an ionic freezing medium. PMID:25433690

  16. Isolation and characterization of eight microsatellite loci from Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger shark) and cross-amplification in Carcharhinus leucas, Carcharhinus brevipinna, Carcharhinus plumbeus and Sphyrna lewini

    OpenAIRE

    Pirog, Agathe; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Blaison, Antonin; Soria, Marc; Magalon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    International audience The tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier (Carcharhinidae) is a large elasmobranch suspected to have, as other apex predators, a keystone function in marine ecosystems and is currently considered Near Threatened (Red list IUCN). Knowledge on its ecology, which is crucial to design proper conservation and management plans, is very scarce. Here we describe the isolation of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of enriched DNA libraries....

  17. A modified version of the combined in-diffusion/abrasive peeling technique for measuring diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in argillaceous rocks: A test study on the diffusion of caesium in Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A filter free diffusion set-up was developed for measuring the diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in indurated argillaceous rocks such as Opalinus Clay (OPA) that normally disintegrate when contacted with a solution. Small bore cores drilled parallel to the bedding plane and embedded in epoxy resin were found to be stable and could be used for performing in-diffusion measurements. The method was tested with the diffusion of caesium, spiked with caesium-134, in Opalinus Clay. The profile of Cs in the clay sample was determined with a modified version of the abrasive peeling technique. The diffusion parameters obtained for caesium were in fair agreement with those determined earlier using the classical through-diffusion technique where stainless steel filters were used to confine the samples. - Highlights: • We developed a simple method to study diffusion of radionuclides in clay rocks. • We tested the method with diffusion of caesium in Opalinus Clay. • The obtained diffusion parameters are in agreement with previous studies. • The proposed technique forms a step forward for migration studies in clay rock

  18. Relação peso-comprimento de Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae na Baia de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Length-weight relationship of Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. dos Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A relação peso-comprimento de Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier, 1830 na Baia de Sepetiba (22º54'-23º04'S; 43º34'-44º10'W, Rio de Janeiro foi determinada. Este trabalho objetiva contribuir com o conhecimento sobre a morfometria desta espécie na baía e fornecer bases para comparações com outros ambientes. Os peixes foram coletados em programas de amostragens de arrasto de praia (juvenis e arrasto de fundo (adultos entre outubro de 1998 e setembro de 1999. A equação encontrada foi W = 0,000006 L3,1368 para machos e W = 0,000006 L3,14º3 para fêmeas. Alometria positiva foi encontrada para machos e fêmeas e a proporção sexual foi de 1:1. Os altos valores para o coeficiente alométrico indicam alto investimento no crescimento, que pode ser devido ao pequeno tamanho relativo dos espécimes da população analisada, ou ser um mecanismo para suportar as condições de estresse nesta área.The lenght-weight relationship of Orthopristis rubber (Cuvier, 1830 in the Sepetiba Bay (22º54'-23º04'S; 43º34'-44º10'W, Rio de Janeiro was determined. It aims to contribute to morphometrics knowledge of this species in a semi-closed coastal area and to supply basis for comparisons with others environment. Fishes were collected by beach seine (juveniles and otter trawl (adults from October 1998 to September 1999. The equation found was W = 0,000006 L3,1368 for males and W = 0,000006 L3,14º3 for females. Positive allometry was found for both sexes and sex rate was 1:1. The comparatively high values for allometric coefficient indicate high investment in growth, which can be due to relatively small size of the examined fish populations, or a mechanism to overcome stress conditions in the area.

  19. A review of materials and corrosion issues regarding canisters for disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste in Opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project 'Entsorgungsnachweis' presented by NAGRA to the Swiss Federal Government in December 2002 assessed the feasibility of disposal of spent fuel (SF), vitrified high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing and long-lived intermediate level waste in an Opalinus Clay repository site in Northern Switzerland. NAGRA proposed the use of carbon steel canisters for disposal of SF/HLW and it also put forward an alternative concept of copper canisters with cast iron insert. In its reply the Federal Government acknowledged that NAGRA had successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of disposal of SF/HLW. However, some of its experts raised a number of questions related to the choice of steel as canister material. Among others, it was questioned whether hydrogen formed by corrosion of steel in contact with saturated bentonite might adversely affect the barrier function of the Opalinus clay. It was also recommended that alternative canister materials and/or design concepts should be evaluated. To deal with these concerns NAGRA convened an international group of experts, the Canister Materials Review Board (CMRB), who were to review the existing information on canister materials that could be suitable for the proposed repository environment. Based on present knowledge of materials science, the CMRB was to recommend to NAGRA the most suitable material(s) for meeting the performance requirements for SF/HLW canisters. Specifically, the CMRB was to consider corrosion, including hydrogen generation, and stress-assisted failure processes that could affect the integrity and projected life time of SF/HLW canisters or impede the functioning of geological barriers while keeping in mind the overall feasibility of manufacturing, sealing and inspecting the canisters. The CMRB was further asked to identify the needs and provide advice for further studies by NAGRA on the long term performance and safety of SF/HLW canisters in the Swiss repository concept. For the assessment of the

  20. Microbial investigations in Opalinus clay from Mont Terri and in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne; Caracterisation microbiologique de l'argile a opalinus du Mont Terri et de l'argilite du callovo-oxfordien de Meuse/Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulain, S

    2006-12-15

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis deals with research achieved in the context of the Axis 2 of the law Bataille voted on December 30, 1991 about the possibility of building a deep geological repository for medium or high activity and long living nuclear waste. Nearby such a site, some microorganisms may influence the mobility of radionuclides coming from the waste canisters. This work consisted in looking for autochthonous microorganisms in the Opalinus clay formation from Mont Terri (Switzerland) and in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne (France). Microbial Investigations in these unknown unperturbed environments suggested very low microbial densities in the clayey sediments. However, new bacterial species could be isolated from those samples. In addition, a part of the allochthonous population, which has been introduced by air and human activity, could be identified in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. (author)

  1. Alimentação de Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier (Perciformes, Sciaenidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Feeding of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier (Perciformes, Sciaenidae at the Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Vendel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation of food items of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier, 1830 classified by size was analysed based on monthly samples between september/1993 and september/1996 at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazil. The stomach contents of a hundred eighty-two fishes were analysed by the Occunence Frequency Method and Point Count for a Lot Method. The individuais were divided in two groups, smaller and longer than 140mm, and a comparative study of digestive tract and branchial are was performed for these groups. For fishes smaller than 140mm the following sequence of items was obtained matching both methods by using the Preponderance índices: decapods (subdivided in Brachyura, Caridea and Penaeidea, polychaets, isopods, fishes, unidentified material, copepods, amphipods, molluscs and plant material. For fishes longer than or equal to 140mm the sequence was decapods, polychaets, fishes, copepods, amphipods, isopods, molluscs and plant material, in this order. These results suggest that Bairdiella ronchus at the Guaratuba Bay is a carnivorous species using mainly decapod crustaceans as food throughout the year.

  2. Interação do exercício de natação sustentada e da densidade de estocagem no desempenho e na composição corporal de juvenis de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Sustained swimming and stocking density interaction in the performance and body composition of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Alberto Arbeláez-Rojas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar o efeito da densidade de estocagem associada ao exercício de natação moderada no desempenho e na composição corporal de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus. Foram utilizados peixes com comprimento e peso médio inicial de 12,3±0,5cm e 18,4±0,1g, os quais foram distribuídos ao acaso em dois grupos: o primeiro grupo de peixes foi estocado em três densidades correspondendo a 88, 176 e 353 peixes m-3 e foi condicionado a nadar a uma velocidade de 1,0cc s-1 (comprimento corporal por segundo em tanques circulares de 250L, durante 70 dias. O segundo grupo de peixes foi mantido nas mesmas densidades em água parada (sem exercício perfazendo no total seis tratamentos com três repetições. Foram estimados parâmetros de desempenho e da composição corporal, particularmente do músculo branco e do músculo vermelho de ambos os grupos. Os resultados mostraram que o exercício e a densidade afetaram significativamente o crescimento e a composição dos músculos do matrinxã. O grupo de peixes criados sob exercício moderado na densidade de 176 peixes m-3 apresentou melhor desempenho (PThe aim of the present study was to gauge the effect of stocking density associated to the sustained swimming on the performance and body composition of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus juveniles. The fish were initially sized at 12.3±0.5cm length and 18.4g±0.1g weight. They were distributed randomly in two groups: the first was arranged into three densities of 88, 176 and 353 fish m-3 and conditioned to swim at 1.0BL sec-1 in circular tanks of 250L for 70 days; the second was arranged in the same fish densities but in static waters performing six treatments with three repetitions. Performance and body compositions were estimated in white and red muscles for both groups. The results express the growth and muscle composition change in response to the exercise and fish density. The fish maintained in moderate swimming at 176

  3. Physiological responses of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus fed different levels of vitamin C and submitted to air exposure Respostas fisiológicas de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus arraçoados com diferentes níveis de vitamina C e submetidos à exposição aérea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janessa Sampaio de Abreu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin C on physiological responses of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus submitted to air exposure was analyzed. Nine hundred fish (70.15 g were distributed in fifteen 500 l boxes (60 fish.box-1 and fed five rations (treatments: Control (no vitamin C; T100 (100 mg; T200 (200 mg; T400 (400 mg and T800 (800 mg of vitamin C kg.ration-1. Each ration was offered to fish of three boxes during 60 days before the stress challenge that consisted of exposing fish to air for two minutes. Samplings were carried out for 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the air exposure. Blood was collected for glucose, cortisol, total protein, sodium, chloride, hematocrit, hemoglobin determination, and white and red cell count. Liver was removed for hepatosomatic index (HSI calculation and glycogen determination. Vitamin C did not affect the levels of cortisol, chloride, total protein, hemoglobin, leukocytes, hepatic glycogen or HSI in air exposed fish. Blood glucose levels elevation observed 60 minutes after the challenge did not depend on the levels of vitamin C, nor did the drop in serum sodium levels verified 60 minutes after stressor. In general, hematocrit did not change by effect of vitamin C but it was lower at 15 and 30 minutes after the challenge. The number of erythrocytes decreased in fish after 5 minute sampling in all treatments, especially at 30 and 60 minutes. The air exposure evoked alterations in stress indicators of matrinxã, and the vitamin C did not alter the responses.Este trabalho avaliou a participação da vitamina C nos indicadoras de estresse no matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, durante exposição aérea. Novecentos peixes (70,15g foram distribuídos em caixas de cimento (500 l e alimentados com os tratamentos: Controle (sem vitamina C; T100 (100 mg; T200 (200 mg; T400 (400 mg; T800 (800 mg de vitamina C kg.ração-1. Cada ração foi fornecida a peixes de três caixas por 60 dias antes da aplicação do estressor, que consistiu em suspender os

  4. Avaliação de níveis protéicos para a nutrição de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus Evaluation of dietary protein contents for juvenile matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Cláudio Uchôa Izel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã (Brycon cephalus - Gunther, 1869, é uma espécie de peixe nativa da bacia Amazônica que tem despertado grande interesse entre pesquisadores e piscicultores de todo o Brasil. A crescente demanda pelo cultivo desta espécie em ambiente controlado se deve, principalmente, à sua pronta adaptação ao cativeiro e à aceitação de alimentos artificiais, tanto de origem vegetal quanto animal, ao lado do seu elevado valor comercial. Contudo, para ser um empreendimento comercial bem sucedido, o alimento a ser fornecido a esta espécie deve atender a suas necessidades em proteína e permitir elevados ganhos de peso em períodos curtos. O experimento foi conduzido na estação de aqüicultura da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental. Foram testados cinco níveis de proteína bruta (16, 19, 22, 25 e 28% em dietas isocalóricas (EB = 390 kcal/100g em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com três repetições para cada tratamento. Os resultados obtidos após 210 dias de estudo mostraram que a dieta contendo 28 % de proteína bruta promoveu o maior ganho de peso, melhor conversão alimentar e mais alto crescimento corporal entre os níveis testados, indicando que este nível protéico atendeu satisfatoriamente às necessidades de proteína para esta espécie, nas condições deste experimento.Matrinxã (Brycon cephalus - Gunther, 1869 a native fish species from the Amazon basin, has been causing a great deal of interest among researchers and fish culturists all over Brazil. The rising demand for the culture of this species in controlled environment is mainly due, to its ready adaptation to captivity, the acceptance of manufactured feed made with either animal or plant ingredients, along with its high commercial value. However, for a successful commercial enterprise, feed must meet protein requirements of the fish to allow high weight gain in a short period. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental aquaculture

  5. Efecto del volumen de empaque sobre la tasa de congelación-descongelación y la fertilidad de semen crioconservado de yamú (Brycon amazonicus Effects of packaged volume on freezing and thawing rates and the fertility of cryopreserved sperm of yamú (Brycon amazonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V M Medina-Robles

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue establecer las condiciones de congelación-descongelación de semen de yamú (Brycon amazonicus empacado en pajillas de diferentes volúmenes y su efecto sobre la movilidad espermática y fertilidad postdescongelación. La inducción a la maduración final de las gónadas fue realizada con extracto de hipófisis de carpa. El semen obtenido fue evaluado y diluido (1:4 en una solución de 5,5% glucosa, 12% yema de huevo y 10% dimetil sulfóxido, empacado en pajillas de 0,5, 1,8, 2,5 o 4,0 mi y congelado en vapores de nitrógeno. La descongelación fue realizada en baño de agua a 35°C, 60°C u 80°C durante diferentes tiempos. Todas las pajillas mostraron una tasa total de congelación similar (entre 7,5 a 12,9°C min-1. A medida que se utilizó una mayor temperatura, la tasa total de descongelación aumentó. Las pajillas de 4,0 mi descongeladas a 35°C tuvieron la mayor movilidad y tiempo de activación posdescongelación (47,0 ± 1,6% y 60,2 ± 2,4 seg. La fertilidad obtenida con semen congelado en todos los volúmenes de empaque fue significativamente menor (P The aim of this study was to evaluate the freezing-thawing conditions of yamú (Brycon amazonicus sperm packaged in straws of different volume and their effect on the spermatic motility and fertility post-thawing. The induction to gonadal final maturation was made with carp pituitary extract. The sperm obtained was evaluated and diluted (1:4 in a solution with 5.5% glucose, 12% egg yolk and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide, packaged in 0.5, 1.8, 2.5 or 4.0 ml straws and frozen in nitrogen vapors. The thawing was carried out in a 35°C, 60°Cor 80°C water bath during different times. All straws showed a similar overall freezing rate (7.5 to 12.9°C min-1. On the other hand, the overall thawing rate was faster at a higher water bath temperature. The 4.0 ml straws thawed at 35°C showed the highest motility and activation time post-thaw (47.0 ± 1.6% and 60.2 ± 2.4 sec. The

  6. Influência da primeira alimentação na larvicultura e alevinagem do yamú Brycon siebenthalae (Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2092 First feeding influence on yamú, Brycon siebenthalae (Characidae larval rearing - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2092

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pardo-Carrasco

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a influência da primeira alimentação na alevinagem do yamú, Brycon siebenthalae, no Instituto de Acuicultura/Universidad de Los Llanos (Villavicencio, Colômbia, foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos. No experimento 1, testaram-se, durante vinte e quatro horas, diferentes tipos de alimento vivo como primeira alimentação das pós-larvas (PL de yamú: náuplios de Artemia sp. (NA, zooplâncton silvestre (ZS e larvas de pirapitinga (LP (Piaractus brachypomus. No tratamento controle as pós-larvas foram mantidas em jejum. O alimento que proporcionou melhores resultados em ganho de peso e comprimento total foi larvas de pirapitinga (p Two experiments were carried out at Instituto de Acuicultura de Los Llanos/Universidad de Los Llanos (Villavicencio, Colômbia to evaluate first feeding influence on yamú larval rearing. In the first experiment, the following prey types were tested to first feeding for yamú larvae during 24 hours: Artemia sp. nauplii, wild zooplankton and pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus larvae. In the control yamú larvae were subjected to starvation. Pirapitinga larva was the prey item that offered the best results for weight and total length gain (p < 0.05. In the second experiment, yamú larvae performance was compared when stocked into fertilized ponds during 15 days either at the onset feeding or after first feeding with pirapitinga larvae prey item. Survival rate was lower in the larvae that were stocked into rearing ponds at the onset of feeding (13.4% when compared to survival of yamú larvae that were stocked after receiving pirapitinga larvae (74.1%. These results indicate that the use of pirapitinga larvae at first feeding increases performance of yamú larval rearing.

  7. Lironeca desterroensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae from the gills of a marine fish, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, of Santa Catarina Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatcher Vernon E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lironeca desterroensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae is described on the basis of 105 females and three males taken from the gill chambers of the marine fish, Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier,1829, obtained near Santa Catarina Island, Brazil. The new species resembles Lironeca redmanni Leach, 1818, in size and general appearance but differs from that species in a number of important respects. In the new species, the pleotelson is larger, the pleonites are laterally produced, the uropods have elongate and slender rami and the larval stage (Pullus II has a prominent frontal projection.

  8. Biologia reprodutiva do peixe-donzela, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, em arrecifes rochosos no nordeste do Brasil Reproductive biology of the damselfish, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, in the coastal rocky reefs of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane de L. G. Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia reprodutiva do peixe-donzela, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, 1830 (Perciforemes, Pomacentridae, foi estudada nos arrecifes rochosos da praia de Búzios, Nísia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados mensalmente, medidos, pesados, dissecados, as gônadas foram removidas, pesadas e examinadas para identificação do sexo. Avaliação macroscópica dos estádios de maturação gonadal foi realizada. Um total de 549 exemplares foi capturado durante o período de outubro de 2004 a setembro de 2005. Foi registrada uma maior freqüência de fêmeas (78%, em relação aos machos (22%. Foi observado que 50% da população das fêmeas e dos machos iniciaram o processo de maturação gonadal com comprimento de 6,2 cm e 7,0 cm, respectivamente. Em relação à fecundidade absoluta, o número de ovócitos vitelogênicos variou entre 1790 a 14780, com média de 6832. A análise da relação gonadossomática para ambos os sexos indicou que o período de fevereiro a agosto de 2005 foi associado a um longo período de repouso gonadal. Os peixes foram considerados aptos à reprodução a partir de janeiro e em setembro-outubro com dois picos de desova registrados nesses meses, com desova do tipo parcelada. Cinco estádios de maturação gonadal foram identificados através de análises macroscópicas das gônadas: imaturo, em maturação, maduro, esgotado e repouso.Reproductive biology of the damselfish, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, 1830 (Perciformes: Pomacentridae, was studied in the coastal rocky reefs of Búzios Beach, Nísia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The fish were captured on a monthly basis, and were measured, weighed, dissected and the gonads were removed, weighed and examined in order to separate males and females. Macroscopic characterization of the stages of gonadal maturation was carried out. A total of 549 samples were captured from October 2004 to September 2005. A higher frequency of females (78% was registered

  9. First long-term behavioral records from Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) reveal record-breaking dives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Gregory S; Falcone, Erin A; Moretti, David J; Andrews, Russel D

    2014-01-01

    Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) are known as extreme divers, though behavioral data from this difficult-to-study species have been limited. They are also the species most often stranded in association with Mid-Frequency Active (MFA) sonar use, a relationship that remains poorly understood. We used satellite-linked tags to record the diving behavior and locations of eight Ziphius off the Southern California coast for periods up to three months. The effort resulted in 3732 hr of dive data with associated regional movements--the first dataset of its kind for any beaked whale--and included dives to 2992 m depth and lasting 137.5 min, both new mammalian dive records. Deep dives had a group mean depth of 1401 m (s.d. = 137.8, n = 1142) and duration of 67.4 min (s.d. = 6.9). The group mean time between deep dives was 102.3 min (s.d. = 30.8, n = 783). While the previously described stereotypic pattern of deep and shallow dives was apparent, there was considerable inter- and intra-individual variability in most parameters. There was significant diel behavioral variation, including increased time near the surface and decreased shallow diving at night. However, maximum depth and the proportion of time spent on deep dives (presumed foraging), varied little from day to night. Surprisingly, tagged whales were present within an MFA sonar training range for 38% of days locations were received, and though comprehensive records of sonar use during tag deployments were not available, we discuss the effects frequent acoustic disturbance may have had on the observed behaviors. These data better characterize the true behavioral range of this species, and suggest caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions about behavior using short-term datasets.

  10. First long-term behavioral records from Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris reveal record-breaking dives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Schorr

    Full Text Available Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris are known as extreme divers, though behavioral data from this difficult-to-study species have been limited. They are also the species most often stranded in association with Mid-Frequency Active (MFA sonar use, a relationship that remains poorly understood. We used satellite-linked tags to record the diving behavior and locations of eight Ziphius off the Southern California coast for periods up to three months. The effort resulted in 3732 hr of dive data with associated regional movements--the first dataset of its kind for any beaked whale--and included dives to 2992 m depth and lasting 137.5 min, both new mammalian dive records. Deep dives had a group mean depth of 1401 m (s.d. = 137.8, n = 1142 and duration of 67.4 min (s.d. = 6.9. The group mean time between deep dives was 102.3 min (s.d. = 30.8, n = 783. While the previously described stereotypic pattern of deep and shallow dives was apparent, there was considerable inter- and intra-individual variability in most parameters. There was significant diel behavioral variation, including increased time near the surface and decreased shallow diving at night. However, maximum depth and the proportion of time spent on deep dives (presumed foraging, varied little from day to night. Surprisingly, tagged whales were present within an MFA sonar training range for 38% of days locations were received, and though comprehensive records of sonar use during tag deployments were not available, we discuss the effects frequent acoustic disturbance may have had on the observed behaviors. These data better characterize the true behavioral range of this species, and suggest caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions about behavior using short-term datasets.

  11. Ontogeny of head and caudal fin shape of an apex marine predator: The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Amy L; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Irschick, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    How morphology changes with size can have profound effects on the life history and ecology of an animal. For apex predators that can impact higher level ecosystem processes, such changes may have consequences for other species. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are an apex predator in tropical seas, and, as adults, are highly migratory. However, little is known about ontogenetic changes in their body form, especially in relation to two aspects of shape that influence locomotion (caudal fin) and feeding (head shape). We captured digital images of the heads and caudal fins of live tiger sharks from Southern Florida and the Bahamas ranging in body size (hence age), and quantified shape of each using elliptical Fourier analysis. This revealed changes in the shape of the head and caudal fin of tiger sharks across ontogeny. Smaller juvenile tiger sharks show an asymmetrical tail with the dorsal (upper) lobe being substantially larger than the ventral (lower) lobe, and transition to more symmetrical tail in larger adults, although the upper lobe remains relatively larger in adults. The heads of juvenile tiger sharks are more conical, which transition to relatively broader heads over ontogeny. We interpret these changes as a result of two ecological transitions. First, adult tiger sharks can undertake extensive migrations and a more symmetrical tail could be more efficient for swimming longer distances, although we did not test this possibility. Second, adult tiger sharks expand their diet to consume larger and more diverse prey with age (turtles, mammals, and elasmobranchs), which requires substantially greater bite area and force to process. In contrast, juvenile tiger sharks consume smaller prey, such as fishes, crustaceans, and invertebrates. Our data reveal significant morphological shifts in an apex predator, which could have effects for other species that tiger sharks consume and interact with. PMID:26869274

  12. Ontogeny of head and caudal fin shape of an apex marine predator: The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Amy L; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Irschick, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    How morphology changes with size can have profound effects on the life history and ecology of an animal. For apex predators that can impact higher level ecosystem processes, such changes may have consequences for other species. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are an apex predator in tropical seas, and, as adults, are highly migratory. However, little is known about ontogenetic changes in their body form, especially in relation to two aspects of shape that influence locomotion (caudal fin) and feeding (head shape). We captured digital images of the heads and caudal fins of live tiger sharks from Southern Florida and the Bahamas ranging in body size (hence age), and quantified shape of each using elliptical Fourier analysis. This revealed changes in the shape of the head and caudal fin of tiger sharks across ontogeny. Smaller juvenile tiger sharks show an asymmetrical tail with the dorsal (upper) lobe being substantially larger than the ventral (lower) lobe, and transition to more symmetrical tail in larger adults, although the upper lobe remains relatively larger in adults. The heads of juvenile tiger sharks are more conical, which transition to relatively broader heads over ontogeny. We interpret these changes as a result of two ecological transitions. First, adult tiger sharks can undertake extensive migrations and a more symmetrical tail could be more efficient for swimming longer distances, although we did not test this possibility. Second, adult tiger sharks expand their diet to consume larger and more diverse prey with age (turtles, mammals, and elasmobranchs), which requires substantially greater bite area and force to process. In contrast, juvenile tiger sharks consume smaller prey, such as fishes, crustaceans, and invertebrates. Our data reveal significant morphological shifts in an apex predator, which could have effects for other species that tiger sharks consume and interact with.

  13. First long-term behavioral records from Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) reveal record-breaking dives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Gregory S; Falcone, Erin A; Moretti, David J; Andrews, Russel D

    2014-01-01

    Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) are known as extreme divers, though behavioral data from this difficult-to-study species have been limited. They are also the species most often stranded in association with Mid-Frequency Active (MFA) sonar use, a relationship that remains poorly understood. We used satellite-linked tags to record the diving behavior and locations of eight Ziphius off the Southern California coast for periods up to three months. The effort resulted in 3732 hr of dive data with associated regional movements--the first dataset of its kind for any beaked whale--and included dives to 2992 m depth and lasting 137.5 min, both new mammalian dive records. Deep dives had a group mean depth of 1401 m (s.d. = 137.8, n = 1142) and duration of 67.4 min (s.d. = 6.9). The group mean time between deep dives was 102.3 min (s.d. = 30.8, n = 783). While the previously described stereotypic pattern of deep and shallow dives was apparent, there was considerable inter- and intra-individual variability in most parameters. There was significant diel behavioral variation, including increased time near the surface and decreased shallow diving at night. However, maximum depth and the proportion of time spent on deep dives (presumed foraging), varied little from day to night. Surprisingly, tagged whales were present within an MFA sonar training range for 38% of days locations were received, and though comprehensive records of sonar use during tag deployments were not available, we discuss the effects frequent acoustic disturbance may have had on the observed behaviors. These data better characterize the true behavioral range of this species, and suggest caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions about behavior using short-term datasets. PMID:24670984

  14. Monitoring the Excavation Damaged Zone in Opalinus clay by three dimensional reconstruction of the electrical resistivity in the Mont Terri gallery G-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesparre, N.; Adler, A.; Nicollin, F.; Gibert, D.; Nussbaum, C.

    2012-04-01

    The characteristics of opalinus clay have been studied in the last years for its capacity to retain radionuclide transport as a low permeable rock. This formation presents thereby suitable properties for hosting repository sites of radioactive waste. The Mont Terri underground rock laboratory (Switzerland) has been excavated in opalinus clay layer in order to develop experiences improving the knowledge on the physico-chemical properties of the rock. The study of electrical properties furnishes information on the rock structure, its anisotropy and the changes of these properties with time (Nicollin et al., 2010 ; Thovert et al., 2011). Here the three dimensional reconstruction of the electrical resistivity aims at monitoring the temporal evolution of the excavation damaged zone. Three rings of electrodes have been set-up around the gallery and voltage is measured between two electrodes while a current is injected between two others (Gibert et al., 2006). Measurements have been achieved from July 2004 until April 2008 before, during and after the excavation of the gallery 04. In this study we develop a computational approach to reconstruct three dimensional images of the resistivity in the vicinity of the electrodes. A finite element model is used to represent the complex geometry of the gallery. The measurements inferred from a given resistivity distribution are estimated using the software EIDORS (Adler and Lionheart, 2006), this constitutes the forward problem. The reconstruction of the media resistivity is then implemented by fitting the estimated to the measured data, via the resolution of an inverse problem. The parameters of this inverse problem are defined by mapping the forward problem elements into a coarser mesh. This allows to reduce drastically the number of unknowns and so increases the robustness of the inversion. The inversion is executed with the conjugate gradient method regularised by an analysis of the Jacobian singular values. The results show an

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of GeoPET experiments: 3D images of tracer distributions (18F, 124I and 58Co) in Opalinus clay, anhydrite and quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhnini, Abdelhamid; Kulenkampff, Johannes; Sauerzapf, Sophie; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna

    2013-08-01

    Understanding conservative fluid flow and reactive tracer transport in soils and rock formations requires quantitative transport visualization methods in 3D+t. After a decade of research and development we established the GeoPET as a non-destructive method with unrivalled sensitivity and selectivity, with due spatial and temporal resolution by applying Positron Emission Tomography (PET), a nuclear medicine imaging method, to dense rock material. Requirements for reaching the physical limit of image resolution of nearly 1 mm are (a) a high-resolution PET-camera, like our ClearPET scanner (Raytest), and (b) appropriate correction methods for scatter and attenuation of 511 keV—photons in the dense geological material. The latter are by far more significant in dense geological material than in human and small animal body tissue (water). Here we present data from Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) reflecting selected GeoPET experiments. The MCS consider all involved nuclear physical processes of the measurement with the ClearPET-system and allow us to quantify the sensitivity of the method and the scatter fractions in geological media as function of material (quartz, Opalinus clay and anhydrite compared to water), PET isotope (18F, 58Co and 124I), and geometric system parameters. The synthetic data sets obtained by MCS are the basis for detailed performance assessment studies allowing for image quality improvements. A scatter correction method is applied exemplarily by subtracting projections of simulated scattered coincidences from experimental data sets prior to image reconstruction with an iterative reconstruction process.

  16. Sodium chloride added to transport water and physiological responses of Matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Teleost: Characidae Adição de cloreto de sódio à água de transporte e respostas fisiológicas do matrinxã Brycon amazonicus(Teleost: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The addition of salt to the water has been used to mitigate stress and improve survival in fishes. This study investigated the effects of sodium chloride (0.0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g/l on levels of plasma cortisol, glucose, tryacilglycerol, total protein, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte number, liver glycogen and lipid, and muscle lipid in adult matrinxã(Brycon amazonicum after a 4-h transport and during a 96-h recovery period. Fish were sampled before and after transport, and 24 and 96 h of the recovery period. Plasma cortisol was higher than initial condition immediately after transportation, except in fish transported in 3.0 and 6.0 g/l of salt. A similar pattern was observed for blood glucose but fish transported in water with 0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 g/l of salt needed more than 24 h to return to the initial condition. Liver glycogen was lower after transport in fish not exposed to salt. Hemoglobin, erythrocyte number, total plasma protein and liver lipid did not change during the experiment but hematocrit was lower after transport in all treatments and returned to pre-transport values in 24 h. Reductions of muscle lipid and plasma tryacilglycerol were observed during the recovery period in fish from all treatments. The results show that 6.0 g/l NaCl added to the transport water reduce the stress responses and a 96-h recovery period is needed if no salt is used to mitigate the stress.A adição de sal à água tem sido utilizada para a mitigação de estresse e aumento da taxa de sobrevivência em peixes. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito do cloreto de sódio (0,0; 1,0; 3,0 e 6.0 g/l nas concentrações de cortisol plasmático, glicemia, triglicerídios, proteínas total plasmática, hematócrito, hemoglobina, número de eritrócitos, glicogênio e lipídio hepáticos, e lipídio muscular em matrinxã Brycon amazonicum adultos após quatro horas de transporte e durante período de recuperação de 96 h. Amostras foram coletadas antes e depois do

  17. Variabilidad de las comunidades de parásitos metazoos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae) en Chile Variability of metazoan parasite communities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae) off Chile

    OpenAIRE

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO; ALEX MELLADO; SANDRA SAAVEDRA; JUAN CARVAJAL

    2009-01-01

    La comparación de las variaciones en el tiempo cronológico y en el espacio es uno de los aspectos menos estudiados en la ecología de las comunidades de parásitos. Por eso, en este estudio se compara la abundancia total, riqueza y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae), entre muestras tomadas en Chile centro-sur en tres localidades geográficas (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt y Punta Arenas), y en dos momen...

  18. Influência da densidade de estocagem no cultivo de alevinos de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 em condições experimentais - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1670 Stocking density influence on matrinxã fingerlings (Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869, culture on experimental conditions - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1670

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir Martins Soares

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da densidade de estocagem no cultivo de alevinos de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, foram utilizados 300 alevinos com peso inicial de 2g ± 0,82g e comprimento inicial de 5,7cm ± 0,74cm, distribuídos em 20 tanques (200L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos (6, 12, 18 e 24 ind/tanque, correspondendo a 24, 48, 72 e 96 ind/m3 e 5 repetições. A alimentação foi à base de ração extrusada comercial, contendo 36% de proteína bruta fornecida à vontade 6 vezes ao dia, por 45 dias. Observou-se uma relação linear positiva (p 0,05 pelas diferentes densidades de estocagem. Os valores dos parâmetros físico-químicos permaneceram nos níveis adequados para o cultivo de peixes, embora esses valores tenham sofrido influência das densidades durante alguns dias de experimento. Concluiu-se, portanto, que a densidade de 96 ind/m3 é a mais indicada, pois observou-se maior biomassa total sem afetar o ganho de peso dos peixesThe aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the influence of stocking density on the culture of 300 matrinxã fingerlings (Brycon cephalus, of 2.0 ± 0.82g initial weight and 5.7 ± 0.74cm initial length, distributed in 20 ponds (250-L. The utilized experimental design was entirely randomized in four treatments (6, 12, 18 e 24 ind/pond, corresponding to 24, 48, 72, e 96ind/m3 and five replications. The food consisted of a commercial ration of 36% of crude protein, that was supplied ad libitum six times a day during 45 days. A positive linear relation (p 0.05 for the different stocking densities. The values of physical and chemical parameters remained at adequate levels for fish culture, although densities influenced these values during some days of the experiment. Results showed that the density of 96ind/m3 is the highly recommended, because higher total biomass was observed, which did not affect the fish weight gain

  19. Expertise on the provision of evidence with respect to Nagra's disposal concept for spent fuel assemblies, vitrified high-level radioactive waste as well as for long-living intermediate-level wastes (Opalinus clay project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankind has been living in a field of natural radiation; in Switzerland, the natural dose is around 3 mSv per year. It can be assumed that an artificial dose smaller than the natural one is harmless and can therefore be tolerated. However, nuclear power plants, medicine, industry and research produce radioactive wastes whose radioactivity is mostly higher than the natural level. These wastes must therefore be concentrated and enclosed until the decay reduces the dose rate to a harmless level. For this, it is foreseen that the radioactive wastes will be disposed of in deep-lying geological strata. The enclosure must be guarantied in such a way that, at any time, the radiation suffered by mankind and environment due to the radioactive wastes stays under the statutory limit of 1 mSv/a. The judgement of the quality of the deep underground repository is divided into 3 chapters: a) based on the geological and hydro-geological properties of the host rock, the proof of safety shows that the chosen repository site is safe for the long term; b) the proof of site guaranties that the repository needed can be built in the chosen host rock; c) the proof of implementation demonstrates that the repository can be built with the actual technical means proposed. The forecast for the development of the safety of the repository in the long term is fairly inaccurate, the most difficult factor being the developments in mankind's way of life. Therefore, conservative assumptions must be taken into account to cover even the most unlikely cases. The former project 'Gewaehr' presented by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Nuclear Wastes (NAGRA) in 1978 was based on crystalline rock; it was rejected because it was not possible to find a sufficiently large area without geologic faults for the repository. In new investigations, NAGRA found a suitable layer of Opalinus clay in Zurich's Weinland. In the neighbourhood of the layer discovered, there are neither noticeable beds of other

  20. Sighting characteristics and photo-identification of Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) near San Clemente Island, California: a key area for beaked whales and the military?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Erin A; Schorr, Gregory S; Douglas, Annie B; Calambokidis, John; Henderson, Elizabeth; McKenna, Megan F; Hildebrand, John; Moretti, David

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between beaked whales and certain anthropogenic sounds remains poorly understood and of great interest. Although Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) are widely distributed, little is known of their behavior and population structure throughout much of their range. We conducted a series of five combined visual-acoustic marine mammal surveys from 2006 to 2008 in the southern San Nicolas Basin, a site of frequent naval activity off the southern California coast, west of San Clemente Island. The study area was defined by a 1,800 km(2) array of 88 bottom-mounted hydrophones at depths up to 1,850 m. The array was used to vector visual observers toward vocalizing marine mammal species. Thirty-seven groups of Cuvier's beaked whales were encountered during the study period. The overall encounter rate was one group for every 21.0 h of survey effort, and was as high as one group per 10.2 h of effort during the October 2007 survey. Whales were encountered in the deepest portion of the study area, at a mean bottom depth of 1,580 m (SD 138). The average group size was 3.8 individuals (SD 2.4), which was higher than has been reported from other studies of this species. Twenty-four groups were observed over multiple surfacings (median = 4 surfacings, range 2-15). The mean encounter duration of extended sightings was 104 min (SD 98, range 12-466 min) and the mean distance moved over the course of sightings was 1.66 km (SD 1.56, range 0.08-6.65 km). Temporal surfacing patterns during extended encounters were similar to dive behavior described from Cuvier's beaked whales carrying time-depth recording tags. Seventy-eight photographic identifications were made of 58 unique individuals, for an overall resighting rate of 0.26. Whales were sighted on up to 4 days, with duration from first to last sighting spanning 2-79 days. For those whales sighted on subsequent days, the mean distance between subsequent sightings was 8.6 km (SD 7.9). Individuals

  1. Host specificity of Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere) (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the marlin sucker Remora osteochir (Cuvier) in the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ju-shey; Collete, Bruce B; Madinabeitia, Ione

    2006-10-01

    Three species of remoras--Remora brachyptera (Lowe), Remora osteochir (Cuvier), and Remora remora (Linnaeus)--were collected from 4 species of billfishes--Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw), Makaira nigricans Lacepéde, Tetrapturus albidus Poey, and Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins and de Sylva--on board a Japanese long-liner Shoyo Maru during her cruise in 2002 across the Atlantic. However, only the marlin sucker (R. osteochir) was found to carry a parasitic copepod, Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere, 1936). Although 12 species of parasitic copepods have been reported from billfishes around the world ocean, none of them is L. crassus. Thus, L. crassus is considered a parasite specific to the marlin sucker. PMID:17152964

  2. Geo-scientific basis for making the safety case for a SF/H/ W/ILW repository in Opalinus clay in ne switzerland (project Entsorgungsnachweis) - 2: the geosphere as a transport barrier: hydraulic, diffusion and sorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suitable hydrogeological and geochemical properties are essential for the performance of the host rock as a barrier to migrating radionuclides. In order to obtain a well-justified geo-scientific database for the safety case, a broad multidisciplinary approach to assessing the transport properties of the Opalinus Clay has been pursued, taking into account and integrating data of various origin. In addition, scientific understanding has been demonstrated by using well supported and consistent conceptual models and model calculations that are able to explain the broad range of observations. The input data for the safety case (Nagra, 2002a) - i.e. the reference datasets for a potential repository at a depth of 650 m - are supplemented case by case by pessimistic values, conservative assumptions or parameter ranges (Nagra, 2002b). The content of this paper is presented in much greater detail in Nagra, (2002b) and in supporting reports cited therein. (author)

  3. Near Field sorption Data Bases for Compacted MX-80 Bentonite for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    Bentonites of various types and compacted forms are being investigated in many countries as backfill materials in high-level radioactive waste disposal concepts. Nagra is currently considering an Opalinus clay (OPA) formation in the Zuercher Weinland as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. A compacted MX-80 bentonite is foreseen as a potential backfill material. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and one of the requirements for such an assessment are sorption data bases (SDB) for the bentonite near-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop the SDB. One of the pre-requisites for developing a SDB is a water chemistry for the compacted bentonite porewater. For a number of reasons mentioned in the report, and discussed in more detail elsewhere, this is not a straightforward task. There are considerable uncertainties associated with the major ion concentrations and in particular with the system pH and Eh. The MX-80 SDB was developed for a reference bentonite porewater (pH = 7.25) which was calculated using the reference OPA porewater. In addition, two further SDBs are presented for porewaters calculated at pH values of 6.9 and 7.9 corresponding to lower and upper bound values calculated for the range of groundwater compositions anticipated for the OPA host rock. 'In house' sorption isotherm data were measured for Cs(I), Ni(II), Eu(III), Th(IV), Se(IV) and 1(-1) on the 'as received' MX-80 material equilibrated with a simulated porewater composition. Complementary 'in house' sorption edge and isotherm measurements on conditioned Na/Ca montmorillonites were also available for many of these radionuclides. These data formed the core of the SDB. Nevertheless, some of the required sorption data still had to be obtained from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing selection procedures and the modifications

  4. Near Field sorption Data Bases for Compacted MX-80 Bentonite for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentonites of various types and compacted forms are being investigated in many countries as backfill materials in high-level radioactive waste disposal concepts. Nagra is currently considering an Opalinus clay (OPA) formation in the Zuercher Weinland as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. A compacted MX-80 bentonite is foreseen as a potential backfill material. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and one of the requirements for such an assessment are sorption data bases (SDB) for the bentonite near-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop the SDB. One of the pre-requisites for developing a SDB is a water chemistry for the compacted bentonite porewater. For a number of reasons mentioned in the report, and discussed in more detail elsewhere, this is not a straightforward task. There are considerable uncertainties associated with the major ion concentrations and in particular with the system pH and Eh. The MX-80 SDB was developed for a reference bentonite porewater (pH = 7.25) which was calculated using the reference OPA porewater. In addition, two further SDBs are presented for porewaters calculated at pH values of 6.9 and 7.9 corresponding to lower and upper bound values calculated for the range of groundwater compositions anticipated for the OPA host rock. 'In house' sorption isotherm data were measured for Cs(I), Ni(II), Eu(III), Th(IV), Se(IV) and 1(-1) on the 'as received' MX-80 material equilibrated with a simulated porewater composition. Complementary 'in house' sorption edge and isotherm measurements on conditioned Na/Ca montmorillonites were also available for many of these radionuclides. These data formed the core of the SDB. Nevertheless, some of the required sorption data still had to be obtained from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing selection procedures and the modifications applied to the chosen values so

  5. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Near-Field of a Repository for Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U

    2002-10-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from SF/HLW wastes, disposed of in a reducing clay (Opalinus Clay, bentonite) environment. Solubility and speciation calculations in bentonite pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 37 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Particularly for the most relevant actinides, the straightforward applications with this updated TDB yielded results in contradiction to chemical analogy considerations. This was a consequence of incomplete data and called for problem specific TDB extensions, which were evaluated in a separate study. However, a summary of these problem specific extensions is provided in section 4.1. The results presented in this report solely depend on geochemical model calculations. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the underlying data and assumptions are made clear to the reader. In order to ensure traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the Nagra/PSI TDB are explicitly specified in the report, in order to provide complete documentation for quality assurance and for comprehensibility. In order to clearly distinguish between results derived from data carefully reviewed in the Nagra/PSI TDB and those calculated from 'other' data, the summary of expected maximum concentrations provided in Table 1 includes two columns. The heading CALCULATED provides maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the updated TDB, whereas maximum concentrations, which include additional problem specific data and/or data from other sources, are given under the heading RECOMMENDED. The

  6. Diffusion of HTO, {sup 36}Cl{sup -}, {sup 125}I{sup -} and {sup 22}Na{sup +} in Opalinus Clay: Effect of Confining Pressure, Sample Orientation, Sample Depth and Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Loon, L.R.; Soler, J.M

    2004-02-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients (D{sub e}), rock capacity factors ({alpha}) and diffusion-accessible porosities ({epsilon}) were measured using the through-diffusion technique. Transport (diffusion) was measured both perpendicular and parallel to the bedding. Special cells that allowed the application of an axial confining pressure were designed. The pressures applied ranged from 1 to 5 MPa for Mont Terri samples and between 4 and 15 MPa for Benken samples, the upper values representing the in-situ confining pressure at both locations. The test solutions used in the experiments were synthetic Opalinus Clay pore water, which has Na and Cl as main components (Mont Terri: I = 0.39 M; Benken: I = 0.20 M). Pressure only had a small effect on the value of the effective diffusion coefficients. In the case of Mont Terri samples, increasing the pressure from 1 to 5 MPa resulted in a decrease of the effective diffusion coefficient of 20% for HTO, 27% for {sup 36}Cl{sup -}, 29% for {sup 125}I{sup -} and 17 % for {sup 22}Na{sup +}. In the case of Benken samples, increasing the pressure from 4 to 15 MPa resulted in a decrease of D{sub e} of 17% for HTO, 22% for {sup 36}Cl{sup -}, 32% for {sup 125}I{sup -} and 17 % for {sup 22}Na{sup +}. Moreover, the effective diffusion coefficients for for {sup 36}Cl{sup -}are smaller than for HTO, which is consistent with an effect arising from anion exclusion. This ion exclusion effect is smaller in samples from Mont Terri than in samples from Benken, which can be explained by the higher ionic strength of the Mont Terri water used in the experiments. The diffusion of {sup 22}Na{sup +} is similar to that of HTO in the case of Mont Terri OPA. For Benken OPA, the D{sub e} value of {sup 22}Na{sup +} is a factor of 2 higher than that of HTO. This last observation cannot be explained so far but is comparable to experimental data from ANDRA (1999) on Callovo-Oxfordian claystones from the Meuse/Haute Same site. {sup 125}I{sup -} is retarded with

  7. Characterization of the porosity in Boom (Mol site, Belgium) and Opalinus (Mont Terri, Switzerland) clays - about the benefit of using ion beam milling tools and CRYO-SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    imaging of pore space at high resolution. The first of them is to use ion beam milling tools able to prepare smooth, damage free cross-sectioned surfaces. Two main ion source are available: (1) a broad ion beam (BIB, up to 3.5 mA) is suitable to produce large polished cross-sections area of few mm2, while the focused ion beam (FIB, 1 pA - 45 nA) is better used for fine and precise polished cross-sections area of about few μm2. The second alternative is to preserve the in-situ nanostructures of wet clay-stones by using cryogenic techniques in order to stabilize in-situ fluids at temperature of liquid nitrogen. A FIB/BIB-cryo- SEM instrument combines cryo-techniques to preserve wet samples, in-situ sample preparation by ion beam cross-sectioning (BIB or FIB) and observations of the stabilized microstructure at high resolution (SEM). Since the ion beam is directly embedded into the SEM, this instrument offers a unique way to get a direct access of the pore space in 3D by using a 'slice and view' procedure equivalent to nano-serial sectioning. This procedure allows us investigating the natural in-situ pore space as a 3D matrix. This contribution reports on a study of Boom and Opalinus clays from reference sites for research (respectively at Mol site, Belgium and Mont Terri, Switzerland) using cryo-SEM at cryogenic temperature, with ion beam cross-sectioning to prepare smooth, damage free surfaces. Pores commonly have crack-like tips, preferred orientation parallel to bedding and power law size distribution. We define a number of pore types depending on shape and location in the microstructure. 3-D reconstruction by serial cross-sectioning shows 3-D connectivity of the pore space and provide natural pore matrix for simulation of permeability using Lattice Boltzmann method. These findings offer a new insight into the morphology of pores and quantification of porosity down to nano-scale and provide the basis for microstructure-based models of transport in clays

  8. Isolation and characterization of eight microsatellite loci from Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger shark) and cross-amplification in Carcharhinus leucas, Carcharhinus brevipinna, Carcharhinus plumbeus and Sphyrna lewini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirog, Agathe; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Blaison, Antonin; Soria, Marc; Magalon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier (Carcharhinidae) is a large elasmobranch suspected to have, as other apex predators, a keystone function in marine ecosystems and is currently considered Near Threatened (Red list IUCN). Knowledge on its ecology, which is crucial to design proper conservation and management plans, is very scarce. Here we describe the isolation of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of enriched DNA libraries. Their characteristics were tested on a population of tiger shark (n = 101) from Reunion Island (South-Western Indian Ocean). All loci were polymorphic with a number of alleles ranging from two to eight. No null alleles were detected and no linkage disequilibrium was detected after Bonferroni correction. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.03 to 0.76 and from 0.03 to 0.77, respectively. No locus deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the global F IS of the population was of 0.04 (NS) . Some of the eight loci developed here successfully cross-amplified in the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (one locus), the spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna (four loci), the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus (five loci) and the scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini (two loci). We also designed primers to amplify and sequence a mitochondrial marker, the control region. We sequenced 862 bp and found a low genetic diversity, with four polymorphic sites, a haplotype diversity of 0.15 and a nucleotide diversity of 2 × 10(-4).

  9. Identification and management of ocular lipid deposition in association with hyperlipidaemia in captive moray eels, Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani, Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) and Muraena retifera Goode and Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clode, A B; Harms, C; Fatzinger, M H; Young, F; Colitz, C; Wert, D

    2012-09-01

    Ocular lipid deposition and its surgical management and possible association with systemic hyperlipidaemia in captive moray eels are described. Ophthalmologic examinations, haematology and plasma biochemistry analyses were performed on an initial population of captive moray eels (n=10): green moray, Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani; spotted moray, Gymnothorax morninga (Cuvier) and reticulated moray, Muraena retifera Goode and Bean. Recently captured green moray eels comprised the control group (n=9). Clinical signs compatible with ocular lipid deposition were identified in six of ten captive eels (60%) vs. none of the controls. Green moray eels in the initial captive population (n=5) had significantly higher total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and aspartate amino transferase values than the control eels. Dietary management was attempted in all captive eels, and surgical intervention was performed in three eels, including two from a separate population, with improved ocular clarity within 1month post-operatively. Histopathological evaluation of surgical specimens and two eyes from an additional affected eel that died suggested ocular lipid deposition. Eels in captivity have an apparent predisposition for hyperlipidaemia and ocular lipid deposition. Although limited in this study and complicated by exhibit restraints, dietary management was minimally effective, while surgery improved ocular clarity.

  10. Activity of natural radionuclides and their contribution to the absorbed dose in the fish cubera snapper (lutjanus cyanopterus, cuvier, 1828) on the coast of Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S., E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios. Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica de Caldas; Kelecom, Alphonsem [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Py Junior, Delcy de A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental

    2010-07-01

    A methodology was developed for converting the activity concentration of radionuclides (Bq kg{sup -1}) into absorbed dose rate (Gy y{sup -1}), aiming an approach to environmental radioprotection based on the concept of standard dose limit. The model considers only the internal absorbed dose rate. This methodology was applied to the cubera snapper fish (Lutjanus cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828) caught off the coast of Ceara. The natural radionuclides considered were uranium-238, radium-226, lead-210, thorium-232 and radium-228. The absorbed dose rates were calculated for individual radionuclides and the type of emitted radiation. The average dose rate due to these radionuclides was 5.36 {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, a value six orders of magnitude smaller than the threshold value of absorbed dose rate used in this study (3.65 10{sup 3} mGy y{sup -1}), and similar to that found in the literature for benthic fish. Ra-226 and U- 238 contributed 67% and 22% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by Th-232 with 10%. Ra-228 and Pb-210, in turn, accounted for less than 1% of the absorbed dose rate. This distribution is somewhat different from that reported in the literature, where the Ra-226 accounts for 86% of the absorbed dose rate. (author)

  11. Small but tough: What can ecophysiology of croaking gourami Trichopsis vittatus (Cuvier 1831) tell us about invasiveness of non-native fishes in Florida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pam; Schulte, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier, 1831) is a small, freshwater gourami (Fam: Osphronemidae) native to southeast Asia. It was first detected in Florida in the 1970s and seems to have persisted for decades in a small area. In this study, we documented T. vittata’s ecophysiological tolerances (salinity and low-temperature) and qualitatively compared them to published values for other sympatric non-native species that have successfully invaded much of the Florida peninsula. Trichopsis vittata survived acute salinity shifts to 16 psu and was able to survive up to 20 psu when salinity was raised more slowly (5 psu per week). In a cold-tolerance experiment, temperature was lowered from 24 °C at 1 °C hr-1 until fish died. Mean temperature at death (i.e., lower lethal limit) was 7.2 °C. Trichopsis vittata seems as tolerant or more tolerant than many other sympatric non-native fishes for the variables we examined. However, T. vittata is the only species that has not dispersed since its introduction. Species other than T. vittata have broadly invaded ranges, many of which include the entire lower third of the Florida peninsula. It is possible that tolerance to environmental parameters serves as a filter for establishment, wherein candidate species must possess the ability to survive abiotic extremes as a first step. However, a species’ ability to expand its geographic range may ultimately rely on a secondary set of criteria including biotic interactions and life-history variables.

  12. Isolation and characterization of eight microsatellite loci from Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger shark) and cross-amplification in Carcharhinus leucas, Carcharhinus brevipinna, Carcharhinus plumbeus and Sphyrna lewini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirog, Agathe; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Blaison, Antonin; Soria, Marc; Magalon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier (Carcharhinidae) is a large elasmobranch suspected to have, as other apex predators, a keystone function in marine ecosystems and is currently considered Near Threatened (Red list IUCN). Knowledge on its ecology, which is crucial to design proper conservation and management plans, is very scarce. Here we describe the isolation of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of enriched DNA libraries. Their characteristics were tested on a population of tiger shark (n = 101) from Reunion Island (South-Western Indian Ocean). All loci were polymorphic with a number of alleles ranging from two to eight. No null alleles were detected and no linkage disequilibrium was detected after Bonferroni correction. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.03 to 0.76 and from 0.03 to 0.77, respectively. No locus deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the global F IS of the population was of 0.04 (NS) . Some of the eight loci developed here successfully cross-amplified in the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (one locus), the spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna (four loci), the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus (five loci) and the scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini (two loci). We also designed primers to amplify and sequence a mitochondrial marker, the control region. We sequenced 862 bp and found a low genetic diversity, with four polymorphic sites, a haplotype diversity of 0.15 and a nucleotide diversity of 2 × 10(-4). PMID:27231661

  13. Geo scientific basis for making the safety case for a SF/HL W/ILW repository in Opalinus clay in ne Switzerland (project Entsorgungsnachweis) 4: geosphere stability: learning from the past to predict future long-term evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of safety-relevant issues need to be addressed when considering long-term evolution, out of which uplift/erosion, changes in the geochemical and hydrogeological environment are particularly important and are discussed below. Among the strongest arguments in the prediction of future evolution is the extrapolation of events and processes that occurred over a long period of time in the geological past (e.g. 10 Ma) to a shorter period in the future. The future long-term evolution of Opalinus Clay in the investigation area in the Zurcher Weinland (NE Switzerland) is considered over a time period of around 1 Ma. The geological evolution can be predicted plausibly within reasonable limits over such a time period based on a detailed analysis of geological history. Predictions extending beyond this time period are feasible but contain an increasing element of uncertainty. This paper summarises the project-related conclusions, which are presented in greater detail in Nagra (2002a). (author)

  14. Activity of natural radionuclides and their contribution to the absorbed dose in the fish cubera snapper (lutjanus cyanopterus, cuvier, 1828 on the coast of Ceara, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner de S. Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology was developed for converting the activity concentration of radionuclides (Bq kg-1 into absorbed dose rate (Gy y-1, aiming an approach to environmental radioprotection based on the concept of standard dose limit. The model considers only the internal absorbed dose rate. This methodology was applied to the cubera snapper fish (Lutjanus cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828 caught off the coast of Ceará. The natural radionuclides considered were uranium-238, radium-226, lead-210, thorium-232 and radium-228. The absorbed dose rates were calculated for individual radionuclides and the type of emitted radiation. The average dose rate due to these radionuclides was 5.36 µGy y-1, a value six orders of magnitude smaller than the threshold value of absorbed dose rate used in this study (3.65 10³ mGy y-1, and similar to that found in the literature for benthic fish. Ra-226 and U-238 contributed 67% and 22% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by Th-232 with 10%. Ra-228 and Pb-210, in turn, accounted for less than 1% of the absorbed dose rate. This distribution is somewhat different from that reported in the literature, where the Ra-226 accounts for 86% of the absorbed dose rate.Visando a radioproteção ambiental, baseada no conceito de limite de taxa de dose absorvida, foi desenvolvida uma metodologia de conversão da concentração de atividade de radionuclídeos (Bq kg-1 em taxa de dose absorvida (Gy a-1. O modelo considera apenas a taxa de dose absorvida interna. Essa metodologia foi aplicada ao peixe vermelho-caranho (Lutjanus cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828 capturado na costa do Ceará e aos radionuclídeos naturais: urânio-238, rádio-226, chumbo-210, tório-232 e rádio-228. As taxas de dose absorvidas foram calculadas por radionuclídeo e por tipo de radiação emitida. A taxa de dose média devida a esses radionuclídeos foi de 5.36 µGy a-1, valor seis ordens de grandeza menor que o valor de limite de taxa de dose absorvida utilizada no presente

  15. Le faune et la sirène : la situation de Cuvier dans l’économie de The Marble Faun, de Nathaniel Hawthorne

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    Antoine Traisnel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Marble Faun ends with one character’s polite refusal to satisfy the narrator’s curiosity concerning young Donatello’s possible animality. When asked if Donatello’s ears are as pointy as those of the book’s titular figure, the Faun of Praxiteles, Kenyon smiles inscrutably and responds: “On that point, at all events, there shall be no word of explanation.” On that “point” – that of Donatello’s ears—the author remains obstinately tight-lipped, having “hoped to mystify this anomalous creature between the Real and the Fantastic […] without impelling him to ask how Cuvier would have classified poor Donatello.” The disclosure of a small anatomical detail threatens to shatter the whole edifice of Hawthorne’s fiction. The point in question here, however, is not just the extremity that makes measurement possible but also the ungraspable limit (the punctum that undoes the logic of Cuvierian classification. Analyzing the metrics of The Marble Faun, my paper will query how the romance envisions the vanishing point of the human/animal relation.The Marble Faun s’achève sur le refus poli d’un personnage qui renâcle à satisfaire la curiosité du narrateur. Quand celui-ci lui demande si les oreilles du jeune Donatello sont aussi pointues que celles du Faune de Praxitèle, Kenyon sourit mystérieusement et répond : « On that point, at all events, there shall be no word of explanation. » Sur ce point, ou plutôt sur la pointe des oreilles de Donatello, l’« auteur » reste muet dans l’espoir, écrit-il, de situer cette créature aberrante « entre le réel et le fantastique » sans avoir à spécifier la place qu’elle occupe au sein de la taxonomie établie par Cuvier. La divulgation d’un petit détail anatomique menace de faire imploser l’édifice de la fiction hawthornienne. Le point en question, cependant, n’est pas simplement l’extrémité à partir de laquelle l

  16. Variabilidad de las comunidades de parásitos metazoos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae en Chile Variability of metazoan parasite communities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae off Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La comparación de las variaciones en el tiempo cronológico y en el espacio es uno de los aspectos menos estudiados en la ecología de las comunidades de parásitos. Por eso, en este estudio se compara la abundancia total, riqueza y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae, entre muestras tomadas en Chile centro-sur en tres localidades geográficas (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt y Punta Arenas, y en dos momentos del tiempo en cada una de ellas. En el conjunto de las 126 infracomunidades examinadas se encontraron 18 taxa de parásitos. La abundancia total y la composición de las infracomunidades se modificaban con la ontogenia del hospedador. Sin embargo, se encontró que la variación entre años en una localidad es de similar magnitud a la que hay entre lugares geográficos, luego de corregir por el efecto de la ontogenia del hospedador. Estos resultados resaltan la necesidad de implementar diseños de muestreo más rigurosos al momento de usar a los parásitos como marcadores biológicos de las poblaciones de hospedadores. Se propone que futuros estudios en las fuentes de variación de las comunidades de parásitos mejoren la descripción de estas variaciones con diseños de muestreo con medidas replicadas en el tiempo y el espacio.Comparison of variations in both chronological time and space is one of the least studied subjects in the ecology of parasite communities. Thus, we compared the abundance, richness and composition of parasite infracommunities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenncienes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae, between three widely separated localities along south-central Chile (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Punta Arenas, which were sampled in two different years each. Eighteen parasite taxa were taxonomically determined in the 126 hosts examined. Total abundance and infracommunity composition changed along host ontogeny

  17. Variação periódica da triiodotironina (T3 plasmática e sua ação na reprodução induzida do matrinxã, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 em cativeiro Periodic variation of plasma triiodotironina (T3 and its effect on the induced reproduction of matrinxã, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Figueredo Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, espécie nativa oriunda da Bacia Amazônica, apresenta características adequadas para a piscicultura. Entretanto, trata-se de peixe reofílico, sendo necessário manejo adequado para induzir à reprodução. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o perfil da triiodotironina (T3 plasmática no matrinxã, durante 16 meses (outubro/97 a janeiro/99, relacionando-o com a maturação sexual, além de testar a ação do T3 associado ao extrato pituitário de carpa na reprodução induzida da espécie. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Peixes Tropicais - CEPTA, Pirassununga, SP, e no Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal, da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal - UNESP. Foram amostrados, mensalmente, 8 a 12 peixes, de ambos os sexos, totalizando 173 animais, de onde retirou-se sangue para dosagem do T3 plasmático. As gônadas foram removidas para análise histológica com identificação do sexo e determinação do estádio de maturação. Analisaram-se testículos e ovários de 161 peixes em corte transversal, tendo predominado machos (63,35% e o estádio sexual imaturo entre ambos. A concentração plasmática de T3 foi maior de dezembro a janeiro, para machos e fêmeas, coincidindo com o período de maior atividade reprodutiva da espécie e maiores temperaturas da água. Em janeiro/99, reprodutores de matrinxã foram induzidos com extrato de pituitária de carpa (EPC associado à administração de T3 (20 mg/kg em 0,1 mL de suspensão oleosa. Os resultados sugeriram que o T3 atuou sinergicamente à gonadotropina do extrato hipofisário e que o tratamento agudo de triiodotironina com o EPC pode estimular o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-ovário. O tempo de eclosão das larvas provenientes das fêmeas tratadas com o T3 foi menor e o crescimento inicial e a sobrevivência dessas larvas, maiores.The matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, native specie from the Amazonian

  18. Estresse devido ao transporte e à ação da benzocaína em parâmetros hematológicos e população de parasitas em matrinxã, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 (Osteichthyes, Characidae Transport with different benzocaine concentrations and its consequences on hematological parameters and gill parasite population of matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 (Osteichthyes, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Laterça Martins

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do transporte, sob diferentes concentrações de benzocaína, em parâmetros hematológicos e na população de parasitas de brânquias do matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Osteichthyes, Characidae. Trinta peixes (peso médio 1,0 kg foram transportados em tambores plásticos de 200 L por quatro horas. Cada tambor foi preparado com uma concentração de benzocaína (B0 = 0 mg/L; B1 = 5 mg/L; B2 = 10 mg/L e B3 = 20 mg/L. Anteriormente ao carregamento dos tambores, cinco peixes foram amostrados para determinar a condição inicial. Outras três amostragens foram feitas posteriormente: na chegada, 24 e 96 horas após o transporte. Os peixes transportados sob efeito da benzocaína apresentaram menor resposta de fuga durante a captura comparado aos peixes do B0, sendo que os peixes do B3 mostraram dificuldade de manter o equilíbrio durante a viagem. Após o transporte, registraram-se os níveis mais elevados de cortisol plasmático, em todos os tratamentos, com retorno aos níveis iniciais após 24 horas. A glicemia elevou-se na chegada, em todos os tratamentos, e após 24 horas apenas os peixes transportados nas duas concentrações mais altas ainda não haviam recuperado os valores iniciais. Na chegada, a porcentagem de linfócitos decresceu, permanecendo neste patamar após 24 horas, sendo que os peixes do B2 e B3 não retornaram à condição inicial até o final do período experimental. Foi observado aumento da porcentagem de neutrófilos, desde a chegada até 24 horas após o transporte, em todos os tratamentos. Os peixes do B2 e B3 mantiveram elevadas as porcentagens de neutrófilos até 96 horas após o transporte. Na última coleta, constatou-se que o número do parasita branquial Piscinoodinium sp. havia aumentado nos peixes do B3. Foi possível observar que o uso da benzocaína contribuiu com a elevação da glicemia e dos níveis plasmáticos do cortisol após o transporte, sendo registrados

  19. Distribuição espacial e temporal de Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii, Engraulidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Spatial and temporal distribution of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii-Engraulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Araújo Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are members of the Engraulidae family, characterized to present coastal pelagic habits, concentrating in large schoolings distributed among the continental shelf and semi-closed environment, like bays, where they are target of heavy fisheries. The present study aims to describe spatial and temporal distribution of Cetengraulis edentulous (Cuvier, 1828 in the Sepetiba bay (22º54'-23º04'S, 43º34'-44º10'W and to assess influences of environmental variables on fish occurrence. A monthly sampling programme was carried out between October 1998 and September 1999, to take both, fish and environmental information on temperature, salinity and depth. Three bay zones were established based on spatial gradient of salinity and depth. Adults C. edentulus were more abundant in the inner bay zone; seasonally, larger size groups (total length > 16 cm occurred in spring/summer. Significant negative correlations were found between fish abundance and salinity and depth. The close relationship of this species to innermost areas in bays, and the absence of juveniles in sandy beaches, suggest that young-of-the-year use mangrove areas as recruitment sites.

  20. Effects of post-disposal gas generation in a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste sited in the Opalinus Clay of Northern Switzerland. Technical report--08-07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Switzerland, Opalinus Clay was proposed as a possible host rock for a repository for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (L/ILW). This rock is characterised by a low permeability and is therefore an excellent barrier against radionuclide transport. Because significant amounts of gas are generated in the repository, a demonstration is required that despite the low gas permeability of the Opalinus Clay the gas can escape without compromising long-term safety. The present study provides a comprehensive assessment of the question how gas generation and transport in an L/ILW repository affects the system behaviour. A geological repository for L/ILW in the Opalinus Clay of Northern Switzerland with a depth of about 300-400 m below the surface was assumed. The results of model calculations were used to optimise the layout of the repository with respect to the effects of gas generation and transport. Specifically a design option was studied in which, by an appropriate choice of backfill and sealing materials, the gas can escape along the access ramp into the overlying rock formations without creating undue gas overpressures. The estimates of the gas generation rates are based on a waste inventory accounting for the existing nuclear power plants, with an assumed operation period of 50 years, and for wastes from medicine, industry and research with a collection period up to the year 2050. This inventory includes a total mass of approximately 40,000 tons of steel and other metals and about 2,200 tons of organic matter. Complete corrosion/degradation of all gas-generating materials yields a gas volume of approximately 20 to 30 million cubic meters (STP). The highest gas generation rates are expected in the early post-closure period up to several hundreds of years, followed by a steady decline. The expected total duration of the gas generation phase is in the order of 200,000 years. The total pore volume in the backfilled repository is in the order of 58,000 m3 for

  1. Dinâmica populacional, biologia reprodutiva e o ictioplâncton de Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier (Pisces, Clupeiformes, Engraulidae na enseada do Saco dos Limões, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Population dynamics, reproductive biology and the ichthyoplankton of Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier (Pisces, Clupeiformes, Engraulidae in the Saco dos Limões cove, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Souza-Conceição

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os dados utilizados neste estudo são originários de um monitoramento ambiental realizado na enseada do Saco dos Limões, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Neste monitoramento foram coletadas amostras da ictiofauna, sendo separados para análise um total de 3820 exemplares de Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1828, capturados em 17 coletas, no período compreendido entre julho de 1999 e abril de 2001. A análise dos dados permitiu estimar parâmetros populacionais e reprodutivos importantes como o comprimento de primeira maturação (118 mm para sexos grupados, 112 e 118 mm para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente, as distribuições de freqüências de comprimento, a relação peso-comprimento (Pt = 0,0000003 x Ct 3,67º8, a proporção sexual ao longo do tempo, a variação sazonal dos estádios de maturação gonadal, o índice gonadossomático, o fator de condição e o fator de condição somático, o ciclo reprodutivo e o período de desova, sendo também determinada a participação da espécie no ictioplâncton. Foram determinadas as correlações entre os parâmetros biológicos e os ambientais de temperatura e salinidade da água, superficial e de fundo. Constatou-se que a espécie utiliza o ambiente de estudo ao longo de todo seu ciclo de vida, tanto para reprodução quanto para a alimentação e o crescimento, e está estrategicamente adaptada às condições ambientais e biológicas da área de estudo.Data used in this study are from a monitoring program conducted in the Saco dos Limões cove, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this program, fish fauna were collected in 17 surveys from July 1999 to April 2001. For this study, 3820 individuals of Centengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1828 were examined regarding population and reproductive parameters, such as, length at sexual maturity (118 mm for the combined sexes, 112 mm for males and 118 mm for females, frequency distributions for total length, length-weight relationship (Wt

  2. EFFECTS OF STOCKING DENSITY ON WATER QUALITY IN THAMBAQUI (Colossomamacropomum, CUVIER, 1818 RAISING DURING SECOND FINGERLING PERIOD IN FERTILIZED PONDS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE ESTOCAGEM SOBRE A QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA NA CRIAÇÃO DO TAMBAQUI (Colossoma macropomum, CUVIER, 1818 DURANTE A SEGUNDA ALEVINAGEM, EM TANQUES FERTILIZADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Pales Machado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to analize the effect of three stocking den-sities on the water quality in tambaqui rearing (Colossoma macropomum, CUVIER, 1818 during the fingerling II re-aring in fertilized ponds. 3,120 fingerlings with initial wei-ght of 1.41 ± 0.49 g were stocked in three densities: 33, 43 and 53 fingerlings/m². These fingerlings were fed with a commercial ration, three times on day, ad     libitum. The following parameters were analyzed: dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, non-ionized ammonia and nitrite, using a chemical kit to water analyze and Secchi´s Disk to transparency. The data were analyzed in completely randomized desing in factorial diagram 3x5, with three stocking densities and five analyses. The hidrological variables studied stayied according with the standard of a good development of tambaqui in fertilized ponds, with exception of oxygen, that sowed values lower than literature regards, but this values didn’t damage the fish development.

    Key-words: Fingerling, hidrological variables, intensive system.

    Utilizaram-se 3.120 alevinos de tambaqui (Colos-soma macropomum, CUVIER, 1818, com pesos iniciais de 1,41 ± 0, 49 g, estocados nas densidades de 33, 43 e 53 alevinos/m2, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de três densidades de estocagem sobre a qualidade da água na criação do tambaqui durante a segunda alevinagem em viveiros fertilizados. Alimentaram-se os peixes com ração comercial, fornecida três vezes ao dia, ad libitum. Analisaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: oxigênio dissolvido, pH, alcalinidade total, amônia não ionizada e nitrito, utilizando-se kit químico de análise de água, e a transparência mediante o Disco de Secchi. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualisado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 5, com três densidades de estocagem e cinco análises.Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitiram concluir que, dentre as

  3. Validity of a blue stripe snapper, Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828) and a related species, L. bengalensis (Bloch 1790) with a new species (Pisces; Lutjanidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Al-Mamry, Juma M; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2016-04-07

    Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828), previously considered a junior synonym of Lutjanus bengalensis (Bloch 1790), is shown to be a valid species and lectotypes are designated. Both species are redescribed. The two species have overlapping distributions in the Indian Ocean, but are clearly separable by different dorsal-fin spine counts, blue-striped pattern on the body and the presence or absence of a subocular extension of cheek scales. Lutjanus octovittata (Valenciennes 1830), formerly assigned to synonymy of L. bengalensis, is considered a junior synonym of L. octolineatus based on examination of the holotype. Lutjanus sapphirolineatus n. sp., a species formerly misidentified as L. bengalensis, is described based on 10 specimens from Oman and Somalia. The new species differs from the three species above by a combination of different characters. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1, 603 bp) genetic marker, also strongly supports the validity of each species of the blue-striped snapper complex as distinct.

  4. Expertise on the provision of evidence with respect to Nagra's disposal concept for spent fuel assemblies, vitrified high-level radioactive waste as well as for long-living intermediate-level wastes (Opalinus clay project); Gutachten zum Entsorgungsnachweis der Nagra fuer abgebrannte Brennelemente, verglaste hochaktive sowie langlebige mittelaktive Abfaelle (Projekt Opalinuston)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-15

    Mankind has been living in a field of natural radiation; in Switzerland, the natural dose is around 3 mSv per year. It can be assumed that an artificial dose smaller than the natural one is harmless and can therefore be tolerated. However, nuclear power plants, medicine, industry and research produce radioactive wastes whose radioactivity is mostly higher than the natural level. These wastes must therefore be concentrated and enclosed until the decay reduces the dose rate to a harmless level. For this, it is foreseen that the radioactive wastes will be disposed of in deep-lying geological strata. The enclosure must be guarantied in such a way that, at any time, the radiation suffered by mankind and environment due to the radioactive wastes stays under the statutory limit of 1 mSv/a. The judgement of the quality of the deep underground repository is divided into 3 chapters: a) based on the geological and hydro-geological properties of the host rock, the proof of safety shows that the chosen repository site is safe for the long term; b) the proof of site guaranties that the repository needed can be built in the chosen host rock; c) the proof of implementation demonstrates that the repository can be built with the actual technical means proposed. The forecast for the development of the safety of the repository in the long term is fairly inaccurate, the most difficult factor being the developments in mankind's way of life. Therefore, conservative assumptions must be taken into account to cover even the most unlikely cases. The former project 'Gewaehr' presented by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Nuclear Wastes (NAGRA) in 1978 was based on crystalline rock; it was rejected because it was not possible to find a sufficiently large area without geologic faults for the repository. In new investigations, NAGRA found a suitable layer of Opalinus clay in Zurich's Weinland. In the neighbourhood of the layer discovered, there are neither

  5. Condicionantes ambientais na distribuição e no periodo reprodutivo do Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Environmental constraints on distribution and reproductive period of Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier, 1830 é uma espécie muito comum na costa brasileira, sendo encontrada em baias, onde figura entre os mais abundantes peixes nos arrastos de fundo. Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a influência das condicionantes ambientais na distribuição espaço-temporal e no período reprodutivo de O. ruber na Baía de Sepetiba, uma área costeira semi-fechada no sul do Rio de Janeiro. Foi realizado um programa de arrasto de fundo, entre outubro de 1998 e setembro de 1999, em três zonas da baía, estabelecidas de acordo com sua proximidade do mar (interna, central e externa. Amostras mensais de peixes foram tomadas em triplicatas em cada ocasião de amostragem, bem como foram medidas as variáveis ambientais de temperatura, salinidade, transparência e profundidade. Abundância relativa foi avaliada com base nas CPUEs (Captura por Unidade de Esforço em termos de número e de biomassa, enquanto o período reprodutivo foi determinado com o índice gonadossomático. Um total de 866 indivíduos foi capturado, com o tamanho variando entre 31 e 293 mm de comprimento total e proporção sexual de 1:1. Um maior número de peixes foi registrado em janeiro/fevereiro e em maio, embora não tenha sido encontrada diferença na abundancia relativa entre as estações do ano. Espacialmente, os maiores números e biomassas foram registrados na zona externa. Correlação positiva significativa foi encontrada entre a abundancia relativa e a profundidade, salinidade e transparência, e negativa com a temperatura. O período reprodutivo, indicado pelos maiores valores de índices gonadosomático (IGS, provavelmente ocorre de junho a setembro, coincidindo com as menores temperaturas. Esta espécie parece ter distribuição limitada às zonas mais externa da baia, próxima à influência com o mar, com maiores influxos no verão, como provável efeito da das Águas Centrais do Atlântico Sul (ACAS que comprimem as Águas Costeiras (AC para a

  6. Biogeochemical processes in a clay formation in situ experiment: Part A - Overview, experimental design and water data of an experiment in the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, P., E-mail: paul.wersin@gruner.ch [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland)] [Gruner Ltd., Gellertstrasse 55, 4020 Basel (Switzerland); Leupin, O.X. [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); Mettler, S. [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland)] [Solexperts Ltd., Mettlenbachstrasse 25, 8617 Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Gaucher, E.C. [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Maeder, U. [University of Bern, Institute of Geological Sciences, Baltzerstrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); De Canniere, P. [SCK.CEN, Waste and Disposal Project, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Vinsot, A. [ANDRA, Laboratoire de Recherche Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, RD960 BP9, 55290 Bure (France); Gaebler, H.E. [BGR, Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover (Germany); Kunimaro, T. [JAEA, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kiho, K. [CRIEPI, 1646 Abiko, Abiko-city Chiba 270-1194 (Japan); Eichinger, L. [Hydroisotop, 85301 Schweitenkirchen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > The composition was affected by the complex interplay of diffusion, mineral and surface reactions. > The {sup 13}C signals for carbon species showed significant variations which could only be partly explained. > The main cations remained remarkably constant during the experiment. > This underlines the strong buffering via cation exchange and carbonate dissolution/precipitation. - Abstract: An in situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed porewater chemistry (PC) experiment, was carried out for a period of 5 years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby a traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed-off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO{sub 2} conditions of the porewater, but because of unexpected microbiologically-induced redox reactions, the objective was extended to elucidate the biogeochemical processes occurring in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO{sub 2} and porewater chemistry in the low permeability clay formation. The behaviour of the conservative tracers {sup 2}H and Br{sup -} could be explained by diffusive dilution in the clay and moreover the results showed that diffusive equilibration between the borehole water and the formation occurred within about 3 year's time. However, the composition and pH/pCO{sub 2} conditions differed considerably from those of the in situ porewater. Thus, pH was lower and pCO{sub 2} was higher than indicated by complementary laboratory investigations. The noted differences are explained by microbiologically-induced redox reactions occurring in the borehole and in the interfacial wall area which were caused by an organic source released from the equipment material. The degradation of this source was accompanied by sulfate reduction and - to a lesser extent - by methane generation, which induced a high rate of acetogenic reactions

  7. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America.

  8. Ecologie des poissons capitaines: Polydactylus quadrifilis (Cuvier, 1829, Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch, 1795 et Pentanemus quinquarius (Linné, 1758 de la pêcherie artisanale maritime de Grand-Lahou (Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Kouassi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ecology of Polynemids: Poydactylus quadrifilis (Cuvier, 1829, Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch, 1795 and Pentanemus quinquarius (Linné, 1758 of the Artisanal Marine Fisheries of Grand Lahou (Ivory Coast. The ecology of Polynemids (Poydactylus quadrifilis, Galeoides decadactylus and Pentanemus quinquarius has been studied starting from the unloads of the artisanal marine fisheries of Grand Lahou (Ivory Coast. The temperature of the littoral is high during June and May with an average of 27,55±0,8 °C such as between November and December (29,30±0,1 °C. It is low between July and September (24,5±1,5 °C. On the other hand, salinity has its higher average values (35±0,8 g/l during the cold periods (July at September and lowest during the hot period, from October to January (33,9±0,3 g/l. The physiological needs of Polynemids cause seasonal migrations of the juveniles and adults. Hence the crossing of the estuary of the lagoon during the cold period, from June to August by the juveniles of Polydactylus quadrifilis and Galeoides decadactylus. For Polydactylus quadrifilis the annual recruitment of young specimens is identical to that of the adults, which is contrary to that of Galeoides decadactylus and Pentanemus quinquarius.

  9. Paramètres de croissance et d'exploitation de la carpe blanche Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier, 1830 dans les complexes lagunaires de Grand-Lahou, Ebrié et Aby (Côte d'Ivoire, Afrique de l'Ouest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodji Iridjé, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and exploitation parameters of the Sompat grunt Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier, 1830 in Grand-Lahou, Ebrié and Aby lagoons complex (Ivory Coast, West Africa. The growth and exploitation parameters of Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier, 1830 were studied from January 2007 to December 2008 in Grand-Lahou, Ebrié and Aby lagoons. A total of 2284 specimens (8.50 to 32.70 cm FL were examined. Length-frequency data collected were analyzed with FiSAT software (FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assessment Tool. The demographic structure of P. jubelini was composed of young individuals with a majorant allometric growth. Estimation of growth and exploitation parameters gave: L∞= 33.60 cm; K= 0.53 year-1; t0= - 0,30 year; φ'= 2.78; M= 1.10 year-1; F= 0.26 year-1; E= 0.19 in Grand-Lahou lagoon, L∞= 31.50 cm; K= 0.56 year-1; t0= - 0,29 year; φ'= 2.75; M= 1.21 year-1; F= 0.63 year-1; E= 0.34 in Ebrié lagoon and L∞= 31.50 cm; K= 0.57 year-1; t0= - 0,28 year; φ'= 2.74; M= 1.22 year-1; F= 0.71 year-1; E= 0.37 in Aby lagoon. Pomadasys jubelini stock was more exploited in lagoon Aby than in the other lagoons. The maximum recruitment was observed from July in Grand-Lahou and Ebrié lagoons and May in Aby lagoon.

  10. Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

  11. Geology of Northwestern Switzerland - with special emphasis on Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhard, M

    2007-07-01

    This report describes the variations of the geological structures of Northwestern Switzerland during about the last 200 million years. This gives an explanation for the present partition of the different rock layers in the studied domain. The geology of Switzerland is dominated by the formation of the Alps. The Mont Terri geology is best explained within the framework of the tectonic Wilson cycle: assembly of Pangea in Late Paleozoic times culminating in the Variscan orogeny, collapse and decay of this earlier mountain chain, peneplanation and new rifting leading to the opening of the alpine Tethys Ocean during the Mesozoic, followed by plate convergence, subduction, collision and new mountain-building in the Neogene. The Mont Terri geology bears witness to the same suite of events as the Alps; tectonically speaking, Mont Terri is part of the Alps. Africa continues to push Apulia against the larger European plate and the question arises as to what the geological future has in store for our hills and mountains. Recent GPS (Global Positioning System) data Iead to believe that it will be just erosion and decay.

  12. Diversidad genética de piracanjuba usada en programas de repoblación con marcadores microsatélites Genetic diversity of piracanjuba used in stock enhancement programs with microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Rodriguez-Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la diversidad genética de un lote de Brycon orbignyanus usado en programas de repoblación, a través de marcadores microsatélites. Se analizaron muestras de 44 reproductores, de 70 larvas y de 69 alevinos, con la amplificación de cinco loci descritos para Brycon opalinus. El número de alelos, la heterozigosidad observada (Ho y esperada (He, el índice de Shannon (IS, la diversidad genética de Nei (DGN, el coeficiente de endogamia (Fis, la distancia (DG e identidad genética (IG, el número efectivo de alelos, el test del equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (EHW y el desequilibrio de ligación fueron calculados. Reproductores y progenie tuvieron un número similar de alelos en los loci evaluados. La Ho media, IS, DGN, DG e IG mostraron que existe menor distancia genética entre parentales y larvas y una disminución de variabilidad genética en los alevinos. Fueron observados desvíos en EHW y desequilibrio de ligación en seis pares de loci. El Fis mostró exceso de heterocigotos en parentales y larvas y déficit de heterocigotos en los alevinos. El lote de reproductores está en proceso de pérdida de alelos y hubo disminución de la variabilidad genética entre la fase de larva y alevino.The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic diversity of a Brycon orbignyanus lot used in stock enhancement programs, using microsatellite markers. Samples of 44 broodstocks, 70 larvae and 69 fingerlings, were analyzed with amplification of five loci described for Brycon opalinus. The number of alleles, the observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosity, Shannon index (IS, Nei's genetic diversity (DGN, the inbreeding coefficient (Fis, distance (DG and genetic identity (IG, the effective number of alleles, the test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (EHW and the linkage disequilibrium were calculated. Broodstocks and offspring had a similar number of alleles at the tested loci. Ho average, IS, DGN, DG and IG showed

  13. Foucault, Cuvier y la Biología

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Alcoba, Manuel

    1998-01-01

    La Biologia Es Uno De Los Ejes Tematicos De Los Escritos De Foucault Porque, Adiferencia De Otros Saberes, Presenta Tres Niveles De Utilizacion Para Laarqueologia. El Analisis De Estos Niveles Descubre, Ademas, Los Limites De Lospropios Planteamientos De Foucault.

  14. Cross-amplification of heterologous microsatellite markers in Rhamdia quelen and Leporinus elongatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Native fish species in Brazil are an asset in fish farming, but their natural stocks have been significantly reduced in recent years. To mitigate this negative impact, studies on fish conservation are being conducted and genetic tools for the discrimination of population parameters are increasingly achieving great importance. Current analysis evaluates a set of microsatellite heterologous primers in the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and in the piapara (Leporinus elongatus. Samples from the caudal fin of 15 broodstock from each species were analyzed. DNA extraction was performed with NaCl protocol and the integrity of the extracted DNA was checked with agarose gel 1%. Twenty primers developed for Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum, Prochilodus lineatus, Brycon opalinus and Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated. Cross amplification of four primers of the B. opalinus and P. lineatus species (BoM12, Pli43 and Pli60 in R. quelen and BoM2, Pli43 and Pli60 in L. elongatus was assessed. Primers of P. mesopotamicus, C. macropomum and O. niloticus showed no cross amplification in the two species analyzed. Results revealed the possibility of using the four amplified heterologous primers in genetic studies for R. quelen and L. elongatus.

  15. Environmental degradation of Opalinus Clay with cyclic variations in relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Katrin; Walter, Patric; Madonna, Claudio; Amann, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Clay shales are considered as favorable host rocks for nuclear waste repositories due to their low permeability, high sorption capacity and the potential for self-sealing. However, the favorable characteristics of the rock mass may change during tunnel excavation. Excavation is accompanied by stress redistribution and the development of an excavation damage zone. Furthermore, unloading and exposure to atmospheric conditions with a lower relative humidity (RH) causes desaturation of the rock mass close to the tunnel. This leads to shrinkage and the formation of desiccation cracks. During the open drift stage, seasonal atmospheric changes, especially RH variations, may alter the rock mass and influence the long-term crack evolution. This contribution discusses the influence of RH variation on the mechanical behavior of OPA. A series of specimens were exposed to short-term and long-term, stepwise cyclic RH variations between about 60 and 95% at constant temperature. Strains were measured using strain gauges to monitor the volumetric response during RH cycles. After each applied RH cycle, Brazilian tensile strength (BTS) tests were performed to identify whether there is a change in tensile strength due to environmental damage caused by the change in RH. Swelling and shrinkage of the specimens accompanied by irreversible volumetric expansion was observed as a consequence of the exposure to RH cycles. However, the irreversible strain was limited to the direction normal to bedding suggesting that internal damage is restricted along the bedding planes. No significant effect of cyclic RH variations on the BTS of the specimens was observed. The strength parallel to bedding remained constant over several cycles while the strength normal to bedding shows a slightly decreasing trend after 2 cycles. Furthermore, the water retention characteristics of the specimens were not altered significantly during stepwise RH cycling as the evolution of the water content was reversible throughout the cycles. For the RH variation used, the results suggest that the long-term crack evolution around excavations in OPA is not expected to be significantly influenced by environmental degradation but dominated by other processes such as consolidation and creep.

  16. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Cementitious Near-Field of an ILW Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U

    2003-05-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from ILW wastes, disposed of in a chemically reducing, cementitious environment. From a chemical point of view, the pore waters of hydrated cement matrices provide an exceptional environment. Compared with usual ground waters exhibiting pH-values of around 8, cement pore waters are strongly alkaline with pH-values from 12.5 to 13.5 and contain nearly no carbonate and only little sulfate. Oxides and hydroxides mainly determine solubility and speciation of the elements. Solubility and speciation calculations in cementitious pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 36 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Wherever possible, maximum concentrations compiled in this report were based on geochemical calculations. In order to ensure full traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the TDB are explicitly specified in the document. For similar reasons the compilation of results (Table 1) clearly distinguishes between calculated and recommended items. The heading 'CALCULATED' lists maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the TDB; results under the heading 'RECOMMENDED' include data from other sources. The pH sensitivity of the results was examined by performing calculations at pH 13.4, in accordance with the pH of non-altered cement pore water. Solubility increases predominantly for elements that tend to form anionic hydroxide complexes (Sn, Pd, Zr, Ni, Eu, Cd, Mo, Co). Oxidizing conditions around +350 mV might be expected in the environment of nitrate-containing wastes. In this case, significant solubility increases were calculated for U, Np, Pu, Se and Ag. Special attention is allocated to the uncertainties of the evaluated maximum concentrations, expressed as upper- and lower limits. The conceptual steps to determine these uncertainties are explained in the section 3. Due to lack of data, it was not always possible to assess uncertainties in a manner consistent with that used to assess the solubility limits. For some elements, uncertainties had to be derived from less sharply defined data or even with the help of estimates. Such less rigorous approaches are justified by the fact that in performance assessments particularly the upper limits are as important as are the maximum concentrations themselves. However, appropriate information was available to define an upper limit for nearly all of the relevant nuclides. (author)

  17. Heparina e K3EDTA como anticoagulantes para tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1816 Heparin and K3EDTA as anticoagulants for tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1816

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Benites de Pádua

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a eficácia da heparina sódica e do EDTA tripotássico como anticoagulantes e seus efeitos sobre os parâmetros hematológicos de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Foram utilizados dez indivíduos de tambaqui com médias de 384,9 ± 85,71 g de peso e 27,90 ± 2,10 cm de comprimento total para avaliação da heparina 5.000 UI e 100 UI, bem como do K3EDTA 10%. Foram analisados a inibição da coagulação por 10 h, eritrograma e teste de fragilidade osmótica dos eritrócitos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (P 0,05 na contagem de eritrócitos, hematócrito, taxa de hemoglobina e CHCM, no entanto, houve aumento do VCM (P The efficacy of sodium heparin and tripotassium EDTA as anticoagulant and their effect on the hematological parameters of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum were evaluated in this study. Ten fish weighing 384.9 ± 85.71 g and measuring 27.90 ± 2.10 cm were used for heparin 5.000 IU, heparin 100 IU and K3EDTA 10% evaluation. Clotting inhibition after 10 h, erythrogram and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes were observed. The results were submitted to variance analysis and means compared by Tukey test (P 0.05 in erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin and MCHC. On the other hand, an increase in MCV (P < 0.05 in samples kept with K3EDTA10% was observed. This anticoagulant provoked a significant increase (P < 0.01 in the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes when compared to pure heparin, diluted heparin and the control group. Heparin as an anticoagulant is more appropriate for tambaqui since it was effective in preventing coagulation for more than 10 h, without causing hemolysis, changes on hematological parameters or osmotic fragility of erythrocytes.

  18. Clove oil as anaesthetic for juveniles of matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869 Óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Many chemicals have been used as anaesthetics in fish farms and fish biology laboratories to keep the fish immobilized during handling procedures and to prevent accidents and animal stress. In Brazil, tricaine methane sulfonate (MS 222, quinaldine sulfate, benzocaine, and phenoxyethanol are the most common fish anaesthetics used to prevent fish stress during handling, but many side effects such as body and gill irritations, corneal damage and general risks of intoxication have been reported. Clove oil is a natural product proposed as an alternative fish anaesthetic by many researchers and it has been used in many countries with great economic advantages and no apparent toxic properties. In this work, we assessed the suitability of clove oil to anaesthetize matrinxã. Sixty-three juveniles of matrinxã were exposed to seven anaesthetic batches of clove oil (pharmaceutical grade namely 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mg/L. The times to reach total loss of equilibrium and to recover the upright position were measured. Clove oil concentration about 40 mg/L was enough to anaesthetize the fish in approximately one minute and the recovery time was independent in regard to anaesthetic concentration.Diversos produtos químicos têm sido empregados como anestésicos para peixes nas estações de piscicultura e laboratórios de biologia de peixes para a devida imobilização dos organismos, afim de se prevenir acidentes e ferimentos na superfície do corpo dos próprios peixes, que podem ficar susceptíveis a patógenos e taxas altas de mortalidade. A tricaina metano sulfonato (MS 222, a quinaldina, a benzocaina e o phenoxyethanol têm sido amplamente utilizados no Brasil, mas alguns efeitos colaterais são observados como perda de muco, irritação nas brânquias e olhos, e também alguns incômodos aos trabalhadores como a necessidade do uso de luvas. Dessa forma, o óleo de cravo é proposto como um anestésico alternativo por ser um produto natural de custo acessível e sem riscos aparentes de intoxicações. No presente trabalho estudamos a possibilidade do uso do óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã, utilizando-se 63 peixes, expondo-os a banhos anestésicos nas concentrações de 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 60 mg/L, de forma que foram mensurados os tempos necessários para que os peixes atingissem a perda total de equilíbrio e a incapacidade de retornar a posição normal de nado. A concentração de 40 mg/L foi suficiente para anestesiar juvenis de matrinxã em aproximadamente 1 minuto, sendo a recuperação independente da concentração do anestésico.

  19. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations.

  20. Recognizing cephalopod boreholes in shells and the northward spread of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 (Cephalopoda, Octopodoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Auke-Florian

    2015-01-01

    Octopuses prey on molluscs by boring through their shell. Among the regular naticid borings, traces of cephalopod predation should be found soon on Dutch beaches. Bottom trawling has declined, and by the effects of global warming Octopus will find its way back to the North Sea where it lived before.

  1. Genetic and morphological variations in the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier 1817) from the Goa region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Naik, S.; Martins, M.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Indian_Acad_Sci_(Anim_Sci)_99_457.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Indian_Acad_Sci_(Anim_Sci)_99_457.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  2. Heavy Metals in Terapon puta (Cuvier, 1829 from Karachi Coasts, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quratulan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the accumulation of Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Ni in Terapon puta from Karachi Fish Harbor, Pakistan. There were no significant differences in the concentration of the metals except Mn in T. puta, which is obtained from the different seasons. The highest metal concentration is Fe followed by Mn. Cd, Pb, and Ni were measured relatively lower concentrations. The mean (± SD Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, and Pb levels in the muscles tissues of T. puta were 25.5±13.71, 6.07±3.58, 0.47±0.29, 0.46±0.27, and 0.43±0.25 mg/kg dry wt., respectively, whereas the mean (± SD Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, and Pb levels in the liver tissues of T. puta were 562±105, 18.62±11.86, 1.06±0.47, 1.20±0.53, and 1.01±0.50 mg/kg dry wt., respectively. Cd and Pb levels exceeded the Commission Regulation of European Union maximum limit of 0.05 mg/kg and 0.30 mg/kg, respectively. However, the results of Estimated Weekly Intake and Estimated Daily Intake indicate that the heavy metal levels in the samples are generally within respective recommended guidelines. Thus, it would appear from this study that the heavy metal levels in T. puta from Karachi coasts are low enough not to present a health hazard if the fish are consumed, although due attention should be paid to the maximum acceptable daily intake per kilogram body weight.

  3. Extracting DNA from 'jaws': High yield and quality from archived tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) skeletal material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Morgan, J. A T; Maher, S. L.;

    2016-01-01

    Archived specimens are highly valuable sources of DNA for retrospective genetic/genomic analysis. However, often limited effort has been made to evaluate and optimize extraction methods, which may be crucial for downstream applications. Here, we assessed and optimized the usefulness of abundant...... archived skeletal material from sharks as a source of DNA for temporal genomic studies. Six different methods for DNA extraction, encompassing two different commercial kits and three different protocols, were applied to material, so-called bio-swarf, from contemporary and archived jaws and vertebrae...... and vertebrae are potential high-yield sources of DNA for genomic-scale analysis. It also highlights that even for similar tissue types, a careful evaluation of extraction protocols can vastly improve DNA yield....

  4. The first description of oarfish Regalecus glesne (Regalecus russellii Cuvier 1816) ageing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, S.R.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a large, conspicuous teleost with a worldwide tropical and temperate distribution, the giant oarfish Regalecus spp. remain very rare fish species in terms of scientific sampling. Subsequently, very little biological information is known about Regalecus spp. and almost nothing has been concluded in the field of age and growth (Roberts, 2012). No studies of otoliths or temporal (annual) markings on any hard structures have been reported, and to our knowledge otoliths have never been recovered from any specimens (Tyson Roberts, personal communication),although a few texts do provide illustrations of Regalecus sp. otoliths (Lin and Chang, 2012; Nolf, 2013). Further inferential difficulty comes from the fact that age and growth studies of any Lampridiforme species are rare. Lampris guttatus is perhaps the only Lampridiforme species for which any biological information has been reported(Francis et al., 2004), which stems from the species commercial value. In order to begin understanding any species (for later purposes of management, conservation, etc.), basic biological information is needed. In the present study, we examine not only the first Regalecus russellii otolith, but provide suggestions toward future work that should direct data collection that can be used to generate basic biological information for this species.

  5. Functional integrity of Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1816 sperm cryopreserved with enriched extender solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raycon Roberto Freitas Garcia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryoprotectant solutions are used to protect the sperm from alterations caused by the low temperature in the cryopreservation process. We evaluated the quality of Colossoma macropomum semen after freezing, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as a cryoprotectant, combined with two extender solutions (T1 - Solution 1: Glucose 90.0 g/L, Sodium Citrate 6.0 g/L, EDTA 1.5 g/L, Sodium Bicarbonate 1.5 g/L, Potassium Chloride 0.8 g/L, Gentamycin Sulphate 0.2 g/L, and T2 - Solution 2: Glucose 90.0 g/L, ACP(r-104 10.0 g/L. Motility rate and motility time did not differ between T1 and T2 and were lower than fresh semen. The number of normal sperm was significantly different in treatments T1 (15.1% and T2 (21.9%, and both showed a reduction in the percentage of normal sperm compared to fresh semen (57.4%. The values found for the rates of fertilization and hatching, mitochondrial functionality and sperm DNA, did not differ between the treatments (T1 and T2. Regarding membrane integrity, there was a higher percentage of spermatozoa with intact membranes in T1 (53.4% than T2 (43.7%. The extender solutions, combined with 10% DMSO, maintained the sperm DNA intact in almost all the C. macropomumsperm cells, however there was a loss in their functionality.

  6. Successful breeding of Lesser Panda (Ailurus Fulgens F. Cuvier, 1825) and loss through inoculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erken, A.H.M.; Jacobi, E.F.

    1972-01-01

    Die Kleinen Pandas züchteten in einem kleinen Außengehege mit Regenschutz und Käfigen. Das Männchen war bei der Zucht 5 Jahre alt, die Weibchen erwachsen (Alter unbekannt). Die Paarung fand im Januar/Februar statt, die Geburt im Juni. Die Tragzeit betrug 125 bis 132 (155?) Tage. Der Grund für die Un

  7. Morphological study of the pineal gland of (crab eater raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus is a wild carnivore that is widely distributed and relatively common, but it remains little studied, and few works report on the biology of this species. The aim of this work was to characterize morphologically the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus through macro, microscopic and radiographic studies, and to compare them with those from other animals. In this work, four adult animals of both sexes were used, originating from the Scientific Herd of CECRIMPAS IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76. Macroscopically, the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus was located between the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, cranially to the vermis cerebelar. It was positioned rostrally to the rostral colliculus and caudally to the habenular comissure. Microscopically, the gland was covered externally by a capsule deriving from the meningeal pia mater. The presence of three types of cells was noted in the glandular parenchyma: pinealocytes, glial cells and mast cells. No calcareous concretions in the pineal gland were found in the radiographic and microscopic studies.

  8. SEM study of ultrastructural changes in branchial architecture of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier & Valenciennes) exposed to chlorpyrifos

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur Mandeep; Jindal Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated structural modifications in the branchial architecture of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, chronically exposed to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine the LC50 of chlorpyrifos to the fish. Physicochemical analysis of water was done using standard methods. To assess the effect of chronic toxicity, fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations...

  9. SEM study of ultrastructural changes in branchial architecture of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier & Valenciennes exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated structural modifications in the branchial architecture of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, chronically exposed to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Static renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine the LC50 of chlorpyrifos to the fish. Physicochemical analysis of water was done using standard methods. To assess the effect of chronic toxicity, fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations (1.44 μg/L and 2.41 μg/L of chlorpyrifos for 15, 30 and 60 days, after which gills were examined by SEM, which revealed changes in gill ultrastructure. Branchial alterations included distorted secondary lamellae in the form of curling and shortening, erosion in a few primary filaments and a wrinkled and denuded epithelial surface. Excessive mucosal openings (mucoid hyperplasia on the surface were observed in the gills of fish exposed to both concentrations of chlorpyrifos. Alteration in the microridge pattern of pavement cells and cracks on the gill rakers were also observed, and the intensity of the damage was found to be directly related to the toxicant concentration and exposure period. The present study revealed that the assessment of surface morphology can serve as a novel bioindicator of pollution, disease and toxicity.

  10. The complete validated mitochondrial genome of the silver gemfish Rexea solandri (Cuvier, 1832) (Perciformes, Gempylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Carlos; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The silver gemfish Rexea solandri is an important economic resource but Vulnerable to overfishing in Australian waters. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is described from 1.6 million reads obtained via next generation sequencing. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,350 bp comprising 2 rRNA, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 non-coding regions. The mitogenome sequence was validated against sequences of PCR fragments and BLAST queries of Genbank. Gene order was equivalent to that found in marine fishes. PMID:24621221

  11. Spatial distribution of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier 1817) in the South China Sea Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razib, N. A.; Mustapha, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Rastrelliger kanagurta inhabits the South China Sea, where it is the most abundant commercial fish. Understanding distribution of this species is important. Objective of this study is to describe the relationship between spatial distribution of R. kanagurta and its local environmental factors. Chlorophyll-a distribution and sea surface temperature was obtained from Aqua MODIS satellite image. Fisheries data of 2007 to 2010 were obtained from the Southeast Asean Fisheries Department Center (SEAFDEC). These data were analyzed in relation to physical and environmental factors to establish the spatial-temporal distribution of the species. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was calculated from the fisheries data and used as abundance index. Kernel Density maps of the abundance were created. The result showed that the abundance generated by Kernel Density analysis at 10.0 to 12.0 were associated with chlorophyll-a concentration of 0.4 ± 0.1 mg/m3 and sea surface temperature of 27.0 ± 1.0 °C at offshore of Pahang coast. The density maps showed that the increase of R. kanagurta abundance was occurred in October. The environmental factors in South China Sea played an important role on R. kanagurta's density patterns. This study indicated the capability of GIS and satellite image to indicate aggregation area of R. kanagurta.

  12. Regional movements of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, off Northeastern Brazil: inferences regarding shark attack hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, Fábio H V; Afonso, André S; De Castilho, Pedro C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Rocha, Bruno C L M

    2013-09-01

    An abnormally high shark attack rate verified off Recife could be related to migratory behavior of tiger sharks. This situation started after the construction of the Suape port to the south of Recife. A previous study suggested that attacking sharks could be following northward currents and that they were being attracted shoreward by approaching vessels. In this scenario, such northward movement pattern could imply a higher probability of sharks accessing the littoral area of Recife after leaving Suape. Pop-up satellite archival tags were deployed on five tiger sharks caught off Recife to assess their movement patterns off northeastern Brazil. All tags transmitted from northward latitudes after 7-74 days of freedom. The shorter, soak distance between deployment and pop-up locations ranged between 33-209 km and implied minimum average speeds of 0.02-0.98 km.h-1. Both pop-up locations and depth data suggest that tiger shark movements were conducted mostly over the continental shelf. The smaller sharks moved to deeper waters within 24 hours after releasing, but they assumed a shallower (shark movements in the South Atlantic, this study also adds new information for the reasoning of the high shark attack rate verified in this region.

  13. The reproductive biology of Pinguipes brasilianus Cuvier, 1829 (Osteichthyes: Pinguipedidae in temperate rocky reefs of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela L. Villanueva-Gomila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pinguipes brasilianus is a conspicuous and abundant rocky-reef fish inhabiting the Northern Patagonian gulfs of Argentina, Southwest Atlantic. This study describes its reproductive biology in this region. We made macroscopic and histological descriptions of the testis and ovary development, analyzed the evolution of the gonadosomatic index (GSI in both sexes throughout the year, and estimated fecundity and length at 50% maturity for females. Pinguipes brasilianus is a multiple spawner with indeterminate annual fecundity and an extended reproductive season, encompassing austral spring and summer. Low GSI values in males (monthly means ranged between 0.11% and 0.75% and low relative fecundity in female fish (between 2 and 44 oocytes/g are consistent with a need of close proximity between male and female during oocyte fertilization, sexual courtship and with spawning in pairs and/or within reef crevices. The estimated length at 50% maturity (± SD for females was 15.22 ± 0.43 cm total length. Although P. brasilianus shares the main reproductive features of its congeneric species Pinguipes chilensis , male GSI and female length at 50% maturity in P. brasilianus were markedly lower than those reported for P. chilensis , while relative and batch fecundity were greater in fish of the same size.

  14. Regional movements of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, off northeastern Brazil: inferences regarding shark attack hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO H.V. HAZIN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An abnormally high shark attack rate verified off Recife could be related to migratory behavior of tiger sharks. This situation started after the construction of the Suape port to the south of Recife. A previous study suggested that attacking sharks could be following northward currents and that they were being attracted shoreward by approaching vessels. In this scenario, such northward movement pattern could imply a higher probability of sharks accessing the littoral area of Recife after leaving Suape. Pop-up satellite archival tags were deployed on five tiger sharks caught off Recife to assess their movement patterns off northeastern Brazil. All tags transmitted from northward latitudes after 7-74 days of freedom. The shorter, soak distance between deployment and pop-up locations ranged between 33-209 km and implied minimum average speeds of 0.02-0.98 km.h−1. Both pop-up locations and depth data suggest that tiger shark movements were conducted mostly over the continental shelf. The smaller sharks moved to deeper waters within 24 hours after releasing, but they assumed a shallower (< 50 m vertical distribution for most of the monitoring period. While presenting the first data on tiger shark movements in the South Atlantic, this study also adds new information for the reasoning of the high shark attack rate verified in this region.

  15. Morphometrical development of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Cuvier, 1818 under different photoperiods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pierro Mendonça

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was performed with 160 tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum with average weight 11.01±2.08 g and total length 7.8±0.18 cm. Fishes were kept in sixteen aquariums with 56 L of water at 29.1±0.4 ºC of temperature, initial stocking density 1.97 g/L and constant aeration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of photoperiod on fish performance. Treatments consisted of four photoperiods: T1 = 6 hours; T2 = 12 hours; T3 = 18 hours and T4 = 24 hours, with four replicates each. Fishes were fed twice a day with commercial extruded feed (28% of crude protein. The experiment was developed in closed circulation system, with volume of water renewal for each experimental unit equivalent to 40 times daily. Fish biometry was performed at the beginning of the experiment and at every 16 days, in order to follow the effects of treatments on juvenile development. Final weight, total length, standard length, height, feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, survival, specific growth rate, protein efficiency rate and protein retention efficiency were assessed. Statistical analysis of variables was performed with application of the software SAEG version 9.1, for analysis of variance, regression analysis and Pearson correlation. Positive influence of photoperiod was observed for the studied variables in this study. The studied variables enhanced as the photoperiod increased, mainly between 15 and 22 hours. The photoperiod has significant influence upon growth traits of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum.

  16. Anatomy of the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Menin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis, an ichthyophagous species of fresh water, is anatomically adapted to predation. The wide buccal rift, the oral-aboral enlargement of the buccal cavity and the reduced thickness of the pharyngeal mastigatory apparatus favor the capture and deglutition of larger prey. In function of the oral and pharyngeal dentition type, pre-digestive food preparation does not occur. The pointed and curved teeth, together with the tongue which is relatively mobile, prevent the prey’s escape from the buccopharyngeal cavity. The passage of the food is facilitated by the absence of pronounced folds in the mucous membrane of this cavity and by the disposition of the oral and pharyngeal teeth. The characteristics of flat and thin lips, developed oral dentition, relatively mobile tongue, mucous membrane without folds, pharynx with denticules disposed in dentigerous areas and plates, and short and sharp gill-rackers are anatomical adaptations which are shared by S. brasiliensis and other ichthyophagous Characiformes species such as Salminus maxillosus, Salminus hilarii, Hoplias malabaricus, Hoplias lacerdae, Acestrorhynchus lacustris and Acestrorhynchus britskii. However, different to the mentioned species, except other Salmininae, S. brasiliensis possesses oral teeth of an unique type, present only in the jawbones and distributed in two series.

  17. Anatomy of the alimentary tract of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Menin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary tract of Salminus brasiliensis shows anatomic adaptations to its carnivorous, ichthyophagous feeding habit, particularly regarding the distensible esophagus and stomach, especially the caecal region, and the relatively short intestine. The great distensibility of the wall of the anterior intestine is due mainly to the pattern of the mucous membrane, which exhibits thick longitudinal folds. In the anterior intestine the transport of the food is facilitated by the longitudinal pattern of the mucous folds. In the esophagus and pyloric region, related to the propulsion of food to the net organ, the muscular tunica is more developed than in the rest of the alimentary tract. The pyloric constriction regulates the food flux to the middle intestine. Due to the pattern of mucous membrane of the middle and posterior intestines, in net form, the material being processed can be retained for a greater length of time. The intestinal effective absorption area is amplified due to the tubular structure of the middle intestine, of the mucous intestinal folds, and the pyloric caeca. The alimentary tract of S. brasiliensis is similar in structure to that of other Salmininae and to the majority of the piscivorous Characiformes such as Acestrorhynchus britskii and A. lacustris, although in these two the ileum-rectal valve is found. It also differs from the alimentary tracts of Hoplias malabarius and H. lacerdae, in that the esophagus has variable caliber, the stomach possesses a wider cardia, and the intestinal arrangement is different from “N”, besides the presence of the ileum-rectal valve.

  18. Estrutura morfológica do fígado de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever macro e microscopicamente o fígado do Tambaqui Colossoma macropomum, Teleósteo de água doce da Família Characidae, de grande interesse econômico da bacia Amazônica. Foram utilizados seis (6 exemplares jovens com idade entre seis meses e um ano, oriundos da Chácara Esteio, Alta Floresta, MT, que desenvolve principalmente a prática da piscicultura. O órgão foi fotodocumentado in situ e descrito macroscopicamente, em seguida procedeu-se a retirada de fragmentos deste, que foram processados pelas técnicas histológicas rotineiras para inclusão em parafina e coloração de HE. O fígado localizou-se ventral à bexiga natatória e craniodorsalmente ao estômago, apresentou coloração amarronzada a vermelho, constituído por três lobos hepáticos, o lobo lateral direito, o lobo lateral esquerdo e o lobo ventral. Microscopicamente, o parênquima era constituído por hepatócitos com formato que variou do arredondado irregular hexagonal ao redondo com núcleo grande e central, arranjados em cordões lineares limitados por sinusóides que irradiam para veias centrais, e com ausência de lóbulos hepáticos. As veias centrais estavam distribuídas pelo parênquima, enquanto que o espaço porta, na maioria das vezes, era constituído apenas por uma veia hepática e o ducto biliar, em outros locais foi observado, uma artéria e um ducto. Não foi observada a formação de tríades portais. Foram frequentemente observados melano macrófagos centrais dispersos pelo parênquima. O estudo morfofuncional do Aparelho Digestório de peixes da bacia Amazônica, se faz pertinente com vistas ao conhecimento do aproveitamento de ganho de peso e produção em alta escala para consumo humano e preservação da espécie, além da importância de estarem sendo utilizados como bioindicadores atualmente.

  19. Occurrence of a Sawback Angelshark (Squatina aculeata Cuvier, 1829) off the Eastern Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Başusta, Nuri

    2002-01-01

    A specimen of Squatina aculeata (sawback angelshark) was caught in a trawl on 15 May 1997 in Iskenderun Bay at about 120-200 m depth and recorded for the first time from the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Thus, a new species of fish was recently added to the chondrictyes fish fauna in the eastern Mediterranean Sea off Turkey.

  20. The reproductive biology of Pinguipes brasilianus Cuvier, 1829 (Osteichthyes: Pinguipedidae) in temperate rocky reefs of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela L. Villanueva-Gomila; Gustavo J. Macchi; Ehrlich, Martín D.; Irigoyen, Alejo J.; Venerus, Leonardo A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pinguipes brasilianus is a conspicuous and abundant rocky-reef fish inhabiting the Northern Patagonian gulfs of Argentina, Southwest Atlantic. This study describes its reproductive biology in this region. We made macroscopic and histological descriptions of the testis and ovary development, analyzed the evolution of the gonadosomatic index (GSI) in both sexes throughout the year, and estimated fecundity and length at 50% maturity for females. Pinguipes brasilianus is a multiple spawn...

  1. Cementitious Near-Field Sorption Data Base for Performance Assessment of an ILW Repository in Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, E.; Van Loon, L. R

    2003-08-01

    The present report describes a cement sorption database (SDB) for the safety-relevant radionuclides to be disposed of in the planned Swiss repository for long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW). This report is an update on earlier SDBs, which were compiled for the cementitious near field of a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (L/ILW) by BRADBURY + SAROTT (1995) and BRADBURY + VAN LOON (1998). The radionuclide inventories are determined by the waste streams to be disposed of in the ILW repository. A list of the safety-relevant radionuclides was provided based on the currently available information on ILW inventories. The compositions of the cement porewaters in the near fields of the L/ILW and ILW repositories, which had been calculated using well-established codes for modelling cement degradation, were compared to identify any differences in the near-field conditions and to assess their influence on radionuclide sorption. Sorption values were selected based on the previously reported SDBs for the near field of the L/ILW repository. Sorption values were revised if new information and/or data were available which allowed changes to or re-appraisals of the data to be made. The sorption values recommended in this report were either selected on the basis of data from in-house experimental studies or from literature data. For some key radioelements, i.e., Cs(l), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(lll), Th(IV) and Sn(IV), new data were available from in-house measurements. These elements had been selected for experimental studies due to their relevance to safety assessment and/or their importance as appropriate chemical analogues. Degradation products of bitumen and cellulose, concrete admixtures and cement-derived near-field colloids were taken into account as the main potential perturbations, which could reduce radionuclide sorption in the near field. Possible impacts of the perturbing factors on radionuclide mobility were considered and quantified in terms of sorption reduction factors. (author)

  2. 50 CFR 216.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Kogia sima)—10610 (an average of 2122 annually). (D) Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris)—5750... Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), Blainville's beaked whale, (Mesoplodon...

  3. Seasonal variation of sperm quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and sperm concentration in yamú Brycon amazonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Medina-Robles, Víctor M.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2007-01-01

    sperm concentration were examined over two reproductive seasons. Activation time, spermatocrit, and sperm concentration were significantly higher in 2003 than in 2004. Spermatocrit and sperm concentration showed a significant positive relationship (r2=0.79). During the 2004 reproductive season, a...

  4. Efeito sazonal sobre os ácidos graxos e colesterol do polvo Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797 Seasonal effects on fatty acids and cholesterol contents in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Maria Monteiro Vasconcelos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos e colesterol na manta de polvo comum, Octopus vulgaris, capturado na praia de Camocim - CE, no decorrer dos meses de abril a outubro em coletas bimensais. Apesar do ácido oleico (C18: 1n9 apresentar comportamento uniforme ao longo do tempo de coleta, a maioria dos demais ácidos graxos foi afetada (p = 1% pela época de coleta. Os níveis dos ácidos araquidônico (C20:4n6, oleico (C18:1n9, esteárico (C18:0 e linoleico (C18:2n6 foram superiores àqueles reportados na literatura. O somatório de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e monoinsaturados revelou que o óleo de polvo apresenta um teor significativo de ácidos graxos insaturados. Foi observado um aumento gradativo de colesterol ao longo do tempo estudado e um comportamento inverso para a relação de ácidos graxos n3/n6.The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acids and cholesterol profile in the mantle of common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, collected twice a month in in coastal waters of Camocim/CE beach over the period from April to October. Although the Oleic acid (C18:n9 did not show significant changes over the months, the majority of fatty acids varied during this period of time. The Arachidonic (C20:4n6, oleic (C18:n9, stearic (C18:0, and linoleic (C18:2n6 acids were found in higher levels than those reported in the literature. Polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids accounted for most of the octopus fatty acids. During the time of analysis, it was observed a gradual increase in the cholesterol and the fatty acids n3/ n6 ratio presented the opposite result, i.e., a gradual decrease.

  5. Atividade reprodutiva de Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier (Pisces, Sciaenidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Reproductive aspects of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier at the Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de T. da Cunha Chaves

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Bairdiella ronchus is one of the most common species of demersal ichthyofauna in Guaratuba Bay, south Brazil. However, this study reveals that is does not inhabits permanently the mangroove area. Individuals with more than 94mm total lenght leave mangroove area in late summer and early auntumn and returming in the spring. when they start ovarian veitellogenesis. During late spring and early summer, the oocytes are hydrated, and empty follicles can be found in the ovaries, indicating that this is the reproductive time for this species As other Sciaenidae. B. ronchus is a multiple spawner species.

  6. A new artificial reef design for octopus (Octopus vulgaris cuvier, 1797 in the Aegean sea and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Gulf of 0zmir in the Aegean Sea between June 2006 and November 2008. The purpose was the creation of a new concept of the artificial reef for Octopus vulgaris, with a view to establishing new artificial reef sites to be used in the fisheries management of this species (MPA, NTZ or fishing areas. First, the main characteristics of natural octopus nests were recorded (entrance width, length, etc. by divers. These characteristics were used in the construction of new octahedral artificial reef blocks. The blocks were made of reinforced concrete, in a shape like that of an inverted pyramid, with an upper surface of 100x100x25 cm³ and a lower one of 60x60 cm². Four cylindrical holes each with two ellipsoidal openings were placed in one face and in the lateral edge of the octo-block, to serve as the entrances to the artificial nest. Each nest has a volume of 5000 cm³. Eighty octo-blocks were deployed as artificial reefs at 10 m from each other at 15 different depths at two sites by divers with the help of the winch of the R/V EGESUF. These artificial octo-reefs were censused by direct observation. Twenty-eight octopuses were sampled at the end of 25 dives. Minimum mantle length of the octopuses was 75 mm and the maximum 249 mm, with an average of 152.71 mm. The average total length was calculated to be 918.57 mm. The weight of the specimens was between 244 g and 7140 g with an average of 2335.43 g. The results showed that both sites were inhabited by octopuses coming from the artificial reefs, which used them as nests. These nests seem to have constituted special places for fisheries management and will permit the assessment of reserve areas or marine protection areas (MPA, thus opening up a new perspective for Turkish fisheries.Este estudo foi realizado no golfo de 0zmir, no Mar Egeu, entre junho de 2006 e novembro de 2008. O objetivo foi uma nova concepção de recife artificial para Octopus vulgaris, visando o estabelecimento de novos locais a serem utilizados na gestão da pesca dessa espécie (MPA, NTZ ou zonas de pesca. Primeiramente foram consideradas as principais características dos ninhos naturais do polvo (largura da entrada, comprimento, etc.. A seguir essas características foram utilizadas na construção de novos blocos octaédricos de recifes artificiais. Os blocos foram feitos de concreto armado, assemelhando-se a uma pirâmide invertida, nas dimensões de 100x100x25 cm³ na face superior e 60x60 cm² na face inferior. Quatro furos cilíndricos, com duas aberturas elipsoidais, foram dispostos em uma só face e na borda lateral do octo-bloco, correspondendo às entradas do ninho artificial. Cada ninho tem um volume de 5000 cm³. Foram implantados 80 octo-blocos para servirem como recifes artificiais, guardando a distância de 10 m entre si, em 15 profundidades e em dois locais diferentes, com auxílio de mergulhadores e guincho do R/ V EGESUF. Esses recifes foram recenseados, utilizando-se o método de observação direta. Vinte e oito polvos foram amostrados ao final de 25 mergulhos. O comprimento mínimo do manto do polvo foi de 75 mm e o máximo de 249 mm, com média de 152,71 mm. O comprimento médio total foi determinado em 918,57 mm. O peso dos espécimes ficou entre 244 e 7140 g, com média de 2335,43 g. Os resultados mostram que ambos os locais foram sustentados pelos polvos provenientes dos recifes artificiais, que os utilizaram como ninhos. Esses ninhos parecem constituir locais especiais para manejo da pesca, e permitirão a avaliação de áreas de reserva ou áreas marinhas de proteção (MPA, abrindo, desta forma, novas perspectivas para a pesca turca.

  7. Re-description and Reassignment of the Damselfish Abudefduf luridus (Cuvier, 1830) Using Both Traditional and Geometric Morphometric Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W. James [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Albertson, R Craig [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Jacob, Rick E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westneat, Mark W. [Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Here we present a re-description of Abudefduf luridus and reassign it to the genus Similiparma. We supplement traditional diagnoses and descriptions of this species with quantitative anatomical data collected from a family-wide geometric morphometric analysis of head morphology (44 species representing all 30 damselfish genera) and data from cranial micro-CT scans of fishes in the genus Similiparma. The use of geometric morphometric analyses (and other methods of shape analysis) permits detailed comparisons between the morphology of specific taxa and the anatomical diversity that has arisen in an entire lineage. This provides a particularly useful supplement to traditional description methods and we recommend the use of such techniques by systematists. Similiparma and its close relatives constitute a branch of the damselfish phylogenetic tree that predominantly inhabits rocky reefs in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific, as opposed to the more commonly studied damselfishes that constitute a large portion of the ichthyofauna on all coral-reef communities.

  8. Fatal tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier attack in New Caledonia erroneously ascribed to great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirard, Philippe; Maillaud, Claude; Borsa, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    To understand the causes and patterns of shark attacks on humans, accurate identification of the shark species involved is necessary. Often, the only reliable evidence for this comes from the characteristics of the wounds exhibited by the victim. The present case report is intended as a reappraisal of the Luengoni, 2007 case (International Shark Attack File no. 4299) where a single shark bite provoked the death of a swimmer by haemorrhagic shock. Our examination of the wounds on the body of the victim, here documented by so-far unpublished photographic evidence, determined that the shark possessed large and homodontous jaws. This demonstrates that the attacker was a tiger shark, not a great white shark as previously published. PMID:26048500

  9. An outbreak of myxozoan parasites in farmed freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characidae, Serrasalminae in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Videira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is a native fish species that is farmed most frequently and in the largest quantities throughout Brazil. The high production of this species from fish farms has contributed to the occurrence of emerging parasites, which may compromise fish health and productivity. In a batch of 2500 tambaqui fry acquired for experimental farming procedures in Brazil, a mortality rate of 80% was observed, with the fish swimming erratically and gasping for air at the water surface. From among the specimens that were still alive, 60 individuals were selected at random. Organs or fragments of organs containing lesions and/or cysts were examined under an optical microscope to investigate for the presence of parasitic spores. Of the 60 specimens of tambaqui analyzed, 83.3% were found to be infected in different organs, such as the gills, liver, and gallbladder with myxosporidian species belonging to four genera, namely, Myxobolus, Ellipsomyxa, Henneguya and Thelohanellus. The parasite with the greatest prevalence was Myxobolus sp., located in the gills (70%, followed by Henneguya sp. in the gills region (68.3%, Myxobolus sp. in the liver (63.3%, Thelohanellus sp. in the liver (58.3%, and Ellipsomyxa in the gallbladder (50%. This is the first report of parasitic infection caused by the genera Ellipsomyxa and Thelohanellus in C. macropomum. The present study reported the second incidence of the occurrence of the genus Thelohanellus in South America. This study suggested that the mortality among C. macropomum specimens was caused by the outbreak of myxosporidians.

  10. 论居维叶科学研究方法%On the Scientific Study Method of Georges Cuvier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄玉芹

    2001-01-01

    科学发展的历史表明,许多重大科学问题的提出和解决,常常是科学方法创新和突破的结果.居维叶之所以能够创立"比较解剖学",提出著名的"器官相关律"理论,成为著名的动物学家和地质学家,是同他大胆创新,综合运用比较和分类方法、系统方法以及辩证地研究等方法分不开的.

  11. Small vertebrates in the spectacled bear’s diet (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 in the north of Peru

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    Fiorella N. Gonzales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous studies about Spectacled bear´s diet, however little is known about the small vertebrates it consumes. This study present nine vertebrate species (seven rodent and two birds as preys of the Spectacled bear, based on the analysis of six feces collected from two locations Upa (Amazonas and Lagunas Arreviatadas (Cajamarca in northern Peru. Six of these records were new food items and a new family Caviidae. Vertebrates were found only in the Upa location. Additionally a sampling of small non flying mammals was conducted in there. Our results suggest that the Spectacled bear would be a generalist species. It prefers plants, however if it finds vertebrates in the environment, it could feed on them.

  12. Historical and contemporary evidence of a mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis Cuvier, 1828) spawning aggregation fishery in decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. T.; Carcamo, R.; Rhodes, K. L.; Roberts, C. M.; Requena, N.

    2008-06-01

    Scientific information on reef fish spawning aggregation fisheries is sparse in light of numerous regional declines and extirpations from overexploitation. Fisher interviews of the small-scale commercial mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis) spawning aggregation fishery at Gladden Spit, Belize, suggests a historic decadal decline. The reported trend is supported by analysis of inter-seasonal catch and effort and yield (2000 2002) that reveals a 59% decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE) and a 22% decrease in mean landings per boat. Declining population-level trends are also supported by a significant decrease in inter-annual median lengths of mutton snappers (2000 2006). These findings demonstrate the need for additional life history information that includes length-associated age and details on growth to provide clearer support of the effects on, and responses by, populations following fishing. In view of the historical changes to mutton snapper CPUE and landings at Gladden Spit and the fishery-associated declines in fish spawning aggregations observed globally, a precautionary approach to spawning aggregation management is warranted that provides full protection from fishing to enhance population persistence. The findings also highlight the need for substantially greater enforcement and long-term fisheries monitoring under a comprehensive regional management strategy.

  13. Temporal Assessment of Natural Radionuclide Bioaccumulation by the Cubera Snapper Fish (Lutjanus Cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828) from the Brazilian Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to assess the seasonal variation in the accumulation of the isotopes 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in the cubera snapper fish from the coast of the state of Ceara (Brazil). The fish was caught in January (six specimens), June (eight) and September (seven). The uranium and thorium were analysed by electrodeposition, followed by alpha spectrometry. The isotopes of radium and lead were selectively co-precipitated and measured by gross alpha radiometry for 226Ra and gross beta radiometry for 228Ra and 210Pb. No seasonal variations could be observed neither for the uranium and thorium isotopes nor for the 226Ra isotope. For 228Ra, the activity concentration in February was equal to that of September, and both were higher than in June. For 210Pb, the situation was different: the month of February showed a lower activity concentration than in June, which in turn was lower than in September. (author)

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

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    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  15. First record of Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798) (Carnivora, Procyonidae) in stratigraphic context in the Late Pleistocene of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Sergio G.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H.; Rodrigues, Shirlley; Morgan, Cecilia C.; Bernardes, Camila; Avilla, Leonardo; Lynch, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Although five genera of procyonids are currently present in South America, only two of the extant genera, Procyon and Nasua are represented in the South American fossil record. A recent discovery of a procyonid lower second molar in Late Pleistocene deposits of Aurora do Tocantins, northern Brazil, offers potential to further our understanding of the stratigraphic and temporal range of South American fossil procyonids. We use geometric morphometric analysis of two-dimensional landmarks and semilandmarks to explore morphological variation in the lower second molars of extant Procyon lotor and Procyon cancrivorus and multivariate methods to support the identification of the Pleistocene specimen as P. cancrivorus. This material represents the second fossil record of P. cancrivorus in South America Procyonids entered South America in two phases: the first comprising by Cyonasua and Chapadmalania during the Late Miocene, and the other recent genera, beginning in the Late Pleistocene. These Late Miocene procyonids were more carnivorous than Late Pleistocene-Recent omnivorous taxa and possible went extinct due to competition with other placental carnivorans that entered South America and diversified during the latest Pliocene-Early Pleistocene.

  16. Fatal tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier attack in New Caledonia erroneously ascribed to great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirard, Philippe; Maillaud, Claude; Borsa, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    To understand the causes and patterns of shark attacks on humans, accurate identification of the shark species involved is necessary. Often, the only reliable evidence for this comes from the characteristics of the wounds exhibited by the victim. The present case report is intended as a reappraisal of the Luengoni, 2007 case (International Shark Attack File no. 4299) where a single shark bite provoked the death of a swimmer by haemorrhagic shock. Our examination of the wounds on the body of the victim, here documented by so-far unpublished photographic evidence, determined that the shark possessed large and homodontous jaws. This demonstrates that the attacker was a tiger shark, not a great white shark as previously published.

  17. MORFOLOGIA DOS MÚSCULOS DA COXA DE MÃO-PELADA (Procyon cancrivorus – Cuvier 1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmino Cardoso Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus is a wild animal, which belongs to the carnivore order, present in all Brazilian territory, some Central American countries, Uruguay and Argentina. Although this animal is not in the list of endangered species, there are few morphological data about this species. Only studies about the habits,habitat and some morphological data were found in Brazilian and world literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the proximal and distal insertions of the posterior and medial thigh muscles of the P. cancrivorus, comparing them with domestic carnivores literature data, such as dogs and cats. The five specimens were collected postmortem, victims of accidents on highways. The animals were fixed in formaldehyde (10% and stored in opaque covered tanks. The description of the thigh musculature was made possible by the dissection technique, visualizing its proximal and distal insertions, irrigation and innervation. The results were documentedwith a digital camera and compared with literature data of the thigh muscles of domestic animals such as cats and dogs. Studies on the quadriceps femoris, sartorius, tensor fascia lata, bicepsfemoris, semitendinosus, adductor, semimembranosus, caudal crural abductor, twins, quadratus femoris, gracilis and pectineus were carried out and great similarity with the thigh muscles of carnivores such as cats and dogs were found.

  18. Fatal tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier attack in New Caledonia erroneously ascribed to great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias

    OpenAIRE

    Tirard, Philippe; Maillaud, Claude; Borsa, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    International audience To understand the causes and patterns of shark attacks on humans, accurate identification of the shark species involved is necessary. Often, the only reliable evidence for this comes from the characteristics of the wounds exhibited by the victim. The present case report is intended as a reappraisal of the Luengoni, 2007 case (International Shark Attack File no. 4299) where a single shark bite provoked the death of a swimmer by haemorrhagic shock. Our examination of t...

  19. Fatal attack by a juvenile tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, on a kitesurfer in New Caledonia (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Bescond, Pierre-Marie; Reid, Dennis

    2014-07-01

    We present a case of a non-provoked fatal shark attack on a 15-year old male kitesurfer in New Caledonia. The victim lost his board and was pulled by the sail along the water surface in a reef passage when a shark attacked. The shark inflicted at least two bites on the left leg, including a severe one around the knee, resulting in a quick hypovolemic shock that was fatal. The analysis of one of these bites indicated that a 2.8 m TL (est. length) tiger shark was responsible for this attack. The features of the attack are consistent with those of a predator response to a surface feeding stimulus. PMID:24931866

  20. Pacu fish (Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae landed in Porto Velho (Rondônia fish market from 1985 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Leite Lima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated various aspects of the profile of pacu (Mylossoma spp., Myleus spp., Metynnis spp. fish marketed on the Cai N’água floating platform of Porto Velho (RO from 1985 to 2004. Inter- and intra-annual variations in yield, variation in fish length and general characteristics of the fishing are reported. The annual pacu yield ranged from 33,000kg to 146,000kg (average = 86,585kg, representing from 6.6% to 20.45% of the total landings in the studied period. These variations followed the hydrologic cycle, and the greatest yields were recorded in the years following the highest water levels. The monthly production ranged from 0 to 42,366kg (average = 5,772kg and it was related to reproductive migration. The pacu presented variations in standard length from 14 to 20cm (18.72cm ± 3.69, mean ± sd. The fishing was based on the use of seines and gill nets and the main environments of capture were tributaries of the low Madeira River (Jamari, Oropiara, Machado and Novo Aripuanã. The CPUE calculated for 2003 to 2005 was 15kg*fisherman 1day-1 (sd = ±21. The results show that the category constituted during this period an important resource for local commercial exploitations, as verified in other regions of the Amazon.

  1. Stress responses of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus after transport in a closed system under different loading densities Respostas de estresse de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus juvenil após transporte em sistema fechado sob diferentes densidades de carga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janessa Sampaio de Abreu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimum loading density for the transport of matrinxã juveniles was investigated in a closed system with plastic bags. Transport was conducted for 4 h with fish (23.5± 0.4g and 11.6 (0.08cm starved for 24h at loading densities of 83g L-1 (D1, 125g L-1 (D2, 168g L-1 (D3 and 206g L-1 (D4. Fish were sampled before transport (BT, after transport (AT and 24h AT. The water quality was monitored before capturing fish in depuration tanks, after transport in plastic bags and in recovery tanks. Water oxygen decreased to values below 4mg L-1 in D2, D3 and D4, temperature was around 32°C, pH 6.5-6.78, total ammonia 1.09-1.7mg L-1, un-ionized ammonia 3.58-9.33x10³mg L-1 and alkalinity 134-165mg CaCO3 L-1. Blood cortisol and glucose concentrations increased in fish of all densities AT and recovered the BT levels 24h after arrival. Osmolality did not change AT but increased 24h AT in fish of all densities whereas plasma chloride decreased inversely to the loading densities after the procedure. Hematocrit decreased 24h AT in fish of all densities but no differences were verified in the number of erythrocytes. No mortality was registered in any treatment during the next week after transport. Matrinxã demonstrated to be a crowding tolerant-species in transport operations besides tolerating low levels of oxygen in the water.Neste estudo, foram investigadas as densidades de carga adequadas para transporte de matrinxãs juvenis em sistema fechado com sacos plásticos. O transporte de 4h foi feito com peixes (23,5±0,4g; 11,6 (0,08cm em jejum por 24h, em densidades de 83g L-1 (D1, 125g L-1 (D2, 168g L-1 (D3 e 206g L-1 (D4. Os peixes foram amostrados antes do transporte (AT, logo após o transporte (chegada (DT e 24h depois. A qualidade da água foi monitorada antes da captura dos peixes nos tanques de depuração, após o transporte nos sacos plásticos e nos tanques de recuperação. O oxigênio da água diminuiu para valores inferiores a 4mg L-1 em D2, D3 e D4, a temperatura esteve em torno de 32°C, pH 6,5-6,78, a amônia total foi de 1,09-1,7mg L-1, a amônia não-ionizada foi de 3,58-9,33 x 10³mg L-1 e alcalinidade 134-165mg CaCO3 L-1. O cortisol plasmático e a glicose sanguínea aumentaram após o transporte nos peixes em todas as densidades ensaiadas, voltando aos valores controle 24h depois. Os valores de osmolaridade não mudaram logo após o transporte, mas aumentaram 24h depois de modo igual em todas as densidades. O cloreto plasmático diminuiu na chegada, de modo inversamente proporcional à densidade de carga. O hematócrito diminuiu 24h depois da chegada dos peixes, em todas as densidades testadas, mas não houve diferença no número de eritrócitos. Não houve mortalidade até uma semana após o transporte. O matrinxã mostrou ser uma espécie tolerante a altas densidades de carga em embalagens para transporte além de suportar baixos níveis de oxigênio na água.

  2. Efeito das classes de peso sobre a composição corporal e o rendimento de processamento de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus Effect of weight classes on body composition and processing yield of cultivated matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Meire Vidotti

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrinxã é um peixe originário da Bacia Amazônica que vem sendo cultivado na Região Sudeste, atendendo ao crescente mercado dos pesque-pague. Embora não exista um consenso sobre o peso de comercialização para essa espécie, ela tem sido realizada com exemplares acima de 600g. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de processamento e a composição corporal do matrinxã em três classes de peso. Foram coletados em tanques de cultivo do Caunesp, Jaboticabal, SP, 45 exemplares, separados em três classes de peso: P1 = 400 a 500g; P2 = 501 a 600g e P3 = 601 a 700g, e submetidos ao processo de filetagem manual e determinação da composição corporal. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros de rendimento (%: filé sem pele, vísceras, gordura visceral, carcaça sem cabeça, cabeça e resíduo total. Para a composição corporal foram determinados os teores de umidade, proteína bruta, lipídeos e cinzas. As classes de peso tiveram efeito (p 0,05. Os menores valores obtidos para carcaça sem cabeça e vísceras foram observados na classe P1 (75,94% e 8,38 e os maiores na P3 (78,05% e 9,48%. Destaca-se que a gordura visceral compreende em torno de 43% do total das vísceras em todas as classes de peso, havendo uma correlação positiva e significativa (r2 = 0,957* entre esses dois parâmetros. A composição corporal apresentou diferenças significativas apenas quanto aos teores de cinzas, sendo que o maior valor foi observado nos peixes da maior classe de peso. Embora não significativo, nota-se uma tendência de maior acúmulo de gordura nos peixes maiores. Este alto teor de lipídeos observado com o matrinxã reflete uma característica comum em espécies de peixes tropicais de água doce. Com base nesses resultados, pode-se concluir que os teores de proteína bruta e lipídeos apresentam-se semelhantes nas três classes de peso avaliadas, e, sem prejuízo do rendimento de filé, os peixes podem ser processados com pesos menores aos normalmente comercializados.Matrinxã is a native fish from the Amazon basin, which has been cultivated in the Southestern region due to increasing interest in sport fishing. Although there is no agreement on the ideal commercialization weight for the species, fishing has been carried out with fish above 600 g. This study aimed to determine the processing yield and body composition in three weight classes. Forty-five fish were collected in fish ponds at Caunesp, Jaboticabal, SP, according to the following weight classes: P1 = 400 to 500 g; P2 = 501 to 600 g; and P3 = 601 to 700 g. The fish were filleted and their body composition was determined. The following yield parameters (% were evaluated: skinless fillet, visceral fat, headless carcass, and total residue. For body composition, moisture (M, crude protein (CP, lipid (L, and ash (A were determined. The weight had effect on (p 0.05. The lowest value obtained for headless carcass and visceral components was observed for weight class P1 (75,94% e 8,38% and the highest for P3 (78,05% e 9,48%. It should be noted that visceral fat is about 43% of total visceral components for all weight classes with significant and positive correlation (r2 = 0.957*. The body composition showed significant differences with respect to ash: the highest value was found in the heaviest weight class. Although not significant, a tendency for higher fat accumulation in heavier fish was observed. The lipid content reflects a common feature in tropical fish species. From the analysis of the results, it is possible to conclude that crude protein and lipid were similar for all evaluated weight classes. Therefore, smaller fish may be processed while maintaining fillet yield.

  3. スズメダイ科魚類Chromis analis ヒマワリスズメダイ(新称)とC. albicaudaコガネスズメダイ の日本における記録と標準和名

    OpenAIRE

    岩坪, 洸樹; 本村, 浩之; イワツボ, ヒロキ; モトムラ, ヒロユキ; IWATSUBO, Hiroki; MOTOMURA, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Chromis analis (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes,1830) and C. albicauda Allen & Erdmann,2009 (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) were confirmed to be distributed in Japanese waters on the basis of collected specimens and underwater photographs. Morphological comparisons of these two species were made, with assessments of standard Japanese names for the two."Himawari-suzumedai"is herein proposed for C. analis as the standard Japanese name. スズメダイ科魚類の2種 Chromis analis (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes...

  4. Identification of a Δ5-like fatty acyl desaturase from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier 1797) involved in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Oscar; Navarro, Juan C; Dick, James R; Alemany, Frederic; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-08-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) have been identified as essential compounds for common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), but precise dietary requirements have not been determined due, in part, to the inherent difficulties of performing feeding trials on paralarvae. Our objective is to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements for paralarval stages of the common octopus through characterisation of the enzymes of endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways. In this study, we isolated a cDNA with high homology to fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Functional characterisation in recombinant yeast showed that the octopus Fad exhibited Δ5-desaturation activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acyl substrates. Thus, it efficiently converted the yeast's endogenous 16:0 and 18:0 to 16:1n-11 and 18:1n-13, respectively, and desaturated exogenously added PUFA substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6 to 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 20:4n-6 (ARA), respectively. Although the Δ5 Fad enables common octopus to produce EPA and ARA, the low availability of its adequate substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6, either in the diet or by limited endogenous synthesis from C(18) PUFA, might indicate that EPA and ARA are indeed EFA for this species. Interestingly, the octopus Δ5 Fad can also participate in the biosynthesis of non-methylene-interrupted FA, PUFA that are generally uncommon in vertebrates but have been found previously in marine invertebrates, including molluscs, and now also confirmed to be present in specific tissues of common octopus.

  5. Macro and microscopic structure of parotids salivary glands in two species of procyonidae: raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus, G. Cuvier, 1798 and coati (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Almeida Furlanetto Mançanares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coati (Nasua nasua, a diurnal animal, and raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus, a crepuscular and nocturnal one, are species of terrestrial mammals, belonging to the procyonidae family, that are widely found in the Brazilian territory. For this work were used three adult coatis and two adult raccoons adults from the Scientific Breeding-Cecrimpas of Centro Universitario da Fundacão de Ensino Octávio Bastos (Ibama 02027.003731/04-76 were used, from which tissue samples of parotid salivary glands were obtained and stained H.E. for light microscopy. It was found that the parotid glands of coatis and raccoons has a positioning similar to that of the other domestic carnivores, opening their ducts within the oral cavity close to the fourth upper premolar tooth, as well as that histologically the parotid glands of coatis and raccoons are formed by serous acini, similarly to most of the domestic animals, humans beings and rodents, and differently from the results found in young dogs, lambs and some carnivores such as the ferret which have mixed acini and other ones which have serous. One concludes that the similarity in serous constitution of the parotid glands of coatis and raccoons might be due to the omnivorous feeding habit shared by these two species.

  6. Stress indices of Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884) change in response to Monogenean parasites pollution, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekmedash, Fatemeh Shojaei; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was study of stress indices in response to Monogenean infection in Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some stress indices were measured in two adult groups of Grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of cortisol and glucose and lactate were significantly higher in infected fishes than healthy individuals. Elevation of cortisol and glucose demonstrated the existence of stressful condition caused by parasitic infection and demands for energy for adaptation. In conclusion, our results showed that Monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. affects health condition of Grass carp through alternation of stress components. PMID:27605835

  7. CARACTERÍSTICAS HEMATOLÓGICAS DE JUVENIS DE TAMBAQUI (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÕES CONTENDO FARINHA DE FOLHA DE LEUCENA (Leucaena leucocephala

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    Geraldo Pereira JUNIOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características hematológicas de juvenis de tambaqui alimentados com rações contendo farinha de folha de leucena. O estudo foi conduzido seguindo um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0%, 8%, 16% e24% de inclusão de farinha de folha de leucena e três repetições. Foram distribuídos 250 juvenis de tambaqui com peso inicial médio de 41,1 g, em 12caixas plásticas redondas. Após 60 dias de cultivo, seis peixes por tratamento foram capturados e anestesiados para a coleta de sangue da veia caudal e determinação dos parâmetros hematológicos. Os resultados mostraram que a inclusão de farinha de folha de leucena nas rações alterou significativamente (p<0,05os parâmetros hematológicos (hematócrito, eritrócito, hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio, concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e glicose plasmática dos peixes nos diferentes tratamentos. A conclusão desta pesquisa é que a inclusão de farinha de folha de leucena em rações para juvenis de tambaqui comprometeu as características hematológicas desta espécie.

  8. Avances en el conocimiento y el estado actual de conservación del Cocodrilo de Tumbes (Crocodylus acutus Cuvier, 1807

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    Armando H. Escobedo Galván

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta nota se describe el estado de conservación del Cocodrilo de Tumbes en Perú, donde la especie encuentra su límite sur de distribución, por lo que es catalogada como especie rara en la zona. Esto ha generado que se lleven a cabo programas de manejo ex situ para apoyar su conservación. Sin embargo el desconocimiento de los beneficios que brinda la especie, junto con la deforestación, el cambio climático y las actividades antropogénicas, han ocasionado que su población disminuya y se encuentre amenazada.

  9. The origin, evolution, and diversification of rockfishes of the genus Sebastes (Cuvier) : insights into speciation and biogeography of temperate reef fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Dispersal and speciation in the marine environment have long been key topics in evolutionary biology and more recently in conservation biology. The genus Sebastes, with approximately 110 species, is found throughout most of the world's cold-temperate seas. Their breadth of phenotypic and species diversity, ecological dominance, and importance to world fisheries has made them a focus of intensive study by countless researchers. In this dissertation, DNA sequence and microsatellite data were us...

  10. Histopathological study of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in cultured false clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier, 1830) and true clownfish, Amphiprion percula (Lacepede, 1802)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muthuramalingam Uthaya Siva; Thangapandi Marudhupandi; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in two species of marine ornamental fishes through histopathological investigation along with control for differentiating the tissue damage.Methods:killed by organ dissection. The infected fish organs were aseptically cut off and stored with 10%formalin solution for histological study. Samples were examined for gross pathology including location, distribution, shape, size, colour, consistency and special features of typical external lesions by standard method.Results:Six naturally infected fishes were collected. They were anaesthetized and subsequently 2.5 to 3.5 mm (Amphiprion percula). Light microscopic observation showed over growth of tumor like nodules on the skin or scales and ventral side as well. Numerous hypertrophied cells with basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were in the connective tissues of dermis and between scales on two species. The nucleus of lymphocystis cell were enlarged, irregular and containing basophilic marginated chromatin. Thus, the similarities among cellular patterns of different fish LCDV isolates from different hosts indicated that these profiles do not depend on the host species.Conclusions: In conclusion, this current study of histopathological statement of LCDV may be adequate for a presumptive diagnosis of lymphocystis disease from both marine as well as fresh water fish species. The findings of asymptomatic carriers by histology using infected skin and fin sampling, which does not imply animal killing, could be important tool to epizootics caused by LCDV. This study may be very useful for further molecular studies.

  11. On the intriguing stranding of four Cuvier’s Beaked Whales, Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier, 1823, on the Lesser Antillean Island of Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van Peter J.H.; Kristensen, Ingvar

    1974-01-01

    The stranding of four Cuvier’s Beaked Whales, Ziphius cavirostris, on the Lesser Antillean Island of Bonaire on April 3, 1974 is reported. The death of the animals was most probably caused by some kind of underwater explosion.

  12. Genetic variability of wild and captivity populations of Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.7149

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    Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is among the most important fish species of the Amazon and one of the most cultivated in Brazil. In the present work we have evaluated the genetic variability of wild and captivity populations of C. macropomum. Enzymatic markers were used to estimate the genetic variability of 41 specimens from a wild group; and 30, 33 and 45 from three captivity groups, which came from Pentecostes (Ceará State, Jaboticabal (São Paulo State and Itacoatiara (Amazonas State, respectively. Nine isoenzymic systems were used to evaluate the genetic variability of these populations. Using zimogram data we obtained the polymorphism level, allele number, allelic frequency, observed and expected heterozigosity, Wright F statistics (FIS, FST, genetic distance, level of similarity and group analysis. The isoenzymic data showed that, from the nine systems, six presented polymorphic loci (Fbp-2, G6pdh-2, G6pdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2 and Pgm-1. The populations from Pentecostes and Jaboticabal presented loss of genetic variability and low heterozigosity, compared to the wild population and to the artificial population acquired at Itacoatiara fish farm. Based on these results and on fish farmer information we could consider the population from Itacoatiara as recently derived from a wild population. Concluding, we suggest that the artificial populations of tambaqui, which contain animals originated from this funding population at Pentecostes, should be renewed with the introduction of a new group of individuals with genetic variability equivalent to the wild population.

  13. Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

    2011-02-01

    The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. PMID:21236651

  14. HÁBITOS ALIMENTICIOS DE LA ARAHUANA Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (CUVIER, 1829 EN LA CUENCA MEDIO DEL RÍO PUTUMAYO - EL ESTRECHO, LORETO, PERÚ

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    Bray Torres del Castillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los hábitos alimenticios de la arahuana Osteoglossum bicirrhosum en la cuenca media del río Putumayo. Para tal fin, fueron colectados un total de 222 estómagos de especímenes de varias tallas, durante el período de un año, iniciándose en marzo de 2008 y concluyendo en abril de 2009. El análisis del contenido estomacal determinó que el 73% de los estómagos contenían alimento y el 27% no. Mediante el uso del índice de importancia alimenticia (IAi, y el coeficiente alimenticio (Q, se observó una preferencia por los insectos, peces y moluscos, siendo las aves, mamíferos y restos vegetales alimentos secundarios. No se registraron diferencias significativas en el consumo de alimento de acuerdo al régimen hidrológico (p>0.05 ni al sexo (p>0.05. El análisis del IAi y Q, nos indica que el consumo de insectos presenta una relación inversa a los rangos de talla, es decir, a mayor nivel de talla menor consumo de insectos. En contraste, el consumo de peces se incrementó con el tamaño de los ejemplares de arahuana. En conclusión, la arahuana, en el rango de talla estudiado (de 31 a 87 cm, presenta un comportamiento alimenticio generalista y oportunista, de régimen omnívoro con fuerte tendencia a la carnivoría.

  15. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  16. Helmintos parasitos das espécies Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill do litoral cearense: Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea

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    Vera Lucia M. Klein

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available De nematódeos encontrados parasitando estômago, intestinos delgado e grosso de Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuv. e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitch. o autor propões para o gênero Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 uma nova espécie, C. fortalezae sp. n., que mais se aproxima de C. clavatum (Rud., 1809 Baylis, 1920 dela se diferenciando por possuir espículos desiguais, um curto ovejetor, útero opistodelfo, ovos menores e por apresentar em todos exemplares estudados ceco intestinal curto e ceco esofagiano longo.In this paper the author proposes a new species of the genus Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912. Of the species under Contracaecum, Contracaecum clavatum (Rudolphi, 1809 Baylis, 1920 is the nearest to Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. differing from the latter by the following aspects: The males have unequal spicules. The females have a short ovijector and parallel uteri directed backward and the eggs are smaller. In both sexes the intestinal cecum is always short and the ventricular posterior appendix is always long, while Contracaecum clavatum presents these structures in an inverse way, considering the lenght of them. Besides, the thorn-like formations at the posterior end of the body are different.

  17. NEMÁTODOS PARÁSITOS DELutjanus synagris(Linneaus, 1758 Y Lutjanus analis (Cuvier, 1828(PERCIFORMES, LUTJANIDAE EN LAS ZONAS DE SANTA MARTA Y NEGUANJE, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

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    J Cortés

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los nemátodos encontrados en el sistema digestivo de las especies de pargo Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis. Esta investigación se orientó principalmente a la clasicación taxonómica de los parásitos y no a los efectos o patologías que estos puedan ocasionar en los peces. Se tuvo en cuenta que en Colombia los pargos constituyen uno de los recursos de mayor importancia para la comercialización; Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis son especies demersales explotadas a lo largo de toda la región costera e insular del Caribe colombiano. Los tractos digestivos se colectaron de los pargos capturados artesanalmente (nasa, cordel por pescadores de las zonas de Santa Marta y Neguanje; se identicaron los siguientes géneros de nemátodos: Capillaria spp., Contracaecum spp., Cucullanus spp. y Raphidascaris spp.; el último género fue el más representativo.

  18. Growth, Age Validation, Mortality, and other Population Characteristics of the Red Emperor Snapper, Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1828), off the Kimberley Coast of North-Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. J.; Dunk, I. J.

    2002-07-01

    Red emperor, Lutjanus sebae, were examined from commercial catches in the Northern Demersal Scalefish Fishery (NDSF) of north-western Australia from 1997 to 1999. Specimens ranged from 183 to 728 mm fork length (FL); males had a mean FL of 509 mm, and were significantly larger than females that had a mean FL of 451 mm. Ages were estimated from thin sections of sagittal otoliths. Marginal increment analysis of sagittal otoliths showed a single annual minimum during September and October and indicated that one annulus is formed each year. Male L. sebae (n=977; 211-728 mm FL) ranged from age 2 to 30 years and females (n=1384; 183-584 mm FL) ranged from age 1 to 34 years. Sagittal otolith weight and height were significantly correlated with age for each sex. There was significant differential growth between sexes. The relationship of observed fork length at age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth equation for males, Lt=627·8 {1-exp [-0·151 (t+0·595)]} and females, Lt=482·6 {1-exp [-0·271 (t-0·065)]}. The slow growth, long life span and large size and age at maturity of L. sebae indicate that this species has a low production potential and hence spatial area closures are vulnerable to over-exploitation. The instantaneous rate of natural mortality (M) ranged from 0·104 to 0·122. The optimum rate of fishing mortality was estimated to be 0·052-0·061. The instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z) estimated from catch at age data for fully recruited ages, was 0·374 in 1997/98 and 0·242 in 1998/99. Hence, the NDSF population of L. sebae is exploited above optimum levels. Given their low production potential, populations of L. sebae in north-western Australia and elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific region require prudent management. Furthermore, fishery managers need to consider as part of any harvest strategy for these fish to preserve significant levels of the spawning stock.

  19. Diet shift of Red Belly Pacu Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae, a Neotropical fish, in the Sepik-Ramu River Basin, Papua New Guinea

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    Sandra Bibiana Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of fish species is a globally widespread practice that causes losses of native species and homogenization of diversity within and across continents. Diet assessments are important tools to depict the ecological function of species introduced into novel ecosystem and possible direct and indirect ecological effects. In this study, we compare the diet of Piaractus brachypomus, a mainly frugivorous Neotropical fish, introduced into the Sepik-Ramu River Basin (Papua New Guinea nearly two decades ago, to that of similar size individuals from Neotropical populations in the Amazon and Orinoco River basins (South America. In contrast to native populations that feed mainly on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, the diet of introduced P. brachypomus is mainly composed of fish remains and aquatic plants, while terrestrial plants are frequently consumed but in relatively smaller amounts. These findings show that P. brachypomus has an inherently plastic diet that can be adjusted when displaced to a novel geographic area. While trophic plasticity increases the likelihood of a species to establish breeding populations after its introduction, it also reduces our ability to predict negative effects on native species.

  20. Diet shift of Red Belly Pacu Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818) (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae), a Neotropical fish, in the Sepik-Ramu River Basin, Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Bibiana Correa; Ricardo Betancur-R.; Bernard de Mérona; Armbruster, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of fish species is a globally widespread practice that causes losses of native species and homogenization of diversity within and across continents. Diet assessments are important tools to depict the ecological function of species introduced into novel ecosystem and possible direct and indirect ecological effects. In this study, we compare the diet of Piaractus brachypomus, a mainly frugivorous Neotropical fish, introduced into the Sepik-Ramu River Basin (Papua New Guinea) nearly...

  1. Valoración Comportamental de un Ejemplar de Oso de Anteojos, Tremarctos ornatus (Cuvier, 1825 en Cautiverio en el Municipio de Garagoa, Boyacá

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    Omar Salazar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudio comportamental de un ejemplar macho de dos años en anterior proceso de rehabilitación con el hermano, provenientes del parque de los nevados, madre muerta, decomisados por la CAR mientras se encontraban en estudio, luego del escape del otro oso. Durante el estudio se observó que aunque el animal se encuentra en buenas condiciones físicas y psíquicas, y hace tan buen uso como puede del espacio de que dispone, ha perdido gran parte de temor y precaución ante la presencia humana, e inclusive la busca si percibe cercanía de personas.  El animal asocia la humano con comida.

  2. Genetic variability of brycon orbignyanus (valenciennes, 1850) (characiformes: characidae) in cultivated and natural populations of the upper paraná river, and implications for the conservation of the species

    OpenAIRE

    Renata de Souza Panarari-Antunes; Alberto José Prioli; Sônia Maria Alves Pinto Prioli; Alexsandro Sobreira Galdino; Horácio Ferreira Julio Junior; Laudenir Maria Prioli

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability of B. orbignyanus in cultivated and natural populations of the Upper Paraná River, using molecular RAPD markers and mtDNA control region. Specimens were collected in the Paraná River and in the Piracema fish farm in Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil. RAPD primers produced 82 loci with consistent expression. The population from the Paraná River showed 28 polymorphic loci, whereas the population from the fish farm presented only 12. Data revea...

  3. Genetic variability of brycon orbignyanus (valenciennes, 1850 (characiformes: characidae in cultivated and natural populations of the upper paraná river, and implications for the conservation of the species

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    Renata de Souza Panarari-Antunes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability of B. orbignyanus in cultivated and natural populations of the Upper Paraná River, using molecular RAPD markers and mtDNA control region. Specimens were collected in the Paraná River and in the Piracema fish farm in Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil. RAPD primers produced 82 loci with consistent expression. The population from the Paraná River showed 28 polymorphic loci, whereas the population from the fish farm presented only 12. Data revealed genetic differentiation between the two populations, although not very pronounced. These results were corroborated by the principal coordinate analysis and by neighbor-joining clustering. The alignment of the D-loop sequences of B. orbignyanus indicated the existence of polymorphism only in the natural population. These data could be helpful for the formulation of management strategies and conservation of the genetic diversity of the species.

  4. Tempo de indução e de recuperação de dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816, submetidos a diferentes concentrações de óleo de cravo Eugenia sp. = Induction and recovery time for dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 submitted to different concentrations of clove oil Eugenia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de dourado em cinco diferentes concentrações (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 mg L-1, utilizando como critério para determinação da concentração ideal os tempos de indução e de recuperação ao efeito do anestésico. Em relação aos tempos de indução, verificou-se diferença significativa (p The present study evaluated five different concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg L-1 of clove oil as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles, using induction and recovery time to determine the ideal concentration. Significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed among 20, 30, 40 and 60 mg L-1 levels of clove oil. However, 50 mg L-1 concentrati on did not show significant difference in comparison to 40 and 60 mg L-1. Regarding recovery time, the shortest time was verified in the concentration of 20 mg L-1. Clove oil is effective and safe as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles in levels between 40 and 60 mg L-1.

  5. Morphological variation in populations of Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1817 (Characiformes, Characidae from Madeira and Paraguay river basins Variação morfológica em populações de Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1817 (Characiformes, Characidae das bacias dos rios Madeira e Paraguai

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    Willian Massaharu Ohara

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The saua Tetragonopterus argenteus is endemic to South America. It has a wide geographic distribution and occurs in different Brazilian basins, such as those of the Madeira and Paraguay rivers. In this work, it was noticed that populations from these basins have morphological variations between them, indicating a possible geographic isolation. Specimens were studied using twelve morphological characters that were submitted to the canonical variates and body proportion analysis. In the canonical variate analysis, the populations from the Madeira and Paraguay river basins were differentiated by caudal peduncle depth, eye diameter, pre-ventral distance, body height, snout length and head length. In the body proportion analysis, the population of Madeira river basin presented head length, orbital diameter, pre-dorsal distance, dorsal-fin length, pre-ventral distance, body height and caudal peduncle height, smaller than those of the population from Paraguay river basin. These results allowed the recognition of intra-specific variation amplitude, that could become an important instrument for management and conservation of this species. O sauá Tetragonopterus argenteus é endêmico da América do Sul, apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica e ocorre em várias bacias brasileiras, entre elas as dos rios Madeira e Paraguai. Neste trabalho foi observado que as populações dessas bacias apresentam variações morfológicas que, provavelmente, representam isolamento geográfico. Exemplares foram estudados através de 12 caracteres morfológicos e submetidos às análises de variáveis canônicas e de proporções corporais. Na análise das variáveis canônicas, as populações das bacias dos rios Madeira e Paraguai diferenciaram-se pelo diâmetro do olho, distância pré-ventral, altura do corpo, comprimento do focinho, altura do pedúnculo caudal e comprimento da cabeça. Na análise das proporções corporais, a população da bacia do rio Madeira apresentou comprimento da cabeça, diâmetro do olho, distância pré-dorsal, comprimento da base da nadadeira dorsal, distância pré ventral, altura do corpo e altura do pedúnculo caudal, menores que os das populações da bacia do rio Paraguai. Esses resultados possibilitam o reconhecimento da amplitude da variação intra-específica, que poderá ser um importante instrumento para o manejo e conservação dessa espécie de peixe.

  6. Anomalias e patologias dentárias em Arctocephalus G. Saint-Hilaire & Cuvier (Pinnipedia, Otariidae da costa do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Tooth anomalies and pathologies in Arctocephalus G. Saint-Hilaire & Cuvier (Pinnipedia, Otariidae of Rio Grande do Sul coast, Brazil

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    César Jaeger Drehmer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The studied species were Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783 and Arctocephalus tropicalis (Gray, 1872, (five specimens of each one. Anomalies were discussed under the light of theories which relate the ancestry of pinnipeds with the Ursidae; as well as concerning the evolutionary trends supposed for the Otariidae. Pathologies were related to alimentary and reproductive habits.

  7. Population structure, reproductive biology and feeding of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 in an Upper Paraná River tributary, Misiones, Argentina Estrutura populacional, biologia reprodutiva e alimentação de Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 em um tributário do alto Rio Paraná, Misiones, Argentina

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    Lourdes María Hirt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The genus Astyanax is one of the richest in number of species and has one of the widest geographical distributions in Argentina, being possible to find in nine ichthyogeographic ecoregions. The aim of the present work was to analyze the population structure of Astyanax fasciatus in the Garupá Stream, Province of Misiones, Argentina, considering its distribution by size, standard length-total weight relationship and aspects of its reproductive and feeding biology; METHODS: A total of eight experimental fishing campaigns were carried out between September 2002 and May 2004, in agreement with the seasons of the year, using a set of gillnets; RESULTS: We captured a total of 386 individuals, 70% of which in the Middle Basin in autumn and winter. The following gonad stages were identified in both males and females: resting, maturing, mature and spawning. The highest gonadal activity corresponded to the autumn-winter period. The Middle Basin showed the highest capture of individuals in reproductive activity, thus reflecting the seasonality of spawning. The average fecundity was of 4000 oocytes, being 1100 µm the largest oocyte diameter. The mean standard length of the total catch was 99.3 mm and females reached larger sizes than males (P OBJETIVO: O gênero Astyanax é um dos mais ricos em número de espécies e tem uma das maiores distribuições geográficas na Argentina, sendo possível encontrar em nove ecorregiões ictiogeográfica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar a estrutura populacional de Astyanax fasciatus no arroio Garupá, Província de Misiones, na Argentina, considerando a sua distribuição por tamanho, relação peso-padrão de comprimento total e aspectos de sua biologia reprodutiva e alimentação; MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas oito operações de pescaria sazonais, entre setembro de 2002 e maio de 2004, com uma bateria de redes de emalhar; RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 386 indivíduos, 70% na Bacia Média no outono e inverno. Foram identificadas as seguintes etapas de maduração gonadal em ambos os sexos: repouso, maturação, maduro e desova. A maior atividade gonadal correspondeu ao período de outono-inverno. A Bacia do Médio apresentou a maior captura de indivíduos em atividade reprodutiva, refletindo a sazonalidade da desova. À fecundidade média foi de 4000 ovócitos, sendo 1100 µm o maior diâmetro dos ovócitos. O comprimento padrão médio foi de 99,3 mm e fêmeas atingiram maiores tamanhos que os machos (P < 0,05. O comprimento padrão variou de acordo com as estações do ano. Ambos os sexos apresentaram crescimento isométrico (b = 3. As fêmeas registraram maiores valores de K em primavera e verão, enquanto os machos na primavera. A relação K-GSI mostrou que os maiores valores de K corresponderam aos menores de GSI. Observou-se que A. fasciatus alimenta-se de uma grande variedade de alimentos, tanto de origem vegetal como animal. Os alimentos de origem vegetal apresentaram o maior índice de ocorrência; CONCLUSÕES: Os longos períodos de desova e de recrutamento ao longo das quatro estações do ano permitem a caracterização de A. fasciatus como uma espécie forrageira que está muito bem adaptada ao ambiente estudado.

  8. Geo scientific basis for making the safety case for a SF/HL W/IL W repository in Opalinus clay in ne Switzerland (project Entsorgungsnachweis) 1: overview and main conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the geo-scientific basis and the main conclusions concerning the safety case for Project Entsorgungsnachweis (Nagra, 2002a, see first paper). The key geo-scientific input for the safety case is summarised in the following three papers. The data and arguments are discussed in great detail in Nagra (2002b) and in numerous reference reports cited therein. (author)

  9. Nemátodos parásitos de lutjanus synagris (linneaus, 1758) y lutjanus analis (cuvier, 1828) (perciformes, lutjanidae) en las zonas de santa marta y neguanje, caribe colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés, J.; Valbuena, J.; Manrique, G.

    2010-01-01

    Se describen los nemátodos encontrados en el sistema digestivo de las especies de pargo Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis. Esta investigación se orientó principalmente a la clasificación taxonómica de los parásitos y no a los efectos o patologías que estos puedan ocasionar en los peces. Se tuvo en cuenta que en Colombia los pargos constituyen uno de los recursos de mayor importancia para la comercialización; Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis son especies demersales explotadas a lo largo d...

  10. NEMÁTODOS PARÁSITOS DE Lutjanus synagris (Linneaus, 1758) Y Lutjanus analis (Cuvier, 1828) (PERCIFORMES, LUTJANIDAE) EN LAS ZONAS DE SANTA MARTA Y NEGUANJE, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés J; Valbuena J.; Manrique G.

    2009-01-01

    Se describen los nemátodos encontrados en el sistema digestivo de las especies de pargo Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis. Esta investigación se orientó principalmente a la clasificación taxonómica de los parásitos y no a los efectos o patologías que estos puedan ocasionar en los peces. Se tuvo en cuenta que en Colombia los pargos constituyen uno de los recursos de mayor importancia para la comercialización; Lutjanus synagris y

  11. NEMÁTODOS PARÁSITOS DE Lutjanus synagris (Linneaus, 1758 Y Lutjanus analis (Cuvier, 1828 (PERCIFORMES, LUTJANIDAE EN LAS ZONAS DE SANTA MARTA Y NEGUANJE, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés J.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los nemátodos encontrados en el sistema digestivo de las especies de pargo Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis. Esta investigación se orientó principalmente a la clasificación taxonómica de los parásitos y no a los efectos o patologías que estos puedan ocasionar en los peces. Se tuvo en cuenta que en Colombia los pargos constituyen uno de los recursos de mayor importancia para la comercialización; Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis son especies demersales explotadas a lo largo de toda la región costera e insular del Caribe colombiano. Los tractos digestivos se colectaron de los pargos capturados artesanalmente (nasa, cordel por pescadores de las zonas de Santa Marta y Neguanje; se identificaron los siguientes géneros de nemátodos: Capillaria spp., Contracaecum spp., Cucullanus spp. y Raphidascaris spp.; el último género fue el más representativo.

  12. Isolation and characterization of 20 microsatellite markers from Carcharhinus leucas (bull shark) and cross-amplification in Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger shark), Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky shark) and Carcharhinus plumbeus (sandbar shark)

    OpenAIRE

    Pirog, Agathe; Blaison, Antonin; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Soria, Marc; Magalon, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    International audience With the development of genetics methods, it becomes possible to study the population structure and some aspects of the reproductive behaviour of endangered sharks. Here we describe the isolation of 20 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (Carcharhinidae) and their characteristics. Two to 10 alleles per locus were detected. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.00 to 0.78 and from 0.05 to0.80, respectively. Four mark...

  13. Estudos para Composição de uma Dieta Referência Semipurificada para Avaliação de Exigências Nutricionais em Juvenis de Pirapitinga, Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818)

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez-Torres Wálter; Pereira Filho Manoel; Arias-Castellanos José Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de definir uma dieta referência para estudos de exigências nutricionais em Piaractus brachypomus. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas quatro dietas com ingredientes semipurificados (H-440 com 47% PB, C-102 com 41% PB, NRC com 37% PB e IALL-1 com 32% de PB) e uma dieta controle (32% de PB) com ingredientes comuns. No segundo experimento, foi usada a dieta IALL-1, como base para a formulação de três dietas experimentais. A dieta 2 foi suplem...

  14. Evaluación del tiempo de evacuación gástrica de la cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818, utilizando diferentes frecuencias de alimentación y ayuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ader Gómez-Peñaranda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio estima el tiempo de vaciado del estómago de la cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus en el día de comienzo regular de alimentación posterior a un periodo de ayuno. Para el efecto, se recolectaron muestras de contenido estomacal en periodos de dos horas después del suministro de alimento (9:30 y 15:30 h hasta el primer indicio de vaciado. Se utilizaron cachamas con un peso de 360 ± 12 g dispuestas en cuatro tratamientos: (1 T1 = alimentación a saciedad durante 5 días y ayuno de 2 días, (2 T2 = alimentación a saciedad durante 6 días y ayuno de 1 día, (3 T3 = alimentación a saciedad durante 7 días, y (4 TC = alimentación siguiendo las tablas recomendadas por el fabricante del alimento. El análisis de datos se realizó mediante ANOVA de medidas repetidas, empleando como factores el tratamiento y el tiempo de vaciado, siendo cada repetición la unidad experimental. Las cachamas del tratamiento T1 presentaron mayor cantidad de alimento en el estómago en los muestreos posteriores al suministro de la primera y segunda ración. A diferencia del tratamiento T1, en los demás las cachamas vaciaron su contenido en el estómago en el periodo comprendido entre la primera y la segunda ración de alimentación y en el periodo posterior a la segunda ración. Por tanto, cuando el contenido estomacal fue mayor, debido a un mayor consumo de alimento en la ración, como en el caso del tratamiento (T1, el tiempo necesario para vaciar el estómago de las cachamas se incrementó.

  15. Estudos para Composição de uma Dieta Referência Semipurificada para Avaliação de Exigências Nutricionais em Juvenis de Pirapitinga, Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vásquez-Torres Wálter

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de definir uma dieta referência para estudos de exigências nutricionais em Piaractus brachypomus. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas quatro dietas com ingredientes semipurificados (H-440 com 47% PB, C-102 com 41% PB, NRC com 37% PB e IALL-1 com 32% de PB e uma dieta controle (32% de PB com ingredientes comuns. No segundo experimento, foi usada a dieta IALL-1, como base para a formulação de três dietas experimentais. A dieta 2 foi suplementada com vitamina C e uma pré-mistura de macrominerais, enquanto na dieta 3 o óleo vegetal foi substituído por óleo de peixe. O ganho de peso foi usado como critério básico para medir os efeitos das dietas, sendo também considerados consumo de alimento, taxa específica de crescimento (SGR, conversão alimentar aparente (FCR, eficiência de utilização da proteína (PER e retenção de proteína (%PPV e de energia (%RE. Entre as dietas semipurificadas, o melhor desempenho de crescimento e de utilização dos nutrientes foi observado para as dietas NRC e IALL-1, que não diferiram entre si. No segundo experimento, o grupo de peixes alimentados com a dieta 2 apresentou crescimento 42% maior que o observado com as dietas sem suplementação. As outras variáveis analisadas, FCR, SGR, PER e %PPV, também foram significativamente melhoradas. Os resultados em conjunto indicam que a dieta IALL-1 suplementada com macrominerais e vitamina C pode ser considerada adequada como dieta referência semipurificada para estudos de nutrição de Piaractus brachypomus.

  16. Dinámica estacional y ecología de las poblaciones de parásitos del pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1835), en lagunas de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Fabiana Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    Los complejos ciclos de vida que tienen muchos parásitos permiten utilizarlos como indicadores de la biología y del comportamiento de sus hospedadores. Los parásitos en los peces de aguas continentales constituyen un grupo muy interesante para realizar estudios poblacionales y comunitarios. Uno de los peces que posee mayor importancia económica en los ambientes acuáticos continentales de Argentina, es el pejerrey bonaerense, Odontesthes bonariensis. Su explotación se basa principalmente en...

  17. Tempo de indução e de recuperação de dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816, submetidos a diferentes concentrações de óleo de cravo Eugenia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.485 Induction and recovery time for dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 submitted to different concentrations of clove oil Eugenia sp - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.485

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Raphael Costa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de dourado em cinco diferentes concentrações (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 mg L-¹, utilizando como critério para determinação da concentração ideal os tempos de indução e de recuperação ao efeito do anestésico. Em relação aos tempos de indução, verificou-se diferença significativa (p The present study evaluated five different concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg L-1 of clove oil as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles, using induction and recovery time to determine the ideal concentration. Significant difference (p -1 levels of clove oil. However, 50 mg L-1 concentration did not show significant difference in comparison to 40 and 60 mg L-1. Regarding recovery time, the shortest time was verified in the concentration of 20 mg L-1. Clove oil is effective and safe as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles in levels between 40 and 60 mg L-1.

  18. スズメダイ科魚類Chromis analis ヒマワリスズメダイ(新称)とC. albicaudaコガネスズメダイ の日本における記録と標準和名

    OpenAIRE

    岩坪, 洸樹; 本村, 浩之; イワツボ, ヒロキ; モトムラ, ヒロユキ; IWATSUBO, Hiroki; MOTOMURA, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Chromis analis (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes,1830) and C. albicauda Allen & Erdmann,2009 (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) were confirmed to be distributed in Japanese waters on the basis of collected specimens and underwater photographs. Morphological comparisons of these two species were made, with assessments of standard Japanese names for the two."Himawari-suzumedai"is herein proposed for C. analis as the standard Japanese name.

  19. Redescription of Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850) (Callodistomidae, Digenea) with New Host Records and Data on Morphological Variability

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing,1850) Travassos, 1922 from the gall bladder of Astyanax bimaculatus, Caranx gibbosus, Galeocharax humeralis, Leporinus copelandii, Pimelodus fur, Pseudopimelodus roosevelti, Salminus brevidens, Salminus maxillosus and from the new hosts, Cynopotamus amazonum and Triurobrycon lundii is redescribed, demonstrating a large morphological variation, mainly in body and testes size and shape. New hosts harbouring immature specimens of P. obesa are presented: Brycon sp.,...

  20. 75 FR 29991 - Marine Mammals; receipt of application for permit amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ..., especially Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), and large delphinids such as long-finned pilot whales... July 15, 2009 (74 FR 3668), authorizes the permit holder to conduct research on cetacean...

  1. 75 FR 47779 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14241

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris), Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), short-finned pilot..., notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 29991) that a request for an amendment to the...

  2. Biological Observations on the Mudskipper Pseudapocryptes elongatus in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucholtz, R. H.; Meilvang, A. S.; Cedhagen, Tomas;

    2009-01-01

    Aspects of the population biology of the mudskipper, Pseudapocryptes elongatus, (Cuvier, 1816) were studied in Bac Lieu Province in the Lower Mekong Delta, Vietnam, including sex ratio, length–frequency distribution, sexual dimorphism, hepatosomatic index (HSI), female gonadosomatic index (GSI), ...

  3. Distribution of IgM+ and ANAE+ T Cells in Spleen, Head Kidney and Thymus of Hunphead Snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus Cuvier)%红笛鲷脾脏、头肾和胸腺中IgM+细胞与ANAE+ T细胞的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珠; 吴灶和; 简纪常; 鲁义善

    2007-01-01

    采用ANAE组化方法(α-醋酸萘酯酶染色法)和ABC免疫组化方法(亲合素-生物素-过氧化物酶复合物法)分析了1龄红笛鲷成鱼的胸腺、头肾和脾脏中IgM+细胞(具有免疫球蛋白分子IgM的细胞)、ANAE+ T细胞的分布.结果表明,三个淋巴器官皆有IgM+细胞、ANAE+ T细胞;胸腺皮质区IgM+ 细胞数量最多,其次是头肾、胸腺髓质区、脾脏;ANAE+ T细胞以脾脏中数量居多,其次是头肾、胸腺髓质区、胸腺皮质区;ANAE+ T细胞在三个器官中多呈均匀分布,而IgM+ 细胞在血管、胸腺小体、黑色素巨嗜细胞中心等的外周呈密集分布.实验结果进一步证明了胸腺中的T细胞多为不成熟的T细胞,此外,还含有大量的IgM+ 细胞;而脾脏、头肾内的ANAE+T细胞多于胸腺,推测胸腺成熟的T淋巴细胞迁移到头肾和脾脏.

  4. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 October 2012-30 November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Serap; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F; Azevedo, V C R; Baucom, Regina; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, L B; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Brassaloti, Ricardo A; Burgess, Treena I; Caccone, Adagisa; Chang, Shu-Mei; Ciampi, A Y; Ciancaleoni, S; Clímaco, Gisele T; Clouet, Cécil; Coimbra, Maria R M; Coutinho, Luiz L; Dantas, Hozana L; De Vega, Clara; Echodu, Richard; Enyaru, John; Figueira, Antonio; Filho, Manoel A G; Foltz, Britnie; Fressigné, L; Gadomski, Mateusz; Gauthier, Nathalie; Herrera, Carlos M; Hyseni, Chaz; Jorge, Erika C; Kaczmarczyk, Dariusz; Knott, Emily; Kuester, Adam; Lima, Ana P S; Lima, Maíra A; Lima, Marcos P; Longo, Ana Luiza B; Lor, Grant; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Marques, Thiago S; Martins, Aline R; Matoso, Daniele A; Medrano, Mónica; Mendonça, M A C; Mettler, Raeann; Nascimento, Priscila Roberta M; Negri, V; Oliveira, Karine K C; Oliveira, L O; Ovcarenko, Irina; Paula-Silva, Maria N; Raggi, L; Sandoval-Castillo, J; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Martin Schaefer, H; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seino, Miyuki M; Sistrom, Mark; Taole, Matsepo M; Teske, P R; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Verdade, Luciano M; Villela, Priscilla M S; Vinson, C C; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 153 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Brassica oleracea, Brycon amazonicus, Dimorphandra wilsonii, Eupallasella percnurus, Helleborus foetidus, Ipomoea purpurea, Phrynops geoffroanus, Prochilodus argenteus, Pyura sp., Sylvia atricapilla, Teratosphaeria suttonii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Trypanosoma brucei. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Dimorphandra coccicinea, Dimorphandra cuprea, Dimorphandra gardneriana, Dimorphandra jorgei, Dimorphandra macrostachya, Dimorphandra mollis, Dimorphandra parviflora and Dimorphandra pennigera.

  5. The connectivity of pore space in mudstones: insights from high-pressure Wood's metal injection, BIB-SEM imaging, and mercury intrusion porosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, J.; Hemes, S.; Houben, M.; Desbois, G.; Radi, Z.; Urai, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Study of the pore space in mudstones by mercury intrusion porosimetry is a common but indirect technique and it is not clear which part of the pore space is actually filled with mercury. We studied samples from the Opalinus Clay, Boom Clay, Haynesville Shale, and Bossier Shale Formations using Wood'

  6. A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms.

  7. Redescription of Oncophora melanocephala (Rudolphi, 1819 Baudin-Laurencin, 1971 (Nematoda, Camallanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magalhães Pinto

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncophora melanocephala, a camallanid nematode from the small intestine of Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 is redescribed from the Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil and this occurrence represents a new host record for the speciesOncophora melanocephala, um nematóide camalanídeo de instestino delgado de Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829, é redescrito da Costa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e esta ocorrência representa um novo hospedeiro para a espécie.

  8. 75 FR 3395 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... K. sima Dwarf sperm whale Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier's beaked whale Mesoplodon europaeus Gervais... Federal Register on Thursday, April 30, 2009 (74 FR 20156). This information will not be reprinted here in... rule has not changed (74 FR 20156; April 30, 2009; pages 20156-20157). Description of the...

  9. 76 FR 9250 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    .... sima Dwarf sperm whale. Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier's beaked whale. M. europaeus Gervais' beaked whale... for this activity, which was published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, July 14, 2009 (74 FR 33960... action contained in the proposed rule (74 FR 33960; July 14, 2009; pages 33961-33962) has not...

  10. 78 FR 26586 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Precision Strike Weapon and Air-to-Surface Gunnery Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... densirostris), Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), Gervais' beaked whale (M. europaeus), Clymene... complete by publishing a Notice of Receipt in the Federal Register (77 FR 38595). The requested regulations... (75 FR 3395, January 21, 2010). The geographic area covered by that LOA overlaps the area...

  11. 77 FR 27189 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... NC 0.03 Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius Slope and pelagic...... \\13\\ 20,000 NL NC 0.80 cavirostris... March 13, 2012, NMFS published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 14744) making preliminary... FR 14744, March 13, 2012). The activities to be conducted have not changed between the proposed...

  12. 77 FR 41755 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ...). the shelf. Cuvier's beaked whale Pelagic 2,143 NL NC 0.43 (Ziphius cavirostris). Baird's beaked whale..., 2012. On May 2, 2012, we published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 25966) disclosing the... Incidental Harassment Authorization (77 FR 25966, May 2, 2012) contained a full description of...

  13. 76 FR 68720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Cuvier's beaked whale Pelagic 20,000 NL NC 0 (Ziphius cavirostris). 6.80 3.74 Longman's beaked whale Deep... published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 45518) making preliminary determinations and proposing to... previous notice for the proposed IHA (76 FR 45518, July 29, 2011). The activities to be conducted have...

  14. 75 FR 5045 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...); pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata); Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris); Clymene dolphin (S... IHA and request for 30-day public comment published on January 23, 2006 (71 FR 3474). A 1-year IHA was subsequently issued to Eglin AFB for this activity on May 3, 2006 (71 FR 27695, May 12, 2006). On January...

  15. 77 FR 49412 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Dwarf sperm whale Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier's beaked whale. Mesoplodon europaeus Gervais' beaked whale...-20 test activities is provided in the Federal Register for the proposed IHA (77 FR 12010; February 28... and proposed authorization was published on February 28, 2012 (77 FR 12010). During the 30-day...

  16. 78 FR 40698 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Office of Naval Research Acoustic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus. Cuvier's Beaked Whale Ziphius cavirostris. Dall's Porpoise... complete on March 7, 2013. On April 2, 2013, NMFS published a Federal Register notice (78 FR 19652... activity was provided in the proposed IHA (78 FR 19652, April 2, 2013). Comments and Responses A notice...

  17. 75 FR 64996 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... macrocephalus) 22 0.09 22 Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) 10 0.05 10 Mesoplodon sp. (unidentified... purpose of the program in a previous notice for the proposed IHA (75 FR 54095, September 3, 2010). The.... Several errors found in the notice for the proposed IHA (75 FR 54095, September 3, 2010) have...

  18. Variability of the oral musculature in the genera Salpa Forskål, 1775 and Weelia Yount, 1954 (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, J.

    1975-01-01

    The aggregate zooids of Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804, S. maxima Forskål, 1775, and the group of the species S. aspera Chamisso, 1819, S. younti Van Soest, 1973, S. thompsoni Foxton, 1961, and S. gerlachei Foxton, 1961, show a difference in the arrangement of the oral musculature. Differences in the

  19. 76 FR 75524 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... No. 14241, issued on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 3668), authorizes the permit holder to conduct research on...) issued on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 47779): (1) Included authorization for collection of a skin and blubber... North America: Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), Cuvier's beaked whale, Risso's dolphin...

  20. Passive acoustic monitoring of beaked whale densities in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, John A; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Frasier, Kaitlin E; Trickey, Jennifer S; Merkens, Karlina P; Wiggins, Sean M; McDonald, Mark A; Garrison, Lance P; Harris, Danielle; Marques, Tiago A; Thomas, Len

    2015-11-12

    Beaked whales are deep diving elusive animals, difficult to census with conventional visual surveys. Methods are presented for the density estimation of beaked whales, using passive acoustic monitoring data collected at sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from the period during and following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010-2013). Beaked whale species detected include: Gervais' (Mesoplodon europaeus), Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), Blainville's (Mesoplodon densirostris) and an unknown species of Mesoplodon sp. (designated as Beaked Whale Gulf - BWG). For Gervais' and Cuvier's beaked whales, we estimated weekly animal density using two methods, one based on the number of echolocation clicks, and another based on the detection of animal groups during 5 min time-bins. Density estimates derived from these two methods were in good general agreement. At two sites in the western GOM, Gervais' beaked whales were present throughout the monitoring period, but Cuvier's beaked whales were present only seasonally, with periods of low density during the summer and higher density in the winter. At an eastern GOM site, both Gervais' and Cuvier's beaked whales had a high density throughout the monitoring period.

  1. Interoceanic occurrence of species of Aristocleidus Mueller, 1936 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of gerreid fishes in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Roche, Dominique G

    2009-09-01

    During investigations of fish parasites in the Neotropics (including the state of Veracruz and the Yucatán Peninsula in the Gulf of Mexico, the Chautengo Lagoon on the Pacific coast of the state of Guerrero in Mexico, and Lake Gatun in the Panama Canal), three monogenoidean (Dactylogyridae) species were found parasitizing the gills of gerreids (Gerreidae): Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936, was recovered from Eugerres plumieri (Cuvier) and Diapterus auratus Ranzani in Veracruz, from D. auratus and Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) in Yucatán, from Eugerres brasilianus (Cuvier) in Panama (all new hosts and geographical records), and from D. peruvianus (Cuvier) and Gerres cinereus (Walbaum) in Guerrero; Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky and Mendoza-Franco, 2008, was recovered from E. plumieri in Veracruz and from D. rhombeus in Yucatan (new hosts and geographical records), and Aristocleidus sp. was recovered from G. cinereus in Guerrero. Results from this study suggest that species of Aristocleidus exhibit wide host specificity within gerreid fishes and that geminate species within this parasite genus may have originated with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama (3.1 to 3.5 ma). Evidence is also presented suggesting the potential role of the Panama Canal as a passageway allowing the interoceanic dispersal of Aristocleidus species across the isthmus. PMID:19415330

  2. Adaptation of a submarine transient detector to the detection of whale sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an international effort to investigate a potential link between acoustic trials (SWAC 4) of SACLANTCEN with a stranding of Cuvier's beaked whales on the Greek coast in May 1996. TNO-FEL's Transient Detection Demonstrator (TDD). a tool to automatically search for submarine transients in pa

  3. Avances en el Manejo Nutricional de Oso Andino (Tremarctos ornatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Salinas-Salinas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El oso andino o de anteojos (Tremarctos ornatus, Cuvier, 1825 único representante de la familia Ursidae en Sudamérica, es el mamífero más grande de los ecosistemas que habita, ya que puede llegar a medir hasta 2m de altura y pesar 175Kg...

  4. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    . The Colombian pisciculture is based on red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. (Linnaeus), Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier), which currently represent around 96% of the total national production. The remaining 4% comes from other farmed species such as bocachico...

  5. Thaliacea of the Bermuda area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1975-01-01

    A large number of samples of Salpidae, Doliolidae and Pyrosomatidae, collected by the U. S. Ocean Acre Project, are studied. A new record for the Bermuda area of Doliopsis rubescens (Vogt, 1817) is given. Dominant species are Iasis zonaria (Pallas, 1766), Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804, and Salpa asp

  6. Characterization of gas flow through low-permeability claystone: laboratory experiments and two-phase flow analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Senger, Rainer; Romero Morales, Enrique Edgar; Ferrari, Alessio; Marschall, Paul

    2014-01-01

    For the characterization of gas migration through a low-permeability clay host rock for deep underground repositories, a comprehensive understanding of the relevant phenomena of gas and fluid flow through low-permeability clay is required. The National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) in Switzerland has developed a comprehensive programme to characterize gas flow in low-permeability Opalinus Clay through laboratory tests and detailed numerical analyses for developing ...

  7. Redescription of Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850 (Callodistomidae, Digenea with New Host Records and Data on Morphological Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kohn

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing,1850 Travassos, 1922 from the gall bladder of Astyanax bimaculatus, Caranx gibbosus, Galeocharax humeralis, Leporinus copelandii, Pimelodus fur, Pseudopimelodus roosevelti, Salminus brevidens, Salminus maxillosus and from the new hosts, Cynopotamus amazonum and Triurobrycon lundii is redescribed, demonstrating a large morphological variation, mainly in body and testes size and shape. New hosts harbouring immature specimens of P. obesa are presented: Brycon sp., Leporellus vittatus, Pachyurus squamipinnis, Pimelodus clarias, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Salminus hilarii. Scanning electron microscopy micrographies, original figures and measurements of adult and immature specimens from different Brazilian hosts and localities are presented

  8. Respostas metabólicas do matrinxã submetido a banhos anestésicos de eugenol - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474 Metabolic responses of matrinxã to eugenol in anesthetic baths - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue; Lívia Gruli Barbosa; Gilberto Moraes

    2007-01-01

    O matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) é uma espécie de interesse comercial. Porém, este peixe movimenta-se em excesso durante práticas de manejo, podendo sofrer ferimentos e perdas de escamas que, muitas vezes, resultam em taxas elevadas de mortalidade. O eugenol, principal componente do óleo de cravo, tem sido bastante utilizado como um anestésico alternativo para peixes por ser um produto natural e de baixo custo. Entretanto, estudos que tratam de respostas metabólicas, em peixes tropicais exposto...

  9. Respostas metabólicas do matrinxã submetido a banhos anestésicos de eugenol = Metabolic responses of matrinxã to eugenol in anesthetic baths

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Moraes; Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue; Lívia Gruli Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    O matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) é uma espécie de interesse comercial. Porém, este peixe movimenta-se em excesso durante práticas de manejo, podendo sofrer ferimentos e perdas de escamas que, muitas vezes, resultam em taxas elevadas de mortalidade. O eugenol, principal componente do óleo de cravo, tem sido bastante utilizado como umanestésico alternativo para peixes por ser um produto natural e de baixo custo. Entretanto, estudos que tratam de respostas metabólicas, em peixes tropicais expostos...

  10. Aplicación de recubrimiento comestible adicionado con extractos etanólicos de propóleo y aceites esenciales a un producto cárnico tipo “luncheon fish”

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Triviño, Andrea Paola

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la funcionalidad tecnológica y el potencial conservante de recubrimientos comestibles a base de propóleo y aceites esenciales de la carne proveniente de especies dulceacuícolas: Cachama (Piaractus brachypomus), Yamú (Brycon amazonicus), Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) y Bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae), se planteó la obtención de un producto cárnico tipo “Luncheon fish” a partir de carne de las especies. Para lo anterior se procedió con la determin...

  11. Análise da pele de três espécies de peixes: histologia, morfometria e testes de resistência

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Maria Luiza R.; Dourado Doroty M.; Machado Silmara D.; Buccini Daniele F.; Jardim Maria Inês A.; Matias Rosemary; Correia Celso; Ferreira Isabel C.

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a pele de três espécies de peixes (piavuçu Leporinus macrocephalus, pacu prata Mylossoma sp e piraputanga Brycon hilarii) através de análise histologica e morfometrica e testes de resistência após o curtimento. Amostras de peles da região dorsal foram coletadas, fixadas em Bouin por 24 horas, incluídas em parafina, cortadas em 5 mm de espessura e coradas por Hematoxilina-eosina. Os cortes foram analisados pela microscopia de luz. Foi utilizado o dinamôme...

  12. Respostas metabólicas do matrinxã submetido a banhos anestésicos de eugenol - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474 Metabolic responses of matrinxã to eugenol in anesthetic baths - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus é uma espécie de interesse comercial. Porém, este peixe movimenta-se em excesso durante práticas de manejo, podendo sofrer ferimentos e perdas de escamas que, muitas vezes, resultam em taxas elevadas de mortalidade. O eugenol, principal componente do óleo de cravo, tem sido bastante utilizado como um anestésico alternativo para peixes por ser um produto natural e de baixo custo. Entretanto, estudos que tratam de respostas metabólicas, em peixes tropicais expostos a diferentes anestésicos, são ainda necessários. Dentro deste intuito, o presente trabalho avaliou respostas metabólicas do Brycon amazonicus ao eugenol, em simulações de banhos anestésicos. A demanda metabólica do matrinxã foi suprida principalmente pelo catabolismo de aminoácidos. Respostas típicas ao estresse foram detectadas por causa do manuseio imposto aos peixes para a realização dos banhos anestésicos. O eugenol não reduziu totalmente essas reações ao estresse. Por outro lado, esse anestésico não provocou estresse adicional em virtude de sua presença em exposições curtas de até 60 mg L-1 por 10 min. O eugenol proporciona segurança aos trabalhadores durante práticas de manejo, sem maiores prejuízos ao matrinxã.Matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus is a commercial fish that presents excessive movements during handling. This characteristic predisposes the animals to injuries and losses of scales that may result in high mortality rates. Eugenol, the main component of clove oil, has been reported as an alternative fish anesthetic because it is a natural product and cheap. However, studies remain necessary about the metabolic responses of tropical fishes to anesthetics. The present work evaluated metabolic responses of Brycon amazonicus to eugenol in simulated anesthetic baths. The fish metabolic demand was supplied mainly by amino acids catabolism. Typical metabolic stress responses to handling were detected but eugenol could

  13. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, F; Rossini, A J; Ceccarelli, P S

    2008-05-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968) artificial culture medium (broth and solid) which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility), contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare.

  14. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, F; Rossini, A J; Ceccarelli, P S

    2008-05-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968) artificial culture medium (broth and solid) which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility), contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare. PMID:18660972

  15. Risk mapping for sensitive species to underwater anthropogenic sound emissions: model development and validation in two Mediterranean areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzellino, A; Lanfredi, C; D'Amico, A; Pavan, G; Podestà, M; Haun, J

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations of cetacean mass strandings, coincident with anthropogenic sounds emissions, have raised concerns on the potential environmental impact of underwater noise. Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) was reported in all the cited stranding events. Within the NATO Marine Mammal Risk Mitigation project (MMRM), multiple interdisciplinary sea trials have been conducted in the Mediterranean Sea with the objective of developing tools and procedures to mitigate the impact of underwater sound emissions. During these cruises, visual observations, passive acoustic detections and environmental data were collected. The aim of this study was to evaluate "a priori" predictions of Cuvier's beaked whale presence in the Alboran Sea, using models developed in the Ligurian Sea that employ bathymetric and chlorophyll features as predictors. The accuracy of these predictions was found adequate and elements are given to account for the uncertainties associated to the use of models developed in areas different from their calibration site.

  16. A new species of Mymarothecium and new host and geographical records for M. viatorum (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae), parasites of freshwater fishes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Kohn, Anna

    2005-11-01

    Mymarothecium boegeri sp. n. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) is described from the gills of Colossoma macropomum Cuvier (Characidae), collected from the aquaria of the "Centro de Pesquisas em Aquicultura, Departamento Nacional de Obras Contra as Secas (DNOCS)", Pentecoste City, State of Ceará, Brazil. Mymarothecium viatorum Boeger, Piasecki et Sobecka, 2002 is reported from the type host, Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier) (Characidae) and from a new host, P. mesopotamicus (Holmberg) (Characidae), confirming the occurrence of M. viatorum in the Neotropical Region. The new species differs from the congeneric species in the structure of male copulatory complex; it is more closely related to M. viatorum by the presence of a posteromedial projection on ventral bar. PMID:16405294

  17. Feeding ecology and trophic comparisons of six shark species in a coastal ecosystem off southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornatowski, H; Braga, R R; Abilhoa, V; Corrêa, M F M

    2014-08-01

    The diets of six shark species, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna zygaena, Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Rhizoprionodon lalandii and Galeocerdo cuvier, were investigated in a subtropical coastal ecosystem of southern Brazil. Stomach content data were obtained to assess foraging niche segregation and ontogenetic shifts in the diets of these sharks. Five of the shark species off the Paraná coast were ichthyophagous, with the exception of S. zygaena, which was teutophagous. With the exception of G. cuvier, which had a generalist diet, the other five species displayed specialization in their feeding. Ontogenetic shifts were observed in C. obscurus and S. lewini with large individuals consuming elasmobranchs. Owing to the diet overlap between C. obscurus and S. lewini, C. obscurus and C. limbatus and R. lalandii and C. limbatus, future studies on the spatial and temporal distributions of these species are needed to understand the extent of competitive interactions. PMID:24919949

  18. A new metric for measuring condition in large predatory sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irschick, D J; Hammerschlag, N

    2014-09-01

    A simple metric (span condition analysis; SCA) is presented for quantifying the condition of sharks based on four measurements of body girth relative to body length. Data on 104 live sharks from four species that vary in body form, behaviour and habitat use (Carcharhinus leucas, Carcharhinus limbatus, Ginglymostoma cirratum and Galeocerdo cuvier) are given. Condition shows similar levels of variability among individuals within each species. Carcharhinus leucas showed a positive relationship between condition and body size, whereas the other three species showed no relationship. There was little evidence for strong differences in condition between males and females, although more male sharks are needed for some species (e.g. G. cuvier) to verify this finding. SCA is potentially viable for other large marine or terrestrial animals that are captured live and then released. PMID:25130454

  19. Risk mapping for sensitive species to underwater anthropogenic sound emissions: model development and validation in two Mediterranean areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzellino, A; Lanfredi, C; D'Amico, A; Pavan, G; Podestà, M; Haun, J

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations of cetacean mass strandings, coincident with anthropogenic sounds emissions, have raised concerns on the potential environmental impact of underwater noise. Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) was reported in all the cited stranding events. Within the NATO Marine Mammal Risk Mitigation project (MMRM), multiple interdisciplinary sea trials have been conducted in the Mediterranean Sea with the objective of developing tools and procedures to mitigate the impact of underwater sound emissions. During these cruises, visual observations, passive acoustic detections and environmental data were collected. The aim of this study was to evaluate "a priori" predictions of Cuvier's beaked whale presence in the Alboran Sea, using models developed in the Ligurian Sea that employ bathymetric and chlorophyll features as predictors. The accuracy of these predictions was found adequate and elements are given to account for the uncertainties associated to the use of models developed in areas different from their calibration site. PMID:21349554

  20. Los proboscideos neógenos de Piquera de San Esteban (Cuenca del Duero, Soria. Implicaciones bioestratigráficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordá Pardo, J. F.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of dental elements of mastodont and dinothere found in Piquera de San Esteban (Soria specifies them to be Gomphotherium angustidens Cuvier and Deinotherium giganteum Kaup. Gn the basis of this identification and by comparison with other material, the age of the locality is dated being Middle Miocene, to be exact, upper Astaracien, biozone MN7.Se estudian unos elementos dentarios de mastodonte y dinoterio (Proboscidea, Mammalia encontrados en Piquera de San Esteban (Soria, que se determinan como Gomphotherium angustidens Cuvier y Deinotherium giganteum Kaup. En base a estas identificaciones y por comparación con otros materiales, la localidad se data como Mioceno medio, concretamente como Astaraciense superior, biozona MN7 de Mein.

  1. Primeiro registro da família Furipteridae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil First record of the family Furipteridae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) for the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    André Pol; Marcelo R. Nogueira; Adriano L. Peracchi

    2003-01-01

    Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828), the only species in the family Furipteridae known to occur in the Brazilian territory, is reported for the first time in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The single specimen obtained was found alone in its diurnal roost in a cavity formed among large granite blocks in a well-preserved Atlantic Forest area. Morphometric data obtained from this specimen are within the known range documented for the species.

  2. Herpesvirus infection with severe lymphoid necrosis affecting a beaked whale stranded in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelo, Manuel; Sierra, Eva; Esperón, Fernando; Watanabe, Tatiane T N; Bellière, Edwige N; Espinosa de los Monteros, Antonio; Fernández, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the pathologic findings in a single, adult female Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris stranded in the Canary Islands. The study indicated that this whale died with a severe, systemic, herpesviral infection and clearly exhibited lesions different from those of the fat and gas embolic syndrome described in beaked whale mass strandings associated with sonar exposure. This is the first report of a cetacean alphaherpesvirus infection of the lymphoid system in a beaked whale.

  3. Don quijote, Christelike geloof en natuurwetenskap 1

    OpenAIRE

    H.P.P. Lötter

    1987-01-01

    The story about Don Qulchote and the windmills is used in this article as an analogy to typify the debates that have taken place in history between natural science and representatives of Christian religion. The analogy is tested on debates that took place around Galileo. Darwin, Newton, Cuvier and the Big Bang theory. The analogy matches these debates quite well and this Is explained by the view that scientific claims to knowledge, and claims to knowledge based on Christian faith, belong to d...

  4. Repeated, long-distance migrations by a philopatric predator targeting highly contrasting ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, James S. E.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Nuno Queiroz; Neil Burnie; Choy Aming; Sousa, Lara L.; Mucientes, Gonzalo R.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Harvey, Guy M.; Sims, David W.; Mahmood S Shivji

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance movements of animals are an important driver of population spatial dynamics and determine the extent of overlap with area-focused human activities, such as fishing. Despite global concerns of declining shark populations, a major limitation in assessments of population trends or spatial management options is the lack of information on their long-term migratory behaviour. For a large marine predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier, we show from individuals satellite-tracked for...

  5. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, M; E. BARCALA; J.L. PEREZ-GIL; M.N. CARRASCO; M. C. Garcia-Martinez

    2012-01-01

    The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (S...

  6. Chondrichthyan Fauna from the Pirabas Formation, Miocene of Northern Brazil, with Comments on Paleobiogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Fernandes dos Reis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The chondrichthyan fauna from the Pirabas Formation is redescribed. Only thirteen nominal taxa are considered valid. From these taxa, ten were reassigned to extant taxa (Carcharhinus sorrah, Carcharhinus perezii, Galeocerdo cuvier, Rhizoprionodon lalandii, Sphyrna sp., Hemipristis elongatus, Carcharodon carcharias, Isurus oxyrinchus, Nebrius ferrugineus, and indeterminate Myliobatidae, confirming the Neogene age of this formation. This elasmofauna is compared with other Caribbean and African Tertiary faunas.

  7. Mercury in Florida Bay fish: spatial distribution of elevated concentrations and possible linkages to Everglades restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David W; Crumley, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    Health advisories are now posted in northern Florida Bay, adjacent to the Everglades, warning of high mercury concentrations in some species of gamefish. Highest concentrations of mercury in both forage fish and gamefish have been measured in the northeastern corner of Florida Bay, adjacent to the dominant freshwater inflows from the Everglades. Thirty percent of spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus Cuvier, 1830) analyzed exceeded Florida’s no consumption level of 1.5 μg g−1 mercury in th...

  8. Survival of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus in seawater and its bioencapsulation in the brine shrimp Artemia

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Ofelio; Alex Paltrinieri

    2014-01-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® (Synbiotec Srl, Camerino, Italy) has demonstrated a positive effect in growth and early development of some fish species as clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris, Cuvier 1830) and zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822). The probiotic effects in A. ocellaris were an increase in body weight, a metamorphosis and skeletal head development acceleration and a reduction in the response to general stress (Avella et al. 2010). Besides this, an acceler...

  9. Crossing Latitudes—Long-Distance Tracking of an Apex Predator

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Luciana C.; Michele Thums; Jessica J Meeuwig; Vianna, Gabriel M. S.; John Stevens; Rory McAuley; Meekan, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are apex predators occurring in most tropical and warm temperate marine ecosystems, but we know relatively little of their patterns of residency and movement over large spatial and temporal scales. We deployed satellite tags on eleven tiger sharks off the north-western coast of Western Australia and used the Brownian Bridge kernel method to calculate home ranges and analyse movement behaviour. One individual recorded one of the largest geographical ranges of m...

  10. The large-wavelength deformations of the lithosphere: materials for a history of the evolution of thought from the earliest times to plate tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.M.C.Sengor; DavidOldroyd

    2004-01-01

    The notable authority on tectonics and the history of geosciences, Professor Celal Sengor from Istanbul, has produced another remarkable book-which, as he tells the reader, grew rapidly from an initial paper into a massive tome. Just as Georges Cuvier liked the idea of ‘bursting the limits of time', so Professor Sengor has again ‘burst the limits of a paper'!

  11. Predation-sensitive foraging behaviour of dugongs (dugong dugon)

    OpenAIRE

    Wirsing, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Foraging decisions by herbivores are of great interest to ecologists, as spatial and temporal patterns of herbivory may structure plant communities. Yet, in marine systems, the factors governing foraging choices of large herbivores (e.g., sea turtles, sirenians) remain poorly understood. Between 2002 and 2004, I assessed the use of habitat and alternative feeding tactics by dugongs (Dugong dugon) foraging under risk of predation by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in Shark Bay, Western Austra...

  12. The Ecology of Cuvier’s beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris (Cetacea: Ziphiidae), in the Bay of Biscay

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jaclyn

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the habitat use and spatial-temporal distribution of Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris, Cuvier, 1823) in the Bay of Biscay, from surveys carried out by the Biscay Dolphin Research Programme between 1995 and 2007. I have analysed the spatio-temporal distribution of Cuvier’s beaked whale, using dedicated and opportunistic sightings and the interactions with fixed physical variables (depth, slope and aspect), non-fixed environmental variables (sea surface te...

  13. Hravé chování u kopytníků

    OpenAIRE

    Janíčková, Ladislava

    2014-01-01

    Play behaviour is important category in animal´s behaviour in ungulates. In this thesis was compared display play behaviour in this animails: cattle, horse, pig and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis),, black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus),, vicugna (Vicugna vicugna), proghorn (Antilocapra americana) and Cuvier´s gazelle (Gazella cuvieri). According to the available literature play behaviour is divided to 3 main categories: locomotor play, object play and social play. Social play ...

  14. The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin of the Arabian region: a status review

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, R. M.; Collins, M; Van Waerebeek, K.; Minton, G

    2004-01-01

    Records of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin sightings, strandings, and museum specimens in the Arabian region were compiled and used to review the distribution and status of this species. Nominal usage of Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765) has been retained as a pragmatic measure, although the species present in the region resembles Sousa plumbea (Cuvier, 1828). Little is known about the ecology of this species in the region. Most available information on S. chinensis in the region originates fr...

  15. Experimental Studies of Engineered Barrier Systems Conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (FY16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Over the past five years the Used Fuel Campaign has investigated Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) at higher heat loads (up to 300 ̊C) and pressure (150 bar). This past year experimental work was hindered due to a revamping of the hydrothermal lab. Regardless, two experiments were run this past year, EBS-18 and EBS-19. EBS-18 was run using Low Carbon Steel (LCS) and opalinus clay in addition to the bentonite and opalinus brine. Many of the past results were confirmed in EBS-18 such as the restriction of illite formation due to the bulk chemistry, pyrite degradation, and zeolite formation dependent on the bentonite and opalinus clay. The LCS show vast amounts of pit corrosion over 100μm of corrosion in six weeks, leading a corrosion rate of 1083 μm/year. In addition, a mineral goethite, an iron bearing hydroxide, formed in the pits of the LCS. Preliminary results from EBS-19 water chemistry are included but SEM imaging, micro probe and XRD are still needed for further results. Copper corrosion was investigated further and over 850 measurements were taken. It was concluded that pitting and pyrite degradation drastically increase the corrosion rate from 0.12 to 0.39 μm/day. However, the growth of a layer of the mineral chalcocite is thought to subdue the corrosion rate to 0.024 μm/day as observed in the EBS-13 a sixth month experiment. This document presents the findings of this past year.

  16. Experimental Studies of Engineered Barrier Systems Conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (FY16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Over the past five years the Used Fuel Campaign has investigated Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) at higher heat loads (up to 300°C) and pressure (150 bar). This past year experimental work was hindered due to a revamping of the hydrothermal lab. Regardless, two experiments were run this past year, EBS-18 and EBS-19. EBS-18 was run using Low Carbon Steel (LCS) and opalinus clay in addition to the bentonite and opalinus brine. Many of the past results were confirmed in EBS-18 such as the restriction of illite formation due to the bulk chemistry, pyrite degradation, and zeolite formation dependent on the bentonite and opalinus clay. The LCS show vast amounts of pit corrosion over 100μm of corrosion in six weeks, leading a corrosion rate of 1083 μm/year. In addition, a mineral goethite, an iron bearing hydroxide, formed in the pits of the LCS. Preliminary results from EBS-19 water chemistry are included but SEM imaging, micro probe and XRD are still needed for further results. Copper corrosion was investigated further and over 850 measurements were taken. It was concluded that pitting and pyrite degradation drastically increase the corrosion rate from 0.12 to 0.39 μm/day. However, the growth of a layer of the mineral chalcocite is thought to subdue the corrosion rate to 0.024 μm/day as observed in the EBS-13 a sixth month experiment. This document presents the findings of this past year.

  17. Results of laboratory and in-situ measurements for the description of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heater Experiment at the Mont Terri Underground Laboratory aims at producing a validated model of thermo-hydro-mechanically (THM) coupled processes. The experiment consists of an engineered barrier system where in a vertical borehole, a heater is embedded in bentonite blocks, surrounded by the host rock, Opalinus Clay. The experimental programme comprises permanent monitoring before, during, and after the heating phase, complemented by geotechnical, hydraulic, and seismic in-situ measurements as well as laboratory analyses of mineralogical and rock mechanics properties. After the heating, the experiment was dismantled for further investigations. Major results of the experimental findings are outlined. (authors)

  18. Expertise concerning NAGRA's request for NSG 20 drilling in Benken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 8, 1994, the National Corporation for the Disposal of Nuclear Wastes (NAGRA) sent a request to the Swiss Federal Transport and Energy Department (EVED) for the granting of a license for deep drilling in Benken. The bore-hole is to clarify the properties of Opalinus clay and the surrounding rock layers for the final storage of highly radioactive wastes. The Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK) has to examine the request from the point of view of the nuclear safety and protection from radioactivity because it is related to the construction of an underground repository for radioactive wastes. In its 1988 report to the Swiss Federal Government, NAGRA provided proof of the safety of an underground repository for radioactive wastes, but the demonstration that there really exists a host rock layer homogeneous enough and with sufficient dimensions for a repository was still needed. Since then, NAGRA has especially concentrated its investigations on Opalinus clay because of the good characteristics of this rock for waste storage. A convenient Opalinus clay layer was found in the Zurich Weinland region, which has been explored using seismic methods. The bore-hole is dedicated to the calibration of the results of the seismic investigations. In comparison with other sites, the layer studied exhibits many geological advantages: its depth is the desired range of 400 to 1000 m; with 110 m the layer is thick enough; and there are no geological faults in the layer. At present, knowledge concerning the hydro-geology of the domain is scarce; its improvement is an important objective of the drilling. The present project foresees coupling the drilling work with a 3D-seismic investigation that should bring detailed information on the geological conditions. HSK requires that the drilling goes deeply enough until crystalline bedrock is reached in order to more accurately calibrate the results of the deep seismic reflections. It will also give

  19. International progress in performing long-term safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no requirement to achieve the impossible in decision making for repository development. - It is possible to make a safety case that supports decision making and, within in it, make confidence a tangible, overarching concern in the preparation of a safety case. This requires clarity of purpose and discipline. - The move towards modern safety cases is underway - IGSC topical sessions confirm trend in national programmes - Joint IAEA-NEA safety requirements guide DS-164 - NEA safety case brochure (2004) - The latest safety study: Nagra's Project Opalinus (Dec 2002)

  20. New and previously described species of Dactylogyridae (Monogenoidea) from the gills of Panamanian freshwater fishes (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

    2007-08-01

    During an investigation of the diversity of metazoan parasites of 7 freshwater fish species from 3 localities in central Panama, the following gill dactylogyrid (Monogenoidea) species were found: Aphanoblastella chagresii n. sp. from Pimelodella chagresi (Heptapteridae); Aphanoblastella travassosi (Price, 1938) Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco, and Scholz, 2000 from Rhamdia quelen (Heptapteridae); Diaphorocleidus petrosusi n. sp. from Brycon petrosus (Characidae); Gussevia asota Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1989, from Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae); Sciadicleithrum panamensis n. sp. from Aequidens coeruleopunctatus (Cichlidae); Urocleidoides flegomai n. sp. from Piabucina panamensis (Lebiasinidae); and Urocleidoides similuncus n. sp. from Poecilia gillii (Poeciliidae). Consideration of the comparative morphology and distribution of these parasites along with the evolutionary history of the host fishes suggests that diversification may be associated with geotectonic events that provided isolation of the Central American fauna with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus during early Pliocene (3 mya). PMID:17918354

  1. Damage-induced permeability changes around underground excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage of nuclear waste in deep geological formations is now considered more and more as a potential solution. During excavation, a disturbed zone develops in which damaging can be important and which can lead eventually to the failure of the rock. Fluid flow and permeability in the rock mass can be significantly modified producing a possible security risk. Our work consisted in an experimental study of the hydro-mechanical coupling of two argillaceous rocks: Boom clay (Mol, Belgium) and Opalinus clay (Mont-Terri, Switzerland). Triaxial tests were performed in a saturated state to study the permeability evolution of both clays with isotropic and deviatoric stresses. Argillaceous rocks are geo-materials with complex behaviour governed by numerous coupled processes. Strong physico-chemical interactions between the fluid and the solid particles and their very low permeability required the modification of the experimental set up. Moreover, specific procedures were developed to measure permeability and to detect strain localisation in shear bands. We show that for Boom Clay, permeability is not significantly influenced by strain localisation. For Opalinus clay, fracturing can induce an increase of the permeability at low confining pressure. (author)

  2. Excavation damaged zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, T.; Salzer, K.; Minkley, W. [Institut fur Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Gibert, D.; Nicollin, F.; Kergosien, B. [Rennes-1 Univ., GdR FORPRO (CNRS/ANDRA GdR 788) and Geosciences Rennes (CNRS/UR1 UMR 6118) (France); Bossart, P. [Federal Office for Topography, Wabern (Switzerland); Nussbaum, C. [Institut Geotechnique SA, St-Ursanne (Switzerland); Robinet, J.C.; Nguyen, M.T. [EGC Euro-Geomat-Consulting, 45 - Orleans (France); Barnichon, J.D.; Plas, F. [ANDRA - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Ghorbani, A.; Cosenza, P.; Florsch, N. [Pierre et Marie Curie Univ., UMR 7619 Sisyphe, 75 - Paris (France); Revil, A.; Jougnot, D. [Aix-Marseille-2, UMR 6635, CNRS-CEREGE, 13 (France); Schmutz, M. [EGID, M. de Montaigne Univ., 33 - Pessac (France); Contrucci, I.; Klein, E. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Ecole des Mines de Nancy, 54 - Nancy (France); Cabrera, J.; Ben-Slimane, K.; Rejeb, A.; Matray, J.M.; Savoye, S. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maiolino, S. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Mecanique des Solides, UMR 7649, LMS, 91 - Palaiseau (France); CETE de Lyon/LRPC de Lyon/Meca Roches/ ERA, 69 - Bron (France); Yong, S.; Loew, S.; Fidelibus, C.; Lemy, F. [Engineering Geology, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Frank, E. [Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK), Villigen (Switzerland); Chun-Liang, Zhang; Tilmann, Rothfuchs [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 10 articles (posters) dealing with: the influence of bedding planes to EDZ evolution and the coupled HM properties of Opalinus Clay; the electrical tomography monitoring of the EDZ during the excavation of the gallery 04 in the Mont Terri rock laboratory; the seismic endoscopy and tomography of the EDZ of the gallery 04 in the Mont Terri rock laboratory; a elastoplastic damage model for saturated and unsaturated stiffness clays: description and application to the modelling of EDZ around drifts in Callovo-Oxfordian argillites; the non-invasive monitoring of water content and microcracks in argillites using spectral induced polarization; EDZ investigations by ultrasonic borehole logging in drifts of different ages excavated in argillaceous formations of the Tournemire experimental station (Aveyron, France); the excavation damaged zones in the argillaceous Tournemire site: characterisation and failure mechanisms; the hardening-based degradation factor: influence of mean stress and stiffness; the disturbance in the EDZ in the Opalinus clay at Mont Terri; and the experimental study on self-sealing capacity of clay rocks.

  3. A minimalistic microbial food web in an excavated deep subsurface clay rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; de Bruijn, Ino; Andersson, Anders F; Diomidis, Nikitas; Leupin, Olivier X; Schwyn, Bernhard; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2016-01-01

    Clay rocks are being considered for radioactive waste disposal, but relatively little is known about the impact of microbes on the long-term safety of geological repositories. Thus, a more complete understanding of microbial community structure and function in these environments would provide further detail for the evaluation of the safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste in clay rocks. It would also provide a unique glimpse into a poorly studied deep subsurface microbial ecosystem. Previous studies concluded that microorganisms were present in pristine Opalinus Clay, but inactive. In this work, we describe the microbial community and assess the metabolic activities taking place within borehole water. Metagenomic sequencing and genome-binning of a porewater sample containing suspended clay particles revealed a remarkably simple heterotrophic microbial community, fueled by sedimentary organic carbon, mainly composed of two organisms: a Pseudomonas sp. fermenting bacterium growing on organic macromolecules and releasing organic acids and H2, and a sulfate-reducing Peptococcaceae able to oxidize organic molecules to CO(2). In Opalinus Clay, this microbial system likely thrives where pore space allows it. In a repository, this may occur where the clay rock has been locally damaged by excavation or in engineered backfills. PMID:26542073

  4. Damage-induced permeability changes around underground excavations; Endommagement des roches argileuses et permeabilite induite au voisinage d'ouvrages souterrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll, C

    2005-07-15

    The storage of nuclear waste in deep geological formations is now considered more and more as a potential solution. During excavation, a disturbed zone develops in which damaging can be important and which can lead eventually to the failure of the rock. Fluid flow and permeability in the rock mass can be significantly modified producing a possible security risk. Our work consisted in an experimental study of the hydro-mechanical coupling of two argillaceous rocks: Boom clay (Mol, Belgium) and Opalinus clay (Mont-Terri, Switzerland). Triaxial tests were performed in a saturated state to study the permeability evolution of both clays with isotropic and deviatoric stresses. Argillaceous rocks are geo-materials with complex behaviour governed by numerous coupled processes. Strong physico-chemical interactions between the fluid and the solid particles and their very low permeability required the modification of the experimental set up. Moreover, specific procedures were developed to measure permeability and to detect strain localisation in shear bands. We show that for Boom Clay, permeability is not significantly influenced by strain localisation. For Opalinus clay, fracturing can induce an increase of the permeability at low confining pressure. (author)

  5. M-S-H precipitation in low-pH concretes in clayey environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the CI-project (Cement Clay Interaction Experiment), two different low-pH cements were emplaced at Mont Terri rock laboratory to study their interactions with the surrounding Opalinus Clay (OPA): ESDRED (shotcrete mixture: 60% of CEM-I 42.5 N + 40% of silica fume + aluminium sulphate salt as accelerator) and LAC composed of CEM-III/B 42.5 L (60% of blast furnace slag + 10% nano silica). After 5 years of interactions in the Mont Terri rock laboratory, SEM-EDS analyses show a systematic Mg-perturbation associated with a high decalcification near the surface of both cementitious materials. TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) investigations associate this Mg-enrichment to the possible formation of M-S-H. This result is confirmed by 29Si NMR analyses, showing a high polymerisation degree of the Si-network in the Mg-enriched zone typical of a sheet-like structure. Tem/EDS investigations of a FIB section carried out in the Mg zone of both LAC and ESDRED concretes indicate that the Mg phase exhibits a gel-like structure similar to C-S-H gel. This experimentally observed Mg-enrichment in the interaction zone is well reproduced by reactive transport modelling of the LAC/Opalinus clay with the HYTEC code. (authors)

  6. A minimalistic microbial food web in an excavated deep subsurface clay rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; de Bruijn, Ino; Andersson, Anders F; Diomidis, Nikitas; Leupin, Olivier X; Schwyn, Bernhard; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2016-01-01

    Clay rocks are being considered for radioactive waste disposal, but relatively little is known about the impact of microbes on the long-term safety of geological repositories. Thus, a more complete understanding of microbial community structure and function in these environments would provide further detail for the evaluation of the safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste in clay rocks. It would also provide a unique glimpse into a poorly studied deep subsurface microbial ecosystem. Previous studies concluded that microorganisms were present in pristine Opalinus Clay, but inactive. In this work, we describe the microbial community and assess the metabolic activities taking place within borehole water. Metagenomic sequencing and genome-binning of a porewater sample containing suspended clay particles revealed a remarkably simple heterotrophic microbial community, fueled by sedimentary organic carbon, mainly composed of two organisms: a Pseudomonas sp. fermenting bacterium growing on organic macromolecules and releasing organic acids and H2, and a sulfate-reducing Peptococcaceae able to oxidize organic molecules to CO(2). In Opalinus Clay, this microbial system likely thrives where pore space allows it. In a repository, this may occur where the clay rock has been locally damaged by excavation or in engineered backfills.

  7. Simplified 1D modelling of the HGA test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The HGA test is located in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (Switzerland). It consists of a horizontal borehole of 1.00 m of diameter and 13.00 m of length excavated in the ultra-low permeable Opalinus clay. During the tunnel drilling, the Opalinus clay near the tunnel wall was damaged, giving rise to an EDZ (Excavation Damaged Zone) around the tunnel. A steel liner was placed along the 6.00 m close to the tunnel mouth in order to guarantee the stability. The last 4.00 m at the tunnel end were backfilled with gravel. Along the remaining 3.00 m, an inflatable rubber packer of 1.00 m in diameter, was installed and inflated, thereby compressing the EDZ that was created during the tunnel excavation. The test section was filled with de-aired water and care was taken in order to eliminate the air from this tunnel section. Subsequently, a series of water and gas injection tests were carried out with varying mega-packer pressure, whereby water or gas was injected into the test section and, due to the very low permeability of the intact Opalinus clay, forced to flow back along the EDZ. In order to model the water and gas flow through the EDZ, we have followed a two-track approach. On the one hand, a 2D axisymmetric numerical model using code-bright has been made. On the other hand, a 1D analytical-numerical model has been developed and implemented in an Excel spreadsheet, whereby the field equations defined on a 1D geometrical domain are numerically solved using the finite element method. The 1D model has been used in order to calibrate the 2D axisymmetric model. Both the Opalinus clay and the EDZ will be considered to be porous media, with an incompressible solid phase (clay), an incompressible liquid phase (water and air) and a gas phase (water and air). The properties of the liquid phase will be assumed to be independent of the concentration of dissolved air and the gas phase will be assumed to be a mixture of dry air and

  8. Pore-water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinsot, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Lab. de Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Appelo, C.A.J. [Valeriusstraat 11, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cailteau, C. [LEM, ENSG/INPL, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Cailteau, C. [G2R-CREGU, UMR 7566 CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Cailteau, C. [Andra - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Mettler, S.; Wersin, P. [NAGRA, CH-5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); Canniere, P. de [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Gabler, H.E. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France); Jacquot, E.; Altmann, S. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (DS/TR), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Vinsot, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Lab. de Recherche Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Courdouan, A.; Christl, I.; Kretzschmar, R. [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, ETH Zurich, CHN (Switzerland); Wersin, P. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Savoye, S.; Matray, J.M.; Wittebroodt, Ch.; Cabrera, J.; Bensenouci, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Michelot, J.L.; Bensenouci, F. [Paris-11 Univ., UMR IDES CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Waber, H.S. [Rock-Water Interaction (RWI), Inst. of Geological Sciences, Bern (Switzerland); Wittebroodt, Ch. [Montpellier-2 Univ., MSE, 34 (France); Lavielle, B.; Gilabert, E.; Thomas, B.; Lavastre, V. [Bordeaux 1-2 Univ., (GdR FORPRO 0788), Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bioenvironnementale (CNAB), CNRS, 33 - Gradignan (France); Lavastre, V. [Nimes Univ., Geochimie Isotopique Environnementale (GIS/CEREGE), CNRS-RANCE, 30 (France)

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 5 articles dealing with: CO{sub 2} data on gas and pore water sampled in-situ in the Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (A. Vinsot, C.A.J. Appelo, C. Cailteau, S. Mettler, P. Wersin, P. De Canniere, H.E. Gaebler); the improvements in the modelling of the pore water chemistry of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation (E.C. Gaucher, C. Tournassat, E. Jacquot, S. Altmann, A. Vinsot) the nature and reactivity of dissolved organic matter in the Opalinus clay and Callovo-Oxfordian formations (A. Courdouan, I. Christl, P.Wersin, R. Kretzschmar); PH4: a 250 m deep borehole in Tournemire for assessing the reliability of chloride, helium and water stable isotopes profiles in the Toarcian/ Domerian shales (S. Savoye, J.L. Michelot, H.N. Waber, J.M. Matray, F. Bensenouci, Ch. Wittebroodt, J. Cabrera); and the development of a new facility for dating old groundwaters by using {sup 81}Kr (B. Lavielle, E. Gilabert, B. Thomas, V. Lavastre)

  9. Microbial analyses of clay and water from different samples from the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (RL), Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Exploration of deep subsurface microbial life has increased for very diverse motives. One of them is that these environments are potential host rocks for radioactive waste repositories and that microorganisms may influence geochemical conditions around such sites and migration properties of radionuclides. The pore water Chemistry experiment (PC) was conducted at the Mont Terri-RL to measure in situ the pH, Eh, and other geochemical parameters within the pore water of the Opalinus Clay formation. The borehole for PC was drilled with N2 under clean but not aseptic conditions, filled immediately with synthetic pore water, which was circulated and monitored for five years. Soon after initiation of PC it was evident that microbial activity affected the borehole water geochemistry. Microbial analyses, including molecular biology and culturing methods, were performed repeatedly during PC (2003-2006), with detailed analysis of water and over-core clay upon termination in 2007. Results indicated the presence of heterotrophic aerobes and anaerobes, nitrate-reducers, iron-reducers, sulphate-reducers and Archaea, which together with geochemical data suggested a reducing environment with sulphate reduction in the water and adjacent clay. A black precipitate containing pyrite and a strong H2S smell confirmed the occurrence of sulphate reduction. Specific species identified (> 98% similarity) in PC water included Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus licheniformis, and Desulfosporosinus sp., with similar and additional species (e.g., Trichococcus sp.; Koccuria sp.) in the clay. The origin of these (mostly anaerobic) species cannot be determined with certainty. Some species likely resulted from contamination, but others could be revived species indigenous in the Opalinus Clay. The microbial processes that occurred in PC are not representative of the processes in the undisturbed formation but illustrate the potential for microbial

  10. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  11. OCORRÊNCIA DE ECTOPARASITO Cymothoa spinipalpa (ISOPODA, CYMOTHOIDAE) EM Oligoplites palometa (OSTEICHTHYES: CARANGIDAE) NAS ÁGUAS COSTEIRAS DE NATAL, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL.

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Soares Araújo; Andréa Soares de Araújo; Eudriano Florêncio dos santos Costa; José Ticiano Arruda Ximenes Lima; Sathyabama Chellappa

    2012-01-01

    No Nordeste do Brasil, os estudos relacionados com os parasitos de peixes marinhos podem ser considerados incipientes diante da grande diversidade ictiológica existente. O presente trabalho registrou a ocorrência de um isópodo parasito na espécie Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1832) (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) habitante das águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Durante o período de maio de 2006 a julho de 2007 foram capturados 78 exemplares de O. palometa. Foi encontrada uma espécie d...

  12. Biological observations on the mudskipper Pseudapocryptes elongatus in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucholtz, Rikke Hagstrøm; Meilvang, A. S.; Cedhagen, T.;

    2009-01-01

    Aspects of the population biology of the mudskipper, Pseudapocryptes elongatus, (Cuvier, 1816) were studied in Bac Lieu Province in the Lower Mekong Delta, Vietnam, including sex ratio, length-frequency distribution, sexual dimorphism, hepatosomatic index (HSI), female gonadosomatic index (GSI......), gonad histology, fecundity and some observations on post-larvae and juveniles. In the population studied the sex ratio was skewed toward males. Females had a shorter mean length and a lower mean growth rate than males. No mature males or females were observed among mudskippers sampled in estuarine...

  13. Two new species of Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae from South America Dos especies nuevas de Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae de América del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S. Curran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de

  14. Utilización de la proteína dietaría por alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Walter Gutiérrez; Máximo Quispe; Luz Valenzuela; Guadalupe Contreras; Javier Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Un experimento fue conducido para evaluar los efectos de cinco niveles de proteína (25,27, 29, 31 y 33%) sobre el comportamiento productivo de alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier 1818, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas (2,7 kcal de ED/g). Los parámetros medidos fueron ganancia de peso (GP), conversión alimenticia (CA), proteína retenida (PR), razón de eficiencia proteica (REP) y energía retenida (ER). En la preparación de las dietas experimentales se utilizaron como fuentes...

  15. Ecologia de Atherina spp. ao longo do gradiente salino do canal de Mira (Ria de Aveiro)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Inês Correia

    2008-01-01

    As espécies Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810 e Atherina presbyter Cuvier, 1829, apesar de apresentarem características merísticas e morfométricas distintas, são por vezes difíceis de distinguir (nomeadamente em casos onde os peixes são pequenos ou estão danificados). Estas duas espécies apresentam também comportamento e ecologia distintos: A. presbyter é tipicamente marinha, podendo estar presente nas áreas mais salinas dos estuários, A. boyeri pode completar todo o seu ciclo de ...

  16. Seasonal variability of bull and tiger shark presence on the west coast of Reunion Island, western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Blaison, A.; Jaquemet, S.; Guyomard, D.; Vangrevelynghe, G.; Gazzo, T.; Cliff, G.; Cotel, Pascal; Soria, Marc

    2015-01-01

    A fisheries-independent survey using longlines and drumlines, and an acoustic telemetry study, revealed that bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas and tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier occur throughout the year off the west coast of Reunion Island. The research, which commenced in 2011, was conducted in response to an increase in the rate of shark attacks. Juvenile, subadult and young adult tiger sharks of 111-390 cm total length (TL) were caught in all months except July; the sex ratio was 1:1 (M:F; ...

  17. New geographic records of Hamlets, Hypoplectrus spp. (Serranidae), in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E.H.; Bunkley-Williams, L.; Rogers, C.S.; Fenner, R.

    2006-01-01

    The exact number of species of hamlets, Hypoplectrus spp., in the Caribbean is controversial and the geographic distributions of these species/forms are poorly documented. We report Curac??ao, Netherlands Antilles, as a new locality for the Barred Hamlet, H. puella (Cuvier), and Shy Hamlet, H. guttavarius (Poey); and St. John and St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, for the Tan Hamlet, Hypoplectrus sp. The Black Hamlet, H. nigricans (Poey), has previously been reported from Curac??ao, but we did not see it there.

  18. Ten new records of marine invertebrates from the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRTZ, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemones Telmatactis cricoides (Duchassaign, 1850 and Actinia n. sp., themolluscs Tonna galea Linnaeus, 1758, Vitreolina philippi (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854,Melanella n. sp., Phidiana lynceus (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854 and Anomia patelliformis(Linnaeus, 1761, the nemertine Baseodiscus delineatus (DelleChiaje, 1825 and the echinoderms Leptosynapta inhaerens (O. F. Müller, 1776 and Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817, are here recorded from the Azores for the first time. The presence of the two starfishspecies Chaetaster longipes (Retzius, 1805 and Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837 in the Azores is confirmed and the spawning behaviour of the sea urchin Echinocyamus pusillus (O. F. Müller, 1776 is described.

  19. Improvement of Impaired Memory in Mice by Taurine

    OpenAIRE

    Vohra, Bhupinder P. S.; Xiang Hui

    2000-01-01

    Taurine was extracted from Pegasus later-narius Cuvier to study its effects on learning and memory in mice. Mice were treated with different doses of taurine (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg). The mice were treated with various chemical agents (pentobarbital, cycloheximide, sodium nitrite, alcohol) to disrupt the normal memory process. We measured the effect of taurine on step-down latency (SDL) and escape latency (EL) in a passive avoidance task after 10 or 30 days. ...

  20. Jules Verne (1828-1905), disciple de Buffon ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gohau, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    International audience Jules Verne died one century ago. On this occasion, we propose a critical reading of the A Journey to the Centre of the Earth. Here, our interest is limited to animals met by the travellers: i.e. fossil species supposed to be always alive. Like Buffon, Jules Verne supposed that animals from deep time were bigger and even more perfect than present ones. However, he knew species which were unknown from Buffon, like mammals studied by Cuvier, marine reptiles by Conybear...

  1. Effects of duty-cycled passive acoustic recordings on detecting the presence of beaked whales in the northwest Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Joy E; Nowacek, Douglas P; Read, Andrew J; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Moors-Murphy, Hilary B; Van Parijs, Sofie M

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of using duty-cycled passive acoustic recordings to monitor the daily presence of beaked whale species at three locations in the northwest Atlantic. Continuous acoustic records were subsampled to simulate duty cycles of 50%, 25%, and 10% and cycle period durations from 10 to 60 min. Short, frequent listening periods were most effective for assessing the daily presence of beaked whales. Furthermore, subsampling at low duty cycles led to consistently greater underestimation of Mesoplodon species than either Cuvier's beaked whales or northern bottlenose whales, leading to a potential bias in estimation of relative species occurrence. PMID:27475208

  2. Technetium migration in natural clays; Migration von Technetium in natuerlichem Tongestein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, Maria

    2015-10-01

    The present work was performed within the joint research project ''Retention of repository relevant radionuclides in argillaceous rocks and saline systems'' (contract no.: 02E10981), funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). The aim was to obtain first insights into the interaction of the long-lived fission product technetium and natural clay with regard to a repository for high-level nuclear waste. For this purpose Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri (northern Switzerland) was used as a reference material. The nuclide technetium-99 will contribute to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel for more than thousand years due to its long half-live. In case of a leakage of the storage vessels, the geochemistry of technetium is determined by its oxidation state, at which only the oxidation states +IV and +VII are relevant. Because of the high solubility and low affinity to sorption on surfaces of minerals, Tc(VII) is considered to be very mobile and thus the most hazardous species. The focuses of this study therefore are diffusion experiments with this mobile species and investigations of the effect of ferrous iron on the mobility and speciation of technetium.rnThe interaction of technetium and Opalinus Clay was studied in sorption and diffusion experiments varying several parameters (pH value, addition of reducing agents, effect of oxygen, diffusion pathways). In the course of this study spatially resolved investigations of the speciation have been performed on Opalinus Clay thin sections and bore cores for the first time. In addition to the speciation, further information regarding elemental distributions and crystalline phases near technetium enrichments were obtained. Supplementary investigations of powder samples allowed determining the molecular structure of technetium on the clay surface.rnBoth the combination of sorption experiments with spectroscopic investigations and the diffusion experiment exhibit a reduction of Tc

  3. Modelling and Simulation of 4D GeoPET Measurements with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, J.; Kulenkampff, J.; Gründig, M.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.

    2012-04-01

    Our GeoPET-method allows the 4D monitoring of (reactive) transport processes in geological material on laboratory scale (Gründig et al., 2007; Kulenkampff et al., 2008; Richter et al., 2005) by quantitative imaging of tracer concentrations. Recently we have conducted a long-term 22Na+ in-diffusion experiment in an Opalinus clay drill core over a period of 7 months. We modelled this experiment with COMSOL Multiphysics ® 4.2a (3D convection-diffusion equation, PDE mode, PARDISO solver) for reproducing the observed spatiotemporal concentration distribution data with the following underlying equation for this anisotropic diffusion and adsorption: ɛdci= \\upsidedownBigTriangle (D ·\\upsidedownBigTriangle c )- ρdq- dt e i dt - ɛ [-] porosity, ci[mol/m3] 22Na+concentration, De [m2/s] tensor of the effective diffusion constant for 22Na+ in Opalinus clay, ρ [kg/m3] bulk density and dq/dt sink term for considering the sorption. By importing GeoPET images from various time steps and applying the Optimization Module (least square fit applying the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm) to these images we efficiently determined best fit values e.g. of the diffusion tensor. Combined with the parameter sweep operation the sensitivity analysis is performed in parallel and covers the range of literature values for porosity and Kd values for 22Na+sorption on Opalinus clay. The experimental data could be reproduced quite well, but the obtained parameter values for diffusion parallel and normal to the bedding are slightly larger than reported in Gimmi and Kosakowski (2011). This is coherent with our observations of an emerging gas bubble in the central borehole tracer reservoir: Soil moisture tension in the partly unsaturated clay must have significantly influenced the transport regime by an additional advective component. We suggest COMSOL Multiphysics ® is a powerful tool for the inverse modelling of timedependent, multidimensional experimental data as obtained by GeoPET.

  4. Effect of temperature on damage and permeability of clayey soils and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of exothermic radioactive waste in deep low permeability geological formations such as clayey rocks and plastic clays is a solution considered for long term repositories. However the excavation of underground galleries creates a damaged zone (EDZ). The effect of the damage zone on the transport properties of the geological barrier has been widely studied. Within the framework of the TIMODAZ European project, emphasis has been put on the effect of temperature. As a partner of this project, the current work is performed to investigate the coupling effect between temperature, damage and permeability on Boom clay and Opalinus clay through an experimental study. View to the experimental difficulties related to the low permeability materials, a new hollow cylinder triaxial cell with short drainage path specifically designed to study the thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of very low permeable materials is developed during this work. The tests and the numerical analysis show that the short sample drainage path reduces significantly the time needed to re-saturate an initially unsaturated sample and it also permits to achieve drained conditions (i.e. negligible excess pore pressure during testing) with a higher loading rate. For Boom clay, the effect of the pore water thermal pressurisation on a sample with a pre-existing shear band is investigated. The undrained heating under shear stress decreases the effective stress on the sample which leads to its failure. An existing failure plane in the sample behaves like a preferential weakness plane which can be reactivated by pore water thermal pressurisation. The estimated shearing resistance along the sheared plane is smaller than that of the intact material. For the Opalinus clay-stone, drained heating on a saturated sample shows that this clay-stone behaves like a slightly over consolidated material (thermo-elasto-plastic behaviour) with transition from expansion to contraction at 65 C. The decrease of the permeability

  5. Technetium migration in natural clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was performed within the joint research project ''Retention of repository relevant radionuclides in argillaceous rocks and saline systems'' (contract no.: 02E10981), funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). The aim was to obtain first insights into the interaction of the long-lived fission product technetium and natural clay with regard to a repository for high-level nuclear waste. For this purpose Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri (northern Switzerland) was used as a reference material. The nuclide technetium-99 will contribute to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel for more than thousand years due to its long half-live. In case of a leakage of the storage vessels, the geochemistry of technetium is determined by its oxidation state, at which only the oxidation states +IV and +VII are relevant. Because of the high solubility and low affinity to sorption on surfaces of minerals, Tc(VII) is considered to be very mobile and thus the most hazardous species. The focuses of this study therefore are diffusion experiments with this mobile species and investigations of the effect of ferrous iron on the mobility and speciation of technetium.rnThe interaction of technetium and Opalinus Clay was studied in sorption and diffusion experiments varying several parameters (pH value, addition of reducing agents, effect of oxygen, diffusion pathways). In the course of this study spatially resolved investigations of the speciation have been performed on Opalinus Clay thin sections and bore cores for the first time. In addition to the speciation, further information regarding elemental distributions and crystalline phases near technetium enrichments were obtained. Supplementary investigations of powder samples allowed determining the molecular structure of technetium on the clay surface.rnBoth the combination of sorption experiments with spectroscopic investigations and the diffusion experiment exhibit a reduction of Tc

  6. Foraging Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) produce distinct click types matched to different phases of echolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M; Madsen, P T; Zimmer, W M X; de Soto, N Aguilar; Tyack, P L

    2006-12-01

    Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris Blainville) echolocate for prey during deep foraging dives. Here we use acoustic tags to demonstrate that these whales, in contrast to other toothed whales studied, produce two distinct types of click sounds during different phases in biosonar-based foraging. Search clicks are emitted during foraging dives with inter-click intervals typically between 0.2 and 0.4 s. They have the distinctive form of an FM upsweep (modulation rate of about 110 kHz ms(-1)) with a -10 dB bandwidth from 26 to 51 kHz and a pulse length of 270 micros, somewhat similar to chirp signals in bats and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier), but quite different from clicks of other toothed whales studied. In comparison, the buzz clicks, produced in short bursts during the final stage of prey capture, are short (105 micros) transients with no FM structure and a -10 dB bandwidth from 25 to 80 kHz or higher. Buzz clicks have properties similar to clicks reported from large delphinids and hold the potential for higher temporal resolution than the FM clicks. It is suggested that the two click types are adapted to the separate problems of target detection and classification versus capture of low target strength prey in a cluttered acoustic environment.

  7. Could beaked whales get the bends? Effect of diving behaviour and physiology on modelled gas exchange for three species: Ziphius cavirostris, Mesoplodon densirostris and Hyperoodon ampullatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Sascha K; Baird, Robin W; Fahlman, Andreas

    2009-07-31

    A mathematical model, based on current knowledge of gas exchange and physiology of marine mammals, was used to predict blood and tissue tension N2 (P(N2)) using field data from three beaked whale species: northern bottlenose whales, Cuvier's beaked whales, and Blainville's beaked whales. The objective was to determine if physiology (body mass, diving lung volume, dive response) or dive behaviour (dive depth and duration, changes in ascent rate, diel behaviour) would lead to differences in P(N2) levels and thereby decompression sickness (DCS) risk between species. Diving lung volume and extent of the dive response had a large effect on end-dive P(N2). The dive profile had a larger influence on end-dive P(N2) than body mass differences between species. Despite diel changes in dive behaviour, P(N2) levels showed no consistent trend. Model output suggested that all three species live with tissue P(N2) levels that would cause a significant proportion of DCS cases in terrestrial mammals. Cuvier's beaked whale diving behaviour appears to put them at higher risk than the other species, which may explain their prevalence in strandings after the use of mid-frequency sonar.

  8. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

  9. Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Trematoda: Transversotrematidae) from inshore fishes of Australia: description of a new species and significant range extensions for three congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Diggles, Ben K; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Four transversotrematid trematodes are reported from commercial teleost species in Australian waters. Transversotrema hunterae n. sp. is described from three species of Sillago Cuvier (Sillaginidae) from Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland. Molecular characterisation using ITS2 rDNA confirmed this stenoxenic specificity of Transversotrema hunterae n. sp., with identical sequence data from Sillago maculata Quoy & Gaimard, S. analis Whitley and S. ciliata Cuvier. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 28S rDNA data, demonstrates that T. hunterae n. sp. belongs to the 'Transversotrema licinum clade' and is most closely related to Transversotrema licinum Manter, 1970 and T. polynesiae Cribb, Adlard, Bray, Sasal & Cutmore, 2014, with the three species forming a well-supported clade in all analyses. We extend the known host and geographical ranges of three previously described Transversotrema species, T. licinum, T. elegans Hunter, Ingram, Adlard, Bray & Cribb, 2010 and T. espanola Hunter & Cribb, 2012. The new records represent significant range extensions for the three species and permit further examination of the patterns of biogeographical distribution in Australian waters. Host-specificity of Transversotrema species is examined, and the degree to which morphological analysis can inform taxonomic studies of this group is discussed. PMID:27522364

  10. Relative abundance and size of coastal sharks derived from commercial shark longline catch and effort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J K; Hale, L F; Morgan, A; Burgess, G

    2012-04-01

    In the north-west Atlantic Ocean, stock assessments conducted for some commercially harvested coastal sharks indicate declines from 64 to 80% with respect to virgin population levels. While the status of commercially important species is available, abundance trend information for other coastal shark species in the north-west Atlantic Ocean are unavailable. Using a generalized linear modelling (GLM) approach, a relative abundance index was derived from 1994 to 2009 using observer data collected in a commercial bottom longline fishery. Trends in abundance and average size were estimated for bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna, tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier and lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris. Increases in relative abundance for all shark species ranged from 14% for C. brevipinna, 12% for C. leucas, 6% for N. brevirostris and 3% for G. cuvier. There was no significant change in the size at capture over the time period considered for all species. While the status of shark populations should not be based exclusively on abundance trend information, but ultimately on stock assessment models, results from this study provide some cause for optimism on the status of these coastal shark species.

  11. Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 represents a species complex based on ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Dana M; Curran, Stephen S; Pulis, Eric E; Provaznik, Jennifer M; Franks, James S

    2013-10-01

    Digeneans in the genus Hirudinella de Blainville, 1828 (Hirudinellidae) from three species of pelagic fishes, Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier), Makaira nigricans Lacépède and Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre), and one benthic fish, Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier), from the Gulf of Mexico are investigated using comparison of ribosomal DNA. Four species are identified based on molecular differences: Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 from A. solandri, Hirudinella ahi Yamaguti, 1970 from T. albacares, and two unidentified but distinct species of Hirudinella, herein referred to as Hirudinella sp. A (from both M. nigricans and M. martinicus) and Hirudinella sp. B from M. nigricans. Additionally, H. ahi, based tentatively on morphological identification, is reported from Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus). This represents the first record of a hirudinellid from M. martinicus and the first record of H. ahi from T. thynnus. A phylogeny of some Hemiurata Skrjabin & Guschanskaja, 1954 using partial fragments of the 28S rDNA sequences is consistent with earlier phylogenies and the position of the Hirudinellidae Dollfus, 1932 is well-supported as a derived group most closely related to the Syncoeliidae Looss, 1899. PMID:24048751

  12. Cicatrization of the damaged zone around a tunnel in low permeable rocks; Cicatrisation de la zone endommagee autour du tunnel dans des roches peu permeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, R.O

    2005-12-15

    Three types of clays have been studied in this work: the Mol clay (plastic clay), the Mont Terri clay (opalinus clay) and the East clay (stiff clay). This work is divided into three parts: an experimental part which has allowed to identify the cicatrization phenomenon and the cracks closing. Through several tests has been determined the evolution of the permeability of the clayey samples which are undamaged or damaged with time and according to the different applied hydro-mechanical loadings. In order to describe the cicatrization phenomenon, a rheological law has been developed from the experimental observations and under some hypotheses. The parameters of the cicatrization model have been determined by numerical simulation. In order to take into account the structures effects at a large scale, the modelling of a tunnel has allowed to better identify the cicatrization phenomenon and to analyze the long term stability of this work. (O.M.)

  13. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  14. From clay bricks to deep underground storage; vom lehmziegel bis zum tiefenlager -- anwendung von ton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at the use of clay strata for the storage of radioactive wastes in deep-lying repositories. First of all, a geological foray is made concerning the history of the use of clay and its multifarious uses. The characteristics of clay and its composition are examined and its formation in the geological past is explained. In particular Opalinus clay is looked at and the structures to be found are discussed. The clay's various properties and industrial uses are examined and its sealing properties are examined. Also, Bentonite clay is mentioned and work done by Nagra and co-researchers is noted.

  15. The Swiss geological survey in the service of society; Die Landesgeologie im Dienst der Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lateltin, O. [Landesgeologie, swisstopo, Wabern (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    This article takes a look at the work of the Swiss geological survey, which, since 1930, has been working on 1:25,000-scale geological maps which now cover two thirds of the country. These activities are now integrated in the scope of 'swisstopo', who not only produce the maps but also manage the rock laboratory at Mont Terri: Here, together with international partners, research on the suitability of Opalinus clay for nuclear waste repositories is being assessed. The article looks at the organisation of the Swiss geological survey and the various services it offers in the areas of geological information services, data, maps as well as rock laboratories and repositories.

  16. Overview of project Entsorgungsnachweis: aims and methodology for making the safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, is responsible for research and development, geological investigations, design studies and safety assessment studies leading to the development of facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland. This paper (and the other accompanying papers) discusses Project Entsorgungsnachweis, a project assessing the geological and engineering feasibility and long-term safety of a deep geological repository for the disposal of spent UO2 or mixed-oxide fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent fuel (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) in the Opalinus Clay of the Zurcher Weinland of northern Switzerland, This paper provides the background to and describes the aims of project Entsorgungsnachweis. It also discusses key aspects of the methodology adopted by Nagra in developing the safety case for the proposed repository. (author)

  17. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  18. The role of quality management in safety case development - Nagra's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the role of quality management (QM) in safety case development based on Nagra's experience from a broad range of projects. These include Project Gewahr (L/ILW and HLW, Nagra, 1985), the Wellenberg Project (L/ILW, Nagra, 1994), Project Opalinus Clay (HLW, Nagra, 2002a, 2002b), and recent project work needed in the context of the Swiss site selection process (L/ILW and HLW, Nagra, 2008a, 2008b, 2008c, 2010). Broadly speaking, Nagra's Quality Management policy is focused on ensuring: i) the quality of the disposal system (siting, design and implementation); ii) the quality of the underlying scientific understanding, which are seen as key elements of a credible safety case, along with the quality of the safety calculations themselves and of compiling the safety case, including the drawing of conclusions (Nagra, 2002a). All aspects of QM discussed in this paper should be seen in this context. (authors)

  19. The contribution of tracers in understanding transportation processes in indurated argillaceous formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first part, the author recalls briefly the properties of the two argillaceous formations studied in this HDR report: the Toarcian/Domerian argillite and the Opalinus clay of Mont Terri. At first, have been described the two undamaged argillite materials and then the damaged Tournemire argillite. The second part gives the results obtained from the researches on the undamaged rock with natural tracers and with approaches using artificial tracers. The third part deals with the study of the damaged rock in separating natural perturbations of those of anthropogenic origin. At last, the conclusion gives the guiding thema of this research work and the main long-term future prospects that may result. (O.M.)

  20. H, HM, and THM-C processes in natural barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javeri, V.; Le, T.T.; Cui, Y.J.; Delage, P.; Li, X.J.; Wieczorek, K.; Jockwer, N.; Romero, E.; Lima, A.; Gens, A.; Li, X.L.; Francois, B.; Nuth, M.; Laloui, L.; Chen, W.; Jia, S.; Yu, H.; Wu, G.; Li, X.; Bernier, F.; Tan, X.; Wu, G.; Jia, S.; Giot, R.; Hoxha, D.; Giraud, A.; Homand, F.; Su, K.; Chavant, C.; Duveau, G.; Jia, Y.; Shao, J.F.; Peron, H.; Laloui, L.; Hueckel, T.; Hu, L.B.; Auvray, C.; Lequiller, B.; Cuisinier, O.; Ferber, V.; Cui, Y.J.; Deneele, D.; Uhlig, L.; Jobmann, M.; Polster, M.; Vaunat, J.; Garrite, B.; Wileveau, Y.; Sato, H.; Jacinto, A.; Sanchez, M.; Ledesma, A.; Morel, J.; Balland, C.; Armand, G.; Nguyen Minh, D.; Vales, F.; Pham, Q.T.; Gharbi, H.; Mokni, N.; Olivella, S.; Li, X.; Smets, St.; Valcke, E.; Karnland, O.; Nilsson, U.; Olsson, S.; Sellin, P.; Fernandez, A.M.; Melon, A.M.; Villar, M.V.; Turrero, M.J.; Garitte, B.; Guimaraes, L.D.N.; Gens, A.; Mayor, J.C.; Koliji, A.; Laloui, L.; Vulliet, L.; Hamdi, N.; Marzouki, A.; Srasra, E.; Cuss, R.J.; Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J.; Birchall, D.J.; Marschall, P.; Mallet, A.; Ababou, R.; Matray, J.M.; Renaud, V.; Maison, T.; Enachescu, C.; Frieg, B.; Rohs, St.; Paris, B.; Robinet, J.C.; Bui, T.D.; Barnichon, J.D.; Plas, F.; Klubertanz, G.; Folly, M.; Hufschmied, P.; Frank, E

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 30 articles (posters) dealing with: the three Dimensional analyses of combined gas, heat and nuclide transport in a repository considering coupled thermo-hydro geomechanical processes; the experimental study on the thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of boom clay; hydraulic in-situ measurements in the Opalinus clay in the frame of a heater test performed at the Mont Terri URL; the hydro-mechanical behaviour of natural boom clay in controlled-suction tests; a constitutive approach to address the thermal and hydric impacts in the concept of deep radioactive waste repositories; the numerical analysis on stability of boom clay tunnel by shield construction; a thermo-hydro-mechanical model for clay in unsaturated conditions; the 3D modelling of TER experiment accounting for fully anisotropic thermo-poro-elastic behaviour; the hydro-mechanical modeling of shaft excavation in Meuse/Haute-Marne laboratory; the modelling of drying damage in engineered and natural clay barriers for nuclear waste disposal; the elasto-viscoplastic behaviour of Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite: laboratory tests and modelling; the long-term behaviour of a lime treated soil under percolation conditions; the stress redistribution and hydro-mechanical effects due to excavation and drilling operations in TER experiment; a thermodynamic model on swelling of bentonite buffer and backfill materials; the 3D analysis of a heating test in the Opalinus clay; the THM analysis of a 'mock-up' laboratory experiment using a double-structure expansive model; the measurement of the effect of re-confinement on rock properties around a slot; a laboratory Study of desaturation - re-saturation effects on a clay-stone; the deformation induced by dissolution of salts in porous media; the bentonite swelling pressure in pure water and saline solutions; the mineralogy and sealing properties of various bentonites and smectite-rich clay materials; the evaluation of the geochemical processes occurring

  1. Moisture transfer in shale samples subjected to desaturation - re-saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excavation of underground galleries is expected to create a damaged zone around the galleries. Additional damage could be induced by the desaturation-re-saturation due to the ventilation in galleries. Desaturation induced cracks have already been observed in the Tournemire shale (France) and break-up of shot-crete in the reconnaissance gallery has been caused by swelling of Opalinus clay (Switzerland) around borehole collars. The assessment of the damaged zone is of main importance to estimate the retention capacity of rock mass. The first step of understanding such as process consist s in studying the moisture transfer in rock samples, in order to access to the mass transfer kinetics and to the spatial extension of the unsaturated zone. (authors)

  2. Applying Squeezing Technique to Clayrocks: Lessons Learned from Experiments at Mont Terri Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A. M.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Tournassat, C.; Melon, A.; Gaucher, E.; Astudillo, E.; Vinsot, A.

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the pore water chemistry in clay rock formations plays an important role in determining radionuclide migration in the context of nuclear waste disposal. Among the different in situ and ex-situ techniques for pore water sampling in clay sediments and soils, squeezing technique dates back 115 years. Although different studies have been performed about the reliability and representativeness of squeezed pore waters, more of them were achieved on high porosity, high water content and unconsolidated clay sediments. A very few of them tackled the analysis of squeezed pore water from low-porosity, low water content and highly consolidated clay rocks. In this work, a specially designed and fabricated one-dimensional compression cell two directional fluid flow was used to extract and analyse the pore water composition of Opalinus Clay core samples from Mont Terri (Switzerland). The reproducibility of the technique is good and no ionic ultrafiltration, chemical fractionation or anion exclusion was found in the range of pressures analysed: 70-200 MPa. Pore waters extracted in this range of pressures do not decrease in concentration, which would indicate a dilution of water by mixing of the free pore water and the outer layers of double layer water (Donnan water). A threshold (safety) squeezing pressure of 175 MPa was established for avoiding membrane effects (ion filtering, anion exclusion, etc.) from clay particles induced by increasing pressures. Besides, the pore waters extracted at these pressures are representative of the Opalinus Clay formation from a direct comparison against in situ collected borehole waters. (Author)

  3. Applying Squeezing Technique to Clayrocks: Lessons Learned from Experiments at Mont Terri Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the pore water chemistry in clay rock formations plays an important role in determining radionuclide migration in the context of nuclear waste disposal. Among the different in situ and ex-situ techniques for pore water sampling in clay sediments and soils, squeezing technique dates back 115 years. Although different studies have been performed about the reliability and representativeness of squeezed pore waters, more of them were achieved on high porosity, high water content and unconsolidated clay sediments. A very few of them tackled the analysis of squeezed pore water from low-porosity, low water content and highly consolidated clay rocks. In this work, a specially designed and fabricated one-dimensional compression cell two directional fluid flow was used to extract and analyse the pore water composition of Opalinus Clay core samples from Mont Terri (Switzerland). The reproducibility of the technique is good and no ionic ultrafiltration, chemical fractionation or anion exclusion was found in the range of pressures analysed: 70-200 MPa. Pore waters extracted in this range of pressures do not decrease in concentration, which would indicate a dilution of water by mixing of the free pore water and the outer layers of double layer water (Donnan water). A threshold (safety) squeezing pressure of 175 MPa was established for avoiding membrane effects (ion filtering, anion exclusion, etc.) from clay particles induced by increasing pressures. Besides, the pore waters extracted at these pressures are representative of the Opalinus Clay formation from a direct comparison against in situ collected borehole waters. (Author)

  4. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?; Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Warum gerade hier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieser, A

    2009-09-15

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes.

  5. Discrete fracture modeling of hydro-mechanical damage processes in geological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Rutqvist, J.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a modeling approach for investigating coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) behavior, including fracture development, within geomaterials and structures. In the model, the coupling procedure consists of an effective linkage between two codes: TOUGH2, a simulator of subsurface multiphase flow and mass transport based on the finite volume approach; and an implementation of the rigid-body-spring network (RBSN) method, a discrete (lattice) modeling approach to represent geomechanical behavior. One main advantage of linking these two codes is that they share the same geometrical mesh structure based on the Voronoi discretization, so that a straightforward representation of discrete fracture networks (DFN) is available for fluid flow processes. The capabilities of the TOUGH-RBSN model are demonstrated through simulations of hydraulic fracturing, where fluid pressure-induced fracturing and damage-assisted flow are well represented. The TOUGH-RBSN modeling methodology has been extended to enable treatment of geomaterials exhibiting anisotropic characteristics. In the RBSN approach, elastic spring coefficients and strength parameters are systematically formulated based on the principal bedding direction, which facilitate a straightforward representation of anisotropy. Uniaxial compression tests are simulated for a transversely isotropic material to validate the new modeling scheme. The model is also used to simulate excavation fracture damage for the HG-A microtunnel in the Opalinus Clay rock, located at the Mont Terri underground research laboratory (URL) near Saint-Ursanne, Switzerland. The Opalinus Clay has transversely isotropic material properties caused by natural features such as bedding, foliation, and flow structures. Preferential fracturing and tunnel breakouts were observed following excavation, which are believed to be strongly influenced by the mechanical anisotropy of the rock material. The simulation results are qualitatively

  6. A pesca comercial na bacia do rio Madeira no estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira The Commercial fisheries of the Madeira river basin in the Rondônia state, brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracteriza quali e quantitativamente a atividade pesqueira comercial na bacia do rio Madeira, afluente do rio Amazonas, no trecho entre Guajará-Mirim e Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia. No período de janeiro a dezembro/2004, foram registrados 460 t, correspondendo 935 viagens. A análise dos dados oriundos do monitoramento dos desembarques demonstrou que a pesca na região tem caráter artesanal de pequena escala, destacando a maior participação das canoas motorizadas (131 unidades do que barcos pesqueiros (45 unidades; capacidade média: 3.000kg na frota pesqueira. Os peixes migradores jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans e filhote (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum se destacaram na composição das espécies desembarcadas. As informações técnicas geradas são importantes para subsidiar ações de ordenamento pesqueiro, bem como para avaliar futuras variações que possam ocorrer na atividade frente aos impactos dos empreendimentos hidrelétricos em construção na região.This study presents qualitative and quantitative information about commercial fishery in the basin of the Madeira River, tributary of the Amazon River, describing the fishing activity in the segment between Guajará-Mirim and Porto Velho, in Rondônia State. From January to December/2004, 219 fishermen and 935 trips were registered, corresponding to the capture of 460 t of fish. Data from fish landings demonstrate that fisheries in the region are small-scaled and point to a higher participation of small motorized canoes (130 units than of fishing boats (45 units; average capacity: 3000 kg in the fishing fleet. Migratory species like jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans

  7. Effects of hot and cold smoking processes on organoleptic properties, yield and composition of matrinxa fillet Efeitos do processo de defumação a quente e a frio sobre as propriedades organolépticas, o rendimento e a composição de filé de matrinxã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza Franco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hot (45-90ºC/5 hours and cold (27-45ºC/10 hours smoking processes on the organoleptic properties, yield and composition of matrinxa (Brycon cephalus fillets are evaluated. No significant differences were observed for fillet yield in both non-smoked and smoked fillets. Smoking process losses were significantly higher for hot smoked (19.37% when compared to cold smoked (17.08%. Smoking process reduced moisture (in natura = 72.91%, for hot = 58.51% and cold = 59.68% and increased crude protein, lipid and ash contents. However, there was a significant difference only for protein level between hot smoked (28.07% and cold smoked (27.14%. Cold smoked process resulted in better fillet appearance and color, while hot smoked presented superior flavor, salt content and general acceptance. Aroma and texture did not differ significantly among processes. Therefore, hot smoking process shows the best results for organoleptic properties and protein levels.Foi avaliado o efeito do processo de defumação a quente (45-90ºC/5 horas e a frio (27-45ºC/10 horas nas propriedades organolépticas, no rendimento e na composição dos filés de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus. Não houve diferença significativa no rendimento de filés defumados e não-defumados. As perdas no processo de defumação foram significativamente maiores para defumação a quente (19,37% em comparação à defumação a frio (17,08%. O processo de defumação reduziu a umidade (in natura = 72,91%; defumado a quente = 58,51%; e defumado a frio = 59,68% e aumentou os teores de proteína bruta, lipídios e cinzas. Houve diferença significativa somente nos teores de proteína no defumado a quente (28,07% e defumado a frio (27,14%. O processo a frio resultou em melhor aparência e cor de filé, enquanto o processo a quente melhorou o sabor, o teor de sal e a aparência geral. O aroma e a textura não diferiram significativamente entre os processos. O processo de defumação a quente

  8. Larvicultura de matrinxã em tanques de diferentes cores Matrinxã larviculture in tanks of different colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mattos Pedreira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes cores de tanques na larvicultura de Brycon orthotaenia, durante os primeiros dez dias de criação. Foram avaliados tanques de cores claras (branco, azul claro e verde claro e escuras (marrom e preto. Como alimento, utilizaram-se larvas de Prochilodus costatus, até o quinto dia de alimentação, e a partir do terceiro dia foi também fornecida ração comercial com 55% de proteína bruta. Foram analisados: o crescimento, a sobrevivência e o fator de condição de Fulton. Aos cinco dias, tanto o peso como o comprimento total e a taxa de crescimento específico (TCE foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos. No entanto, aos dez dias, animais mantidos em tanques de cores escuras apresentaram menor peso e comprimento total, porém, com TCE semelhante apesar das diferentes cores de tanque. O fator de condição de Fulton, ao final do experimento, foi menor nos animais mantidos em tanques escuros. A sobrevivência foi menor em tanques de cor preta, aos cinco e dez dias de criação. Os maiores valores foram registrados nos tanques de cores marrom, verde claro e branco. Tanques claros são recomendados para a larvicultura de B. orthotaenia, pelo melhor desempenho e sobrevivência dos animais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different color tanks on Brycon orthotaenia larviculture, during the first ten days of rearing. Light color tanks (white, light blue and light green and dark tanks (brown and black were evaluated. The fishes were fed with Prochilodus costatus larvae until the 5th day and, from the 3rd day on, commercial dry feed with 55% crude protein was also supplied. The growth, survival and Fulton's condition factor were evaluated. At five days of feed, the weight, total length and specific growth rate (SGR were similar among treatments. However, after ten days, the animals kept in dark tanks showed the lowest weight and total length; but the SGR was similar

  9. Habitat use and preferences of cetaceans along the continental slope and the adjacent pelagic waters in the western Ligurian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzellino, A.; Gaspari, S.; Airoldi, S.; Nani, B.

    2008-03-01

    The physical habitat of cetaceans occurring along the continental slope in the western Ligurian Sea was investigated. Data were collected from two different sighting platforms, one of the two being a whale-watching boat. Surveys, conducted from May to October and from 1996 to 2000, covered an area of approximately 3000 km 2 with a mean effort of about 10,000 km year -1. A total of 814 sightings was reported, including all the species occurring in the area: Stenella coeruleoalba, Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Ziphius cavirostris, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis. A Geographic Information System was used to integrate sighting data to a set of environmental characteristics, which included bottom gradient, area between different isobaths, and length and linearity of the isobaths within a cell unit. Habitat use was analysed by means of a multi-dimensional scaling, MDS, analysis. Significant differences were found in the habitat preference of most of the species regularly occurring in the area. Bottlenose dolphin, Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale were found strongly associated to well-defined depth and slope gradient characteristics of the shelf-edge and the upper and lower slope. The hypothesis of habitat segregation was considered for Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale. Canonical discriminant functions using depth and slope as predictors outlined clear and not overlapping habitat preferences for Risso's dolphin and Cuvier's beaked whale, whereas a partial overlapping of the habitat of the other two species was observed for sperm whale. Such a partitioning of the upper and lower slope area may be the result of the common feeding habits and suggests a possible competition of these three species. A temporal segregation in the use of the slope area was also observed for sperm whales and Risso's dolphins. Fin whales, and the occasionally encountered common dolphin and long

  10. Atividade proteolítica e crescimento de matrinxã em natação sustentada e alimentado com dois níveis de proteína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Alberto Arbeláez-Rojas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da natação sustentada sobre a atividade digestiva proteolítica e o crescimento de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, alimentados com dois níveis de proteína. Foram utilizados 240 peixes, tratados com 28 ou 38% de proteína bruta (PB, durante 60 dias, em duas situações distintas: em natação sustentada à velocidade de uma vez e meia o comprimento corporal por segundo, e em sistema convencional de cultivo, sem movimento forçado. Os peixes em natação sustentada e alimentados com 28% de PB apresentaram melhor desempenho, expresso como maior crescimento, alta taxa de crescimento específico, maior ganho de peso e melhor eficiência alimentar. A natação sustentada proporcionou aumento significativo da atividade digestiva proteolítica alcalina, proporcional ao conteúdo de proteína na dieta. Juvenis de matrinxã alimentados com dietas com 28% de PB e em natação sustentada apresentam melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes como consequência de ação proteolítica digestiva mais efetiva.

  11. Genetic structure of Octopus vulgaris (Cephalopoda, Octopodidae) in the central Mediterranean Sea inferred from the mitochondrial COIII gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Knittweis, Leyla; Aurelle, Didier; Nafkha, Chaala; Ezzeddine, Soufia; Fiorentino, Fabio; Ghmati, Hisham; Ceriola, Luca; Jarboui, Othman; Maltagliati, Ferruccio

    2012-01-01

    The polymorphism of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase III was studied in the Mediterranean octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797. A total of 202 specimens from seven sampling sites were analysed with the aim of elucidating patterns of genetic structure in the central Mediterranean Sea and to give an insight into the phylogeny of the Octopus genus. Phylogenetic analyses showed that individuals from the central Mediterranean belong to the O. vulgaris species whose limits should nevertheless be clarified. Concerning genetic structure, two high-frequency haplotypes were present in all locations. The overall genetic divergence (Φ(ST)=0.05, P<0.05) indicated a significant genetic structuring in the study area and an AMOVA highlighted a significant break between western and eastern Mediterranean basins (Φ(CT)=0.094, P<0.05). Possible explanations for the observed patterns of genetic structuring are discussed with reference to their relevance for fisheries management.

  12. Stock Assessment of the Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris in Monastir; the Mid-eastern Coast of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widien Khoufi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus, (Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 is widely distributed through the world. It represents an important resource with high economic value. It is exploited by trawl and by other gears such as trammel net, pots and it is also captured by diving. Although the multitude of assessment techniques, few fisheries cephalopods were well managed. In Tunisia, common octopus (Octopus vulgaris is captured particularly in southern coast and the Sahel defined by three regions (Mahdia, Sousse and Monastir. Our study constitutes the first assessment stock in Monastir situated in the mid of the eastern coasts of Tunisia. Using surplus production models, an under fishing state of Octopus in the East of Tunisia is shown. This study confirms also the necessity of the incorporation of environmental parameters for a better explanation of the variability of common octopus abundance and the importance of these results in the assessment and management of this species.

  13. A comparison of the heart and muscle total lipid and fatty acid profiles of nine large shark species from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bruce; Sidell, Jonathan; Rhodes, Jeffrey; Cliff, Geremy

    2011-03-01

    We have assessed the fatty acid profiles of the hearts and different muscle tissues from nine large shark species (Carcharhinus limbatus (blacktip), Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky), Carcharhinus brevipinna (spinner), Carcharhinus leucas (Zambezi/bull), Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger), Sphyrna lewini (scalloped hammerhead), Sphyrna zygaena (smooth hammerhead), Carcharodon carcharias (great white) and Carcharias taurus (raggedtooth/grey nurse/sand tiger)) found off the east coast of South Africa. While there was generally little variation between the species, all species showed profiles rich in both n6 and n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to terrestrial commercial meats that have low n3. Thus, utilizing skeletal muscle tissues from sharks caught as part of the bycatch when fishing for teleosts would avoid unnecessary wastage of a potentially valuable resource, with all the possible health benefits of high quality protein combined with balanced polyunsaturates, although contamination with high levels of metabolic wastes, such as urea, may be a negative consideration. PMID:20694746

  14. Efeito de banhos terapêuticos com formalina sobre indicadores de estresse em tambaqui Effect of formalin therapeutic bath on stress indicators in tambaqui

    OpenAIRE

    Lucelle Dantas de Araújo; Edsandra Campos Chagas; Levy de Carvalho Gomes; Franmir Rodrigues Brandão

    2004-01-01

    A formalina tem sido usada no controle de doenças parasitárias, porém existem poucas informações sobre o efeito secundário desse produto sobre os peixes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de concentrações terapêuticas de formalina na homeostase de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier 1818) por meio de índices fisiológicos. Os banhos terapêuticos foram realizados em tanques de 100 L, com soluções de formalina a 0, 100, 150, 200 e 250 mg/L, em tempos de exposição de 0, 30, 60 e 12...

  15. Respostas fisiológicas de tambaqui a banhos terapêuticos com mebendazol Physiological responses of tambaqui to therapeutic baths of mebendazole

    OpenAIRE

    Edsandra Campos Chagas; Lucelle Dantas de Araújo; André Luiz Ferreira da Silva; Levy de Carvalho Gomes; Franmir Rodrigues Brandão

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Cuvier 1818) a banhos terapêuticos com mebendazol. Juvenis de tambaqui (n = 108, massa média de 37,80±0,24 g) foram submetidos a banhos terapêuticos de mebendazol a 0, 100, 300 e 600 mg L-1, com três repetições, em exposições de 30, 60 e 120 minutos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para íons plasmáticos (sódio, potássio e cálcio) e parâmetros hematológicos - hematócrito, nú...

  16. Systemic herpesvirus and morbillivirus co-infection in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, S; González, B; Willoughby, K; Maley, M; Olvera, A; Kennedy, S; Marco, A; Domingo, M

    2012-01-01

    During 2007 a dolphin morbillivirus epizootic affected the western Mediterranean and several striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the Catalonian coasts. One of those animals had severe lymphoid depletion, necrosis and syncytial formation in lymph nodes and spleen, with large basophilic nuclear inclusions compatible with herpesvirus detected by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination. Non-suppurative encephalitis with associated morbillivirus antigen and morbillivirus antigen within alveolar macrophages were also observed. A pan-herpesvirus nested polymerase chain reaction amplified a sequence virtually identical to two cetacean herpesvirus sequences previously identified in systemic infections in an Atlantic Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) and in a Mediterranean striped dolphin. The herpesviral infection was probably secondary to the immunosuppression caused by the morbillivirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cetacean co-infected by dolphin morbillivirus and herpesvirus with evidence of lesions attributable to both viruses.

  17. First stranding records of Ziphius cavirostris (Cetacea, Odontoceti on the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Silva Pereira Mayorga

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first stranding records of Ziphius cavirostris (Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier, 1823 (Cetacea, Odontoceti in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The first occurrence was recorded in the second half of 2007 on Trindade Island (20°30’46,82”S, 29°18’26,32”O, a volcanic island located 1.167km away from the mainland, where morphometric data were not collected. The other occurrence was recorded in the second half of 2009 in the city of Vila Velha (20º22’570”S, 40º18’292”O, where morphometric data were collected.

  18. 答本刊读者问(三)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雪魂

    2003-01-01

    5、笔迹学是否很“玄”? 答:笔迹学家通过笔迹分析能描绘出人心理的各个方面的能力。对于来自笔迹学家们不断研究和探索,能写出笔迹学家对生活中各种各样人的细心观察和对其个性心理进行总结。为什么法国动物学家、古生物学家居维叶Georges Cuvier(1769-1832)经过沉思默想就能根据一块骨头准确地描绘出一头完整的动物?为什么英国作家阿·柯南道尔笔下的

  19. Gideon Mantell and the Discovery of Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Dennis R.

    1999-01-01

    Gideon Mantell and the Discovery of Dinosaurs is a scholarly yet accessible biography--the first in a generation--of a pioneering dinosaur hunter and scholar. Gideon Mantell discovered the Iguanodon (a famous tale set right in this book) and several other dinosaur species, spent over twenty-five years restoring Iguanodon fossils, and helped establish the idea of an Age of Reptiles that ended with their extinction at the conclusion of the Mesozoic Era. He had significant interaction with such well-known figures as James Parkinson, Georges Cuvier, Charles Lyell, Roderick Murchison, Charles Darwin, and Richard Owen. Dennis Dean, a well-known scholar of geology and the Victorian era, here places Mantell's career in its cultural context, employing original research in archives throughout the world, including the previously unexamined Mantell family papers in New Zealand.

  20. Passive acoustic detection of deep-diving beaked whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmer, W.M.X.; Harwood, J.; Tyack, P.L.;

    2008-01-01

    Beaked whales can remain submerged for an hour or more and are difficult to sight when they come to the surface to breathe. Passive acoustic detection (PAD) not only complements traditional visual-based methods for detecting these species but also can be more effective because beaked whales produce...... clicks regularly to echolocate on prey during deep foraging dives. The effectiveness of PAD for beaked whales depends not only on the acoustic behavior and output of the animals but also on environmental conditions and the quality of the passive sonar implemented. A primary constraint on the range....../s, a receiver close to the surface should be able to detect acoustically Cuvier's beaked whales with a high probability at distances up to 0.7  km, provided the listening duration exceeds the deep dive interval, about 2.5  h on average. Detection ranges beyond 4  km are unlikely and would require low ambient...

  1. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish from Nov. 1983 to Jun. 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Seven species of fish (Branchiostegus sp., Katsuwonus pelamis, Limanda herzensteini, Sillago sihama, Pneumatophorus japonicus, Caesio chrysozonus cuvier, and Sebastes Inermis) were collected during the fishing season from 8 sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum values of Sr-90 was 1.0+-0.25 pCi/kg in Sebastes Inermis collected from Yamaguchi in April 1984; the maximum value of Cs-137 was 14.0+-0.60 pCi/kg in Katsuwonus pelamis collected from Kochi in May 1984. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Nov. 1984 to Jun. 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Seven species of fish (Branchiostegus sp., Katsuwonus pelamis, Limanda herzensteini, Sillago sihama, Scomber japonicus, Caesio chrysozonus cuvier, and Sebastes Inermis) were collected during the fishing season from nine sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in cases of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in cases of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonization, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 0.9 +- 0.26 pCi/kg in Limanda herzensteini collected from Hiroshima in March 1985; and that of Cs-137 was 12 +- 0.5 pCi/kg in Katsuwonus pelamis collected from Kochi in May 1985. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp. n. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae: Heteronchocleidinae) from Channa lucius (Osteichthyes: Channidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W B; Lim, L H S

    2009-09-01

    One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided. PMID:19827361

  5. Zooarqueologia dos mamíferos aquáticos e semi-aquáticos da Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Volkmer de Castilho

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the use of aquatic mammals by prehistoric societies of Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil. Samples from two archaeological sites were examined: Rio do Meio (RM and Porto do Rio Vermelho (SCPRV. Nine aquatic mammal species were found: a pinnipeds: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmerman, 1783 and A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872, and b cetaceans: Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822, Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758, Stenella frontalis (Cuvier, 1829, Steno bredanensis (Lesson, 1828, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844 and a non-identified rorqual from the genus Balaenoptera Lacépède, 1804. Three especies of semi-aquatic mammals were also recorded: Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1758, Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers,1818. Both sites presented similar species diversity, although abundance was greater at the most recent site (RM. There were more samples from axial skeletons, but in genera the anatomical regions were homogeneously distributed among the identified taxa.

  6. Larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the threatened freshwater fish Sandelia capensis (Anabantidae) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Franti Ek; van Rensburg, Candice Jansen; Van As, Liesl L

    2016-08-01

    Third-stage larvae of the nematode genus Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 (Contracaecum sp.) were, for the first time, recorded from the abdominal cavity of the threatened endemic freshwater fish Sandelia capensis (Cuvier) in South Africa. The larval morphology indicated that they belong to a species of which the adults are parasitic in fish-eating birds. Although the nematode seems to be a common parasite of S. capensis in the locality under study (prevalence 23%), the low intensity of infection recorded (1 to 4) and the generally known low pathogenicity of Contracaecum larvae in fish indicate that this parasite probably does not represent a danger to the local population of this threatened fish species. PMID:27503922

  7. Microsatellite loci in the tiger shark and cross-species amplification using pyrosequencing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natália J.; Cruz, Vanessa P.; Ashikaga, Fernando Y.; Camargo, Sâmia M.; Oliveira, Claudio; Piercy, Andrew N.; Burgess, George H.; Coelho, Rui; Santos, Miguel N.; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) has a global distribution in tropical and warm temperate seas, and it is caught in numerous fisheries worldwide, mainly as bycatch. It is currently assessed as near threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. In this study, we identified nine microsatellite loci through next generation sequencing (454 pyrosequencing) using 29 samples from the western Atlantic. The genetic diversity of these loci were assessed and revealed a total of 48 alleles ranging from 3 to 7 alleles per locus (average of 5.3 alleles). Cross-species amplification was successful at most loci for other species such as Carcharhinus longimanus, C. acronotus and Alopias superciliosus. Given the potential applicability of genetic markers for biological conservation, these data may contribute to the population assessment of this and other species of sharks worldwide. PMID:27635306

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic position of the Sicklefin weasel shark Hemigaleus microstoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Quanfa; Li, Weidong; Chen, Hao; Ai, Weiming; Chen, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Sicklefin weasel shark Hemigaleus microstoma was first presented in this study. It was 16 701 bp in length with the typical gene arrangement in vertebrates. A total of 25 bp short intergenic spaces and 33 bp overlaps located in 12 and 9 gene junctions, respectively. The overall nucleotide composition was 31.0% A, 26.4% C, 13.5% G and 29.1% T. Two start (ATG and GTG) and three stop (TAG, AGG and TAA/T) codons were found in the protein-coding genes. The size of 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 bp. In the phylogenetic tree, H. microstoma (Hemigaleidae) was placed as sister to Galeocerdo cuvier (Carcharhinidae). PMID:26300379

  9. Don quijote, Christelike geloof en natuurwetenskap 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P.P. Lötter

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The story about Don Qulchote and the windmills is used in this article as an analogy to typify the debates that have taken place in history between natural science and representatives of Christian religion. The analogy is tested on debates that took place around Galileo. Darwin, Newton, Cuvier and the Big Bang theory. The analogy matches these debates quite well and this Is explained by the view that scientific claims to knowledge, and claims to knowledge based on Christian faith, belong to different categories and are thus not concurrents for the same truth. Gilbert Ryle's criticism on Descartes' mind-body dualism is used here to strengthen this argument. The article is concluded by pointing out in what ways one can engage in a meaningful debate on the nature of the relationship between science and Christian religion.

  10. Absonifibula estuarina sp. n. (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae parasite of juvenile Cynoscion guatucupa (Osteichthyes from southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Portes Santos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Absonifibula estuarina sp. n. (Diclidophoridae, Absonifibulinae, is described from the gills of juvenile striped weakfish, Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, from the southwestern Atlantic, Argentinean coast. This marine fish migrates to estuarine areas to spawn where exclusively juveniles are found parasitized; adult fish in marine water were never found to be parasitized by this monogenean. A. estuarina sp. n. is characterized mainly by the pedunculate clamps dissimilar in size, the shape of anterior jaw with sclerite 'a' attached to a sub-trapezoidal lamellate extension and fused to sclerites 'c' and 'd'. It differs from Absonifibula bychowskyi Lawler & Overstreet, 1976, the only known species of the genus, in the shape and arrangement of the genital corona, which is armed with six similar hooks disposed in circle and the sub-trapezoidal shape of lamellate extension ('b'. The restriction to juvenile sciaenids is a shared feature among the Absonifibulinae indicating an estuary-dependent life cycle.

  11. Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae from the mouths of marine fishes of Pernambuco State, Brazil Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae das bocas de peixes marinhos do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae is described from the mouths of Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792 and Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1832. The fish hosts were caught near Itamaracá and Cabo de Santo Agostinho, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The new species bears a superficial resemblance to Cymothoa oestrum (Linnaeus, 1793 from which it differs in a number of important respects. In the new species, the basal carinae are large on pereopods 4-7 and usually pointed, whereas in C. oestrum the carinae are small on pereopods 4-6, large on 7 and not pointed. In the new species, only pleopod 1 is simple and 2-5 are provided with pockets and folds. In the other species, pleopods 1-4 are simple and only 5 has folds.Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae é descrito das bocas de Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792 e Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1832. Os peixes foram capturados perto de Itamaracá, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. A nova espécie apresenta uma semelhança superficial à Cymothoa oestrum (Linnaeus, 1793 da qual distingue-se pôr várias características. Na nova espécie, as expansões nas bases dos pereópodos ("carinae" são grandes nos 4-7 e, geralmente, terminam em pontas agudas. Em contraste, em C. oestrum, estas estruturas são pequenas nos pereópodos 4-6, grande somente no sétimo e não têm pontas agudas. Na nova espécie, somente o pleópodo 1 é simples e 2-5 apresentam bolsas e dobras. Na outra espécie, os pleópodos 1-4 são simples e somente 5 tem dobras.

  12. Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-habitat associations: implications of marine park zoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Espinoza

    Full Text Available Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-specific habitat associations in response to geographic and environmental drivers is critical to assessing risk of exposure to fishing, habitat degradation, and the effects of climate change. The present study examined shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and marine reserve use with baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS along the entire Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP over a ten year period. Overall, 21 species of sharks from five families and two orders were recorded. Grey reef Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, silvertip C. albimarginatus, tiger Galeocerdo cuvier, and sliteye Loxodon macrorhinus sharks were the most abundant species (>64% of shark abundances. Multivariate regression trees showed that hard coral cover produced the primary split separating shark assemblages. Four indicator species had consistently higher abundances and contributed to explaining most of the differences in shark assemblages: C. amblyrhynchos, C. albimarginatus, G. cuvier, and whitetip reef Triaenodon obesus sharks. Relative distance along the GBRMP had the greatest influence on shark occurrence and species richness, which increased at both ends of the sampling range (southern and northern sites relative to intermediate latitudes. Hard coral cover and distance across the shelf were also important predictors of shark distribution. The relative abundance of sharks was significantly higher in non-fished sites, highlighting the conservation value and benefits of the GBRMP zoning. However, our results also showed that hard coral cover had a large effect on the abundance of reef-associated shark species, indicating that coral reef health may be important for the success of marine protected areas. Therefore, understanding shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and the drivers responsible for those patterns is essential for developing sound management and conservation

  13. A note on the occurrence of praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda on fishes from Northeast of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Diniz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The infection of the estuarine teleost fishes Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, and Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae by praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda was studied in specimens fished off the Atlantic Ocean in Northeast of Pará State, near Bragança, Brazil. The highest infection prevalence value was found in Anableps anableps (42.3% and the lowest in Conodon nobilis (9.1%. The mean intensity varied from 1 parasitein Conodon nobilis to 19.5 in Arius phrygiatus. A description of the larvae is provided. The morphology of the mouthparts is related to the blood sucking activity, and is compared with the characteristics of other gnathiidae species.Foi estudada a parasitose dos peixes estuarinos Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, e Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae por larvas praniza de Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda em exemplares pescados no Oceano Atlântico, no Nordeste do Pará, próximo a Bragança, Brasil. O valor mais elevado da prevalência da infecção foi observado em A. anableps (42,3% e o menor em C. nobilis (9,1%. A intensidade média da parasitose variou entre 1 parasita em C. nobilis até 19,5 em A. phrygiatus. Efetua-se a descrição da larva, verificando-se que a morfologia da armadura bucal está relacionada com a atividade sugadora de sangue, e faz-se a comparação com as características de outras espécies.

  14. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.Ectoparasitos de morcegos (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, com a descrição de uma nova espécie de Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae do Brasil. Os poucos dados sobre ectoparasitismo em morcegos furipterídeos são restritos a moscas (Streblidae. Somente três espécies de estreblídeos eram conhecidas antes desse trabalho: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. Outra espécie de Synthesiostrebla é descrita aqui aumentando a distribuição geográfica do gênero para o lado leste dos Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. foi encontrada sobre Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 no sudeste do Brasil. Região anterior do corpo, asa, tergito 7, epiprocto e genitália masculina são ilustrados e uma chave de identificação para fêmeas também é apresentada.

  15. Species distribution models of tropical deep-sea snappers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Gomez

    Full Text Available Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna. Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and

  16. Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-habitat associations: implications of marine park zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mario; Cappo, Mike; Heupel, Michelle R; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-specific habitat associations in response to geographic and environmental drivers is critical to assessing risk of exposure to fishing, habitat degradation, and the effects of climate change. The present study examined shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and marine reserve use with baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) along the entire Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) over a ten year period. Overall, 21 species of sharks from five families and two orders were recorded. Grey reef Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, silvertip C. albimarginatus, tiger Galeocerdo cuvier, and sliteye Loxodon macrorhinus sharks were the most abundant species (>64% of shark abundances). Multivariate regression trees showed that hard coral cover produced the primary split separating shark assemblages. Four indicator species had consistently higher abundances and contributed to explaining most of the differences in shark assemblages: C. amblyrhynchos, C. albimarginatus, G. cuvier, and whitetip reef Triaenodon obesus sharks. Relative distance along the GBRMP had the greatest influence on shark occurrence and species richness, which increased at both ends of the sampling range (southern and northern sites) relative to intermediate latitudes. Hard coral cover and distance across the shelf were also important predictors of shark distribution. The relative abundance of sharks was significantly higher in non-fished sites, highlighting the conservation value and benefits of the GBRMP zoning. However, our results also showed that hard coral cover had a large effect on the abundance of reef-associated shark species, indicating that coral reef health may be important for the success of marine protected areas. Therefore, understanding shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and the drivers responsible for those patterns is essential for developing sound management and conservation approaches. PMID

  17. Acleotrema lamothei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae from the gills of Kyphosus incisor in Brazilian waters Acleotrema lamothei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae de las branquias de Kyphosus incisor en aguas brasileñas

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    Cláudia P. Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A diplectanid monogenean, Acleotrema lamothei n. sp., is described from the gills of the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Cuvier, 1831 in Brazilian waters off Rio de Janeiro State. This species is distinguished by the facts that the male copulatory organ is armed with spines throughout most of its length, the ventral hamuli have a very long, stout outer root, which is slightly notched proximally, an inner root less than half the length of the outer root and a fine blade and point. It also differs from most species of the genus by the greater size of the haptor and its hard parts. This is the first record of a species of Acleotrema Johnston and Tiegs, 1922 from South American waters.Se describe Acleotrema lamothei n. sp. de las branquias del pez Kyphosus incisor (Cuvier, 1831 recolectado en las costas del estado de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. La nueva especie se distingue por la armadura del órgano copulador con espinas en casi toda su longitud, por la presencia de una raíz externa larga y robusta en el hámuli ventral, provista de una pequeña muesca proximal, por la raíz interna que mide menos de la mitad de la longitud de la externa y por tener la hoja y la punta finas. Asimismo, difiere de muchas de las especies del género por el gran tamaño del haptor y de sus partes esclerozadas. El presente constituye el primer registro de una especie de Acleotrema Johnston y Tiegs, 1922 en aguas sudamericanas.

  18. Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-habitat associations: implications of marine park zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mario; Cappo, Mike; Heupel, Michelle R; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-specific habitat associations in response to geographic and environmental drivers is critical to assessing risk of exposure to fishing, habitat degradation, and the effects of climate change. The present study examined shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and marine reserve use with baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) along the entire Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) over a ten year period. Overall, 21 species of sharks from five families and two orders were recorded. Grey reef Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, silvertip C. albimarginatus, tiger Galeocerdo cuvier, and sliteye Loxodon macrorhinus sharks were the most abundant species (>64% of shark abundances). Multivariate regression trees showed that hard coral cover produced the primary split separating shark assemblages. Four indicator species had consistently higher abundances and contributed to explaining most of the differences in shark assemblages: C. amblyrhynchos, C. albimarginatus, G. cuvier, and whitetip reef Triaenodon obesus sharks. Relative distance along the GBRMP had the greatest influence on shark occurrence and species richness, which increased at both ends of the sampling range (southern and northern sites) relative to intermediate latitudes. Hard coral cover and distance across the shelf were also important predictors of shark distribution. The relative abundance of sharks was significantly higher in non-fished sites, highlighting the conservation value and benefits of the GBRMP zoning. However, our results also showed that hard coral cover had a large effect on the abundance of reef-associated shark species, indicating that coral reef health may be important for the success of marine protected areas. Therefore, understanding shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and the drivers responsible for those patterns is essential for developing sound management and conservation approaches.

  19. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  20. Madame Bovary and Catastrophism: Revolving narratives

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    Ruth Morris

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article relie Madame Bovary au contexte scientifique français des années 1850, en lisant le roman de Flaubert à la lumière des théories de Cuvier. Le savant français Georges Cuvier, avec nombre de ses contemporains, explique les origines du monde à l’aide de la théorie des catastrophes. D’après cette théorie, le monde est divisé en périodes très courtes ponctuées de grandes catastrophes ou, en termes cuviériens, de « révolutions » qui ont éradiqué toute vie et ont permis au monde d’être entièrement repeuplé. Une telle conception affecte l’idée même du « temps ». Cuvier pense que la formation de la Terre est relativement récente, l’époque présente n’étant vieille que de cinq mille ans. Cette compression temporelle peut être rapportée à Madame Bovary dont le « tempo » s’accroît au fur et à mesure qu’on se rapproche du dénouement. Dans la théorie des catastrophes comme dans le roman, le temps ne suit pas une ligne chronologique. Les « révolutions » viennent briser le fil continu du temps et Emma est souvent incapable de distinguer entre le passé, le présent et le futur. Les « révolutions » servent aussi à ponctuer et à perturber le cours de la vie sur Terre en produisant des événements majeurs dans l’histoire du globe. Il en est de même dans la vie d’Emma. Son existence est marquée par des événements majeurs, comme le bal, qui créent un éclatement et une fragmentation de la temporalité, comme dans la théorie de Cuvier. Je défendrai aussi l’idée d’un lien entre la soudaineté et la violence des « révolutions » et les crises nerveuses d’Emma, qui surviennent brusquement et relèvent de l’hystérie. La conception cuviérienne de la temporalité doit enfin être envisagée au regard des théories de l’évolution, ce qui implique de réévaluer les notions d’adaptation, d’hérédité et de mort dans le roman de Flaubert.This paper locates Madame

  1. BIB-SEM of representative area clay structures paving towards an alternative model of porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.; Houben, M.; Hemes, S.; Klaver, J.

    2012-04-01

    A major contribution to understanding the sealing capacity, coupled flow, capillary processes and associated deformation in clay-rich geomaterials is based on detailed investigation of the rock microstructures. However, the direct characterization of pores in representative elementary area (REA) and below µm-scale resolution remains challenging. To investigate directly the mm- to nm-scale porosity, SEM is certainly the most direct approach, but it is limited by the poor quality of the investigated surfaces. The recent development of ion milling tools (BIB and FIB; Desbois et al, 2009, 2011; Heath et al., 2011; Keller et al., 2011) and cryo-SEM allows respectively producing exceptional high quality polished cross-sections suitable for high resolution porosity SEM-imaging at nm-scale and investigating samples under wet conditions by cryogenic stabilization. This contribution focuses mainly on the SEM description of pore microstructures in 2D BIB-polished cross-sections of Boom (Mol site, Belgium) and Opalinus (Mont Terri, Switzerland) clays down to the SEM resolution. Pores detected in images are statistically analyzed to perform porosity quantification in REA. On the one hand, BIB-SEM results allow retrieving MIP measurements obtained from larger sample volumes. On the other hand, the BIB-SEM approach allows characterizing porosity-homogeneous and -predictable islands, which form the elementary components of an alternative concept of porosity/permeability model based on pore microstructures. Desbois G., Urai J.L. and Kukla P.A. (2009) Morphology of the pore space in claystones - evidence from BIB/FIB ion beam sectioning and cryo-SEM observations. E-Earth, 4, 15-22. Desbois G., Urai J.L., Kukla P.A., Konstanty J. and Baerle C. (2011). High-resolution 3D fabric and porosity model in a tight gas sandstone reservoir: a new approach to investigate microstructures from mm- to nm-scale combining argon beam cross-sectioning and SEM imaging . Journal of Petroleum Science

  2. Stress field sensitivity analysis within Mesozoic successions in the Swiss Alpine foreland using 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Karsten; Hergert, Tobias; Heidbach, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The in situ stress conditions are of key importance for the evaluation of radioactive waste repositories. In stage two of the Swiss site selection program, the three siting areas of high-level radioactive waste are located in the Alpine foreland in northern Switzerland. The sedimentary succession overlays the basement, consisting of variscan crystalline rocks as well as partly preserved Permo-Carboniferous deposits in graben structures. The Mesozoic sequence represents nearly the complete era and is covered by Cenozoic Molasse deposits as well as Quaternary sediments, mainly in the valleys. The target horizon (designated host rock) is an >100 m thick argillaceous Jurassic deposit (Opalinus Clay). To enlighten the impact of site-specific features on the state of stress within the sedimentary succession, 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models with elasto-plastic rock properties are set up for three potential siting areas. The lateral extent of the models ranges between 12 and 20 km, the vertical extent is up to a depth of 2.5 or 5 km below sea level. The sedimentary sequence plus the basement are separated into 10 to 14 rock mechanical units. The Mesozoic succession is intersected by regional fault zones; two or three of them are present in each model. The numerical problem is solved with the finite element method with a resolution of 100-150 m laterally and 10-30 m vertically. An initial stress state is established for all models taking into account the depth-dependent overconsolidation ratio in Opalinus Clay in northern Switzerland. The influence of topography, rock properties, friction on the faults as well as the impact of tectonic shortening on the state of stress is investigated. The tectonic stress is implemented with lateral displacement boundary conditions, calibrated on stress data that are compiled in Northern Switzerland. The model results indicate that the stress perturbation by the topography is significant to depths greater than the relief contrast. The

  3. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

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    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae, during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm. The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the larvae (standard length = 6.25 ± 0.13 mm showed the following structural and behavioral characteristics that made them become active predators able to overcome a larval critical phase, the beginning of exogenous feeding: presence of pigmented eyes, terminal and wide mouth, developed oral dentition, developing digestive tube, yolk sac reduction, fins and swim bladder formation, horizontal swimming, cannibalism, and predation. Intense cannibalism among larvae was verified from 26 to 72 hours. At the end of the metamorphosis - 172 hours after hatching - the larvae measuring 11.94 + 0.80 mm in standard length presented a flexed notochord, caudal fin bifurcation, dorsal and anal fin formation, synchronized movements, and formation of shoals, characteristics that together allow enhanced perception and locomotio in exploration of the environment, determining the best moment for transfering to the fishponds. New studies can contribute to commercial fish farming by improving feeding management, performance, survival, and productivity of this species.Objetivou-se estudar o desenvolvimento morfológico e os comportamentos natatório e alimentar de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae no período de 0 a 172 horas após a eclosão (comprimento-padrão = 3,62 - 11,94 mm. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas com auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico trinocular e as comportamentais, por meio de

  4. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

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    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.Para obter informações básicas para o manejo de Salminus sp. no sopé andino ocidental da Venezuela, se estudaram aspectos sobre sua ecologia e aproveitamento. Nos rios do sopé da montanha efetuaram-se capturas de peixes com variados tamanhos de malha, assim como observações subaquáticas e terrestres para estimar abundâncias e eventos de alimentação. Aplicaramse

  5. Fishing resources in the rio Cuiabá basin, Pantanal do Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Lúcia. A. F. Mateus

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rio Cuiabá is one of the most important tributaries of the upper rio Paraguay basin that form the Pantanal wetlands. The fishing resources of the rio Cuiabá basin were studied based on landing data obtained from the Fish Market of the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato grosso, Brazil. A description is given of the composition and origin of the 2000 and 2001 catch. The rio Cuiabá is the main source of fish for Cuiabá, although some fish sold locally comes from the rio Paraguay. The 2000-2001 catch consisted mainly of migratory species. The main landed species were the pimelodids pintado -Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cachara -Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, and jaú -Paulicea luetkeni, and the characiforms pacu -Piaractus mesopotamicus, piraputanga -Brycon microlepis, piavuçu -Leporinus macrocephalus, and dourado -Salminus brasiliensis. Large catfishes (Pimelodidae represented 70% of the landed fish, among which pintado was the most abundant. The data indicate that current catches are smaller than those recorded in the early 1980s and fish are caught far off the urban zone. Moreover, although the number and composition of species caught were similar to those of the 80s, the distribution of species abundance has changed. Currently, fisheries catch more carnivorous species than fish from lower trophic levels. These findings cannot be credited solely to overfishing, but appear to result from a complex interaction of factors, i.e., environmental degradation, changes in market preferences, and restrictive legal fishing regulations.O recurso pesqueiro da bacia do rio Cuiabá, um dos mais importantes tributários da bacia do Alto Paraguai, formadora do Pantanal, foi estudado a partir dos dados de desembarque de pescado obtidos no Mercado do Porto de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. São descritas a composição e procedência das capturas para os anos de 2000 e 2001. O rio Cuiabá é a fonte dominante de pescado para a cidade de Cuiabá, mas uma parte do

  6. Mercúrio total em pescado de água-doce Total mercury in fresh-water fish

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    Sandra Emi KITAHARA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O mercúrio total foi quantificado em 11 espécies de peixes de água-doce, originárias de diferentes procedências comerciais. O mercúrio vem sendo utilizado na agricultura, indústria, mineração, etc., e isso tem provocado drástico aumento desse metal no meio ambiente, atingindo em conseqüência a cadeia trófica. Nesse contexto, o homem, através do consumo de alimentos, principalmente pescado, torna-se vulnerável à ação tóxica do mercúrio. Os resultados obtidos para as espécies mandi - Pimelodus maculatus, tilápia - Tilapia sp, sagüiru - Cyphocharax modestus, lambari - Astyanax sp, sardela - Triportheus sp, traíra - Hoplias sp, curimbatá - Prochilodus sp e dourado - Salminus sp, comercializadas em São Paulo - SP, e para o jaraqui - Semaprochilodus insignis, curimatã - Prochilodus nigricans e matrinchã - Brycon sp, procedentes da Amazônia brasileira, variaram de 0,01 a 0,39mgHg/Kg. Os resultados observados, sob o ponto-de-vista de Saúde Pública, estão abaixo dos limites de tolerância brasileiros, de 0,5 e 1,0mgHg/Kg, para espécies não-predadoras e predadoras, respectivamente. Nas espécies de hábito alimentar carnívoro (traíra e dourado os teores de mercúrio foram de 0,26 a 0,39mgHg/Kg. A expectativa de ocorrência de espécies excessivamente contaminadas não se confirmou.Total mercury was quantified in 11 fresh-water fish species from different commercial origins. Mercury has been used in agriculture, industry, mining, etc. Consequently there was an increase of mercury discharge to environment, that enters into the throphic chain. In this context, the man, through the consumption of foods, mainly fishery products, turns vulnerable to mercury. The obtained results for mandi - Pimelodus maculatus, tilápia - Tilapia sp, sagüiru - Cyphocharax modestus, lambari- Astyanax sp, sardela - Triportheus sp, traíra - Hoplias sp, curimbatá - Prochilodus sp and dourado - Salminus sp, commercialized in São Paulo-SP, and

  7. The effect of structural enrichment in hatchery tanks on the morphology of two neotropical fish species

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    Sarah de Oliveira Saraiva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reared fish differ from wild fish in several aspects, including morphology, because they are adapted to captive conditions that are totally different from natural conditions. To minimize the influence of the hatchery environment on the morphology of fish, the use of environmental enrichment through the incorporation of natural designs in captivity, has been proposed. In the present study, we performed the physical structuring of fish farming tanks to verify the enrichment effect on the morphology of two species of neotropical fishes: Prochilodus lineatus and Brycon orbignyanus. Each species was subjected to four different treatments over two months: tanks with submersed logs, with artificial aquatic plants, with both structures and without any structure. Results showed that the structural enrichment had a strong effect on the morphology of the cultured fish, which varied with each species analyzed and with the type of structural complexity added to the tanks. There was an increase of morphological variability in the population of P. lineatus and an increase of the average length in the population of B. orbignyanus. This shows that the environmental enrichment is capable to induce morphological differentiation through phenotypic plasticity, probably generating phenotypes more adapted to exploiting a complex environment. Peixes cultivados diferem de peixes selvagens em vários aspectos, incluindo morfologia, pois são adaptados às condições de cativeiro, que são totalmente diferentes das condições naturais. Para minimizar a influência do meio de cultivo sobre a morfologia dos peixes, o enriquecimento ambiental, através da incorporação de 'designs' naturais em cativeiro, tem sido proposto. No presente estudo, foi realizada a estruturação física de tanques de piscicultura para verificar o efeito deste tipo de enriquecimento ambiental sobre a morfologia de duas espécies de peixes neotropicais: Prochilodus lineatus e Brycon orbignyanus

  8. Níveis de mercúrio total em peixes de água doce de pisciculturas paulistas Mercury levels in freshwater fishes from piscicultures estabilished in São Paulo State

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    Marcelo A. Morgano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os níveis de mercúrio total em amostras de peixes de água doce, procedentes de pesqueiros e pisciculturas de 39 regiões do estado de São Paulo. As espécies de peixes estudadas foram: pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, piauçu (Leoporinum sp, matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum e carpa (Cyprinus carpis. Foram avaliadas três metodologias de digestão de amostras para a determinação de mercúrio total, variando-se o volume de mistura sulfonítrica utilizada e a concentração do permanganato de potássio, sendo que o uso de 10mL de mistura sulfonítrica e solução de permanganato de potássio a 7% (m/v na digestão da amostra foi a que forneceu as recuperações mais altas (96%, precisão de 1% e limite de quantificação de 0,3µg/kg. Após a validação do método, foram realizadas as determinações de teor de mercúrio total em 293 amostras de pescado, usando a técnica de espectrometria de emissão com fonte de plasma acoplado em gerador de hidretos. Os níveis médios de mercúrio encontrados variaram entre: tambaqui (0,0003-0,012mg/kg, carpa (0,063mg/kg, matrinxã (0,0003-0,074mg/kg, pacu (0,0003-0,078mg/kg, piauçu (0,0003-0,183mg/kg e tilápia (0,0003-0,217mg/kg. Os resultados mostraram que nenhuma das amostras procedentes das diferentes regiões e diferentes pesque-pagues, apresentaram níveis de mercúrio total acima do permitido pela legislação brasileira, que é de 0,5mg/kg para pescado não-predador.In this work, the levels of mercury were evaluated in samples of freshwater fish, coming from fishing-grounds and piscicultures of 39 regions of São Paulo State. The species of fish studied were: pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, piauçu (Leoporinum sp, matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and carpa (Cyprinus carpis. Three digestion methodologies of sample were evaluated for the mercury determination, with

  9. Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

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    Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of extract of Aloe vera in the transport water of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus fish on stress response and leukocyte respiratory activity. Fish was transported for 4 h in water containing Aloe at levels 0; 0.02; 0.2 and 2 mg/L, and sampled before transport 2, 4, 24 and 96 h after for determination of plasma glucose and respiratory activity of leukocytes. An additional in vitro assay was conducted with another fish species, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, to test the respiratory burst of leukocytes exposed to Aloe extract (0.0, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS only at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. Plasma glucose increased after 2 and 4 h of transport and returned to control levels within 24 h, but the addition of Aloe in the transport water did not affect the level of blood glucose. However, at 2 h of transport, Aloe enhanced the respiratory activity of leukocytes in a dose-dependent way. The highest value of respiratory burst activity of leukocytes was observed in the fish transported in water containing Aloe at 2 mg/L. The enhancing effect of the plant extract on the production of oxygen radicals was confirmed in vitro in leukocytes of pacu incubated in Aloe at concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L. The results suggest that Aloe vera is a modulator of the immune system in fish improving the innate immune response tested.

  10. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA

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    Botero-Botero Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja, alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble, en laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia.Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae, presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp.  (9,55% y  Ancistrus sp.  (8,54%;  otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni  (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae, especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.

  11. Fish farming characterization of space in Basin River Cuiabá/MT

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    Neli Assunção Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to know the spatial distribution of the fish culture, size, water sheet area, cultivated species and the estimated production of fish culture business, defined into Cuiabá river basin. The fish farming secondary data were provided by the Environment State Secretary and systematizated in terms of the spatial distribution using techniques like geoprocessing. Data showed that from 490 registered fish culture, 26.1% didn’t say the geographical coordinates. About 74.3% of the fish culture defined into are micro business, 16.6% are little size, 3.9% are medium size, 0.8% are big size and 4,4% didn’t say the area in the in the register. The basin represents 1,395 ha of water sheet area, with estimated production of 9,128.87 ton year-1. Várzea Grande has the major water sheet area (60.4%, followed by Cuiabá (12.7%, and Nossa Senhora do Livramento (10%, totalizing more than 83%, compared to other cities into the basin. Piaractus mesopotamicus is the favorite specie for the cultive (36.7% as first category, followed by other species like Colossoma macropomum (female + Piaractus mesopotamicus (male, 20.9%; Brycon microleps, second category (10%; tambaqui (allochthonous specie and other categories (12.3%. Pseudoplatystoma corruscans represents 2.5% and Salminus maxillosus, 0.4%. The other species, with 5.6% and 5.2% (NI, didn’t reported. Várzea Grande has the higher percentage in the estimative of fish production, with 53.9%, followed by Cuiabá, with 20.1%.

  12. Atividade de lipase em quimo de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Filho José Teixeira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a atividade de lipase no quimo dos intestinos médio e posterior de três espécies de peixes Teleostei, com hábitos alimentares diferentes, piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoros, e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma curuscans, preferencialmente carnívoro, visando fornecer referência à nutrição para o ajuste de diferentes sistemas de alimentação artificial. Foram determinadas as atividades de lipase, utilizando-se kit BIOCLIN. Os resultados demonstraram atividade específica média de lipase de 99,86%, sendo menor para a piracanjuba (1,89 UI/mg em relação ao piau (1347,82 UI/mg, ambos de hábito alimentar onívoro. A diferença de atividade específica de lipase entre piracanjuba e surubim (793,76 UI/mg também apresentou média de 99,76%. O surubim apresentou atividade específica de lipase 41,11% menor que o piau. Estes dados sugerem que o piau apresenta atividade específica de lipase mais próxima à de um peixe carnívoro que onívoro. Estudos adicionais com testes de alimentação são necessários para a avaliação do comportamento destas espécies a novos sistemas de alimentação.

  13. Determinação do sistema endócrino difuso nos intestinos de três Teleostei (Pisces de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de verificar a presença de células endócrinas nos intestinos médio e posterior, ou reto, e nos cecos pilóricos de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes: piracanjuba, (Brycon orbignyanus e piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoro; e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans, carnívoro. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete exemplares da piracanjuba, com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 410,16 ± 66,33 g e 27,42 ± 1,17 cm, respectivamente, 13 exemplares de piau com médias de 77,71 ± 24,31 g e 14,84 ± 1,56 cm de peso e comprimento-padrão, respectivamente; e cinco exemplares do surubim com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 309,91 ± 94,23 g e 32,70 ± 1,79 cm, respectivamente. Pode-se constatar a presença de células endócrinas do "tipo aberto" nos segmentos referentes aos intestinos médio e posterior das espécies onívoras e do "tipo fechado" no intestino médio e no reto da espécie carnívora. As células argirófilas foram observadas entre as células absortivas do epitélio intestinal. Os resultados permitem concluir que a presença de células endócrinas nas espécies estudadas pode indicar que estas atuam no mecanismo de controle da absorção dos nutrientes do alimento.

  14. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad libitum for 30 days, and then were sacrificed for collection of whole blood and tissues. RESULTS: The groups treated with enriched diets showed a significant reduction in body mass and lipogenesis in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and carcass when compared with the control group. However, lipogenesis in the liver showed an increase in Matrinxã group compared with the others groups. The levels of serum triglycerides in the treated groups with Amazonian fish were significantly lower than those of the control group. Moreover, total cholesterol concentration only decreased in the group Matrinxã. High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly in the Mapará and Tambaqui compared with control group and Matrinxã group. The insulin and leptin levels increased significantly in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin changed the lipid metabolism by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats fed with diets enriched with Mapará, Matrinxã, and Tambaqui.

  15. Gas and liquid transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimura, T.; Asano, H. [RWMC, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Vomvoris, S.; Marschall, P. [NAGRA, Wettingen (Switzerland); Lanyon, G.W. [Fracture Systems Ltd, Tregurrian, St Ives (United Kingdom); Ando, K.; Yamamoto, S. [Obayashi Corporation, Shinagawa Intercity Tower B, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Senger, R. [INTERA Incorporated, Austin, Texas (United States); Xu, T.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Earth Sciences Div., Berkeley, CA (United States); Alkan, H.; Muller, W [Istec, Institute for Safety Technology, Cologne (Germany); Rousseau-Gueutin, P.; Goncalves, J.; Violette, S. [UMR 7619 Sisyphe, 75 - Paris (France); Rousseau-Gueutin, P.; Cruchaudet, M. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Lab. de Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Altmann, S.; Enachescu, C.; Delay, J.; Cruchaudet, M.; Vaissiere, R. de la [ANDRA - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Greef, V. de [UMR 7649 LMS, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Montavon, G.; Alhajji, E.; Guo, Z. [Subatech laboratory, 44 - Nantes (France); Lebotlan, D.; Grambow, B. [LAIEM, 44 - Nantes (France); Tournassat, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France)

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 6 articles dealing with: gas migration through bentonite/sand: Lessons learned from the GMT in-situ test (T. Shimura, S. Vomvoris, G.W. Lanyon, P. Marschall, K. Ando, S. Yamamoto, H. Asano); the modeling approaches of two-phase flow phenomena associated with corrosion of SF/HLW canisters in a proposed repository in Opalinus clay, Switzerland (R. Senger, T. Xu, P. Marschall, S. Finsterle); the approaches for modelling gas transport in clay formations based on improved Darcy and non-Darcy flow concepts (H. Alkan, W. Mueller); deriving large scale hydraulic behaviour from borehole pressure history data (C. Enachescu, J. Delay, M. Cruchaudet, R. de la Vaissiere); the interpretation of interstitial pressures in clay media: Application to the Callovo-Oxfordian (P. Rousseau-Gueutin, J. Goncalves, M. Cruchaudet, S. Altmann, V. de Greef, S. Violette); and the porosities accessible to HTO and iodide on water-saturated compacted clay materials and relation with the states of water (G. Montavon, E. Alhajji, D. Lebotlan, Z. Guo, C. Tournassat, B. Grambow)

  16. A laboratory investigation of thermally induced pore pressures in the Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    CERN Document Server

    Mohajerani, Mehrdokht; Sulem, Jean; Monfared, Mohammad; Tang, Anh-Minh; Gatmiri, Behrouz

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of research into radioactive waste disposal, it was decided to investigate the thermally induce pore pressure occurring in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, a possible host rock in which the ANDRA underground laboratory of Bure (East of France) has been excavated. Thermal pore pressures appear in low permeability soils and rocks because the thermal expansion coefficient of water is significantly higher than that of the solid grains (Campanella and Mitchell; 1968 [1], Ghabezloo and Sulem; 2009 [2]). This phenomenon has clearly been observed in various in-situ heating tests conducted in Opalinus claystone in the Mont-Terri Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Switzerland (HE-D test) and in Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) claystone in the Bure URL in France (TER test, Wileveau and Su; 2007 [3]) The processes of coring, transportation, storage and specimen trimming induce some desaturation in the sample. Due to the very low permeability (10-20 m2) of the COx claystone, a long period of time is necessa...

  17. Thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the nearfield around a HLW repository in argillaceous formations. Vol. II. In-situ-investigations and interpretative modelling. May 2007 to May 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang; Czaikowski, Oliver; Komischke, Michael; Wieczorek, Klaus

    2014-06-15

    Deep disposal of heat-emitting high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in clay formations will inevitably induce thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical disturbances to the host rock and engineered barriers over very long periods of time. The responses and resulting property changes of the natural and engineered barriers are to be well understood, characterized, and predicted for assessing the long-term performance and safety of the repositories. In accordance with the R and D programme defined by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), GRS has intensively performed site-independent research work on argillaceous rocks during the last decade. Most of the investigations have been carried out on the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite and the Opalinus clay by par-ticipation in international research projects conducted at the underground research laboratories at Bure in France (MHM-URL) and Mont-Terri in Switzerland (MT-URL). The THM-TON project, which was funded by BMWi under contract number 02E10377, in-vestigated the THM behaviours of the clay host rock and clay-based backfill/sealing materials with laboratory tests, in situ experiments and numerical modelling.

  18. Regulatory oversight report 2012 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2012 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    with spent fuel assemblies and vitrified residue packages as well as six casks with decommissioned waste from the experimental nuclear power plant at Lucens. Some 20% of the capacity of the HLW store was in use and about 24% of the ILW store. During the year, ZWILAG conducted two campaigns to incinerate and melt radioactive waste. ENSI is also responsible for the surveillance of the nuclear facilities at PSI: the research reactor PROTEUS, the hot laboratory, the collection point for radioactive waste from medicine, industry and research and the Federal Interim Storage Facility. During 2012, there were no further operational activities or radiation experiments at the PROTEUS research reactor. Two reportable events were recorded at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), but no one at the research reactors at EPFL or the University of Basel. Last year, the amount of radioactive material released into the environment via waste water and exhaust air from the facilities under review was considerably less than the limits specified in the operating licenses. Analyses showed that the maximum doses were less than 1 % of the annual exposure to natural radiation. During 2012, spent fuel assemblies from Swiss nuclear power plants were reprocessed. The AREVA recycling facility in La Hague returned a consignment of high level waste. According to the Sectoral Plan for the deep geological repository, NAGRA proposed several different sites for surface facilities. ENSI provided information on the safety criteria for the selection process and on safety and geology, particularly in view of the Opalinus Clay Project. The geological research into the Opalinus clay continued during 2012. Every five years, the licensees of nuclear power plants are required by law to re-calculate the decommissioning and waste management costs. During 2012, ENSI evaluated the technical principles used in the 2011 cost study conducted by the licensees of nuclear power plants. ENSI is involved in its own projects and

  19. Microbiologically mediated processes in a repository sited in a clay host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Because of their favourable retention properties for radionuclides, clay-rich sediments are being considered in Switzerland as host rocks for the geological disposal of high, intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste. Compacted bentonite is foreseen as backfill material in the high level waste repository whereas for intermediate- and low-level waste the near field will mainly consist of cementitious material. The evolution of both types of repositories, which includes re-saturation, heat generation (only high level waste), near field degradation, gas production and radionuclide release may be impacted by microbial activity and vice versa. In this respect questions arise such as: - Are microorganisms present in a repository and its host rock? - Under which condition are microorganisms active in and around a repository? - In which processes are microorganisms involved? Various in situ experiments in a wide range of geological environments have evidenced the presence of microorganisms. Whether the microorganisms found in these in situ experiments are indigenous or introduced by drilling or/and excavation activities is still controversial. However, recent findings suggest the presence of indigenous microorganisms in Opalinus Clay. To conclusively answer the question about the origin of microorganisms, an international investigation programme has been launched to probe rock samples from the Underground Rock Laboratory at Mont Terri. So far, no metabolic activity has been observed in undisturbed clay rocks. Such activity may have ceased during diagenetic compaction of the sediment as suggested by the pore water composition measured in the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation of Bure (France). For the safety case of a repository the origin of microorganisms is of minor importance compared to the understanding of the conditions under which they might be metabolically active. Pore size distribution and connectivity can

  20. Proposal for geological site selection for L/ILW and HLW repositories. Statement of requirements, procedure and results. Technical report 08-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , reliability of geological findings and engineering suitability; 3) The large-scale geological-tectonic situation is assessed and large-scale areas that remain under consideration are defined. From the viewpoint of long-term stability and explorability of spatial conditions, all large-scale geological-tectonic areas in Switzerland come into consideration for the L/ILW repository. For the HLW repository, the Alps, the Folded Jura, the western Tabular Jura and a small part of the Molasse Basin (western sub-Jurassic zone) are excluded; 4) The preferred host rock formations are chosen within the large-scale areas still under consideration. Proposed for the L/ILW repository are the Opalinus Clay with its confining units, the clay stone sequence 'Brauner Dogger' with its confining units, the Effingen Beds and the marl formations of the Helveticum. For the HLW repository, the Opalinus Clay with its confining units is proposed as the preferred host formation; 5) The configurations of the preferred host rocks within the large-scale areas under consideration are evaluated in the fifth step. Taking into account the presence of regional geological features (regional fault zones, over-deepened valleys resulting from glacial erosion, zones with indications of small-scale tectonic dissection, other zones to be avoided for reasons of neotectonics), preferred areas are identified within which the preferred host rocks can be found at a suitable depth and with sufficient thickness and lateral extent. The preferred areas are used as the basis for delimiting the geological siting regions. Some siting regions contain several preferred areas and sometimes more than one host rock type. In three of the geological siting regions, the possibility exists in principle of siting the L/ILW and HLW repositories together as a so-called 'combined repository'. For the L/ILW repository, the geological siting regions Southern Schaffhausen, Zuercher Weinland and Boezberg (all with Opalinus Clay as host rock) are

  1. Water Retention Capacity of Argillite from the VE Test - Phase II at Mont Terri: Effect of Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Fernandez, A. M.; Melon, A. M.

    2009-10-12

    The VE (ventilation) test carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory in Switzerland intended to evaluate in situ the behaviour of a consolidated clay formation when subjected to alternate periods of flow of wet and dry air during several months. For that, a 10-m gallery was excavated in the Opalinus Clay formation and carefully instrumented. Before and after a second ventilation phase boreholes were drilled. Samples were taken from the drill cores and were analysed from mineralogical and geochemical points of view. Also, the retention curves of these samples were determined in the laboratory following drying paths performed under free volume conditions at 20 degree centigrade, what is the content of this report. Although there are not large differences in the WRC of samples taken from different boreholes, at different distances from the gallery wall or before or after ventilation, those samples taken near the gallery wall and after ventilation tend to show a higher water retention capacity. This has been correlated to the higher salinity of the pore water of these samples, what increases their osmotic suction. This effect is attenuated towards high suctions. (Author) 10 refs.

  2. Study of Different Argillaceous Formations Performed in the Context of the FUNMIG project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A. M.; Melon, A.; Sanchez, D. M.; Gaucher, E.; Tournassat, C.; Altmann, S.C.; Vinsot, A.; Maes, N.; Craen, M. de; Leupin, O.; Wersin, P.; Astudillo, J.

    2010-07-01

    Argillaceous Rock Formations of low permeability have been selected in several countries as potential geological host rock for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLRW). The general barrier function of the host rock is to retard and attenuate the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere, and the properties of clay minerals sustain this barrier functions. Nowadays, a number of Underground Research Laboratories (URL) have been constructed for a more in depth investigation of the indurated as well as plastic clay rock formations indifferent countries. The HADES under ground research facility (URF) was constructed at Mol (Belgium), where the Boom Clay formation is being studied as a reference host rock formation. The Opalinus Clay formation has been studied in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (Switzerland). The Callovo- Oxfordian clayrock is being characterised in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Site at Bure (France). The Boda Claystone is being analysed at Mecsek in Hungary. The knowledge on biogeochemical processes which affect the transport of radionuclides through the geosphere is a key parameter for the safety case of a HLRW repository, which was the aim of the EC Project FUNMIG: Fundamental Processes of Radionuclide Migration. The main factors controlling the mobility of the radionuclides are the chemistry of the pore water, the chemical reactions involving the radionuclides and the sorption processes on clay minerals. There fore, the pore water chemistry plays an important role in determining radionuclide migration characteristics in clay-rock formations. (Author)

  3. Water Retention Capacity of Argillite from the VE Test - Phase II at Mont Terri: Effect of Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VE (ventilation) test carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory in Switzerland intended to evaluate in situ the behaviour of a consolidated clay formation when subjected to alternate periods of flow of wet and dry air during several months. For that, a 10-m gallery was excavated in the Opalinus Clay formation and carefully instrumented. Before and after a second ventilation phase boreholes were drilled. Samples were taken from the drill cores and were analysed from mineralogical and geochemical points of view. Also, the retention curves of these samples were determined in the laboratory following drying paths performed under free volume conditions at 20 degree centigrade, what is the content of this report. Although there are not large differences in the WRC of samples taken from different boreholes, at different distances from the gallery wall or before or after ventilation, those samples taken near the gallery wall and after ventilation tend to show a higher water retention capacity. This has been correlated to the higher salinity of the pore water of these samples, what increases their osmotic suction. This effect is attenuated towards high suctions. (Author) 10 refs

  4. Project Entsorgungsnachweis: summary of the safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some key aspects of the safety case for the proposed deep geological repository for the direct disposal of spent UO2 or mixed-oxide fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent fuel (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) in the Opalinus Clay of the Zurcher Weinland in northern Switzerland (Nagra, 2002). These include arguments and analyses that: demonstrate safety and compliance with regulatory protection objectives; and indicate that the actual performance of the disposal system will, in reality, be more favourable than that evaluated in the quantitative analyses. The process by which the arguments and analyses are developed is termed safety assessment. Safety assessment is used to show how a proposed disposal system could evolve over the course of time and to test whether adequate levels of safety are to be expected based on what is known about the system, and whether there are any circumstances that cannot currently be ruled out in which safety might be compromised. In the case of the proposed SF/HLW/ILW repository, consistent with the early stage of a repository programme, the main emphasis is currently on assessing the general feasibility of the project and on discussing its robustness. The safety assessment also provides a platform for discussion of a broad range of topics related to repository development. (author)

  5. PSI Scientific Report 2005. Volume 3: Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaepfer-Miller, J.; Gerber, B. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    The overarching goal of energy research at PSI is to provide scientific nd technical solutions for the development of cost-effective, reliable, socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable energy. his research is done within two departments: General Energy and nuclear Energy and Safety, their research highlights from 2005 are documented in the following chapter. Major accomplishments of the past year include: a pioneer solar power-plant; improvements in catalysts and processes for the production of methane from wood; development of characterization tools to improve combustion processes; fuel cells, and batteries under operating conditions; carbon dioxide in forests; and a new dating method for glacial ice. Progress was made in determining the suitability of opalinus clay to store radioactive waste and how iodine exposure could be reduced under normal operation and in the event of a severe accident at a nuclear power-plant. Systems analysis research also included a report on the external environmental costs of electricity and whether the Swiss population are willing to pay for renewable energy. This report only highlights a selection of the work done at PSI in the past year; information about many other ongoing projects can be accessed through our website, (www.psi.ch). (author)

  6. Elemental speciation of neptunium in ultra trace amount ranges; Elementspeziation von Neptunium im Ultraspurenbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoebener, Nils

    2013-06-25

    In the presented work, the detection of the isotope Np-237 with resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) was developed and optimized. In RIMS, sample atoms are excited and ionized with laser radiation in several, resonant steps and are subsequently detected by a mass spectrometer. Energy levels suitable for the excitation and ionization of Np-237 were identified using resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS). With RIS, more than 300 previously unknown electronic states and autoionizing resonances of Np-237 were identified. Using in-source-RIMS, a limit of detection of 9E+5 atoms was demonstrated for the isotope. The mobility of Np in the environment strongly depends on its elemental speciation. Therefore, safety assessments of proposed nuclear waste repositories require analytical methods for the detection of Np species. CE (capillary electrophoresis) was hyphenated to ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) to examine the distribution of the Np redox species Np(IV) and Np(V), which was possible at Np concentrations as low as 1E-9 mol/L. The method was used to study the interaction of the element with Opalinus Clay at varying conditions. CE-ICP-MS revealed, that under the presence of Fe(II), Np(V) is reduced to Np(IV), which is sorbed onto the clay. This leads to a higher overall Np sorption.

  7. Regulatory oversight report 2012 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    with spent fuel assemblies and vitrified residue packages as well as six casks with decommissioned waste from the experimental nuclear power plant at Lucens. Some 20% of the capacity of the HLW store was in use and about 24% of the ILW store. During the year, ZWILAG conducted two campaigns to incinerate and melt radioactive waste. ENSI is also responsible for the surveillance of the nuclear facilities at PSI: the research reactor PROTEUS, the hot laboratory, the collection point for radioactive waste from medicine, industry and research and the Federal Interim Storage Facility. During 2012, there were no further operational activities or radiation experiments at the PROTEUS research reactor. Two reportable events were recorded at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), but no one at the research reactors at EPFL or the University of Basel. Last year, the amount of radioactive material released into the environment via waste water and exhaust air from the facilities under review was considerably less than the limits specified in the operating licenses. Analyses showed that the maximum doses were less than 1 % of the annual exposure to natural radiation. During 2012, spent fuel assemblies from Swiss nuclear power plants were reprocessed. The AREVA recycling facility in La Hague returned a consignment of high level waste. According to the Sectoral Plan for the deep geological repository, NAGRA proposed several different sites for surface facilities. ENSI provided information on the safety criteria for the selection process and on safety and geology, particularly in view of the Opalinus Clay Project. The geological research into the Opalinus clay continued during 2012. Every five years, the licensees of nuclear power plants are required by law to re-calculate the decommissioning and waste management costs. During 2012, ENSI evaluated the technical principles used in the 2011 cost study conducted by the licensees of nuclear power plants. ENSI is involved in its own projects and

  8. Report on how to handle the recommendations in expert reports and statements of views on the demonstration of the nuclear waste disposal programme. Technical report 08-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of evaluating the Opalinus Clay project demonstrating the feasibility of disposing of spent fuel, vitrified high-level waste and long-lived intermediate-level waste in Switzerland, the authorities and their experts made numerous recommendations regarding future procedures and activities to be implemented in the disposal programme. Nagra analysed these reviews and expert opinions and took the recommendations into consideration when preparing its future work programme. In 2006, the Federal Council decided that the feasibility of disposing of these waste categories had been demonstrated successfully, but called on the waste producers to prepare a report that systematically addresses the open questions and recommendations and shows how these will be dealt with in a timely and technically appropriate manner. In the present report, Nagra fulfils this requirement on behalf of the waste producers. The report sets out the recommendations made by the authorities and explains how they will be handled. In many cases, the work required has already begun; in other cases plans are already in place. To facilitate the discussion in the report, the recommendations and the responses of Nagra in each case are divided into topical areas. The main part of the report provides a summary discussion, which also addresses time-related aspects of implementing the recommendations. An appendix to the report provides a detailed overview, in the form of a table, of all the recommendations and the associated responses of Nagra. (author)

  9. Speciation of neptunium during sorption and diffusion in natural clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, T.; Amayri, S.; Bӧrner, P. J. B.; Drebert, J.; Frӧhlich, D. R.; Grolimund, D.; Kaplan, U.

    2016-05-01

    In argillaceous rocks, which are considered as a potential host rock for nuclear waste repositories, sorption and diffusion processes govern the migration behaviour of actinides like neptunium. For the safety analysis of such a repository, a molecular-level understanding of the transport and retardation phenomena of radioactive contaminants in the host rock is mandatory. The speciation of Np during sorption and diffusion in Opalinus Clay was studied at near neutral pH using a combination of spatially resolved synchrotron radiation techniques. During the sorption and diffusion experiments, the interaction of 8 μM Np(V) solutions with the clay lead to the formation of spots at the clay-water interface with increased Np concentrations as determined by μ-XRF. Several of these spots are correlated with areas of increased Fe concentration. Np L3-edge μ-XANES spectra revealed that up to 85% of the initial Np(V) was reduced to Np(IV). Pyrite could be identified by μ-XRD as a redox-active mineral phase responsible for the formation of Np(IV). The analysis of the diffusion profile within the clay matrix after an in-diffusion experiment for two months showed that Np(V) is progressively reduced with diffusion distance, i.e. Np(IV) amounted to ≈12% and ≈26% at 30 μm and 525 μm, respectively.

  10. Oil pipeline corridor through an intact forest alters ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in southeastern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Bareena; Horn, David J; Purrington, Foster F; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were monitored 1 yr after the construction of a corridor for installation of an oil pipeline along a xeric ridge-top forest in southeastern Ohio. After the creation of the corridor, three distinct habitats were evident in these sites: open corridor, ecotone areas around the corridor, and undisturbed forest interior. Carabidae were collected using directional pitfall traps that were placed parallel and perpendicular to the corridor in each of the three habitats. Results indicate that more carabids were present in the ecotone than in the other two habitats. Carabid diversity as estimated by rarefaction was highest in the corridor followed by ecotone and forest interior. Generalist and forest specialists such as Synuchus impunctatus (Say), Carabus goryi Dejean, and Pterostichus trinarius (Casey) were present in greater numbers in the forest interior and ecotone assemblages. In contrast, open-habitat specialists such as Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Selenophorus opalinus (LeConte) were present in greater numbers in the corridor assemblages. Carabid assemblages of the corridor were distinct from those of the ecotone and forest interior, whereas the latter two habitats had very similar assemblages. The successional pathway of the corridor carabid assemblage will therefore be likely different from that of the forest interior and ecotone. Overall, results indicate that construction of the oil pipeline corridor had significant short-term effects on the carabid numbers, diversity, and species composition because of ensuing habitat changes and fragmentation of the forest. PMID:18559178

  11. Report on International Collaboration Involving the FE Heater and HG-A Tests at Mont Terri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houseworth, Jim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Asahina, Daisuke [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Fei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vilarrasa, Victor [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Hui-Hai [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Nuclear waste programs outside of the US have focused on different host rock types for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Several countries, including France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Japan are exploring the possibility of waste disposal in shale and other clay-rich rock that fall within the general classification of argillaceous rock. This rock type is also of interest for the US program because the US has extensive sedimentary basins containing large deposits of argillaceous rock. LBNL, as part of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, is collaborating on some of the underground research laboratory (URL) activities at the Mont Terri URL near Saint-Ursanne, Switzerland. The Mont Terri project, which began in 1995, has developed a URL at a depth of about 300 m in a stiff clay formation called the Opalinus Clay. Our current collaboration efforts include two test modeling activities for the FE heater test and the HG-A leak-off test. This report documents results concerning our current modeling of these field tests. The overall objectives of these activities include an improved understanding of and advanced relevant modeling capabilities for EDZ evolution in clay repositories and the associated coupled processes, and to develop a technical basis for the maximum allowable temperature for a clay repository.

  12. Fracturation and self-healing processes in clays -The SELFRAC Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, F.; Bastiaens, W. [EIG EURIDICE, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be managed and disposed off in ways that ensure the protection of people and the environment, now and in the future. In this sense, the long term prediction of disturbances in the surrounding rock mass induced by the construction and the operation of a waste repository is essential to assure a maximal protection of the environment and the people for both current and future generations against the soil contamination and a radionuclide release. Indeed, the evaluation of the evolution of the Excavated Damaged Zone (EDZ) with time is particularly important since its presence may result in changes to the transport characteristics of the rock mass adjacent to underground openings. The SELFRAC project aims to properly characterise the EDZ and its evolution with time. The main objective of the project is to understand and to quantify these processes and to assess their impact on the performance of radioactive waste geological repositories. Two different potential geological formations for deep radioactive waste repositories are studied: the Opalinus Clay of Mont Terri (Switzerland) and the Boom Clay (HADES, Belgium). First results are clearly demonstrating the sealing capacities of both clays leading to the decrease of the hydraulic transmissivity along the fractures. (authors)

  13. PSI Scientific Report 2005. Volume 3: Energy and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overarching goal of energy research at PSI is to provide scientific nd technical solutions for the development of cost-effective, reliable, socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable energy. his research is done within two departments: General Energy and nuclear Energy and Safety, their research highlights from 2005 are documented in the following chapter. Major accomplishments of the past year include: a pioneer solar power-plant; improvements in catalysts and processes for the production of methane from wood; development of characterization tools to improve combustion processes; fuel cells, and batteries under operating conditions; carbon dioxide in forests; and a new dating method for glacial ice. Progress was made in determining the suitability of opalinus clay to store radioactive waste and how iodine exposure could be reduced under normal operation and in the event of a severe accident at a nuclear power-plant. Systems analysis research also included a report on the external environmental costs of electricity and whether the Swiss population are willing to pay for renewable energy. This report only highlights a selection of the work done at PSI in the past year; information about many other ongoing projects can be accessed through our website, (www.psi.ch). (author)

  14. Composição e diversidade da ictiofauna em riachos do Cerrado, bacia do ribeirão Ouvidor, alto rio Paraná, Goiás, Brasil Fish diversity and composition in Cerrado streams, Ribeirão Ouvidor basin, upper Paraná River basin, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicelly B. Araújo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo descrever ecologicamente a ictiofauna quanto à riqueza, abundância, diversidade de Shannon-Wiener, uniformidade, relação riqueza/abundância e constância. As amostragens da ictiofauna foram realizadas bimestralmente de agosto de 2004 a junho de 2005 num trecho de 50 m de comprimento em nove afluentes e na calha principal do ribeirão Ouvidor, bacia do Alto Paraná. A coleta dos peixes foi realizada utilizando-se a pesca elétrica. Foram coletados 4049 indivíduos distribuídos em 35 espécies, seis ordens e 14 famílias. As espécies mais abundantes na bacia foram Astyanax cf. fasciatus Cuvier, 1819 (762 indivíduos, Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 (725 e Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (650. A correlação encontrada entre a largura da calha e a riqueza sugere que riachos largos apresentam maior riqueza que estes estreitos. Apenas a diversidade de Shannon-Wiener variou significativamente entre os riachos amostrados. Astyanax cf. fasciatus e Rhamdia quelen Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 estiveram presentes em todos os trechos considerados, enquanto que a maior quantidade de espécies constantes foi encontrada no riacho Santo Antônio.This study aims to describe the fish assemblage using ecological descriptors (richness, abundance, diversity of Shannon-Wiener, uniformity, relation richness/abundance and constancy. Fish sampling were carried out every two month from August 2004 to June 2005 in a stretch of 50 m long in nine tributaries and in the main channel of the Ribeirão Ouvidor. Four thousand forty-nine fish were collected using electric fishing equipment. These individuals are distributed in 35 species, six Orders and fourteen families. The most abundant species were Astyanax cf. fasciatus Cuvier, 1819 (762 individuals, Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 (725 and Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (650. The correlation between the channel width and the richness suggests that width streams has

  15. [THE PROFESSORS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND THE SOCIETY OF THE FRIENDS OF THE SCIENCES OF WARSAW (1800-1832)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The National Museum of Natural History played a crucial role in the formation of Polish scientific elites in the 19th century. Many Polish students were attending in Paris natural history, botany, zoology, chemistry and mineralogy courses. The Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning was the largest scientific society and one of the most important scientific institutions in Poland. It had also an impact on the political and cultural life of the country, occupied and deprived of freedom at that time. Amongst its founders and members, could be found listeners to the lectures of Lamarck, Haüy, Vauquelin, Desfontaines, Jussieu. Moreover, seven professors of the National Museum of Natural History were elected foreign members of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning: Cuvier, Desfontaines, Haüy, Jussieu, Latreille, Mirbel, Vauquelin. The article analyses this choice and underlines the relationship between these scientists and Warsaw's scientists. The results of this research allow to confirm that the National Museum of Natural History was the most important foreign institution in the 19th century for Polish science, and more specifically natural sciences. PMID:27071294

  16. Skin lesion-associated pathogens from Octopus vulgaris: first detection of Photobacterium swingsii, Lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Perrucci, S; Vanni, A; Cersini, A; Lenzi, C; De Wolf, T; Fronte, B; Guarducci, M; Susini, F

    2015-07-23

    The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses. Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were only isolated from cultured animals. A conventional PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and sequencing were performed on 2 bacterial isolates that remained unidentified after taxonomical and biochemical analysis. The sequence results indicated that the bacteria had a 99% identity with Lactococcus garvieae and Photobacterium swingsii. L. garvieae was confirmed using a specific PCR based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region, while P. swingsii was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Although all animals examined were found to be infected by the protozoan species Aggregata octopiana localised in the intestines, it was also present in skin lesions of 2 of the animals. Betanodavirus was detected in both cultured and wild individuals by cell culture, PCR and electron microscopy. These findings are the first report of L. garvieae and betanodavirus from skin lesions of common octopus and the first identification of P. swingsii both in octopus skin lesions and in marine invertebrates in Italy.

  17. An integration of historical records and genetic data to the assessment of global distribution and population structure in Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eDe Luca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 is one of the most widely distributed species belonging to the genus Octopus as well as an important commercially harvested species and a model organism for behavioral biology of invertebrates. It has been described for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea but it is considered a cosmopolitan species inhabiting the temperate and tropical sea of the northern and southern hemispheres. In the last few years, several species previously considered as O. vulgaris have been recognized as new species, limiting the distributional range of vulgaris and reinforcing the thesis of a species complex. Where it is an important fishery resource, numerous studies have been conducted in order to define its genetic structure with the purpose of managing different stocks. However, many locations are still poorly investigated from this point of view and others are under taxonomic revision to exclude or confirm its occurrence. Here we provide a summary of the current status of knowledge on distribution and genetic structure in this species in the different oceanic regions.

  18. Widespread utility of highly informative AFLP molecular markers across divergent shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Kyall R; Stow, Adam J; Peddemors, Victor; Briscoe, David A; Harcourt, Robert G

    2006-01-01

    Population numbers of many shark species are declining rapidly around the world. Despite the commercial and conservation significance, little is known on even the most fundamental aspects of their population biology. Data collection that relies on direct observation can be logistically challenging with sharks. Consequently, molecular methods are becoming increasingly important to obtain knowledge that is critical for conservation and management. Here we describe an amplified fragment length polymorphism method that can be applied universally to sharks to identify highly informative genome-wide polymorphisms from 12 primer pairs. We demonstrate the value of our method on 15 divergent shark species within the superorder Galeomorphii, including endangered species which are notorious for low levels of genetic diversity. Both the endangered sand tiger shark (Carcharodon taurus, N = 18) and the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, N = 7) displayed relatively high levels of allelic diversity. A total of 59 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.373) and 78 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.316) were resolved in C. taurus and C. carcharias, respectively. Results from other sharks (e.g., Orectolobus ornatus, Orectolobus sp., and Galeocerdo cuvier) produced remarkably high numbers of polymorphic loci (106, 94, and 86, respectively) from a limited sample size of only 2. A major constraint to obtaining much needed genetic data from sharks is the time-consuming process of developing molecular markers. Here we demonstrate the general utility of a technique that provides large numbers of informative loci in sharks. PMID:17150982

  19. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  20. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure.

  1. Spatial segregation of freshwater fish in an intermittent Cuban stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ponce de León

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial segregation of fish species is related to the use of available resources in every river or lake segment. In this work the spatial distribution of four endemic and one introduced freshwater fish species from the Govea stream, in Havana Province, Cuba was studied between june and november of 2005. Both, the effect of sun incidence and the segregation in the water column were analyzed. Gambusia punctata Poey, 1854 feeds on invertebrates, mainly on the surface zone, while herbivores like Girardinus metallicus Poey, 1854 are found in the intermediate zone more frequently. The detritivores like Limia vittata Guichenot, 1853 and Plecostomus commersoni Valenciennes, 1836, and the omnivorous cichlid Nandopsis tetracanthus (Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1831, were found mostly at the bottom. Differences in the mean number of individuals were found for most species in same-depth transects except for N. tetracanthus. In zones exposed to direct sunlight G. metallicus, L. vittata and P. commersoni were found more abundant, whereas G. punctata was mainly noticed in shade areas.

  2. Evaluation of genotoxic potential throughout the upper and middle stretches of Adige river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Kolarević, Stoimir; Jovanović, Jovana; Marković, Vanja; Ilić, Marija; Simonović, Predrag; Simić, Vladica; Gačić, Zoran; Diamantini, Elena; Stella, Elisa; Petrović, Mira; Majone, Bruno; Bellin, Alberto; Paunović, Momir; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2016-11-15

    In this study a comprehensive genotoxicological survey throughout the upper and middle stretches of Adige river basin is presented. The study was carried out at 7 sites located along the Adige main course and one the most significant tributaries, the Noce creek, both presenting different levels of pollution pressure. To give an insight into the nature of the genotoxic activity we employed the battery of prokaryotic and eukaryotic assays. Mutagenicity in water samples was evaluated by SOS/umuC test in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. The level of DNA damage as a biomarker of exposure (comet assay) and biomarker of effect (micronucleus assay) and the level of oxidative stress as well (Fpg - modified comet assay) were studied in blood cells of Salmo cenerinus Nardo, 1847 and Salmo marmoratus Cuvier, 1829. Within the applied bioassays, comet assay showed the highest potential for discriminating the sampling sites which are under lesser extent of pressure (sampling sites 1-Barnes at Bresimo and 4-Noce downstream S. Giustina) from the sites under high pressure (sampling sites 5-Noce at Mezzolombardo and 6/7-Adige upstream and downstream municipality of Trento). Significant correlation between the standard and Fpg - modified comet assay indicated that oxidative stress could be a major contributor to observed DNA damage in collected specimens. PMID:27450952

  3. The relationship among oceanography, prey fields, and beaked whale foraging habitat in the Tongue of the Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott L Hazen

    Full Text Available Beaked whales, specifically Blainville's (Mesoplodon densirostris and Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris, are known to feed in the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. These whales can be reliably detected and often localized within the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC acoustic sensor system. The AUTEC range is a regularly spaced bottom mounted hydrophone array covering >350 nm(2 providing a valuable network to record anthropogenic noise and marine mammal vocalizations. Assessments of the potential risks of noise exposure to beaked whales have historically occurred in the absence of information about the physical and biological environments in which these animals are distributed. In the fall of 2008, we used a downward looking 38 kHz SIMRAD EK60 echosounder to measure prey scattering layers concurrent with fine scale turbulence measurements from an autonomous turbulence profiler. Using an 8 km, 4-leaf clover sampling pattern, we completed a total of 7.5 repeat surveys with concurrently measured physical and biological oceanographic parameters, so as to examine the spatiotemporal scales and relationships among turbulence levels, biological scattering layers, and beaked whale foraging activity. We found a strong correlation among increased prey density and ocean vertical structure relative to increased click densities. Understanding the habitats of these whales and their utilization patterns will improve future models of beaked whale habitat as well as allowing more comprehensive assessments of exposure risk to anthropogenic sound.

  4. Spatial variation of deep diving odontocetes' occurrence around a canyon region in the Ligurian Sea as measured with acoustic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorli, Giacomo; Neuheimer, Anna; Au, Whitlow

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the distribution of animals is of paramount importance for management and conservation, especially for species that are impacted by anthropogenic threats. In the case of marine mammals there has been a growing concern about the impact of human-made noise, in particular for beaked whales and other deep diving odontocetes. Foraging (measured via echolocation clicks at depth) was studied for Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) using three passive acoustics recorders moored to the bottom of the ocean in a canyon area in the Ligurian Sea between July and December 2011. A Generalized Linear Model was used to test whether foraging was influenced by location and day of the year, including the possibility of interactions between predictors. Contrary to previous studies conducted by visual surveys in this area, all species were detected at all locations, suggesting habitat overlapping. However, significant differences were found in the occurrence of each species at different locations. Beaked and sperm whales foraged significantly more in the northern and western locations, while long-finned pilot whales and Risso's dolphins hunted more in the northern and eastern location.

  5. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

  6. The relationship among oceanography, prey fields, and beaked whale foraging habitat in the Tongue of the Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Elliott L; Nowacek, Douglas P; St Laurent, Louis; Halpin, Patrick N; Moretti, David J

    2011-04-27

    Beaked whales, specifically Blainville's (Mesoplodon densirostris) and Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), are known to feed in the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. These whales can be reliably detected and often localized within the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) acoustic sensor system. The AUTEC range is a regularly spaced bottom mounted hydrophone array covering >350 nm(2) providing a valuable network to record anthropogenic noise and marine mammal vocalizations. Assessments of the potential risks of noise exposure to beaked whales have historically occurred in the absence of information about the physical and biological environments in which these animals are distributed. In the fall of 2008, we used a downward looking 38 kHz SIMRAD EK60 echosounder to measure prey scattering layers concurrent with fine scale turbulence measurements from an autonomous turbulence profiler. Using an 8 km, 4-leaf clover sampling pattern, we completed a total of 7.5 repeat surveys with concurrently measured physical and biological oceanographic parameters, so as to examine the spatiotemporal scales and relationships among turbulence levels, biological scattering layers, and beaked whale foraging activity. We found a strong correlation among increased prey density and ocean vertical structure relative to increased click densities. Understanding the habitats of these whales and their utilization patterns will improve future models of beaked whale habitat as well as allowing more comprehensive assessments of exposure risk to anthropogenic sound.

  7. Passive acoustic monitoring using a towed hydrophone array results in identification of a previously unknown beaked whale habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, Tina M; Barlow, Jay; Calambokidis, John; Southall, Brandon; Coates, Shannon

    2013-09-01

    Beaked whales are diverse and species rich taxa. They spend the vast majority of their time submerged, regularly diving to depths of hundreds to thousands of meters, typically occur in small groups, and behave inconspicuously at the surface. These factors make them extremely difficult to detect using standard visual survey methods. However, recent advancements in acoustic detection capabilities have made passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) a viable alternative. Beaked whales can be discriminated from other odontocetes by the unique characteristics of their echolocation clicks. In 2009 and 2010, PAM methods using towed hydrophone arrays were tested. These methods proved highly effective for real-time detection of beaked whales in the Southern California Bight (SCB) and were subsequently implemented in 2011 to successfully detect and track beaked whales during the ongoing Southern California Behavioral Response Study. The three year field effort has resulted in (1) the successful classification and tracking of Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), Baird's (Berardius bairdii), and unidentified Mesoplodon beaked whale species and (2) the identification of areas of previously unknown beaked whale habitat use. Identification of habitat use areas will contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationship between beaked whale distribution, occurrence, and preferred habitat characteristics on a relatively small spatial scale. These findings will also provide information that can be used to promote more effective management and conservation of beaked whales in the SCB, a heavily used Naval operation and training region.

  8. Predator-guided sampling reveals biotic structure in the bathypelagic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Southall, Brandon L; Moline, Mark A

    2016-02-24

    We targeted a habitat used differentially by deep-diving, air-breathing predators to empirically sample their prey's distributions off southern California. Fine-scale measurements of the spatial variability of potential prey animals from the surface to 1,200 m were obtained using conventional fisheries echosounders aboard a surface ship and uniquely integrated into a deep-diving autonomous vehicle. Significant spatial variability in the size, composition, total biomass, and spatial organization of biota was evident over all spatial scales examined and was consistent with the general distribution patterns of foraging Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) observed in separate studies. Striking differences found in prey characteristics between regions at depth, however, did not reflect differences observed in surface layers. These differences in deep pelagic structure horizontally and relative to surface structure, absent clear physical differences, change our long-held views of this habitat as uniform. The revelation that animals deep in the water column are so spatially heterogeneous at scales from 10 m to 50 km critically affects our understanding of the processes driving predator-prey interactions, energy transfer, biogeochemical cycling, and other ecological processes in the deep sea, and the connections between the productive surface mixed layer and the deep-water column.

  9. Three Anisakis spp. isolated from toothed whales stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažeković, Kristina; Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning cetacean ecology in the Mediterranean is limited but important for sustainable planning and enforcement of appropriate conservation measures. Any information that might help to elucidate their ecology is essential. We explored the population and genetic structures of Anisakis spp. nematodes isolated from four toothed whale species - bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) - stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast (1990-2012) to reveal more information on host ecological patterns. Lower parasite prevalence was observed in resident dolphin species compared with occasionally occurring species, as well as in young compared with adult dolphins, indicating different feeding habits related to age. No unequivocal relationship between the biological traits of a host (age, body length, body mass and blubber depth) and Anisakis population parameters was observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new geographical record of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (1.96%) and Anisakis physeteris (1.31%) in the Adriatic Sea in addition to resident Anisakis pegreffii (96.73%). In an assessment of the Adriatic Sea and oceans worldwide, the genetic structure of Anisakis revealed that A. pegreffii populations do not differ among various final host species but do differ with respect to geographical location in contrast to previously accepted Anisakis panmixia.

  10. Cetacean diversity and distribution in the coast of Gipuzkoa and adjacent waters, southeastern Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS, E., SALAZAR, J.M., STHEPANIS, R. de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2003, se ha realizado un seguimiento continuo a las poblaciones de cetáceos de la costa guipuzcoana, siguiendo los protocolos de muestreo de cetáceos en mar de la Sociedad Española de Cetáceos. Se ha estudiado la diversidad, la densidad, la distribución espacial y temporal de estas especies. Los resultados indican la presencia de 12 especies de cetáceos en el área, y la importancia de la misma para cinco de ellas, especialmente para el delfín mular (Tursiops truncatus. El delfín común (Delphinus delphis, el calderon de aleta larga (Globicephala melas, el delfín listado (Stenella coeruleoalba y el cifio de cuvier (Ziphius cavirostris son especies altamente representadas en el área. Se han definido las principales áreas de distribución de estas especies con el fin de dar los primeros pasos para la creación de un Área Marina Protegida en el área.

  11. Neural and muscular control functions of the gut in odontocetes: morphologic evidence in beaked whales and beluga whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, C J

    1993-01-01

    The present data provide some new and unique, gastrointestinal morphologic findings in two species of toothed whales, the Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) and the beluga or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas), which are discussed relative to their atypical feeding behavior and alimentary tract functions. Specifically, the findings show myenteric neural modifications and muscularis externa structural specializations which may support voluntary and involuntary fore- and hindgut behavior. Histologic evidence of intercalation-like striations in the gastric and colonic musculature was discovered, as well as an unusual massive size of the colonic myenteric plexuses. These observations, which are not evident in terrestrial mammalian gastrointestinal tracts, may help explain the unusual upper gastrointestinal tract motility such as ingestion-by-sucking in the absence of prehensile teeth and processing of ingesta in a multi-compartmentalized pyloric stomach. Further, the hindgut modifications may help explain the animal's acute, rectal discharge escape mechanism, likened to squid inking, which seems to be an evolved function of some cetaceans.

  12. Molecular genetic identification of southern hemisphere beaked whales (Cetacea: Ziphiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebout, M L; Helden, A V; van Waerebeek, K; Baker, C S

    1998-06-01

    To assist in the species-level identification of stranded and hunted beaked whales, we compiled a database of 'reference' sequences from the mitochondrial DNA control region for 15 of the 20 described ziphiid species. Reference samples for eight species were obtained from stranded animals in New Zealand and South Australia. Sequences for a further seven species were obtained from a previously published report. This database was used to identify 20 'test' samples obtained from incompletely documented strandings around New Zealand. Analyses showed that four of these 'test' specimens (20%) had initially been misidentified. These included two animals of particular interest: (i) a Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris), the first record of this species in New Zealand waters; and, (ii) a juvenile Andrews' beaked whale (Mesoplodon bowdoini), a species known from just over 20 strandings worldwide. A published sequence from a beaked whale product purchased in the Republic of Korea was identified as a Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris). Levels of intra- and interspecific variation were compared to determine the potential for misidentification when the database or taxonomy is incomplete. Intraspecific variation was generally 4.7%. Exceptions were within-species variation in Hyperoodon planifrons, southern bottlenosed whale (4.12%), which exceeded the variation between the two species of Berardius (3.78%), and variation between the two specimens assigned to M. hectori, Hector's beaked whale (7.14%). The latter case appears to be an error in species identification, and could represent the discovery of a new species of beaked whale.

  13. Marine mammals of Easter Island (Rapa Nui and Salas y Gómez Island (Motu Motiro Hiva, Chile: a review and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean oceanic islands Easter Island (Rapa Nui and Salas y Gómez Island (Motu Motiro Hiva have received little attention with regards to basic marine mammal investigations. Here we review and update available information on the status of marine mammals in this area from different sources, including published accounts, local interviews and two recent expeditions. We also provide detailed accounts for each confirmed family or species, including historical data from published archaeological studies and whalers' logbooks from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Results indicate that a total of five marine mammal families (Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae, Ziphiidae, Delphinidae and Phocidae have been confirmed within the study area, representing two mammalian orders (Cetartiodactyla and Carnivora. Within these, twelve species are known to occur: blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, unidentified minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis or B. acutorostrata, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus, Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris, Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris, false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens, unidentified pilot whale (Globicephala sp., bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, common dolphin (Delphinus sp., southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina and leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx. We discuss the implications of some of most noteworthy records and make a plea for further studies to improve our knowledge of these top predators in one of the most isolated places in the world.

  14. Prey preferences among the community of deep-diving odontocetes from the Bay of Biscay, Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Jérôme; Cherel, Yves; Bertin, Stéphane; Kiszka, Jeremy; Dewez, Alexandre; Ridoux, Vincent

    2011-03-01

    Long-finned pilot whales ( Globicephala melas), Risso's dolphins ( Grampus griseus), melon-headed whales ( Peponocephala electra), Cuvier's beaked whales ( Ziphius cavirostris), Sowerby's beaked whales ( Mesoplodon bidens), northern bottlenose whales ( Hyperoodon ampullatus), sperm whales ( Physeter macrocephalus), dwarf sperm whales ( Kogia sima) and pygmy sperm whales ( Kogia breviceps) make up the large community of deep-diving odontocetes occurring off the Bay of Biscay, northeast Atlantic. The ecology of these toothed cetaceans is poorly documented worldwide. The present study described their prey preferences from stomach content analysis and showed resource partitioning within the assemblage. The majority of the species appeared to be mostly teutophageous. Fish was an important food source only for the Sowerby's beaked whale and, to a lesser extent, for the long-finned pilot whale. In terms of foraging habitats inferred from prey composition, either pelagic oceanic or demersal neritic habitats were exploited by toothed whales in the Bay of Biscay, with only the long-finned pilot whale foraging in the two habitats. Finally, with more than 14,000 identified cephalopods from 39 species, the present study highlighted also the poorly known deep-sea cephalopod community off the Bay of Biscay using top predators as biological samplers.

  15. Tetraphyllidean plerocercoids from Western Mediterranean cetaceans and other marine mammals around the world: a comprehensive morphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Celia; Aznar, Francisco Javier; Raga, Juan Antonio

    2005-02-01

    Tetraphyllidean plerocercoids have occasionally been reported in marine mammals, but they have rarely been described in detail, and the ecological significance of these infections is unclear. We described plerocercoids collected from the mucosa of the terminal colon and rectum, the anal crypts, and the hepatopancreatic ducts of 7 striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba, 1 Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris, and 3 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus from the Spanish Mediterranean. We also examined undescribed plerocercoids from 3 cetacean species from the Atlantic and the Pacific. All plerocercoids had a lanceolate body, and a scolex with an apical sucker and 4 sessile monolocular bothridia. The bothridia had free posterior edges and an accessory sucker at their anterior end. Under light microscopy, the bothridia of some Mediterranean specimens looked bilocular without accessory suckers, but a true accessory sucker was observed in histological sections. A principal component analysis revealed 2 stable clusters of specimens along the first principal component regardless of host species. These "large" and "small" morphotypes are thought to represent early migratory stages of Phyllobothrium delphini and Monorygma grimaldii. The similarity in scolex morphology, the observation of plerocercoids buried in intestinal regions close to the sites where M. grimaldii and P. delphini occur, and the coexistence of all larval forms in the same individual hosts would support this hypothesis. Future molecular analysis may confirm it.

  16. Contamination level of mercury in red meat products from cetaceans available from South Korea markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Tetsuya [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)]. E-mail: endotty@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Yong-Un, Ma [Korean Federation for Environmental Movement, 251 Nuha-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-806, Republic of Korea (Korea); Baker, C. Scott [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Marine Mammal Program and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Newport, OR 97365 (United States); Funahashi, Naoko [International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1-6-10-203, Saiwaicho, Higashikurume, Tokyo 203-0052 (Japan); Lavery, Shane [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dalebout, Merel L. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi [School of Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22-1 Tamagawa-Cho, Minami-Ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Levels of total mercury (T-Hg) were surveyed in red meat (n = 73) and liver (n = 3) from toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises (odontocetes) sold for human consumption in the coastal cities of South Korea. High concentrations of T-Hg were found in the liver products of finless porpoises (18.7 and 156 {mu}g/wet g) and common dolphins (13.2 {mu}g/wet g). The T-Hg concentrations in red meat products were highest in the false killer whale (9.66 {+-} 12.3 {mu}g/wet g, n = 9), bottlenose dolphin (10.6 {+-} 12.6 {mu}g/wet g, n = 3) and killer whale (13.3 {mu}g/wet g, n = 1), and lowest in Cuvier's beaked whale and the harbour porpoise (0.4-0.5 {mu}g/wet g). Thus, most of the products that originated from odontocetes exceeded the safety limit of 0.5 {mu}g/wet g for T-Hg set by the South Korean health authorities for the fishery industry. Pregnant women and other vulnerable sectors of the population living in South Korea should therefore limit their consumption of odontocete products.

  17. Heredity, development and evolution: the unmodern synthesis of E.S. Russell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maurizio

    2013-09-01

    In 1930, while R.A. Fisher, J.B.S. Haldane, E.B. Ford and S.G. Wright were laying the foundations of what a decade later J.S. Huxley dubbed "Modern Synthesis", E.S. Russell published a groundbreaking work, The Interpretation of Development and Heredity. In this book Russell not only condemned Mendelian genetics and neo-Darwinism, but also proposed an alternative synthesis unifying heredity, development, and evolution. The book did not represent the work of a mind operating in isolation. Rather, it was a synthetic work connecting ideas and doctrines of many influential scientists working in Europe and the USA. Through the analysis of archival documents and rarely or never mentioned sources, this article provides an unconventional picture of Russell's theoretical biology. It will be shown that Russell was an international celebrity; he was at the centre of a large network of scholars who shared his ideas and insights. He was one of several biologists arguing for a different synthesis; a synthesis perhaps less visible, less institutionalised, and less 'modern', nevertheless with its influential advocates and international support. Finally, this study shows that Russell's synthesis was not rooted in the classic pantheon of towering figures in the history of biology, i.e. Darwin, Wallace, and Mendel, but was based on the teachings of Kant, Goethe, Cuvier, von Baer, and Müller.

  18. A description of Isospora amphiboluri (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the inland bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Sauria: Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Jacobson, E R; Kopit, W

    1995-04-01

    Fecal samples from 50 captive inland bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps (Ahl, 1926), bred in California, were examined for coccidian parasites. Sixteen (32%) of the lizards were found to be passing oocysts of Isospora amphiboluri Cannon, 1967, previously described from bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829) from Australia. Sporulated oocytes were spherical to subspherical, 25.3 x 25.1 (23-26 x 23-26) microns, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.0 (1.0-1.1). A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. Sporocyts were ovoidal, 17.0 x 11.4 (16-18 x 11-12) microns, with a shape index of 1.5 (1.4-1.7). A sporocyst residuum, Stieda, and substieda bodies were present, but parastieda bodies were absent. Sporozoites were elongated, 13.9 x 3.5 (12-15 x 3-4) microns in situ, containing spherical anterior and posterior refractile bodies. The occurrence of I. amphiboluri in P. vitticeps is a new host and geographic record for the parasite. Photomicrographs of the oocysts and endogenous life cycle stages of I. amphiboluri are presented for the first time. PMID:7707208

  19. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  20. Bryde's whale (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae occurrence and movements in coastal areas of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Lodi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryde's whales, Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879, were observed on 17 occasions (N = 21 surveys in the coastal waters off Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil during austral summer through autumn 2014. Five whales were individually identified using photo-identification techniques. The mean interval between resightings for all individuals was 12.8 days, with a minimum of one day and a maximum of 48 days. The comparison between the catalogs of Bryde's whales off Rio de Janeiro and the Cabo Frio region revealed matches for three individuals. The resightings show movements of up to 149.6 km along the coastal waters off the state of Rio de Janeiro. Most of the observations consisted of solitary individuals (82.3% of sightings. Feeding was the predominant behavior observed (47%, followed by milling (35.3% and travelling (17.6% in waters up to 48 m deep. Direct observations resulted in the addition of new prey, such as snubnose anchovy, Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther, 1868 and white snake mackerel, Thyrsitops lepidopoides (Cuvier, 1832, to the known diet of the Bryde's whale. A long time series of photo-identification efforts in the Rio de Janeiro, the Cabo Frio region and other areas can elucidate fundamental aspects of spatial and temporal site fidelity knowledge of Bryde's whales in southeastern Brazil.

  1. The diet of bats from Southeastern Brazil: the relation to echolocation and foraging behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock Fenton

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the incidence of moths and beetles was examined from feces samples of bats that use different foraging behaviors. Twenty sites around the Fazenda Intervales, a Field Research Station located in São Paulo State, in southeastern Brazil were sampled. Feces were collected from bats caught in mist nets, Turtle Traps or hand nets and, in one case, from beneath a roost. Feces samples were taken from six species of bats: Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842, Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838, Furipterus horrens (F. Cuvier, 1828, Myotis riparius Handley, 1960, Myotis ruber (E. Geoffroy, 1806 and Histiotus velalus (I. Geoffroy, 1824. To record and describe the frequencies dominating bat echolocation calls, an Anabat II bat detector coupled with an Anabat ZCA interfaces and DOS laptop computers were used. The data show that Furipterus horrens feeds extensively on moths, as predicted from the features of its echolocation calls. Gleaning bats, whose echolocation calls are much less conspicuous to moths take a wide range of insect (and other prey.

  2. Changing patterns of microhabitat utilization by the threespot damselfish, Stegastes planifrons, on Caribbean reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Precht

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threespot damselfish, Stegastes planifrons (Cuvier, is important in mediating interactions among corals, algae, and herbivores on Caribbean coral reefs. The preferred microhabitat of S. planifrons is thickets of the branching staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis. Within the past few decades, mass mortality of A. cervicornis from white-band disease and other factors has rendered this coral a minor ecological component throughout most of its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Survey data from Jamaica (heavily fished, Florida and the Bahamas (moderately fished, the Cayman Islands (lightly to moderately fished, and Belize (lightly fished indicate that distributional patterns of S. planifrons are positively correlated with live coral cover and topographic complexity. Our results suggest that species-specific microhabitat preferences and the availability of topographically complex microhabitats are more important than the abundance of predatory fish as proximal controls on S. planifrons distribution and abundance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The loss of the primary microhabitat of S. planifrons-A. cervicornis-has forced a shift in the distribution and recruitment of these damselfish onto remaining high-structured corals, especially the Montastraea annularis species complex, affecting coral mortality and algal dynamics throughout the Caribbean.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA physical maps of two species of snappers(Lutjanus) from South China Sea%两种笛鲷线粒体DNA物理图谱的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中铎; 刘楚吾; 郭昱嵩

    2006-01-01

    取星点笛鲷(白星笛鲷Lutjanus stellatus Akuzaki)和千年笛鲷(L.sebae Cuvier et Valenciennes)肝脏组织,分离纯化其线粒体DNA(mtDNA),用限制性内切酶分析构建了两个种mtDNA的物理图谱,进行了限制性片段长度多态性分析,得到两个种的分歧时间大约为5.1Ma(取序列进化率为每百万年1.5%),发现4种内切酶(BglⅠ、MluⅠ、KpnⅠ、SalⅠ)酶切位点在两种间存在明显差异.这些差异为区分两个种提供了遗传标记,同时也为笛鲷类进化遗传学的研究和育种提供了资料.

  4. Spatial distribution of the estuarine ichthyofauna of the Rio Formoso (Pernambuco, Brazil, with emphasis on reef fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa C. G. de Paiva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to identify species of reef fish that use the Rio Formoso estuary (northeastern Brazil as a refuge and natural nursery and to describe the spatial distribution of the estuary fish fauna in rainy and dry seasons. A total of 5475 specimens, across 78 species and 39 families, were analyzed; 51.3% of the species were of reef origin. Among these, Eucinostomus melanopterus (Bleeker, 1863, E. gula (Cuvier, 1830, and Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758, in this order, were the most abundant in the upper estuary; S. greeleyi Gilbert, 1900, E. melanopterus, and Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758 were the most abundant in the mid estuary; and E. gula and Albula vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 in the lower estuary. The percentages of reef species were 39.2%, 54.2% and 66.7% for the upper, mid and lower regions, respectively. The greatest diversity was found in the upper estuary and greatest abundance occurred in the mid region. The type of sediment was a strong determinant of the spatial distribution of fish fauna. The most abundant species were found in a mesohaline (5-18 to euhaline (30-40 salinity regimen, suggesting some capacity for osmotic regulation. The fish fauna of the Rio Formoso estuary receives a direct influence from the reefs and coastal region between Sirinhaém and Tamandaré, thereby providing a greater richness of reef fish.

  5. 小熊猫寄生虫与寄生虫病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光友; 王成东

    2000-01-01

    @@ 小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens Cuvier)是东亚地区喜马拉雅山、横断山脉的特产珍贵动物,主要栖居于3000米以下的针阔混交林或常绿阔叶林中有竹丛的地方,以竹笋、竹叶、野果和小动物为食;除了我国四川、云南、贵州、西藏等地外,只有印度、尼泊尔、缅甸等国的狭窄地区有少数分布,而且产量稀少.我国政府已将它列为二级重点保护动物[1].小熊猫与大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)一样,形态优美,生态独特,具极高的科学研究价值,是动物园内最逗人喜爱的观赏动物之一.目前,我国已有50余家动物园饲养有小熊猫,在日本、美国、印度等国的动物园内也饲养有一定数量.

  6. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure. PMID:25807991

  7. Mercury accumulation in sharks from the coastal waters of southwest Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Darren; Wasno, Robert; Hammerschlag, Neil; Volety, Aswani

    2014-10-01

    As large long-lived predators, sharks are particularly vulnerable to exposure to methylmercury biomagnified through the marine food web. Accordingly, nonlethal means were used to collect tissues for determining mercury (Hg) concentrations and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) from a total of 69 sharks, comprising 7 species, caught off Southwest Florida from May 2010 through June 2013. Species included blacknose (Carcharhinus acronotus), blacktip (C. limbatus), bull (C. leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran), lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). The sharks contained Hg concentrations in their muscle tissues ranging from 0.19 mg/kg (wet-weight basis) in a tiger shark to 4.52 mg/kg in a blacktip shark. Individual differences in total length and δ(13)C explained much of the intraspecific variation in Hg concentrations in blacknose, blacktip, and sharpnose sharks, but similar patterns were not evident for Hg and δ(15)N. Interspecific differences in Hg concentration were evident with greater concentrations in slower-growing, mature blacktip sharks and lower concentrations in faster-growing, young tiger sharks than other species. These results are consistent with previous studies reporting age-dependent growth rate can be an important determinant of intraspecific and interspecific patterns in Hg accumulation. The Hg concentrations observed in these sharks, in particular the blacktip shark, also suggested that Hg may pose a threat to shark health and fitness. PMID:24942905

  8. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Andrade, Humber A; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks) whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:25010514

  9. Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

    2012-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters.

  10. Repeated, long-distance migrations by a philopatric predator targeting highly contrasting ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, James S. E.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Queiroz, Nuno; Burnie, Neil; Aming, Choy; Sousa, Lara L.; Mucientes, Gonzalo R.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Harvey, Guy M.; Sims, David W.; Shivji, Mahmood S.

    2015-06-01

    Long-distance movements of animals are an important driver of population spatial dynamics and determine the extent of overlap with area-focused human activities, such as fishing. Despite global concerns of declining shark populations, a major limitation in assessments of population trends or spatial management options is the lack of information on their long-term migratory behaviour. For a large marine predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier, we show from individuals satellite-tracked for multiple years (up to 1101 days) that adult males undertake annually repeated, round-trip migrations of over 7,500 km in the northwest Atlantic. Notably, these migrations occurred between the highly disparate ecosystems of Caribbean coral reef regions in winter and high latitude oceanic areas in summer, with strong, repeated philopatry to specific overwintering insular habitat. Partial migration also occurred, with smaller, immature individuals displaying reduced migration propensity. Foraging may be a putative motivation for these oceanic migrations, with summer behaviour showing higher path tortuosity at the oceanic range extremes. The predictable migratory patterns and use of highly divergent ecosystems shown by male tiger sharks appear broadly similar to migrations seen in birds, reptiles and mammals, and highlight opportunities for dynamic spatial management and conservation measures of highly mobile sharks.

  11. Structure, composition, and mechanical properties of shark teeth.

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    Enax, Joachim; Prymak, Oleg; Raabe, Dierk; Epple, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    The teeth of two different shark species (Isurus oxyrinchus and Galeocerdo cuvier) and a geological fluoroapatite single crystal were structurally and chemically characterized. In contrast to dentin, enameloid showed sharp diffraction peaks which indicated a high crystallinity of the enameloid. The lattice parameters of enameloid were close to those of the geological fluoroapatite single crystal. The inorganic part of shark teeth consisted of fluoroapatite with a fluoride content in the enameloid of 3.1 wt.%, i.e., close to the fluoride content of the geological fluoroapatite single crystal (3.64 wt.%). Scanning electron micrographs showed that the crystals in enameloid were highly ordered with a special topological orientation (perpendicular towards the outside surface and parallel towards the center). By thermogravimetry, water, organic matrix, and biomineral in dentin and enameloid of both shark species were determined. Dentin had a higher content of water, organic matrix, and carbonate than enameloid but contained less fluoride. Nanoindentation and Vicker's microhardness tests showed that the enameloid of the shark teeth was approximately six times harder than the dentin. The hardness of shark teeth and human teeth was comparable, both for dentin and enamel/enameloid. In contrast, the geological fluoroapatite single crystal was much harder than both kinds of teeth due to the absence of an organic matrix. In summary, the different biological functions of the shark teeth ("tearing" for Isurus and "cutting" for Galeocerdo) are controlled by the different geometry and not by the chemical or crystallographic composition.

  12. Efectos del parasitismo sobre el tejido branquial en peces cultivados: estudio parasitologico e histopatologico Effect of the parasitism on the gill tissue of cultivated fishes: parasitological and histopathological studies

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    Maurício Laterça Martins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred four out of 225 diagnosticated cases were myxosporidian, monogenean, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 and bacterial diseases in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (pacu, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 (tambaqui and tambacu, at Aquaculture Center, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, between 1992 and 1995. The gills were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution to posterior histologic routine. It was observed Henneguya sp. cysts into the capillaries of the secondary lamellae, encapsulated by the respiratory epithelium cells. It provoked adherence of the adjacent lamellae, hyperplasia, congestion, oedema and epithelium displacement. Monogeneans infestations by Anacanthorus penilabiatus Boeger, Husak & Martins, 1995 and Ancyrocephalinae sub-family caused light inflammatory reaction and hyperplasia. In severe infestations was observed hyperplasia of primary lamellae, necrosis, oedema, respiratory epithelium displacement, ruptured pillar cells and telangiectasis. Response to I. multifiliis was limited to surrounding epithelial cells in young fishes and hyperplasia, necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and oedema in old fishes. Such lesions iniciate hyperplasic and oedematous process that with inflammation of the parasitic sites, provoked alterations over gases and ions interchange surface and consequently fish metabolism.

  13. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

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    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam. PMID:27095662

  14. Haliotrematoides spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of grunts (Perciformes: Haemulidae) from the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

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    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Reyes-Lizama, C; González-Solís, D

    2009-12-01

    One previously described species, Haliotrema striatohamus Zhukov, 1981, found off the coast of Cuba and Campeche (Gulf of Mexico), is redescribed and transferred to Haliotrematoides Kritsky, Yang and Sun, 2009, as Haliotrematoides striatohamus ( Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. This transfer is based on the study of new specimens of this species found in the gill lamellae of grunts, i.e., Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier, Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède), and Haemulon sciurus (Shaw) (Haemulidae), all from the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico. In addition, another previously described species, Haliotrema brevispirocirrus Zhukov, 1981 from Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus) from Havana, Cuba, is also transferred to Haliotrematoides based on the comparative morphology of its original description. Data are provided for prevalence and mean intensity as well as for the morphologic and biometric variability of H. striatohamus from different hosts. The new replacement of H. striatohamus ( Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. and H. brevispirocirrus (Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. infecting these taxa represents the first known species of Haliotrematoides on these fishes and new geographical records for these dactylogyrid monogenoids. PMID:19463040

  15. Redescription and life cycle of the monorchiid Postmonorcheides maclovini Szidat, 1950 (Digenea) from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Morphological and molecular data.

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    Bagnato, Estefanía; Gilardoni, Carmen; Pina, Susana; Rodrigues, Pedro; Cremonte, Florencia

    2016-02-01

    The adult monorchiid, Postmonorcheides maclovini Szidat, 1950, digenean parasite of the Patagonian blennie Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier) (Eleginopidae) from Puerto Deseado (47° 45' S, 65° 55' W), Argentina, was characterized and its life cycle elucidated. P. maclovinus is the only species of the genus Postmonorcheides, proposed by Szidat (1950) from Tierra del Fuego province (~54° S), Argentina. This digenean uses the Patagonian blennie as definitive host, and the intertidal bivalve Lasaea adansoni (Gmelin) (Lasaeidae) as both first and second intermediate hosts (metacercariae encyst inside sporocysts), being the first record of this clam as intermediate host of trematode parasites. The cercaria may, in addition to encysting in the sporocyst, emerge and presumably infect other intermediate hosts. This is the second report of a monorchiid species with metacercariae encysting inside the sporocyst. Adults were found parasitizing the fish stomach, pyloric caeca and intestine with a prevalence of 100%; sporocysts with cercariae and/or metacercariae were found parasitizing the gonad of the bivalve with a prevalence of 2.78%. The cercariae possess a well-developed tail and eye-spots are absent. The ITS1 sequence from the adult digeneans found in the Patagonian blennie, identified as P. maclovini, was found to be identical to the ITS1 sequences obtained both from sporocysts containing cercariae and encysted metacercariae found in L. adansoni. PMID:26423199

  16. ON THE PRESENCE OF PYRAMIODONTHERIUM (MAMMALIA, XENARTHRA, MEGATHERIIDAE IN THE LATE MIOCENE OF NORTHEASTERN ARGENTINA AND ITS BIOGEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATIONS

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    DIEGO BRANDONI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The biochron of the subfamily Megatheriinae, large to very large terrestrial sloths typified by Megatherium Cuvier, in Argentina extends from the middle Miocene of Patagonia to the late Pleistocene-early Holocene. Megatheriines reached their highest diversity in the lower levels (="conglomerado osífero", late Miocene of the Ituzaingó Formation in Entre Ríos Province, northeastern Argentina. Among the four megatheriines that occur in this unit, the genera Promegatherium Ameghino, Eomegatherium Kraglievich and Pliomegatherium Kraglievich represent relatively small to medium-sized taxa. Here we describe new material assigned to Pyramiodontherium, the largest of the four genera from the same bed and comparable in size to some Quaternary species of Megatherium. Three valid species of Pyramiodontherium have been recognized, all distributed mainly in northwestern Argentina, from the late Miocene in Catamarca Province (and probably also in Tucumán Province, and the late Pliocene in La Rioja Province. The presence of this genus in northeastern Argentina extends its known paleobiogeographical distribution. 

  17. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

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    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:21665367

  18. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

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    Afonso, André S; Andrade, Humber A; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks) whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Component population study of Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala) in fishes from Lake Moreno, Argentina.

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    Rauque, Carlos A; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Semenas, Liliana G

    2003-03-01

    Seasonal samples of all fish species from Lake Moreno were taken in order to determine the presence of paratenia, to evaluate the status of the hosts and to characterise the transmission of Acanthocephalus tumescens (von Linstow, 1896) at the component population level. Prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity, numbers of gravid females, relative abundance of the different fish species, relative output of eggs and relative flow rates for each host species were computed. Acanthocephalus tumescens showed low host specificity, successfully parasitizing six out of eight fish species present in the lake. No paratenic infection was registered. If prevalence, mean abundance, and number of gravid females are considered, host species can be placed in a continuum from the most to least suitable as follows: Galaxias platei Steindachner, Diplomystes viedmensis (Mac Donagh), Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), Percichthys trucha (Cuvier et Valenciennes) and Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns). However, when parasite flow rates and egg output were calculated, including relative abundance of each fish species, the continuum was rearranged as follows: P. trucha, O. mykiss, G. platei / G. maculatus, S. fontinalis and D. viedmensis. The first four species would be the main contributors to the population of A. tumescens in this lake, P. trucha being the major one. Different regulatory and non-regulatory mechanisms are suggested. PMID:12735727

  20. Padrões temporais na assembléia de peixes na gamboa do Sucuriú, Baía de Paranaguá, Brasil Temporal patterns of the fish assembly in the Sucuriú tidal creek, Paranaguá Bay, Brazil

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    Henry Louis Spach

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyofauna of a tidal creek in Rasa da Cotinga Island, Paranaguá Bay, Paraná was studied through monthly collections in the quadrature high and low tides, with seine net of 30 m x 1.5 m and 10 mm mesh and "fyke" net of 30 m x 1.5 m with 10 mm mesh in the wings and 8 mm mesh in the bag. Together with the nekton sampling, temperature, salinity and water transparency values were also obtained as well as current speed. A total of 9068 fish belonging to 54 species and 23 families were collected. The ichthyofauna was dominated by Harengula clupeola (Cuvier, 1829, Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, Sphoeroides greeley (Gilbert, 1900 and Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758, that contributed to 66.1% of the capture in number and 79.7% in weight. Statistical differences between the collection months and months groups were observed for the number of species, number and weight of fish, species richness and species diversity (weight. The observed temporal biological structure seems to be better explained by the rainfall, rainfall and salinity and combined action of the rainfall, salinity and water transparency.