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Sample records for brycon insignis steindachner

  1. A revision of the cis-andean species of the genus Brycon Müller & Troschel (Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flávio C T

    2017-01-22

    A revision of the cis-andean species of Brycon, with the exception of the Brycon pesu species-complex, is presented. Twenty-one Brycon species (including B. pesu) are recognized from cis-andean river systems: Brycon stolzmanni Steindachner, from the upper Río Marañon basin, Peru; Brycon coxeyi Fowler, from the Río Marañon basin, Ecuador and Peru; Brycon polylepis Moscó Morales, from the Lago de Maracaibo, Río Orinoco, upper rio Amazonas, and rio Tocantins basins, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil; Brycon coquenani Steindachner, from the upper Río Caroni, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela; Brycon insignis Steindachner, from the rio Paraíba do Sul and small adjacent coastal river basins of eastern Brazil; Brycon vermelha Lima & Castro, endemic from the rio Mucuri basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon howesi new species, endemic from the rio Jequitinhonha basin, Brazil; Brycon dulcis new species, endemic from the rio Doce basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon ferox Steindachner, from several small coastal river systems, including the rio Mucuri basin in eastern Brazil; Brycon vonoi new species, from the rio Pardo basin and apparently also from a adjacent river system, the rio Una, in eastern Brazil; Brycon opalinus (Cuvier), from the headwaters of the rio Paraíba do Sul and rio Doce basins, eastern Brazil; Brycon nattereri Günther, from the headwaters of the upper rio Paraná, rio São Francisco, and upper rio Tocantins basins, Brazil; Brycon orthotaenia Günther, endemic from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil; Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraná and rio Uruguai basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay; Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraguai, middle rio Paraná, and upper rio Amazonas basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador; Brycon whitei Myers & Weitzman, from the Río Orinoco basin in Colombia and Venezuela; Brycon amazonicus (Agassiz), from the Rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, Brazil, Peru, Colombia

  2. Determinação da razão ótima de espermatozóides por ovócitos de piabanha Brycon insignis (pisces - characidae Determination of the optimum ratio of spermatozoa per oocyte of the piabanha Brycon insignis

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    E. Shimoda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a razão ótima de espermatozóides por ovócitos da piabanha Brycon insignis, utilizando-se dois machos e duas fêmeas da espécie, submetidos ao procedimento de desova induzida. Os gametas foram extrusados manualmente 200 horas-grau após a aplicação do extrato bruto de hipófise. Os ovócitos foram misturados e deste pool retiraram-se amostras com 2g de ovócitos (701 ovócitos/g. O sêmen do pool foi diluído em solução de NaCL 1,2% de tal forma que, após a adição de 1ml do sêmen diluído aos ovócitos, fossem obtidas as seguintes razões espermatozóides por ovócitos em cada tratamento: T1=86.662, T2=173.324, T3=259.986, T4=346.648 e T5=433.310. A taxa de fertilização do sêmen não diluído usado como controle foi de 65,3%. Após ativação espermática com NaHCO3 1% e fecundação, os ovos foram transferidos para as incubadoras e nelas foram observadas as seguintes percentagens de fertilização em relação à do grupo-controle: T1=35,7%, T2=53,1%, T3=79,1%, T4=93,4% e T5=87,8%. A percentagem de fertilização (em relação ao controle aumentou de forma linear, segundo a equação de regressão: Y=15,55+0,0002297X (PThe optimum spermatozoa:oocyte ratio of piabanha Brycon insignis was studied. Two males and two females were induced to spawn, and the gametes were stripped after 200 hourgrades starting from the application of carp pituitary gland. Oocytes from two females were mixed, and samples of 2g (701 oocytes/g were collected from the obtained pool and placed into plastic cups. The semen from the two males, after mixed to compose a pool, was diluted in NaCl solution (1.2% so that, after the addition of 1ml of diluted sperm into the oocytes, the following spermatozoa:oocyte ratios (tri-replicated were obtained: T1=86,662, T2=173,324, T3=259,986, T4=346,648 and T5=433,310. After the activation using 1% NaHCO3 and fertilization, the eggs were transferred to incubators, and observed the percentages of fertilization

  3. Evaluacion de un sistema de recirculacion para la etapa de larvicultura de dorada (Brycon moorei-Steindachner 1878) del Rio Magdalena

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castaneda Alvarez, German David; David Ruales, Carlos Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Los sistemas con recirculacion para acuicultura permiten el incremento de la productividad en la etapa de larvicultura, debido al mayor control de los parametros de calidad de agua. Larvas de dorada (Brycon moorei...

  4. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Decaisnea insignis: Genome Organization, Genomic Resources and Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Lin, Furong; Huang, Ping; Guo, Wenying; Zheng, Yongqi

    2017-08-30

    Decaisnea insignis is a wild resource plant and is used as an ornamental, medicinal, and fruit plant. High-throughput sequencing of chloroplast genomes has provided insight into the overall evolutionary dynamics of chloroplast genomes and has enhanced our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within plant families. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of D. insignis and used the data to assess its genomic resources. The D. insignis chloroplast genome is 158,683 bp in length and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,167 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,162 bp and 87,187 bp, respectively. We identified 83 simple sequence repeats and 18 pairs of large repeats. Most simple-sequence repeats were located in the noncoding sections of the large single-copy/small single-copy region and exhibited a high A/T content. The D. insignis chloroplast genome bias was skewed towards A/T on the basis of codon usage. A phylogenetic tree based on 82 protein-coding genes of 33 angiosperms showed that D. insignis was clustered with Akebia in Lardizabalaceae. Overall, the results of this study will contribute to better understanding the evolution, molecular biology and genetic improvement of D. insignis.

  5. [Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth, heavy metal uptake and accumulation of Zenia insignis Chun seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Peng, Xia-Wei; Wu, Song-Lin; Li, Zhi-Ru; Feng, Hong-Mei; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2014-08-01

    To solve the trace metal pollution of a Pd/Zn mine in Hunan province, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus mosseae (Gm) and Glomus intraradices (Gi), on the growth, heavy metal uptake and accumulation of Zenia insignis Chun, the pioneer plant there. The results showed that symbiotic associations were successfully established between the two isolates and Z. insignis in heavy metal contaminated soil. AM fungi improved P absorption, biomass and changed heavy metal uptake and distribution of Z. insignis. AM fungi-inoculated plants had significantly lower Fe, Cu, Zn, Pd concentrations and higher Fe, Cu, Zn, Pd accumulation than non-inoculated plants. However, Gm and Gi showed different mycorrhizal effects on the distribution of heavy metal in hosts, depending on the species of heavy metal. Gi-inoculated Z. insignis showed significantly lower TF values of Fe, Zn, Pd than Gm and non-inoculated plants, while both strains had no effect on TF value of Cu, which indicated that Gi enhanced trace metal accumulation in root system, playing a filtering/sequestering role in the presence of trace metals. The overall results demonstrated that AM fungi had positive effect on Z. insignis in enhancing the ability to adapt the heavy metal contaminated soil and played potential role in the revegetation of heavy metal contaminated soil. But in practical application, the combination of AM, hosts and heavy metal should be considered.

  6. Long chain alkyl and alkenyl phenols from the roots of Ozoroa insignis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonghong Liu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangdong Key Lab. of Marine Materia Medica. South China Sea Institute of Oceanology; Abreu, Pedro J.M. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica. REQUIMTE

    2006-05-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic root extract of Ozoroa insignis, collected in Guinea-Bissau, led to the isolation of a 41-member library of alkyl and alkenylphenols, whose structures were determined by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, and GCMS. Determination of double-bond positions in the side chains of alkenylphenols were established by methylthiolation-GCMS. (author)

  7. Germination sexuée et croissance précoce d'Ozoroa insignis Del ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burkina Faso. Des solutions impératives devraient être trouvées en vue d'une gestion durable desdites espèces. Dans cette optique, une étude sur la germination sexuée d'Ozoroa insignis Del. a été conduite au laboratoire et en pépinière. L'effet du prétraitement et celui substrat sur la germination des semences ont été ...

  8. Frugivory by the fish Brycon hilarii (Characidae) in western Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reys, Paula; Sabino, José; Galetti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Frugivory and seed dispersal have been poorly studied in Neotropical freshwater fishes. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by the piraputanga fish ( Brycon hilarii, Characidae) in the Formoso River, Bonito, western Brazil. We examined the stomach contents of 87 fish and found the diet of piraputanga consisted of 24% animal prey (arthropods, snails, and vertebrates), 31% seeds/fruits and 45% other plant material (algae/macrophytes/leaves/flowers). The piraputangas fed on 12 fruit species, and were considered as seed dispersers of eight species. Fruits with soft seeds larger than 10 mm were triturated, but all species with small seeds (e.g. Ficus, Psidium) and one species with large hard seed ( Chrysophyllum gonocarpum) were dispersed. Piraputangas eat more fruits in the dry season just before the migration, but not during the spawning season. Fish length had a positive relation with the presence of fruits in their guts. The gallery forest of the Formoso River apparently does not have any plant species that depend exclusively on B. hilarii for seed dispersal because all fruit species are also dispersed by birds and mammals. Based on seed size and husk hardness of the riparian plant community of Formoso River, however, the piraputangas may potentially disperse at least 50% of the riparian fleshy fruit species and may be particularly important for long-distance dispersal. Therefore, overfishing or other anthropogenic disturbances to the populations of piraputanga may have negative consequences for the riparian forests in this region.

  9. Growth, feed utilization and nutrient digestibility in tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis aureus Steindachner) fed diets containing bacteria-treated coffee pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of bacteria treated-coffee pulp (BT-CoP) in fish diets was evaluated in a feeding trial with Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) fingerlings. Five diets were formulated to contain 0%, 6%, 12%, 18% and 24% BT-CoP, replacing wheat meal. Fish were reared in a recirculating unit

  10. Embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829

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    A. C. S. Sampaio Nakauth

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus, featuring the main events up to 50 hours after fertilization (AF. The material was provided by the Aquaculture Training, Technology and Production Center, Presidente Figueiredo (AM. The characterization was based on stereomicroscopic examination of the morphology of eggs, embryos and larvae and comparison with the literature. Matrinxã eggs are free, transparent, and spherical, with a perivitelline space of 0.56 ± 0.3 mm. The successive divisions give rise to cells with 64 blastomeres during the first hour AF. The gastrula stage, beginning 02 h 40 min AF, was characterized by progressive regression cells and the formation of the embryonic axis, leading to differentiation of the head and tail 05 h 30 min AF. From 06 to 09 h AF the somites, notochord, otic and optic vesicles and otoliths were observed, in addition to heart rate and the release of the tail. The larvae hatched at 10 h 30 min AF (29.9 °C, with a total length of 3.56 ± 0.46 mm. Between 19 and 30 h AF, we observed 1 pigmentation and gut formation, 2 branchial arches, 3 pectoral fins, 4 a mouth opening and 5 teeth. Cannibalism was initiated earlier (34 h AF which was associated with rapid yolk absorption (more than 90% until 50 h AF, signaling the need for an exogenous nutritional source. The environmental conditions (especially temperature influenced the time course of some events throughout the embryonic and larval development, suggesting the need for further studies on this subject.

  11. Investigation of biological activities of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions of Platonia insignis Mart. seed.

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    Costa Júnior, Joaquim S; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Sousa, Taciana O; Silva, Romézio A C; De Lima, Sidney G; Feitosa, Chistiane M; Citó, Antônia M G L; Melo Cavalcante, Ana A C; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Moura Sperotto, Angelo R; Péres, Valéria F; Moura, Dinara J; Saffi, Jenifer

    2013-01-01

    Platonia insignis Mart., a native species of the Brazilian Amazon more commonly known as bacuri, is a member of the Clusiaceae family. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition and the antioxidant and toxicity activities of the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions from P. insignis seed ethanolic extract using different experimental models. Our results demonstrate in vitro antioxidant effects, by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assays, as well as in vivo effects in antioxidant-defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to both fractions. Toxicity was evaluated against the micro-crustaceous Artemia salina Leach. and promastigote Leishmania amazonensis. The dichloromethane fraction was the most active fraction evaluated on A. salina and promastigote L. amazonensis (IC(50)  = 24.89 μg/mL and 2.84 μg/mL, respectively). In addition, a slight cytotoxicity was observed in mammalian V79 cells using ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions with MTT assays. Both fractions displayed genotoxicity up to 25 μg/mL (dichloromethane) and 10 μg/mL (ethyl acetate) in V79 cells, as evaluated by the alkaline comet assay. Thus, in this study, we demonstrate for the first time that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions from P. insignis seeds display antioxidant effects, a toxic effect against A. salina and L. amazonensis and induce genotoxicity in V79 mammalian cells. The observed activities can be attributed to the phenolic compounds present in these fractions and to the presence of xanthones (alpha- and gamma-mangostin). © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  12. Curvas de crescimento morfométrico de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Morphometric growth curves of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Juliana Sampaio Guedes Gomiero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras M.G., com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de crescimento morfométrico em função do peso corporal para a piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Alevinos de piracanjuba foram cultivados em viveiros de terra e alimentados com ração comercial até atingirem peso aproximado de 1 kg. Durante o período experimental realizaram-se amostragens aleatórias, onde foram avaliadas as medidas morfométricas comprimento da cabeça (CCAB, comprimento padrão (CP, altura (AND e largura (LND tomada no 1ºraio da nadadeira dorsal e as razões morfométricas (CCAB/CP, AND/CP, LND/CP, AND/LND utilizando-se as funções de Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz e Logística. As funções estudadas apresentaram bom ajuste para todas as medidas morfométricas e para a razão CCAB/CP. As funções de Brody, von Bertalanffy e Gompertz apresentaram qualidades de ajuste semelhantes e superiores à função Logística para as medidas morfométricas. Para a razão CCAB/CP a função Logística apresentou-se superior às demais. A taxa de crescimento da CCAB e LND foi superior às do CP e AND, indicando um crescimento mais rápido da cabeça e largura do que do comprimento padrão e altura. Conclui-se que todos os modelos estudados apresentaram bom ajuste, sendo o de Brody e o de von Bertalanffy os que descrevem melhor o crescimento morfométrico da piracanjuba.An experiment was carried out at the fish farming sector of the Universidade Federal de Lavras M.G., with the objective of establishing morphometric growth curves as a function of the body weight of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Fingerlings of piracanjuba were cultivated in earthen ponds and fed a commercial diet (ad libitum until they reached weight of about 1 kg. During the experimental period, samplings were randomly selected to take morphometric measures of the head length (CCAB, standard length (CP, height (AND, and breadth (LND

  13. Reproductive apparatus and gametogenesis of Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner (Pisces, Teleostei, Siluriformes Aparelho reprodutor e gametogênese de Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner (Pisces, Teleostei, Siluriformes

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    Marcelo D. M. Barros

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The gonad morphology and gametogenesis of Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1877 from Santo Antônio river (Minas Gerais, Brazil were studied through anatomical and histological techniques. Examination of the testis revealed that they were paired, fringed organs with two distinct regions: cranial spermatogenic and caudal spermatogenic and secretory. The cranial region represents ca. 60% of the mature/maturing testis, containing 41 to 73 fringes, while the caudal portion represents ca. 40% and contains 44 to 68 fringes. At the cranial portion the length of the fringes was 3.70 ± 1.70 mm and in the caudal portion was 0.20 ± 0.10 mm. The spermatogenesis was cystic, synchronic, and occurred throughout the whole extension of the seminiferous tubules. The ovaries were saculiforms, paired organs, which present ovigerous lamellae containing cells of the oogenic lineage. The oocytes were classified into four developmental stages according to their cytological characteristics and the characteristics of the cell layers that surround them.A morfologia das gônadas e a gametogênese de Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1877 do rio Santo Antônio, bacia do rio Doce, Minas Gerais, foram estudadas através de técnicas anatômicas e histológicas. Os testículos são órgãos pares, franjados e apresentam regiões cranial espermatogênica e caudal espermatogênica e secretora. A região cranial corresponde aproximadamente a 60% do comprimento do testículo em maturação/maduro e contém de 41 a 73 franjas e a região caudal representa 40% e possui de 44 a 68 franjas. Na região cranial o comprimento das franjas é 3,70 ± 1,70 mm e na região caudal 0,20 ± 0,10 mm. A espermatogênese ocorre de forma sincrônica, em cistos, e em toda a extensão da parede dos túbulos seminíferos. Os ovários são órgãos pares, saculiformes e, histologicamente, apresentam lamelas ovígeras que contém as células da linhagem ovogênica. Os ovócitos foram

  14. Estabilidade da polpa do bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. congelada por 12 meses Stability of the bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart. frozen for 12 months

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    Virlane Kelly Lima da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de realizar o processamento e avaliar a estabilidade da polpa de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. submetida ao congelamento durante 12 meses. Durante o período de armazenamento não ocorreram alterações significativas nas características físico-químicas da polpa quanto aos teores de sólidos solúveis, pH, atividade de água, açúcares totais e redutores, vitamina C, compostos fenólicos poliméricos e oligoméricos, pectina total e solúvel e cor L, a* , b*, enquanto que a acidez total e relação SST/AT variaram com o tempo de armazenamento. Os compostos fenólicos dímeros apresentaram aumento em função do tempo. Pelos resultados obtidos, a polpa de bacuri não pode ser considerada uma boa fonte de vitamina C. Por outro lado, apresenta baixos teores de compostos fenólicos caracterizando a polpa como, potencialmente pouco adstringente e com potencial para o processamento. A qualidade microbiológica não foi alterada durante o período de armazenamento. Os resultados apontam a eficiência do congelamento na manutenção das características físico-químicas e microbiológicas da polpa de bacuri.The objective of this work was to process and evaluate the stability of the bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. pulp submitted to freezing for 12 months. During the storage period there were significant changes in the physiochemical characteristics of the pulp as for the content of total soluble solids, pH, water activity, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C, polimer and oligomeric phenolic compounds , total and soluble pectin and color L, the a*, b *,while total acidity and soluble solids varied with the storange period. The dimers phenolic compounds incresead with the time. According to the results, the bacuri pulp cannot be considered a good source of vitamin C, but it presents low contents of phenolic compounds characterizing the pulp as little astringent, thus showing potential for the processing

  15. Efficacy of some oils and chemical compounds on Insignorthezia insignis (Browne) (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae) infesting Lantana camara in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moursi, S Khadiga; Abo-Shanab, A S H; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak, S I; Mourad, A K; Zaghloul, O A; Abdel-Fatah, R S

    2010-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in March, 2008 in El-Nouzha garden, Alexandria governorate. Pre-and post treatment inspections of the insects were examined and recorded before and after (2,4,8, and 12 weeks). Spraying was applied to evaluate the efficiency of the tested compounds, [Mineral oils (KZ oil and Star oil); IGRs (Chlorfluazuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen); Neem oil; emamectin benzoate and thiamethoxam]. Percentages of reduction were calculated. The ensign scale insects Insignorthezia insignis (Browne) were collected from treated Lantana camara shrubs to investigate the effect of the tested chemicals on Aspartate transferase (AST), Alanine transferase (ALT) and Alkaline-phosphatase (ALPK) of the insect enzymes activities. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the tested materials gave good results for controlling both adult and immature stages of the ensign scale insect Insignorthezia insignis (Browne) that infested Lantana camara shrubs, through affecting enzymes activities of the assigned insect pest.

  16. Composted Green Waste as a Substitute for Peat in Growth Media: Effects on Growth and Nutrition of Calathea insignis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang; Tian, Yun; Gong, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Peat mined from endangered wetland ecosystems is generally used as a component in soilless potting media in horticulture but is a costly and non-renewable natural resource. The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of replacing peat with different percentages (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100%) of composted green waste (CGW) as growth media for the production of the ornamental plant Calathea insignis. Compared with 100% peat media, media containing CGW had improved physical and ch...

  17. Functional morphology, biomechanics and biomimetic potential of stem–branch connections in Dracaena reflexa and Freycinetia insignis

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    Tom Masselter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Branching in plants is one of the most important assets for developing large arborescent growth forms with complex crowns. While the form and development of branching in gymnosperms and dicotyledonous trees is widely understood, very little is known about branching patterns and the structure of branch–stem-junctions in arborescent monocotyledons. For a better and quantitative understanding of the functional morphology of branch–stem-junctions in arborescent monocotyledons, we investigated the two species Dracaena reflexa and Freycinetia insignis. While D. reflexa is able to develop large arborescent forms with conspicuous crowns by anomalous secondary growth, F. insignis remains relatively small and is only capable of primary growth. Biomechanical investigations were performed by applying vertical loads up to rupture to lateral branches of both species. This allows the analysis of the fracture mechanics and the determination of the maximal force, stress and strain at rupture as well as the fracture toughness. Functional morphology was correlated with the mechanical behaviour of these plants and compared to data of other dicotyledonous trees. The high energy absorption found in the rupture process of lateral branches of D. reflexa and F. insignis makes them promising biological concept generators with a high potential for biomimetic implementation, i.e., for the development of branched fibre-reinforced technical composites. A wide range of constructional elements with branched (sub-structures can be optimised by using solutions inspired by plant ramifications, e.g., in automotive and aerospace engineering, architecture, sports equipment and prosthetic manufacturing.

  18. Milt quality and spermatozoa morphology of captive Brycon siebenthalae (Eigenmann) broodstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Lombo-Rodríguez, Dora A.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop artificial reproduction in freshwater fish for potential species to be developed in South American aquaculture, milt quality and sperm morphology were studied in yamu (Brycon siebenthalae) under captive conditions during the natural middle spermiation period. The volume of milt...... collected for each male was 1.8 mL and the sperm concentration was 13.99 spermatozoa/mL. Spermatocrit (41.5%) was positively associated (r2: 0.30) with sperm density calculated using a corpuscle counting chamber. Sperm motility was 88% and the average duration of forward motility was 41 s. Fertilization...

  19. Diluidores e crioprotetores no resfriamento e congelamento do sêmen de piracanjuba ( Brycon orbignyanus)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, Alexandre Nizio

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo de preservação de sêmen do piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus) através dos processos de resfriamento a 4ºC e congelamento. Os trabalhos foram realizados na Estação de Piscicultura da Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Itutinga-MG. No experimento 1 foram avaliados diversos diluidores, crioprotetores (DMSO, metanol e metil glicol) e antibiótico (sulfato de gentamicina) no resfriamento do sêmen. No experimento 2, os diluidores que me...

  20. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RED BLOOD CELLS OF Telestes metohiensis (Steindachner, 1901

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    Radoslav Dekić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the morphometric characteristics of red blood cells of endemic fish species of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Telestes metohiensis (Steindachner, 1901 inhabiting the Vrijeka river in the Dabar field. A total of 30 fish were sampled during August, 2010. Morphological measurements included the following parameters: axes of the red blood cells and nuclei, the surface of the red blood cells and nuclei and the thickness of the red blood cells. Morphometric characteristics of the erythrocyte maturation stages (acidophilic and polychromatic erythroblasts were also studied as well as their proportion in the peripheral blood. 100 mature forms were measured for each individual. The propotion of the immature forms was expressed per 1000 erythrocytes. Results showed that dimensions of the erythrocytes differed in systematic categories as well as fish types. Dimensions of mature erythrocytes and their maturation stages of the same species differed in shape and size of the nuclei. Proportion of the erythrocyte maturation stages was very low in comparison with the mature erythrocytes, indicating the optimal environmental conditions for the studied species.Key words: morphometric characteristics, erythrocytes, Telestes metohiensis, proportion of immature stages

  1. Genetic evidence of population structuring in the neotropical freshwater fish Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850

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    A Sanches

    Full Text Available Brycon hilarii is a migratory fish widely distributed throughout the Paraguay River Basin. It is appreciated in sport fishing and for its superior meat quality. It is also the main species for tourist attraction in the Bonito region (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Considering the lack of information on the genetic structure of the fish of this species, the aim of the present study was to detect the genetic variability of Brycon hilarii through RAPD markers. A total of eighty specimens collected in different seasons at four sites of the Miranda River sub-basin (Paraguay River Basin, Brazil were used for analysis. The results of genetic similarity, Shannon diversity, and AMOVA revealed differences between the sampling sites. Through AMOVA, differences between populations were more evident among the animals collected during the non-reproductive season, corresponding to a time of less movement of these fish. A population structuring model in which B. hilarii appears organized into genetically differentiated reproductive units that coexist and co-migrate through the studied system was suggested, contrasting the currently accepted idea that freshwater migratory fish form large panmictic populations in a determined hydrographic system. Despite the lack of a complete picture regarding the distribution of B. hilarii in the studied region, this initial idea on its population genetic structure could be an important contribution to providing aid for management and conservation programs of these fish.

  2. Caracterización citogenética del pez neotropical Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae

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    Diana David López

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La sabaleta Brycon henni, es un pez nativo del occidente colombiano importante para la seguridad alimentaria de las poblaciones ribereñas y para la pesca deportiva por sus característica combativas. El desarrollarse entre los 18 y 28ºC la convierte en una especie de cultivo promisoria. Un estudio citogenético a partir de células branquiales indicó diferentes complementos cromosómicos. Este trabajo aplicó la técnica de cultivo de linfocitos a muestras de sangre de adultos. Las muestras de sangre total fueron sembradas en 4 ml de medio de cultivo Ham-F12, suplementado con 0.5 ml de Suero Fetal Bovino y 0.7 ml del mitógeno Fitohemaglutinina M (Gibco® durante 96 hr a 28ºC; 1.5 hr antes de la cosecha agregamos 100µl de Colcemid al 10% como factor antimitótico. Cada cultivo se incubó con 10 ml de solución hipotónica KCl 0.56% por 24 min a 37ºC, para continuar con tres fijaciones sucesivas, centrifugaciones y tinción Giemsa al 5%. Las mejores metafases fueron fotografiadas en microscopio, correspondientes a 6 machos y 8 hembras, indicando un número diploide de 50 cromosomas, clasificados en Metacéntricos (26M, Submetacéntricos (16SM y Subtelocéntricos (8ST, para un número fundamental (NF de 100 brazos. La tendencia evolutiva hallada fue de tipo B; no se encontraron cromosomas supernumerarios pero sí un primer par de cromosomas metacéntricos grandes, considerado marcador para el género Brycon, no determinante de heteromorfismo sexual. Estos resultados coinciden con los demás bricónidos investigados, en donde se podría considerar un ancestro común con un número cromosómico básico y cariotipos simétricos.Cytogenetic characterization of the neotropical fish Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae. Brycon henni, is a native fish from Western Colombia is important as food and in sport fishing, and could be cultured in waters between 18 and 28ºC. A previous cytogenetic study in branchial cells indicated different chromosomal

  3. Morphometrics and allometry of the larvae of five Characiformes species in the Paraíba do Sul River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Guilherme; Caramaschi, Erica P; Monteiro, Leandro R

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the morphology and allometry of larvae belonging to five potamodromous species. Five breeding species belonging to the order Characiformes [Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816), Leporinus steindachneri, Eigenmann, 1907, Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837), Prochilodus vimboides (Kner,1859) and Brycon insignis, Steindachner, 1877] were used to obtain larvae samples during the pre-flexing, post-flexing, and juvenile developmental stages. When we observed the degree-hour (DH) amplitude time values, we found three developmental groups based on allometry and morphometrics within the period between the pre-flexing and post-flexing phases. Group 1 consists of the species S. brasiliensis and B. insignis, Group 2 consists of P. lineatus and P. vimboides, and Group 3 consists of L. steindachneri. Group 1 requires less development time and has more slender larvae. Group 2 has a moderate development time and larvae with a more rounded shape. Group 3 presents a greater development time and an intermediate larval morphology. It was possible to classify the larvae through cross-validated discriminant analyses based on seven morphometric variables with 90% accuracy in B. insignis, 83% in L. steindachneri, 91% in P. lineatus, 80% in P. vimboides, and 96% in S. brasiliensis. These results indicate larval characteristics that can be used for the taxonomic identification of the icthyoplankton.

  4. Caracterização genética de Brycon orbignyanus utilizando o sistema seminatural Genetic characterization of Brycon orbignyanus using the semi-natural system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Lopera-Barrero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do sistema seminatural na diversidade genética de um estoque de Brycon orbignyanus, utilizado em programas de repovoamento, com o marcador molecular RAPD. Vinte e quatro reprodutores, 12 machos e 12 fêmeas e 95 larvas da progênie foram analisados. Os nove primers utilizados produziram 90 fragmentos, dos quais 94,4% foram polimórficos. Houve diferença significativa na frequência de 20 dos 90 fragmentos entre os reprodutores e sua progênie sem a presença de fragmentos exclusivos. O índice de diversidade genética de Shannon, a porcentagem de fragmentos polimórficos e a diversidade genética de Nei foram mais altos nos indivíduos da progênie. A similaridade genética foi maior nos indivíduos do estoque de reprodutores. A análise de variância molecular mostrou que a maior parte da variação está dentro de cada grupo (89,1% e não entre os grupos (10,9%. A identidade e a distância genética entre os estoques foram de 0,944 e 0,057, respectivamente. Assim, a utilização do sistema seminatural evitou a mortalidade de reprodutores B. orbignyanus e conservou a variabilidade genética da progênie.The effect of the semi-natural system on the genetic diversity of a Brycon orbignyanus stock, used in stock enhancement programs, was evaluated with the RAPD molecular marker. Twenty-four broodstocks - 12 males and 12 females - and 95 larvae of the offspring were analyzed. The nine used primers produced 90 fragments, of which 94.4% were polymorphic. There was significant difference in the frequency of 20 out of the 90 fragments between the broodstocks and their offspring without the presence of exclusive fragments. The Shannon genetic diversity index, the percentage of polymorphic fragments and the Nei gene diversity were higher in the offspring individuals. Genetic similarity was higher in broodstock individuals. The analysis of molecular variance results showed that the major part of the genetic variation is within the

  5. MODELING SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF A RARE AND ENDANGERED PLANT SPECIES (Brainea insignis IN CENTRAL TAIWAN

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    W.-C. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in the rate of species extinction, we should choose right methods that are sustainable on the basis of appropriate science and human needs to conserve ecosystems and rare species. Species distribution modeling (SDM uses 3S technology and statistics and becomes increasingly important in ecology. Brainea insignis (cycad-fern, CF has been categorized a rare, endangered plant species, and thus was chosen as a target for the study. Five sampling schemes were created with different combinations of CF samples collected from three sites in Huisun forest station and one site, 10 km farther north from Huisun. Four models, MAXENT, GARP, generalized linear models (GLM, and discriminant analysis (DA, were developed based on topographic variables, and were evaluated by five sampling schemes. The accuracy of MAXENT was the highest, followed by GLM and GARP, and DA was the lowest. More importantly, they can identify the potential habitat less than 10% of the study area in the first round of SDM, thereby prioritizing either the field-survey area where microclimatic, edaphic or biotic data can be collected for refining predictions of potential habitat in the later rounds of SDM or search areas for new population discovery. However, it was shown unlikely to extend spatial patterns of CFs from one area to another with a big separation or to a larger area by predictive models merely based on topographic variables. Follow-up studies will attempt to incorporate proxy indicators that can be extracted from hyperspectral images or LIDAR DEM and substitute for direct parameters to make predictive models applicable on a broader scale.

  6. Muscle biopsy technique for electrophoresis analysis of fish from the genus Brycon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilsdorf Alexandre

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein and mitochondrial DNA have been used as molecular markers to assess variability in stock identification studies of fishes. Protein and mtDNA used for electrophoretic analysis are extracted from tissues, which often leads to death of the individuals. In this study, we present a skeletal muscle biopsy procedure to extract mitochondrial DNA that does not require specimen sacrifice. Eighty pirapitinga-do-sul (Brycon opalinus were biopsied by the present technique, with no mortalities recorded. Total DNA was extracted from muscle and digested by restriction enzymes ApaI and HpaI. The mtDNA fragment patterns were hybridized with 32P-labeled pirapitinga-do-sul mtDNA probes. The described technique is simple and may be useful in protocols requiring tissue extraction for DNA and protein analyses without loss of the individual investigated.

  7. Composted green waste as a substitute for peat in growth media: effects on growth and nutrition of Calathea insignis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang; Tian, Yun; Gong, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Peat mined from endangered wetland ecosystems is generally used as a component in soilless potting media in horticulture but is a costly and non-renewable natural resource. The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of replacing peat with different percentages (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100%) of composted green waste (CGW) as growth media for the production of the ornamental plant Calathea insignis. Compared with 100% peat media, media containing CGW had improved physical and chemical characteristics to achieve the acceptable ranges. Moreover, CGW addition had increased the stability (i.e., reduced the decomposition rates) of growth media mixtures, as indicated by comparison of particle-size distribution at the start and end of a 7-month greenhouse experiment. Addition of CGW also supported increased plant growth (biomass production, root morphology, nutrient contents, and photosynthetic pigment contents). The physical and chemical characteristics of growth media and plant growth were best with a medium containing 70% CGW and were better in a medium with 100% CGW than in one with 100% peat media. These results indicate that CGW is a viable alternative to peat for the cultivation of Calathea insignis.

  8. Composted green waste as a substitute for peat in growth media: effects on growth and nutrition of Calathea insignis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    Full Text Available Peat mined from endangered wetland ecosystems is generally used as a component in soilless potting media in horticulture but is a costly and non-renewable natural resource. The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of replacing peat with different percentages (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% of composted green waste (CGW as growth media for the production of the ornamental plant Calathea insignis. Compared with 100% peat media, media containing CGW had improved physical and chemical characteristics to achieve the acceptable ranges. Moreover, CGW addition had increased the stability (i.e., reduced the decomposition rates of growth media mixtures, as indicated by comparison of particle-size distribution at the start and end of a 7-month greenhouse experiment. Addition of CGW also supported increased plant growth (biomass production, root morphology, nutrient contents, and photosynthetic pigment contents. The physical and chemical characteristics of growth media and plant growth were best with a medium containing 70% CGW and were better in a medium with 100% CGW than in one with 100% peat media. These results indicate that CGW is a viable alternative to peat for the cultivation of Calathea insignis.

  9. Shell occupation by the hermit crab Dardanus insignis (Decapoda, Diogenidae from the north Coast of São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Frameschi

    Full Text Available Abstract The pattern of shell occupation by the hermit crab Dardanus insignis (Saussure, 1858 from the subtropical region of southeastern coast of Brazil was investigated in the present study. The percentage of shell types that were occupied and the morphometric relationships between hermit crabs and occupied shells were analyzed from monthly collections conducted during two years (from January 1998 to December 1999. Individuals were categorized according to sex and gonadal maturation, weighed and measured with respect to their cephalothoracic shield length (CSL and wet weight (CWW. Shells were measured regarding their aperture width (SAW, dry weight (SDW and internal volume (SIV. A total of 1086 hermit crabs was collected, occupying shells of 11 gastropod species. Olivancillaria urceus (Roding, 1798 was most commonly used by the hermit crab D. insignis, followed by Buccinanops cochlidium (Dillwyn, 1817, and Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767. The highest determination coefficients (r2 > 0.50, p < 0.01 were recorded particularly in the morphometric relationships between CSL vs. CWW and SAW vs. SIV, which are important indication that in this D. insignis population the great majority the animals occupied adequate shells during the two years analysed. The high number of used shell species and relative plasticity in pattern of shell utilization by smaller individuals of D. insignis indicated that occupation is influenced by the shell availability, while larger individuals demonstrated more specialized occupation in Tonna galea (Linnaeus, 1758 shell.

  10. A new species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adelerina) from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-Nojosa, Diva M; Borges-Leite, M Juliana; Maia, João P; Zanchi-Silva, Djan; da Rocha Braga, Roberta; Harris, D James

    2017-01-01

    Based on both unique morphological characteristics of the gamont, distinct changes caused to the host erythrocyte and analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences, a new parasite of the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 is described from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil. The new species, Hepatozoon musa n. sp., is characterized by large and curved mature gamonts (18.9 ± 0.9 μm in length and 3.8 ± 0.3 μm in width) that considerably engorge infected host erythrocytes and displace the nucleus laterally, which become longer and thinner. Phylogenetic estimates indicate the new species is more closely related to the recently described Hepatozoon cuestensis O'Dwyer, Moço, Paduan, Spenassatto, Silva & Ribolla, 2013, from Brazilian rattlesnakes. These recent findings highlight the need for further studies of Hepatozoon to better determine the biodiversity of this common but poorly-studied parasite group.

  11. On the systematics of Trimeresurus labialis Fitzinger in Steindachner, 1867, a pitviper from the Nicobar Islands (India), with revalidation of Trimeresurus mutabilis Stoliczka, 1870 (Squamata, Viperidae, Crotalinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Gernot; David, Patrick; Chandramouli, S R

    2014-04-14

    The Asian pitviper currently identified as Trimeresurus labialis Fitzinger in Steindachner, 1867 is revised on the basis of morphological data obtained from 37 preserved specimens originating from seven islands of the Nicobar Islands. Multivariate analyses shows that these specimens can be divided into two clusters of populations which differ by a series of constant taxonomically informative morphological characters. The first cluster, which includes the name-bearing types of Trimeresurus labialis Fitzinger in Steindachner, 1867, is present only on Car Nicobar Island. The second cluster, which includes the name-bearing types of Trimeresurus mutabilis Stoliczka, 1870, is distributed on the Central Nicobar Islands. We regard these clusters as distinct species, which are morphologically diagnosable and isolated from each other. As a consequence, Trimeresurus mutabilis, long considered a synonym of T. labialis, is here resurrected to specific level. A lectotype is designated for Trimeresurus mutabilis.

  12. A new critical habitat for conservation of the White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis Hume, 1878 (Aves: Ardeidae from Bhutan

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    Karma Wangdi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its extremely small and rapidly dwindling population. Bhutan is home to the highest number of White-bellied Heron and the species is distributed patchily across 11 different sites in central and south-west Bhutan. In this note, we present the first evidence of the species in eastern Bhutan, on the Drangmechhu River in Trashi Yangtse district. The finding extends the distribution of the species in Bhutan and recognizes one more potentially critical habitat for immediate conservation attention. As elsewhere, the new site is found to be primarily threatened by hydropower development. The need for conservation initiatives for the species is immediate and highly recommended.

  13. Chemical compositions and antioxidative and antidiabetic properties of underutilized vegetable palm hearts from Plectocomiopsis geminiflora and Eugeissona insignis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Aufa, Zabidah; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-03-05

    Underutilized vegetables are currently studied not only for their nutrient values but also for their health-promoting components for protection against chronic diseases. The present study was performed to evaluate chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of underutilized vegetable palm hearts, namely, lalis (Plectocomiopsis geminiflora) and pantu (Eugeissona insignis). Additionally, the vegetable extracts were evaluated for their activities in the inhibition of digestive enzymes and effects on insulin secretion using BRIN BD11 pancreatic cell lines. Both vegetables contain valuable sources of dietary fiber, potassium, and zinc. For the first time, the phenolic compounds of the vegetables were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Appreciable amounts of chlorogenic acid were found in the studied vegetables. The sample extracts exhibited potential antioxidant capacities through chemical and biological in vitro assays. High inhibition of α-amylase activity (>50%) was found from the extracts. Thus, it was suggested the vegetable consumption could fulfill the nutrient requirements among local communities.

  14. Restriction site heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial DNA of Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconiae

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    A.W.S. Hilsdorf

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Homoplasmy is a feature usually found in the mtDNA of higher animal taxa. On the other hand, the presence of two classes of mtDNA in the same cell or organism is rare and may appear in length or site variation. Data from mtDNA RFLP analysis of Brycon opalinus populations (Cuvier, 1819; Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae revealed site heteroplasmy from endonuclease NheI digestion. Southern blotting hybridization was used to survey a total of 257 specimens with 24 restriction enzymes. Three different restriction fragment patterns of mtDNA were obtained from NheI digestion. Two individuals from hatchery broodstock were found to have two of them. NheI digests of heteroplasmic individuals yielded two fragments of approximately 1180 and 1260 bp. Despite the low frequency of this type of heteroplasmy in the whole B. opalinus population, the presence of site heteroplasmy in this species supports the evidence of this phenomenon in lower vertebrate groups.

  15. Fish stock assessment of piraputanga Brycon microlepis in the Cuiabá River basin, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    L. A. de F. MATEUS

    Full Text Available Fork length measurements of individuals of Brycon microlepis landed and commercialized at the Porto Market in Cuiabá, MT, from May-October 1996 to May-October 1997 were used to estimate growth and mortality parameters for this species. The average estimated populational parameters were: L¥ = 705 mm, k = 0.275 year--1, C = 0.775, WP = 0.465, Lc = 164 mm, M = 0.585 year--1, Z = 0.822 year--1, with F = 0.237 year--1. Yield per recruit analysis suggests that the stock is not yet overexploited.

  16. Seasonal variation of sperm quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and sperm concentration in yamú Brycon amazonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Medina-Robles, Víctor M.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2007-01-01

    Osmolality, the concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, and the concentrations of ions such as Na+, Cl-, K+, and Mg2+ in the seminal plasma of yamú Brycon amazonicus were evaluated during one reproductive season. Semen quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and ...

  17. Water flow requirements related to oxygen consumption in juveniles of Oplegnathus insignis Requerimientos de flujo de agua en función del consumo de oxígeno en juveniles de Oplegnathus insignis

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    Elio Segovia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the oxygen consumption rate in four groups of Oplegnathus insignis was examined under three different water temperatures 13, 18 and 23°C. Average weight of each group of fish was 9.5, 198, 333 and 525 g respectively. Oxygen consumption was measured in a respirometer of 18.8 L capacity and results show that at the same water temperature occurs an inverse relationship between body weight and oxygen consumption whereas for same body weight (W in kg the respiration rate varies proportionally with temperature rise (T in °C. The generalized equation of oxygen consumption (Ro in routine metabolism was determined as: Ro (mg O2 kg-1 h-1 = [85.229 + (10.03 T]-(221.344 W. The information it is analized with regard to establishing quantitative relationships that allow a more precise specification of the water flow requirements and renewal rates in open flow systems without oxygenation, considering aspects such as body weight, respiratory rate, temperature and stocking density.Se determinó la tasa de consumo de oxígeno de Oplegnathus insignis en cuatro grupos de peces bajo tres temperaturas diferentes: 13, 18 y 23°C. El peso promedio de cada grupo de peces fue de 9,5, 198, 333 y 523 g respectivamente. El consumo de oxígeno se determinó en un respirómetro de 18,8 L de capacidad y los resultados muestran que a una misma temperatura ocurre una relación inversa entre el peso corporal (W en kg y el consumo de oxígeno, mientras que para un mismo peso corporal la tasa respiratoria varía proporcionalmente con el ascenso de temperatura (T en °C. La ecuación generalizada que representa el consumo de oxígeno (Ro en metabolismo de rutina se determinó como: Ro (mg O2 kg-1 h-1 = [85.229 + (10.03 T]-(221.344 W. Se analizó la información en relación a establecer las relaciones cuantitativas que permitan una especificación más exacta de los requerimientos de flujo de agua y tasas de renovación en sistemas de flujo abierto y sin oxigenaci

  18. Cadmium-induced disruption of environmental exploration and chemical communication in matrinxa, Brycon amazonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, R.T. [Centro Universitario Nilton Lins - CUNL, Laboratory of Toxicology, Av. Prof. Nilton Lins 3259, Parque das Laranjeiras, Zip 69058-040 Manaus, AM (Brazil)], E-mail: rhonda@niltonlins.br; Fernandes-de-Castilho, M. [Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Research Center on Animal Welfare (RECAW), Laboratory of Studies on Animal Stress, Department of Physiology, Sector of Biological Science, Jardim das Americas, Zip 81531-970 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Val, A.L. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia - INPA, Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, Av. Andre Araujo 2936, Aleixo, Zip 69083-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2008-09-17

    The effects of cadmium exposure on both environment exploration and behavioral responses induced by alarm substance in matrinxa (Brycon amazonicus), a fish species endemic to the Amazon basin, were investigated. Fish exposed to 9.04 {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/L waterborne cadmium for 96 h followed by 24 h depuration period in clean water, were video-recorded for 15 min, followed by immediate introduction of conspecific skin extract to the tank and a new 30 min period of fish video-recording. Cd-exposed matrinxa showed a significantly lowered locomotor activity (t-test t{sub 12} = 2.7; p = 0.025) and spatial distribution (t-test t{sub 12} = 2.4; p = 0.03) relative to the unexposed control fish prior to the alarm substance introduction, and did not present any significant reaction when the skin extract was introduced. The control fish, in opposite, showed a higher level of activity and spatial distribution prior the skin extract contact and significantly decreased their response after the chemical stimulus (locomotion-repeated-measure ANOVA F{sub 1,11} = 5.6; p = 0.04; spatial distribution F{sub 1,11} = 19.4; p = 0.001). In conclusion, exposure to a low level of cadmium affects both the environment exploration performance and the conspecific chemical communication in matrinxa. If the reduced environmental exploration performance of Cd-exposed fish is an adjustment to the compromised chemical communication or an independent effect of cadmium is the next step to be investigated.

  19. Dietary L-tryptophan alters aggression in juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Serra, Mônica; Hoshiba, Márcio Aquio; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with L: -tryptophan (L-TRP), a serotonin precursor, on the aggressiveness of juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus. Fish were kept in individual aquaria for 7 days receiving the diets: D1 (control: 0.47% of TRP), D2 (0.94% of TRP), D3 (1.88% of TRP), and D4 (3.76% of TRP). After this, they were grouped with an intruder fish to establish a resident-intruder relationship during periods of 20 min. Blood cortisol, glucose, chloride, sodium and calcium; hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count and volume; liver glycogen and lipids were measured. Territoriality had significant effect on the aggressiveness of matrinxã (the residents were more aggressive than intruders, P tryptophan significantly affected their behavior. Fish fed with the D2 diet presented a longer latency until the first attack (P = 0.0069) and bit the intruder fewer times (P = 0.0136) during the period of observation, compared to the control group. The frequency of bites and chases after the first attack was not affected by the dietary supplementation of TRP. Physiological variables were not significantly affected by the diet, except for a moderate increase in cortisol level in fish fed with D2 diet after the fight, indicating slight activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis. The results show that juvenile matrinxã have aggressive and territorial behavior and that a diet containing 9.4 g TRP kg(-1) alter their aggressiveness, without affecting the stress-related physiological parameters.

  20. Efecto de la ración alimenticia en el crecimiento de juveniles de tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) bajo condiciones experimentales de cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    M. García-Ulloa

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó el crecimiento de juveniles (2.77 g de peso promedio) de la tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner), cultivados con diferentes raciones alimenticias bajo condiciones experimentales de laboratorio. Los tratamientos consistieron en el suplemento alimenticio de 6, 8 y 10% del peso de la biomasa total, los cuales fueron estudiados por triplicado en peceras de vidrio de 113 L de capacidad, ajustando una densidad inicial de 25 peces por acuario. El ensayo tuvo una duración de 35 días, y...

  1. Luta biológica clássica com Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae no combate à Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae em jacarandá Biological control with Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae to control Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae on blue jacaranda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Félix

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os jacarandás e várias plantas ornamentais que ornamentam passeios e áreas ajardinadas da cidade do Funchal encontram-se infestados pela cochonilha Orthezia insignis Browne. Para combater esta praga foi importada do Quénia, uma joaninha, Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch. Este predador é específico de O. insignis e tem sido utilizado, com sucesso em programas de luta biológica, em vários países de África, no Peru, Hawai e na Ilha de Santa Helena. Na Ilha da Madeira, desde Julho de 2002, H. pantherina está a ser criado em laboratório e largado em jacarandás infestados com o objectivo de combater a cochonilha-dojacarandá através da luta biológica clássica. Referem-se as largadas de H. pantherina e o sistema de monitorização adoptado para verificar a aclimatação do predador.The Jacaranda trees and other ornamental plants used in sidewalks and gardenlike areas of sidewalks and other gardened areas of the downton Capital city of Madeira Island (Funchal, are infested by the Jacaranda or Lantana Bug, Orthezia insignis Browne. A ladybird, Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch, was imported from Kenya to control this pest. This ladybird is a specific predator of O. insignis and it has been used, successfully in biological control programs, in several countries of Africa, in Peru, Hawaii and in Santa Helena Island. In Madeira Island, H. pantherina is being reared in laboratory and released into infested jacarandas since July 2002, in a classical biological control way. The releasing of H. pantherina is described in detail as well as the adopted monitoring system to verify its acclimation.

  2. Dinâmica populacional da matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae na Amazônia Central Population dynamics of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae in Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leocy C. dos Santos Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 is one of the most important fishery resources of the Amazonas state. Its population dynamics in Central Amazon was analyzed based on total landing and biometry data registered in the main landing port of Manaus, between 1994 and 2002. Growth and mortality rates were estimated separately for the rivers Purus, Madeira and Solimões. Differences in size structure and growth curves suggest that different population units exist among these rivers, requiring individualized evaluation and fisheries management strategies. The analysis of the yield per recruit does not indicate overexploitation. However, the highest relative exploitation rate was observed in the Madeira river. The suggested management strategies are related to restrictions to the fishery in the main fishing grounds during the migratory dispersal period, instead of restrictions during reproductive periods.

  3. Pentastomid infection in Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824 (Squamata: Colubridae in a caatinga of northeastern Brazil

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    WO. Almeida

    Full Text Available The relationship between pentastomids and two Colubridae species, Phillodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824, were investigated in the federal government’s reserve Estação Ecológica do Seridó (ESEC, Seridó situated at lat 6° 35’-40’ S and long 37° 15’-20 W in the municipality of Serra Negra do Norte, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil and run by IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Resources. Throughout 2005, 26 specimens of snakes, 13 of P. nattereri and 13 of O. aeneus were collected. After anatomical dissection and laboratorial examination of the snakes’ respiratory tracts, P. nattereri was found to be parasitized by two species of pentastomids: Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922 with a prevalence of 30.8% and a mean intensity of infection of 51.5 ± 32.7 (range 3-147, and Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1863 which had a prevalence of 7.7% and a mean intensity of infection of 1.0. Only one female of O. aeneus was found to be infected by C. tetrapoda, with a prevalence of 7.7% and mean intensity of infection of 2.0. There was no significant relationship between size of snout-vent length (SVL and intensity of infection in the specimens investigated here. The two individuals of P. nattereri infected by more than 40 specimens of pentastomids had their lungs completely infected including the pulmonary peritoneum and trachea. It is noteworthy that the hosts had their lung tissues partially destroyed with apparent haemorrhage, and the trabecular structure of their lungs was also destroyed. The contrasting rates of infection estimated here may be related to differences in foraging strategies, in diet, and habitat selection carried out by individuals of P. nattereri and O. aeneus.

  4. Pentastomid infection in Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824) (Squamata: Colubridae) in a caatinga of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W O; Guedes, T B; Freire, E M X; Vasconcellos, A

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between pentastomids and two Colubridae species, Phillodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824), were investigated in the federal government's reserve Estação Ecológica do Seridó (ESEC, Seridó) situated at lat 6 degrees 35'-40' S and long 37 degrees 15'-20 W in the municipality of Serra Negra do Norte, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil and run by IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Resources). Throughout 2005, 26 specimens of snakes, 13 of P. nattereri and 13 of O. aeneus were collected. After anatomical dissection and laboratorial examination of the snakes respiratory tracts, P. nattereri was found to be parasitized by two species of pentastomids: Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922 with a prevalence of 30.8% and a mean intensity of infection of 51.5 +/- 32.7 (range 3-147), and Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1863) which had a prevalence of 7.7% and a mean intensity of infection of 1.0. Only one female of O. aeneus was found to be infected by C. tetrapoda, with a prevalence of 7.7% and mean intensity of infection of 2.0. There was no significant relationship between size of snout-vent length (SVL) and intensity of infection in the specimens investigated here. The two individuals of P. nattereri infected by more than 40 specimens of pentastomids had their lungs completely infected including the pulmonary peritoneum and trachea. It is noteworthy that the hosts had their lung tissues partially destroyed with apparent haemorrhage, and the trabecular structure of their lungs was also destroyed. The contrasting rates of infection estimated here may be related to differences in foraging strategies, in diet, and habitat selection carried out by individuals of P. nattereri and O. aeneus.

  5. Platonia insignis Mart., a Brazilian Amazonian Plant: The Stem Barks Extract and Its Main Constituent Lupeol Exert Antileishmanial Effects Involving Macrophages Activation

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    Adriana Cunha Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Platonia insignis Mart., popularly known as “bacurizeiro,” is used in traditional medical practices based on its diverse biological properties. This study was aimed at evaluating the antileishmanial effects of the ethanol extract (EtOH-Ext, hexane fraction (Hex-F, and its main isolated Lupeol obtained from stem barks of P. insignis against Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, as well as their cytotoxicity and possible mechanisms of action. The EtOH-Ext, Hex-F, and Lupeol inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigote forms at IC50 of 174.24, 45.23, and 39.06 µg/mL, respectively, as well as L. amazonensis axenic amastigote forms at IC50 of 40.58, 35.87, and 44.10 µg/mL, respectively. The mean cytotoxic concentrations for macrophages (CC50 were higher than those for amastigotes (341.95, 71.65, and 144.0 µg/mL, resp., indicating a selective cytotoxicity towards the parasite rather than the macrophages. Interestingly, all treatments promoted antileishmanial effect against macrophage-internalized amastigotes at concentrations lower than CC50. Furthermore, increases of lysosomal volume of macrophages treated with EtOH-Ext, Hex-F, and Lupeol were observed. On the other hand, only Lupeol stimulated increase of phagocytic capability of macrophages, suggesting this compound might be characterized as the biomarker for the antileishmanial effect of P. insignis stem bark, as well as the involvement of immunomodulatory mechanisms in this effect.

  6. Platonia insignis Mart., a Brazilian Amazonian Plant: The Stem Barks Extract and Its Main Constituent Lupeol Exert Antileishmanial Effects Involving Macrophages Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Cunha; Alves, Michel Muálem de Moraes; Brito, Lucas Moreira; Oliveira, Luciano Gomes De Castro; Sobrinho-Júnior, Enoque Pereira Costa; Costa, Isabella Cristhina Gonçalves; Freitas, Sâmya Danielle Lima; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2017-01-01

    Platonia insignis Mart., popularly known as “bacurizeiro,” is used in traditional medical practices based on its diverse biological properties. This study was aimed at evaluating the antileishmanial effects of the ethanol extract (EtOH-Ext), hexane fraction (Hex-F), and its main isolated Lupeol obtained from stem barks of P. insignis against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, as well as their cytotoxicity and possible mechanisms of action. The EtOH-Ext, Hex-F, and Lupeol inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigote forms at IC50 of 174.24, 45.23, and 39.06 µg/mL, respectively, as well as L. amazonensis axenic amastigote forms at IC50 of 40.58, 35.87, and 44.10 µg/mL, respectively. The mean cytotoxic concentrations for macrophages (CC50) were higher than those for amastigotes (341.95, 71.65, and 144.0 µg/mL, resp.), indicating a selective cytotoxicity towards the parasite rather than the macrophages. Interestingly, all treatments promoted antileishmanial effect against macrophage-internalized amastigotes at concentrations lower than CC50. Furthermore, increases of lysosomal volume of macrophages treated with EtOH-Ext, Hex-F, and Lupeol were observed. On the other hand, only Lupeol stimulated increase of phagocytic capability of macrophages, suggesting this compound might be characterized as the biomarker for the antileishmanial effect of P. insignis stem bark, as well as the involvement of immunomodulatory mechanisms in this effect. PMID:28852412

  7. Coeficientes de digestibilidad total y de proteínas en alimentos experimentales para juveniles de Oplegnathus insignis (Kner, 1867) (Perciformes, Oplegnathidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino Muñoz; Elio Segovia; Masatoshi Futagawa; Christopher Marchant; Héctor Flores

    2015-01-01

    Los alimentos para peces están formulados con diversos ingredientes, donde la harina de pescado es la principal fuente de proteína. Sin embargo, este insumo tiene un alto costo que lleva a la necesidad de evaluar nuevas fuentes de proteínas y probarlas en especies marinas. Oplegnathus insignis (San Pedro, Pacific beakfish) es una especie omnívora en su etapa intermareal y carnívora en su etapa submareal, que ha sido cultivada de manera experimental, siendo necesario incorporar dietas formulad...

  8. Effect of methyl parathion on the muscle and brain acetylcholinesterase activity of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

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    Almeida Luciana Cristina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming of the freshwater fish is emerging in Brazil and many species from the wild are promising. The teleost matrinxã (Brycon cephalus holds several characteristics such as fast growth rate, high commercial value and adaptability to artificial raring conditions, which make it a promising species for commerce. The use of pesticides in aquatic environment is frequent in Brazil, and methyl parathion is very common in aquaculture. We have determined the enzymatic activity of acetyl cholinesterase in white muscle and brain of matrinxã exposed to 2ppm of environmental methyl parathion for 24 hours. There was 64% and 69% of acetyl cholinesterase inhibition in muscle and brain respectively. These activities were not recovered after 8 days from exposure to this pesticide. It can be concluded that acetyl cholinesterase from those tissues was inhibited by small amounts of methyl parathion, and the main effect was observed in the brain.

  9. Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864 (Pisces: Characidae in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    T. L. Gonçalves

    Full Text Available The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning.

  10. Gonadossomatic relation and reproductive strategy of Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819 in the Serra do Mar State Park - Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    LM Gomiero

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the gonadossomatic relation of males and females of Brycon opalinus (the Pirapitinga do Sul in the Serra do Mar State Park-Núcleo Santa Virgínia. The study area included three rivers: Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande. From the gonadossomatic relation, it was possible to determine the reproductive season and strategy of this species. The gonadossomatic relation was high throughout the year for both males and females. Sperm competition and dilution of the ejaculate in the spawning locations favored substantial development of the testicles. The sex ratio of Brycon opalinus was always in favor of females. The existence of sexual dimorphism in this species was confirmed from the larger size of the females.

  11. Probiotic in feeding of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus: economic viability=Probiótico na alimentação de juvenis de matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus: viabilidade econômica

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    Leonardo Tachibana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic feasibility of supplement probiotics Bacillus subtilis to “matrinxã” Brycon amazonicus, raised in cages. The experiment was conducted at the Polo Regional Vale do Ribeira, in Pariquera-açu municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to July 2009. A total of 960 juvenile matrinxã were stocked in twelve 2.7 m³-net cages (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.2 m, in ponds with a total area of 600 m2 and an average depth of 1.50 m. The tests were conducted with a control treatment (T1 and two probiotic doses (T2 = 5 g and T3 = 10 g kg-1 of diet with four replicates. Results showed that T2 produced better economic performance for matrinxã at the juvenile stage in intensive rearing system.Objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade econômica do uso do probiótico Bacillus subtilis na alimentação de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus, em tanques-rede. O experimento foi conduzido no Polo Regional do Vale do Ribeira, no município de Pariquera-Açu, São Paulo, Brasil, entre fevereiro e julho de 2009. Foram avaliados 960 peixes juvenis, divididos em 12 tanques-rede de 2,7 m³ (1,5 x 1,5 x 1,2 m em uma área total de 600 m2, com profundidade média de 1,50 m. Os testes foram conduzidos com um tratamento testemunha (T1, duas doses de probiótico (T2 = 5 g e T3 = 10 g kg-1 de ração e quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que o T2 proporcionou melhor desempenho zootécnico e econômico da matrinxã na fase de engorda no sistema intensivo de criação.

  12. Effects of clove oil on the stress response of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus subjected to transport Efeito do óleo de cravo na resposta de estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus submetido ao transporte

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    Luís Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish transport is one of the most stressful procedures in aquaculture facilities. The present work evaluated the stress response of matrinxã to transportation procedures, and the use of clove oil as an alternative to reduce the stress response to transport in matrinxã (Brycon cephalus. Clove oil solutions were tested in concentrations of 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg/L during matrinxã transportation in plastic bags, supplied with water and oxygen as the usual field procedures in Brazil. Clove oil reduced some of the physiological stress responses (plasma cortisol, glucose and ions that we measured. The high energetic cost to matrinxã cope with the transport stress was clear by the decrease of liver glycogen after transport. Our results suggest that clove oil (5 mg/l can mitigate the stress response in matrinxã subjected to transport.O transporte de peixes vivos é certamente um dos principais estímulos adversos à homeostase dos peixes nas condições de criação em cativeiro. O presente trabalho mensurou o estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, quando submetido ao transporte em sacos plásticos, bem como avaliou os efeitos do uso do anestésico óleo de cravo nessa etapa do manejo. Foram testadas as concentrações de 0, 1, 5 e 10 mg/L de óleo de cravo em bolsas plásticas preenchidas com água e oxigênio, de acordo com as práticas comumente utilizadas no Brasil. O óleo de cravo reduziu algumas das principais respostas ao estresse (cortisol, glicose plasmática e íons mensuradas. O alto gasto de energia para o matrinxã tolerar o transporte foi evidenciado pela diminuição dos valores de glicogênio hepático. Os resultados sugerem que o óleo de cravo em concentração de 5 mg/L pode atenuar as principais respostas de estresse do matrinxã durante o transporte.

  13. Coeficientes de digestibilidad total y de proteínas en alimentos experimentales para juveniles de Oplegnathus insignis (Kner, 1867 (Perciformes, Oplegnathidae

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    Avelino Muñoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Los alimentos para peces están formulados con diversos ingredientes, donde la harina de pescado es la principal fuente de proteína. Sin embargo, este insumo tiene un alto costo que lleva a la necesidad de evaluar nuevas fuentes de proteínas y probarlas en especies marinas. Oplegnathus insignis (San Pedro, Pacific beakfish es una especie omnívora en su etapa intermareal y carnívora en su etapa submareal, que ha sido cultivada de manera experimental, siendo necesario incorporar dietas formuladas. Este estudio reporta la experiencia en alimentación y nutrición, de juveniles de O. insignis alimentados con dietas formuladas con distintas fuentes de proteína. Se efectuó una experiencia con juveniles de O. insignis provenientes de un cultivo experimental. Se formularon cuatro alimentos, uno en base de harina de pescado (referencia y tres modificando la fuente de proteína del alimento de referencia, intercambiando un 30% de harina de pescado, por harina de soya, harina de moluscos y harina de quinoa. Se experimentó con 180 ind de 295,6 g y de 450 días post-eclosión, distribuidos en 12 estanques rectangulares de 1,6 m³. La alimentación fue a saciedad. Se efectuaron análisis próximales de los alimentos experimentales de las heces colectadas. Se determinó los coeficientes de digestibilidad total y proteína. El alimento con mayor contenido de proteína fue el que contenía harina de moluscos. El mayor coeficiente de digestibilidad total lo tienen los alimentos con harina de pescado (68,0% y harina de moluscos (67,1%, mientras que en los alimentos en base a harinas vegetales, la digestibilidad total para la harina de soya fue de 62,7% y para harina de quinoa de 64,1%. Estos resultados indican que es factible reemplazar un 30% de la harina de pescado por harinas de origen vegetal.

  14. Métodos para acelerar a germinação de sementes de Bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart.

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    OLIVEIRA FRANCISCO DAS CHAGAS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar métodos para acelerar a germinação de sementes de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart., e foi conduzido no laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal e na Câmara de Nebulização da Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina-PI. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, constituído por dez tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por dez sementes. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: testemunha (T1; remoção do tegumento da semente (T2; remoção do meristema fundamental cortical por meio de cortes em planos perpendiculares ao plano dorsal/ventral, nos dois lados da semente, sem atingir o meristema fundamental medular (T3; T3 mais a remoção do meristema fundamental cortical por meio de cortes em planos paralelos ao plano dorsal/ventral, na região dorsal, sem atingir o meristema fundamental medular (T4; T3 e T4 mantidos em água a 40ºC por vinte minutos (T5 e T6; T3 e T4 mantidos em etanol 80% por cinco minutos (T7 e T8; T3 e T4 mantidos em acetona 80% por cinco minutos (T9 e T10. As variáveis estudadas foram a percentagem de emergência da radícula aos 14; 21; 28 e 35 dias após a semeadura e o índice de velocidade de emergência da radícula (IVE, no 35º dia após a semeadura. As sementes submetidas aos tratamentos T2, T3, T4, T5 e T6 apresentaram 72,5%, 65,0%, 72,5%, 52,5% e 67,5% de emergência, respectivamente, aos 14 dias, sendo superiores (p<0,05 aos demais tratamentos. Todos os tratamentos foram superiores (p<0,05 à testemunha aos 21 dias (35,0% e não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com 28 e 35 dias. Os tratamentos T2, T3, T4, T5 e T6 apresentaram IVE de 0,59; 0,57; 0,61; 0,54 e 0,59, respectivamente, superando (p<0,05 os demais tratamentos, os quais não diferiram da testemunha (0,36. Diante disto, recomenda-se, para acelerar a emergência de radículas, efetuar dois cortes laterais ao plano dorsal/ventral da semente, por se tratar de um m

  15. Tratamento silvicultural e incremento diamétrico de Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae "bacurizeiro" em duas florestas secundárias em Bragança, PA, Brasil

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    Rivaldo Costa Cardoso Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se neste trabalho o efeito de tratamentos silviculturais no incremento diamétrico de Platonia insignis, em duas florestas secundárias, com dois anos de acompanhamento (2005/2007. As florestas foram denominadas Unidades Agrárias (UA, onde foram instaladas quatro parcelas de 70 m x 105 m (UA1 e 35 m x 100 m (UA2. Dois tratamentos foram aplicados com duas repetições: T0 nenhuma intervenção; e T1 tratamento silvicultural, que consistiu de desbaste por abate e desbaste por anelamento, coroamento de 2 m e corte de cipós. Foram medidos todos os indivíduos de P. insignis com DAP > 10 cm. Foram utilizados os testes t, de Student, e de Mann Whitney, para comparação das médias. O incremento anual médio em diâmetro na T1 foi significativamente maior em ambas as florestas secundárias. UA1 apresentou 0,14 cm.ano-1 para T0 e 0,25 cm.ano-1 para T1. Na UA2, a média foi de 0,53 cm.ano-1 para T0 e 0,93 cm.ano-1 para T1. Portanto, o efeito positivo dos tratamentos silviculturais no aumento diamétrico pode servir como subsídio para atividades de manejo sustentável e aplicação em florestas secundárias como indutor de crescimento.

  16. [Genotoxic evaluation of Río Grande (Antioquia, Colombia) water using micronucleus frequency in erythrocytes of Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Restrepo, Lina M; Orozco-Jiménez, Luz Y; Rueda-Cardona, Maribel; Echavarría, Sandra L; Mena-Moreno, Nehir; Palacio-Baena, Jaime A

    2017-03-01

    The permanent monoculture of bananas and plantains farming in the middle of Río Grande (Turbo - Antioquia) requires the application of a variety of pesticides. Inappropriate banana production practices in this region, have often led to waterbody pollution by agrochemicals from leachate and runoff processes. Currently, fish are the most common vertebrates used as bioindicators of water quality, because they are very sensitive to the presence of contaminants. Our main goal with this study was to compare the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in peripheral blood specimens of fish Brycon henni, from two locations (polluted and unpolluted) in the Rio Grande. We evaluated the frequency of MNE in peripheral blood samples of fish B. henni from each location during two rainy seasons in 2010 and two dry seasons in 2011. Blood samples were collected, fixed for 24 h, and then were stained with Giemsa. Among results, we found that the median frequency of MNE was higher in the polluted site by agrochemical discharges (0.15±0.18), than in the unimpacted site (0.06±0.08). Furthermore, the frequency of MNE in B. henni during the dry season was highly significant for both locations. The results of this study indicated that the analysis of MNE in B. henni could be recommended as a suitable method for in situ detection of environmental genotoxins.

  17. The time course of aggressive behaviour in juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus fed with dietary L-tryptophan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkers, C P B; Serra, M; Szawka, R E; Urbinati, E C

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of dietary L-tryptophan (TRP) supplementation on the time course of aggressive behaviour and on neuroendocrine and hormonal indicators in juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus. Supplementation with TRP promoted a change in the fight pattern at the beginning of an interaction with an intruder, resulting in decreased aggressive behaviours during the first 20 min. The decrease in aggression did not persist throughout the interaction but increased at 3 and 6 h after the beginning of the fight. Monoamine levels in the hypothalamus were not influenced by TRP before or after the fight; however, the hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) concentration and the 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5HIAA):5-HT ratio were significantly correlated with the reduction in aggressive behaviour at the beginning of the fight. Cortisol was not altered by TRP before the fight. After the fight cortisol increased to higher levels in B. amazonicus fed with supplementary TRP. These results indicate that TRP supplementation alters the aggressive behaviour of B. amazonicus and that this effect is limited to the beginning of the fight, suggesting a transient effect of TRP on aggressive behaviour. This is the first study reporting the effects of TRP supplementation on the time course of aggressive interaction in fishes. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Juveniles of the piscivorous dourado Salminus brasiliensis mimic the piraputanga Brycon hilarii as an alternative predation tactic

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    Eduardo Bessa

    Full Text Available In the district of Bom Jardim, in Nobres, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, there are clear water streams originating on karstic terrain. The dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, is an apex stalking predator in these streams. In clear waters, where visually oriented prey may perceive predator in advance, surprise is needed for successful attacks. These streams are cohabited by other Characiformes, like the frugivorous piraputanga Brycon hilarii, which lives in schools and exhibits body colour and shape similar to the dourados. Here we describe an alternative predatory tactic for juvenile dourado occurring in headwater streams of the Paraguay River basin, in which they act as an aggressive mimic of the piraputanga. Based on 43 h of observations in Bom Jardim, and on additional 11 h in the Bodoquena Plateau Rivers of Mato Grosso do Sul State, we quantified the number of rushes by dourados when they were among piraputangas or foraging alone, and observed the proportion of piraputangas per dourado in multispecific schools. Dourados of up to 30 cm total length (TL stayed among the piraputangas of similar size hiding within the school and going to the periphery of the school before rushing against prey. The dourados exhibited colours similar to the piraputangas. They not only stayed longer among piraputangas (78% of the observation time, but also rushed against prey more often than when foraging alone (53 rushes/h against 14 rushes/h, respectively.

  19. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN Genetic Variability in Brycon orbignyanus Stocks Used in Stocking Programs: Management and Conservation

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    NELSON M LOPERA-BARRERO

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar.Environmental alterations caused by the global heating and mainly caused by man's action, have reduced natural fish populations. As a conservation measure, stocking programs have been used; however, without scientific orientation these measures can generate genetic disturbances on the genetic diversity of natural fish populations and the

  20. Reprodução induzida da pirapitinga-do-sul, Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819, mantida em condições de confinamento Induced spawning of pirapitinga-do-sul, Brycon opalinus, in captivity conditions

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    Massuka Yamane Narahara

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de obter a reprodução da pirapitinga-do-sul, Brycon opalinus, por intermédio da aplicação de hormônios indutores e determinar a distribuição de freqüência dos diâmetros dos ovócitos em fêmeas aptas à indução. Cento e vinte reprodutores apresentando comprimento entre 25,5 e 32,0 cm foram mantidos em um tanque circular de alvenaria, de 10 m de diâmetro, na Estação de Aqüicultura de Paraibuna/CESP. Para determinação das fêmeas aptas à reprodução, retiraram-se amostras de ovócitos com cateter plástico introduzido pela abertura urogenital. Estes ovócitos foram analisados quanto à cor, tamanho, posição da vesícula germinativa (núcleo e distribuição de freqüência porcentual dos diâmetros. Os machos foram selecionados pela qualidade do sêmen. Vinte e nove fêmeas aptas à reprodução receberam duas injeções intramusculares de EPS (extrato de pituitária de salmão, sendo a 1ª, na dose de 5 mg/kg e a 2ª, de 10 mg/kg, com intervalo de 12 horas. Os machos que apresentavam ao redor de 90% de motilidade espermática e 85% de espermatozóides vivos receberam dose única de 5 UI de hCG/g (gonadotropina coriônica humana, por ocasião da aplicação da 2ª dose nas fêmeas. Os ovócitos das 14 fêmeas que responderam ao tratamento hormonal eram de cor acinzentada ou vinho, e aquelas que apresentaram alta taxa de fertilização mostraram distribuição de freqüência porcentual dos diâmetros com moda igual a 1900 µm. A taxa média de fertilização foi de 90%, e a de eclosão, 40%.The objective of this study was to induce spawning in pirapitinga-do-sul, Brycon opalinus, with the application of hormones and to determine the pattern of oocyte diameter frequency distribution in females prepared to induction. One hundred and twenty spawners with 25.5 to 32.0 cm of length were placed in circular ponds of 10 m of diameter, at Estação de Aqüicultura de Paraibuna-SP of CESP. In

  1. Avaliação espermática pós-descongelamento em piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Vallenciennes, 1849 Sperm evaluation of piracanjuba fish (Brycon orbignyanus, Vallenciennes, 1849, after thawing

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    Luis David Solis Murgas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de testar o efeito de dois meios diluidores (Glicose 5% e água de côco no congelamento do sêmen de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Vallenciennes, 1849 e dois descongelamentos do sêmen (60ºC durante 5 segundos e 50ºC durante 10 segundos. Foi utilizado como ativador da motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento o bicarbonato de sódio 1%. Um fatorial 2 x 2 foi utilizado para analisar o efeito dos dois modelos de descongelamento e dos diluidores sobre a motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento, sua duração e porcentagem de espermatozóides vivos pós-descongelamento. A motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento média foi de 74,17 ± 22,45%, quando se utilizou a glicose 5% como diluidor e descongelamento a 50ºC, durante 10 segundos, observando-se diferença significativa na interação entre diluidor e descongelamento. A duração da motilidade espermática não apresentou diferença entre os diluidores e descongelamentos, com média de 153,33 ± 59,61 segundos. A porcentagem de espermatozóides vivos pode ser utilizada para avaliação de sêmen de peixes e apresentou resultados significativos apenas quando da interação entre descongelamento a 50ºC durante 10 segundos e diluidor com glicose 5%. Esta combinação foi mais efetiva na preservação da integridade dos espermatozóides de piracanjuba pós-descongelamento, com média de 67,83 ± 17,67% de espermatozóides vivos.The aim of this experiment was to test the effects of two extenders (Glucose 5% and Coconut Water and two thawing rates (60ºC during 5 seconds and 50ºC during 10 seconds for semen of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbygnianus, Vallencienens, 1849. A solution of NaHCO3 1% was used to activate motility. A factorial 2 x 2 was used to analyze the results on sperm motility and its duration, and the percentage of living sperm after thawing. The highest sperm motility values (74.17 ± 22.45% were achieved when the combination of

  2. Feeding and social behavior of the piabanha, Brycon devillei (Castelnau, 1855 (Characidae: Bryconinae in the wild, with a note on following behavior

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    Pedro G Azevedo

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the behavior of wild freshwater fishes in Brazil is restricted to a few studies, despite such studies being able to answer fundamental questions about conservation. Species of Brycon are amongst the most threatened in the Neotropics, particularly in southeast Brazil, due to anthropogenic activities in this region. This study investigated the feeding and social behaviors of the endangered fish, Brycon devillei in the Preto River, Jequitinhonha basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Behavioral data were collected by snorkeling with four spatially separated groups (habituated, and direct observations of shoals were made using an underwater video camera (a total of 448 hours of observations. This species showed diverse tactics to obtain food. However, the species proved to be predominately a specialist surface-picker, which adopted alternative tactics to find food at certain times of the year, most notably when food items on the water surface became low. Feeding frequency was shown to be negatively correlated to agonistic behavior between conspecifics. Feeding associations were also recorded between the anostomid Leporinus garmani, acting as a nuclear species, and B. devillei, as follower species. The data presented here showed the importance of conserving the riparian environment to protect B. devillei populations. Furthermore, the present study included rare observations of nuclear-follower feeding association among freshwater fishes, especially between medium-sized characiforms, being the first observations of such kind in a Cerrado stream.

  3. Juveniles of the piscivorous dourado Salminus brasiliensis mimic the piraputanga Brycon hilarii as an alternative predation tactic

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    Eduardo Bessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the district of Bom Jardim, in Nobres, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, there are clear water streams originating on karstic terrain. The dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, is an apex stalking predator in these streams. In clear waters, where visually oriented prey may perceive predator in advance, surprise is needed for successful attacks. These streams are cohabited by other Characiformes, like the frugivorous piraputanga Brycon hilarii, which lives in schools and exhibits body colour and shape similar to the dourados. Here we describe an alternative predatory tactic for juvenile dourado occurring in headwater streams of the Paraguay River basin, in which they act as an aggressive mimic of the piraputanga. Based on 43 h of observations in Bom Jardim, and on additional 11 h in the Bodoquena Plateau Rivers of Mato Grosso do Sul State, we quantified the number of rushes by dourados when they were among piraputangas or foraging alone, and observed the proportion of piraputangas per dourado in multispecific schools. Dourados of up to 30 cm total length (TL stayed among the piraputangas of similar size hiding within the school and going to the periphery of the school before rushing against prey. The dourados exhibited colours similar to the piraputangas. They not only stayed longer among piraputangas (78% of the observation time, but also rushed against prey more often than when foraging alone (53 rushes/h against 14 rushes/h, respectively.No distrito de Bom Jardim, Nobres, Mato Grosso, Brasil, existem rios de águas claras que se originam sobre terreno cárstico. O dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, é um predador perseguidor de topo de cadeia nestes rios. Em águas, onde presas visualmente orientadas são capazes de perceber antecipadamente o predador, o fator surpresa é necessário para ataques bem sucedidos. Estes córregos são coabitados por outros Characiformes, como a frugívora piraputanga, Brycon hilarii, a qual vive em cardumes e exibe colora

  4. Caracterización de la diversidad genética en el pez Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae en Colombia central por medio de marcadores RAPD

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    Hermes Pineda Santis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento sobre la diversidad genética de especies nativas de peces, es esencial para la conservación y manejo apropiado de animales en los programas de repoblación. Brycon henni ha sido reportada en las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena y Cauca; actualmente, la especie ha disminuido su número de animales y reducido su distribución geográfica como consecuencia de los efectos antrópicos. Por lo tanto, es necesario conocer el componente genético de los reducidos grupos de animales en los riachuelos, para iniciar algunos programas de repoblación. En este estudio el Polimorfismo de ADN Amplificado al Azar (RAPD, fue utilizado para estimar el componente genético actual en esta especie. Para este propósito; se evaluaron seis sitios de muestreo localizados en el departamento de Antioquia, cordillera Central de Colombia. De cuarenta iniciadores utilizados, treinta y cinco de ellos (87.5 % produjeron 1 466 fragmentos reproducibles y consistentes; 417 fueron considerados como fragmentos únicos, que permitieron discriminar entre las muestras de las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena (Humarada-1 y Humarada-2 y Cauca (Piedras, La Clara y Guaracú, sugiriendo que cada una es una unidad discreta. Esta diversidad en los resultados, según el sitio de muestreo y por las características de cada uno de ellos, posiblemente sugiere, que los efectos antrópicos como presión por pesca, construcción de embalses, deforestación y contaminación del agua, han contribuido al aislamiento de estos grupos de peces en las zonas de alta montaña. Brycon moorei y Colossoma macropomum, como grupos de control inter especifico, se ubicaron fuera del grupo general de B. henni, confirmando su clasificación taxonómica mediante datos morfológicos. La técnica de RAPD fue útil para conocer la diversidad genética y discriminar entre poblaciones de B. henni de diferente origen geográfico, ello permitiría realizar un plan apropiado de conservación y manejo en medio

  5. VALOR AGREGADO DE LAS ESPECIES Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE y Agouti paca (MAJAS

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    Doylith Vásquez Jurafo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo  la obtención de  productos mínimamente procesados (PMP de Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE, y Agouti paca (MAJAS congelado y empacado al vacio. Para las especies piscícolas, se ha aplicado un diseño factorial de 32 con dos factores de estudios: concentración de NaCl en la solución osmótica con tres niveles (15, 20 y 25 % y temperatura de proceso  con tres niveles de estudio (5, 10 y 15 °C. Para el Agouti paca (majas se aplico un diseño factorial completamente aleatorizado con tres factores de estudio: tiempo de proceso (30, 60 y 90 minutos, método de ahumado (ahumado líquido y ahumado en caliente y tipo de corte del músculo (partes y filetes. Para trabajar se ha diseñado y montado un deshidratador Osmótico teniendo en cuenta, diámetro de tubería, deshidratador propiamente dicho con doble chaqueta, capacidad del deshidratador en función del volumen de la Salmuera.  Todos los productos se obtuvieron  en procesos con 10 °C y tiempos entre 30 min y  90 min. El tiempo de vida en almacenamiento en las evaluaciones de aroma y color en majas tienen una vida útil de 4 meses de almacenados a -18 °C. Los análisis microbiológicos realizados a los PMP no pasan los límites de la NTS Nº 071 MINSA/DIGESA V01.

  6. VALOR AGREGADO DE LAS ESPECIES Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE y Agouti paca (MAJAS

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    Doylith Vásquez Jurafo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la obtención de productos mínimamente procesados (PMP de Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE, y Agouti paca (MAJAS congelado y empacado al vacio. Para las especies piscícolas, se ha aplicado un diseño factorial de 32 con dos factores de estudios: concentración de NaCl en la solución osmótica con tres niveles (15, 20 y 25 % y temperatura de proceso con tres niveles de estudio (5, 10 y 15 °C. Para el Agouti paca (majas se aplicó un diseño factorial completamente aleatorizado con tres factores de estudio: tiempo de proceso (30, 60 y 90 minutos, método de ahumado (ahumado líquido y ahumado en caliente y tipo de corte del músculo (partes y filetes. Para trabajar se ha diseñado y montado un deshidratador Osmótico teniendo en cuenta, diámetro de tubería, deshidratador propiamente dicho con doble chaqueta, capacidad del deshidratador en función del volumen de la Salmuera.  Todos los productos se obtuvieron en procesos con 10 °C y tiempos entre 30 min y 90 min. El tiempo de vida en almacenamiento en las evaluaciones de aroma y color en majas tienen una vida útil de 4 meses de almacenados a -18 °C. Los análisis microbiológicos realizados a los PMP no pasan los límites de la NTS Nº 071 MINSA/DIGESA V01.

  7. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

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    VARGAS LAURO

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar

  8. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

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    NELSON M. LOPERA-BARRERO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa- das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios gené- ticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosis- tema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD ( Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar.

  9. Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-03-15

    The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

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    NELSON M LOPERA-BARRERO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar

  11. APRENDIENDO Y JUGANDO CON AQUATAMBO, UNA PROPUESTA DIDÁCTICA BASADA EN LA BIOLOGÍA REPRODUCTIVA DEL PEZ BRYCON

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    DARÍO ÁLVAREZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el procedimiento empleado para la construcción de un juego didáctico que permita a los docentes de Ciencias Naturales y Educación Ambiental, estimular en sus estudiantes actitudes favorables para la conservación del recurso hídrico a partir del conocimiento que adquieren sobre este y las diferentes interacciones con los seres vivos. El juego se diseñó teniendo como centro la biología reproductiva del pez Brycon henni, conocido en la región como Sabaleta, y se aplicó a estudiantes de grado sexto y séptimo de la Institución Educativa Rural El Tambo, localizada en el municipio de San Pedro de los Milagros, en el departamento de Antioquia (Colombia. El diseño metodológico parte de considerar las preferencias y carencias de los estudiantes de la comunidad académica, continúa con la selección de los postulados teóricos de Vygotsky, Piaget y Ausubel asociados al aprendizaje a través del juego, incorporando estos elementos desde el contexto local y concluye con la evaluación de la aplicación del instrumento. El uso del instrumento demostró favorecer el aprendizaje, tal como lo indica un test aplicado antes y después de haberse jugado en el que se observa un incremento del 18 % en respuestas acertadas.

  12. Cytogenetic analysis in the incertae sedis species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britzki, 2000 and Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characiformes, Characidae) from the upper Paraná river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Emanuel R. M.; Alves, Anderson L.; Silveira, Sara M.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic analyses were accomplished in two populations of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britzki, 2000 and one population of Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882, considered incertae sedis in Characidae family. Two populations of Astyanax altiparanae (Mogi-Guaçu and Tietê rivers) presented 2n=50, with the same karyotype formula: 6M+12SM+20ST+12A (FN=88). Hyphessobrycon eques from Capivara river presented 2n=52 and karyotype formula 14M+16SM+4ST+18A (FN=86). In each karyotype, the nucleolus organizer regions were detected at the end of the short arm of a single medium-sized subtelocentric chromosome. The Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) marking is coincident for the NORs in chromosomes of the two species and present additionally in two different chromosomes of Astyanax altiparanae thus showinginterpopulation differences in this species. In Hyphessobrycon eques, weak heterochromatic blocks in the position of centromeres and telomeres of most chromosomes and negative C-banding for the NOR bearing chromosome were visualized. The obtained results contribute both to the understanding of karyotype evolution of these species and to the clarifying their phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24260651

  13. Efeito do resfriamento sobre a textura post-mortem da carne do peixe matrinxã Brycon cephalus Chilling effect on the post-mortem texture of the matrinxã fish muscle Brycon cephalus

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    H. Suárez-Mahecha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos que causam o amolecimento e a perda na textura post-mortem da carne de matrinxã foram determinados por meio das mudanças na microestrutura do músculo, imediatamente após a morte e depois de 12 horas de estocagem a -3°C. As observações na microestrutura, realizadas com microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, foram semelhantes aos resultados obtidos na força de ruptura do músculo medidos com o texturômetro. Os valores da força da ruptura foram menores para a carne após o resfriamento. Observou-se que as fibras do colágeno do tecido conectivo pericelular se desintegraram e que as do colágeno do tecido conectivo do miocommata conservaram sua arquitetura e integridade. Houve pouca degradação da linha Z. Isso sugere que o amolecimento post-mortem da carne de mantrinxã, durante a estocagem a -3°C, é causado pela degradação do tecido conectivo pericelular.In order to determine the mechanisms that cause the post mortem muscle softness of the matrinxã Brycon cephalus, changes in the micro structure of the muscle were observed immediately after death and after 12 hours of storage at -3º C, measuring the firmness of the flesh with test instruments. Observations by the transmission electron microscope were similar to the results obtained in the breaking strength of the muscle measured with a texturometer. The values of the breaking strength of the fish muscle were smaller after chilling. At the same time, it was observed that the collagen fibers of the pericellular connective tissue had disintegrated, while the collagen fibers of the miocommata connective tissue maintained their organization and integrity. No evident breakdown of Z-discs was observed. It is suggested that the post-mortem tenderization of the matrinxã muscle during chilled storage was due to the disintegration of the collagen fibers in the pericellular connective tissue and, in a smaller extent, to the weakening of Z-disk.

  14. Utilização da fibra bruta na nutrição da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Effect of crude fiber on the nutrition of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Evoy Zaniboni Filho

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho da piracanjuba, quando arraçoada com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra bruta. Empregou-se um lote de 60 alevinos, com peso médio de 17,40±3,06g e comprimento padrão médio de 11,70±0,73cm, alojados em 12 aquários circulares de fibra de vidro com capacidade para 150L e numa lotação de cinco peixes por aquário, com abastecimento de água proporcionado por um sistema de circulação fechada. Utilizaram-se rações com semelhante composição em proteína (32%, níveis de energia que variaram de 3.037 a 3.356 kcal ED/kg de ração e níveis crescentes de fibra bruta (5%, 7%, 8% e 9% por 105 dias. Constatou-se que os peixes apresentaram melhor resposta de ganho de peso, quando arraçoados com dietas contendo 9% de fibra bruta e que a utilização de níveis de fibra bruta, acima dos convencionalmente empregados, proporcionou baixos níveis de gordura na carcaça, sem que houvesse prejuízos ao desempenho zootécnico, e que as rações podem ser elaboradas empregando-se subprodutos de origem vegetal ricos em fibra bruta.The present experiment evaluated the performance of Brycon orbignyanus fed on diets with different levels of crude fiber. Fish with mean weight of 17.40±3.06 g and total length of 11.70±0,73cm were stocked in 12 fiberglass aquariums (150 L fitted with center standpipes in a recirculating system at a density of 5 fish/aquarium. The fish were fed four diets containing similar levels of protein (32%, energy levels varyng from 3,037 to 3,356 kcal DE/kg, and crude fiber levels of 5%; 7%; 85 and 9% for 105 days. The fish had better weight gain when fed diet containing 9% of crude fiber, and it can be concluded that fish fed diets containing higher levels of crude fiber than usually used result in fish with less fat on carcass without loss of growth, and by products of plant origin rich in fiber could be used to produce diets for this kind of fish.

  15. Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913 EFFECT OF SOME IONS ON SPERM ACTIVATION IN Brycon henni (EIGENMANN 1913

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    JAVIER TABARES

    2007-06-01

    M (p<0.05. The conclusion is that interaction of the ionic environment with the cell membrane leads to changes in membrane potential and intracellular signalling that trigger sperm motility in Brycon henni.

  16. Three new species of fleas belonging to the genus Macrostylophora from the three-striped ground squirrel, Lariscus insignis, in Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, L A; Beaucournu, J-C

    2014-12-01

    Three new species of fleas belonging to the genus Macrostylophora (Siphonaptera, Ceratophyllidae) are described from the three-striped ground squirrel, Lariscus insignis, from Tjibodas, West Java (Jawa Barat), Indonesia at an elevation of 1500 m. Macrostylophora larisci sp. n. is described from three male specimens, Macrostylophora debilitata sp. n. is described from one male and Macrostylophora wilsoni sp. n. is described from one female. Non-genital morphological characters of the female specimen, including ctenidial spine shapes and lengths, show that it is not the corresponding female for either M. larisci sp. n. or M. debilitata sp. n. It is unusual for three different species of congeneric fleas to parasitize the same host species in the same geographical location. These three new species represent the first known records of Macrostylophora from Java and they could be enzootic vectors between rodents of flea-borne zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia typhi and Yersinia pestis, both of which are established on Java. A list is provided of the 43 known species and 12 subspecies of Macrostylophora together with their known geographical distributions and hosts. A map depicting the distributions of known Indonesian (and Bornean) species of Macrostylophora is also included. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Dose inseminante utilizada na fertilização artificial de ovócito de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Viviane de Oliveira Felizardo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 é uma espécie de peixe migratória, ameaçada de extinção. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a dose inseminante na fertilização artificial de ovócitos de piracanjuba. Para isso, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Três casais de piracanjuba, selecionados dos tanques de reprodutores da Estação Ambiental de Itutinga (EAI - CEMIG, no período de piracema 2006/2007, receberam aplicação de hormônio extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa (EBHC para obtenção dos gametas. Adotaram-se quatro tratamentos diferentes para a fertilização de 0,1 grama de ovócitos: 10µL, 20µL, 30µL e 40µL de sêmen. As amostras foram ativadas com 5 mL de água do próprio tanque e, em seguida, levadas para incubadoras, dotadas de renovação constante de água, à temperatura de 28ºC. Após 8 e 16 horas, analisaram-se as taxas de fertilização (ovos viáveis e de eclosão dos ovos, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. As relações sêmen-ovócitos testadas não alteraram as taxas de fertilização e eclosão (P>0,05. O número de espermatozoides-ovócitos, variando de 10,4 x10(5 a 41,6 x10(5, foi eficiente para obtenção de boas taxas de fertilidade.

  18. Evaluación del cultivo de la dorada ( Brycon moorei sinuensis en jaulas flotantes utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados.

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    Robinsón Rosado

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se inició el 30 de septiembre del2000 con el cultivo de Dorada (Brycon mooreisinuensis en jaulas flotantes en el reservorio de laGranja Piscícola Tamarindo (El Espinal, Colombia,utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados durante 180días. Se determinó el crecimiento mediante laganancia en longitud, ganancia en peso, tasa decrecimiento específico, sobre-vivencia final, biomasatotal, factor de condición, factor de conversiónalimenticia. Se sembraron 816 juveniles con longitudpromedio de 17.8 cm y peso promedio de 78.9 g,divididos en cuatro tratamientos con densidad desiembra de 25 peces/cm3 y tres réplicas cada uno.Las dietas balanceadas (proteína bruta y la cantidadde energía (Kcal/Kg suministrada fueron: Tratamiento1: 20% y 2637; tratamiento 2: 32% y 3127;tratamiento 3: 28% y 2852; y tratamiento 4: 24% y2751, respectivamente. El diseño experimental fuecompletamente aleatorio y se aplicó la técnica deanálisis de varianza a los datos biométricos yparámetros físico-químicos. Como prueba designificancia se usó la prueba de Tukey-Kramer con95% de confiabilidad. El modelo matemático de VIONBERTALANFY y la transformación de FOR-WALFORDfueron válidos para el ajuste de las curvas decrecimiento en longitud, peso y la relación longitud– peso. Se puede afirmar que la Dorada consumiólas dietas de origen vegetal de igual manera que lasde origen animal, sin embargo la dieta del 28% deproteína bruta (tratamiento 3 muestra los mejoresresultados, sin diferencias significativas entretratamientos (p > 0.05. De acuerdo con la literaturacitada no hay investigaciones que muestren losrequerimientos nutricionales óptimos para laalimentación de esta especie. En todos los trabajosanteriores, la ganancia de peso diaria fue baja, peromejores que las obtenidas en esta investigación.Mientras que el rendimiento en biomasa fue mayorque los reportados para cultivo en tierra, para todoslos tratamientos en este estudio fue muy bajo.

  19. Optimization of sustaining swimming speed of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus: performance and adaptive aspects Otimização da velocidade de nado sustentado em matrinxã Brycon amazonicus: rendimento e aspectos adaptativos

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    Gustavo Arbeláez-Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious changes in metabolism, growth performance and body composition may be observed if fish are constrained to swimming continuously or intermittently at over-speeds. This study evaluates effects of four water speeds on growth, body composition and hematologic profile of juvenile matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. Fish (33.3 ± 0.9 g and 13.44 ± 0.1 cm were held for 90 days in five water speeds (0.0 - control, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 body lengths per second - BLAt swimming speeds ranging on 1.0 and 1.5 BL s–1, in fish growth was 20% higher. Hemoglobin and red blood cells at 1.5 BL s–1 increased 24% and 18% respectively; hematocrit was 17% higher in all exercised fish; protein content of white muscle at 1.0 BL s–1 was 2% higher; lipid deposition in red muscle at 1.0 BL s–1 was 22% higher and water retention 3% lower. Crude energy levels enhanced 10% in all exercised fish; liver water retention was 6% lower at 1.0 BL s–1; liver lipid composition was 29% higher than control and 34% higher than 1.5 BL s–1; liver crude energy increased at 1.0 BL s–1 as compared with control and 2.5 BL s–1. Lipid deposition in ventral muscle was 9% higher at 2.0 BL s–1. Although high lipid deposition of matrinxã has been achieved in moderate swimming speeds, lipids may be the main fuel source to maintain the metabolic demands of exercised matrinxã. The best water flow speed for optimized growth of matrinxã ranged on 1.0 and 1.5 BL s–1.Modificações deletérias no metabolismo, rendimento de crescimento e composição corporal podem ser observadas em peixes forçados à natação contínua ou intermitente sob velocidades excessivas. Neste trabalho, os efeitos de quatro velocidades de água no crescimento, composição corporal e perfil hematológico foram avaliados em matrinxãs juvenis, Brycon amazonicus. Os peixes (33,3 ± 0,9 g e 13,44 ± 0,1 cm foram mantidos durante 90 dias em cinco velocidades de água (0,0 – controle; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2

  20. LD5o of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus DL5o da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus

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    Sarah Ragonha de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the lethal dose (96-h LD50 of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, to be applied in challenge tests, 90 fish (63.23 ± 6.39 g were divided into five treatments, with different bacterial solutions: T1 - Control (0.9% NaCl saline solution; T2 (4 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T4 (1.36 x 10(12 cells/ mL and T5 (3.06 x 10(12 cells/ mL. Fish were previously anesthetized with benzocaine (60 mg L-1, inoculated in the peritoneal cavity with the bacterial suspensions and then distributed into fifteen 80-L test chambers, where the water variables were monitored and fish mortality was observed. The experiment was randomly designed in three replicates and the 96-h LD50 was estimated according to the trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Water quality variables remained within adequate ranges for fish health and performance. Fish mortality rate increased with the bacterial concentrations of A. hydrophila (T1 = 0%; T2 = 16.66%; T3 = 44.44%; T4 = 72.22% and T5 = 100%, and the first mortalities were observed after 57 h, although the signs of the bacterial infection were already observed 24 h after the inoculation. The results indicate that the 96-h LD50 value of A. hydrophila to matrinxã is 6.66 x 10(11 cells/ mL.Para determinar a dose letal (DL50 96-h da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, com aplicabilidade para testes de desafio, foram utilizados 90 peixes (63,23 ± 6,39 g, divididos em cinco tratamentos, com diferentes soluções bacterianas: T1 - Controle (solução salina 0,9% NaCl; T2 (4 x 10(11 células/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 células/ mL-1; T4 (1,36 x 10(12 células/mL-1 e T5 (3,06 x 10(12 células/ mL-1. Os peixes foram previamente anestesiados com benzocaína (60 mg L-1, inoculados na cavidade peritoneal com as suspensões bacterianas e distribuídos em 15 aquários de vidro de 80 L de capacidade, com aeração constante. O experimento teve duração de 96 h, no

  1. Exigência Protéica e Relação Energia/Proteína para Alevinos de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Dietary Protein Requirement and Energy to Protein Ratio for Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Fingerlings

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    Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a exigência protéica e correspondente relação energia/proteína em dietas para alevinos de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus. Seis dietas semi-purificadas isocalóricas foram formuladas para conter 3.000 kcal de energia metabolizável (EM/kg e concentrações de proteína bruta (PB de 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42%. Para essas concentrações, as relações E/P das dietas foram de 12,3; 11,6; 10,4; 9,2; 8,5 e 7,1 kcal EM/g PB, respectivamente. As fontes de proteína, lipídios e carboidratos digestíveis foram, respectivamente, caseína/gelatina, óleo de fígado de bacalhau/óleo de soja e dextrina. Após condicionamento de cinco dias, as dietas foram fornecidas, até a saciedade, em duas alimentações diárias, a 162 alevinos (27 peixes/dieta, que apresentaram 8,38 ± 0,09 g de peso médio inicial, distribuídos em 18 tanques de fibra-de-vidro de 100 L, conectados a um sistema de recirculação de água. A temperatura média da água foi de 26,3°C, com extremos de 23,7 e 30,2°C. Após 90 dias, a concentração de proteína na dieta que proporcionou ganho em peso máximo aos peixes foi 29% PB, com relação E/P igual a 10,4 kcal EM/g PB. As dietas com concentrações de PB iguais a 32, 36 e 42% não se mostraram superiores para conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, valor produtivo da proteína e retenção de energia bruta. A deposição corporal de proteína e gordura não sofreu influência da concentração de PB da dietaThe aim of this study was to determine the dietary protein requirement and associated energy to protein (E/P ratio for "Piracanjuba", Brycon orbignyanus, fingerlings. Casein-gelatin semipurified diets were formulated to contain six crude protein (CP concentrations: 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42% at one energy level, 3,000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg. These diets resulted in E/P ratios of 12.3, 11.6, 10.4, 9.2, 8.5 and 7.1 kcal ME/g CP, respectively. The protein, lipid

  2. Viabilidade espermática do sêmen de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus resfriado a 4°C Spermatic viability of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus semen cooled at 4°C

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    Luis David Solis Murgas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de três meios diluidores (BTS+KCl - D1, BTS+2KCL - D2 e BTS+Citrato de Sódio - D3, considerando três diferentes tempos de resfriamento (0, 72 e 144 horas, foram analizados no sêmen de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus a 4°C. Testou-se, ainda, a utilidade do meio diluidor BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution, adicionado a citrato de sódio e cloreto de potássio, na manutenção da imobilidade dos espermatozóides e na conservação de características do sêmen. Resultados satisfatórios foram encontrados até 144 horas de resfriamento. A motilidade espermática média do sêmen in natura foi de 94 ± 5,48%, com duração média de 55,6 ± 32,25 segundos (s. Para o sêmen diluído, as médias da motilidade e sua duração foram de 76,00 ± 1,86% e 56,6 ± 6,54 s, 77,00 ± 1,86% e 54,6 ± 6,54 s, e 74,33 ± 1,86% e 75,0 ± 6,54 s, respectivamente, para os diluidores D1, D2 e D3. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os diluidores, que apresentaram efeitos semelhantes nos diferentes tempos. As análises nos tempos 0 e 72 horas mostraram motilidades espermáticas superiores àquelas nas 144 horas, embora as durações da motilidade espermática não tenham diferido nesses tempos. A concentração espermática média do sêmen foi de 8,21 ± 2,26 X 10(9 sptz/mL. Algumas amostras evidenciaram motilidade espermática antes da ativação do sêmen (pré-ativação, principalmente a partir das 96 horas de resfriamento. O meio diluidor BTS pode ser recomendado para conservação de sêmen de piracanjuba (B. orbignyanus, desde que sua osmolaridade seja elevada.The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of 3 diluents BTS+KCl - D1, BTS+2KCL - D2 and BTS+Sodium Citrate - D3 and three different times (hour 0, 72 hours and 144 hours in Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus semen at 4°C. The assay aimed to test usefulness of BTS (Betsville Thawing Solution diluent medium, added to Sodium citrate and Potassium clorate, in maintenance

  3. Description of the composition of fatty acids and lipids in the breeders muscle, oocytes and in the embryonic development of Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fatima Ferreira Martins, Edenilce; Magnone, Larisa; Bessonart, Martin; Costa, Deliane Cristina; Dos Santos, José Cláudio Epaminondas; Bazzoli, Nilo; Nakayama, Cintia Labussière; Luz, Ronald Kennedy

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the fatty acid and lipid composition of oocytes, newly hatched larvae (NHL), first feeding larvae (FFL) and muscle tissue of female Brycon orthotaenia broodstock. Total and polar lipid was significantly (P0.05) between stages. C18:3n 3 was highest (P<0.05) in NHL and FFL. C20:4n 6 (AA) and C22:6n 3 (DHA) showed the highest percentages during the larval stages. The fatty acids n-3 series was significantly higher (P<0.05) in FFL. The n-6HUFA was highest during development larval (P<0.05). The increases DHA reflects the ability of the species to elongate and desaturate to obtain n-3HUFA from 18:3n 3, shows the importance of this fatty acid during early development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efeito da composição e osmolalidade do diluidor do sêmen criopreservado de piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus (Characiformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis, Dominga Isabel López

    2014-01-01

    A piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus é um peixe da ordem Characiformes, nativo da América do Sul. As mudanças no curso do rio, urbanização, poluição e construção de hidrelétricas são algumas das razões pelas quais o B. orbignyanus está atualmente classificado como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. A criopreservação de sêmen de peixes fornece uma ferramenta pela qual a reprodução é otimizada, melhorando os programas de conservação e melhoramento genético das espécies. Um meio de ...

  5. Ecología trófica de la Sabaleta Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae en el río Portugal de Piedras, Alto Cauca, Colombia

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    Alvaro Botero-Botero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la ecología trófica de la sabaleta (Brycon henni en el río Portugal de Piedras, cordillera Oriental, departamento del Valle del Cauca. Materiales y métodos. Desde octubre de 2008 hasta junio de 2009 se realizaron pescas exploratorias y se determinaron parámetros físico y químicos del hábitat. Los ejemplares capturados fueron eviscerados y el contenido estomacal fue determinado hasta el mínimo taxón posible. Resultados. La especie presenta una dieta generalista que incluye 35 categorías alimenticias, con tendencia al consumo de larvas y ninfas de insectos acuáticos entre los cuales se destacan tricópteros, dípteros y odonatos; también, consume organismos alóctonos al cauce como hormigas (Hymenoptera, escarabajos (Coleoptera y material vegetal: frutos, semillas y hojas. La relación longitud intestino (LI vs. longitud estándar (LS indican que la especie presenta características propias de una especie carnívora (LI = -13.8728 + 1.02377*LS, r= 0.35, n= 22, a su vez, el peso total (PT depende directamente de la longitud total (LT y LS del pez (PT = -49.308 + 0.609962*LT; r= 0.92 n=30; PT = -41.6011 + 0.672529*LS; r= 0.89, n=30, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La sabaleta (Brycon henni presentó caracteristicas de una especie carnivora.

  6. Aspectos biológicos e pesqueiros de Paralonchurus brasiliensis Steindachner, (Pisces, Sciaenidae, na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brasil Biological and fishing aspects of Paralonchurus brasiliensis Steindachner, (Pisces, Sciaenidae, in the Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da abundância de Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875 na ictiofauna acompanhante do camarão sete-barbas, apresenta baixo valor comercial sendo freqüentemente descartada. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar informações básicas sobre a biologia e pesca de P. brasiliensis na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente durante o período de agosto 1996 a julho 2003, em três áreas tradicionais de atuação da pesca artesanal. A espécie apresentou crescimento alométrico positivo, com uma razão sexual de 1:2,1 entre machos e fêmeas, e tamanho de primeira maturação em 14,8 cm e 15,0 cm. P. brasiliensis apresentou amplo espectro trófico composto por 27 itens, sendo que, a partir da primavera ocorreu um incremento gradual na ingestão de alimento até o verão, seguido de queda abrupta no outono e de pequena recuperação no inverno. Apesar das flutuações sazonais ao longo dos sete anos, essa espécie ocupou a segunda posição em número e biomassa entre as integrantes da ictiofauna acompanhante.Due to abundance of P. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875 in ictiofauna of the sea-bob-shrimp's bycatch, it presents low commercial value and frequently being discarded. This work aims to present basic information on biology and fisheries of P. brasiliensis in the Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina. The collections were carried out monthly during the period of August 1996 to July 2003, in three traditional areas of performance of artisan fisheries. The species presented positive alometric growth, with a sexual ratio of 1:2,1 between males and females, and the size of first maturation in 14,8 cm and 15,0 cm. P. brasiliensis presented a great trophy specter composed by 27 items, being that, from the spring a gradual increment in the food ingestion occurred until the summer, followed of abrupt fall in the autumn and small recovery in the winter. Despite of the seasonal

  7. Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913 Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913

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    Olivera Martha

    2007-04-01

    +, Mg2+ and Na+ as well as the effect of channel blocking agents. The parameters measured were cells with motility (%, duration of motility (s, plasma membrane potential, and the effect of channel blockers on activation time and on motility. There was an increased motility when the semen was incubated in solutions containing K+ (p<0.05 compared with the control (CaNaMgK solution; the longest duration of motility was attained when the incubation was performed in solutions containing Na+ and Mg2+ (p<0.05. All solutions induced a change in membrane potential detected
    after 15 s of activation. Blocking K+, Ca2+ and Na+ channels did not alter motility but decreased the activation time (p<0.05. Potassium induced activation at all concentrations up to 105 mM, but motility was drastically decreased at concentrations higher than 140 mM (p<0.05. The conclusion is that interaction of the ionic environment with the cell membrane leads to changes in membrane potential and intracellular signalling that trigger sperm motility in Brycon henni.

  8. Postharvest changes and respiratory pattern of bacuri fruit (Platonia insignis Mart. at different maturity stages during ambient storage Mudanças pós-colheita e padrão respiratório de frutos de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. em diferentes estádios de maturação durante o armazenamento no ambiente

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    Gustavo Henrique de Almeida Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacuri (Platonia insignis, Mart. is one of the most important among Amazonian fruits. However, little is known about its postharvest physiology, such as maturity stages, changes during ambient storage, and respiratory pattern. Fruits were harvested at three maturity stages based on epicarp colour: dark green, light green, and turning (50% yellow, in order to determine colour modification and respiratory pattern during ambient storage (25.2 ºC, 75.1 % RH. Fruit of all maturity stages showed, after three days of harvest, a non-climacteric respiratory pattern, with turning fruit presenting the highest CO2 production rate until the fourth storage day (177.63 mg.CO2.kg-1.h-1. Yellowing increased throughout storage as related to lightness, chromaticity, and hue angle reductions. Turning fruit can be stored at ambient conditions for up to 10 days without any loss in marketability.O bacuri (Platonia insignis, Mart. é um dos mais importantes entre os frutos da Amazônia. Todavia, pouco se sabe sobre sua fisiologia pós-colheita, bem como, estádio de maturação, mudanças durante o armazenamento sob condições ambientais e padrão respiratório. Os frutos foram colhidos em três estádios de maturação baseados na coloração do epicarpo: verde-escuro, verde-claro e "de vez" (50% amarelo, com o objetivo de se determinar as modificações de coloração e padrão respiratório durante armazenamento sob condições de ambiente (25,2 ºC, 75,1 % UR. Os frutos de todos os estádios de maturação apresentaram, a partir do terceiro dia de colheita, comportamento respiratório não climatérico, com os frutos "de vez" apresentando maior taxa de produção de CO2 até o quarto dia de armazenamento (177,63 mg CO2.kg-1.h-1. O amarelecimento aumentou durante o armazenamento e foi relacionado com a diminuição da luminosidade (L, cromaticidade e ângulo hue. Os frutos "de vez" podem ser armazenados sob condições de ambiente por até 10 dias sem nenhuma

  9. Influence of food restriction on the reproduction and larval performance of matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829

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    ACS. Camargo

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of food restriction and refeeding of matrinxã females, Brycon amazonicus, on their reproductive performance and on the growth and survival of the progeny. Broodstocks were distributed in 8 earthen tanks (15 fish/tank and fish from 4 tanks were fed daily (G1 while fish from the other 4 tanks were fed for 3 days and not fed for 2 days (G2 during 6 months prior to artificial spawning. Among the induced females, 57% in G1 group and 45% in G2 group spawned and the mean egg weights were 208.1 g (G1 and 131.6 g (G2. Oocytes of G2 fish were smaller (1.017 ± 0.003 mm than oocytes of G1 fish (1.048 ± 0.002 mm. Fertilization (71.91 ± 12.6% and 61.18 ± 13.7% and hatching (61.28 ± 33.9% and 67.50 ± 23.4% rates did not differ between G1 and G2 fish. Larvae were collected at hatching and at 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation and fixed for growth measurement. After incubation, fry were transferred to aquaria and sampled 1, 5, 9 and 15 days later. G1 and G2 larvae had similar weight (1.51 ± 0.15 and 1.46 ± 0.07 mg but the G2 length was significantly higher (6.26 ± 0.13 and 6.74 ± 0.14 mm. By the ninth day of rearing, G2 fry had higher weight (13.6 ± 0.26 and 18.9 ± 0.07 mg and length (11.8 ± 0.09 and 14.5 ± 0.04 mm but by the fifteenth day, G1 fry had higher weight (90.2 ± 1.19 and 68.6 ± 0.77 mg and length (18.8 ± 0.16 and 18.5 ± 0.04 mm than G2 fry. By the ninth day of rearing, when fry are recommended to be transferred to outdoor tanks, G2 fry were larger and after 15 days, fry produced by restricted-fed females showed higher survival. The survival rate of G2 progeny by the fifteenth day was significantly higher (24.7 ± 2.07% than that of G1 progeny (19.2 ± 1.91%. The ration restriction (35% reduction imposed on matrinxã broodstock during 6 months prior to spawning reduced the number of spawned females and the egg amount, but it did not affect fertilization and hatching rates. Otherwise restricted

  10. Ontogenic changes in the feeding habits of the fishes Agonostomus monticola (Mugilidae and Brycon behreae (Characidae, Térraba River, Costa Rica

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    Thiago Cotta-Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las dietas de los peces varían con respecto a la calidad, la cantidad y el tamaño del alimento. Esta variación puede deberse a factores como la estacionalidad y la fase del desarrollo del individuo. Estudiamos los cambios ontogénicos en los hábitos alimentarios de dos peces dulceacuícolas, Agonostomus monticola y Brycon behreae, de la Cuenca del Río Térraba, Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Ambas poblaciones son omnívoras, pero con cambios ontogénicos en la cantidad y calidad de los ítemes consumidos. Conforme crecía, A. monticola modificó su dieta de insectívora hacia un mayor consumo de materia vegetal, asociado con un aumento en la longitud relativa del intestino. Aunque mantuvo su dependencia de alimentos vegetales, B. behreae diversificó su dieta de dos formas. Primero, pasó de partes suaves de plantas a semillas, hojas y frutos. Luego, los ítemes cambiaron de insectos hacia una dieta más carnívora (peces y camarones. Estos hallazgos para ambas especies enfatizan la importancia de proteger la vegetación riparia de estos ecosistemas tropicales.Fish diets can vary in food quality, quantity and size. The variation can be caused by several factors, including season and the ontogenic phase of the individual (McCormick 1998. We studied the ontogenic changes in feeding habits of two freshwater fishes, Agonostomus monticola and Brycon behreae, from the Térraba River basin, South Pacific of Costa Rica. Both populations were omnivorous, but displayed ontogenic shifts in terms of quantity and quality of the food items consumed. As it grew, A. monticola modified its diet from insectivorous towards a higher consumption of vegetables, which was accompanied by an increase in relative length of the intestine. While remaining dependent on vegetation as staple food, B. behreae diversified its diet in two ways. Initially, from soft plant parts to seeds, leaves, and fruits. Secondly, prey items changed from insects into a more carnivore diet

  11. Influência do formato do aquário na sobrevivência e no desenvolvimento de larvas de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Osteichthyes, Characidae Effects of two formats of aquariums on survival and development of matrinxã Brycon cephalus larvae (Osteichthyes, Characidae

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    Marcelo Mattos Pedreira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento, utilizaram-se cinco aquários cilíndricos com relevo no fundo (em forma de anel e cinco retangulares com fundo liso para estudo da influência do formato do aquário na sobrevivência e no desenvolvimento de larvas de matrinxã Brycon cephalus. Observou-se melhor eficiência dos aquários retangulares, confirmada pela maior sobrevivência e biomassa. Os valores de temperatura, pH, condutividade e oxigênio dissolvido foram similares entre os tipos de aquários, sugerindo que esses parâmetros não influenciaram os resultados. O relevo no fundo dos aquários cilíndricos afetou negativamente o cultivo de larvas de matrinxã, pela criação de zonas com pequena capacidade da água em suspender partículas, o que resultou em acúmulo de dejetos, predadores, competidores e alimento. Aquários retangulares com fundo liso são mais adequados ao cultivo de larvas de matrinxã, por promover melhor circulação da água.This experiment compared the effects of five cylindrical aquarium with circular relief in the bottom or a rectangular aquariums with flat bottom on the intensive cultivation of matrinxã larvae (Brycon cephalus. Five aquariums of each format were used and the rectangular aquarium was the most efficient, confirmed by better survival average and biomass. Limnological variables were similar between aquariums, assuming that the parameters did not affect the results. The bottom relief in the aquarium resulted in areas with slow flow velocity, which resulted in the accumulation of waste, predators competitors and aliment, showing negative effects to culture of matrinxã. Rectangular aquariums with flat bottom are more recommended for matrinxã culture, because it provides better water circulation.

  12. Ontogenic changes in the feeding habits of the fishes Agonostomus monticola (Mugilidae and Brycon behreae (Characidae, Térraba River, Costa Rica

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    Thiago Cotta-Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las dietas de los peces varían con respecto a la calidad, la cantidad y el tamaño del alimento. Esta variación puede deberse a factores como la estacionalidad y la fase del desarrollo del individuo. Estudiamos los cambios ontogénicos en los hábitos alimentarios de dos peces dulceacuícolas, Agonostomus monticola y Brycon behreae, de la Cuenca del Río Térraba, Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Ambas poblaciones son omnívoras, pero con cambios ontogénicos en la cantidad y calidad de los ítemes consumidos. Conforme crecía, A. monticola modificó su dieta de insectívora hacia un mayor consumo de materia vegetal, asociado con un aumento en la longitud relativa del intestino. Aunque mantuvo su dependencia de alimentos vegetales, B. behreae diversificó su dieta de dos formas. Primero, pasó de partes suaves de plantas a semillas, hojas y frutos. Luego, los ítemes cambiaron de insectos hacia una dieta más carnívora (peces y camarones. Estos hallazgos para ambas especies enfatizan la importancia de proteger la vegetación riparia de estos ecosistemas tropicales.

  13. Crescimento do matrinxã,Brycon cephalus (Gunther,1869) criados em gaiolas flutuantes construídas com matéria-prima da região amazônica.

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    Simón Alexis Ramos Tortolero

    2003-01-01

    São apresentados os primeiros resultados obtidos sobre a criação do matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, em gaiolas de pequeno volume utilizando altas densidades no Lago do Catalão latitude 3 09′ 75′′ Sul, longitude 59 54′ 51′′ W município de Iranduba AM. O objetivo foi gerar informações que subsidie a piscicultura sustentável no Amazonas, já que são poucos os trabalhos desenvolvidos nesta modalidade na região. Por outro lado, definiu-se um protótipo de gaiola flutu...

  14. Crescimento, desenvolvimento gonadal e composição muscular de matrinxãs (Brycon cephalus submetidos à restrição alimentar e realimentação durante um ano Growth, gonadal development and composition of white and red muscles of matrinxã, Brycon cephalus submitted to food restriction and refeeding during a year

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    Elisa Garcia Carvalho

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da restrição de ração alternada com realimentação no crescimento, desenvolvimento gonadal e composição muscular de matrinxãs (Brycon cephalus adultos, de ambos os sexos, durante um ano (janeiro de 1998 a janeiro de 1999. Foram utilizados 135 peixes, separados em dois grupos: controle, alimentado diariamente até aparente saciação, e experimental, submetido ininterruptamente a ciclos de três dias de alimentação/2 dias de restrição de ração (40% de restrição ao mês. Foram realizadas 7 amostragens, nas quais foram utilizados 8 a 10 peixes por grupo. Após anestesia, os peixes foram pesados e as gônadas foram retiradas para determinação do IGS, sexo e fase do ciclo reprodutivo. Porções dos músculos branco e vermelho foram retiradas para determinação da porcentagem de lipídio total, proteína bruta, matéria seca e umidade. Os resultados mostraram que a estratégia alimentar utilizada não afetou o crescimento, o desenvolvimento gonadal e a composição muscular do matrinxã. A restrição de ração seguida por realimentação parece ter desencadeado mecanismos de ajuste metabólico para melhor utilização do alimento e aporte suficiente de energia para o crescimento, processo de maturação gonadal e composição corporal. É possível estabelecer formas de manejo alimentar mais econômicas para o matrinxã sem que processos fisiológicos importantes sejam afetados.This work determined the effect of food restriction and refeeding on the body weight, gonadal maturation and muscle composition of matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, throughout a year (Jan 1998 to Jan 1999. A total of 135 fish, males and females, were split out into two groups. The control group received ration daily up to apparent satiation and the experimental group was alternately fed for 3 days and starved for 2 days (40% of restriction monthly. Seven samplings were carried out, during the experimental period, and at each

  15. Parasitos nas brânquias de Brycon amazonicus (Characidae, Bryconinae cultivados em canais de igarapé do Turumã-Mirim, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil = Parasites in gills of farmed Brycon amazonicus (Characidae, Bryconinae in stream channels of Turumã-Mirim, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Jefferson Raphael Gonzaga Lemos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos nas brânquias, bem como o fator de condição em matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz (1829 cultivados em três canais de igarapé da região do Tarumã-Mirim, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas. As condições sanitárias dos canais de igarapé, o manejo dospeixes e os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram monitorados. De 150 peixes examinados, 25,0% estavam parasitados pelo protozoário Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (18,0% e por sanguessungas Placobdella sp. (7,0%. A prevalência de I. multifiliis, nos três canais deigarapé, foi de 22,0%, 18,0% e 14,0%, respectivamente, e a intensidade média foi maior em um dos canais que mantinha peixes em grande densidade populacional. As sanguessugas Placobdella sp. ocorreram somente em um dos canais de igarapé. Não houve variação sazonal na infecção de I. multifiliis, mas Placobdella sp. ocorreu somente em janeiro e março. O fator de condição dos peixes parasitados foi significativamente (p The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasites in the gills as well as the condition factor of farmed Brycon amazonicus (Spix e Agassiz, 1829 from three stream channels in Tarumã-Mirim, Manaus, Amazonas State. Sanitary conditions of stream channels, fish handling, and water physiochemical parameters were monitored. From the 150 examined fish, 25.0% were contaminated by protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (18,0% and by leeches Placobdella sp. (7.0%. The prevalence of I. multifiliis in the stream channels was of 22.0%, 18.0% and 14.0%, respectively, and the average intensity was high only in the stream channel that maintained fish in high population density. The leeches Placobdella sp. were found only in one stream channel. There was no seasonal variation in the infection by I. multifiliis; however Placobdella sp.infected the hosts only in January and March

  16. Development of fingerlings of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae in tanks fertilized with organic manures/ Desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae em tanques experimentais fertilizados com adubação orgânica

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    Carmino Hayashi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the development of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus in tanks under differents organic fertilizers. The experiment, entirely randomized, was accomplished in 16 tanks of 1000 liters, fertilized with manures of bovine (BOV, pigs (SUI, chickens (FRG and others without fertilizer (SAO, using 15 fish/m3 with an initial average weight and length of 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. After 30 days, the experiment showed a uniform development of the fish and high survival rate in thestudied density. The treatments presented significant statistical differences (PO objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, em tanques com adubações orgânicas. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado, foi realizado em 16 tanques de 1000 litros, adubados com estercos de bovinos (BOV, suínos (SUI, frangos de corte (FRG e outros sem adubação (SAO, utilizando 15 peixes/m3 com peso e comprimento médios iniciais de 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. Após 30 dias, o experimento mostrou um desenvolvimento uniforme dos peixes e alta taxa de sobrevivência na densidade estudada. Os tratamentos apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05 para ganho de peso e crescimento diário, com exceção dos tratamentos BOV e SUI quando comparados entre si. A temperatura e o oxigênio dissolvido foram os fatores abióticos que exerceram maior influência sobre a biota aquática, afetando o desenvolvimento dos peixes. Entre o fitoplâncton houve maior abundância de organismos nanoplanctônicos favorecendo o desenvolvimento do zooplâncton, destacando-se as clorófitas, com o gênero Scenedesmus, e as cianofíceas, com o gênero Microcystis, e entre o zooplâncton, a maior abundância foi de rotíferos dos gêneros Brachionus e Keratella, seguido por copépodas. O tratamento adubado com esterco de frangos possibilitou um maior desenvolvimento da comunidade planctônica, e melhores

  17. Alterações bioquímicas post-mortem de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura, mantido em gelo Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice

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    Gilvan Machado Batista

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foram estudadas as alterações bioquímicas post-mortem que ocorreram em matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura e mantido em gelo em Manaus - AM. Foi determinado o tempo de estocagem em gelo por meio das avaliações sensoriais físicas e gustativas, das análises de pH, Nitrogênio das Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT e bacteriológicas durante 29 dias. Foram determinados os índices de rigor-mortis, as concentrações de ATP e seus produtos de degradações e o valor K. De acordo com a composição química, o peixe foi classificado como "semi-gordo". Os peixes entraram em rigor-mortis aos 75 minutos após a morte por hipotermia, tendo permanecido durante 10 dias. As avaliações sensoriais (físicas e gustativas mostraram que os peixes apresentaram condição de consumo até 26 dias. As análises de ATP e de seus produtos de degradação mostraram que a referida espécie foi considerada formadora de inosina (HxR, nas condições de experimento. O valor K mostrou que os exemplares de matrinxãs permaneceram "muito frescos" até 16 dias de estocagem em gelo, concordante com a avaliação sensorial gustativa.Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice in Manaus-AM, were studied in this paper. The storage time on ice was determined through tasting and physical sensory evaluations, pH, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVB-N and bacteriological analyses during 29 days. Rigor-mortis index, ATP-related compounds and K value were also determined. Chemical composition demonstrated that fish was classified as "semi-fat". The specimens presented rigor-mortis 75 minutes after death caused by hypothermia and remained that way for 10 days. Shelf life time on ice was 26 days, according to sensory evaluations, pH, TVBN determinations and bacteriological analyses. ATP-related compounds pointed out that the referred species was considered to

  18. Criação e domesticação de fêmeas de Brycon siebenthalae destinadas a reprodução - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1860 Breeding and domesticating Brycon siebenthalae females for reproduction - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1860

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    Walter Vásquez-Torres

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Brycon siebenthalae (yamú (Characidae tem uma natureza indomável, apresentando respostas ao estresse intensas e duradouras. Três grupos de fêmeas foram tratados com hormônios gonadotróficos para induzir a maturação final e desova, buscando avaliar o efeito da manipulação das fêmeas durante o período de maturação gonadal. O primeiro e segundo grupo eram formados por peixes de quatro anos de idade criados em viveiros de terra. As fêmeas do primeiro grupo foram submetidas ao manejo mensal de “domesticação” a partir do sexto mês de idade. O segundo grupo foi submetido a esse manejo com freqüência anual. O terceiro grupo de fêmeas foi capturado do ambiente natural. As fêmeas submetidas ao manejo mensal apresentaram melhores resultados referente a resposta ao tratamento hormonal, a fecundiade relativa e a sobrevivência após o manejo da reprodução. Os distintos procedimentos de manejo das fêmeas durante a maturação gonadal não afetaram (p>0,05 a taxa de fertilização e a sobrevivência dos ovos e larvas provenientes dos diferentes grupos.Brycon siebenthalae (yamú (Characidae have quite an untamable “nature”, with intense, enduring responses to stress. Three groups of females were induced to spawn in order to study the effects of manipulation during breeding. Groups one and two were formed by four year-old specimens bred in earth ponds. Females from group one and two were subjected to monthly and anual “domestication” practices, respectively, from the time they were six months old. The third group of females was brought from the natural environment. It was observed that females bred and monthly tamed had better induction responses, relative fecundity and post-spawn survival. The physiological responses to different stress situations during the reproductive procedure did not significantly affect (p>0.05 fertility and embryonic and larval survival among groups.

  19. Influência do fotoperíodo no crescimento e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae Influence of photoperiod on the growth and survival of piranjuba post-larvae Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae

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    Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do fotoperíodo no cultivo de pós-larvas de piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae, submetidas a quatro tratamentos: 0L-24E (L=Luz; E= Escuro, 10L-14E, 14L-10E e 24L-0E, com três 3 repetições. Pós-larvas com comprimento de 7,8±0,7mm e com peso de 3,5±0,8mg foram distribuídas em 12 aquários de 10L, estocados com 12 pós-larvas por aquário. Os indivíduos foram diariamente alimentados com naúplios de Artemia, ao longo dos 10 dias de experimento. Ao final, observou-se relação positiva entre a sobrevivência e o aumento do período com luz, sendo o maior valor de sobrevivência 88,9±9,7%, obtido no tratamento com 24 horas de luminosidade, e o menor valor 58,3±8,3%, no tratamento com 24 horas em escuridão. O comprimento e peso das pós-larvas de piracanjuba não apresentaram diferenças significativas (P>0,05 entre os diferentes tratamentos, porém foi observada uma maior heterogeneidade entre as pós-larvas cultivadas com maior período de escuridão.This paper aims at studying the influence of photoperiod on the cultivation of Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae post-larvae submitted to four treatments: 0L-24D (L=Light; D=Dark, 10 - L14D, 14L - 10D and 24L-0D, with 3 repetitions. Post-larvae measuring 7.8±0.7mm and weighting 3.5±0.8mg were distributed in 12 aquariums (10L, stocked with 12 post-larvae per aquarium. Fishes were fed daily with Artemia sp. nauplii, in 10 days experiment. A positive relationship between the survival rate (88.9±9.7% observed in the treatment with 24 hours of luminosity, and the lowest (58.3±8.3%, in the treatment with 24 hours of darkness. No difference was showed (P>0.05 in the mean length and weight of the post-larvae, although there was greater heterogeneity among the post-larvae cultivated at the longer darkness period.

  20. Comparative study on hematological parameters of farmed matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Characidae: Bryconinae with others Bryconinae species Estudo comparativo sobre parâmetros hematológicos de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz, 1892(Characidae: Bryconinae criados em cativeiro, com outras espécies de Bryconinae

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was not only to determine the red blood cells parameters, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts in farmed Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, to compare these parameters among Bryconinae species from literature, and also to investigate the presence of special granulocytic cells in these fish. The results of the blood cells parameters here established for farmed B. amazonicus, a species of great economic importance in Brazilian aquaculture, could help a better understanding of the blood features in natural populations of this Amazon species. Blood parameters varied between Bryconinae species investigated, mainly the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. The presence of the blood granulocytes, neutrophils and heterophils in matrinxã suggest that both leukocytes can be a characteristic for Bryconinae family. Furthermore, it indicates that the existence of special granulocytic cells in the blood of Bryconinae species from literature is an artifact, and this was herein discussed.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os parâmetros eritrocíticos, as contagens de trombócitos e de leucócitos de espécimes de Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, criados em cativeiro e compará-los com aqueles descritos na literatura para outras espécies de Bryconinae. Além disso, foi ainda investigada a presença de células granulocíticas especiais nestes peixes. Os resultados dos parâmetros sangüíneos apresentados para B. amazonicus podem ajudar a entender melhor as características sangüíneas em população natural desta espécie de grande importância para a aqüicultura brasileira. Os parâmetros sangüíneos das espécies de Bryconinae investigadas apresentaram variação interespecíficas principalmente a contagem de eritrócitos, hemoglobina, hematócrito e volume corpuscular médio (VCM. A presença dos granulócitos sangüíneos, neutrófilos e heterófilos em matrinxã sugere que esta pode ser uma

  1. Desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660 Embryonic and larvae development of piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660

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    Juan Ramón Esquivel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do desenvolvimento embrionário e larval das espécies de peixes é de extrema importância por permitir um melhor estudo da biologia e sistemática da espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Foram realizadas amostragens contínuas de 15 a 20 embriões durante toda a embriogênese. Os ovos se apresentaram semidensos, transparentes, esféricos e com um grande espaço perivitelínico. Depois de 18 horas e 30 minutos da fertilização, mantidos a 25 ± 0,8°C aconteceu a eclosão. O comprimento total das larvas recém eclodidas foi de 4,46 ± 0,39mm e o peso de 2,56 ± 0,73mg. As larvas de piracanjuba apresentaram forte canibalismo depois de 36 horas da eclosão, quando foi observada também a presença de olhos bem desenvolvidos e pigmentados, assim como uma abertura vertical da boca de 15,2 ± 1,9% do comprimento corporalThe knowledge of embryonic and larvae development of fishes is a fundamental key which enables a closer approach to their biology and taxonomy. The present study aims to characterize piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus embryonic and larvae development. During the whole embryogenesis, 15 to 20 embryos were sampled and analyzed. Eggs of B. orbignyanus are semidense, transparent, spherical, and bear a large perivitelline space. Hatching takes place 18 hours and 30 minutes after fertilization at 25 ± 0.8ºC. Total length and weight of just hatched larvae were 4.46 ± 0.39mm and 2.56 ± 0.73mg, respectively. Larvae presented entirely developed and pigmented eyes, as well as a vertical mouth opening of 15.2 ± 1.9% of body length, 36 hours after hatching, period from which intense cannibalism was observed

  2. Pigmentação testicular em Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner (Amphibia, Anura com observações anatômicas sobre o sistema pigmentar extracutâneo Testicular pigmentation in Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner (Amphibia, Anura with anatomical observations on the extracutaneous pigmentary system

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    Classius de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o intuito de relatar a ocorrência e morfologia de células pigmentares viscerais constituintes do "sistema pigmentar extracutâneo" em Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 (Leptodactylidae. Foram utilizados dez exemplares machos para a análise macroscópica e obtenção de fragmentos testiculares incluídos em resina e corados com H/E. Os anuros, dentre outros animais exotérmicos, possuem células especiais, os melanócitos, que se caracteriza por intensa pigmentação e sintetiza melanina, além de melanomacrófagos, que se caracteriza por atividade fagocítica e muitas vezes apresentam intensa pigmentação. A nomenclatura destas células não é consensual e, por isso, várias denominações são apresentadas, principalmente nos seguintes órgãos: fígado (como sinônimo de células de Kupffer, rins, baço e menos freqüentemente em outras localizações, com os termos - células pigmentares, células pigmentares extracutâneas, macrófagos pigmentados, melanomacrófagos, melanófagos, melanóforos e melanócitos. Para os anuros os estudos são recentes e relatam células pigmentares em poucas espécies. Em Physalaemus nattereri e alguns anuros, os pigmentos melânicos são encontrados, além da cútis, em outros órgãos constituindo um sistema pigmentar extracutâneo, com diferentes ocorrências, tipos e quantidade em distintas espécies. Associados ao aparelho reprodutor de P. nattereri, os melanócitos foram observados nas gônadas, na albugínea e no interstício, especialmente associado com vasos sangüíneos. A notória presença de numerosas células com pigmento distribuídas no testículo confere uma coloração que varia do preto mesclado com branco ao preto intenso. Trata-se de uma rara peculiaridade e não há informações sobre seu significado funcional ou valor biológico.The testes in the anurans are paired ovoid organs constituted by seminiferous structures surrounded by the

  3. Rediscovery of Chonopeltis meridionalis Fryer, 1964 (Crustacea: Branchiura) from Labeo rosae Steindachner in the River Olifants, Mpumalanga, and the taxonomic status of C. victori Avenant-Oldewage, 1991 and C. koki Van As, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van As, Liesl L; Smit, Nico J; van As, Jo G

    2017-09-01

    Chonopeltis Thiele, 1900 presently comprises 14 species, it is endemic to Africa and its species show a high degree of host-specificity towards fish families and in some cases, individual fish species. Chonopeltis meridionalis Fryer, 1964 was originally described from Labeo rosae Steindachner collected in the River Nuanetsi in Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, Limpopo River System. At the time of description C. meridionalis was the most southerly species of the genus. Chonopeltis victori Avenant-Oldewage, 1991 was described from the River Olifants, Mpumalanga, South Africa, which also forms part of the Limpopo River System. The host fish was Labeo rosae and Labeobarbus marequensis (A. Smith), whilst C. koki Van As, 1992 was described from Labeo cylindricus Peters, collected in the River Zambezi, Eastern Caprivi, Namibia. During surveys conducted in 2012, additional material of a species of Chonopeltis was collected from Labeo rosae in the River Olifants. Upon closer examination, the new material was identified as C. meridionalis. Further investigation revealed that C. victori and C. koki share a number of characteristics with C. meridionalis. This paper provides the first scanning electron microscopy of C. meridionalis, includes additional information on fully-mature as well as sub-adult males and females. Finally, it was concluded that C. victori and C. koki are junior synonyms of C. meridionalis.

  4. Inversión ocular en Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867 lenguado de ojos chicos (Pleuronectiformes, Paralichthyidae: un caso del ambiente y un análisis en ejemplares cultivados

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    Héctor Flores

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En diversas especies de Pleuronectiformes se han registrado casos de inversión ocular, fenómeno, en que el individuo reposa en el fondo por el lado contrario al habitual y/o normal. La proporción en que se presenta esta condición es variable y depende de las especies que se analicen. En el género Paralichthys se ha reportado inversión ocular en cuatro especies: P. albigutta, P. orbignyanus, P. californicus y P. dentatus. En el presente trabajo, se informa la captura de un ejemplar silvestre de Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867, con inversión ocular, capturado en Caldera (Chile. También, se han reportado individuos invertidos de esta especie provenientes de un cultivo, a partir de reproductores que fueron capturados en Bahía Coquimbo. En ejemplares diestros y siniestros proveniente de cultivo, se efectuó comparación de relaciones morfométricas. La proporción de peces con inversión ocular y que provienen de un cultivo, representa 2,2% de la población de peces producidos. Se discute la frecuencia de este tipo de anomalías y las probables causas que las estarían produciendo.

  5. Reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus Cuvier, 1819) in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Núcleo Santa Virgínia, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize seasonally and locally the reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus). The study area included three rivers (Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande) in the Santa Virgínia Unit of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Breeding occurred in spring, summer, and autumn. The L(50) and the L(100) of this species were 16 to 18 cm and 26 to 28 cm, respectively. Spawning was total, with synchronous development in two groups. The size of mature oocytes was 1,346.4 microm, reaching a maximum of 2,570.4 microm, with a mean fecundity of 9,190.5 oocytes. This species has external fertilization, is non-migratory, and lacks parental care of the young. Preservation of the Pirapitinga do Sul depends, in great part, on maintaining water quality, preservation of the riverine forests, and access to breeding areas.

  6. Avaliação de níveis protéicos para a nutrição de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus Evaluation of dietary protein contents for juvenile matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

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    Antônio Cláudio Uchôa Izel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã (Brycon cephalus - Gunther, 1869, é uma espécie de peixe nativa da bacia Amazônica que tem despertado grande interesse entre pesquisadores e piscicultores de todo o Brasil. A crescente demanda pelo cultivo desta espécie em ambiente controlado se deve, principalmente, à sua pronta adaptação ao cativeiro e à aceitação de alimentos artificiais, tanto de origem vegetal quanto animal, ao lado do seu elevado valor comercial. Contudo, para ser um empreendimento comercial bem sucedido, o alimento a ser fornecido a esta espécie deve atender a suas necessidades em proteína e permitir elevados ganhos de peso em períodos curtos. O experimento foi conduzido na estação de aqüicultura da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental. Foram testados cinco níveis de proteína bruta (16, 19, 22, 25 e 28% em dietas isocalóricas (EB = 390 kcal/100g em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com três repetições para cada tratamento. Os resultados obtidos após 210 dias de estudo mostraram que a dieta contendo 28 % de proteína bruta promoveu o maior ganho de peso, melhor conversão alimentar e mais alto crescimento corporal entre os níveis testados, indicando que este nível protéico atendeu satisfatoriamente às necessidades de proteína para esta espécie, nas condições deste experimento.Matrinxã (Brycon cephalus - Gunther, 1869 a native fish species from the Amazon basin, has been causing a great deal of interest among researchers and fish culturists all over Brazil. The rising demand for the culture of this species in controlled environment is mainly due, to its ready adaptation to captivity, the acceptance of manufactured feed made with either animal or plant ingredients, along with its high commercial value. However, for a successful commercial enterprise, feed must meet protein requirements of the fish to allow high weight gain in a short period. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental aquaculture

  7. Time of feed transition and inclusion levels of exogenous protease in rations for piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp. hatchery=Momento para a transição alimentar e níveis de inclusão de protease exógena na ração da larvicultura de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp.

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    Afonso Pelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted which consisted of determining the ideal time to make a feed transition from larvae of ‘curimba’ Prochilodus hartii to ration (from third, fifth and seventh days of life, with three days of co-feeding, and assess inclusion levels of exogenous protease (0, 0.02 and 0.2% in the diet of larvae of piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., in a completely randomized experimental design and duration of 15 and 17 days, respectively. Biomass, survival, total length, weight and specific growth rate were measured at the end of the experiments. Water quality parameters were measured every three days. The different transition periods and levels of exogenous protease did not affect water quality. The animals subjected to feed transition on the seventh day of life showed better results for length (23.1 mm, weight (110.9 mg and SGR (25.5%, being similar in biomass and survival at the fifth day of life. Therefore, the transition can be made on the fifth day of life. The inclusion levels of exogenous protease in the commercial diet had no effect on performance.Foram realizados dois experimentos, que consistiram em determinar o momento ideal de se realizar a transição alimentar de larva de curimba Prochilodus hartii para ração (a partir do terceiro, quinto e sétimo dia de vida, com três dias de coalimentação, e avaliar níveis de inclusão de protease exógena (0; 0,02 e 0,2% na dieta de larvas de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e duração de 15 e 17 dias, respectivamente. A biomassa, sobrevivência, comprimento total, peso médio e taxa de crescimento específico foram mensurados ao final dos experimentos. Já os parâmetros de qualidade de água foram aferidos a cada três dias. Os diferentes períodos de transição alimentar e níveis de protease exógena não interferiram na qualidade da água. Os animais submetidos à transição alimentar no sétimo dia de vida apresentaram melhores

  8. Efecto de la pluviosidad y el brillo solar sobre la producción y características del semen en el pez Brycon henni (Pisces:Characidae

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    C.J Tabares

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El pez Brycon henni es una especie endémica protegida por la legislación colombiana, que habita cuerpos de agua de zonas cafeteras (700-1900 m. s. n. m,comprendidas entre los 4º35’56’’ N y 74º04’51’’ W, con temperaturas que oscilan entre los 18 y los 28ºC. A pesar de las características promisorias de esta especie, su reproducción en cautiverio a nivel comercial no ha sido posible por falta de conocimientos básicos de su biología y comportamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar la producción y la fisiología espermática de machos en cautiverio. A lo largo de un año se tomaron 20 muestras de cada uno de 10 ejemplares. El semen se obtuvo mediante masaje abdominal cráneo-caudal y se transportó a 4ºC para su análisis en el laboratorio. Con excepción de septiembre y octubre que fueron los meses más lluviosos, siempre se obtuvo semen de al menos el 50% de los animales. El color, la osmolalidad y el pH fueron similares en todas las muestras a lo largo del año. El volumen, la concentración, la viabilidad, la movilidad y el tiempo de activación fueron variables: El efecto del brillo solar fue positivo sobre el volumen (Spearman pEffect of pluviosity and sun shine on sperm production and seminal characteristics of the fish Brycon henni (Pisces:Characidae. In Colombia the fish Brycon henni is a protected endemic species. It inhabits water bodies in coffee producing areas (700-1900 ma.s.l.; 4º35’56’’ N -74º04’51’’ W; 18-28°C. Insufficient knowledge of its basic biology and behavior prevent the commercial culture of this promising fish. We studied the production and sperm physiology of captive males. Along a year 20 samples were taken from each of 10 males. The sample was obtained by abdominal cefalo-caudal massage and transported to the laboratory at 4°C. Except for September and October (maximum rainfall,sperm was always obtained in at least 50% of the males. Color, osmolality and pH were

  9. Variabilidad genética de Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae en la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, sistema Río Magdalena, Colombia

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    Julio César Hurtado-Alarcón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brycon henni es una especie nativa de la cuenca del río Magdalena, Colombia, donde es fuertemente explotada, por lo cual en este trabajo se estudió la variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional en individuos provenientes de la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, Antioquia. Se recolectaron 195 ejemplares y se les extrajo ADN genómico total del tejido muscular y/o sanguíneo. Se evaluaron 14 cebadores para la técnica RAPD (Random Amplifyed Polimorphic DNA, siendo cuatro de ellos polimórficos, los cuales generaron 66 fragmentos diferentes (63% polimorfismo. Por medio de un análisis de varianza molecular (AMOVA, se determinó la estructuración poblacional para todos los sitios evaluados y la cuenca del río Nare ( ΦST =0.297 y ΦST =0.163, respectivamente. Las distancias genéticas de Nei mostraron que todas las poblaciones diferían entre sí y que la mayor diferenciación genética se dio para las poblaciones del río Guatapé y la quebrada El Cardal. Un test de Mantel mostró correlación entre las distancias genéticas y geográficas (ambas cuencas, r=0.431; cuenca del río Nare, r=0.377. Esto sugiere aislamiento por distancia y separación de grupos genéticos producidos por los embalses sobre los ríos Nare y Guatapé, lo cual puede tener implicaciones relevantes en la conservación de la variabilidad genética de las poblaciones naturales de esta especie en el oriente antioqueño.Genetic variability of Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae in the middle basin of Nare and Guatapé rivers, Magdalena River system, Colombia. Brycon henni is a native species in Magdalena´s River basin, and because of its cultural and economic importance, is strongly overexploited. This study aimed to describe the genetic variability and population structure of this species from Nare and Guatapé rivers basins. A total of 195 individuals were collected and DNA extractions were obtained from muscle and blood tissue. Fourteen primers were

  10. A new species of Auriculostoma (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) from the intestine of Brycon guatemalensis (Characiformes: Bryconidae) from the Usumacinta River Basin, Mexico, based on morphology and 28S rDNA sequences, with a key to species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mena, David Iván; Lynggaard, Christina; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; DE León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2016-11-22

    We describe a new species of Auriculostoma Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo & Choudhury, 2004 based on several sources of information including morphology (light and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]), sequences of two nuclear genes, host association, and geographical distribution. Morphologically, the new species most closely resembles Auriculostoma astyanace Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo & Choudhury, 2004, but differs by having deeply lobated testes and cirrus-sac extending posteriorly to seminal receptacle level. Auriculostoma lobata n. sp. can be readily distinguished from all the other congeners by the combination of the following characters: testes located in tandem, testes deeply lobated, and larger body size. A phylogenetic analysis using 28S rDNA sequences along with those available for other allocreadiid trematodes, revealed that the new species is a sister taxon of A. astyanace, a species described from the banded astyanax, Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier) in Nicaragua. Auriculostoma totonacapanensis Razo-Mendivil, Mendoza-Garfias, Pérez-Ponce de León & Rubio-Godoy, 2014 from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi) in Mexico is the sister taxon of A. astyanace plus the new species. Genetic divergence levels for the 28S rDNA and ITS2 were estimated among the Middle-American species of Auriculostoma infecting characiforms. The validity of the new species is then established by reliable morphological differences, its host association to bryconids (Brycon guatemalensis Regan), restricted geographical distribution (Usumacinta and Lacantun River basins), and genetic divergence levels, albeit relatively low. A morphometric comparison between the new species and the other seven congeneric species was undertaken and, in addition, a taxonomic key to identify the species contained in the genus Auriculostoma, widely distributed across the Americas, is provided.

  11. Variabilidad genética de Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae en la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, sistema Río Magdalena, Colombia

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    Julio César Hurtado-Alarcón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brycon henni es una especie nativa de la cuenca del río Magdalena, Colombia, donde es fuertemente explotada, por lo cual en este trabajo se estudió la variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional en individuos provenientes de la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, Antioquia. Se recolectaron 195 ejemplares y se les extrajo ADN genómico total del tejido muscular y/o sanguíneo. Se evaluaron 14 cebadores para la técnica RAPD (Random Amplifyed Polimorphic DNA, siendo cuatro de ellos polimórficos, los cuales generaron 66 fragmentos diferentes (63% polimorfismo. Por medio de un análisis de varianza molecular (AMOVA, se determinó la estructuración poblacional para todos los sitios evaluados y la cuenca del río Nare ( ΦST =0.297 y ΦST =0.163, respectivamente. Las distancias genéticas de Nei mostraron que todas las poblaciones diferían entre sí y que la mayor diferenciación genética se dio para las poblaciones del río Guatapé y la quebrada El Cardal. Un test de Mantel mostró correlación entre las distancias genéticas y geográficas (ambas cuencas, r=0.431; cuenca del río Nare, r=0.377. Esto sugiere aislamiento por distancia y separación de grupos genéticos producidos por los embalses sobre los ríos Nare y Guatapé, lo cual puede tener implicaciones relevantes en la conservación de la variabilidad genética de las poblaciones naturales de esta especie en el oriente antioqueño.

  12. Genetic population structure of two migratory freshwater fish species (Brycon orthotaenia and Prochilodus argenteus from the São Francisco River in Brazil and its significance for conservation Estructura genética poblacional de dos especies de peces migratorios de agua dulce (Brycon orthotaenia y Prochilodus argenteus en la cuenca del Río San Francisco (Brasil y su importancia para la conservación

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    Alexandra Sanches

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous geoetic studies cooducted with migratory fish populatioos from dowostream of the Três Marias dam io the São Fraocisco River Basio (Brazil have documeoted the occurreoce of populatioo structuriog, as reported for Brycon orthotaenia aod Prochilodus argenteus, two commercially importaot species io this basio. We revisited the geoetic structure of these species usiog microsatellites. B. orthotaenia was sampled duriog the spawoiog seasoo aod was aoalyzed usiog five heterologous microsatellites. P. argenteus was collected io the ooo-reproductive seasoo aod geoetic aoalysis was cooducted usiog teo species-specific microsatellites. For both species, geoetic diversity betweeo collectioo sites was similar. Coosideriog B. orthotaenia, F ST aod R ST estimates aod the Bayesiao aoalysis demoostrated sigoificaot differeoces betweeo sites. Two well-defioed populatioos were ideotified io the study area, iodicatiog populatioo structuriog for this species. No sigoificaot differeoces were fouod for P. argenteus. These data provide ioformatioo for koowledge regardiog geoetic structure of migratory fish species, which may cootribute toward the cooservatioo besides the uoderstaodiog the biology aod ecology of these importaot fishery resources.Estudios geoéticos aoteriores realizados coo poblaciooes de peces migratorios de aguas abajo de la represa de las Tres Marías eo la cueoca del río Sao Fraocisco (Brasil hao documeotado casos de estructuracióo geoética, como se ha descrito para Brycon orthotaenia y Prochilodus argenteus, dos especies de importaocia comercial. Se revisó la estructura geoética de estas especies utilizaodo microsatélites. Se obtuvieroo muestras de B. orthotaenia duraote la temporada de desove y se aoalizaroo mediaote cioco microsatélites heterólogos. Muestras de P. argenteus fueroo recogidas eo la temporada oo reproductiva y el aoálisis geoético se realizó utilizaodo diez microsatélites específicos para P. argenteus. Para

  13. Mertensiella luschani (Steindachner, 1891 (Amphibia: Urodela

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    Yücel KOCA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stomach and small intestine structures of M. luschani and T. karelinii were evaluated in terms of histologically and histometrically.Thestomach and small intestine tissues of M. luschani and T. karelinii have similar characteristics.Mucosa consists of lamina propria/submucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa layers. Histometrical results shows that M. luschani’s fundus (t=0,003; p<0,05 and pylorus (t=0,000; p<0,05 epithelial thickness and mean lumen area (t=0,009; p<0,05 are larger than T. karelinii’s fundus-pylorusepithelial thickness and mean lumen area.  In intestine, M. luschani’s lamina epithelialis thickness mean (t=0,003; p<0,05 and mean lumen area (t=0,009; p<0,05 are also larger than T. karelinii’s epithelial thickness and mean lumen area.

  14. Variação periódica da triiodotironina (T3 plasmática e sua ação na reprodução induzida do matrinxã, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 em cativeiro Periodic variation of plasma triiodotironina (T3 and its effect on the induced reproduction of matrinxã, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869

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    Maria do Carmo Figueredo Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, espécie nativa oriunda da Bacia Amazônica, apresenta características adequadas para a piscicultura. Entretanto, trata-se de peixe reofílico, sendo necessário manejo adequado para induzir à reprodução. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o perfil da triiodotironina (T3 plasmática no matrinxã, durante 16 meses (outubro/97 a janeiro/99, relacionando-o com a maturação sexual, além de testar a ação do T3 associado ao extrato pituitário de carpa na reprodução induzida da espécie. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Peixes Tropicais - CEPTA, Pirassununga, SP, e no Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal, da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal - UNESP. Foram amostrados, mensalmente, 8 a 12 peixes, de ambos os sexos, totalizando 173 animais, de onde retirou-se sangue para dosagem do T3 plasmático. As gônadas foram removidas para análise histológica com identificação do sexo e determinação do estádio de maturação. Analisaram-se testículos e ovários de 161 peixes em corte transversal, tendo predominado machos (63,35% e o estádio sexual imaturo entre ambos. A concentração plasmática de T3 foi maior de dezembro a janeiro, para machos e fêmeas, coincidindo com o período de maior atividade reprodutiva da espécie e maiores temperaturas da água. Em janeiro/99, reprodutores de matrinxã foram induzidos com extrato de pituitária de carpa (EPC associado à administração de T3 (20 mg/kg em 0,1 mL de suspensão oleosa. Os resultados sugeriram que o T3 atuou sinergicamente à gonadotropina do extrato hipofisário e que o tratamento agudo de triiodotironina com o EPC pode estimular o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-ovário. O tempo de eclosão das larvas provenientes das fêmeas tratadas com o T3 foi menor e o crescimento inicial e a sobrevivência dessas larvas, maiores.The matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, native specie from the Amazonian

  15. Quantification and characterization of Si in Pinus Insignis Dougl by TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Henry; Bennun, Leonardo [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Marco, Lue M. [Universidad Centro Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Agronomia, Depto. de Quimica, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-12-09

    A simple quantification of silicon is described, in woods such as Pinus Insigne Dougl obtained from the 8th region of Bio-Bio, 37 15'' South-73 19'' West, Chile. The samples were prepared through fractional calcination, and the ashes were directly analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique. The analysis of 16 samples that were calcined is presented. The samples were weighed on plastic reflectors in a microbalance with sensitivity of 0.1 μg. Later, the samples were irradiated in a TXRF PICOFOX spectrometer, for 350 and 700 s. To each sample, cobalt was added as an internal standard. Concentrations of silicon over the 1 % in each sample and the self-absorption effect on the quantification were observed, in masses higher than 100 μg. (orig.)

  16. Heterochromatin heterogeneity in Hypostomus prope unae (Steindachner, 1878 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from Northeastern Brazil

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    Jamille Bitencourt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analyses using C-banding and chromosomal digestion by several restriction enzymes were carried out in four populations (named A, B, C and D of Hypostomus prope unae (Loricariidae, Hypostominae from Contas river basin, northeastern Brazil. These populations share 2n=76 and single NORs on the second metacentric pair but exclusive karyotype forms for each locality. Populations A and B presented conspicuous terminal and interstitial heterochromatic blocks on most of acrocentric chromosomes and equivalent to NORs with differences in both position and bearing pair. Population D showed evident marks at interstitial regions and interspersed with nucleolar region while population C presented interstitial and terminal heterochromatin segments, non-coincident with NORs. The banding pattern after digestion with the endonucleases Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III and Dde I revealed a remarkable heterogeneity within heterochromatin, allowing the identification of distinctive clusters of repeated DNA in the studied populations, besides specific patterns along euchromatic regions. The analysis using restriction enzymes has proved to be highly informative, characterizing population differences and peculiarities in the genome organization of H. prope unae.

  17. Threatened Fishes of the World: Telestes Croaticus (Steindachner, 1866 (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae

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    Jelić Dušan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telestes croaticus is a freshwater fish endemic in Croatia. It is a stygophile species, living above ground but occasionally retreating into subterranean waters. This species is found in the southwest region of Croatia, in the Lika-Jadova and Ričica drainages, in cold and clear waters in lowland habitats with little current, and in springs and associated wetlands. It is protected under Croatian law and was listed by the IUCN Red List as Endangered (EN. It has an extremely limited distribution which makes it vulnerable to different kind of traits such as habitat destruction, water extraction, dam construction, agricultural water pollution and especially the introduction of non-indigenous fish species. Suggested conservation actions for this species are: bans on watercourse regulation, reduction of pollution and eradication of alien fish species. Due to its fast decline in the last 10 years, it is our proposition that T. croaticus should be upgraded to a Critically Endangered species under criterion A2ace A4ace.

  18. Broodstock management of the fine flounder Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867 using recirculating aquaculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Carrera

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the methodology used at IMARPE for the capture, acclimation and management of P. adspersus broodstock using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. RAS improved the water quality and maintained the environmental parameters during the acclimation period, temperature (17.2±1°C, oxygen (8.1±0.7 mg L-1, pH (7.3±0.2, ammonia (0.004±0.003 mg L-1, nitrite (0.52±0.2 mg L-1 and nitrate (3.45±2.6 mg L-1. Fish began to be fed normally from day 15 post-capture, once or twice a day using live fish (Odonthestes regia regia, Mugil cephalus, crustacean (Emerita analoga, fresh food (Engraulis ringens and Dosidicus gigas and artificial feed. A significant loss in the weight of the fish was registered during the first days of captivity, followed by a continuous increase in both sexes. The specific growth rate was positive from the third month of captivity, being the relative growth rate 24.5% and 16.2% in August 2010 in males and females, respectively. Different internal and external parasites were detected in the fish, being Entobdella sp. and Philometra sp. the prevailing parasites observed during samplings.

  19. Ecophysiological behavior of Caquetaia kraussii (Steindachner, 1878 (Pisces: Cichlidae exposed to different temperatures and salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Segnini de Bravo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical river sardine, Caquetaia kraussii, captured from La Aguá lagoon (Sucre State, Venezuela were acclimatized for four weeks at 22, 24, 30 and 32ºC and at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 17 ‰ salinity. To evaluate effects of thermal response to acclimatization level, the fish were transferred suddenly from lower temperatures (22 and 24ºC to higher ones (32 and 30ºC respectively. Then thermal resistance time was measured at the lethal temperature of 40.9ºC for 30 days. We considered that acclimatization process completed when resistance time was stabilized at the new temperature regime. For the saline effect, the concentrations of sodium and potassium were measured in the tissues at each treatment: gills, white muscle, gut and heart. The results showed that thermal tolerance increased rapidly in 3 h with a 6ºC rise in temperature (from 24 to 30ºC and in 24 h with a 10ºC rise (22 to 32ºC. With decreasing temperatures, the acclimatization level reached its lowest in 11 days with a 6ºC decreases (from 30 to 24ºC and in 14 days with a 10ºC decrease (32 to 22ºC. Caquetaia kraussii regulates as much sodium as potassium in gills and white muscle tissues at all salinity levels tested; however, gut and heart tissues showed significantly different regulations among salinities examined.La sardina tropical de río, Caquetaia kraussii, capturada en la laguna La Aguá (Estado Sucre, Venezuela fue aclimatada durante cuatro semanas a la temperatura de 22, 24, 30 y 32ºC y a 0, 5, 10, 15 y 17 ‰ de salinidad. Para evaluar los efectos de respuestas térmicas a los niveles de aclimatación, los peces fueron transferidos abruptamente desde las temperaturas bajas (22 y 24ºC hasta las altas (32 y 30ºC respectivamente. Se midió entonces la resistencia térmica a la temperatura letal de 40.9ºC durante 30 días. Se consideró que los peces habían alcanzado completamente su aclimatación cuando se estabilizaba al nuevo régimen de temperatura. Para el efecto salino, las concentraciones de sodio y potasio fueron determinadas en los tejidos: branquial, muscular, gástrico y cardíaco. Los resultados mostraron que la tolerancia térmica aumentaba rápidamente en 3 h cuando la diferencia de temperatura era de 6ºC (24 a 30ºC y en 24 h cuando la diferencia era de 10ºC (22 a 32ºC. En los descensos de temperaturas, el nivel de aclimatación se alcanzó a los 11 días cuando el intercambio se hizo desde 30 a 24ºC y en 14 días con un descenso de 10ºC (32 a 22ºC. Los resultados indican que Caquetaia kraussii regula tanto sodio como potasio a nivel muscular y branquial a todos los niveles de salinidad estudiados; sin embargo a nivel gástrico y cardíaco se observaron regulaciones significativamente diferentes entre las salinidades examinadas.

  20. The renal effects and initial characterization of venom from Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870

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    Marinetes Dantas de Aquino Nery

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom of the snake Philodryas nattereri is a mixture of proteins and toxic peptides with several important local and systemic actions, which are similar to those occurring in Bothrops snake bites. The mechanisms involved in the local and systemic actions of this venom are unknown. The aims of the work were to initial characterization of P. nattereri venom and investigate the effects of the poison in the renal perfusion system and in cultured renal tubular cells of the type MDCK (Madin–Darby canine kidney. The P. nattereri venom is composed majority of proteins (86.3% and this poison promoted changes in all the evaluated renal parameters, mainly decreasing renal perfusion pressure (PP and renal vascular resistance (RVR and increasing urine flow (UF and glomerular filtration rate (GFR. The most relevant result was that this venom was highly detrimental to the renal tubules independent of the PP reduction, which was shown by a decrease in sodium (Na+, potassium (K+ and chloride (Cl− electrolyte transport in the studied concentrations. The glomeruli and tubules contain protein bodies and blood extravasation, which were observed by histological analysis. The venom of P. nattereri reduced viability of the MDCK cells only at high concentrations (50 and 100 μg/mL with an IC50 of 169.5 μg/mL.

  1. Is the Kotschy’s Gecko Mediodactylus kotschyi (Steindachner, 1870 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae active during the winter?

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    IVELIN MOLLOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current communication reports few cases of unusual winter activity of the Kotschy’s Gecko – Mediodactylus kotschyi rumelicus from the city of Plovdiv and Mediodactylus kotschyi daniliewskii from Hrishteni Village (Stara Zagora District in Bulgaria.

  2. Optimization of Artificial Propagation in Piracanjuba Fish Brycon orbignyanus Using Cryopreserved Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felizardo, V O; Melo, C C V; Murgas, L D S; Andrade, E S; Navarro, R D; Ftreitas, T F

    BACKGROUND: Cryopreserved semen could facilitate procedures during the artificial reproduction in fish. Factors affecting cryopreservation efficiency are important to define efficient protocols. This study investigated the application of cryoprotectants on the quality of piracanjuba fish semen, the sperm concentration required for oocyte fertilization and spermatic activation. We evaluated two intracellular cryoprotectant solutions (DMSO and methanol) and two extracellular cryoprotectant solutions (egg yolk and lactose) to cryopreserved piracanjuba semen. Sperm motility rate, motility duration and spermatic alterations were assessed. The protocol for piracanjuba semen cryopreservation can use solutions including either DMSO or methanol as intracellular cryoprotectant and egg yolk or lactose as extracellular cryoprotectants.

  3. EFFECT OF SOME IONS ON SPERM ACTIVATION IN Brycon henni (EIGENMANN 1913

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    JAVIER TABARES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espermatozoides en los carácidos se mantienen inmóviles en plasma seminal, acti- vándose cuando se liberan en el agua. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer algunos de los mecanismos que inducen la activación espermática (porcentaje de espermato- zoides que adquieren movilidad y el tiempo que dura la misma. El efecto de las solucio- nes isosmóticas, se analizó considerando las combinaciones de los iones Ca2+, K+, Mg2+ y Na+, y el efecto de algunos bloqueadores de canales iónicos. Se evaluó el porcentaje y duración de la movilidad, así como el potencial de la membrana plasmática. La motili- dad espermática fue mayor cuando el semen se incubó en las soluciones que contenían K+ (p<0,05 comparado con el control positivo. La mayor duración de la movilidad se obtuvo cuando se incubaron los espermatozoides en soluciones que contenían Na+ y Mg2+ (p<0,05. Todas las soluciones probadas indujeron un cambio en el potencial de membrana, detectado después de 15 segundos de la activación. Bloqueo de los canales de K+, Ca2+ y Na+ no alteró la movilidad, sino que disminuyó el tiempo de activación (p<0,05. Los iones potasio indujeron la activación en todas las concentraciones hasta 105 mM, pero la movilidad disminuyó drásticamente cuando las concentraciones fue- ron mayores de 140 mM (p<0,05. Se concluye que la interacción del ambiente iónico con la membrana de la célula conduce a cambios en el potencial de la membrana que conllevan a señales intracelulares que desencadenan la movilidad del esperma.

  4. Cryopreservation of yamú (Brycon amazonicus) sperm for large scale fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Medina-Robles, Mauricio; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

    . Sperm was diluted (1:4) in a solution of glucose, egg yolk and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Sperm concentration was determined using a Neubauer chamber, and motility evaluated after activation with 1% NaHCO3. In the laboratory, four sizes of straw (0.5, 1.8, 2.5 and 4.0 mL) and two thawing temperatures...... (35 °C or 80 °C water bath) were evaluated. To assess fertility, 2 g of eggs (ca. 2800) were inseminated with 500 μL of frozen-thawed sperm (ca. 75,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) from each straw thawed at 35 °C or 80 °C, or 160 μL (ca. 50,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) of fresh sperm. Large scale fertility...... assays consisted of 40 g eggs inseminated with approximately 5.0 mL (ca. 75,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) of cryopreserved sperm in large straws thawed at 35 °C. The fertilization rate was estimated 6 h post-insemination. In all straws, postthaw motility was significantly lower than for fresh sperm (pb0...

  5. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    In Colombia and the rest of the world, the decrease in capture fisheries production has turned the aquaculture into an alternative source of protein for the populations food security as well as an important productive activity, generating employment and income for the rural communities. The Colom......In Colombia and the rest of the world, the decrease in capture fisheries production has turned the aquaculture into an alternative source of protein for the populations food security as well as an important productive activity, generating employment and income for the rural communities...... Prochilodus magdalenae (Steindachner), carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) and yamu Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz). From the three main fish species, cachama blanca is the only native species, which has shown excellent performance in pond farming due to its rusticity, omnivorous habits, docility, meat quality......, food conversion and disease resistance. The limited offer of Colombian fish farmed species determines its currently low competitiveness and restricted impact on the international markets; thus making necessary to explore the potential of new fish species in order to introduce them to the pisciculture...

  6. Inseminating dose and water volume applied to the artificial fertilization of Steindachneridion parahybae (Steindachner, 1877 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: Brazilian endangered fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    Full Text Available Abstract The Steindachneridion parahybae is an endangered catfish from Brazil and strategies applied for gametes optimization are necessary. The aim of this study was to assess inseminating doses and water volume upon the fertilization, hatching rates and percentage of normal larvae in S. parahybae . Was used a randomized design in factorial scheme (4×4 with four inseminating doses: 1.0×104, 1.0×105, 1.0×106, 1.0×107spermatozoa oocyte-1 and four volumes of water: 1, 35, 65 and 95mL of water g-1 of oocytes. The combination of doses and volumes were performed in triplicates (n=48. Each incubator (1.5L of useful volume with 1g of oocytes was considered as an experimental unit. Significant interaction between inseminating doses and volumes of water to the values of the fertilization rates and quadratic effect of doses and volume for the values of hatching rates were observed. The doses and volumes did not influence the percentage of normal larvae (87.70±5.06%. It is recommended the use of 5.5×106 spermatozoa oocyte-1 and 1mL of water g-1 of oocytes during in vitro fertilization procedure. These results allowed us to develop new biotechnological strategies applied to the conservation of S. parahybae .

  7. Food passage time through the alimentary tract of a brazilian teleost fish, Prochilodus scrofa (Steindachner, 1881 using radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lamounier Barbieri

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O tempo de passagem de alimentos através do trato digestivo do peixe detritívoro de água doce Prochilodus scrofa foi determinado com o uso de técnicas radiográficas e de sulfato de bário como meio de contraste. Os peixes foram mantidos em tanques com temperatura constante de 23ºC e receberam via oral, através de um cateter, uma mistura de 2,5 partes de ração peletizada moída e 1 parte de suspensão oral do meio de contraste (Celobar. As radiografias foram obtidas em intervalos de 3 horas. Imediatamente após a introdução da mistura, visualizou-se o preenchimento gástrico pelo contraste. Foi observado um esfíncter existente entre os estômagos cárdico e pilórico. Após 3 horas, 80 por cento do intestino proximal estava repleto. Após 6 horas, o contraste atingiu as porções proximal, média e distal do intestino. Após 9 horas, 70 por cento do intestino distal estava repleto, e após 12 horas, havia a marcação do segmento do reto (25 por cento da porção distal do intestino.

  8. A case of intersex occurrence in Steindachneridion parahybae (Steindachner, 1877 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae under captivity condition: a cytogenetic and morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M. Honji

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little is known about reproductive biology of endangered Steindachneridion parahybae , a gonochoristic teleost species inhabiting the Paraíba do Sul River Basin, and herein is the first description of intersex in S. parahybae juvenile. The normal appearance of ovaries and testes in juvenile from the same lot of breeding were also described for comparison, even as cytogenetic analysis was performed in these juveniles. One specimen was a priori classified as female due to the macroscopic characteristic of ovaries, with small yellow oocytes, without fringes (a main characteristic of catfish male, and larger than testes; however the microscopic analysis revealed the presence of ovotestes, including the complete spermatogenesis. S. parahybae had diploid number, 2n = 56 chromosomes with no evidence of differentiated sex chromosomes or supernumerary chromosomes among them. These findings may be due to the result of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds or may also be influenced by environmental conditions. The possibility of intersexes might also happen spontaneously and it cannot be ruled out. Therefore, the functional significance and reproductive consequences of this anomaly remain to be determined, suggesting that this species may be susceptible to endocrine disruption. These results contribute to gain expertise about reproductive biology of an endangered species in captivity.

  9. ACUICULTURA DE PARGO LA MANCHA LUTJANUS GUTTATUS (STEINDACHNER, 1869 EN COSTA RICA DENTRO DE UN ENFOQUE ECOSISTÉMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Herrera-Ulloa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La sobreexplotación pesquera y la búsqueda de alternativas ante la pobreza crónica han llevado a explorar el campo de la maricultura por medio de un enfoque ecosistémico se abrieron dos procesos paralelos: una estrategia e; investigación en laboratorio para el levantamiento larval de peces marinos tropicales y una estrategia de comanejo para desarrollar el cultivo de peces marinos tropicales. El pargo la mancha muestra gran potencial de producción de larvas y posterior cultivo en el mar. No mostró respuestas positivas a la inducción por medio de hormonas, el desarrollo de un ambiente adecuado para su reproducción espontánea, permitió tener desoves frecuentes y de calidad. La fase de levantamiento larval mostró contratiempos por el tamaño reducido de las larvas de pargo la mancha el manejo en tanques apropiados y el uso de enriquecedores permitieran mejorar los procesos y llegar a incrementar la producción de alevines. El enfoque ecosistémico permitió abrir los espacios necesarios que permitieron la operación de un proyecto piloto. La granja se creó con un enfoque productivo, pero también para turismo rural. Overfishing and the search for alternatives to it, led us to the explore mariculture as an option using an ecosystem-based approach through two parallel processes: an in-laboratory research strategy for larval rearing of tropical marine fish, and a strategy of co-management to develop tropical marine fish aquaculture. The spotted rose snapper shows great potential for larvae production and cage culture. This species showed no responses to hormone induction; however, the set up of a suitable environment allowed frequent, high-quality spontaneous spawnings. The larval rearing phase presented problems due to the small size of the larvae; although, management in appropriate tanks and the use of enrichments improved the processes, increasing the production of juveniles. This ecosystem approach allowed the operation of a profitable farm pilot project with a productive approach, but with rural tourism in mind as well.

  10. Reproductive biology of Plagioscion magdalenae (Teleostei: Sciaenidae (Steindachner, 1878 in the bay of Marajo, Amazon Estuary, Brazil

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    Nayara Barbosa Santos

    Full Text Available Plagioscion magdalenae (pacora is a commercially important benthopelagic sciaenid and widely distributed in the Amazon River basin. The present study describes the reproductive biology of this species in the bay of Marajo, Amazon Estuary, Brazil. The gonadal development stage, age and size at first sexual maturity (L50, sex ratio, and reproductive strategy were determined. The data were collected bi-monthly from December 2005 to October 2006. A total of 251 specimens were examined, with the total length (TL ranging between 220 and 590 mm. The weight-length relationship for females, males and grouped sexes was highly significant, showing a positive allometry. The L50 was of 279 mm for grouped sexes, with 305 mm and 269 mm TL for females and males respectively. The sex ratio for the total number of individuals favored the males (2.02 males: 1 female. Macroscopically, the gonads were classified as immature, maturing, mature and spent. Considering the macro and microscopic evaluation of the gonads, an extended spawning period, mainly in August to February, was observed.

  11. Morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of Schizodon knerii (Steindachner, 1875, (Characiformes: Anostomidae: An anatomical, histological and histochemical study

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    Marcella L. Dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tracts of 44 specimens of Schizodon knerii were studied using anatomical, histological and histochemical techniques. The mouth has terminal position, the lip epithelium is squamous stratified with mucous, claviform cells and taste buds, teeth have an incisive form and the tongue has a stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The oropharynx cavity is formed by gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth. The oesophagus presented pleated mucosa, a stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells, oesophageal glands and taste buds. The stomach presented cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions, simple prismatic epithelium with tubular glands, with none in the pyloric region. The intestine contains 11-15 pyloric caeca, a simple prismatic epithelium with brush border, goblet cells and lymphocytes. Mucosal cells, oesophageal glands and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase + PAS, Ab pH 2.5 and Ab pH 0.5. Gastric prismatic cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase + PAS, but only those in the pyloric region reacted positively to Ab pH 2.5 and Ab pH 0.5. The results improve the understanding of the anatomy of S. knerii feeding habits and the presence of mucosubstances in the epithelium, highlights the importance of glycoproteins for passing food through the digestive tract.

  12. 76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...; Okari nut, Terminalia kaernbachii Warb.; Pachira nut, Pachira insignis (Sw.) Savigny; Peach palm nut... (Molina) K. Koch) Okari nut (Terminalia kaernbachii Warb.) Pachira nut (Pachira insignis (Sw.) Savigny...

  13. Seminal characteristics of piabanha before and after induction with different hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raycon Roberto Freitas Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The migratory species piabanha does not reproduce in lentic environments since it requires environmental stimuli for the maturation and extrusion of gametes, and therefore hormonal induction is mandatory. Current study compares the seminal characteristics of Brycon insignis without any hormonal induction (Control - Ctrl and with two types of hormonal inductors, or rather, carp pituitary extract (T1 - 2.5 mg kg-1 body weight and GnRH analogues, the latter applied in two different concentrations (T2 - 0.7 mg kg-1 body weight and T3 - 1.4 mg kg-1 body weight. Post-induction analyses showed that the hormones increased the motility rate - Ctrl (95%, T1 (100%, T2 (100% and T3 (98%, although sperm concentration - Ctrl (11.52 x 109; T1 (4.37 x 109; T2 (4.34 x 109; T3 (4.01 x 109 decreased. Assessments for sperm vigor, motility time and spermatic morphology did not vary with hormonal induction. Hormonal inducer does not alter negatively the seminal characteristics of the piabanha, and the choice for the proper hormone depends on the preference of the dispenser.

  14. Clove oil as anaesthetic for juveniles of matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869 Óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Many chemicals have been used as anaesthetics in fish farms and fish biology laboratories to keep the fish immobilized during handling procedures and to prevent accidents and animal stress. In Brazil, tricaine methane sulfonate (MS 222, quinaldine sulfate, benzocaine, and phenoxyethanol are the most common fish anaesthetics used to prevent fish stress during handling, but many side effects such as body and gill irritations, corneal damage and general risks of intoxication have been reported. Clove oil is a natural product proposed as an alternative fish anaesthetic by many researchers and it has been used in many countries with great economic advantages and no apparent toxic properties. In this work, we assessed the suitability of clove oil to anaesthetize matrinxã. Sixty-three juveniles of matrinxã were exposed to seven anaesthetic batches of clove oil (pharmaceutical grade namely 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mg/L. The times to reach total loss of equilibrium and to recover the upright position were measured. Clove oil concentration about 40 mg/L was enough to anaesthetize the fish in approximately one minute and the recovery time was independent in regard to anaesthetic concentration.Diversos produtos químicos têm sido empregados como anestésicos para peixes nas estações de piscicultura e laboratórios de biologia de peixes para a devida imobilização dos organismos, afim de se prevenir acidentes e ferimentos na superfície do corpo dos próprios peixes, que podem ficar susceptíveis a patógenos e taxas altas de mortalidade. A tricaina metano sulfonato (MS 222, a quinaldina, a benzocaina e o phenoxyethanol têm sido amplamente utilizados no Brasil, mas alguns efeitos colaterais são observados como perda de muco, irritação nas brânquias e olhos, e também alguns incômodos aos trabalhadores como a necessidade do uso de luvas. Dessa forma, o óleo de cravo é proposto como um anestésico alternativo por ser um produto natural de custo acessível e sem riscos aparentes de intoxicações. No presente trabalho estudamos a possibilidade do uso do óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã, utilizando-se 63 peixes, expondo-os a banhos anestésicos nas concentrações de 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 60 mg/L, de forma que foram mensurados os tempos necessários para que os peixes atingissem a perda total de equilíbrio e a incapacidade de retornar a posição normal de nado. A concentração de 40 mg/L foi suficiente para anestesiar juvenis de matrinxã em aproximadamente 1 minuto, sendo a recuperação independente da concentração do anestésico.

  15. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crecimiento en jaulas del pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869 con dos tipos de dieta en Bahía Málaga, municipio de Buenaventura, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Andrés Banguera Gil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para dar continuidad al “Programa de desarrollo de la maricultura en el Pacífico colombiano” adelantado por la Universidad del Pacífico, en un cerramiento natural ubicado en la vereda La Sierpe, Bahía Málaga, municipio de Buenaventura, se comparó la tasa de crecimiento de 204 ejemplares silvestres de pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus , alimentados con pescado fresco y concentrado comercial al 35% en proteína, con peso y longitud total promedio de 13,79 cm y 32,21 g, respectivamente. El trabajo se realizó por espacio de 40 días en cuatro jaulas flotantes, de 3 x 1,5 x 0,75 m, dos para cada tratamiento, a densidades de 15 individuos/m 3 , utilizando el 12% de la biomasa corporal para el suministro de los alimentos a evaluar; el crecimiento se analizó mediante los siguientes índices: IPD = Incremento en Peso Diario; TCE = Tasa de Crecimiento Específico. Los peces alcanzaron un peso promedio final de 64,9±5,9 y 58,49±5,9 g para el alimento natural y balanceado comercial respectivamente, lo cual es equivalente a un IPD de 0.8 y 0.7 g/d y una TCE de 1,58 y 1,67 g/d, valores considerados buenos teniendo en cuenta su etapa de desarrollo y comparaciones con otros estudios realizados en Colombia. Los peces aceptaron los dos tipos de alimento de manera satisfactoria, durante el período de cultivo y mostraron gran tolerancia a la manipulación, resistencia a las enfermedades y a las fluctuaciones de la calidad del agua, en especial la salinidad. Los resultados señalan que existen diferencias significativas (P>0.05 entre los dos tratamientos a favor del alimento natural. Los índices de sobrevivencia fueron de 90,2% para peces alimentados con pescado fresco y 85,3% para los alimentados con concentrado. Se concluye que el pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus presenta una importante ventaja para su cultivo como es la fácil aceptación de un concentrado comercial. pero el crecimiento de los peces alimentados con este producto fue significativamente menor que los peces alimentados con alimentos naturales y ambos presentaron valores relativamente en comparación con cultivos de pargo efectuados en otras latitudes por lo que se sugiere realizar cultivos empleando concentrados con mayores niveles de proteínas balanceados para la especie.

  17. Crecimiento y reproducción de la mojarra amarilla (Caquetaia kraussii Steindachner, 1878 en el embalse de Urrá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delio Solano-Peña

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar los parámetros biológicos de crecimiento y reproducción de la mojarra amarilla en el embalse de Urrá. Materiales y métodos. Se colectaron 593 individuos para estudiar las relaciones talla-peso y la biología reproductiva. La relación longitud-peso y el factor de condición se estimaron con WT =a LTb y Fc =WT/LTb, y se estimó proporción sexual, tallas e índices de madurez sexual, época de desove, diámetro de los ovocitos y fecundidad. Resultados. 235 individuos fueron hembras, 212 machos, 28 indiferenciados y 118 no sexados. La relación longitud-peso para sexos combinados fue WT =0.013 (± 0.04 LT3.07 (± 0.03, r =0.99, n =593. La proporción sexual fue 1.1:1, la talla media de madurez sexual para sexos combinados fue 11.0 cm LT, el diámetro de los ovocitos fue 1376 μm y la fecundidad promedio por desove fue 1732 ovocitos. Conclusiones. La mojarra amarilla mostró crecimiento isométrico en el embalse de Urrá, con talla media de captura menor que en el resto de la cuenca del río Sinú, sin dimorfismo sexual a la talla, período de reproducción prolongado y desoves parciales, ovocitos grandes y baja fecundidad, con correlación entre el factor de condición y el índice de madurez sexual, pero independientes del nivel de las aguas del embalse.

  18. Induced spawning and larval rearing of spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869), in Estación de Biología Marina, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boza, J.A.; Calvo, E.; Solis, N.; Komen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Wild spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus (n = 400, 60-100 g), were captured and grown out in cages during one year (February 2001 to February 2002). When the mature stage was detected by cannula samples, females (n = 9) were induced to spawn with a total dose of 1600 IU of human chorionic

  19. Feeding ecology of Dash-dot Tetra Hemigrammus belottii(Steindachner 1882) (Characiformes: Characidae) in the streams of the Urucu River basin, central Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Andrey Felipe Gomes; Prudente,Bruno da Silveira; Carvalho Filho,Fernando da Silva; Montag,Luciano Fogaça de Assis

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo descreve a dieta da espécie Hemigrammus belottii (Characiformes: Characidae) coletados na bacia do Rio Urucu no município de Coari, Amazonas, (Brasil), buscando responder o seguinte questionamento: Qual a influência dos períodos hidrológicos (seco e chuvoso) e da distribuição espacial na dieta de H. belottii? Os espécimes tiveram seus estômagos retirados e os itens alimentares pesados e identificados para posteriores análises relacionadas à intensidade alimentar, pelo Índice...

  20. External Morphology of Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1876 during Early Stages of Development, and Its Implications for the Evolution of Pseudopimelodidae (Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assega, Fernando Massayuki; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; Bialetzki, Andréa; Shibatta, Oscar Akio

    2016-01-01

    Pseudopimelodidae are Neotropical catfishes characterized by having slightly to strongly depressed body in fully developed specimens. The largest species of the family with 500 mm SL, Lophiosilurus alexandri, experiences impressive changes in body shape during development, becoming extremely depressed when fully developed. Accordingly, Lophiosilurus alexandri is an ideal species to observe the morphological changes during ontogeny, and to seek solid interpretations on the polarity of characters. Specimens of distinct larval periods (yolk sac, flexion and postflexion; n = 186 specimens) and juvenile stages (n = 20) were analyzed. Changes in body shape, position of mouth and eye, morphology of fins and pigmentation were observed during the development of Lophiosilurus. Larvae (5.7-11.2 mm standard length) had pigmentation concentrated on the head and parts of body, eyes small and pigmented, short barbels, and well-developed finfold. Juveniles (15.9-28.1 mm standard length) had body shape similar to adult, with head depressed and bearing bony ridges, large mouth, dorsally-oriented eyes, small barbels and well-developed shoulder bulges (cleithral width). The greatest morphological changes in the development of L. alexandri occurred during the postflexion larval stage. Relative to standard length, measurements of snout length, head depth and body depth are smaller in juveniles than in larvae, but body width is larger. New interpretations on the phylogenetic characters related to these changes are provided in view of the two alternative hypotheses of the evolution of Pseudopimelodidae.

  1. The karyotypes of the thorny catfishes Wertheimeria maculata Steindachner, 1877 and Hassar wilderi Kindle, 1895 (Siluriformes: Doradidae) and their relevance in doradids chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eler, Eduardo S; Dergam, Jorge A; Vênere, Paulo C; Paiva, Lílian C; Miranda, Gabriela A; Oliveira, Alessandro A

    2007-05-01

    We studied the karyotypes of two doradids, the rare and endangered Wertheimeria maculata and a derived Amazonian species, Hassar wilderi. Cytogenetic characterization was assessed using conventional staining (Giemsa), C-banding, and NOR banding. Both species had 2n = 58 chromosomes but differed in their chromosome formulae, 24 m + 14sm + 8st + 12a for W. maculata and 32 m + 16sm + 10st for H. wilderi. In W. maculata heterochromatin was mainly telomeric, and three chromosomes had a fully heterochromatic arm; in H. wilderi heterochromatin was also predominantly telomeric and evident in many more chromosomes. Hassar wilderi also presented one pair of homologues with a fully heterochromatic arm. In both species, nucleolar organizer regions were restricted to one pair of subtelocentric chromosomes. Assuming a basal position for W. maculata, we hypothesized that underlying conserved diploid and NOR-bearing chromosome numbers, chromosomal evolution in doradids has involved pericentric inversions and an increase of heterochromatic blocks.

  2. Comparison of the eggs size between two subspecies of the Kotschy’s Gecko Mediodactylus kotschyi (Steindachner, 1870 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae in Bulgaria

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    Ivelin Mollov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study compares the egg size (length, width, egg volume and clutchsize between two subspecies of the Kotschy’s Gecko – Mediodactylus kotschyi rumelicus and Mediodactylus kotschyi daniliewskii from Bulgaria. Our results showed that M. k. rumelicus from Plovdiv has bigger eggs, compared to M. k. daniliewskii from Sozopol, The South Black Sea Coast and Ukraine, regarding length, width and egg volume. The clutch size between the two subspecies both from Bulgaria and Ukraine is very similar and contains average of 2 eggs.

  3. New species of Eugerres from the Usumacinta Province, México and Guatemala with a redescription of E. mexicanus (Steindachner, 1863 (Teleostei: Gerreidae

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    Adrian F. Gonzalez-Acosta

    Full Text Available Eugerres castroaguirrei, new species is described from the río Grijalva-Usumacinta basin of southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala. Eugerres castroaguirrei and E. mexicanus are distinguishable from their marine estuarine congeners by the dorsal-fin origin posterior to the insertion of the pectoral and pelvic fins, a shorter and broad based supraoccipital crest, and a distinct geographic distribution restricted to freshwater habitats. Eugerres castroaguirrei differs from E. mexicanus by diagnostic characters of the body skeleton: anterior process of supraoccipital convex, infraorbital 1 with foramen, premaxillary ascending process developed with margins curved, pharyngeal plate granular and not serially arranged, and dorsal and anal fin-rays reduced. Likewise, E. castroaguirrei is characterized by an oblong and laterally thicker body (37.6-58.5% HL; greater body depth (33.8-42.1% SL, and eye diameter (23.3-31.6% HL; in addition to 16 significant morphometric characters: length of the second dorsal-fin spine 23.2-34.2% SL; depressed second dorsal-fin spine (extending to base of third to fourth dorsal-fin rays; length of second anal-fin spine 11.1-20.6% SL, depressed second anal-fin spine extending to the base of third to fourth anal-fin rays not reaching the distal point of last anal-fin ray; pelvic-fin spine length 49.7-65.0% in the first pelvic-fin ray length

  4. First record of Hysterothylacium sp. Moravec, Kohn et Fernandes, 1993 larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) infecting the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characiformes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, A A; Silva, R J

    2015-08-01

    This study reports for the first time infection with Hysterothylacium sp. larvae in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques from the Paranapanema River, Jurumirim Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil. A sample of 33 specimens of H. eques was collected in October, 2011. Four specimens of H. eques were parasitized by Hysterothylacium sp. larvae in the intestine and coelomic cavity, with prevalence of 12.1%, mean intensity of infection of 1, and mean abundance of 0.121 ± 0.05. A total of 40 unidentified free-living nematodes were found in the stomach content of 17 fish. This fish species is introduced in the Paranapanema River. Invasive species may affect the native fauna given the introduction of pathogens and parasites. This study also complements data on the diet of H. eques due to the records of free-living nematode as part of the stomach content. Infections with Hysterothylacium sp. larvae may affect the biology of this fish and bring about profit losses to aquarists.

  5. Avaliação da tolerância de larvas do pacamã Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1877 (Pisces: Siluriformes a diferentes salinidades = Evaluation of the tolerance of “pacamã” Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1877 (Pisces: Siluriformes larvae to different salinities

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    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a tolerância de larvas de pacamãLophiosilurus alexandri ao teste agudo de salinidade da água em diferentes idades. Os testes foram realizados em larvas recém-eclodidas, com oito e 12 dias pós-eclosão. As larvas foramaclimatadas às condições experimentais por 24h, sendo estocadas em 18 tanques plásticos de 1 L na densidade de 15 larvas L-1. Após esse período, as larvas foram transferidas para as salinidades: água doce, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 g de sal L-1 e observadas durante 96h. Larvas recémeclodidas apresentaram mortalidade total em 6, 8 e 10 g de sal L-1 e 100% de sobrevivência para água doce, 2 e 4 g de sal L-1; porém, com redução dos valores de peso e comprimento mediante as duas salinidades. Larvas com oito dias pós-eclosão apresentaram CL(I50-96h de 8,9 g de sal L-1. Para o peso, verificou-se redução gradativa a partir da salinidade de 2 g de sal L-1, mas sem diferenças para o comprimento das larvas entre os tratamentos. Para as larvas com 12 dias pós-eclosão, não se registraram diferenças no comprimento e peso e a sobrevivência foi menor a 8 e 10 g de sal L-1. Larvas com oito e 12 dias pós-eclosão tiveram alterações no comportamento natatório em salinidades superiores a 6 g de sal L-1. Larvas de pacamã apresentaram maior tolerância às diferentes salinidades da água com o desenvolvimento ontogenético.The aim of this study was to analyze the salinity tolerance of “pacamã” Lophiosilurus alexandri larvae at different ages. The test was conducted in post-hatching-larvae and larvae with 8 and 12 daysold post-hatching. Larvae were acclimatized to experimental conditions for 24h, kept in 18 plastic tanks with 1 L at a density of 15 larvae L-1. After this period, larvae were subjected tothe salinities: freshwater, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g salt L-1, and observed over a period of 96h. Posthatching larvae exhibited complete mortality in 6, 8 and 10 g salt L-1. Survival was 100% infreshwater, 2 and 4 g salt L-1 – although with the decrease in weight and length values to the salinities of 2 and 4 g salt L-1. The CL(I50-96h of larvae 8 days old post-hatching was 8.9 g saltL-1. The weight was diminished with the increase in salinity, but no difference was registered in length between the different treatments. Larvae 12 days old post-hatching did not show differences in length and weight. The survival was lower in 8 and 10 g of salt L-1.Larvae 8 and 12 days old post-hatching changed their swimming activity behavior to saline water up to 6 g of salt L-1. “Pacamã” larvae showed higher tolerance to the different salinitieswith larval development.

  6. Indicadores reprodutivos de Parauchenipterus striatulus (Steindachner (Pisces, Auchenipteridae na Represa de Ribeirão das Lajes, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Reproductive indicators of Parauchenipterus striatulus (Steindachner (Pisces, Auchenipteridae in the Ribeirão das Lajes reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Francisco Gerson Araújo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Parauchenipterus striatulus is a representative of the freshwater catfish with wide distribution in the South America region. Despite of being a very abundant fish in rivers and reservoirs of this region, little is known about its biology and ecology. In Ribeirão das Lajes reservoir (22º42'S - 22º50'S, 43º53'- 44º05' W, Rio de Janeiro, the Rio de Janeiro state's largest hydroelectric reservoir, this species is very abundant, representing about 40% of the total experimental fish catches using gill nets. This paper aims to assess aspects of the reproductive cycle of this species describing the gonadal stages, gonadosomatic index, weight-length relationship and condition factor. Fish sampling were carried out bi-monthly, between April 1996 and May 1997. Gill nets used were 100 m long, 4 m high with mesh size between 25 and 65 mm. Macroscopic analysis of 339 individuais were performed for the determination of 5 maturation stages, for both sexes (immature, maturation I, maturation II, ripe, spawned (females and emptied (males. The gonadosomatic index for both sexes was higher from October to March, suggesting a long spawning period while the condition factor was higher from February to June, showing an inverse relationship between these two parameters. Weight-length relationship for males was W=0,0095L3,C862and for females W= 0,0116L3,126, and no significam differences were shown between sex with reference to the alometry coefficient.

  7. Abundância e distribuição temporal de larvas de Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner, 1879 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae, em uma baía do pantanal matogrossense = Abundance and temporal distribution of larvae of Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner, 1879 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae, in a bay of the matogrossense pantanal

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    Miriam Santin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a distribuição temporal de larvas de Pachyurus bonariensis e sua relação com algumas variáveis ambientais, foram feitas coletas na baía Sinhá Mariana, Mato Grosso, entre março/2000 e março/2004, às 16 e 22h. Simultaneamente, amostras de água foram obtidas para determinar temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica. As maiores densidades foram verificadas entre os meses de outubro e janeiro, sugerindo ser este o principal período de reprodução da espécie. No entanto, larvas em estágio de pré-flexão e flexão também foram encontradas no inverno,possivelmente associadas às condições favoráveis para a reprodução. Indivíduos de todos os estágios estiveram presentes, ou seja, é provável que todo o ciclo de vida da espécie ocorra dentro da baía. A densidade de larvas mais desenvolvidas na superfície foi maior à noite, enquanto as larvas iniciais foram encontradas na superfície em ambos os horários, ou seja, o grau de desenvolvimento morfológico larval influencia no padrão de distribuição da espécie na coluna de água.With the objective to analyze the temporary distribution of Pachyurus bonariensis larvae and its relationship with some environmental variable, collections were carried in the Sinhá Mariana bay, Mato Grosso State, between March/2000 and March/2004, at 4:00 p.m. and at 10:00 p.m. Simultaneously, water samples were obtained to determine temperature of the water, dissolved oxygen, pH and electricconductivity. The higher densities were verified between October and January, suggesting to be this the main period of species reproduction. However, larvae in preflexion and flexion stages were also found in the winter, possibly associated to the favorable conditions for the reproduction. Individuals of all stages were present, thus it is probable that the whole life cycle happens inside of the bay. The density of larvae more developed in the surface was higher at night, while the initial larvae were found in the surface in both schedules, thus the degree of larval morphologic development influences in the distribution pattern of the species in the column of water.

  8. Efeito da restrição alimentar sobre o desempenho reprodutivo das fêmeas de yamu Brycon siebenthalae (Osteichthyes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1227 Effect of food restriction in spawning of yamú females Brycon siebenthalae (Osteichthyes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1227

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    Sandra Clemencia Pardo-Carrasco

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies de peixes, tais como os reofílicos tropicais, apresentam uma restrição alimentar voluntária durante o período pré-reprodutivo, quando se encontram no ambiente natural. Fêmeas maduras alimentadas com ração comercial foram divididas em dois grupos quatro meses antes do período reprodutivo. Um grupo foi alimentado com o equivalente a 3% da biomassa/dia, enquanto o outro recebeu a metade desta quantia. Fêmeas originárias dos dois grupos foram induzidas à desova durante dois períodos reprodutivos simultâneos, quando foi comparada a performance reprodutiva e o índice de gordura visceral. Fêmeas provenientes do tratamento com restrição alimentar mostraram melhores resultados após o tratamento de indução hormonal, produzindo óvulos maiores na desova, enquanto que o índice de gordura visceral foi menor (P Under natural conditions, many fish species, such as freshwater tropical reofilics, voluntarily restrict their food supply during the period before reproduction. Mature females fed with commercial food were divided in two groups four months before their reproduction period. One group was fed with 3% biomass/day of food, while for the other group food was restricted 50% of that amount. During two consecutive reproductive cycles females from both groups were induced to spawn, and the reproductive performance and visceral fat index were compared as well. Females from restricted treatment showed better results after hormonal injection and produced larger eggs after spawning, although the visceral fat index was significantly smaller (P < 0.05. The spawn weight, fertility and embryonic survivals were not different among groups during the two years

  9. Influence of the weight of juveniles Matrinxã (“Brycon cephalus” and Tambaqui (“Colossoma macropomum” to the anesthetic action of the eugenol Influência do peso de juvenis de matrinxã ("Brycon cephalus" e tambaqui ("Colossoma macropomum" à ação anestésica do eugenol

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    Elitieri Batista dos Santos Neto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the influence of the weight in the effect of the anesthetic eugenol for juveniles of matrinxã and tambaqui. For that, it was used a total of 69 matrinxãs and 49 tambaquis. The animals were anesthetized individually, weighed and observed during the induction and the recover of the anesthesia. For the induction it was used the concentration of the anesthetic's 50 mg/L, previously diluted in alcohol. The obtained weights were gathered in five classes and no difference statistics was observed for the times of induction and recovery among them.Foi avaliada a influência do peso de juvenis de matrinxã e tambaqui sobre a ação do anestésico eugenol. Para isso, foram utilizados 69 matrinxãs e 49 tambaquis. Os animais foram individualmente anestesiados, pesados e observados durante a indução e a recuperação da anestesia. Para a indução foi utilizada a concentração de 50 mg/L do anestésico, previamente diluído em álcool. Os pesos obtidos foram reunidos em cinco classes, não sendo observada diferença estatística para os tempos de indução e de recuperação entre elas.

  10. Stress responses of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus after transport in a closed system under different loading densities Respostas de estresse de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus juvenil após transporte em sistema fechado sob diferentes densidades de carga

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    Janessa Sampaio de Abreu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimum loading density for the transport of matrinxã juveniles was investigated in a closed system with plastic bags. Transport was conducted for 4 h with fish (23.5± 0.4g and 11.6 (0.08cm starved for 24h at loading densities of 83g L-1 (D1, 125g L-1 (D2, 168g L-1 (D3 and 206g L-1 (D4. Fish were sampled before transport (BT, after transport (AT and 24h AT. The water quality was monitored before capturing fish in depuration tanks, after transport in plastic bags and in recovery tanks. Water oxygen decreased to values below 4mg L-1 in D2, D3 and D4, temperature was around 32°C, pH 6.5-6.78, total ammonia 1.09-1.7mg L-1, un-ionized ammonia 3.58-9.33x10³mg L-1 and alkalinity 134-165mg CaCO3 L-1. Blood cortisol and glucose concentrations increased in fish of all densities AT and recovered the BT levels 24h after arrival. Osmolality did not change AT but increased 24h AT in fish of all densities whereas plasma chloride decreased inversely to the loading densities after the procedure. Hematocrit decreased 24h AT in fish of all densities but no differences were verified in the number of erythrocytes. No mortality was registered in any treatment during the next week after transport. Matrinxã demonstrated to be a crowding tolerant-species in transport operations besides tolerating low levels of oxygen in the water.Neste estudo, foram investigadas as densidades de carga adequadas para transporte de matrinxãs juvenis em sistema fechado com sacos plásticos. O transporte de 4h foi feito com peixes (23,5±0,4g; 11,6 (0,08cm em jejum por 24h, em densidades de 83g L-1 (D1, 125g L-1 (D2, 168g L-1 (D3 e 206g L-1 (D4. Os peixes foram amostrados antes do transporte (AT, logo após o transporte (chegada (DT e 24h depois. A qualidade da água foi monitorada antes da captura dos peixes nos tanques de depuração, após o transporte nos sacos plásticos e nos tanques de recuperação. O oxigênio da água diminuiu para valores inferiores a 4mg L-1 em D2, D3 e D4, a temperatura esteve em torno de 32°C, pH 6,5-6,78, a amônia total foi de 1,09-1,7mg L-1, a amônia não-ionizada foi de 3,58-9,33 x 10³mg L-1 e alcalinidade 134-165mg CaCO3 L-1. O cortisol plasmático e a glicose sanguínea aumentaram após o transporte nos peixes em todas as densidades ensaiadas, voltando aos valores controle 24h depois. Os valores de osmolaridade não mudaram logo após o transporte, mas aumentaram 24h depois de modo igual em todas as densidades. O cloreto plasmático diminuiu na chegada, de modo inversamente proporcional à densidade de carga. O hematócrito diminuiu 24h depois da chegada dos peixes, em todas as densidades testadas, mas não houve diferença no número de eritrócitos. Não houve mortalidade até uma semana após o transporte. O matrinxã mostrou ser uma espécie tolerante a altas densidades de carga em embalagens para transporte além de suportar baixos níveis de oxigênio na água.

  11. Efeito da concentração de sacarose na germinação in vitro do pólen de cinco acessos de bacurizeiro (Platonia insignis MART.

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    Valdomiro Aurélio Barbosa de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O bacurizeiro é uma das espécies fruteiras nativas de maior importância socioeconômica das regiões Norte e Meio-Norte do Brasil. No entanto, ainda há carência de conhecimentos científicos sobre a espécie, especialmente sobre sua biologia floral, mecanismos reprodutivos e viabilidade do pólen. O conhecimento sobre a viabilidade do pólen é fundamental para o melhoramento genético, especialmente quando se tem em mente a realização de hibridizações controladas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da sacarose e de acessos na viabilidade do pólen de bacurizeiro por meio da germinação in vitro. Avaliaram-se cinco acessos (BGB 6, BGB 11, BGB 48, BGB 32 e BGB 16 de bacurizeiro combinados com um tratamento-controle, sem sacarose, e quatro concentrações de sacarose (5; 7,5; 10 e 20%, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 5 x 5, com oito repetições. Na maioria dos acessos, a germinação in vitro do pólen atingiu um máximo (71,1 e 63,0% entre as concentrações de sacarose de 9,4 e 9,7% e, a partir daí, caiu de forma drástica até atingir um percentual inferior a 10% de germinação na concentração de 20% de sacarose. Foram encontrados bons percentuais de germinação (entre 63,0 e 77,1% para todos os acessos, com exceção do acesso BGB 16, que não alcançou 50%.

  12. Redução de aminoácidos em polpas de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd ex-Spreng Schum e murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L. processado (aquecido e alcalinizado Amino acids reduction in processed (heated and alkalinized pulps of bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd ex-Spreng Schum and murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.

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    Alexandre Porte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A literatura científica é pobre a respeito de frutas da Amazônia, como o murici, e suas características químicas devem ser estudadas. Por isso, esta pesquisa teve por proposta determinar o perfil aminoacídico das polpas de bacuri, cupuaçu e murici sob diferentes valores de pH (3,3, 5,8, 8,0 e 12,0, sem aquecimento ou com aquecimento por 12 horas/100 ºC com agitação e refluxo. Valores de pH, glicose, frutose e sacarose também foram determinados nas polpas sem aquecimento. Os nutrientes foram determinados por CLAE (Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. As polpas de bacuri, cupuaçu e murici apresentaram valores de pH 3,2, 3,6 e 3,35, respectivamente. A sacarose foi, quantitativamente, o principal carboidrato nas polpas de cupuaçu (38,34% e bacuri (36,93%, sendo que os teores de frutose e glicose foram similares, tanto na polpa de cupuaçu (8,93% e 9,03% como na de bacuri (12,63% e 11,65%, respectivamente. Em contraste, a polpa de murici foi quase isenta de sacarose (0,57%, mas não de frutose (11,51% ou glicose (11,39%. Nas polpas sem aquecimento, os principais aminoácidos foram: ácido glutâmico (46,6 mg/kg, ácido aspártico (28,8 mg/kg e arginina (25,3 mg/kg na polpa de bacuri; ácido aspártico (56,3 mg/kg, ácido glutâmico (44,0 mg/kg e alanina (24,2 mg/kg na polpa de cupuaçu; prolina (73,5 mg/kg, ácido glutâmico (23,7 mg/kg e ácido aspártico (23,5 mg/kg na polpa de murici. O aquecimento reduziu as concentrações de todos os aminoácidos nas 3 polpas. O meio fortemente alcalino (pH 12 produziu a maior degradação de aminoácidos. Lisina foi mais sensível ao aquecimento do que outros aminoácidos em pH 12.Scientific literature presents few studies about fruits of the Amazonia, like murici, and yours chemical characteristics should be studied. Therefore, amino acid profiles of the bacuri, cupuaçu and murici pulps were determined under different values of pH (3.3, 5.8, 8.0 and 12.0 with heating (12 hours/100 ºC, with stirring and refluxing or without heating. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and pH values also were obtained in the pulps without heating. All nutrients were analised by HPLC. The pHs were: 3.2, 3.6 and 3.35 in the bacuri, cupuaçu and murici pulps, respectively. Sucrose (38.34% and 36.93% was the major carbohydrate while fructose (8.93% and 12.63% and glucose (9.03% and 11.65% shown similar percentages in the cupuaçu and bacuri pulps. Murici pulp was almost free of sucrose (0.57%, but not of fructose (11.51% or glucose (11.39%. In the pulps without heating the major amino acids were: glutamic acid (46.6 mg/kg, aspartic acid (28.8 mg/kg and arginine (25.3 mg/kg in the bacuri pulp; aspartic acid (56.3 mg/kg, glutamic acid (44.0 mg/kg and alanine (24.2 mg/kg in the cupuaçu pulp; proline (73.5 mg/kg, glutamic acid (23.7 mg/kg and aspartic acid (23.5 mg/kg in the murici pulp. The heating of the 3 pulps decresead the concentration of all amino acids. The medium strongly alkaline (pH 12 produced more degradation of the amino acids than others pHs. Lysine was more sensible to the heating than others amino acids in pH 12.

  13. Estudo da diversidade de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, na área entre Macaé (22º23'S e Ilha de Santa Catarina (27º35'S: 1. Crescimento de dimensões corporais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Manoel de Souza Braga

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of body proportions of Sardinella brasiliensis was not homogeneous in the study area, between Macaé (RJ and Santa Catarina Island (SC; the growth rates (K of the von Bertalanffy growth curve were greater than growth rates for another áreas. In this area the biomass estimates for pelagic fish is poor, and near Cabo Frio occurs an upwelling zone. These facts permit the sardines to attain large lengths in this area. Between Rio de Janeiro and Florianópolis the growth rates were lower than in the northern part and Paranaguá Bay. On the other hand the biomass estimates for pelagic fish in Rio de Janeiro-Florianópolis region was very high, and in this zone the population density is high and the growth rates are small. Paranaguá Bay is a particular region because of its geographical and oceanographic conditons; this is a shelter region with different features and the sardines living there attain small length. In this area the growth rates are intermediary among growth rates for fishes from Macaé-Cabo Frio and Rio de Janeiro-Florianópolis regions. Therefore, the growth rates for sardines in southeast Brazilian proves to be dependent of the population density, food and oceanographic conditions.

  14. Avaliação da tolerância de larvas do pacamã Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1877 (Pisces:Siluriformes a diferentes salinidades - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.791 Evaluation of the tolerance of “pacamã” Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1877 (Pisces:Siluriformes larvae to different salinities - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.791

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a tolerância de larvas de pacamã Lophiosilurus alexandri ao teste agudo de salinidade da água em diferentes idades. Os testes foram realizados em larvas recém-eclodidas, com oito e 12 dias pós-eclosão. As larvas foram aclimatadas às condições experimentais por 24h, sendo estocadas em 18 tanques plásticos de 1 L na densidade de 15 larvas L-1. Após esse período, as larvas foram transferidas para as salinidades: água doce, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 g de sal L-1 e observadas durante 96h. Larvas recém- eclodidas apresentaram mortalidade total em 6, 8 e 10 g de sal L-1 e 100% de sobrevivência para água doce, 2 e 4 g de sal L-1; porém, com redução dos valores de peso e comprimento mediante as duas salinidades. Larvas com oito dias pós-eclosão apresentaram CL(I50-96hde 8,9 g de sal L-1. Para o peso, verificou-se redução gradativa a partir da salinidade de 2 g de sal L-1, mas sem diferenças para o comprimento das larvas entre os tratamentos. Para as larvas com 12 dias pós-eclosão, não se registraram diferenças no comprimento e peso e a sobrevivência foi menor a 8 e 10 g de sal L-1. Larvas com oito e 12 dias pós-eclosão tiveram alterações no comportamento natatório em salinidades superiores a 6 g de sal L-1. Larvas de pacamã apresentaram maior tolerância às diferentes salinidades da água com o desenvolvimento ontogenético.The aim of this study was to analyze the salinity tolerance of “pacamã” Lophiosilurus alexandri larvae at different ages. The test was conducted in post-hatching-larvae and larvae with 8 and 12 days old post-hatching. Larvae were acclimatized to experimental conditions for 24h, kept in 18 plastic tanks with 1 L at a density of 15 larvae L-1. After this period, larvae were subjected to the salinities: freshwater, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g salt L-1, and observed over a period of 96h. Post-hatching larvae exhibited complete mortality in 6, 8 and 10 g salt L-1. Survival was 100% in freshwater, 2 and 4 g salt L-1 – although with the decrease in weight and length values to the salinities of 2 and 4 g salt L-1. The CL(I50-96h of larvae 8 days old post-hatching was 8.9 g salt L-1. The weight was diminished with the increase in salinity, but no difference was registered in length between the different treatments. Larvae 12 days old post-hatching did not show differences in length and weight. The survival was lower in 8 and 10 g of salt L-1. Larvae 8 and 12 days old post-hatching changed their swimming activity behavior to saline water up to 6 g of salt L-1. “Pacamã” larvae showed higher tolerance to the different salinities with larval development.

  15. Abundância e distribuição temporal de larvas de Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner, 1879 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae, em uma baía do pantanal matogrossense - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.306 Abundance and temporal distribution of larvae of Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner, 1879 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae, in a bay of the matogrossense pantanal - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.306

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tátia Leika Taguti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a distribuição temporal de larvas de Pachyurus bonariensis e sua relação com algumas variáveis ambientais, foram feitas coletas na baía Sinhá Mariana, Mato Grosso, entre março/2000 e março/2004, às 16 e 22h. Simultaneamente, amostras de água foram obtidas para determinar temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica. As maiores densidades foram verificadas entre os meses de outubro e janeiro, sugerindo ser este o principal período de reprodução da espécie. No entanto, larvas em estágio de pré-flexão e flexão também foram encontradas no inverno, possivelmente associadas às condições favoráveis para a reprodução. Indivíduos de todos os estágios estiveram presentes, ou seja, é provável que todo o ciclo de vida da espécie ocorra dentro da baía. A densidade de larvas mais desenvolvidas na superfície foi maior à noite, enquanto as larvas iniciais foram encontradas na superfície em ambos os horários, ou seja, o grau de desenvolvimento morfológico larval influencia no padrão de distribuição da espécie na coluna de água.With the objective to analyze the temporary distribution of Pachyurus bonariensis larvae and its relationship with some environmental variable, collections were carried in the Sinhá Mariana bay, Mato Grosso State, between March/2000 and March/2004, at 4:00 p.m. and at 10:00 p.m. Simultaneously, water samples were obtained to determine temperature of the water, dissolved oxygen, pH and electric conductivity. The largest densities were verified between the months of October and January, suggesting to be this the main period of reproduction of the species. However, larvae in preflexion and flexion were also found in the months of winter, possibly associated to the favorable conditions for the reproduction. Individuals of all of the stages were present, thus it is probable that the whole life cycle happens inside of the bay. The density of larvae more developed in the surface is larger at night, while the initial larvae are found in the surface in both schedules, thus the degree of larval development influences in the distribution pattern of the species in the column of water.

  16. Isolation and characterization of twenty-five polymorphic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner) is one of the commercially important freshwater species mainly distributed in east Asia (Deng et al. 2010). Unfortu- nately, the wild S. scherzeri population is declining due to overexploitation and environmental ...

  17. Metabolismo antioxidativo, biotransformação hepática e alterações histológicas de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829, CHARACIDAE) exposto ao fenol

    OpenAIRE

    Ive Marchioni Avilez

    2008-01-01

    A poluição é hoje um problema que afeta todos os ambientes inclusive o de água doce, e conseqüentemente, os organismos que vivem nele. Entre estes, os peixes formam um grupo de grande importância sob a perspectiva ecotoxicológica, pois é o maior dentre os vertebrados. O fenol é uma substância química exógena que está usualmente em concentrações acima da permitida por lei. Este xenobiótico é um composto orgânico e lipofílico e sua presença nos corpos de água se deve principalmente aos despejos...

  18. Efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus) durante cortos períodos de almacenamiento

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Corredor-Santamaría, Wilson; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

    seminal. Oocitos obtenidos de la misma hembra fueron sometidos a tres sistemas de conservación: in situ (IS, mantenidos dentro de la cavidad ovárica), ex situ a temperatura ambiente (T°A) y ex situ a temperatura de refrigeración (T°R). El diámetro ovocitario (DO) y la viabilidad fueron evaluados a los 0...... (control), 15, 30, 60 y 120 min de almacenamiento. El DO fue medido con reglilla acoplada al ocular del estéreomicroscopio y la viabilidad mediante prueba de fertilidad, seminando 3 g de oocitos con 250 μL de semen fresco. También fueron medidos la longitud total y el volumen del saco vitelino de las...

  19. Fish filleting residues for enrichment of wheat bread: chemical and sensory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Tavares, Tássia; de Sousa Gomes Pimenta, Maria Emília; Leal, Renato; Fabrício, Luís Felipe; Pimenta, Carlos José; Nunes,Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro,Ana Carla Marques

    2014-01-01

    The fish processing industry generates a large amount of materials discarded as residue. It is known that fish and its residue are a source of essential nutrients. Conversely, bread is a food accessible to different social classes but is deficient in protein, minerals, and fatty acids. Thus, this study aimed to develop bread products based on the addition of flour from Red-tailed Brycon (Brycon cephalus) processing residue and then evaluate the chemical and sensory qualities of the products. ...

  20. The Length-Weight, Length-Length Relationship and Condition Factor of Angora Loach, Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner, 1897 Inhabiting Kılıçözü Stream in Kızılırmak River Basin (Central Anatolia-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Yazıcıoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR, length- length relationship (LLR and condition factor (K of Angora loach, Oxynoemacheilus angorae were determined. A total of 103 specimens were sampled from Kılıçözü Stream in 2014. The length and weight of specimens were ranged 3.5-9.8 cm and 0.38-6.58 g, respectively. Length-weight relationships for female, male and all samples were found as W= 0.01056.TL2.896 (r²= 0.923, W= 0.00963.TL2.940 (r²= 0.978 and W= 0.00987.TL2.929 (r²= 0.963, respectively. LWRs indicated an isometric growth in female, male and all samples. The values of Fulton’s condition factor (K ranged from 0.699 to 1.246 for females and from 0.654 to 1.072 for males. All length-length relationships were statistically significant.

  1. Morphological and electrophysiological field observations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology and EODs of M. anguilloides of both sexes and a sexually mature size from the Comoé and Bandama rivers, Côte d'Ivoire, and the Lower and Middle Zambezi, Mozambique, displayed initially positive EODs. The morphologically similar M. breviceps Steindachner 1895 of both sexes and a sexually mature ...

  2. Report of spinal deformity (scoliosis) among remnant population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    striped panchax, Epiplatys bifasciatus (Steindachner 1881) was reported. A single specimen of E. bifasciatus with scoliosis was observed out of 2,544 specimens studied over a period of two years (2003 and 2004) in a small perturbed stream in ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of Fluorescent elastomer for marking killifish, Epiplatys bifasciatus and Epiplatys spilargyreius in abundance and growth studies. Abstract · Vol 30, No 1 (2015) - Articles Report of spinal deformity (scoliosis) among remnant population of two-striped panchax, Epiplatys bifasciatus (Steindachner, 1881) in Kainji ...

  4. Efficacy of Clove flower bud powder as anaesthetic for three life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    and L. C. Gomes (2012). Efficacy of clove as anaesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. Zoologia 28 (3): 285-290.. Walsh C.T. and B. C. Pease (2002). The use of clove oil as an anaesthetic for the longfinned eel,. Anguilla reinhardtii (Steindachner). Aquac Res. 33: 627-635.

  5. Notes and illustrations on Amicitia Emden species (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couri Márcia S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amicitia Emden, 1940 is an Afrotropical genus of Coenosiinae (Diptera, Muscidae, with four known species described by Emden (1940: A. insignis, A. lucens, A. modesta and A. seclusa. All examined holotypes are deposited at "The Natural History Museum" (London, UK. Notes on the species and illustrations, especially of the terminalia are presented.

  6. Karyotype analysis of Ethiopian endemic Kniphofia species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image analysis was used to study the karyotype of six Ethiopian Kniphofia species: K. foliosa, K. hildebrandtii, K. insignis, K. isoetifolia, K. schimperi and K. pumila. The first five are endemic to Ethiopia. All have somatic chromosome number of 2n = 12, and follow the same karyotype formula: 1m + 3sm + 2st. There was ...

  7. On a new species of Mycena from Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robich, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    Mycena calceata Robich, collected at L’Estartit in Spain in November 1993, during the Mycological Days of the European Confederation of Mediterranean Mycology, is described as new to science. It belongs to section Insignis, characterized by the radiating hairs at the base of the stipe, large spores

  8. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Volume 2. Appendices I-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    the plant was treated with 70 tons of lime and 400 pounds of FeSO4 and filled in. A new ditch was construc- ted alongside. This modification was...Chub Hybops s amblops Undetermined Blotched Chub Hybopsis insignis Undetermined Silver Chub Hybopsis storeriana Undetermined River Chub Nocomi& micro og

  9. Notes on cup-fungi—3. On three species of Cheilymenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelen, van J.

    1986-01-01

    Three coprophilous species of Cheilymenia resembling Lasiobolus are redescribed. Cheilymenia raripila is reported from Germany; C. insignis and C. pulcherrima are newly described from authentic material of the Crouan brothers. Cheilymenia hyalochaeta is considered to be a synonym of C. raripila.

  10. Human Performance in the Tropics I: Man-Packing A Typical Load over a Standard Jungle Course in the Wet and Dry Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    cuts to a person who inadvertently grabs them for support. Common in the area from stakes 2 to 6 are small Melastomes, Renealmia sp, Calathea sp, and...lowlands becomes mostly pamettos with plants such as Calathea insignis, Heliconia erosa, Carludovica pahnata, and Dieffenbachia longispatha; the canopy

  11. 45 CFR 2540.550 - Is there an expiration date on approvals for use of national service insignia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is there an expiration date on approvals for use of national service insignia? 2540.550 Section 2540.550 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Restrictions on Use of National Service Insigni...

  12. 1302-IJBCS-Article-Mathieu Gueye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    les Apocynaceae et les Euphorbiaceae (2 espèces chacune). Les espèces les plus citées sont successivement. Combretum glutinosum Perr. ex DC, Tamarindus indica L., Adansonia digitata L., Ozoroa insignis Delile et. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Les feuilles (32%) et les racines (27%) sont les organes les plus utilisés contre la.

  13. A taxonomic revision of the genus Ceiba Mill. (Bombacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbs, Peter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this taxonomic revision of Ceiba Mill, (in which we include Chorisia Kunth we recognize 17 species, seven of which we group in the C. insignis. species aggregate. One new species is described, C. lupuna P.E. Gibbs & Semir from Peru, which is referred to the C. insignis agg., and one new subspecies, C. aesculifolia subsp. parvifolia (Rose P.E. Gibbs & Semir is recognized. Distribution maps are provided for 16 species (that for C. pentandra is restricted to the New World, and six species are illustrated.En esta revisión taxonómica de Ceiba, que incluye el género Chorisia, se reconocen 17 especies, siete de las cuales se agrupan en el complejo C. insignis. Se describe una nueva especie, C. lupuna P.E. Gibbs & Semir, del Perú, que pertenece al complejo de C. insignis, asf como una nueva subespecie, C. aesculifolia subsp. parvifolia (Rose P.E. Gibbs & Semir. Se incluyen mapas de distribuci6n de 16 especies (aunque en el caso de C. pentandra solo se representa su distribución americana y se dibujan detalles diagnósticos de seis especies.

  14. Brasacanthus sphoeroides gen. n., sp. n. (Acanthocephala, Echinorhynchidae from a coastal marine fish of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Brasacanthus sphoeroides gen. n.. sp. n. is described from the marine fish, Sphoeroides greeleyi (Steindachner, taken in Paranaguá Bay, Paraná State, Brazil. The new genus differs from Acanthocephalus Koelreuter, 1771, the nearest genus in the family Echinorhynchidae, by having very flat and variable lemnisci in both sexes and a uterine egg reservoir in the female. The species is characterized by its spherical body form and in having parallel or diagonal testes.

  15. Prevalence and intensity of pentastomid infection in two species of snakes from northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    WO. Almeida; Vasconcellos,A.; SG. Lopes; EMX. Freire

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by pentastomids in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Fifteen snakes (four Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem, 1820) and eleven Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870) were collected between January and April of 2005, in the municipality of Crato (07° 14' S and 39° 24' W), State of Ceará, Brazil. Laboratorial analysis of the respiratory tracts of the sampled snakes indicated differences in host infection rates: four individuals of P. na...

  16. Biochemical and Physiological Characteristics of Photosynthesis in Plants of Two Calathea Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Hsiung, Tung-Chuan; Huang, Meng-Yuan; Yang, Chi-Ming; Weng, Jen-Hsien; Hsu, Ming-Huang; Chen, Po-Yen; Chang, Kai-Chieh

    2018-03-01

    Plants of the genus Calathea possess many leaf colors, and they are economically important because they are widely used as ornamentals for interior landscaping. Physiological performances and photosynthetic capacities of C. insignis and C. makoyana were investigated. The photosynthetic efficiencies of C. insignis and C. makoyana were significantly increased when the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) increased from 0 to 600 μmol photons·m -2 ·s -1 and became saturated with a further increase in the PPFD. The two Calathea species had lower values of both the light saturation point and maximal photosynthetic rate, which indicated that they are shade plants. No significant differences in predawn Fv/Fm values (close to 0.8) were observed between dark-green (DG) and light-green (LG) leaf sectors in all tested leaves. However, the effective quantum yield of photosystem II largely decreased as the PPFD increased. An increase in the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate was observed in both species to a maximum at 600 μmol·m -2 ·s -1 PPFD, following by a decrease to 1500 μmol·m -2 ·s -1 PPFD. Compared to LG leaf extracts, DG leaf extracts contained higher levels of chlorophyll (Chl) a , Chl b , Chls a + b , carotenoids (Cars), anthocyanins (Ants), flavonoids (Flas), and polyphenols (PPs) in all plants, except for the Ant, Fla and PP contents of C. insignis plants. Calathea insignis also contained significantly higher levels of total protein than did C. makoyana . The adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), red-green, and flavonol index (FlavI) were significantly correlated to leaf Chls a + b , Cars, Ants, and Flas in C. makoyana , respectively, and can be used as indicators to characterize the physiology of these plants.

  17. New taxa of the subfamily Picobiinae (Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) parasitizing antbirds and gnateaters (Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae) in Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowska, Eliza; Schmidt, Brian K

    2014-09-12

    A new genus and three new species of the picobiin quill mites (Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) are described from passeriform birds in Guyana, Phipicobia pygiptilae gen. nov. and sp. nov. parasitizing Pygiptila stellaris (Spix) (Thamnophilidae), Rafapicobia thamnophili sp. nov. from Thamnophilus insignis Salvin et Godman (type host), Myrmoborus leucophrys (Tschudi), Myrmeciza ferruginea (St. Müller), Myrmotherula longipennis Pelzeln, and Hypocnemis cantator (Boddaert) (Thamnophilidae), and Rafapicobia milenskyi sp. nov. from Conopophaga aurita (Gmelin) (Conopophagidae).

  18. Three new species of Monogenea (Platyhelminthes parasites of fish in the Guandu river, southeastern Brazil=Três novas espécies de Monogenea (Platyhelminthes parasitos de peixes do rio Guandu, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fernando Luque

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Current essay describes three new Monogenean species, namely, Cosmetocleithrum striatuli sp. nov., Jainus leporini sp. nov. and Rhabdosynochus guanduensis sp. nov., parasites on the gills of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877, Leporinus copelandii Steindachner, 1875 and Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792, respectively. Fish were collected from the Guandu river, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between August 2005 and November 2008. Cosmetocleithrum striatuli sp. nov. differs from all other congeneric species by the shape of an accessory piece (more robust and resembling a crustacean claw or chela and by the shape of its ventral and dorsal bars (not V-shaped and with expanded lateral ends directed to the rear. Jainus leporini sp. nov. differs from all other Jainus species by the male copulation organ (MCO, with a 2-ring coil, by the absence of medial projection on ventral bar and by a plate-like sclerotized structure associated to the vagina. Rhabdosynochus guanduensis sp. nov. differs from all other congeneric species by the morphology of the copulation complex and by a shell-shaped vagina.Três novas espécies, Cosmetocleithrum striatuli sp. nov., Jainus leporini sp. nov. e Rhabdosynochus guanduensis sp. nov., parasitando as brânquias de Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877, Leporinus copelandii Steindachner, 1875 e Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792, respectivamente, são descritas no presente trabalho. Os peixes foram coletados do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, no período de agosto de 2005 a novembro de 2008. Cosmetocleithrum striatuli sp. nov. difere de todas as outras espécies congenéricas pelo formato da pesca acessória (muito robusta e semelhante a uma quela de crustáceo e pelo formato das barras ventral e dorsal (sem o formato de V e com as extremidades laterais expandidas e direcionadas posteriormente. Jainus leporini sp. nov. difere de todas as outras espécies do gênero pelo

  19. Espermiogênese em Eupemphix nattereri (Anura, Leiuperidae: aspectos ultra-estruturais Spermiogenesis in Eupemphix nattereri (Anura, Leiuperidae: ultrastructural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zieri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A maturação dos espermatozóides envolve um extenso e complexo processo que começa com a proliferação e diferenciação das espermatogônias, passa pela meiose e finaliza com a espermiogênese. Nessa fase, eventos envolvendo alterações morfológicas e bioquímicas transformam espermátides em espermatozóides. Aspectos ultra-estruturais da espermiogênese e do espermatozóide do anuro Eupemphix nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 foram analisados através de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. A espermiogênese envolve condensação da cromatina e alongamento nuclear, com visível eliminação de citoplasma. Nesse estágio, grande quantidade de microtúbulos e glicogênio podem ser visualizados no citoplasma das células de Sertoli, rodeando cada espermátide. O espermatozóide é fusiforme e o acrossomo forma uma capa na região anterior do núcleo. A bainha mitocondrial é encontrada ao redor da porção proximal da cauda. A cauda apresenta o axonema com o modelo 9+2, uma fibra axonemal, a membrana ondulante e ausência de bastão axial. Esta organização apresenta algumas similaridades com espécies do gênero Physalaemus (Leiuperidae como P. biligonigerus (Cope, 1861, P. gracilis (Boulenger, 1883 e P. fuscomaculatus (Steindachner, 1864.Spermatozoon maturation involves an extense and complex process beginning with proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonia, passing through meiosis, and ending with spermiogenesis. The later event involves morphological and biochemical changes in order to transform spermatids into spermatozoa. Ultrastructural aspects of the spermiogenesis and testicular spermatozoa of the anuran Eupemphix nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis involves chromatin condensation and nuclear elongation, with visible cytoplasmic elimination. At this stage, a large amount of microtubules and glycogen can also be seen in Sertoli cell cytoplasm, surrounding each

  20. Diversidad genética de piracanjuba usada en programas de repoblación con marcadores microsatélites Genetic diversity of piracanjuba used in stock enhancement programs with microsatellite markers

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    Maria del Pilar Rodriguez-Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la diversidad genética de un lote de Brycon orbignyanus usado en programas de repoblación, a través de marcadores microsatélites. Se analizaron muestras de 44 reproductores, de 70 larvas y de 69 alevinos, con la amplificación de cinco loci descritos para Brycon opalinus. El número de alelos, la heterozigosidad observada (Ho y esperada (He, el índice de Shannon (IS, la diversidad genética de Nei (DGN, el coeficiente de endogamia (Fis, la distancia (DG e identidad genética (IG, el número efectivo de alelos, el test del equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (EHW y el desequilibrio de ligación fueron calculados. Reproductores y progenie tuvieron un número similar de alelos en los loci evaluados. La Ho media, IS, DGN, DG e IG mostraron que existe menor distancia genética entre parentales y larvas y una disminución de variabilidad genética en los alevinos. Fueron observados desvíos en EHW y desequilibrio de ligación en seis pares de loci. El Fis mostró exceso de heterocigotos en parentales y larvas y déficit de heterocigotos en los alevinos. El lote de reproductores está en proceso de pérdida de alelos y hubo disminución de la variabilidad genética entre la fase de larva y alevino.The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic diversity of a Brycon orbignyanus lot used in stock enhancement programs, using microsatellite markers. Samples of 44 broodstocks, 70 larvae and 69 fingerlings, were analyzed with amplification of five loci described for Brycon opalinus. The number of alleles, the observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosity, Shannon index (IS, Nei's genetic diversity (DGN, the inbreeding coefficient (Fis, distance (DG and genetic identity (IG, the effective number of alleles, the test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (EHW and the linkage disequilibrium were calculated. Broodstocks and offspring had a similar number of alleles at the tested loci. Ho average, IS, DGN, DG and IG showed

  1. Respostas metabólicas do matrinxã submetido a banhos anestésicos de eugenol - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474 Metabolic responses of matrinxã to eugenol in anesthetic baths - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474

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    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus é uma espécie de interesse comercial. Porém, este peixe movimenta-se em excesso durante práticas de manejo, podendo sofrer ferimentos e perdas de escamas que, muitas vezes, resultam em taxas elevadas de mortalidade. O eugenol, principal componente do óleo de cravo, tem sido bastante utilizado como um anestésico alternativo para peixes por ser um produto natural e de baixo custo. Entretanto, estudos que tratam de respostas metabólicas, em peixes tropicais expostos a diferentes anestésicos, são ainda necessários. Dentro deste intuito, o presente trabalho avaliou respostas metabólicas do Brycon amazonicus ao eugenol, em simulações de banhos anestésicos. A demanda metabólica do matrinxã foi suprida principalmente pelo catabolismo de aminoácidos. Respostas típicas ao estresse foram detectadas por causa do manuseio imposto aos peixes para a realização dos banhos anestésicos. O eugenol não reduziu totalmente essas reações ao estresse. Por outro lado, esse anestésico não provocou estresse adicional em virtude de sua presença em exposições curtas de até 60 mg L-1 por 10 min. O eugenol proporciona segurança aos trabalhadores durante práticas de manejo, sem maiores prejuízos ao matrinxã.Matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus is a commercial fish that presents excessive movements during handling. This characteristic predisposes the animals to injuries and losses of scales that may result in high mortality rates. Eugenol, the main component of clove oil, has been reported as an alternative fish anesthetic because it is a natural product and cheap. However, studies remain necessary about the metabolic responses of tropical fishes to anesthetics. The present work evaluated metabolic responses of Brycon amazonicus to eugenol in simulated anesthetic baths. The fish metabolic demand was supplied mainly by amino acids catabolism. Typical metabolic stress responses to handling were detected but eugenol could

  2. Influência das variáveis ambientais na fauna acompanhante na pesca da manjuba Anchoa tricolor (Agassiz (Actinopterygii, Engraulidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro Influences of environmental parameters on the accompanying fauna in the anchovy fisheries of Anchoa tricolor (Agassiz (Actinopterygii, Engraulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro

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    Márcio de Araújo Silva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Anchoa tricolor (Agassiz, 1829 is the only anchovy of commercial importance in Sepetiba Bay, supporting an intensive commercial fishery by small sized seine boats provide of hydroacustics sounder detecting device. This study analyses the accompanying fauna in the A. tricolor fishery, and the influence of environmental parameters in fish composition. Seven samples were taken with a seine net between March and September 1999, capturing 114,430 fish, comprising 17 species and 11 families. Engraulidae and Clupeidae were the most abundant families, accounting to 94.2 % of the total number of fish. A. tricolor was the most abundant species contributing to more than one half of the total numerical abundance, followed in decreasing order by Anchoa januaria (Steindachner, 1879, Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1789 and Harengula clupeola (Cuvier, 1829. A. tricolor showed a highly significant positive correlation with salinity, transparency and depth. A. januaria showed the opposite, being inversely correlated to these parameters and directly correlated to temperature. Clupeidae, on the other hand, seems to show a wider distribution in relations to these environmental parameters.

  3. Two new and one known species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) with novel molecular characterisation for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Nicholas Q-X; Cutmore, Scott C; Yong, Russell Q-Y; Cribb, Thomas H

    2017-10-01

    Combined morphological and molecular analyses are employed to characterise three species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) from fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Tergestia clonacantha Manter, 1963 is reported here for the first time from the halfbeak (Beloniformes: Hemiramphidae) species Arrhamphus sclerolepis krefftii (Steindachner), Hyporhamphus australis (Steindachner), H. quoyi (Valenciennes) and H. regularis ardelio (Whitley). Two new species, both infecting trevally (Perciformes: Carangidae) species, are described: T. maryae n. sp. from Alepes apercna Grant and T. henryi n. sp. from Pantolabus radiatus (MacLeay). Complete ITS2 and partial 28S ribosomal DNA data were generated for each of the new taxa. The three species differ from each other by 47-58 base pairs (bp) in the ITS2 rDNA region. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA supports Tergestia as a reliable generic concept, with our analyses showing that some species of the genus form a well-supported clade to the exclusion of all other fellodistomids for which sequence data are available.

  4. Rediscovery of the syntypes of Corydoras meridionalis R. von Ihering, 1911 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae and designation of lectotype

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    Heraldo A. Britski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syntypes of Corydoras meridionalis Rodolpho von Ihering, 1911, once regarded as lost, were recently found in the collection of fishes of the Museu de Zoologia da USP. The syntypes had been identified as C. ehrhardti Steindachner, 1910, currently considered a senior synonym of that species. Examination of the rediscovered syntypes corroborates the proposed synonymy. Data on the syntypes are presented and compared with information in the original descriptions of C. ehrhardti and C. meridionalis; a few discrepancies found are discussed. A lectotype is designated for C. meridionalis and a photograph of the specimen is provided.Os síntipos de Corydoras meridionalis Rodolpho von Ihering, 1911, tidos como desaparecidos da coleção de peixes do Museu de Zoologia da USP, foram encontrados; os exemplares tinham sido identificados como C. ehrhardti Steindachner, 1910, espécie atualmente considerada sinônimo sênior da primeira. O exame desses sintipos permite confirmar a sinonímia proposta. Dados sobre os síntipos são apresentados e comparados com os dados das descrições originais de C. ehrhardti e C. meridionalis, sendo comentadas as poucas diferenças encontradas entre eles. É designado o lectótipo de C. meridionalis e uma fotografia deste é apresentada.

  5. Stomatal characterization of five species of the genus Vanilla.

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    Delfino Reyes-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize the stomata of five species of vanilla. Throughout 2012, leaf samples of V. planifolia G. Jackson, V. pompona Schiede, V. indora Schiede, V. insignis Ames and V. odorota Presl were taken from the vanilla germplasm bank at the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. The stomata size was obtained considering their length and width, as well as the index and stomata number of the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces in a randomized complete block design with three replications. V. pompona Schiede and V. inodora Schiede showed the highest stomatal index with 8713 and 8246 stomata per mm2, respectively, followed by V. odorata Presl with 4412 stomata per mm2. V. insignis Ames and V. planifolia G. Jackson showed the lowest stomata index with 2968 and 1378 stomata per mm2, respectively, in the abaxial leaf surface, these differences were statistically significant (P≤0.05. According to the position of the leaf stomata, V. planifolia G. Jackson and V. inodora Schiede can be considered to be hypostomatics since they showed stomata only in the abaxial leaf surface. V. insignis Ames, V. inodora Schiede and V. odorata Presl. can be considered to be anfiestomatic because they showed stomata in both the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces. V. inodora Schiede had smaller stomata compared with the other species.That is an important feature to be included in the genetic improvement of the genus Vanilla, because due to climate change, temperature will increase and precipitation will decrease, so Vainilla will require more efficient genotypes for water use.

  6. Verità e bellezza le ragioni dell'estetica nella scienza

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, S

    1990-01-01

    Una granda teoria scientifica è anche un'opera d'arte. Per gli scienziati più insigni, la bellezza è sempre stat uno degli obiettivi da raggiungere, quando non addirittura una guida nel cammino verso la verità. Da Einstein, per scrivere le equazioni della teoria della relatività, a Heisenberg, per cercare la chiave della meccanica quantistica, fino a Weyl, che dichiarava di preferire il bello al vero, la storia della fisica moderna è accompagnata dal desiderio di trovare l'armonia delle leggi della natura.

  7. Upswing of collections of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae held at the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi

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    Ježek Jan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available History of zoogeographical views and actual distribution of 23 determined species of Tabanidae from three subfamilies, five tribes and 8 genera (Philoliche Wiedemann, 1828 - 4 species; Chrysops Meigen, 1803 - 3; Thaumastocera Grünberg, 1906 - 1; Ancala Enderlein, 1922 - 1; Atylotus Osten-Sacken, 1876 - 1; Tabanus Linnaeus, 1758 - 8; Haematopota Meigen, 1803 - 4; Hippocentrum Austen, 1908 - 1 mainly from Kenya are summarized, using the names of recent African countries. Tabanus sericiventris Loew, 1858 is new for Kenya. Lower taxonomical units as Tabanus insignis f. neavei Austen, 1912 and T. marmorosus ssp. congicola Bequaert, 1930 are discussed. A complete new references to all identified taxa are given.

  8. Il concetto di storia della lingua nell'opera grammaticale di Benedetto Buommattei

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    Gunver Skytte

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Che la storia della lingua sia una disciplina linguistica di data recente, fondata nell'800, soprattutto grazie alle ricerche pionieristiche di insigni filologi tedeschi, è un'opinione comunemente accettata, ed essa è probabilmente anche giustificata attraverso la classificazione datane di disciplina. A questo dato di fatto si deve senz'altro l'opinione altrettanto estesa che prima dell'800 non esistesse il concetto di linguistica diacronica o cambiamento linguistico in senso scientifico, come pure quella non meno erronea che la linguistica, come scienza, sia stata fondata solo nell'800.

  9. Ocupação de conchas de gastrópodes por ermitões (Decapoda, Anomura no litoral de Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Occupation of gastropod shells by hermit crabs (Decapoda, Anomura in the littoral of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Luciane Ayres-Peres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a ocupação de conchas por ermitões no litoral da cidade de Rio Grande, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os animais foram amostrados em 14 radiais em Rio Grande, entre 12 e 50 metros de profundidade. Cada ermitão e sua respectiva concha foram identificados, pesados e medidos. Um total de 408 animais foi capturado, pertencentes às famílias Diogenidae e Paguridae; as duas espécies mais abundantes foram Dardanus insignis (de Saussure, 1858 e Loxopagurus loxochelis (Moreira, 1901. Os ermitões ocuparam conchas de 13 espécies de gastrópodes, principalmente de Buccinanops lamarckii (Kiener, 1834 e B. gradatum (Deshayes, 1844. Dardanus insignis utilizou 12 das 13 espécies de moluscos registradas; Loxopagurus loxochelis utilizou nove. De um modo geral, o padrão de ocupação de conchas apresenta uma correlação entre o tamanho do ermitão e o tamanho da concha; no caso das duas espécies de ermitões mais abundantes, a maior correlação foi entre peso/tamanho do animal e o tamanho da abertura da concha, evidenciando, que a ocupação de conchas se dá não apenas pela disponibilidade local das mesmas, mas também pelas relações entre as variáveis dos ermitões e das conchas de gastrópodes.The present study aimed to characterize the shell occupation by hermit crabs at the Rio Grande city, state of Rio Grande do Sul. Animals were sampled at 14 radials in Rio Grande, between 12 and 50 meters depth. Each hermit crab and its respective shell were identified, weighted and measured. A total of 408 animals were captured, of families Paguridae and Diogenidae; the most abundant species were Dardanus insignis (de Saussure, 1858 and Loxopagurus loxochelis (Moreira, 1901. The animals occupied shells from 13 gastropod species, mainly of Buccinanops lamarckii (Kiener, 1834 and B. gradatum (Deshayes, 1844. Dardanus insignis utilized shells from 12 of the 13 mollusks species registered; L. loxochelis from

  10. Mites of the genus Neharpyrhynchus Fain (Acariformes, Harpirhynchidae from Neotropical birds

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    Andre Bochkov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of parasitic mites of the genus Neharpyrhynchus Fain (Acariformes, Harpirhynchidae are described from Neotropical birds, N. chlorospingus sp. n. from Chlorospingus pileatus (Passeriformes, Emberizidae from Costa Rica, N. mironovi sp. n. from Dacnys cayana (Passeriformes, Thraupidae and N. tangara sp. n. from Tangara cayana (Thraupidae both from Brazil. Neharpyrhynchus trochilinus (Fain is recorded from 3 new hosts of the family Trochilidae (Apodiformes, Panterpe insignis and Eugenes fulgens from Costa Rica, and Amazilia lactea from Brazil. Emended diagnosis of the genus and a key to species are provided; all records of Neharpyrhynchus species are summarized.

  11. Detection of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis in Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Rodrigues, Bruno Leite; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp. We tested 450 Culicoides females, divided into 30 pools of 15 individuals each, as follows: nine pools of C. foxi (135 specimens), seven pools of C. filariferus (105), seven pools of C. insignis (105), five pools of C. ignacioi (75), and two pools of C. flavivenula (30). PCR confirmed the presence of Leishmania braziliensis DNA in C. ignacioi (0.14%), C. insignis (0.14%), and C. foxi (0.11); and Le. amazonensis DNA in C. filariferus (0.14%) and C. flavivenula (0.50%). We conclude that these Culicoides species can be naturally infected, but vector competence and transmission capability must be confirmed in future studies. Our results warrant further investigation into the role of these biting midge species in the leishmaniasis epidemiological cycle. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. Ascaridoid nematodes of South American mammals, with a definition of a new genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprent, J F

    1982-09-01

    Ascaridoid nematodes occurring in South American mammals are divided into categories based on their possible origin. The affinities are discussed of five species so far known only from the Neotropical Region. Toxocara alienata (Rudolphi 1819) is reported from Nasua rufa socialis, Procyon cancrivorus, and Tayassus torquatus. The specimens from T. torquatus are described and found most closely to resemble Toxocara mackerrasae from south-east Asian and Austrialian rodents. Anisakis insignis from Inia geoffrensis is transferred back to Peritrachelius Diesing, 1851, on account of the structure of the lips and spicules. P. insignis is shown to exhibit remarkable convergence of lip structure with Lagochilascaris turgida from Didelphis marsupialis. Galeiceps longispiculum (Freitas & Lent, 1941) from Pteronura brasiliensis is confirmed as a species distinct from G. cucullus (Linstow, 1899) and G. spinicollis (Baylis, 1923), but G. simiae (Mosgovoy, 1951) is considered to be a synonym of G. spinicollis. An error in the host record of G. spinicollis is corrected from Cercopithecus leucampyx kandti to Lutra maculicollis kivuana. Ascaris dasypodina Baylis, 1922 from armadillos, including Cabassous unicinctus and Tolypeutes matacos, is redescribed and placed in a new genus Bairdascaris. The question is raised as to whether some species in Lagochilascaris, Galeiceps, and Toxocara may have crossed directly by sea from Africa to South America, rather than entering via North America.

  13. New Washakiin primates (Omomyidae) from the Eocene of Wyoming and Colorado, and comments on the evolution of the Washakiini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, James G.

    1990-01-01

    Two new species of washakiin omomyids occur in deposits of early Bridgerian age. Shoshonius bowni, sp. nov., from the Aycross Formation, Absaroka Range, Wyoming, differs from S. cooperi in having enlarged conules on the upper molars and a second metaconule, features convergent with Washakius insignis. Washakius izetti, sp. nov., from the Green River Formation, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, is the most primitive known species of Washakius, showing incipient development of features present in the later W. insignis and W. woodringi. Washakius, cf. W. izetti occurs in the early Bridgerian of the Huerfano Basin. W. izetti is closely related to Utahia kayi, a washakiin possibly related to Stockia. Hemiacodon, sometimes included in the Washakiini, is probably more closely related to the Omomyini. Stockia is distinct from Omomys and is questionably included in the Washakiini, of which Loveina is the stem taxon. More advanced washakiins form two groups between which there was significant parallel evolution in dental morphology. One group includes Washakius, Dyseolemur, Utahia, and possibly Stockia, and is characterized by development of an open talonid notch before the consistent appearance of metastylids. The other group consists of Shoshonius, where the establish- ment of metastylids preceded the full opening of the

  14. Electrical Retrieval of Living Microorganisms from Cryopreserved Marine Sponges Using a Potential-Controlled Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Sumihiro; Nishi, Shinro; Tokuda, Maki; Uemura, Moeka; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Seya, Takeshi; Chow, Seinen; Ise, Yuji; Hatada, Yuji; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Tsubouchi, Taishi

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel electrical retrieval method (ER method) for living sponge-associated microorganisms from marine sponges frozen at -80 °C. A -0.3-V vs. Ag/AgCl constant potential applied for 2 h at 9 °C induced the attachment of the sponge-associated microorganisms to an indium tin oxide/glass (ITO) or a gallium-doped zinc oxide/glass (GZO) working electrode. The electrically attached microorganisms from homogenized Spirastrella insignis tissues had intact cell membranes and showed intracellular dehydrogenase activity. Dead microorganisms were not attracted to the electrode when the homogenized tissues were autoclaved for 15 min at 121 °C before use. The electrically attached microorganisms included cultivable microorganisms retrieved after detachment from the electrode by application of a 9-MHz sine-wave potential. Using the ER method, we obtained 32 phyla and 72 classes of bacteria and 3 archaea of Crenarchaeota thermoprotei, Marine Group I, and Thaumarchaeota incertae sedis from marine sponges S. insignis and Callyspongia confoederata. Employment of the ER method for extraction and purification of the living microorganisms holds potential of single-cell cultivation for genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses of bioactive compounds producing sponge-associated microorganisms.

  15. Chromosomes and their meiotic behaviour in two species of Dieuches Dohrn, 1860 (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochromini

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    Harbhajan Kaur

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lygaeidae (Heteroptera are a large and diverse family in which the male diploid chromosomal complement ranges from 10 to 30. Diploid numbers of 14 and 16 are taken as two modal numbers of the family. The Rhyparochrominae, one of the largest subfamilies of the Lygaeidae, are known to be heterogeneous both cytologically and morphologically. Available data on the tribe Rhyparochromini reveal that all species are characterized by the presence of a pair of microchromosomes (m-chromosomes and have an XY/XX (♂/♀ sex chromosome determining system. Dieuches coloratus (Distant, 1909 and D. insignis (Distant, 1918 belonging to Rhyparochromini, have 2n=14=10A+2m+XY and 2n=12=8A+2m+XY respectively. Both the species are similar inone pair of distinctly large autosomes in their chromosome complements. The metaphase plate arrangement of autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes in D. coloratus is similar to the common condition observed in the tribe Rhyparochromini. In D. insignis, however, the arrangement is different. Here, metaphase I is usual in showing peripheral position of autosomes and central position of sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes. At metaphase II, however, autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes are peripherally placed, an arrangement, which is not reported earlier in the tribe Rhyparochromini.

  16. Feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity of Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Anura: Cycloramphidae from the Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

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    Thiago Maia-Carneiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity period of the anuran species Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864, endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The only previous studies on this species focused on the systematics and new altitudinal records. This study was conducted in a large forest remnant located in the municipalities of Guapimirim and Cachoeiras de Macacu. We captured frogs through visual encounter surveys and recorded the frequency of microhabitat types used by them, and the time of capture. Diet was analyzed in terms of number, volume and frequency of occurrence of items. Individuals of C. brasiliensis occurred in association with fast-moving rocky portions of clear freshwater rivers, indicating a rheophilic habit, and were active mainly at night. Such as most anuran species, the diet of Cycloramphus brasiliensis was mainly based on arthropods, and included Blattodea, Formicidae, and Coleoptera as most important prey items.

  17. First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala) in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Almeida, Edilene Santos; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro; Eiras, Jorge Costa; Martins, Mauricio Laterça

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae), in the "Mato Grosso" Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae) (Steindachner, 1882), collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season) and June 2007 (dry season) and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season), 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region.

  18. Metazoários parasitos de seis espécies de peixes do Reservatório de Lajes, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Metazoan parasites of six fishes species from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Aline R. Paraguassú

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre abril de 2002 e julho de 2003, foram necropsiados 231 espécimes de peixes: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819, 23 Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877, 26 Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794, 30 Loricariichthys castaneus (Castelnau, 1855 e 34 Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1876 provenientes do Reservatório de Lajes (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' 44º05'O, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estudo das suas comunidades parasitárias. A maioria dos espécimes de H. affinis (95,6% e H. malabaricus (84,6% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de metazoário. Em A. bimaculatus, A. fasciatus, L. castaneus e T. striatulus 41%, 39,2%, 56,7% e 14,7% dos espécimes estavam parasitados, respectivamente. Foram coletadas oito diferentes espécies de metazoários parasitos: 2 em A. bimaculatus, 3 em A. fasciatus, 3 em H. affinis, 4 em H. malabaricus, 4 em L. castaneus e 1 em T. striatulus. As comunidades de metazoários parasitos das seis espécies de peixes estudadas apresentaram típico padrão de distribuição agregada. Foram observados dois casos de correlação negativa entre a abundância e a prevalência parasitárias e o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. A comunidade parasitária de L. castaneus apresentou os maiores valores de intensidade média, índice de dispersão e diversidade. As comunidades parasitárias dos peixes estudados apresentaram escassez de correlação entre a abundância, riqueza parasitária e diversidade com o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. Os baixos valores de riqueza e diversidade das comuni-dades parasitárias podem ser atribuídos as características oligotróficas do Reservatório de Lajes.From April 2002 to July 2003, 231 freshwater fishes from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' - 44º05'W were necropsied to study their community metazoan parasites: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus

  19. Allometric growth patterns in hatchery-reared larvae of the catfish Lophiosilurus alexandri (Pisces: Pseudopimelodidae

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    R.J. Guimarães-Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the relationships that occur between morphometric variables of larvae of Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1876 through their allometric growth analysis. Total length, head length and body height were correlated with standard length, head height and body height, as well as eye diameter and head height with head length. The results revealed allometric positive relation during the initial development, where the b coefficient varied between 1.10 and 2.81. The variable pre-anal distance in relation to the standard length and the snout length in relation to the head length revealed an allometric negative relation, where the b coefficient was 0.85 and 0.94, respectively.

  20. First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques Primeira ocorrência de Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala no peixe ornamental Hyphessobrycon eques

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    Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae, in the “Mato Grosso” Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae (Steindachner, 1882, collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season and June 2007 (dry season and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season, 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region.O objetivo desse trabalho foi registrar a primeira ocorrência sazonal do acantocefala Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae no peixe “Mato Grosso”, Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characidae, capturados no Rio Chumucuí, região Bragantina, Pará, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados no período de julho∕2006 a junho∕2007 e examinados com técnica padrão para detecção de parasitas. Um total de 75 parasitas foram encontrados no estômago e intestino. Dos 83 peixes capturados (50 na estação seca e 33 na chuvosa, 22 estavam parasitados por cistacantos de Quadrigyrus nickoli. No presente trabalho discute-se a importância do H. eques como hospedeiro paratênico para Quadrigyrus nickoli. Os presentes dados constituem o primeiro estudo sobre a biologia e a infecção de Q. nickoli na Amazônia oriental.

  1. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  2. Typification of binomials in Xyris section Nematopus (Xyridaceae) published by L.A. Nilsson

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    Wanderley, Maria das Graças Lapa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A nomenclatural revision of fifteen taxa of Xyris (Xyridaceae) described by L.A. Nilsson (1892) is presented as part of a taxonomic revision of the genus in Brazil. All the protologues and type collections of these taxa were studied. The type collections were examined in the respective herbarium collections where they are preserved and complemented by images available on herbarium websites and from JSTOR Global Plants. Lectotypes were selected for Xyris cristata L.A.Nilsson, X. glaziowii L.A.Nilsson and X. insignis L.A.Nilsson. The holotypes, of X. glandacea L.A.Nilsson and X. stenophylla L.A.Nilsson, were discovered at the herbaria of Uppsala (UPS) and Berlin (B) respectively, and provided with their correct determinations. PMID:28824283

  3. Bioprospecting medicinal plants for antioxidant components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Ahmed Yacouba; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sulaiman, Othman; Ang, Lily Zuin Ping; Ooi, Kheng Leong

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate antioxidant activities of seven medicinal plant species and their fractions, and to identify their phenolic compounds. Two extractions were processed and further fractionated by column chromatography to evaluate the concentration that inhibit 50% of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-suslfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radicals, and their ferric reducing antioxidant power. The identification of the fractions of phenolic compounds was done by ultra performance liquid chromatography. The aqueous-acetone extracts of Feretia apodanthera and Ozoroa insignis exhibited the highest antioxidant potentials comparable to those of the standard quercetin. Their subsequently silica gel column fractionation showed three most active fractions from which the major constituents quercetin, myricetin, kampferol, rutin and isoquercetin were identified. These plant species have potent antioxidant profiles and polyphenol compounds that may help to manage with radical related disease and aging. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Typification of binomials in Xyris section Nematopus (Xyridaceae published by L.A. Nilsson

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    Maria das Graças Lapa Wanderley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A nomenclatural revision of fifteen taxa of Xyris (Xyridaceae described by L.A. Nilsson (1892 is presented as part of a taxonomic revision of the genus in Brazil. All the protologues and type collections of these taxa were studied. The type collections were examined in the respective herbarium collections where they are preserved and complemented by images available on herbarium websites and from JSTOR Global Plants. Lectotypes were selected for Xyris cristata L.A.Nilsson, X. glaziowii L.A.Nilsson and X. insignis L.A.Nilsson. The holotypes, of X. glandacea L.A.Nilsson and X. stenophylla L.A.Nilsson, were discovered at the herbaria of Uppsala (UPS and Berlin (B respectively, and provided with their correct determinations.

  5. Typification of binomials in Xyrissection Nematopus (Xyridaceae) published by L.A. Nilsson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley, Maria das Graças Lapa

    2017-01-01

    A nomenclatural revision of fifteen taxa of Xyris (Xyridaceae) described by L.A. Nilsson (1892) is presented as part of a taxonomic revision of the genus in Brazil. All the protologues and type collections of these taxa were studied. The type collections were examined in the respective herbarium collections where they are preserved and complemented by images available on herbarium websites and from JSTOR Global Plants. Lectotypes were selected for Xyris cristata L.A.Nilsson, X. glaziowii L.A.Nilsson and X. insignis L.A.Nilsson. The holotypes, of X. glandacea L.A.Nilsson and X. stenophylla L.A.Nilsson, were discovered at the herbaria of Uppsala (UPS) and Berlin (B) respectively, and provided with their correct determinations.

  6. The Filistatidae in the Caribbean region, with a description of the new genus Antilloides, revision of the genus Filistatoides F. O. P.-Cambridge and notes on Kukulcania Lehtinen (Arachnida, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Garcia, Giraldo Alayón

    2016-07-07

    A synopsis of Caribbean filistatid diversity is recorded herein. A new genus, Antilloides, is proposed for five new species exclusively found in the Antilles: A. abeli n. sp., A. cubitas n. sp., and A. mesoliticus n. sp. from Cuba; A. haitises n. sp. from the Dominican Republic; and A. zozo n. sp. from the U. S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. The genus Filistatoides is revised and includes four species: the type species F. insignis F.O.P. Cambridge, which occurs only in Guatemala; the female is described here for the first time; F. polita Franganillo sp. reval., comb. nov., which occurs only in Cuba; F. xichu n. sp. described from Mexico; and F. milloti (Zapfe) which does not appear to belong to the genus based on morphological structures. Additionally, Kukulcania isolinae Alayón is synonymized with Kukulcania hibernalis (Hentz), and new records of its distribution are included for the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

  7. A REEXAMINATION OF FOUR PROLACERTIFORMS WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR PTEROSAUR PHYLOGENESIS

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    DAVID PETERS

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, pterosaurs have been included within the Archosauriformes and many contemporary workers consider the Pterosauria the sister group to Lagosuchus, Scleromochlus and the Dinosauria. New analyses cast doubts on those relationships because nearly all presumed archosauriform or ornithodire "synapomorpies" are either not present within the Pterosauria or are also present within certain prolacertiform taxa. Recent examinations of the holotypes of Cosesaurus aviceps, Longisquama insignis and Sharovipteryx mirabilis suggest that many characters may be interpreted differently than previously reported. Results of several subsequent cladistic analyses suggests that these "enigmatic" prolacertiforms, along with the newly described Langobardisaurus, are sister taxa to the Pterosauria, based on a suite of newly identified synapomorphies. 

  8. [Bluetongue: isolation and characterization of the virus and identification of vectors in northeastern Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorch, C; Vagnozzi, A; Duffy, S; Miquet, J; Pacheco, J; Bolondi, A; Draghi, G; Cetra, B; Soni, C; Ronderos, M; Russo, S; Ramírez, V; Lager, I

    2002-01-01

    To establish if BTV was circulating in Argentina, 94 bovines from the Santo Tomé and Ituzaingó Departments of Corrientes Province were sampled every 30-60 days during 14 months. Red blood cells from those animals that showed seroconvertion with a c-ELISA were processed for virus isolation by inoculation in embryonated chicken eggs and cell cultures. Cells with CPE were positive by direct and indirect immunofluorescence with BTV specific reagents. These samples examined by electron microscopy showed virus particles with BTV morphological characteristics. Blood samples and tissue culture supernantants were positive by RT-PCR technique with primers corresponding to the segment 3 of the BTV genome. Haematophagous insects were captured in one farm using light traps and Culicoides insignis Lutz was the predominant species detected. This is the first isolation of BTV in Argentina from northeastern bovines without any disease symptom.

  9. Ocorrência e distribuição geográfica do bacurizeiro Occurrence and geographical distribution of bacuri

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    Walnice Maria Oliveira do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O bacurizeiro é espécie frutífera promissora, devido as amplas possibilidades que apresenta como planta de uso múltiplo (madeira e fruto, podendo vir a se constituir, em breve, em nova alternativa de cultura perene para a Amazônia. A ocorrência e a distribuição geográfica do bacurizeiro, apresentadas neste trabalho, baseiam-se em grande parte nos levantamentos sobre vegetação efetuados pela Comissão Executora do Projeto Radambrasil, por levantamentos em herbários, além de informações em inventários florísticos contidos na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a distribuição geográfica do bacurizeiro, visando a estudos de disponibilidade genética e coleta de material para definir procedimentos adequados para seu cultivo e conseqüente redução de pressão sobre as populações nativas. Não existem dúvidas sobre a origem amazônica do bacurizeiro, sendo encontrado, no início do século vinte, tanto na margem esquerda como na margem direita do Rio Pará, abundante na costa sudeste da ilha do Marajó, onde se constitui em árvore característica das matas marginais. Em toda a Amazônia, a área de maior concentração da espécie é o estuário do Rio Amazonas. Do Estado do Pará, dispersou-se em direção ao nordeste do Brasil, alcançando os cerrados e chapadões dos Estados do Maranhão e Piauí. Na direção sul, a dispersão atingiu os Estados de Tocantins e Mato Grosso, chegando a romper as fronteiras do Brasil. Na direção norte, atingiu o Estado do Amapá, ocorrendo também, embora de forma rara, no Estado do Amazonas.The Platonia insignis is a promising fruit species, for the wide possibilities that it presents as species of multiple purposes, and soon could become a new alternative of perennial culture for the Amazon region. The occurrence and geographical distribution of the P. insignis presented in this work, is largely based on the appointments on vegetation made by the project Radambrasil

  10. A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

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    Haule Emmanuel E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decoction of the aerial parts of Rhynchosia recinosa (A.Rich. Bak. [Fabaceae] is used in combination with the stem barks of Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae, Maytenus senegalensis (Lam. Excell. [Celastraceae] Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A.Rich [Fabaceae] and Lannea schimperi (Hochst.Engl. [Anacardiaceae] as a traditional remedy for managing peptic ulcers. However, the safety and efficacy of this polyherbal preparation has not been evaluated. This study reports on the phytochemical profile and some biological activities of the individual plant extracts and a combination of extracts of the five plants. Methods A mixture of 80% ethanol extracts of R. recinosa, O. insignis, M. senegalensis, E. abyssinica and L. schimperi at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt were evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from gastric ulceration by an ethanol-HCl mixture. Cytoprotective effect was assessed by comparison with a negative control group given 1% tween 80 in normal saline and a positive control group given 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The individual extracts and their combinations were also tested for antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385, Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolate, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate using the microdilution method. In addition the extracts were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity and acute toxicity in mice. Phytochemical tests were done using standard methods to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in the individual plant extracts and in the mixed extract of the five plants. Results The combined ethanolic extracts of the 5 plants caused a dose-dependent protection against ethanol/HCl induced ulceration of rat gastric mucosa, reaching 81.7% mean protection as compared to 87.5% protection by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole

  11. A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The decoction of the aerial parts of Rhynchosia recinosa (A.Rich.) Bak. [Fabaceae] is used in combination with the stem barks of Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell. [Celastraceae] Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A.Rich [Fabaceae] and Lannea schimperi (Hochst.)Engl. [Anacardiaceae] as a traditional remedy for managing peptic ulcers. However, the safety and efficacy of this polyherbal preparation has not been evaluated. This study reports on the phytochemical profile and some biological activities of the individual plant extracts and a combination of extracts of the five plants. Methods A mixture of 80% ethanol extracts of R. recinosa, O. insignis, M. senegalensis, E. abyssinica and L. schimperi at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt were evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from gastric ulceration by an ethanol-HCl mixture. Cytoprotective effect was assessed by comparison with a negative control group given 1% tween 80 in normal saline and a positive control group given 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The individual extracts and their combinations were also tested for antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolate), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate) using the microdilution method. In addition the extracts were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity and acute toxicity in mice. Phytochemical tests were done using standard methods to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in the individual plant extracts and in the mixed extract of the five plants. Results The combined ethanolic extracts of the 5 plants caused a dose-dependent protection against ethanol/HCl induced ulceration of rat gastric mucosa, reaching 81.7% mean protection as compared to 87.5% protection by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. Both the individual

  12. Phylogeny of the owlet-nightjars (Aves: Aegothelidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, J.P.; Pratt, T.K.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    The avian family Aegothelidae (Owlet-nightjars) comprises nine extant species and one extinct species, all of which are currently classified in a single genus, Aegotheles. Owlet-nightjars are secretive nocturnal birds of the South Pacific. They are relatively poorly studied and some species are known from only a few specimens. Furthermore, their confusing morphological variation has made it difficult to cluster existing specimens unambiguously into hierarchical taxonomic units. Here we sample all extant owlet-nightjar species and all but three currently recognized subspecies. We use DNA extracted primarily from museum specimens to obtain mitochondrial gene sequences and construct a molecular phylogeny. Our phylogeny suggests that most species are reciprocally monophyletic, however A. albertisi appears paraphyletic. Our data also suggest splitting A. bennettii into two species and splitting A. insignis and A. tatei as suggested in another recent paper. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  13. Survival and growth of three endangered oak species in a Mexican montane cloud forest

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    Ofelia Andrea Valdés-Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud forests are amongst the world’s most impacted and endangered forest types, with Mexican cloud forests amongst the most degraded. These species rich forests are characterized by a diversity of congeneric oak species which dominate the canopy of mature forests. An improved understanding of the establishment requirements of oak seedlings in cloud forests is needed for conservation and restoration purposes. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of light conditions during early establishment of three endangered Quercus species. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in Quercus insignis M. Martens & Galeotti, Q. sartorii Liebm. and Q. xalapensis Bonpl. was determined under two light levels: light gap (1338 µmol m-2 s-1 and closed canopy (118 µmol m-2 s-1 in a cloud forest in Veracruz, Mexico. Growth and development were evaluated over the first 13 months. Results suggest there was a significant effect of light conditions on growth rate and biomass allocation. Although survival rate was similar among both environments, the three species showed lower growth rates under the closed canopy during the first nine months, while elongation rate was higher during the last three months under this environment compared to the light gap. Across all species, fresh biomass and dry biomass of roots, stem and leaves were almost 50% higher in light gap than under closed canopy. Q. insignis produced more biomass in shoots and roots than Q. sartorii and Q. xalapensis, which may increase its establishment success in shaded conditions. Results suggest that these three oak species are suited to planting in small gaps, but also in shaded understory conditions, as high early survival (>90% may allow enrichment planting in advance of gap creation.

  14. Uso do alimento por duas espécies simpátricas de Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae em um riacho da Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil Food used by two sympatric species of Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae, in a stream of center-western Brazil

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    Raffael M Tófoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo avaliou sazonalmente a dieta de Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 e M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, coletadas em simpatria no riacho Cancela, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Independente do período hidrológico, alimentos de origem alóctone predominaram na dieta de ambas as espécies (>50% do total de itens consumidos, sendo insetos terrestres o recurso principal, embora, para M. dichroura insetos aquáticos tenham contribuído na dieta também. Hymenoptera (Formicidae foi o alimento mais consumido, sendo ambas as espécies caracterizadas como insetívoras terrestres. A dieta restrita dessas espécies é confirmada pelos baixos valores de amplitude de nicho trófico: Ba=0,26 para M. dichroura em ambos os períodos e Ba=0,41 no período de seca e 0,38 no período de chuva, para M. sanctaefilomenae. A sobreposição alimentar foi elevada no período de chuva (Ojk=0,75 e apresentou valor intermediário no período de seca (Ojk=0,41, evidenciando maior partilha do alimento entre as espécies neste período.This study evaluated the seasonality in the diet of Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 and M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, sympatric species of the Cancela stream, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Regardless of the seasonal period, allochthonous food source predominated in the diet of both species (>50% of all items consumed and among these terrestrial insects were the dominant resource. However, aquatic insects were important in the diet of M. dichroura as well. Hymenoptera (Formicidae was the dominant item to both species, thus they were characterized as terrestrial insectivorous. The restricted diet of these species is confirmed by the trophic niche breadth, whose values were in general low: Ba=0.26 to M. dichroura in both periods and Ba=0.41 and 0.38 in the dry and rainy period, respectively, to M. sanctaefilomenae. The feeding overlap was high in the rainy period (Ojk=0.75 and intermediate in the dry period (Ojk=0.41, showing

  15. Las infracomunidades de parásitos de dos especies de Scartichthys (Pisces: Blenniidae en localidades cercanas del norte de Chile Parasite infracommunities of two blennid species, Scartichthys (Pisces: Blenniidae, at nearby localities off northern Chile

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    KAREN FLORES

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de dos especies congenéricas y simpátridas de peces marinos: Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes 1836 y Scartichthys gigas (Steindachner 1876 (Pisces: Blenniidae, en tres localidades del intermareal rocoso de Iquique (20°32' S, 70°11' O, norte de Chile, separadas por no más de 6 km, con muestras recolectadas entre agosto y septiembre de 2005. El objetivo fue evaluar la variabilidad de la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad, dominancia y composición en una escala espacial y temporal reducida. En total, se recolectaron 2.110 individuos parásitos en los 134 hospedadores examinados, los que pertenecían a 14 taxa. Se encontró una gran similitud en la composición y en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades, tanto entre especies de hospedadores como entre sitios de estudio. Se interpreta que las condiciones ambientales, los factores ecológicos como el uso del habitat y de los recursos alimentarios, y los factores evolutivos como el alto grado de parentesco de estas especies de Scartichthys, son las principales influencias en la alta similitud parasitaria encontrada.The infracommunities of metazoan parasites in two congeneric and sympatric marine fish species, Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes 1836 and Scartichthys gigas (Steindachner 1876, were studied and compared between three localities of the intertidal rocky shore off the coast of northern Chile, near Iquique (20°32' S, 70°11' W, which were separated by no more than 6 km. Samples were collected between August and September 2005. The goal of this study was to assess the variability in richness, abundance, diversity, dominance and parasite composition between close localities sampled within a short period. In all, 2,110 parasite individuals were collected from the 134 hosts examined, and 14 parasite taxa were identified. There was great similarity in the aggregated and compositional properties of the infracommunities, both between

  16. Riqueza e densidade de vocalizações de anuros (Amphibia em uma área urbana de Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Richness of species and density of vocalization of anurans in an urban area of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Robson Waldemar Ávila

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza e intensidade de vocalizações de anuros em uma área urbana de Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, foram estudadas de fevereiro de 2002 a Janeiro de 2003 em uma poça temporária. Foi utilizado um transecto com quatro pontos de escuta onde foram consideradas as espécies visualizadas e a intensidade das respectivas vocalizações. Foram registradas 16 espécies de quatro famílias: Bufonidae (2, Hylidae (7, Microhylidae (1 e Leptodactylidae (6. O período reprodutivo dessas espécies esteve correlacionado com a estação chuvosa, de dezembro a março (r² = 0,806, F(1,10 = 41,530 p = 0,002, n = 12. As espécies que apresentaram maior intensidade de vocalização foram Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862 e Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864, com picos em janeiro. A espécie que apresentou maior período de vocalização foi Leptodactylus fuscus, de setembro a fevereiro. O maior número de espécies e de indivíduos vocalizando ocorreu de 19:00 às 23:00 h.The richness and intensity of vocalization of anurans in urban areas of Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were studied from February 2002 to January 2003 in a secondary forest and surroundings of a temporary pond. We used a transect with four stop sites on which the presence of species and the intensity of vocalization were recorded according to North American Amphibian Monitoring Population index. The turn when vocalization happened was also recorded. We registered 16 species of four families: Bufonidae (2, Hylidae (7, Microhylidae (1, and Leptodactylidae (6. The reproduction of these species was correlated to the rainy season, from December to March (r² = 0,806, F(1,10 = 41,530 p = 0,002, n = 12. The species that presented greater intensity of vocalization were Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862 and Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864, with peaks during January. The species that presented the greater period of vocalization was Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799

  17. A pesca comercial na bacia do rio Madeira no estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira The Commercial fisheries of the Madeira river basin in the Rondônia state, brazilian Amazon

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    Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracteriza quali e quantitativamente a atividade pesqueira comercial na bacia do rio Madeira, afluente do rio Amazonas, no trecho entre Guajará-Mirim e Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia. No período de janeiro a dezembro/2004, foram registrados 460 t, correspondendo 935 viagens. A análise dos dados oriundos do monitoramento dos desembarques demonstrou que a pesca na região tem caráter artesanal de pequena escala, destacando a maior participação das canoas motorizadas (131 unidades do que barcos pesqueiros (45 unidades; capacidade média: 3.000kg na frota pesqueira. Os peixes migradores jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans e filhote (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum se destacaram na composição das espécies desembarcadas. As informações técnicas geradas são importantes para subsidiar ações de ordenamento pesqueiro, bem como para avaliar futuras variações que possam ocorrer na atividade frente aos impactos dos empreendimentos hidrelétricos em construção na região.This study presents qualitative and quantitative information about commercial fishery in the basin of the Madeira River, tributary of the Amazon River, describing the fishing activity in the segment between Guajará-Mirim and Porto Velho, in Rondônia State. From January to December/2004, 219 fishermen and 935 trips were registered, corresponding to the capture of 460 t of fish. Data from fish landings demonstrate that fisheries in the region are small-scaled and point to a higher participation of small motorized canoes (130 units than of fishing boats (45 units; average capacity: 3000 kg in the fishing fleet. Migratory species like jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans

  18. Short-term cold storage of sperm from six neotropical characiformes fishes

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    Simone Marques

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sperm of the following Neotropical Characiformes fish species were tested for cold storage: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus and Prochilodus marggravii. Each sperm sample was split into two aliquots. The first was placed into a plastic bag with air or oxygen and the second, in a plastic tube with air. The samples were maintained at temperatures between 1.7-4.9 ºC. The rate of sperm motility was estimated using a 50 mM NaCl solution as the activating solution. The shortest sperm storage duration (7 h was recorded for L. friderici, when the sperm motility rate reached ~ 30%, whereas the longest duration (20 h was obtained with the sperm of P. lineatus. A fertilisation test using Prochilodus marggravii sperm refrigerated for 8 h yielded 88-90% of viable embryos. The refrigerated storage method could be of practical applications, especially in fish reproductive management at hatchery stations.O sêmen das seguintes espécies de Characiformes neotropicais foi testado para armazenamento em ambiente resfriado: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus e Prochilodus marggravii. Amostras de sêmen, obtidas por massagem da parede celômica, foram armazenadas em saco plástico com ar ou oxigênio ou em tubo plástico com ar, e mantidas resfriadas entre 1,7-4,9º C. A taxa de motilidade espermática foi estimada usando-se NaCl 50 mM como solução ativadora. O sêmen com menor duração de viabilidade (7 h foi o de L. friderici, quando a taxa de motilidade espermática alcançou ~30%, enquanto que o de maior duração (20 h foi o de P. lineatus. A fertilização de ovócitos utilizando sêmen refrigerado por 8 h de Prochilodus marggravii produziu 88-90% de embriões viáveis. O método de armazenamento desenvolvido neste trabalho tem aplicações práticas, especialmente no manejo reprodutivo de peixes em estações de

  19. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA DIET OF THE NEOTROPICAL OTTER Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae IN THE ROBLE RIVER, UPPER CAUCA BASIN, COLOMBIA

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    Rosemary Mayor-Victoria

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja , alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble. En el laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia. Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae , presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp. (9,55% y Ancistrus sp. (8,54%; otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae , especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.The diet of Neotropical otters was studied at Roble river, a tributary of La Vieja river, Upper Cauca basin, Colombia . From August 2006 to March 2007 otter scats were collected twice per month using plastic bags, from the lower stretch of the Roble river. In the laboratory, the scats were washed, sieved and items were identified by comparing them with a reference collection. Fourteen food categories were recognized. Ranked by frequency of occurrence, benthic sucker-mouthed catfish were the favored food items, especially Chaetostoma sp (22,6 % followed by Hypostomus sp. (9,55% and Ancistrus sp. (8,54%. Other species of fish eaten by the otters are: Apteronotus sp. (11,6 %, Brycon henni (9,86 %, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15 %; (Family Loricariidae., followed by insects Corydalus sp (9% (Family Corydalidae. The lowest frequency observed was for

  20. Fauna parasitária de peixes oriundos de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, São Paulo, Brasil = Parasitic fauna of cultivated fishes in fee fishing farm of Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Sergio Henrique Canello Schalch

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a ocorrência e a sazonalidade de parasitos em peixes de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (21o15`22``S, 48o18`58``W e 595 m de altitude, durante o período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002. A presença de parasitos foi pesquisada em pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, carpacomum Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, híbrido tambacu (macho de P. mesopotamicus x fêmea de tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum e piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Os resultados demonstram que dos 100 peixes examinados, 15% estavam parasitados por pelo menos um dos seguintes parasitos: Trichodina sp.; helmintos monogenóides; copepoditos de Lernaea cyprinacea; L. cyprinacea adulta ou Dolops carvalhoi. Por ordem decrescente, o grau de suscetibilidade dos hospedeiros foi C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B. hillari, híbrido tambacu e O. niloticus. Por ordem decrescente, os parasitos encontrados foram helmintos monogenóides, Dolops carvalhoi, Trichodina sp., Lernaea cyprinacea adultas e suas formas jovens.This study describes the occurrence and the seasonality of parasites of cultivated fish from a fee fishing farm located in Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º15`22`` S, 48º18`58`` W and 595 m of altitude, from August, 2001 to July, 2002. The presence of parasiteswas researched in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, common carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, tambacu hybrid (male of P. mesopotamicus x female of tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum and piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Results demonstrate that out of 100 fish examined, 15% were sponged for at least one of the following parasites: Trichodina sp.; monogenean helminths; copepodits of Lernaea cyprinacea; adults of L. cyprinacea; or Dolops carvalhoi. In decreasing order, the susceptibility degree of the hosts was C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B

  1. Fauna parasitária de peixes oriundos de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.253 Parasitic fauna of cultivated fishes in fee fishing farm of Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.253

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    Julieta Rodini Engracia de Moraes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a ocorrência e a sazonalidade de parasitos em peixes de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (21º15`22``S, 48º18`58``W e 595 m de altitude, durante o período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002. A presença de parasitos foi pesquisada em pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, carpa comum Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, híbrido tambacu (macho de P. mesopotamicus x fêmea de tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum e piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Os resultados demonstram que dos 100 peixes examinados, 15% estavam parasitados por pelo menos um dos seguintes parasitos: Trichodina sp.; helmintos monogenóides; copepoditos de Lernaea cyprinacea; L. cyprinacea adulta ou Dolops carvalhoi. Por ordem decrescente, o grau de suscetibilidade dos hospedeiros foi C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B. hillari, híbrido tambacu e O. niloticus. Por ordem decrescente, os parasitos encontrados foram helmintos monogenóides, Dolops carvalhoi, Trichodina sp., Lernaea cyprinacea adultas e suas formas jovens.This study describes the occurrence and the seasonality of parasites of cultivated fish from a fee fishing farm located in Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º15`22`` S, 48º18`58`` W and 595 m of altitude, from August, 2001 to July, 2002. The presence of parasites was researched in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, common carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, tambacu hybrid (male of P. mesopotamicus x female of tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum and piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Results demonstrate that out of 100 fish examined, 15% were sponged for at least one of the following parasites: Trichodina sp.; monogenean helminths; copepodits of Lernaea cyprinacea; adults of L. cyprinacea; or Dolops carvalhoi. In decreasing order, the susceptibility degree of the hosts was C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B

  2. Benzocaína sobre respostas ao estresse do matrinxã submetido ao transporte em sacos plásticos Benzocaine on the stress response of matrinxã subjected to transport in plastic bags

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    Araceli Hackbarth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O transporte é uma prática de manejo necessária em todas as estações de piscicultura. Entretanto, tal evento é um estímulo adverso e agudo, que interrompe o equilíbrio dos animais com o ambiente, de forma a promover o estresse. Alguns peixes de importância comercial, como o matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, apresentam movimentação excessiva durante o manejo em geral, o que pode ocasionar consequências indesejáveis como perda de muco, de escamas, ferimentos e mortalidade. No presente trabalho, foi testado o anestésico benzocaína adicionado à água de transporte, como forma de reduzir estresse. Foram testadas duas concentrações de benzocaína, 10 e 15mg/L. Os resultados não mostraram efeitos de diminuição de estresse, apesar de a utilização da benzocaína ter reduzido a movimentação dos animais durante o transporte. As concentrações testadas podem ter aumentado o estresse por sofrimento respiratório, entretanto, o equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico não foi alterado, com sugestão de ação do anestésico sobre a liberação de catecolaminas.Transport is a necessary procedure in fish farming. However, it is an adverse and acute stimulus that breaks the balance between fish and environment, starting the stress condition. Some economic relevant species, as “matrinxã” (Brycon amazonicus, present excessive movements in handling, which may result in the unwanted consequences as loss of mucus, scales, injuries and death. In this work, the addition of the anesthetic benzocaine to the transport water was evaluated in juvenile “matrinxã”, in order to still the fish and possibly reducing stress. Two concentrations of benzocaine (10 and 15mg/L were tested. The results did not show any diminution of indices related to stress, notwithstanding the use of benzocaine during transport. Concentrations tested increased the stress responses by respiratory affliction, however, hydro-electrolytic balance was unaltered, being suggested some

  3. Contributions to the herpetofauna of the Albertine Rift: Two new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from an isolated montane forest, south eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Tilbury, Colin R; Tolley, Krystal A

    2015-01-13

    Two new species of chameleons from the genera Rhampholeon and Kinyongia are described from an isolated montane forest remnant situated toward the southern end of the Albertine Rift bordering Lake Tanganyika. The closest known localities of species from these genera are 200km and 400km to the north respectively, separated by large intervening tracts of lowland savannah and Brachystegia (Miombo) woodland - habitats not normally inhabited by species of these genera. Rhampholeon hattinghi sp. nov. and Kinyongia mulyai sp. nov. bear superficial resemblances to previously described species (Rh. boulengeri Steindachner and K. adolfifriderici  (Sternfeld)). Rhampholeon hattinghi sp. nov. has a relatively smooth supra-orbital ridge, deep axillary but absent inguinal mite pockets, prominent white spots on the base of the tail and a uniquely derived hemipenal morphology with billowing parasulcal evaginations. Like K. adolfifriderici, Kinyongia mulyai sp. nov. is devoid of a rostral appendage but differs in having a longer and narrower head, a higher upper labial scale count and by the absence of a dorsal crest in the male. To place these new chameleons within the context of their respective genera, Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were carried out utilising two mitochondrial (ND2 and 16S) and one nuclear marker (RAG1).  Both chameleons were found to have morphological features that distinguish them from other congeners. Based on phylogenetic analysis they are clearly separate evolutionary lineages and are described as new species. 

  4. Sex-specific differences in the synaptonemal complex in the genus Oreochromis (Cichlidae).

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    Campos-Ramos, Rafael; Harvey, Simon C; Penman, David J

    2009-04-01

    Total synaptonemal complex (SC) lengths were estimated from Oreochromis aureus Steindachner (which has a WZ/ZZ sex determination system), O. mossambicus Peters and O. niloticus L. (both of which have XX/XY sex determination systems). The total SC length in oocytes was greater than that in spermatocytes in all three species (194 +/- 30 microm and 134 +/- 13 microm, 187 +/- 22 microm and 127 +/- 17 microm, 193 +/- 37 microm and 144 +/- 19 microm, respectively). These sex-specific differences did not appear to be influenced by the type of sex determination system (the female/male total SC length ratio was 1.45 in O. aureus, 1.47 in O. mossambicus and 1.34 in O. niloticus) and do not correlate with the lack of any overall sex-specific length differences in the current Oreochromis linkage map. Although based on data from relatively few species, there appears to be no consistent relationship between sex-specific SC lengths and linkage map lengths in fish. Neomale (hormonally masculinized genetic female) O. aureus and O. mossambicus had total SC lengths of 138 +/- 13 microm and 146 +/- 13 microm respectively, more similar to normal males than to normal females. These findings agree with data from other vertebrate species that suggest that phenotypic sex, rather than genotype, determines traits such as total SC length, chiasmata position and recombination pattern, at least for the autosomes.

  5. Anuran community composition along two large rivers in a tropical disturbed landscape

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    Mauricio Almeida-Gomes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated how anuran species were distributed in riparian habitats along two large rivers. Sampling was carried out between January and March 2012 in the municipality of Cachoeiras de Macacu, state of Rio de Janeiro. We delimited 20 plots along each river, ten in portions inside the forest of the Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçu (REGUA, and with comparatively greater amount of forest cover, and ten outside REGUA, with comparatively lesser forest cover surrounding the rivers. We recorded 70 individuals from 14 frog species in the Manoel Alexandre River and 63 individuals from 15 frog species in the Guapiaçu River. The most abundant species in both rivers was Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864, and it was more abundant in sections with greater amount of forest cover. This information, coupled with the occurrence of species that are more adapted to open and more disturbed habitats in river sections that harbor lesser riparian vegetation, help to explain differences in amphibian species composition between river sections with greater and lesser forest cover. The results of our study highlight the importance of preserving riparian vegetation associated with rivers in the Atlantic Forest for the conservation of amphibians.

  6. New species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

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    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    During a research on gill ectoparasites of siluriform fishes from the Peruvian Amazonia, the following monogeneans were found: Ameloblastella edentensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz; Ameloblastella peruensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus sp.; Ameloblastella formatrium n. sp. from Pimelodidae gen. sp. (type-host) and Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen; Ameloblastella unapioides n. sp. from Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider) (type-host) and Pimelodus sp; Cosmetocleithrum tortum n. sp. from Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann); and Cosmetocleithrum bifurcum n. sp. from Hassar orestis (Steindachner) (both Doradidae). All new species described herein are mainly differentiated from their congeners based on the morphology of the copulatory complex. The pimelodids H. edentatus and S. lima, and the doradids N. hemipeltis and H. orestis represent new hosts species for species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986, respectively. The morphological diagnosis of the present species of Ameloblastella and Cosmetocleithrum also supported by a previous molecular analysis of these species is briefly discusssed herein.

  7. Variação espaço-temporal da ictiofauna da zona de arrebentação da Praia do Cassino, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Spatiotemporal variation in the fish fauna of Praia do Cassino, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Mauro Sergio Pinheiro Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the spatiotemporal variation of the ichthyofauna of the surf zone of Praia do Cassino, municipality of Rio Grande (state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil from October 2005 to September 2006. Fishes were collected monthly and during daytime using a large beach seine net (30 m x 1.8 m, with 12 mm uniform mesh manufactured with monofilament nylon wire. Five hauls were conducted on each of three sampling sites: one near the jetties of Patos Lagoon and two located 5 km and 10 km south from the jetties, respectively. We caught 10,066 fishes, weighting 128,486 g, distributed in 37 species belonging to 18 families that are similar in species composition to the dominant fish fauna - Trachinotus marginatus (Cuvier, 1832, Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, Brevoortia pectinata (Jenyns, 1842, Mugil platanus (Gunther, 1880, Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758, Menticirrhus littoralis (Holbrook, 1847, and Oncopterus darwinii (Steindachner, 1874 - usually collected in the beaches of Rio Grande do Sul with a smaller net. The dominant size classes were between 50 and 100 mm TL and represent 43% of total catch. Based on CCA analysis we suggested that the ichthyofauna is primarily structured by seasonal variation in the physicochemical and environmental parameters and secondarily by the spatial difference between areas nearer ( approximately 10 km from the Patos Lagoon's jetties. The composition and dominance of the fish community of the surf zone of Cassino Beach changed little in the latest 20 years, indicating a possible stability of the system.

  8. Coordinated feeding tactics of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rodrigo H. O. Tardin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Differences in distribution, prey species, season and social learning opportunities influence the feeding tactics used by marine mammals. Here, we analyze the coordinated feeding behavior of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden, 1864, Delphinidae and its relation to seasonality and the presence of calves. In a total of 201 feeding bouts, we observed four types of coordinated feeding tactics, which differed in frequency and in mean number of engaged individuals. Tactics in which dolphins used their bodies to herd and capture prey were the most frequent, presenting a higher frequency and engaging a higher number of individuals, suggesting that these tactics are better for capturing fishes which form larger schools. Furthermore, the seasons influenced the feeding behavior used by dolphins. During spring-summer, a longer duration of bouts and a larger number of individuals engaged in the feeding tactics was observed, which may be related to the seasonal spawning of larger schooling fish, such as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879. Calves were present in 95% of all coordinated feeding tactic occurrences. This study indicates a complete preference of dolphins for coordinating their actions to capture prey and for the first time reports the presence of calves in the coordinated tactics and jumps. This broadens the current knowledge of the Guiana dolphin feeding tactics.

  9. El cultivo de tilapias: una amenaza a las especies ícticas nativas en Nicaragua.

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    McCrary, J.K.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de tilapia del nilo (oreochromis niloticus, linnoeus previamente alimentados con hormonas para producir machos, en la laguna de Apoyo en Nicaragua ha permitido la introducción a la laguna de individuos, incluyendo hembras fecundas. Discutimos las consecuencias de esta introducción, en términos de amenazas de extinción de especies endémicas nativas a través de destrucción de hábitat, competencia por sitios de cortejo y alimentación, proliferación de parásitos en poblaciones de fauna nativa, y la depredación de alevines nativos. Mientras que una liberación anterior de una especie similar (O. aureus Steindachner en la laguna de Apoyo, en 1983, tuvo poco impacto observado, este segundo incidente, aquí documentado, ha resultado en dramáticos impactos negativos en la laguna, amenazando especies endémicas locales y creando posiblemente riesgos en la salud humana. Abogamos por la remoción total de tilapias de ecosistemas naturales como el de Apoyo, y advertimos sobre el peligro de las introducciones de especies no nativas en ecosistemas naturales, aun donde introducciones previas han sucedido.

  10. Prevalence and intensity of pentastomid infection in two species of snakes from northeastern Brazil

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    WO Almeida

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by pentastomids in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Fifteen snakes (four Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem, 1820 and eleven Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 were collected between January and April of 2005, in the municipality of Crato (07° 14' S and 39° 24' W, State of Ceará, Brazil. Laboratorial analysis of the respiratory tracts of the sampled snakes indicated differences in host infection rates: four individuals of P. nattereri (36.4% were infected by Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922 (mean infection intensity 1.5 ± 0.28, 1-2 and three specimens (27.3% by Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1863 (2.3 ± 1.32, 1-5. Only one individual of M. ibiboboca (25% was infected by a non-identified species of Raillietiella sp. These are the first data on pentastomid infection in snakes in Northeastern Brazil and both snake species comprise new host records for the pentastomids. The results also indicate that the generalist parasites C. tetrapoda and R. furcocerca share their definitive hosts.

  11. Prevalence and intensity of pentastomid infection in two species of snakes from northeastern Brazil.

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    Almeida, W O; Vasconcellos, A; Lopes, S G; Freire, E M X

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by pentastomids in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Fifteen snakes (four Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem, 1820) and eleven Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870) were collected between January and April of 2005, in the municipality of Crato (07 degrees 14' S and 39 degrees 24' W), State of Ceará, Brazil. Laboratorial analysis of the respiratory tracts of the sampled snakes indicated differences in host infection rates: four individuals of P. nattereri (36.4%) were infected by Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922 (mean infection intensity 1.5 +/- 0.28, 1-2) and three specimens (27.3%) by Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1863) (2.3 +/- 1.32, 1-5). Only one individual of M. ibiboboca (25%) was infected by a non-identified species of Raillietiella sp. These are the first data on pentastomid infection in snakes in Northeastern Brazil and both snake species comprise new host records for the pentastomids. The results also indicate that the generalist parasites C. tetrapoda and R. furcocerca share their definitive hosts.

  12. The snake assemblage (Squamata: Serpentes of a Cerrado-Caatinga transition area in Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, Brazil

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    Francílio da Silva Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS, pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT, and incidental encounters (IE. During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/observer and 6,468 days/trap were used, respectively. We estimated 23 species of snakes for the locality, although only 19 species were recorded. Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 10, Liophis poecilogyrus (Schlegel, 1837 (n = 9, Liophis viridis Günther, 1862 (n = 8 and Thamnodynastes sp. (n = 8 were the most abundant species. Terrestrial, cryptozoic, and diurnal snakes predominated in the assemblage (Boidae = 2 species, Dipsadidae = 12, Colubridae = 2, Elapidae = 1, Viperidae = 2. The results indicate that the fauna of the locality is similar with that of other open formations, especially the Caatinga, corroborating previous floristic studies. Comparisons between snake assemblages analyzed by different authors suggest structural differences between the assemblages of the Cerrado and the Caatinga, contradicting the hypothesis of mixed composition of fauna in these biomes.

  13. cultivo

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    M. García-Ulloa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el crecimiento de juveniles (2.77 g de peso promedio de la tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, cultivados con diferentes raciones alimenticias bajo condiciones experimentales de laboratorio. Los tratamientos consistieron en el suplemento alimenticio de 6, 8 y 10% del peso de la biomasa total, los cuales fueron estudiados por triplicado en peceras de vidrio de 113 L de capacidad, ajustando una densidad inicial de 25 peces por acuario. El ensayo tuvo una duración de 35 días, y se realizaron biometrías (peso húmedo cada 7 días. El crecimiento específico no mostró diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 entre los tratamientos, registrando un promedio de 5.45%/d. Sin embargo, la conversión alimenticia y utilización del alimento obtenida para el grupo del 6% sugieren una mejor eficiencia en el aprovechamiento del alimento

  14. Host specificity and metamorphosis of the glochidium of the freshwater mussel Unio tumidiformis (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

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    Reis, Joaquim; Collares-Pereira, Maria João; Araujo, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    The glochidium larvae of freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae need to find suitable hosts to attach themselves and metamorphose into free-living juveniles. The specificity of the host-parasite relationship was investigated for the Iberian Unio tumidiformis Castro, 1885 by means of experimental infections and also by analyzing naturally infected fish. The process of encapsulation of glochidia was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Unio tumidiformis has proven to be an unusual host-specific unionid mussel, apparently parasitizing only fish of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837. Successful encapsulation or complete metamorphosis was observed in five fish taxa: S. aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues et Collares-Pereira), S. caroliterti (Doadrio), S. pyrenaicus (Günther), S. torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues et Collares-Pereira) and S. alburnoides (Steindachner) complex (only for the nuclear hybrids with at least one copy of the S. pyrenaicus genome). Complete metamorphose was achieved in 6 to 14 days at mean temperatures ranging from 21.8 to 26.1 degrees C. The current study provides support for cell migration being the main force of cyst formation and shows the influence of potential host's genome in response to the infection process to determine the success of the metamorphosis.

  15. Morphological, histological and histochemical analysis of the digestive tract of Trachelyopterusstriatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae

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    Marcella L. dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The digestive tract of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877 was studied using morphological, histological, and histochemical techniques. The barbels, lips and tongue had stratified squamous epithelium with mucous, claviform cells, and taste buds. Trachelyopterus striatulus had a dental plaque with villiform teeth. The bucopharyngeal cavity was formed by the gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth with vilifform denticles. The oesophagus presented stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The stomach included cardiac, fundic, and pyloric regions and a simple prismatic epithelium with prismatic cells that reacted positively to periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and amylase+PAS. Only the cardiac and pyloric regions responded positively to alcian blue pH 2.5 (Ab pH 2.5 and alcian blue pH 0.5 (Ab pH 0.5. The cardiac and fundic regions exhibited tubular gastric glands. The intestine was 118.90 ± 22.49 mm long with an intestinal coefficient (CO of 0.83 ± 0.13. The epithelium was simple prismatic with a brush border and goblet cells, and a greater number of goblet cells were found in the caudal region of the intestine. The mucous cells and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase+PAS, Ab pH 2.5, and Ab pH 0.5. We analysed if the function of the mucosubstances and morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of T. striatulus are compatible with omnivorous feeding habit.

  16. Cross-amplification of heterologous microsatellite markers in Rhamdia quelen and Leporinus elongatus

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    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Native fish species in Brazil are an asset in fish farming, but their natural stocks have been significantly reduced in recent years. To mitigate this negative impact, studies on fish conservation are being conducted and genetic tools for the discrimination of population parameters are increasingly achieving great importance. Current analysis evaluates a set of microsatellite heterologous primers in the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and in the piapara (Leporinus elongatus. Samples from the caudal fin of 15 broodstock from each species were analyzed. DNA extraction was performed with NaCl protocol and the integrity of the extracted DNA was checked with agarose gel 1%. Twenty primers developed for Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum, Prochilodus lineatus, Brycon opalinus and Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated. Cross amplification of four primers of the B. opalinus and P. lineatus species (BoM12, Pli43 and Pli60 in R. quelen and BoM2, Pli43 and Pli60 in L. elongatus was assessed. Primers of P. mesopotamicus, C. macropomum and O. niloticus showed no cross amplification in the two species analyzed. Results revealed the possibility of using the four amplified heterologous primers in genetic studies for R. quelen and L. elongatus.

  17. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA.

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    ROSEMARY MAYOR-VICTORIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja, alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron recolectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble. En el laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia. Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimentarias, dentro de las cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae, presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp. (9,55% y Ancistrus sp. (8,54%; otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9%; Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae, especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontraron diferencias significativas, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0,00001.

  18. How to catch a falling fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2015-03-01

    A variety of fish engage in complex hunting behaviors involving catching airborne prey falling to the surface of the water. In principle this requires that the fish develop internal models describing both the falling prey and its own motion relative to that prey. However learning such models is complicated by the fact that the fish must also account for noise in optical measurements and the refraction occurring at the air/water interface. Inspired by experimental observations, we describe how one such species (Brycon guatemalensis) might feasibly overcome these obstacles and learn a model accurate enough to catch falling fruit. Instead of learning a model for how the fruit falls and a model for how it moves in the water and a model accounting for refraction, we argue that the fish could instead learn one approximate linear model relating a set of measured inputs to a set of measured outputs valid in a limited domain of initial conditions. The fish could then make its control decisions based on the outcome predicted by this combined linear model. We also discuss how the fish can leverage neural transformations of raw data to learn a model with a larger domain of validity and yet more sensitive to noise due to nontrivial Jacobians arising from the neural transformations.

  19. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA

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    Rosemary Mayor-Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja, alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble, en laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia.Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae, presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp.  (9,55% y  Ancistrus sp.  (8,54%;  otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni  (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae, especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.

  20. Fenólicos totais e capacidade antioxidante in vitro de resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais Total phenolics and in vitro antioxidant capacity of tropical fruit pulp wastes

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    Mariana Séfora Bezerra Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a concentração dos compostos fenólicos dos resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais acerola (Malpighia glabra L., goiaba (Psidium Guayaba L., abacaxi (Ananas comosus L., cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, bacuri (Platonia insignis e graviola (Annona muricata L., bem como avaliar a sua capacidade antioxidante in vitro, pelos métodos de captura de radicais DPPH• e ABTS+. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram elevados teores de fenólicos totais para o resíduo da polpa de acerola, com 247,62 ± 2,08 mg.100 g-1 de fenólicos totais para o extrato aquoso e 279,99 ± 3,5 mg.100 g-1 para o extrato hidroalcoólico (p The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compound contents and evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the following extracts from tropical fruit pulp wastes: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., guava (Psidium Guayaba L., pineapple (Ananas comosus L., cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, bacury (Platonia insignis, and cherimoya (Annona muricata L. using the DPPH and ABTS+ radical capture methodologies. The results showed high levels of phenolic compounds in the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the acerola pulp wastes, of 247.62 ± 2.08 mg.100 g-1 and 279.99 ± 3.5 mg.100 g-1, respectively (p < 0.05. The antioxidant activity, when measured by the DPPH method, showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the guava wastes presented the highest values with an EC50 of 142.89 μg.mL-1, followed by the hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of the acerola wastes, with EC50 values of 308.07 and 386.46 μg.mL-1, respectively. When the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ABTS method, the acerola pulp wastes showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with TEAC values of 0.518 ± 0.103 and 0.743 ± 0.127 mM.g-1 of residue for the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts, respectively (p < 0.05. Thus, the fruit pulp wastes studied in this work, especially acerola and guava, represented

  1. Influência da adição de sacarose na estabilidade da polpa de bacuri conservada por métodos combinados Influence of addition of sucrose in the stability of bacuri pulp preservation by combined methods

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    Germania Almeida Souza Bezerra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do processo de conservação da polpa de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart., através da aplicação da tecnologia de obstáculos, foi feito pela combinação dos seguintes fatores: adição de benzoato de sódio (1000 ppm e metabissulfito de sódio (400 ppm, tratamento térmico (100ºC/2 min. e redução da atividade de água pela adição de sacarose (0, 17,4 e 28,6% (p/p. A estabilidade dos produtos foi avaliada segundo suas características físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais, a cada 30 dias, durante quatro meses de armazenamento, à temperatura ambiente (25ºC±2ºC. As características físico-químicas dos produtos obtidos sofreram pouca alteração durante o armazenamento, sendo os teores de açúcares redutores e o teor de dióxido de enxofre as características mais afetadas nos três produtos. Os resultados mostraram que os tipos de obstáculos usados e sua intensidade foram capazes de assegurar a estabilidade microbiológica e uma boa aceitação sensorial dos produtos durante o período de armazenamento.The study of preservation process of the bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart. through the application of hurdle technology was done by the application of the following preservation factors: addition of sodium benzoate (1000 ppm and sodium metabissulphite (400 ppm, thermal treatment (100ºC/ 2 min. and reduction of the water activity by the addition of sucrose (0, 17,4 and 28,6% (w/w. Stability was assessed monthly by means of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial methods, each 30 days, during four months of storage at room temperature (25ºC±2ºC. Physico-chemical characteristics of the products obtained little changed during the storage, being the reduced sugars and sulfite dioxide contents the most affected characteristics in three products. Results showed that the obstacles used and their intensities were capable to assure the microbiological stability and a good sensory acceptability of the products

  2. Pharmacological properties of blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) promoted their integration into the cultural heritage of native rural Spain as inferred by vernacular names diversity, traditions, and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percino-Daniel, Nohemí; Buckley, David; García-París, Mario

    2013-06-03

    Beetles of the family Meloidae (blister beetles) are often reported in pharmacological literature because of their content of cantharidin. Cantharidin has a long history in human medicine and was commonly applied in the 19th and the early 20th centuries, although its use has been progressively abandoned since then. Contrary to most, even common, large species of Coleoptera, blister beetles of the genera Berberomeloe, Physomeloe and to a lesser extent Meloe, are usually recognized and often incorporated into local folk taxonomy by inhabitants of rural areas in Spain. To demonstrate the role that pharmacological properties of blister beetles must have played in their integration in the culture of early Iberian human societies, but also in the preservation of their identity until today, a rare case for Spanish insects. To achieve this purpose we document the diversity of vernacular names applied in rural areas of Spain, and we determine, using molecular data, the antiquity of the presence of two species of the better-known blister beetle in rural Spain, Berberomeloe majalis and Berberomeloe insignis. We try to document the extent of traditional knowledge of meloid beetles in rural areas by interviewing about 120 people from villages in central and southern Spain. We also use mitochondrial DNA sequences (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16SrRNA) obtained from several populations of two species of the better known blister beetle in rural Spain, Berberomeloe majalis and Berberomeloe insignis, to determine whether these beetles were already present in the Iberian Peninsula when earlier ancient cultures were developing. Our results show that, based on mitochondrial DNA, blister beetles of the genus Berberomeloe were present in the Iberian Peninsula long before humans arrived, so ancient Iberian cultures were in contact with the same beetle species occurring now in rural areas. On the other hand, people interviewed in rural communities provided us with more than 28 different

  3. Ambientes de ocorrência e flora acompanhante do gênero Himatanthus em Alcântara, Maranhão, Brasil Occurrence environments and accompanying vegetation of genus Himatanthus in Alcântara, Maranhão, Brazil

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    J.F.P. Linhares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A janaúba (Himatanthus spp., ocorre em populações naturais em ecossistemas florestais e apresenta amplo espectro de usos na medicina popular que vai desde o tratamento de inflamações uterinas, gastrite, uso veterinário, complemento alimentar, até tratamento de câncer. O extrativismo de látex de janaúba em Alcântara vem adquirindo importância crescente como alternativa de renda. Sendo assim, o estabelecimento de estudos que viabilizem o manejo sustentado em seu ambiente natural é necessário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de caracterizar os ambientes de ocorrência de Himatanthus no município de Alcântara, Maranhão, Brasil, e identificar a flora acompanhante. As amostragens foram definidas por indicação de informantes, e aparente frequência na comunidade vegetal; os ambientes foram descritos considerando as unidades de paisagem e histórico de uso. Como resultados, a maior área de ocorrência foi a terra firme seguida por várzeas de restinga; a principal tipologia vegetacional foi a mata secundária. O bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart., tucum (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart. e a murta verdadeira (Myrcia selloi (Spreng. N. Silveira, foram às principais espécies associadas.The Frangipani (Himatanthus spp. occur in natural populations in forest ecosystems and present a wide spectrum of uses. in folk medicine ranging from the treatment of uterine inflammation, gastritis, veterinary, food supplement to medicinal treatment of cancer. The extraction of latex Janaúba Alcantara has been gaining increasing importance as an alternative income. Therefore, the establishment of studies that enable sustainable management in their natural environment is necessary. The overall objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence of Himatanthus environments in the municipality of Alcântara, Maranhão, Brazil, and identify the accompanying vegetation. The samples were defined by word of informants, and apparent frequency in the plant

  4. AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL

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    Mariko Funasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, bacuri (Platonia insignis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, buriti (Mauritia vinifera or M. flexuosa, cumaru (Dipteryx odorata, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, guarana (Paullinia cupana, mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum, murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru, patawa (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua, pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba, rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, and ucuuba (Virola sebifera. Based on the reviewed articles, we selected chemical markers for the quality control purpose and evaluated analytical methods. Even though chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are major analytical techniques in the studies of these species, molecular approaches will also be important as used in food and medicine traceability. Only a little phytochemical study is available about most of the Amazonian species and some species such as açaí and andiroba have many reports on chemical constituents, but studies on biological activities of isolated compounds and sampling with geographical variation are limited.

  5. Characteristics of the first recorded spider (Arthropoda: Arachnida fauna from Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spiders (order: Aranae are an important environmental indicator and play a significant role as predators in biological control of the most of the key insect pests. The present study was conducted to establish the characteristics of the first recorded spider fauna from Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan during June 2013-July 2014. Their 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera (nt=123: total; ni=77: identified; nui=46: unidentified were recorded in the 6 quadrates, i.e., Daramdala, Doki, Guryaal, Samang, Shahoor and Sia-Sheringal of Sheringal. The largest family was Lycosidae (wolf spiders with respect to size and numbers of specimens collected (n=20, which contained Arctosa littorali Simon, 1897; Hippasa partita Takidar, 1970; Pardosa distincta Backwall, 1867, while the smallest family was Gnphosidae (ground spiders (n=3 with Gnaphosa eucalyptus Ghafoor and Beg, 2002; while other families Sparassidae (huntsman spiders (n=19 Halconia insignis Thorell, 1836, and Isopeda tuhogniga Barrion and Litsinger, 1995, Opilionidae (harvestmen spiders (n=12 Hadrobunus grandis Sundevall, 1833; Pholcidae (cellar spider (n=10 have Crossopriza lyoni Blackwall, 1867; Hersiliidae (two-tailed spiders (n=6 is having Harsilia savignyi Lucas, 1836; (n=5 with Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 were recorded. It was concluded that 50% of the spiders collected from the study area were venomous. A detail study is required for further exploration of spider fauna of Sheringal, KP, Pakistan with special reference to their taxonomical, physiological and ecological characteristics.

  6. DRAGONFLIES INVENTORY (Odonata IN KOTA WARINGIN VILLAGE, PUDING BESAR DISTRICT – BANGKA ISLAND

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    Rahmat Pratama

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Odonata is considered an environmental indicator group of freshwater habitats. Thus there is a need to have a good baseline data to use it for monitoring fluvial habitats. However, species composition of Odonata in Kota Waringin Village is poorly known.This study aims to determine the diversity of dragonfly species in the Kota Waringin Village, Puding Besar District – Bangka Island. Data were collected at Three different ecosystems in Kota Waringin Village area (River in Forest, River in oil palm plantations and yard. Location for data collection based on the availability of water resources using purposive sampling method. The species were identified using identification books (Dragonfly of Singapore and Australian Dragonfly. Based on research we revealed 13 species of dragonflies are exist in three sampling locations (Agrionoptera insignis, Brachydiplax chalybea, Heliaeschna crassa, Ictinogomphus decoratus melaenops, Nannophya pygmaea, Neurothemis fluctuans, Neurothemis ramburii, Neurothemis terminata, Orthetrum chrysis, Orthetrum Sabina, Rhodothemis rufa, Zyxomma petiolatum and Rhyothemis phyllis.   Keywords       :  Odonata, Dragonflies, Inventory, Conservation, Bangka Island

  7. Epigeic spiders of the pastures of northern Wielkopolska

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    Woźny, Marek

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of epigeic spiders (Araneae occurring on three different types of pastures in northern Wielkopolska was analysed. Studies were conducted from May 1992 to October 1993. The 18,995 specimens collected were classified as belonging to 137 species and 17 families. The family Linyphiidae proved the richest in species while Lycosidae was the most abundantly in terms of number of specimens. Zoocenological analysis of spider communities showed their differentiation testifying to differences in the sites studied. The dominants were: 1 Osowo Stare (Site 1: Pardosa palustris, 2 Sycyn Dolny (Site 2: Xerolycosa miniata, P. palustris, Xysticus kochi, 3 Braczewo (Site 3: Erigone dentipalpis, P. palustris. Seasonal changes of dominance of the species at each site were established. A comparison of changes of the species’ dominances in the years 1992 and 1993 disclosed similar values of the individual dominance coefficient at the sites in Osowo Stare and Braczewo. This result indicates the occurrence of the process of stabilization of these biocenoses and a tendency to equilibrium in the environment. The least stable proved to be the site at Sycyn Dolny. Analysis of the seasonal dynamics of epigeic spider communities was also made by determining the mean number of species at each site in the two years of study. The highest number of species was noted in spring. It is interesting to note the appearance of species which are rare or very rare in Poland such as: Lepthyphantes insignis, Ostearius melanopygius, Enoplognatha mordax and Enoplognatha oelandica.

  8. Habitat heterogeneity in the assemblages and shell use by the most abundant hermit crabs (Anomura: Diogenidae and Paguridae: does the occupied shell species differ according to gender and species?

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    Gilson Stanski

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study was to identify patterns of shell occupation by different species of hermit crabs from the southern Brazilian coast. In total, 644 individuals were collected, represented by six hermit species. Isocheles sawayai Forest & Saint Laurent, 1968 showed the highest abundance, with 575 individuals, followed by Loxopagurus loxochelis (Moreira, 1901 (n = 56. The other species were Petrochirus diogenes (Linnaeus, 1758, Dardanus insignis (Saussure, 1858, Pagurus exilis (Benedict, 1892 and Pagurus leptonyx Forest & Saint Laurent, 1968. Loxopagurus loxochelis was found associated with shells of 12 gastropod species, with 75% of males occupying shells of Olivancilaria urceus (Roding, 1798 and 78% of females inhabiting shells of Semicassis granulata (Born, 1778. Shells of Semicassis granulata were the lightest of all gastropod shells, demonstrating differential resource utilization. Additionally, I. sawayai occupied shells of 10 species, highlighting Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 with the highest occupation percentage in all demographic classes, confirming a pattern of occupation with a strong relationship to the availability of the resource. The comparison of our results with those of other studies corroborated the influence of region and gastropod diversity on gastropod shell occupation.

  9. Spatial Navigation Strategies in Peromyscus: a Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašarević, Eldin; Williams, Scott A; Roberts, R Michael; Geary, David C; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2012-11-01

    A male advantage in spatial abilities is predicted to evolve in species where males rely on expansion of home territory to locate dispersed mates during the breeding season. We sought to examine mechanistic underpinnings of this evolved trait by comparing spatial navigational abilities in two species of Peromyscus that employ widely different reproductive strategies. Males and females from outbred stocks of deer mice (P. maniculatus bairdii) in which males engage in territorial expansion and mate search and California mice (P. californicus insignis), in which males do not, were administered tasks that assessed spatial learning and memory, and activity and exploratory behaviours. The maze employed for these studies included four spatial cues that could be used to aid in locating 1 of 12 potential escape holes. As predicted, male deer mice outperformed conspecific females and California mice males in maze performance and memory, and this difference appeared to be due to extent to which animals used spatial cues to guide maze navigation. Consistent with territorial expansion as a component of competition for mates, male deer mice were more active and engaged in more exploratory and less anxiety-related behaviours than conspecific females and California mice males. The results have implications for understanding and studying the cognitive and behavioural mechanisms that have evolved through male-male competition that involves territorial expansion and mate search.

  10. Contact Inhibition: Also a Control for Cell Proliferation in Unicellular Algae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, E; Aguilera, A; Gonzalez-Gil, S; López-Rodas, V

    1993-02-01

    According to traditional views, the proliferation of unicellular algae is controlled primarily by environmental conditions. But as in mammalian cells, other biological mechanisms, such as growth factors, cellular aging, and contact inhibition, might also control algal proliferation. Here we ask whether contact inhibition regulates growth in several species of unicellular algae as it does in mammalian cells. Laboratory cultures of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge show contact inhibition at low cell density, so this would be an autocontrol mechanism of cell proliferation that could also act in natural populations of P. lima. But, Synechocystis spp., Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bohlin), Skeletonema costatum (Greville), and Tetraselmis spp. do not exhibit contact inhibition in laboratory cultures because they are able to grow at high cellular density. Apparently their growth is limited by nutrient depletion or catabolite accumulation instead of contact inhibition. Spirogyra insignis (Hassall) Kutz, Prorocentrum triestinum Schiller, and Alexandrium tamarense (Halim) Balech show a complex response, as they are able to grow in both low and high cell density medium. These results suggest that contact inhibition is more adaptative in benthic unicellular algae.

  11. Revision of the taxonomy of Polycirrus Grube, 1850 (Annelida: Terebellida: Polycirridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasby, Christopher J; Hutchings, Pat

    2014-10-21

    The large polychaete genus Polycirrus (Terebellida: Polycirridae) is revised based on a morphological study of the type material of most of the approximately 74 nominal species; 59 species, including a new species, P. coibensis n.sp., from the Pacific coast of Panama, are accepted as valid. All characters are reanalysed and discussed in the light of recent phylogenetic studies of terebellomorph taxa, and a standard set of characters is developed. Most of the 59 accepted species are redescribed and illustrations provided in order to facilitate future identifications of members of the genus. We designate a neotype for the type species of the genus, Polycirrus medusa Grube, 1850, and a lectotype for P. elisabethae McIntosh, 1915, in order to stabilize the concept and type locality of these taxa. A replacement name is proposed for Polycirrus kerguelensis McIntosh, 1885, which is a secondary junior homonym of Ereutho kergulenesis McIntosh, 1885, viz. Polycirrus macintoshi new name. Two species are newly synonymised: Polycirrus insignis Gravier, 1907 (senior synonym P. antarcticus (Willey, 1902)) and Polycirrus habitats Carrerette & Nogueira, 2013 (senior synonym, P. clavatus (Kinberg, 1867)). In addition, several previously synonymised species are reinstated. All available names in the genus are tabulated with type species and type localities and their taxonomic status is assessed. A key to all valid species is provided. 

  12. Dynamics of zooplankton community of Lake Tarasmozero in long-term anthropogenic pollution

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    Kuchko Yaroslav Alexandrovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of zooplankton studies in Lake Tarasmozero (Lizhma river basin are presented. Wastes from the trout-breeding complex "Kedrozero" have been collected in this pond since 1992. The obtained data showed that from 1989 to 2012 a number of changes in zooplankton community take place and it is the evidence of the gradual increase in the trophic status of the reservoir. The average biomass of zooplankton increased from 500 to 1000 mg/m3. According to the trophic index (Myaemets, 1979, Tarasmozero is replaced into the category of mesotrophic water reservoirs (0.5 - 1.0. Saprobity index raised from 0.95 to 1.42. In the composition of the zooplankton there noted such species, as Polyarthra luminosa, Filinia longiseta, Trichocerca insignis, Daphnia longispina, Cyclops kolensis, which serve as indicators of increased trophic level in the conditions of moderate latitudes. After the trout farm started off, Bcrus/Brot indicator considerably decreased indicating to increasing role of rotifers in the formation of the total biomass of the zooplankton. Currently, the dominant species include D. longispina, Bosmina longirostris, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Asplanchna priodonta. In spite of the fact that the current changes are not catastrophic, it is reasonable to monitor regularly the initial links of the trophic chain of the reservoir ecosystem

  13. DIET COMPOSITION OF ANOA (Buballus sp. STUDIED USING DIRECT OBSERVATION AND DUNG ANALYSIS METHOD IN THEIR HABITAT

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    R.I. Pujaningsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Anoa are fully protected under Indonesian Law since 1931 (Law of Protection of Wild Animals 1931, no134. Increasing law enforcement regarding hunting as well as promoting awareness of the Anoas uniquethreatened the existence of conservation measures. The modern concept of conservation based on thesustainability utilization, and therefore the knowledge of the Anoa preference in feeding to support thesustainability conservation should be studied. In the present study, the combination of direct observationmethods which was done in the Lore Lindu National Park in Toro village at District Kulawi, Central Sulawesiand the epidermal analysis method which was carried out to Anoa’s dung were aimed to identify the vegetationspreferred by Anoa in their habitat. The result showed 28 species of vegetations was used as feed by Anoaon in situ area. According to its percentage, the first ten were Freycinetia insignis Blume (17%, Microlepiatodayensis Christ (8.9%, Disoxylum sp (8.6%, Lasianthus clementis Merr (7.7%, Clusia sp (7.5%,Schleria sp (6%, Podocarpus imbricatus (5.4%, Smilax leucophylla (5.1%, Elastostema sp (4.2%,and Garcinia sp (3.8%, respectively. Furthermore, it can be concluded that Anoa was eat more leafs andshrubs/bushes (each 24%, respectively compared to flowers (18%, fruits (12%, shoots (8%, grasses,tubers, young grooves (each 4%, respectively and moss (2%. Nutritionally, Anoa consumed 8.8% proteinand 25.6% crude fiber.

  14. ESTABILIDADE QUÍMICA E MICROBIOLÓGICA DE "MINCED FISH" DE PEIXES AMAZÔNICOS DURANTE O CONGELAMENTO

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    JESUS Rogério Souza de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a estabilidade química e microbiológica de "minced fish" produzidos, em condições industriais, com espécies de peixes da Amazônia: aracú-comum (Schizodon fasciatus, branquinha-comum (Potamorhina latior, branquinha-de-cabeça-lisa (P. altamazonica, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraqui-de-escama-fina (Semaprochilodus taeniurus, jaraqui-de-escama-grossa (S. insignis, mapará (Hypophthalmus edentatus, pacú-comum (Metynnis hypsauchen, pacú-manteiga (Mylossoma duriventre e pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomum, durante 150 dias sob congelamento a -18±1°C e -36±1°C. Com base no pH, nitrogênio das bases voláteis totais (N-BVT, substâncias reagentes ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS e contagens de aeróbios mesófilos a 35°C e psicrotróficos a 7°C, e de coliformes totais e fecais (NMP, os "minced fish" obtidos a partir das espécies de peixes estudadas e de misturas de espécies (aracú+curimatã+pirapitinga; jaraqui+branquinha mantiveram-se em condições de consumo, durante o período experimental. Os resultados obtidos são altamente promissores sob o ponto de vista tecnológico.

  15. Vida útil de dos barnices para exteriores mediante intemperismo artificial en madera de aile, pino y encino

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    J. C. Tamarit Urias

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La principal función de los acabados para exteriores es proteger la madera contra los agentes del intemperismo, así como ayudar a mantener su apariencia. El intemperismo causa deterioro superficial y por lo tanto afecta directamente el funcionamiento del acabado. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la vida útil del acabado de dos barnices poliuretanos para exteriores de la marca comercial Polyform® (11000 y 7000 en madera de aile (Alnus firmifolia Fernald, pino (Pinus patula Schl. et Cham. y encino (Quercus insignis Mart. et Gal. mediante intemperismo acelerado utilizando un equipo fabricado con base en las características que especifica el Reglamento del Centro Técnico de la Madera de Francia (rueda del CTBA de Francia. Mediante los parámetros de falla en apariencia y falla por adhesión del acabado y utilizando el modelo de distribución acumulativa de Weibull se estimó la vida útil del acabado, la cual fue para el acabado del barniz 11000 en madera de aile, pino y encino de 5.0, 5.2 y 5.0 años respectivamente, en tanto que para el barniz 7000 fue de 3.7, 3.4 y 4.9 años.

  16. Morphological and genetic identification of Anisakis paggiae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima from Brazilian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Knoff, Marcelo; Carvalho, Vitor L; Mello, Wildon N; Lopes Torres, Eduardo J; Gomes, Delir C; Iñiguez, Alena M

    2015-03-09

    Anisakid nematodes have been identified in a wide variety of fish and marine mammal species. In Brazil, Anisakis physeteris, A. insignis, A. typica, A. nascetti, and those of the A. simplex complex have been reported infecting fishes and cetaceans. In this study, specimens collected from a dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima (Owen, 1866) stranded on the northeastern coast of Brazil were identified through morphological and genetic analyses as A. paggiae. Anisakids were examined through differential interference contrast light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological and morphometric analysis revealed that these specimens belonged to Anisakis sp. clade II and more specifically to A. paggiae, exhibiting a violin-shaped ventriculus and 3 denticulate caudal plates, which are taxonomic characters considered unique to this species. Genetic analysis based on the mtDNA cox2 gene confirmed our identification of A. paggiae. Phylogenetic trees using both maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods revealed a strongly supported monophyletic clade (bootstrap support = 100%) with all available A. paggiae sequences. Integrative taxonomic analysis allowed the identification of A. paggiae for the first time in Brazilian waters, providing new data about their geographical distribution. Moreover, here we present the first SEM images of this species.

  17. Bartın Çayı (Bartın Havzası'nın Ephemeroptera (Insecta Limnofaunası.

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    Mustafa Tanatmış

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartın Çayı (Bartın Havzası’nın Ephemeroptera (Insecta limnofaunasını tespit etmek amacıyla, Haziran-1999 ile Haziran2001 tarihleri arasında 644 adet nimf örneği toplanarak incelenmiş ve 9 familyaya ait 14 cinse bağlı 22 türün (Baetis buceratus, B. digitatus, B. fuscatus, B. lutheri, B. muticus, B. rhodani, B. vernus, Centroptilum luteolum, Pseudocentroptilum pennulatum, Cloeon dipterum, Procloeon bifidum, Caenis macrura, Ephemerella ignita, Ephemera vulgata, Ecdyonurus dispar, E. insignis, Isonychia ignota, Choroterpes picteti, Habrophlebia lauta, Habroleptoides modesta, Oligoneuriella rhenana, Potamanthus luteus dağılımı sunulmuştur. Çalışmada tespit edilen 22 türün tamamı Bartın Çayı Havzasından ilk kez bildirilmektedir

  18. ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF “CERRADO” VEGETATION WOOD FOR ENERGY PROUCTION

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    José Elias de Paula

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The wood anatomy of 7 from “cerrado”(chapada natives specie, Santa Quitéria(Maranhão was studied. Mainlyrelated to their qualification for energy production (charcoal and fire wood. The fraction of total area in a transverse section,fiber vessel, parenchyma cells, and total biomass per cubic meter of dry wood and also the basic density (specific weight ofwood were studied. For energy production, wall fraction in relation to the occupied area of the cell (%, percent of fibers,vessel, and both axial and ray parenchyma, as well as wall density were considered. The study was based in 3 areas in a crosssectionof the trunk, from the center towards the sapwood, called areas 1, 2 and 3. Based on anatomy and density mentioned,Lindackeria paraensis (farinha-seca, Parkia platycephala (faveira, Platonia insignis (bacuri, Salvertia convallariodora(folha-grande, Swartzia flaemingii(jacarandá, Vatarea macrocarpa (amargoso and Zeyhera tuberculata(pau-d”arcocabeludocan be classified as energy production tree species.

  19. Age-growth models for tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes, Cichlidae of the Infiernillo reservoir, Mexico and reproductive behaviour

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    Lourdes Jiménez-Badillo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In presence of a decrease in the catch from Infiernillo reservoir, Michoacán-Guerrero, México, age and growth of tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner 1864 were estimated, as indispensable attributes for fishery management. Evaluations included scales and opercular bones readings and length frequency analysis. The population structure was determined too. Due to the great variation of tilapia individual growth and with the objective to have reliable growth estimations, linearized, non-parametric and non-linear methods were used and their applicability discussed. Comparison of ages determined from these methods revealed that opercular bones readings had advantages over scales. Reproduction and competition for space and food were considered as responsible factors for ring-formation on tilapia hard structures. The non-linear method was considered the best for modelling populations highly variable, which is characteristic of tilapia and tropical fish with multiple spawns. The growth parameters estimated were L∞ = 479 mm, K = 0.46/yr, t o = -0.055 yr. The tilapia population in Infiernillo reservoir is dominated by juveniles less than 1.5 years old. The fishery activity is affecting the tilapia population growth because are caught when they have not yet spawned. Therefore, this fishery is in urgent need of regulation. Increasing the mesh size of the gill nets might contribute to protect the reproductive potential of the stock. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 577-588. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Ante el continuo decremento en las capturas de tilapia de la presa Infiernillo, Michoacán- Guerrero, México, se estimó la edad y crecimiento de Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner 1864 que son atributos indispensables que deben conocerse para realizar el manejo de la pesquería. La evaluación incluyó la lectura de marcas de crecimiento en escamas y opérculos, y el análisis de frecuencia de tallas. También se estimó la estructura de edad de la población. Debido a la

  20. Espectro trófico de la tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae en la presa Infiernillo, Michoacán-Guerrero, México

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    Ma. de Lourdes Jiménez-Badillo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el espectro trófico de la tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner 1864, a través del análisis del contenido estomacal de una muestra de 153 especímenes recolectados durante 1993. El estado de alimentación se evaluó por la proporción de grasa alrededor del estómago e intestino, la replexión gástrica y el coeficiente de condición. La evaluación cuantitativa del alimento, se realizó a través de los métodos Volumétrico (V y Frecuencia de Aparición (FA y los Indices Medio Volumétrico (IMV e Importancia Relativa (IIR, los cuales se combinaron para determinar el espectro trófico de la tilapia. Se determinó que su dieta en la presa Infiernillo está constituida por: detritus y plantas vasculares como alimentos preferentes; algas unicelulares como alimento secundario y peces, insectos, semillas de gramíneas, algas filamentosas, cladóceros, ostrácodos, rotíferos y copépodos, como alimentos ocasionales. Se detectaron diferencias alimentarias entre juveniles y adultos y variaciones en el consumo de elementos alimentarios en la época de secas y lluvias. Se concluye que Oreochromis aureus es una especie omnívora con preferencia hacia el detritus y los restos de plantas vasculares. La alimentación esta determinada por la abundancia de las presas en el medio y en los adultos se basa preferentemente en el detritus. La alimentación no es un factor que limite el desarrollo de la tilapia en la presa Infiernillo.The trophic spectrum of tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner 1864, was determined by stomach content analysis in 153 organisms collected during 1993 in Michoacán-Guerrero, México. The feeding status of the fish at the time of observation was evaluated by the examination of fat surrounding the gut, gastric replection and the condition coefficient. The quantitative evaluation of the food items was carried out by the combination of the following analysis: Frequency of Occurrence, Volumetric Method, Volumetric

  1. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da Maria-Luiza, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae do litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2009 Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Banded Croaker, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae, from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2009

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    Renata da Silva Ribeiro

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 93 espécimes de Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875, provenientes da Pedra de Guaratiba (23º01’S, 43º38’W litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. No período de setembro de 2001 até março de 2002, sendo necropsiados para estudo da sua comunidade de metazoários parasitos. Quinze espécies de parasitos foram coletadas. Paralonchurus brasiliensis é um novo registro de hospedeiro para 13 espécies de parasitos. Contracaecum sp. foi a espécie dominante, com os maiores índices de prevalência e abundância parasitária. Os componentes da comunidade parasitária de P. brasiliensis apresentaram o típico padrão de distribuição superdispersa. A abundância e a prevalência de Procamallanus (Spirocamallus pereirai apresentaram correlação positiva com o comprimento total do hospedeiro. A abundância de Contracaecum sp. apresentou correlação positiva com o comprimento total do hospedeiro. Um par de endoparasitos adultos (Aponurus laguncula - Procamallanus (S. pereirai apresentou covariação negativa e um par de estágios larvais de endoparasitos apresentou covariação positiva entres as abundâncias. Paralonchurus brasiliensis apresentou uma comunidade de metazoários parasitos composta de espécies generalistas, pouco ordenadas e com poucas evidências de associações interespecíficas. Este padrão está em concordância com os estudos realizados com comunidades parasitárias de siaenídeos da região neotropicalNinety-three specimens of banded croaker, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875, collected from Pedra de Guaratiba (23º01’S, 43º38’W, coastal zone, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between September 2001 and March 2002, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Fifteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. Paralonchurus brasiliensis is a new host record for 13 parasite species. The majority of fishes were parasitized by one or more metazoan

  2. Análise comparativa da alimentação de peixes (Teleostei entre ambientes de marisma e de manguezal num estuário do sul do Brasil (Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná Study on feeding habits in estuarine fish (Teleostei comparatively between salt marshes and mangroves in southern Brazil (Guaratuba Bay

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    Paulo de T. Chaves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a composição da dieta de peixes em dois tipos de ambiente de áreas rasas estuarinas - marisma e manguezal, objetivando avaliar se essas formações vegetais desencadeiam na ictiofauna respostas diferentes quanto à alimentação. As seis espécies avaliadas, as mais abundantes nessas áreas, mostraram-se predominantemente planctívoras, porém com particularidades quanto ao tipo de vegetação ocupada. Na marisma, Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 apresentou a dieta com maior número de itens e menor similaridade em relação às demais espécies. No manguezal tal isolamento coube a Anchoa januaria (Steindachner, 1879, espécie com maior participação de Decapoda Brachyura e Decapoda não-Brachyura, e única que nesse ambiente incluiu Gammaridae na dieta. Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler, 1911 identificou-se com Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh, 1900 na marisma e com Opisthonema oglinum (Le Sueur, 1818 e Harengula clupeola (Cuvier, 1829 no manguezal. Uma situação comum a marisma e manguezal registrou-se entre O. oglinum e H. clupeola, espécies com dietas praticamente restritas a Diatomacea e Copepoda. Evidenciou-se o quanto as espécies são capazes de variar sua dieta com o ambiente, provavelmente em resposta à disponibilidade local. Mais que isso, porém, constatou-se que, seja na marisma, seja no manguezal, mesmo havendo mudança nos hábitos tróficos das espécies, cada uma delas mantém um padrão de diferenças em relação às demais que compõem a assembléia, fato que possivelmente assegura a abundância e coexistência entre elas nas áreas estuarinas rasas.Diet of fish inhabiting shallow waters close to salt marshes and mangroves was analyzed in order to evaluate how different the influence of these environments on fish feeding habits is. The six studied species, the most abundant in these areas, are mainly planctyvores, however they showed particularities in each area. In salt marshes Atherinella

  3. Systematics of the Podarcis hispanicus complex (Sauria, Lacertidae) III: valid nomina of the western and central Iberian forms.

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    Geniez, Philippe; Sá-Sousa, Paulo; Guillaume, Claude P; Cluchier, Alexandre; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2014-05-05

    Recent genetic works have suggested that the Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanicus (Steindachner, 1870) sensu lato is a species complex. Several forms have already been elevated to species rank and linked to available nomina, but at least three still have to be formally named, including the western Iberian forms currently designated as Podarcis hispanicus "type 1A", "type 1B" and "type 2". The aim of the present work is to assign a valid nomen to these taxa. Using multivariate analyses, we first checked that the morphological differences reported in Portugal between type 1 and type 2 are maintained over their distribution range. We then investigated phenotypic differentiation between type 1A and type 1B, which were found to be so similar that identification based on phenotype is currently not advisable. We propose to treat type 1 and type 2 as distinct species because of their level of genetic and phenotypic divergence, large area of distribution and ample evidence for reduced or absent introgression in contact zones. We maintain type 1A and 1B as subspecies for the time being, pending further analyses of their contact zone. The valid nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 1 (sensu lato)" is Lacerta muralis guadarramae Boscá, 1916 which becomes Podarcis guadarramae (Boscá, 1916). Lineage type 1A is here described as a new taxon: P. guadarramae lusitanicus ssp. nov., inhabiting northern Portugal and northwestern Spain. The type 1B lineage corresponds to the nominotypical subspecies that inhabits Spain, mostly the Central Iberian Mountains. We were unable to locate an available nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 2", which is here described as Podarcis virescens sp. nov. This species is widely distributed in the plains and plateaus of central and parts of south-western Spain as well as central and southern Portugal.

  4. Redescription and first genetic characterisation of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) macaensis Vicente & Santos, 1972 (Nematoda: Camallanidae), including re-evaluation of the species of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) from marine fishes off Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Carla J; Pereira, Felipe B; Luque, José L

    2017-07-01

    Newly collected specimens of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) macaensis Vicente & Santos, 1972 from the intestine of Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are redescribed and genetically characterised. Additionally, all congeners deposited in the Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (CHIOC) parasitic in marine fishes of the South Atlantic, including types of P. (S.) macaensis, were re-evaluated. The following features are described for the first time in P. (S.) macaensis: morphology and arrangement of cephalic structures, shape of deirids and location of phasmids. The position of the excretory pore, the number and arrangement of caudal papillae in males, the structure of the spicules and of tail end in both males and females are rectified. Most specimens deposited in the CHIOC identified as P. (S.) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 were transferred to P. (S.) macaensis and others were designated as Procamallanus (S.) sp. Procamallanus (S.) cruzi Guimarães, Cristófaro & Rodrigues, 1976 is considered a species inquirenda due to its poor description and the lack of match of its original description with the type-material re-examined. Moreover, several taxonomic problems were noted after observations of the specimens (mostly poorly preserved), including inadequate morphological reports as well as misidentifications. Phylogenies inferred using sequences of the SSU rDNA from camallanids (Nematoda: Camallanidae) mostly generated weakly supported clades; however, Camallanus Railliet & Henry, 1915 and Procamallanus Baylis, 1923 do not seem to be monophyletic. Based on the present results and the lack of molecular data, it would be pertinent to adopt the widely-used classification for the subgenera of Procamallanus.

  5. Species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from cichlids from Zambezi and Limpopo river basins in Zimbabwe and South Africa: evidence for unexplored species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahradníčková, Petra; Barson, Maxwell; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Přikrylová, Iva

    2016-09-01

    New findings on Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising African cichlids in southern Africa are presented, comprising data from Zimbabwe and South Africa. Morphometry of opisthaptoral hard parts in combination with nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed the presence of six species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832. Three new species are described from fishes in Zimbabwe: Gyrodactylus chitandiri n. sp. from the gill arches of Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger) and Pseudocrenilabrus philander (Weber); Gyrodactylus occupatus n. sp. from the fins of Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Pharyngochromis acuticeps (Steindachner) and P. philander; and Gyrodactylus parisellei n. sp. from the fins of O. niloticus, P. philander and Tilapia sp. Gyrodactylus nyanzae Paperna, 1973 was also identified from the gills of O. niloticus and C. rendalli collected from two localities in Zimbabwe; these findings represent new host and locality records for this parasite. Gyrodactylus sturmbaueri Vanhove, Snoeks, Volckaert & Huyse, 2011 was identified from P. philander collected in South Africa and Zimbabwe thereby providing new host and locality records for this parasite. Finally, Gyrodactylus yacatli García-Vásquez, Hansen, Christison, Bron & Shinn, 2011 was collected from the fins of O. niloticus and P. philander studied in Zimbabwe; this represents the first record of this species from the continent of Africa. Notably, this study improves upon the knowledge of Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising cichlids from these southern African regions. All species studied were recorded from at least two different cichlid host species indicating trend for a wide range of Gyrodactylus hosts in Africa. Accordingly, this supports the idea of intensive host switching in the course of their evolution.

  6. Six new and one previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Panama.

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    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Rojas Herrera, Agustín A

    2011-02-01

    Six new and 1 previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Diplectanidae) are described and/or reported from the gill lamellae of 5 serranid (Perciformes) fish species from the Pacific waters in Guerrero State of Mexico and Panama City, Panama. These species are Pseudorhabdosynochus guerreroensis n. sp. from the Pacific mutton hamlet Alphestes inmaculatus Breder (type host), rivulated mutton hamlet Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther), and spotted grouper Epinephelus analogus Gill from Mexico; Pseudorhabdosynochus urceolus n. sp. from the Pacific graysby Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner) from Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus spirani n. sp. from the starry grouper Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns) from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus fulgidus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus tabogaensis n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus anulus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; and Pseudorhabdosynochus amplidiscatum (Bravo-Hollis, 1954) Kritsky and Beverley-Burton, 1986 from E. analogus and E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama. All new species are mainly distinguished from other species of the genus by the shape and size of the sclerotized vagina and haptoral structures. The present specimens of Alphestes, Cephalopholis, and Epinephelus spp. represent new host records and Panama represents a new geographic record for species of Pseudorhabdosynochus. The apparent common feature supporting a close similarity of these diplectanids is a single, secondary ejaculatory bulb with thickened wall.

  7. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting body cavity of South American catfishes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae): two new species from rivers in Bolivia, Guyana and Peru with a re-assessment of Plehniella Szidat, 1951.

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    Orelis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-09-09

    Plehniella Szidat, 1951 is emended based on new collections from South American long-whiskered catfishes. It is clearly differentiated from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 by lacking lateral tegumental body spines and by having 6 asymmetrical caeca. Plehniella sabajperezi sp. n. infects body cavity of Pimelodus albofasciatus (Mees) from the Demerara and Rupununi Rivers (Guyana) and Pimelodus blochii (Valenciennes) from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia) and Napo River (Peru). It differs from Plehniella coelomicola Szidat, 1951 (type species) by having a thin-walled vas deferens that greatly exceeds the length of cirrus-sac and that joins the cirrus-sac at level of ovovitelline duct and ootype, an internal seminal vesicle that is absent or diminutive, and a cirrus-sac that is spheroid, nearly marginal, and envelops the laterally-directed distal portion of the male genitalia. Plehniella armbrusteri sp. n. infects body cavity of P. blochii from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia). It differs from P. coelomicola and P. sabajperezi by having a relatively ovoid body, a massive intestine comprising caeca that are deeply-lobed to diverticulate and terminate in the posterior half of the body, a testis that flanks the distal tips of the posteriorly-directed caeca, and a proximal portion of the vas deferens that loops ventral to the testis. Small adults (Plehniella sp.) collected from body cavity of Pimelodus grosskopfii (Steindachner) from Cienega de Jobo and Canal del Dique (Colombia) differ from congeners by having a posteriorly-constricted body region, an anterior sucker with concentric rows of minute spines, an elongate anterior oesophageal swelling, short and wide caeca, and a male genital pore that opens proportionally more anteriad. This study nearly doubles the number of aporocotylids documented from South America Rivers and comprises the first record of a fish blood fluke from P. blochii, P. albofasciatus and P. grosskopfii as well as from Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana or Peru.

  8. Alimentação de quatro espécies de Leporinus (Characiformes, Anostomidae durante a formação de um reservatório no sudeste do Brasil Diet of four species of Leporinus (Characiformes, Anostomidae during formation of a reservoir in Southeast Brazil

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    Renata Durães

    Full Text Available The study reports the changes ocurred in feeding ecology of fish species during a tropical river reservoir formation. It was analysed the stomachal contents of 399 individuals belonging to four species of genus Leporinus (L. elongatus Valenciennes, 1849, n=157; L.friderici (Bloch, 1794, n=87; L. octofasciatus Steindachner, 1917, n=107; L.amblyrhynchus Garavello & Britski, 1987, n=48 during formation of Nova Ponte reservoir, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1993 and 1994. Specimens were separated by sampling period, according with the rate of filling of the reservoir, and standard lenght classes. The species had included in diet vegetal and animal items of autochtone and alochtone origin in several proportions. L. amblyrhynchus fed on basically dipterans in all the sampling periods and length classes. L. elongatus had presented a diverse diet, with predominance of dipterans and vegetal items, and changed the consumed items proportions along the sampling periods and between lenght classes. L. friderici diet was composed mainly by terrestrial insects during the rapid filling period, that were later substituted by fishes and vegetal items. Ontogenetic trophic changes were observed in this species. L. octofasciatus presented a well characterized herbivorous diet, without trophic ontogeny, but with a opportunistic character. Just three pair-species, L. amblyrhynchus-L. elongatus, L. friderici-L. octofasciatus and L. elongatus-L. octofasciatus, have presented some high value of trophic overlap in at least one sampling period. In spite of the fishes of the genus Leporinus being classified like omnivorous in a general way, the differences found between diets of these four species suggest that there is structuration of trophic niches in the reservoir.

  9. The relationship between habitat complexity and nursery provision for an estuarine-dependent fish species in a permanently open South African Estuary

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    Leslie, Timothy; James, Nicola C.; Potts, Warren M.; Rajkaran, Anusha

    2017-11-01

    Estuarine-dependent marine fish species rely on shallow, sheltered and food rich habitats for protection from predators, growth and ultimately recruitment to adult populations. Hence, habitats within estuaries function as critical nursery areas for an abundance of fish species. However, these habitats vary in the degree of nursery function they provide and few studies have quantitatively assessed the relative nursery value of different habitat types within estuaries, particularly in the context of habitat complexity. This study aimed to assess the nursery value of the dominant vegetated habitats, namely the submergent Zostera capensis (Setch.) (seagrass) beds and emergent Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald (salt marsh) beds in the Bushmans Estuary, South Africa. Biomass and stem density were sampled seasonally in order to gain insight into the vegetation dynamics of seagrass and salt marsh beds. Aerial cover, canopy height and underwater camera imagery were used to develop multiple complexity indices for prioritizing habitat complexity. The relatively consistent results of the dimensionless indices (interstitial space indices and fractal geometry) suggest that Z. capensis exhibits an overall greater degree of complexity than S. maritima, and hence it can be expected that fish abundance is likely to be higher in Z. capensis beds than in S. maritima habitats. Underwater video cameras were deployed in seagrass, salt marsh and sand flat habitats to assess the relative abundance and behaviour of the estuarine-dependent sparid Rhabosargus holubi (Steindachner 1881) in different habitats. The relative abundance of R. holubi was significantly higher in Z. capensis seagrass than S. maritima salt marsh and sand flats, whilst the behaviour of R. holubi indicated a high degree of habitat use in structured habitats (both Z. capensis and S. martima) and a low degree of habitat use in unstructured sand flat habitats.

  10. Coordinated feeding behavior of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in southeastern Brazil: a comparison between populations

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    Elaine C. da S. Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated feeding tactics used by delphinids are influenced by differences in the distribution of prey species, season, and opportunities for social learning. In the present study, we compared the coordinated feeding behavior of two populations of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, in southeastern Brazil, and how these feeding tactics vary seasonality and in the presence of calves. We observed eight types of coordinated feeding tactics, which differed in frequency and in the mean number of individuals engaged in them, and between both areas. Feeding tactics used to herd and capture prey were the most frequent and engaged a greater number of individuals, suggesting that these tactics are better for capturing fish that gather in larger schools. Furthermore, the seasons influenced the occurrence of different prey items, which in turn modified the feeding tactics of the dolphins. In the Ilha Grande Bay we observed that bouts lasted longer and larger groups engaged in the feeding tactics, which may be associated with the seasonal spawning of larger schooling fish such as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 (Teleostei: Clupeidae. However, in the Sepetiba Bay, we observed longer feeding bouts and a smaller number of individuals engaged in the feeding tactics during autumn-winter. This may be associated with the fact that the most abundant prey species, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Teleostei: Sciaenidae, gathers in small schools. Calves were present in 95% of all coordinated feeding tactics that occurred in the Ilha Grande Bay and in approximately 61% of feeding tactics in the Sepetiba Bay, suggesting that these areas are important for social learning. This study provides more information about feeding tactics and improves knowledge of the coordinated behavior of Sotalia guianensis (Van Benéden, 1864.

  11. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

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    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé*, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  12. The effect of structural enrichment in hatchery tanks on the morphology of two neotropical fish species

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    Sarah de Oliveira Saraiva

    Full Text Available Reared fish differ from wild fish in several aspects, including morphology, because they are adapted to captive conditions that are totally different from natural conditions. To minimize the influence of the hatchery environment on the morphology of fish, the use of environmental enrichment through the incorporation of natural designs in captivity, has been proposed. In the present study, we performed the physical structuring of fish farming tanks to verify the enrichment effect on the morphology of two species of neotropical fishes: Prochilodus lineatus and Brycon orbignyanus. Each species was subjected to four different treatments over two months: tanks with submersed logs, with artificial aquatic plants, with both structures and without any structure. Results showed that the structural enrichment had a strong effect on the morphology of the cultured fish, which varied with each species analyzed and with the type of structural complexity added to the tanks. There was an increase of morphological variability in the population of P. lineatus and an increase of the average length in the population of B. orbignyanus. This shows that the environmental enrichment is capable to induce morphological differentiation through phenotypic plasticity, probably generating phenotypes more adapted to exploiting a complex environment. Peixes cultivados diferem de peixes selvagens em vários aspectos, incluindo morfologia, pois são adaptados às condições de cativeiro, que são totalmente diferentes das condições naturais. Para minimizar a influência do meio de cultivo sobre a morfologia dos peixes, o enriquecimento ambiental, através da incorporação de 'designs' naturais em cativeiro, tem sido proposto. No presente estudo, foi realizada a estruturação física de tanques de piscicultura para verificar o efeito deste tipo de enriquecimento ambiental sobre a morfologia de duas espécies de peixes neotropicais: Prochilodus lineatus e Brycon orbignyanus

  13. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

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    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae, during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm. The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the larvae (standard length = 6.25 ± 0.13 mm showed the following structural and behavioral characteristics that made them become active predators able to overcome a larval critical phase, the beginning of exogenous feeding: presence of pigmented eyes, terminal and wide mouth, developed oral dentition, developing digestive tube, yolk sac reduction, fins and swim bladder formation, horizontal swimming, cannibalism, and predation. Intense cannibalism among larvae was verified from 26 to 72 hours. At the end of the metamorphosis - 172 hours after hatching - the larvae measuring 11.94 + 0.80 mm in standard length presented a flexed notochord, caudal fin bifurcation, dorsal and anal fin formation, synchronized movements, and formation of shoals, characteristics that together allow enhanced perception and locomotio in exploration of the environment, determining the best moment for transfering to the fishponds. New studies can contribute to commercial fish farming by improving feeding management, performance, survival, and productivity of this species.Objetivou-se estudar o desenvolvimento morfológico e os comportamentos natatório e alimentar de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae no período de 0 a 172 horas após a eclosão (comprimento-padrão = 3,62 - 11,94 mm. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas com auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico trinocular e as comportamentais, por meio de

  14. Factors determining the structure of fish assemblages in an Amazonian river near to oil and gas exploration areas in the Amazon basin (Brazil: establishing the baseline for environmental evaluation

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    Igor David Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Determining the significance of biotic and abiotic factors in the structuring of fish assemblages in freshwater environments is an important question in ecology, particularly in view of environmental changes caused by man. In this paper we sought to identify the factors responsible for the composition and abundance of fish species collected with gill nets in six locations near ports in forest clearance areas opened up for oil and natural gas exploration (Petrobras Pedro Moura Base in the Urucu River, during drought and flood cycles. In all, 923 individuals from 23 families and 82 species were collected, totalling a biomass of 182,244 g. The most abundant species during the flood season were Bryconops alburnoides (Kner, 1858 and Dianema urostriatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912; in the drought season, the predominant species were Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 and Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766. The species with the greatest biomass during the flood season were Pellona castelnaeana (Valenciennes, 1847, S. rhombeus and Pellona flavipinis (Valenciennes, 1847. During the drought season, the predominant species was O. bicirrhosum. When both periods were analysed together, electrical conductivity, water transparency and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors. The species Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840, O. bicirrhosum, Chaetobranchus flavenscens Heckel, 1840, Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855 were strongly related to high values of conductivity, pH and water current velocity during the drought season, as well as Serrasalmus altispinis Merckx, Jégu & Santos, 2000, Triportheus albus Cope, 1872, Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 and Brycon melanopterus (Cope, 1872 that were associated with less depth and width in the drought season whereas P. castelnaeana, D. urostriatum, Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner, 1858 and Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were mainly associated with high transparency and

  15. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

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    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad libitum for 30 days, and then were sacrificed for collection of whole blood and tissues. RESULTS: The groups treated with enriched diets showed a significant reduction in body mass and lipogenesis in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and carcass when compared with the control group. However, lipogenesis in the liver showed an increase in Matrinxã group compared with the others groups. The levels of serum triglycerides in the treated groups with Amazonian fish were significantly lower than those of the control group. Moreover, total cholesterol concentration only decreased in the group Matrinxã. High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly in the Mapará and Tambaqui compared with control group and Matrinxã group. The insulin and leptin levels increased significantly in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin changed the lipid metabolism by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats fed with diets enriched with Mapará, Matrinxã, and Tambaqui.

  16. Fauna parasitária de peixes oriundos de "pesque-pagues" do município de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil. II. Metazoários Parasitic fauna of cultivated fishes in feefishing farm of franca, state of São Paulo, Brazil. II. Metazoans

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan fauna from cultivated fishes (N = 433 in two feefishing farm of Franca, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was studied during a period of April 1997 through March 1999. Specimens of piauçú Leporinus macrocephalus Garavello & Britski, 1988 (Anostomidae, pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Characidae, carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (Cyprinidae, Tillapia rendalli Boulenger, 1896 (Cichlidae, nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 (Cichlidae, matrinxã Brycon cephalus Günther, 1869 (Characidae and tambacu hybrid (male of P. mesopotamicus x female of Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 were collected. A total of 29.3% was parasitized by monogenean, 9.7% with crustacean (copepodits and adults of Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, 1758 and Argulus sp. and 1.6% with myxosporean (Henneguya piaractus Martins & Souza, 1997 and Myxobolus colossomatis Moinar & Békési, 1993.The most susceptible species to myxosporean infestation was P. mesopotamicus. L. macrocephalus and P. mesopotamicus that showed a higher susceptibility to Argulus sp infestation. It was not observed significant difference (P > 0.05 in the seasonal variation of L. cyprinacea infection of all species. L. macrocephalus, P. mesopotamicus and tambacu showed a great number of P. pillulare with no significant difference (P > 0.05 between them. Monogenean infections were observed in all examined species, without significant difference (P > 0.05 in the seasonal variation. Nevertheless, occurrence of monogenean was higher in P. mesopotamicus and lower in Nile-tilapia. By the other hand, parasites number collected from P. mesopotamicus was lower in the winter. Copepodits of L. cyprinacea were found in the gills of P. mesopotamicus, tambacu and L. macrocephalus. However, adults of L. cyprinacea were observed only in the P. mesopotamicus and tambacu.

  17. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA

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    Botero-Botero Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja, alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble, en laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia.Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae, presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp.  (9,55% y  Ancistrus sp.  (8,54%;  otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni  (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae, especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.

  18. Importance of dam-free stretches for fish reproduction: the last remnant in the Upper Paraná River

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    Jislaine Cristina Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This study uses the abundance of fish eggs and larvae to evaluate the importance of the main channel of the Paraná River and the adjacent areas of the floodplain, in the last dam-free stretch in the Brazilian territory, for the spawning and development of fish of different reproductive guilds, in order to obtain subsidies to assist in the management and conservation policies of this area, focusing on the maintenance of dam-free areas. Methods Data were taken quarterly from August 2013 to May 2015, in 25 sites, grouped into three biotopes: main channel, tributaries and lagoons. Possible spatial variations in fish spawning and development as well as composition and structure of larvae were evaluated. Results Higher densities of eggs were found in tributaries (Paracaí and Amambai rivers and greater densities of larvae were observed in lagoons (Saraiva. Significant differences in composition and structure of larvae were detected only between sampling stations. As for taxonomic composition, 29 taxa were recorded, mostly non-migratory. However, long-distance migratory were also widely distributed, such as Brycon orbignyanus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Prochilodus lineatus, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Rhaphiodon vulpinus, as well as invasive species Platanichthys platana and Hemiodus orthonops. In turn, Salminus brasiliensis presented low occurrence. Conclusions This study evidenced that different species spawn in the region, mainly in tributaries, and their eggs and larvae are transported to the main channel of the Paraná River and adjacent lagoons, to complete their early development. The capture of larvae of important migratory species suggests that this environment still exhibits suitable conditions for their reproduction, mainly due to the presence of dam-free tributaries. Also, they emphasize the importance of the integrity of these environments for the maintenance of the regional fish fauna, and it is extremely important the

  19. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

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    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.

  20. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone.

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    Härer, Andreas; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far-reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

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    Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of extract of Aloe vera in the transport water of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus fish on stress response and leukocyte respiratory activity. Fish was transported for 4 h in water containing Aloe at levels 0; 0.02; 0.2 and 2 mg/L, and sampled before transport 2, 4, 24 and 96 h after for determination of plasma glucose and respiratory activity of leukocytes. An additional in vitro assay was conducted with another fish species, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, to test the respiratory burst of leukocytes exposed to Aloe extract (0.0, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS only at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. Plasma glucose increased after 2 and 4 h of transport and returned to control levels within 24 h, but the addition of Aloe in the transport water did not affect the level of blood glucose. However, at 2 h of transport, Aloe enhanced the respiratory activity of leukocytes in a dose-dependent way. The highest value of respiratory burst activity of leukocytes was observed in the fish transported in water containing Aloe at 2 mg/L. The enhancing effect of the plant extract on the production of oxygen radicals was confirmed in vitro in leukocytes of pacu incubated in Aloe at concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L. The results suggest that Aloe vera is a modulator of the immune system in fish improving the innate immune response tested.

  2. Spawning and nursery habitats of neotropical fish species in the tributaries of a regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.

  3. Caracterização nutricional e compostos antioxidantes em resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais Nutritional characterization and antioxidant compounds in pulp residues of tropical fruits

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    Mariana Séfora Bezerra Sousa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos países que mais produz resíduos agroindustriais, como os resíduos de frutas pelas indústrias de polpas, o que tem contribuído para o aumento da produção do lixo orgânico, provocando graves problemas ambientais. Nesse contexto, estudos têm sido conduzidos com o intuito de investigar o valor nutricional desses resíduos, valorizando-os e sugerindo novas alternativas de utilização. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se realizar a caracterização nutricional e determinar os compostos antioxidantes dos resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., goiaba (Psidium Guayaba L., abacaxi (Ananas comosus L., cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, bacuri (Platonia insignis e graviola (Annona muricata L.. Os resultados encontrados mostraram que os resíduos analisados apresentaram quantidades significativas de macronutrientes (carboidratos, proteínas e lipídios. Todos os resíduos avaliados, com exceção do cupuaçu, apresentaram valores elevados de vitamina C. Quanto aos carotenóides, destacou-se o resíduo de acerola com 881,56 ± 9,01 µg/100 g e o resíduo de goiaba, com 644,9 ± 10,02 µg/100 g. Os resíduos analisados apresentaram baixas concentrações de antocianinas e flavonóides. Com relação aos teores de fenólicos totais se destacou o resíduo da polpa de acerola com 247,62 ± 2,08 mg/100 g. Portanto, pode-se concluir que os resíduos de polpas de frutas empregados neste estudo são fontes potenciais de macronutrientes e compostos bioativos, destacando-se os resíduos de acerola e goiaba como mais ricos em compostos antioxidantes.Brazil is one of the largest agro-industrial residues producers, such as waste fruit pulp industries, which has contributed to the increased production of organic waste, causing serious environmental problems. In this context, studies have been conducted in order to investigate the nutritional value of these wastes, valuing them and suggesting new alternatives for

  4. Les cartes-marc de la història de Valter e Griselda de Bernat Metge i les del Griseldis de Petrarca

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    Miquel Marco Artigas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L’any 1388, Bernat Metge tradueix al català el text llatí en què Petrarca havia traslladat la darrera història del Decameró de Boccaccio, la Història de Valter e Griselda que el poeta d’Arezzo titulà De insigni obedientia et fide uxoria. Embolcallant la seva versió de la història, Petrarca remet sengles cartes al seu amic i autor del relat. En aquestes cartes li exposa els motius que l’han portat a traduir el text i fa consideracions sobre la conducta de Griselda. Metge també envolta la seva traducció arromançada amb dues cartes i la dedica a madona Isabel de Guimerà. Aquest treball és un estudi sobre l’enorme difusió que ha tingut el relat boccaccià en la història de la literatura i, sobretot, per remarcar el paper preponderant que jugà la traducció de Petrarca en la divulgació de la història de Griselda. A més, s’analitza la datació del text a la llum dels diferents estudis, especialment del segle passat. També observem els possibles motius que portaren Metge a ometre’n l’autoria del relat, malgrat que coneixia perfectament qui era l’autor. Finalment, presentem un estudi sobre els conceptes que tant Petrarca com Metge inclouen a les seves cartes-marc, observant les semblances i diferències que es troben en ambdues epístoles. S’han tingut en compte les contribucions precedents, aportant força claredat al pensament i posicionament tant de Petrarca com de Metge pel que fa a la interpretació de l’actitud de la virtuosa Griselda. In 1388, Bernat Metge translated into Catalan a Latin text in which Petrarch had moved back story Decameron of Boccaccio, History of Walter and Griselda. The poet from Arezzo entitled his work De insigni obedientia et fide uxoria. Wrapping his version of the history, Petrarch sends both letters to his friend and author of the story. In these letters he exhibited mainly the reasons that led him to translate the text and makes some considerations about the behaviour of Griselda

  5. Repetibilidade e correlações fenotípicas de caracteres do fruto de bacuri no Estado do Maranhão = Repeatability and phenotypic correlations of characters of the bacuri fruit in the State of Maranhão

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    Ricardo Gonçalves Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros de repetibilidade e correlações fenotípicas em caracteres do fruto do bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart.. Foram avaliadas seis matrizes (genótiposlocalizadas em seis municípios do Estado do Maranhão. Oito frutos foram colhidospor matriz, sendo mensurados diâmetro, comprimento, cavidade interna, peso e número de sementes por fruto, espessura da casca, peso de casca mais semente, rendimento de polpa,número de segmentos partenocárpico, Brix e acidez total titulável. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância. Os genótipos apresentaram variabilidade genética significativa para todos os caracteres, em nível de 1% de probabilidade pelo teste F. Apenas para cavidade interna do fruto,acidez total titulável e Brix, a variância genética foi superior à variância ambiental, resultando em repetibilidade superior a 0,5, sendo que acidez total titulável e Brix apresentaram coeficientes de repetibilidade acima de 0,94. Com exceção da espessura da casca, peso de casca mais sementes e número de sementes por fruto, os coeficientes de determinação superaram 80%. Para a maioria dos caracteres, até 27 frutos por genótipo são necessários para obter 95% de determinação. O peso do fruto apresentou associações positivas com diâmetro do fruto, comprimento do fruto, peso de casca mais semente e cavidade interna do fruto.The objective this work was to estimate parameters of repeatability and phenotypic correlations in characters of the bacuri fruit(Platonia insignis Mart.. We evaluated six matrices (genotypes located in six municipalities in the state of Maranhão. Eight fruits were harvested by matrix, measuring the diameter,length, internal cavity, weight and number of seeds per fruit, thickness of the shell, weight of shell plus seed, pulp yield, number of parthenocarpic segments, Brix and total titratable acidity. The data was submitted to an analysis of variance. The genotypes

  6. Estructura trófica de la asociación de peces intermareales de la costa rocosa del norte de Chile

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    C. Viviana Berrios

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las interacciones tróficas de 13 especies de peces intermareales, recolectadas en la región norte de Chile (20°18’S y 20°54’S durante el período julio 1997 a julio 1998, a partir del contenido estomacal de 820 especímenes. La importancia de los ítemes presa, fue valorada a través de los métodos de frecuencia de aparición y gravimétrico y los índices de Shannon-Wiener (diversidad trófica y Pianka (sobreposición trófica. Los resultados permitieron reconocer una asociación íctica compuesta por 46% de especies carnívoras, consumidoras principalmente de crustáceos porcelánidos, poliquetos y crustáceos menores, 23% de especies herbívoras, consumidoras mayoritariamente de algas clorófitas, feófitas y cianófitas y 31% de especies omnívoras, consumidoras principalmente de algas clorófitas, copépodos y gastrópodos. Los peces carnívoros Cheilodactylus variegatus, Helcogrammoides chilensis y Labrisomus philippii y el omnívoro Oplegnatus insignis registraron una tendencia a la eurifágia (H >2.0 bits, sin embargo la mayor superposicion trófica (>0.90 se observó entre los peces herbívoros y omnívoros. Finalmente se analizó el incremento de especies ícticas hacia latitudes bajas, y el aumento de los niveles de herbivoría y omnivoría en el intermareal rocosoThe trophic relationships of 13 intertidal fish species collected in northern Chile (20°18’S and 20°54’S from July 1997 to July 1998, the stomach content analysis of 820 specimens, were investigated. The importance of the prey items was assessed by means of gravimetric and frequency of ocurrence methods, together with the Shannon-Wiener (trophic diversity and Pianka (trophic overlap indexes. The results allowed to recognize a fish assemblage composed of: 46% of carnivorous species, preying mainly on porcelain crabs, polichaetes and minor crustaceans; 23% of herviborous species, preying mainly on chlorophitic algae; 31% of omnivorous species

  7. Nachträge zum 'Katalog der schweizerischen Spinnen'. 2. Neunachweise von 1993 bis 1999

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    Hänggi, Ambros

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the first supplement in 1993 38 species are recorded as new to Switzerland. 14 species are recorded here for the first time for Switzerland: Enoplognatha oelandica (Thorell, 1875; Theridion hemerobium Simon, 1914; Diplocephalus crassilobus (Simon, 1884; Diplocephalus pavesii Pesarini, 1996; Linyphia tenuipalpis Simon, 1884; Porrhomma cambridgei merrett, 1994; Porrhomma rosenhaueri (L.Koch, 1872; Pachygnatha terilis Thaler,1991; Hahnia candida Simon, 1975; Cryptodrassus hungaricus (Balogh, 1935; Zelotes devotus Grimm, 1982; Zelotes hermani (Chyzer, 1897; Zelotes tenuis (L.Koch, 1866; Tmarus stellio Simon, 1875. 24 species were published in other papers and are listed here only to complete the catalogue: Episinus maculipes Cavanna, 1876; Robertus kuehnae Bauchhenss & Uhlenhaut, 1993; Centromerus capucinus (Simon, 1884; Diplocephalus dentatus Tullgren, 1955; Lepthyphantes arenicola Denis, 1964; Lepthyphantes insignis (O.P.-Cambridge, 1913; Lessertia dentichelis (Simon, 1884; Maro lepidus Casemir, 1961; Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826; Pseudomaro aenigmaticus Denis, 1966; Silometopus bonessi Casemir, 1970; Acantholycosa norvegica (Thorell, 1872; Acantholycosa rupicola (Dufour, 1820; Pardosa alacris (C.L.Koch, 1933; Pardosa baehrorum Kronestedt, 1999; Pardosa saltans Töpfer-Hofmann im Druck; Altella biuncata (Miller, 1949; Agroeca inopina O.P.-Cambridge, 1886; Clubiona pseudoneglecta Wunderlich, 1994; Zodarion italicum (Canestrini, 1868; Synaphosus sauvage Ovtsharenko, Levy & Platnick, 1994; Zora parallela Simon, 1878; Thanatus atratus Simon, 1875; Ozyptila pullata (Thorell, 1875. 4 species have to be deleted from the catalogue: Diplocephalus foraminifer (O.P.-Cambridge, 1875; Diplocephalus aff. procer (Simon, 1884 sensu Thaler (1972; Acantholycosa pyrenaea (Simon, 1876; Zodarion gallicum (Simon, 1873. The actual number of known species in Switzerland is 926.

  8. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

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    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  9. Microscopic characterization of orchid mycorrhizal fungi: Scleroderma as a putative novel orchid mycorrhizal fungus of Vanilla in different crop systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen A; Torres-Cruz, Terry J; Sánchez, Samantha Albarrán; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Carrillo-López, Luis Manuel; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    Vanilla is an orchid of economic importance widely cultivated in tropical regions and native to Mexico. We sampled three species of Vanilla (V. planifolia, V. pompona, and V. insignis) in different crop systems. We studied the effect of crop system on the abundance, type of fungi, and quality of pelotons found in the roots using light and electron microscopy and direct sequencing of mycorrhizal structures. Fungi were identified directly from pelotons obtained from terrestrial roots of vanilla plants in the flowering stage. Root samples were collected from plants in crop systems located in the Totonacapan area in Mexico (states of Puebla and Veracruz). DNA was extracted directly from 40 pelotons and amplified using ITS rRNA sequencing. Peloton-like structures were observed, presenting a combination of active pelotons characterized by abundant hyphal coils and pelotons in various stages of degradation. The most active pelotons were observed in crop systems throughout living tutors (host tree) in comparison with roots collected from dead or artificial tutors. Fungi identified directly from pelotons included Scleroderma areolatum, a common ectomycorrhizal fungus that has not been reported as a mycorrhizal symbiont in orchids. Direct amplification of pelotons also yielded common plant pathogens, including Fusarium and Pyrenophora seminiperda, especially in those sites with low colonization rates, and where large numbers of degraded pelotons were observed. This research reports for the first time the potential colonization of Vanilla by Scleroderma, as a putative orchid mycorrhizal symbiont in four sites in Mexico and the influence of crop system on mycorrhizal colonization on this orchid.

  10. Isolation and identification of bluetongue virus: a serotype new to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collisson, E W; Barber, T L

    1985-01-01

    There are 5 known serotypes of bluetongue (BT) virus (BTV) in the US: 2, 10, 11, 13 and 17. The most recently discovered US serotype, BTV 2, was isolated from blood collected from cattle at Ona, Florida in 1982. Isolations were made from the September through November bleedings and from 1 pool of Culicoides insignis Lutz collected in October. Seventeen viral isolates were obtained by injecting the samples into embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) followed by serial passage onto BHK-21 cells. A single isolate was made from inoculation of pooled bovine blood into sheep. The isolates were shown to be Orbivirus-like particles by electron microscopy and were identified as BTV by indirect immunofluorescence tests. All the isolates were found to be serotype 2, however genome analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) identified 2 distinct electropherotypes. There were major differences between the 2 electropherotypes at least in genome segments 1, 5, 7, 8 and 9. The electropherotypes of viral isolates from bovine blood collected in September, 5 of those from the October bleedings, the insect isolate, and that from pooled blood were identical by PAGE and were designated Ona A. This electropherotype was also found to be indistinguishable from the prototype of the African serotype 2. The 2nd electropherotype, Ona B, included 3 of the viral isolates from the October bleedings and the single isolate from November. Ona A appeared to be closely related to the African prototype while Ona B may have resulted as a variant of Ona A after being subjected to a different environment. Both electropherotypes, however, appear to be stable forms of BTV serotype 2.

  11. Prey capture behavior of native vs. nonnative fishes: a case study from the Colorado River drainage basin (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Anthony; Ferry, Lara A; Gibb, Alice C

    2012-02-01

    The Colorado River drainage basin is home to a diverse but imperiled fish fauna; one putative challenge facing natives is competition with nonnatives. We examined fishes from Colorado River tributaries to address the following questions: Do natives and nonnatives from the same trophic guild consume the same prey items? Will a given species alter its behavior when presented with different prey types? Do different species procure the same prey types via similar feeding behaviors? Roundtail chub (Gila robusta) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), midwater predators, and Sonora sucker (Catostomus insignis) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), benthic omnivores, were offered six ecologically relevant prey types in more than 600 laboratory trials. Native species consumed a broader array of prey than nonnatives, and species from a given trophic guild demonstrated functional convergence in key aspects of feeding behavior. For example, roundtail chub and smallmouth bass consume prey attached to the substrate by biting, then ripping the prey from its point of attachment; in contrast, Sonora sucker remove attached prey via scraping. When presented with different prey types, common carp, roundtail chub, and smallmouth bass altered their prey capture behavior by modifying strike distance, gape, and angle of attack. Gape varied among the species examined here, with smallmouth bass demonstrating the largest functional and anatomical gape at a given body size. Because fish predators are gape-limited, smallmouth bass will be able to consume a variety of large prey items in the wild, including large, invasive crayfish and young roundtail chub-their presumptive trophic competitors. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  12. vacío - presión e inmersión

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    R. Machuca-Velasco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con la finalidad de conocer la capacidad de absorción de preservadores de las maderas de Pinus arizonica (pino blanco, Pinus engelmanni (pino real, Pinus patula (pino colorado, Ceiba pentandra (ceiba, Manilkara zapota (chicozapote, Spondias mombin (jobo, Quercus insignis (chicalaba, Quercus laurina (laurelillo y Quercus oleoides (tesmol, aplicando los procesos de impregnación vacío-presión e inmersión con sales CCA (cobre, cromo, arsénico tipo C, a 2.5 %; pentaclorofenol (PCP, a 5 %; y creosota a 50 % de concentración. Los niveles de absorción se analizaron con técnicas univariadas. De acuerdo a los niveles de absorción alcanzados con el método de vacío-presión, con las sales CCA (cromo, cobre, arsénico los pinos, la ceiba y el jobo resultaron fáciles de impregnar, con pentaclorofenol y creosota sólo los pinos resultaron fáciles de impregnar. En cuanto al método de inmersión, con sales CCA, el pino colorado, la ceiba y el tesmol fueron fáciles de impregnar; con pentaclorofenol y creosota, los encinos, el chicozapote y el jobo fueron difíciles de impregnar. Para los pinos, la ceiba y el jobo, la mayor absorción con sales CCA se alcanzó con el método de impregnación a vacío-presión; para los encinos y el chicozapote, la mayor absorción con sales CCA fue con la inmersión prolongada.

  13. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis.: III. development of sardine larvae

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    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae and juveniles of S. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, ranging from 6.4 mm to 35.5 mm, were identified from plankton samples taken in waters off the southern Brazilian coast from 1969 through 1971. Changes in the pattern of pigmentation, body proportions and formation of fin rays are described. During transformation stage a considerable advancement of the dorsal and anal fins was observed. Changes in body proportions are pronounced at the size of 19 mm. Complete ossification of all fin rays is attained at the size of 20 mm, but ossification of the ventral scutes is delayed and completed only at the size of 30 mm. Ossification of the vertebral column was completed at the size of about 16 mm.O presente trabalho é parte do projeto SOL e tem por objetivo descrever a morfologia das larvas da sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, com o intuito de determinar um padrão que possibilite a identificação das mesmas. São feitas considerações sobre a morfologia das larvas de outros clupeídeos existentes na região e ressaltadas as diferenças com relação as larvas de S. brasiliensis. Os resultados, posteriormente, serão usados como base para o estudo quantitativo da abundância de larvas de sardinha. O material foi coletado na costa sul do Brasil de 1969 a 1971, com uma rede de plâncton do tipo cônico-cilíndrico. Durante o desenvolvimento das larvas, foi observado um considerável deslocamento das bases das nadadeiras dorsal e anal, para uma posição mais anterior. Com o tamanho de 19 mm (comprimento padrão, ocorre uma mudança geral, considerável, nas proporções corporais. A ossificação de todos os raios das nadadeiras completa-se quando a larva atinge 20 mm, mas a ossificação dos escudos ventrais só se completa quando ela atinge 30 mm de comprimento. A ossificação das vertebras completa-se a 16 mm de comprimento. O tamanho de 19 mm foi considerado como o fim do estagio larval, e, apos este comprimento

  14. Rapid infection and proliferation of dactylogyrid monogeneans on gills of spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) after transfer to a sea-cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Jiménez, Lilia C; Morales-Serna, Francisco N; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J

    2015-06-15

    Finfish mariculture is typically threatened by parasite and disease outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to identify parasite species of potential risk for this activity. Snappers are valuable food fish worldwide. In the Eastern Pacific, spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus [Steindachner, 1869]) is a firm candidate for sea-cage aquaculture. In the current study, the parasitism of caged L. guttatus by dactylogyrids was evaluated for the first time during a complete farming period. Twenty five thousand juvenile fish produced at the Research Center for Food and Development (CIAD, Mazatlan Unit) were reared in a sentinel sea-cage from February to November 2012 in Mazatlan Bay, Mexico. A fish sample (n=15) was obtained every month. Dactylogyrids from the left second gill arch were identified and quantified. A total of 18,704 dactylogyrids distributed in three species, Euryhaliotrema perezponcei García-Vargas, Fajer-Ávila and Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008, E. mehen (Soler-Jiménez, García-Gasca and Fajer-Ávila, 2012), and Haliotrematoides guttati García-Vargas, Fajer-Ávila and Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) was found, which were able to infect caged L. guttatus since the first month of the farming period. Prevalence of these parasite species was 100% all the time, except for initial low values for E. mehen and H. guttati. The mean intensity of infection of each dactylogyrid species varied significantly between sampling months. Euryhaliotrema perezponcei was the most abundant parasite, reaching the highest mean intensity in May, June and July (154.3, 296.9 and 176.6 parasites/host, respectively). No clear seasonality of infection was observed; however, the influence of the water temperature on the observed infection levels is discussed. There was no mortality, change on behavior or pathological signs. However, given the rapid infection and proliferation of dactylogyrids, particularly E. perezponcei on L. guttaus reared in a sentinel sea

  15. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

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    Priscilla Scacchetti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3 and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (G. sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, G. inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, G. pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758 from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. G. sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st, G. pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st, while G. inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a and G. cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus, and on pair 2 in G. sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in G. sylvius and G. pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in G. sylvius and two pairs in G. pantherinus; G. inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and G. cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus and G. cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of G. sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGGn indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the

  16. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present

  17. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA SALMONIDS

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    Simo Georgiev

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the knowledge of the immigration itineraries of the ancestors of five extant salmonid species on Balkan Peninsula which are the following: Acantholingua ohridana (Steindachner, 1892, Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758, Salmothymus obtusirostris Heckel, 1851 and Thymallus thymallus (Linnaeus, 1758. The thesis for the migration itineraries is based on the anatomical, molecular and zoogeographical facts recently published. These latest facts complement or reject the previous thesis that considered the origin of separate species, which in this paper are analyzed together. A new position on the origin of some S. trutta populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea watershed is proposed. The new thesis is that they did not inhabit it from the west, through the Atlantic Ocean and Gibraltar, but from the North, through the branches of the former Sarmatian Sea, using the continental way. A. ohridana and S. obtusirostris, the only endemic Balkanean salmonids, have developed here from the mutual ancestor with the extant Siberian Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773. This ancestor came first, together with the S. trutta lineage known as »marmorata«. Using the same migration way, the T. thymallus population of Soča River, the North.West boundary of Balkan Peninsula remained restricted at that corner of Adriatic Sea watershed. In the Black Sea watershed (the Danube River flow extension on Balkan Peninsula the distribution of T. thymallus coincides with the distribution of H. hucho. The thesis which has been proposed for this, largest contemporary Balkan Peninsula salmonid fish was that it came here last, after the connections between the Mediterranean Sea basin and once existent Sarmatian Sea disappeared. This occurred after the end of the last glaciations. This has been concluded on the basis of the exclusion of the areas of the »marmorata« lineage of S. trutta (Mediterranean Sea watershed and H. hucho (Black Sea

  18. [Diversity and ichthyofaunistic abundance of the Rio Grande de Térraba, south of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Rodríguez, Omar

    2008-09-01

    The diversity, abundance and distributional pattern of freshwater fish communities in the Térraba River, south Costa Rica, were investigated from the early dry season of 2004 to early rain season of 2005. There have been no preview studies on the freshwater fish distribution in Térraba. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine fish species richness, abundance and distribution there. Fish sampling was done using a combination of gears such as gill net, fine mesh net and visual observation. Thirty three species, 26 genera and 14 families were collected in four sampling sites along the river. The number and biomass captured during the entire study was 984 individuals and 147 410.9 g respectively. Most of them are carnivorous species (48%), 33.3% are omnivorous and 12% detritivorous, and only two species are herbivorous. The most important species in relative abundance (56.5%) and biomass (53.7%) in the study area was the machaca (Brycon behreae). It should be clear that although the list of fish species that occur in Térraba River is reasonably complete, knowledge of their ichthyogeographic history patterns is superficial. The main community component was secondary freshwater species; with 17 invading brackish water species and one introduced species (tilapia O. niloticus). Nine species are reported for the first time in this river. The diversity index H' varied from 2.32 (El Brujo) to 1.67 (Coto), a similar pattern was also showed for the other indexes. Most of our results were similar to those of previous studies on freshwater fish distribution elsewhere, however no significant correlation between species distribution and environmental variables was found, and we hypothesized that the depth and water velocity and geomorphological are major environmental variables that influence the fish distribution. Our findings are opposed to the tendency, for species composition, to increase from upstream to the mouth of the river, which is probably due to two major

  19. Diversidad y abundancia ictiofaunística del río Grande de Térraba, sur de Costa Rica

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    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde el inicio de la estación seca del 2004 hasta la estación lluviosa de 2005, se llevó a cabo una investigación, con el objetivo de determinar la diversidad, abundancia y patrones de distribución de las comunidades de peces de agua dulce del río Grande de Térraba. El muestreo de peces se llevó a cabo utilizando una combinación de artes de pesca, entre ellas las redes agalleras, redes finas y observaciones visuales. Fueron recolectadas 33 especies, 14 familias y 26 géneros en las cuatro estaciones. Se capturaron 984 ejemplares para una biomasa de 147 410.9 g. La mayoría de las especies son carnívoras (48%, 33.3% son omnívoras y 12% detritívoras y sólo dos especies son herbívoras. La especie con mayor abundancia relativa (56.5% y biomasa (53.7 fue la machaca (Brycon behreae. Aunque la lista de especies de peces en el río Térraba parece razonablemente completa, el conocimiento sobre los patrones ictiogegráficos es superficial. El principal componente comunitario son los peces de agua dulce secundarios con 17 especies estuarinas y una especie introducida (tilapia O. niloticus. Nueve especies son registradas por primera vez. El índice de diversidad H´ varió de 2.32 (El Brujo a 1.67 (Coto, un patrón similar se encontró para los otros índices aplicados. Muchos de nuestros resultados fueron similares a los de previos estudios sobre distribución de peces de agua dulce en otras zonas, sin embargo no se encontró correlación significativa entre la distribución de especies y las variables ambientales. Se hipotetiza que la profundidad, velocidad del agua y atributos geomorfológicos son las variables físicas que influencian la distribución de peces. Los resultados de este estudio difieren de la tendencia de que la riqueza de especies se incrementa desde la parte alta hacia la boca del río, esta condición se atribuye a dos actividades humanas (descarga al canal principal de desechos de los cultivos de piña y sedimentos

  20. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gerardo; Soto, Alejandra; Alfaro, Willy

    2012-03-01

    Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant) and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis), dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads), and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon). Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of captured

  1. Fenólicos totais e capacidade antioxidante in vitro de polpas de frutos tropicais

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    Luanne Morais Vieira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de frutos e suas polpas tem sido muito recomendado por seu valor nutricional, alto teor de fibras, vitamina C e carotenoides. Trabalhos recentes têm apontado esses alimentos como fontes de compostos fenólicos com ação antioxidante, portanto sequestradores de radicais livres, com ação protetora contra o surgimento e/ou desenvolvimento de processos degenerativos que conduzem a doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Devido à crescente comercialização e consumo de polpas de frutas no Brasil, especialmente na cidade de Teresina-Piauí, este trabalho selecionou um grupo de polpas de frutos de elevado consumo local para avaliação do teor de fenólicos totais e da atividade antioxidante in vitro pelo método de captura de radicais livres: DPPH (radical 1,1-diphenil-2-picrilhydrazil e ABTS (radical 2,2'azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. Os frutos selecionados foram: Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC., Bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart., Cajá (Spondias mombin L., Caju (Anacardium occidentale, Goiaba(Psidium guajava e Tamarindo (Tamarindus indica L.. Os teores de fenólicos totais encontrados nas polpascongeladas destes frutos exibiram quantidades relevantes de polifenóis, destacando-se a polpa de acerola com 835,25 ± 32,44 e 449,63 ± 10,24 mg /100g nos extratos aquosos e hidroalcoólicos, respectivamente, seguido pela polpa de caju com 201,61 ± 19,15 e 165,07 ± 4,10 mg /100g. As polpas de bacuri e tamarindo foram as que apresentaram os menores teores de fenólicos totais. Com relação à atividade antioxidante in vitro, os melhores resultados foram encontrados para os extratos aquosos e hidroalcoólicos das polpas de acerola, caju e goiaba. A capacidade antioxidante destas polpas (EC50 em µg/mL variou de 24,42 a 413,36 e de 1,74 a 259,18 para os extratos aquosos e hidroalcoólicos, respectivamente. Utilizando o radical ABTS, a atividade antioxidante para essas mesmas polpas de frutas apresentou valores TEAC que

  2. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

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    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  3. A review of Adelphocoris-Creontiades-Megacoelum complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirini), with descriptions of two new genera and four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chérot, F; Malipatil, M B

    2016-06-17

    (Linnavuori, 1988) [for M. irbilanum Linnavuori, 1988], P. quercicola (Linnavuori, 1965) [for M. quercicola Linnavuori, 1965], Waucoris poppiusi Chérot & Malipatil [new name and new combination for Megacoelum papuanum Poppius, 1915]. The following new synonymies are established: Creontiades vittipennis Reuter, 1905 (valid name) = Creontiades vitticollis Poppius, 1915 (new subjective synonym), Poppiocapsidea biseratensis (Distant, 1903) (valid name) = Megacoelum townsvillensis Distant, 1904 (new subjective synonym). Cheilocapsidea insignis (Distant, 1909) is recorded from Laos and the male genitalic structures are briefly described for the first time. A lectotype is designated for Capsus antennatus Kirby, 1891, Creontiades ater Poppius, 1915, Creontiades brunneus Poppius, 1914, Creontiades fruhstorferi Poppius, 1915, Creontiades marginatus Poppius, 1915, Creontiades uzeli Poppius, 1910, Megacoelum mussooriensis Distant, 1909, Megacoelum relatum Distant, 1904, and Megacoelum townsvillensis Distant, 1904 (original combinations). A key for the genera included in the Adelphocoris-Creontiades-Megacoelum complex is given.

  4. LATE CARNIAN-EARLY NORIAN AMMONOIDS FROM THE GSSP CANDIDATE SECTION PIZZO MONDELLO (SICANI MOUNTAINS, SICILY

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    MARCO BALINI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A small collection of ammonoids from the Upper Triassic Scillato Formation at Pizzo Mondello (Agrigento, Sicily is studied. The specimens were collected in a framework of a project aimed at providing an integrated high-resolution bio-chronostratigraphic support to the Upper Carnian-Norian magnetostratigraphic scale defined at this site, that is located in an historical area from which G.G. Gemmellaro collected the Upper Triassic of ammonoids monographed at the beginning of the XX century. The specimens from Pizzo Mondello were bed-by-bed sampled and represent the first collection of Upper Triassic ammonoids described from Sicily since Gemmellaro time. Quite several levels of the Pizzo Mondello section yielded ammonoids, but very few levels have provided more than one specimen. Due to the scarcity of specimens the taxonomic analysis has been complex because Gemmellaro, who described 166 new species, did not explain the variability of many of his taxa. Sixsteen taxa belonging to eleven genera are described. They include Placites sp. ind., Discotropites plinii (Mojsisovics, Anatropites sp., Microtropites cf. paronai, Metathisbites cf. affinis, Hyattites aff. praefloridus, Projuvavites boehmi (Gemmellaro, Projuvavites inflatus (Gemmellaro, Gonionotites cf. italicus, Gonionotites aff. recuperoi, Dimorphites noricus n. sp., Dimorphites selectus Mojsisovics, Dimorphites sp., Pregriesbachites n. gen. , P. bukowskii (Gemmellaro, Discophyllites insignis. Among the new taxa, Dimorphites noricus n. sp. formalizes the nomen nudum “Dimorphites n. sp. 1” quoted in literature for several years, that is index of the lowest subzone of the Norian stage.The small collection document the Discotropites plinii and Gonionotites italicus subzones of the uppermost Carnian Spinosus Zone and the Dimorphites noricus and D. selectus subzones of the Jandianus Zone, the first zone of the Lower Norian. This chronostratigraphic classification firmly tie the Pizzo Mondello

  5. Fenólicos totais e capacidade antioxidante in vitro de polpas de frutos tropicais Total phenolics and antioxidant capacity "in vitro" of tropical fruit pulps

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    Luanne Morais Vieira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de frutos e suas polpas tem sido muito recomendado por seu valor nutricional, alto teor de fibras, vitamina C e carotenoides. Trabalhos recentes têm apontado esses alimentos como fontes de compostos fenólicos com ação antioxidante, portanto sequestradores de radicais livres, com ação protetora contra o surgimento e/ou desenvolvimento de processos degenerativos que conduzem a doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Devido à crescente comercialização e consumo de polpas de frutas no Brasil, especialmente na cidade de Teresina-Piauí, este trabalho selecionou um grupo de polpas de frutos de elevado consumo local para avaliação do teor de fenólicos totais e da atividade antioxidante in vitro pelo método de captura de radicais livres: DPPH (radical 1,1-diphenil-2-picrilhydrazil e ABTS (radical 2,2'azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. Os frutos selecionados foram: Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC., Bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart., Cajá (Spondias mombin L., Caju (Anacardium occidentale, Goiaba(Psidium guajava e Tamarindo (Tamarindus indica L.. Os teores de fenólicos totais encontrados nas polpascongeladas destes frutos exibiram quantidades relevantes de polifenóis, destacando-se a polpa de acerola com 835,25 ± 32,44 e 449,63 ± 10,24 mg /100g nos extratos aquosos e hidroalcoólicos, respectivamente, seguido pela polpa de caju com 201,61 ± 19,15 e 165,07 ± 4,10 mg /100g. As polpas de bacuri e tamarindo foram as que apresentaram os menores teores de fenólicos totais. Com relação à atividade antioxidante in vitro, os melhores resultados foram encontrados para os extratos aquosos e hidroalcoólicos das polpas de acerola, caju e goiaba. A capacidade antioxidante destas polpas (EC50 em µg/mL variou de 24,42 a 413,36 e de 1,74 a 259,18 para os extratos aquosos e hidroalcoólicos, respectivamente. Utilizando o radical ABTS, a atividade antioxidante para essas mesmas polpas de frutas apresentou valores TEAC que

  6. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

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    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  7. Anurofauna de um remanescente alterado de floresta estacional semidecidual as margens do Rio Paranapanema

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    Edi M. Nazaretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o declínio evidente de populações de anfíbios causadas pela alteração do hábitat, muitas áreas que estão inseridas em hotspots do Brasil ainda precisam ser estudadas, a fim de aumentar o conhecimento sobre a anurofauna e fornecer melhores perspectivas de conservação. Um dos ecossistemas criticamente ameaçados é a Floresta Estacional Semidecidual (FES, cuja extensão foi reduzida a aproximadamente 7% da cobertura original, dispersos em pequenos fragmentos. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a anurofauna de uma localidade inserida em paisagem de FES na região da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Paranapanema, considerada uma lacuna geográfica no conhecimento de anfíbios. Além disso, foi avaliada a eficiência de métodos de amostragem de anuros e verificada a similaridade com taxocenoses inseridas em FES e/ou Cerrado de diferentes regiões da mesma bacia hidrográfica. O estudo foi conduzido nas margens do Rio Paranapanema, divisa dos estados de São Paulo e Paraná. Foram realizadas nove fases de campo trimestrais, entre novembro de 2005 a novembro de 2007 que resultou em um esforço de 45 dias de amostragem. Foram registradas 25 espécies de anfíbios anuros distribuídas em seis famílias. Pelo método de amostragem em sítio de reprodução obteve-se o maior registro de espécies (88,5%. O método de armadilhas de interceptação e queda também foi eficiente, proporcionando o registro de cerca de 45% das espécies, além de possibilitar o registro exclusivo de Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 eRhinella ornata (Spix, 1824. Além disso, 90% das espécies terrícolas registradas, que são tipicamente categorizadas como espécies de área aberta, foram registradas no interior dos remanescentes florestais por este método. Através da comparação com as outras taxocenoses, verificou-se uma alta dissimilaridade de espécies mesmo em áreas mais próximas e que a composição de espécies entre as localidades n

  8. A revision of the family Ameroseiidae (Acari, Mesostigmata, with some data on Slovak fauna

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    Peter Mašán

    2017-09-01

    , 1918 = Kleemannia plumosa (Oudemans, 1902; Ameroseius eumorphus Bregetova, 1977 and Kleemannia potchefstroomensis Kruger & Loots, 1980 = Kleemannia pseudoplumosa (Rack, 1972; Ameroseius gilarovi Petrova, 1986 = Kleemannia plumigera Oudemans, 1930; Ameroseius imparsetosus Westerboer, 1963 = Ameroseius georgei (Turk, 1943; Ameroseius lanatus Solomon, 1969 and Ameroseius fimetorum Karg, 1971 = Kleemannia tenella (Berlese, 1916; Ameroseius lanceosetis Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 = Kleemannia pavida (C. L. Koch, 1839; Ameroseius marginalis Fan & Li, 1993 and Ameroseius sichuanensis Fan & Li, 1993 = Kleemannia insignis (Bernhard, 1963; Ameroseius pseudofurcatus Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 = Ameroseius furcatus Karg, 1971; Ameroseius stramenis Karg, 1976 and Lasioseius (Lasioseius gracilis Halbert, 1923 = Kleemannia delicata (Berlese, 1918; Epicriopsis langei Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 and Epicriopsis baloghi Kandil, 1978 = Epicriopsis palustris Karg, 1971; Epicriopsis rivus Karg, 1971 = Epicriopsis mirabilis Willmann, 1956; Neocypholaelaps ewae Haitlinger, 1987 = Neocypholaelaps indicus Evans, 1963; Neocypholaelaps lindquisti Prasad, 1968, Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanaensis Haitlinger, 1987 and Afrocypholaelaps analicullus Ho, Ma, Wang & Severinghaus, 2010 = Afrocypholaelaps africanus (Evans, 1963; Sinoseius pinnatus Huhta & Karg, 2010 = Sinoseius lobatus Bai, Gu & Fang, 1995. Ameroseius womersleyi Mašán, is a replacement name proposed for Ameroseius ornatus Womersley, 1956, a junior secondary homonym of Cornubia ornata Turk, 1943 [= Ameroseius corbiculus (Sowerby, 1806]. Cornubia georgei Turk, 1943 is removed from synonymy with Ameroseius corbiculus (Sowerby, 1806. An annotated catalogue of the world species of Ameroseiidae is provided, partly based on type (in more than 60 species and non-type specimens from various museum deposits and personal collections, including new or revised material from Slovakia. It contains 206 named species (138 valid species, 37 synonyms, nine

  9. A revision of the family Ameroseiidae (Acari, Mesostigmata), with some data on Slovak fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašán, Peter

    2017-01-01

    = Kleemannia plumosa (Oudemans, 1902); Ameroseius eumorphus Bregetova, 1977 and Kleemannia potchefstroomensis Kruger & Loots, 1980 = Kleemannia pseudoplumosa (Rack, 1972); Ameroseius gilarovi Petrova, 1986 = Kleemannia plumigera Oudemans, 1930; Ameroseius imparsetosus Westerboer, 1963 = Ameroseius georgei (Turk, 1943); Ameroseius lanatus Solomon, 1969 and Ameroseius fimetorum Karg, 1971 = Kleemannia tenella (Berlese, 1916); Ameroseius lanceosetis Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 = Kleemannia pavida (C. L. Koch, 1839); Ameroseius marginalis Fan & Li, 1993 and Ameroseius sichuanensis Fan & Li, 1993 = Kleemannia insignis (Bernhard, 1963); Ameroseius pseudofurcatus Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 = Ameroseius furcatus Karg, 1971; Ameroseius stramenis Karg, 1976 and Lasioseius (Lasioseius) gracilis Halbert, 1923 = Kleemannia delicata (Berlese, 1918); Epicriopsis langei Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 and Epicriopsis baloghi Kandil, 1978 = Epicriopsis palustris Karg, 1971; Epicriopsis rivus Karg, 1971 = Epicriopsis mirabilis Willmann, 1956; Neocypholaelaps ewae Haitlinger, 1987 = Neocypholaelaps indicus Evans, 1963; Neocypholaelaps lindquisti Prasad, 1968, Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanaensis Haitlinger, 1987 and Afrocypholaelaps analicullus Ho, Ma, Wang & Severinghaus, 2010 = Afrocypholaelaps africanus (Evans, 1963); Sinoseius pinnatus Huhta & Karg, 2010 = Sinoseius lobatus Bai, Gu & Fang, 1995. Ameroseius womersleyi Mašán, is a replacement name proposed for Ameroseius ornatus Womersley, 1956, a junior secondary homonym of Cornubia ornata Turk, 1943 [= Ameroseius corbiculus (Sowerby, 1806)]. Cornubia georgei Turk, 1943 is removed from synonymy with Ameroseius corbiculus (Sowerby, 1806). An annotated catalogue of the world species of Ameroseiidae is provided, partly based on type (in more than 60 species) and non-type specimens from various museum deposits and personal collections, including new or revised material from Slovakia. It contains 206 named species (138 valid species, 37 synonyms, nine

  10. A revised circumscription for the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae with associated nomenclatural adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Penneys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigations and phylogenetic analyses of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae have indicated that Topobea should be synonymized under Blakea, and Huilaea under Chalybea. Presented here is a detailed description of the Blakeeae, a key to its two accepted genera, and a listing of 62 new combinations, including 3 new names, necessitated by the transfer of Topobea as follows: B. acuminata (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. adscendens (E.Cotton & Matezki Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. albertiae (Wurdack Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. amplifolia (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. arboricola (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. asplundii (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. barbata (Gleason Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. brenesii (Standl. Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. brevibractea (Gleason Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. bullata (E.Cotton & Matezki Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. calcarata (L.Uribe Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. calophylla (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. calycularis (Naudin Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. castanedae (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. clavata (Triana Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., B. cordata (Gleason Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. cuprina Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., B. cutucuensis (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. dimorphophylla (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. discolor (Hochr. Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. dodsonorum (Wurdack Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. eplingii (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. ferruginea (Gleason Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. fragrantissima (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. gerardoana (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. glaberrima (Triana Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. henripittieri (Cogn. Penneys & Almeda, comb. et nom. nov., B. hexandra (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. horologica Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., B. induta (Markgr. Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. inflata (Triana Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. insignis

  11. A revised circumscription for the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae) with associated nomenclatural adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penneys, Darin S; Judd, Walter S

    2013-01-01

    & Judd, nom. nov., Blakea induta (Markgr.) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea inflata (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea insignis (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea intricata (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea killipii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea lentii (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea longiloba (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea longisepala (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea macbrydei (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea maguirei (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea maurofernandeziana (Cogn.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea mcphersonii (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea modica (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea mortoniana (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea muricata (Lozano) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea pascoensis (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea pluvialis (Standl.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea sessilifolia (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea setosa (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea standleyi (L.O.Williams) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea stephanochaeta (Naudin) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea steyermarkii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea suaveolens (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea subbarbata (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea subscabrula (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea subsessiliflora (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea superba (Naudin) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea tetramera (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea tetroici (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea toachiensis (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea trianae (Cogn.) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea verrucosa (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea watsonii (Cogn.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov.

  12. Occurrence and distribution of exotic fishes in the river Tiber basin (Umbria-Italy with special reference to new species recently introduced.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Carosi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of exotic species, with the combined action of habitat's alterations and water pollution, is a general problem of aquatic ecosystems which leads to the qualitative decline of fish communities. In the river Tiber basin (Umbria-Italy many exotic species were introduced in the last 25 years; currently 65% of fish species present in the watercourses of the Umbria region are exotic (Carosi et al., 2015. The purpose of the research was to analyze the occurrence and distribution of exotic fishes in the Tiber river basin with special reference to four fish species recently introduced: Gobio gobio (Linnaeus, 1758, Luciobarbus graellsii (Steindachner, 1866, Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Rhodeus sericeus (Pallas, 1776. Another aim was to analyze the ecological preferences of these species and their relations with the environmental characteristics in the investigated area. The study area comprised 92 watercourses of the Umbrian portion of the river Tiber basin; our analyzes utilized data collected during the periods between the 1990−1996, 2000−2006 and 2007−2014, in 171 sampling stations. A census of the fish fauna by elettrofishing was carried out at each sampling stations. Fishes were identified and for all specimens total length and weight were measured. 22 environmental parameters were used to characterize the river sectors (Figure 2. To analyze the relationships among environmental and fish species data matrices, the CCA analysis (ter Braak, 1986 was performed. 40 fish species were found. Only 14 were native; of the 26 alien species, 9 were translocated while 17 were transplanted (Table 1. Results showed that in the Tiber river basin there was a progressive increase over time of the average number of exotic species for each sampling station (Figure 1; the differences between the three periods considered were highly statistically significant at the ANOVA test (F=15.727, p=0.001. Gobio gobio, Rhodeus sericeus, Rutilus rutilus

  13. Epilachnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)—A Revision of the World Genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Szawaryn, Karol

    2016-01-01

    , E. hopeiana Miyatake 1985, E. insignis Gorham 1892, E. macularis Mulsant 1850, E. parainsignis Pang and Mao 1979, and Solanophila maxima Weise 1898 are transferred to Diekeana Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (comb. nov.); Epilachna fulvohirta Weise 1895, E. nigrolimbata Thomson 1875, Henosepilachna griveaudi Chazeau 1975, H. vadoni Chazeau 1976, Solanophila consignata Weise 1909, S. coquereli Sicard 1907, and S. gyldenstolpei Weise 1924 are transferred to Cleta Mulsant 1850 (comb. nov.); Afidenta janczyki Fürsch 1986, Epilachna capicola Mulsant 1850, E. godarti Mulsant 1850, E. scitula Weise 1898, Henospeilachna acervata Chazeau 1975, and Solanophila blaesa Weise 1905 are transferred to Afidentula Kapur 1958 (com. nov.); Coccinella elaterii Rossi 1794, C. hirta Thunberg 1781, C. pavonia Olivier 1808, Epilachna annulata Kolbe 1897, E. biplagiata Kolbe 1897, E. cinerascens Weise 1907, E. connectens Weise 1912, E. erichi Weise, 1897, E. occellata Bertoloni, 1849, E. pauli Weise, 1897, E. tetracycla Gerstaecker, 1871, E. umbratilis Weise 1909, E. vulgaris Weise 1901, Henosepilachna bigemmata Fürsch 1991, Solanophila guttifera Weise 1899, S. hova Weise 1905, and S. kaffaeensis Weise 1906 are transferred to Chnootriba Chevrolat 1837 (com. nov.); Coccinella guttatopustulata Fabricius 1775, Epilachna aruensis Crotch 1874, E. biroi Weise 1902, E. buqueti Montrouzier 1861, E. fulvimana Weise 1903, E. immaculata Bielawski 1963, E. karapensis Bielawski 1963, E. orrori Bielawski 1963, E. samuelsoni Jadwiszczak 1991, and E. slipinskii Jadwiszczak 1987 are transferred to Papuaepilachna Tomaszewska and Szawaryn, 2013 (comb. nov.). The history of classification, the known aspects of the biology and distributional data of the tribe are summarized. PMID:27651424

  14. Epilachnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)-A Revision of the World Genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Szawaryn, Karol

    2016-01-01

    . hopeiana Miyatake 1985, E. insignis Gorham 1892, E. macularis Mulsant 1850, E. parainsignis Pang and Mao 1979, and Solanophila maxima Weise 1898 are transferred to Diekeana Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (comb. nov.); Epilachna fulvohirta Weise 1895, E nigrolimbata Thomson 1875, Henosepilachna griveaudi Chazeau 1975, H. vadoni Chazeau 1976, Solanophila consignata Weise 1909, S. coquereli Sicard 1907, and S. gyldenstolpei Weise 1924 are transferred to Cleta Mulsant 1850 (comb. nov.); Afidenta janczyki Fürsch 1986, Epilachna capicola Mulsant 1850, E. godarti Mulsant 1850, E. scitula Weise 1898, Henospeilachna acervata Chazeau 1975, and Solanophila blaesa Weise 1905 are transferred to Afidentula Kapur 1958 (com. nov.); Coccinella elaterii Rossi 1794, C. hirta Thunberg 1781, C. pavonia Olivier 1808, Epilachna annulata Kolbe 1897, E. biplagiata Kolbe 1897, E. cinerascens Weise 1907, E. connectens Weise 1912, E. erichi Weise, 1897, E. occellata Bertoloni, 1849, E pauli Weise, 1897, E. tetracycla Gerstaecker, 1871, E. umbratilis Weise 1909, E. vulgaris Weise 1901, Henosepilachna bigemmata Fürsch 1991, Solanophila guttifera Weise 1899, S. hova Weise 1905, and S. kaffaeensis Weise 1906 are transferred to Chnootriba Chevrolat 1837 (com. nov.); Coccinella guttatopustulata Fabricius 1775, Epilachna aruensis Crotch 1874, E. biroi Weise 1902, E. buqueti Montrouzier 1861, E. fulvimana Weise 1903, E. immaculata Bielawski 1963, E. karapensis Bielawski 1963, E. orrori Bielawski 1963, E. samuelsoni Jadwiszczak 1991, and E. slipinskii Jadwiszczak 1987 are transferred to Papuaepilachna Tomaszewska and Szawaryn, 2013 (comb. nov.). The history of classification, the known aspects of the biology and distributional data of the tribe are summarized. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.