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Sample records for brycon amazonicus characidae

  1. Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

    2014-11-01

    Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity.

  2. Comparative study on hematological parameters of farmed matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Characidae: Bryconinae with others Bryconinae species Estudo comparativo sobre parâmetros hematológicos de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz, 1892(Characidae: Bryconinae criados em cativeiro, com outras espécies de Bryconinae

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was not only to determine the red blood cells parameters, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts in farmed Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, to compare these parameters among Bryconinae species from literature, and also to investigate the presence of special granulocytic cells in these fish. The results of the blood cells parameters here established for farmed B. amazonicus, a species of great economic importance in Brazilian aquaculture, could help a better understanding of the blood features in natural populations of this Amazon species. Blood parameters varied between Bryconinae species investigated, mainly the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. The presence of the blood granulocytes, neutrophils and heterophils in matrinxã suggest that both leukocytes can be a characteristic for Bryconinae family. Furthermore, it indicates that the existence of special granulocytic cells in the blood of Bryconinae species from literature is an artifact, and this was herein discussed.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os parâmetros eritrocíticos, as contagens de trombócitos e de leucócitos de espécimes de Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, criados em cativeiro e compará-los com aqueles descritos na literatura para outras espécies de Bryconinae. Além disso, foi ainda investigada a presença de células granulocíticas especiais nestes peixes. Os resultados dos parâmetros sangüíneos apresentados para B. amazonicus podem ajudar a entender melhor as características sangüíneas em população natural desta espécie de grande importância para a aqüicultura brasileira. Os parâmetros sangüíneos das espécies de Bryconinae investigadas apresentaram variação interespecíficas principalmente a contagem de eritrócitos, hemoglobina, hematócrito e volume corpuscular médio (VCM. A presença dos granulócitos sangüíneos, neutrófilos e heterófilos em matrinxã sugere que esta pode ser uma

  3. Cryopreservation of yamú (Brycon amazonicus) sperm for large scale fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Medina-Robles, Mauricio; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

      To determine the effect of straw size and thawing temperature on cryopreserved sperm quality of yamú (Brycon amazonicus), ovulation and spermiation were induced in sexually mature broodstock using Carp Pituitary Extract. Sperm quality was evaluated by motility, activation time and fertility. Sp...

  4. Embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829

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    A. C. S. Sampaio Nakauth

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus, featuring the main events up to 50 hours after fertilization (AF. The material was provided by the Aquaculture Training, Technology and Production Center, Presidente Figueiredo (AM. The characterization was based on stereomicroscopic examination of the morphology of eggs, embryos and larvae and comparison with the literature. Matrinxã eggs are free, transparent, and spherical, with a perivitelline space of 0.56 ± 0.3 mm. The successive divisions give rise to cells with 64 blastomeres during the first hour AF. The gastrula stage, beginning 02 h 40 min AF, was characterized by progressive regression cells and the formation of the embryonic axis, leading to differentiation of the head and tail 05 h 30 min AF. From 06 to 09 h AF the somites, notochord, otic and optic vesicles and otoliths were observed, in addition to heart rate and the release of the tail. The larvae hatched at 10 h 30 min AF (29.9 °C, with a total length of 3.56 ± 0.46 mm. Between 19 and 30 h AF, we observed 1 pigmentation and gut formation, 2 branchial arches, 3 pectoral fins, 4 a mouth opening and 5 teeth. Cannibalism was initiated earlier (34 h AF which was associated with rapid yolk absorption (more than 90% until 50 h AF, signaling the need for an exogenous nutritional source. The environmental conditions (especially temperature influenced the time course of some events throughout the embryonic and larval development, suggesting the need for further studies on this subject.

  5. Controle neuroendócrino do comportamento agressivo de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkers,Carla Patrícia Bejo

    2010-01-01

    Considerando a importância fisiológica do sistema serotoninérgico e os conhecimentos restritos acerca desse sistema em peixes, este estudo avaliou a distribuição dos neurônios serotoninérgicos imunoreativos (5-HTir) no encéfalo de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus). Para tanto, os animais foram anestesiados e submetidos ao procedimento de perfusão e coleta dos encéfalos. Foram feitas secções coronais de 25 μm do encéfalo, com exceção do bulbo olfatório, sendo as secções montadas em lâmin...

  6. Seasonal variation of sperm quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and sperm concentration in yamú Brycon amazonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Medina-Robles, Víctor M.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2007-01-01

    Osmolality, the concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, and the concentrations of ions such as Na+, Cl-, K+, and Mg2+ in the seminal plasma of yamú Brycon amazonicus were evaluated during one reproductive season. Semen quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and ...

  7. Spawning failure in Brycon amazonicus may be associated with ovulation and not with final oocyte maturation

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    P. Hainfellner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos com a falha na desova de matrinxãs (Brycon amazonicus, submetidas à indução hormonal por extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa. Para tal, após a extrusão, os ovários foram coletados e analisados histomorfometricamente. Nas fêmeas que não desovaram (FNDs, a maioria dos ovócitos vitelogênicos remanescentes nos ovários atingiu a maturação final, apresentando quebra de vesícula germinativa, mas não foram ovulados (NOs. Consequentemente, estas fêmeas apresentaram frequências mais baixas de folículos pós ovulatórios (5% quando comparadas com a que desovou (FD (23%. Com relação aos NOs, os valores se inverteram e a frequência destes nas FNDs (21% foi maior do que na FD (3%. Estes dados indicam que as falhas na desova desta espécie estão provavelmente relacionadas com a ovulação, uma vez que a maturação final dos ovócitos ocorre de forma similar tanto nas FNDs como na FD. Os dados sugerem que as substâncias que promovem a ovulação, como as prostaglandinas, podem aumentar o sucesso de desova em peixes reofílicos.

  8. Probiotic in feeding of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus: economic viability=Probiótico na alimentação de juvenis de matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus: viabilidade econômica

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    Leonardo Tachibana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic feasibility of supplement probiotics Bacillus subtilis to “matrinxã” Brycon amazonicus, raised in cages. The experiment was conducted at the Polo Regional Vale do Ribeira, in Pariquera-açu municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to July 2009. A total of 960 juvenile matrinxã were stocked in twelve 2.7 m³-net cages (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.2 m, in ponds with a total area of 600 m2 and an average depth of 1.50 m. The tests were conducted with a control treatment (T1 and two probiotic doses (T2 = 5 g and T3 = 10 g kg-1 of diet with four replicates. Results showed that T2 produced better economic performance for matrinxã at the juvenile stage in intensive rearing system.Objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade econômica do uso do probiótico Bacillus subtilis na alimentação de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus, em tanques-rede. O experimento foi conduzido no Polo Regional do Vale do Ribeira, no município de Pariquera-Açu, São Paulo, Brasil, entre fevereiro e julho de 2009. Foram avaliados 960 peixes juvenis, divididos em 12 tanques-rede de 2,7 m³ (1,5 x 1,5 x 1,2 m em uma área total de 600 m2, com profundidade média de 1,50 m. Os testes foram conduzidos com um tratamento testemunha (T1, duas doses de probiótico (T2 = 5 g e T3 = 10 g kg-1 de ração e quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que o T2 proporcionou melhor desempenho zootécnico e econômico da matrinxã na fase de engorda no sistema intensivo de criação.

  9. Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-03-15

    The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior.

  10. Efeito do manejo alimentar no desempenho do matrinxã Brycon amazonicus em tanques de cultivo Effect of the feed management on performance of Matrinxã Brycon amazonicus in rearing ponds

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    Célia Maria Frasca-Scorvo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do horário, taxa e freqüência de alimentação no desempenho do matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus em tanques de cultivo. O trabalho foi realizado no Centro de Aqüicultura da UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, no período de outubro de 1997 a janeiro de 1998 sendo realizados três ensaios, em tanques de 200m² subdivididos em 4 de 50 m². No ensaio I foram medidos em 3 períodos (manhã-m; meio do dia-md e tarde-t o consumo de ração, índice de ingestão, tempo de saciação e velocidade de ingestão em peixes com peso médio de 232,13 g, alimentados com ração extrusada (32% de PB. Não foi observada diferença significativa nos parâmetros analisados. No ensaio II, em peixes com peso médio de 233,98 g, foi medido o consumo médio de ração, em intervalos de duas horas, das 07 às 19 horas. O maior consumo ocorreu quando o matrinxã foi alimentado às 17 horas. No ensaio III, durante 57 dias, os peixes foram alimentados uma vez ao dia (m; uma vez ao dia (t; duas vezes ao dia(m/t e três vezes ao dia (m,md,t. Peixes com peso médio inicial de 322,25 g receberam ração com 32% de PB, na quantidade de 2% do PV. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas no ganho de peso diário (3,17; 2,80; 3,04 e 2,81 g e na conversão alimentar aparente (2,11; 2,48; 2,16 e 2,31:1. Concluiu-se que a freqüência de alimentação de uma vez ao dia, em qualquer horário, mostrou ser suficiente.The objective of this study was the identification of effect of period, number of meals, ration feed and frequency of feeding on performance of Matrinxã Brycon amazonicus. The work was carried out on the Aquaculture Center of UNESP in Jaboticabal, SP. The observations were accomplished in three stages, from October 1997 to January 1998 in 16 ponds of 50m². In the first stage it was analyzed the feed consumption, ingestion index and satiation time. Fishes with initial average weight of 232.13g were fed extruded ration of CP 32% in

  11. LD5o of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus DL5o da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus

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    Sarah Ragonha de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the lethal dose (96-h LD50 of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, to be applied in challenge tests, 90 fish (63.23 ± 6.39 g were divided into five treatments, with different bacterial solutions: T1 - Control (0.9% NaCl saline solution; T2 (4 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T4 (1.36 x 10(12 cells/ mL and T5 (3.06 x 10(12 cells/ mL. Fish were previously anesthetized with benzocaine (60 mg L-1, inoculated in the peritoneal cavity with the bacterial suspensions and then distributed into fifteen 80-L test chambers, where the water variables were monitored and fish mortality was observed. The experiment was randomly designed in three replicates and the 96-h LD50 was estimated according to the trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Water quality variables remained within adequate ranges for fish health and performance. Fish mortality rate increased with the bacterial concentrations of A. hydrophila (T1 = 0%; T2 = 16.66%; T3 = 44.44%; T4 = 72.22% and T5 = 100%, and the first mortalities were observed after 57 h, although the signs of the bacterial infection were already observed 24 h after the inoculation. The results indicate that the 96-h LD50 value of A. hydrophila to matrinxã is 6.66 x 10(11 cells/ mL.Para determinar a dose letal (DL50 96-h da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, com aplicabilidade para testes de desafio, foram utilizados 90 peixes (63,23 ± 6,39 g, divididos em cinco tratamentos, com diferentes soluções bacterianas: T1 - Controle (solução salina 0,9% NaCl; T2 (4 x 10(11 células/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 células/ mL-1; T4 (1,36 x 10(12 células/mL-1 e T5 (3,06 x 10(12 células/ mL-1. Os peixes foram previamente anestesiados com benzocaína (60 mg L-1, inoculados na cavidade peritoneal com as suspensões bacterianas e distribuídos em 15 aquários de vidro de 80 L de capacidade, com aeração constante. O experimento teve duração de 96 h, no

  12. Probiotic in feeding of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus: economic viability - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.13257

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    Elizabeth Romagosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic feasibility of supplement probiotics Bacillus subtilis to “matrinxã” Brycon amazonicus, raised in cages. The experiment was conducted at the Polo Regional Vale do Ribeira, in Pariquera-açu municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to July 2009. A total of 960 juvenile matrinxã were stocked in twelve 2.7 m³-net cages (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.2 m, in ponds with a total area of 600 m2 and an average depth of 1.50 m. The tests were conducted with a control treatment (T1 and two probiotic doses (T2 = 5 g and T3 = 10 g kg-1 of diet with four replicates. Results showed that T2 produced better economic performance for matrinxã at the juvenile stage in intensive rearing system.

  13. Influence of food restriction on the reproduction and larval performance of matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829

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    ACS. Camargo

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of food restriction and refeeding of matrinxã females, Brycon amazonicus, on their reproductive performance and on the growth and survival of the progeny. Broodstocks were distributed in 8 earthen tanks (15 fish/tank and fish from 4 tanks were fed daily (G1 while fish from the other 4 tanks were fed for 3 days and not fed for 2 days (G2 during 6 months prior to artificial spawning. Among the induced females, 57% in G1 group and 45% in G2 group spawned and the mean egg weights were 208.1 g (G1 and 131.6 g (G2. Oocytes of G2 fish were smaller (1.017 ± 0.003 mm than oocytes of G1 fish (1.048 ± 0.002 mm. Fertilization (71.91 ± 12.6% and 61.18 ± 13.7% and hatching (61.28 ± 33.9% and 67.50 ± 23.4% rates did not differ between G1 and G2 fish. Larvae were collected at hatching and at 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation and fixed for growth measurement. After incubation, fry were transferred to aquaria and sampled 1, 5, 9 and 15 days later. G1 and G2 larvae had similar weight (1.51 ± 0.15 and 1.46 ± 0.07 mg but the G2 length was significantly higher (6.26 ± 0.13 and 6.74 ± 0.14 mm. By the ninth day of rearing, G2 fry had higher weight (13.6 ± 0.26 and 18.9 ± 0.07 mg and length (11.8 ± 0.09 and 14.5 ± 0.04 mm but by the fifteenth day, G1 fry had higher weight (90.2 ± 1.19 and 68.6 ± 0.77 mg and length (18.8 ± 0.16 and 18.5 ± 0.04 mm than G2 fry. By the ninth day of rearing, when fry are recommended to be transferred to outdoor tanks, G2 fry were larger and after 15 days, fry produced by restricted-fed females showed higher survival. The survival rate of G2 progeny by the fifteenth day was significantly higher (24.7 ± 2.07% than that of G1 progeny (19.2 ± 1.91%. The ration restriction (35% reduction imposed on matrinxã broodstock during 6 months prior to spawning reduced the number of spawned females and the egg amount, but it did not affect fertilization and hatching rates. Otherwise restricted

  14. Efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus) durante cortos períodos de almacenamiento

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    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Corredor-Santamaría, Wilson; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo fue evaluar los efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus) durante cortos períodos de almacenamiento. Se utilizaron hembras y machos adultos tratados con extracto de hipófisis de carpa para estimular la ovulación y aumentar el volumen...... larvas. Bajo los tres sistemas de conservación, DO aumentó con el tiempo, siendo mayor (pmayores DO fueron observados en oocitos conservados a T°R (p

  15. Physiological stress responses in the warm-water fish matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus subjected to a sudden cold shock Respostas fisiológicas ao estresse do peixe de águas tépidas matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus submetido à queda brusca de temperatura

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    Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated several aspects of the generalized stress response [endocrine (cortisol, metabolic (glucose, hematologic (hematocrit and hemoglobin and cellular (HSP70] in the Amazonian warm-water fish matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus subjected to an acute cold shock. This species farming has been done in South America, and growth and feed conversion rates have been interesting. However, in subtropical areas of Brazil, where the water temperature can rapidly change, high rates of matrinxã mortality have been associated with abrupt decrease in the water temperature. Thus, we subjected matrinxã to a sudden cold shock by transferring the fish directly to tanks in which the water temperature was 10ºC below the initial conditions (cold shock from 28ºC to 18ºC. After 1h the fish were returned to the original tanks (28ºC. The handling associated with tank transfer was also imposed on control groups (not exposed to cold shock. While exposure to cold shock did not alter the measured physiological conditions within 1h, fish returned to the ambient condition (water at 28º C significantly increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels. Exposure to cold shock and return to the warm water did not affect HSP70 levels. The increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels after returning the fish to warm water suggest that matrinxã requires cortisol and glucose for adaptation to increased temperature.O presente trabalho avaliou as principais respostas fisiológicas e celulares [endócrino (cortisol, metabólico (glicose, hematológico (hematócrito and hemoglobina e celular (HSP70] ao estresse de um peixe de águas tépidas, o matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus , quando submetido a um choque térmico frio abrupto. Essa espécie vem sendo amplamente cultivada na América do Sul por apresentar excelentes índices zootécnicos de crescimento e conversão alimentar. Entretanto, os produtores rurais encontram limitações no manejo do matrinxã, quando criado em

  16. Interação do exercício de natação sustentada e da densidade de estocagem no desempenho e na composição corporal de juvenis de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Sustained swimming and stocking density interaction in the performance and body composition of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus juveniles

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    Gustavo Alberto Arbeláez-Rojas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar o efeito da densidade de estocagem associada ao exercício de natação moderada no desempenho e na composição corporal de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus. Foram utilizados peixes com comprimento e peso médio inicial de 12,3±0,5cm e 18,4±0,1g, os quais foram distribuídos ao acaso em dois grupos: o primeiro grupo de peixes foi estocado em três densidades correspondendo a 88, 176 e 353 peixes m-3 e foi condicionado a nadar a uma velocidade de 1,0cc s-1 (comprimento corporal por segundo em tanques circulares de 250L, durante 70 dias. O segundo grupo de peixes foi mantido nas mesmas densidades em água parada (sem exercício perfazendo no total seis tratamentos com três repetições. Foram estimados parâmetros de desempenho e da composição corporal, particularmente do músculo branco e do músculo vermelho de ambos os grupos. Os resultados mostraram que o exercício e a densidade afetaram significativamente o crescimento e a composição dos músculos do matrinxã. O grupo de peixes criados sob exercício moderado na densidade de 176 peixes m-3 apresentou melhor desempenho (PThe aim of the present study was to gauge the effect of stocking density associated to the sustained swimming on the performance and body composition of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus juveniles. The fish were initially sized at 12.3±0.5cm length and 18.4g±0.1g weight. They were distributed randomly in two groups: the first was arranged into three densities of 88, 176 and 353 fish m-3 and conditioned to swim at 1.0BL sec-1 in circular tanks of 250L for 70 days; the second was arranged in the same fish densities but in static waters performing six treatments with three repetitions. Performance and body compositions were estimated in white and red muscles for both groups. The results express the growth and muscle composition change in response to the exercise and fish density. The fish maintained in moderate swimming at 176

  17. Influência do fotoperíodo no crescimento e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae Influence of photoperiod on the growth and survival of piranjuba post-larvae Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae

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    Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do fotoperíodo no cultivo de pós-larvas de piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae, submetidas a quatro tratamentos: 0L-24E (L=Luz; E= Escuro, 10L-14E, 14L-10E e 24L-0E, com três 3 repetições. Pós-larvas com comprimento de 7,8±0,7mm e com peso de 3,5±0,8mg foram distribuídas em 12 aquários de 10L, estocados com 12 pós-larvas por aquário. Os indivíduos foram diariamente alimentados com naúplios de Artemia, ao longo dos 10 dias de experimento. Ao final, observou-se relação positiva entre a sobrevivência e o aumento do período com luz, sendo o maior valor de sobrevivência 88,9±9,7%, obtido no tratamento com 24 horas de luminosidade, e o menor valor 58,3±8,3%, no tratamento com 24 horas em escuridão. O comprimento e peso das pós-larvas de piracanjuba não apresentaram diferenças significativas (P>0,05 entre os diferentes tratamentos, porém foi observada uma maior heterogeneidade entre as pós-larvas cultivadas com maior período de escuridão.This paper aims at studying the influence of photoperiod on the cultivation of Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae post-larvae submitted to four treatments: 0L-24D (L=Light; D=Dark, 10 - L14D, 14L - 10D and 24L-0D, with 3 repetitions. Post-larvae measuring 7.8±0.7mm and weighting 3.5±0.8mg were distributed in 12 aquariums (10L, stocked with 12 post-larvae per aquarium. Fishes were fed daily with Artemia sp. nauplii, in 10 days experiment. A positive relationship between the survival rate (88.9±9.7% observed in the treatment with 24 hours of luminosity, and the lowest (58.3±8.3%, in the treatment with 24 hours of darkness. No difference was showed (P>0.05 in the mean length and weight of the post-larvae, although there was greater heterogeneity among the post-larvae cultivated at the longer darkness period.

  18. Brycon gouldingi (Teleostei, Characidae): aspects of the embryonic development in a new fish species with aquaculture potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Francine; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika

    2011-11-01

    Brycon gouldingi is an endemic species from Tocantins-Araguaia basin, used as a food source by riverine communities and relevant to aquaculture. Information about the initial morphology of B. gouldingi, a recently described species, is absent. In the present study, we analysed the fertilization and the embryonic development of this species based on light and scanning electron microscopy. After collection of adult specimens in Mortes River - Mato Grosso, Brazil, adaptation to captivity and induced spawning at Buriti Fishculture, Nova Mutum - Mato Grosso, Brazil, in December 2007 and January 2008, samples were collected at pre-defined periods from egg extrusion up to larval hatching, which occurred at 13.9 ± 0.06 h post-fertilization (hpf) in average. At the moment of extrusion, the eggs were slightly ovoid bearing a single micropyle per oocyte with a funnel-shaped micropyle canal and vestibule covered with longitudinal folds, typical of the genus Brycon. The embryonic development of B. gouldingi was characterized by six stages with distinct features: zygote (from fertilization up to formation of egg-cell); cleavage (cell divisions resulting in blastomeres, including the morula phase); blastula (several embryonic cells in a cup shape, without distinction of cell boundaries); gastrula (cell movement); histogenesis/organogenesis (formation of tissues and organs); and hatching (larval chorion rupture). Right after hatching, the larvae presented neither swimming abilities nor visual accuracy, and the digestive trait was undifferentiated. The present study is the first report on biological features of embryogenesis in B. gouldingi, providing relevant information to several approaches, mainly related to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and captive rearing of this new Brycon species.

  19. Utilização de diferentes densidades, dietas e formatos de tanque na larvicultura da piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2082 Use of different densities, diets and tank formats in the larvae culture of the piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2082

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    Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuner

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a taxa de sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus (Characiformes, characidae, foram realizados três experimentos com três repetições por tratamento. Os experimentos consistiram em testar três diferentes estoques iniciais de densidade (5, 15 e 25 larvas de piracanjuba/L, três dietas (Artemia sp, ração comercial e larva de curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus e dois formatos de tanque de larvicultura (quadrado e retangular. Os parâmetros de qualidade de água foram medidos duas vezes ao dia. A alimentação foi oferecida em um intervalo de 4 horas, iniciando após a abertura da boca das larvas. Sob as condições de realização deste experimento, conclui-se que as diferentes densidades de estocagem utilizadas, assim como as três diferentes dietas, não influenciaram a sobrevivência, média de peso, comprimento e altura dorso-ventral das larvas de piracanjuba. Entretanto, o comprimento e o peso das larvas, diferentemente dos outros fatores, foi significativamente melhor no tanque de formato quadradoAiming to study the survival rate and the development of piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus (Characiformes, characidae fry, three experiments were set, with three repetitions by treatment. The experiments consisted of testing three different initial stocking densities (5, 15 and 25 piracanjuba larvae/L, three diets (Artemia sp, commercial ration and curimbatá larvae, Prochilodus lineatus and two formats of hatchery tank (square and rectangular. The parameters of water quality were measured twice a day. The feeding was offered in a 4-hour interval, beginning soon after the mouth-opening of the fry. The results showed that different stocking densities and diets didn't influence the larvae survival, average weight, length and back-ventral height. However, the average weight and length were significantly better in the square tank

  20. Feeding and social behavior of the piabanha, Brycon devillei (Castelnau, 1855 (Characidae: Bryconinae in the wild, with a note on following behavior

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    Pedro G Azevedo

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the behavior of wild freshwater fishes in Brazil is restricted to a few studies, despite such studies being able to answer fundamental questions about conservation. Species of Brycon are amongst the most threatened in the Neotropics, particularly in southeast Brazil, due to anthropogenic activities in this region. This study investigated the feeding and social behaviors of the endangered fish, Brycon devillei in the Preto River, Jequitinhonha basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Behavioral data were collected by snorkeling with four spatially separated groups (habituated, and direct observations of shoals were made using an underwater video camera (a total of 448 hours of observations. This species showed diverse tactics to obtain food. However, the species proved to be predominately a specialist surface-picker, which adopted alternative tactics to find food at certain times of the year, most notably when food items on the water surface became low. Feeding frequency was shown to be negatively correlated to agonistic behavior between conspecifics. Feeding associations were also recorded between the anostomid Leporinus garmani, acting as a nuclear species, and B. devillei, as follower species. The data presented here showed the importance of conserving the riparian environment to protect B. devillei populations. Furthermore, the present study included rare observations of nuclear-follower feeding association among freshwater fishes, especially between medium-sized characiforms, being the first observations of such kind in a Cerrado stream.

  1. Efecto de la pluviosidad y el brillo solar sobre la producción y características del semen en el pez Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tabares, C. J.; Montoya, A. F.; Arboleda, L.; Echeverri, A; Restrepo, L. F.; M Olivera-Angel

    2014-01-01

    El pez Brycon henni es una especie endémica protegida por la legislación colombiana, que habita cuerpos de agua de zonas cafeteras (700-1900 m.s.n.m), comprendidas entre los 4º35’56’’ N y 74º04’51’’ W, con temperaturas que oscilan entre los 18 y los 28ºC. A pesar de las características promisorias de esta especie, su reproducción en cautiverio a nivel comercial no ha sido posible por falta de conocimientos básicos de su biología y comportamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracteri...

  2. Ecología trófica de la Sabaleta Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae en el río Portugal de Piedras, Alto Cauca, Colombia

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    Alvaro Botero-Botero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la ecología trófica de la sabaleta (Brycon henni en el río Portugal de Piedras, cordillera Oriental, departamento del Valle del Cauca. Materiales y métodos. Desde octubre de 2008 hasta junio de 2009 se realizaron pescas exploratorias y se determinaron parámetros físico y químicos del hábitat. Los ejemplares capturados fueron eviscerados y el contenido estomacal fue determinado hasta el mínimo taxón posible. Resultados. La especie presenta una dieta generalista que incluye 35 categorías alimenticias, con tendencia al consumo de larvas y ninfas de insectos acuáticos entre los cuales se destacan tricópteros, dípteros y odonatos; también, consume organismos alóctonos al cauce como hormigas (Hymenoptera, escarabajos (Coleoptera y material vegetal: frutos, semillas y hojas. La relación longitud intestino (LI vs. longitud estándar (LS indican que la especie presenta características propias de una especie carnívora (LI = -13.8728 + 1.02377*LS, r= 0.35, n= 22, a su vez, el peso total (PT depende directamente de la longitud total (LT y LS del pez (PT = -49.308 + 0.609962*LT; r= 0.92 n=30; PT = -41.6011 + 0.672529*LS; r= 0.89, n=30, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La sabaleta (Brycon henni presentó caracteristicas de una especie carnivora.

  3. Estresse devido ao transporte e à ação da benzocaína em parâmetros hematológicos e população de parasitas em matrinxã, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 (Osteichthyes, Characidae Transport with different benzocaine concentrations and its consequences on hematological parameters and gill parasite population of matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 (Osteichthyes, Characidae

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    Maurício Laterça Martins

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do transporte, sob diferentes concentrações de benzocaína, em parâmetros hematológicos e na população de parasitas de brânquias do matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Osteichthyes, Characidae. Trinta peixes (peso médio 1,0 kg foram transportados em tambores plásticos de 200 L por quatro horas. Cada tambor foi preparado com uma concentração de benzocaína (B0 = 0 mg/L; B1 = 5 mg/L; B2 = 10 mg/L e B3 = 20 mg/L. Anteriormente ao carregamento dos tambores, cinco peixes foram amostrados para determinar a condição inicial. Outras três amostragens foram feitas posteriormente: na chegada, 24 e 96 horas após o transporte. Os peixes transportados sob efeito da benzocaína apresentaram menor resposta de fuga durante a captura comparado aos peixes do B0, sendo que os peixes do B3 mostraram dificuldade de manter o equilíbrio durante a viagem. Após o transporte, registraram-se os níveis mais elevados de cortisol plasmático, em todos os tratamentos, com retorno aos níveis iniciais após 24 horas. A glicemia elevou-se na chegada, em todos os tratamentos, e após 24 horas apenas os peixes transportados nas duas concentrações mais altas ainda não haviam recuperado os valores iniciais. Na chegada, a porcentagem de linfócitos decresceu, permanecendo neste patamar após 24 horas, sendo que os peixes do B2 e B3 não retornaram à condição inicial até o final do período experimental. Foi observado aumento da porcentagem de neutrófilos, desde a chegada até 24 horas após o transporte, em todos os tratamentos. Os peixes do B2 e B3 mantiveram elevadas as porcentagens de neutrófilos até 96 horas após o transporte. Na última coleta, constatou-se que o número do parasita branquial Piscinoodinium sp. havia aumentado nos peixes do B3. Foi possível observar que o uso da benzocaína contribuiu com a elevação da glicemia e dos níveis plasmáticos do cortisol após o transporte, sendo registrados

  4. Development of fingerlings of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae in tanks fertilized with organic manures/ Desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae em tanques experimentais fertilizados com adubação orgânica

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    Carmino Hayashi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the development of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus in tanks under differents organic fertilizers. The experiment, entirely randomized, was accomplished in 16 tanks of 1000 liters, fertilized with manures of bovine (BOV, pigs (SUI, chickens (FRG and others without fertilizer (SAO, using 15 fish/m3 with an initial average weight and length of 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. After 30 days, the experiment showed a uniform development of the fish and high survival rate in thestudied density. The treatments presented significant statistical differences (PO objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, em tanques com adubações orgânicas. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado, foi realizado em 16 tanques de 1000 litros, adubados com estercos de bovinos (BOV, suínos (SUI, frangos de corte (FRG e outros sem adubação (SAO, utilizando 15 peixes/m3 com peso e comprimento médios iniciais de 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. Após 30 dias, o experimento mostrou um desenvolvimento uniforme dos peixes e alta taxa de sobrevivência na densidade estudada. Os tratamentos apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05 para ganho de peso e crescimento diário, com exceção dos tratamentos BOV e SUI quando comparados entre si. A temperatura e o oxigênio dissolvido foram os fatores abióticos que exerceram maior influência sobre a biota aquática, afetando o desenvolvimento dos peixes. Entre o fitoplâncton houve maior abundância de organismos nanoplanctônicos favorecendo o desenvolvimento do zooplâncton, destacando-se as clorófitas, com o gênero Scenedesmus, e as cianofíceas, com o gênero Microcystis, e entre o zooplâncton, a maior abundância foi de rotíferos dos gêneros Brachionus e Keratella, seguido por copépodas. O tratamento adubado com esterco de frangos possibilitou um maior desenvolvimento da comunidade planctônica, e melhores

  5. Desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660 Embryonic and larvae development of piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660

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    Juan Ramón Esquivel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do desenvolvimento embrionário e larval das espécies de peixes é de extrema importância por permitir um melhor estudo da biologia e sistemática da espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Foram realizadas amostragens contínuas de 15 a 20 embriões durante toda a embriogênese. Os ovos se apresentaram semidensos, transparentes, esféricos e com um grande espaço perivitelínico. Depois de 18 horas e 30 minutos da fertilização, mantidos a 25 ± 0,8°C aconteceu a eclosão. O comprimento total das larvas recém eclodidas foi de 4,46 ± 0,39mm e o peso de 2,56 ± 0,73mg. As larvas de piracanjuba apresentaram forte canibalismo depois de 36 horas da eclosão, quando foi observada também a presença de olhos bem desenvolvidos e pigmentados, assim como uma abertura vertical da boca de 15,2 ± 1,9% do comprimento corporalThe knowledge of embryonic and larvae development of fishes is a fundamental key which enables a closer approach to their biology and taxonomy. The present study aims to characterize piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus embryonic and larvae development. During the whole embryogenesis, 15 to 20 embryos were sampled and analyzed. Eggs of B. orbignyanus are semidense, transparent, spherical, and bear a large perivitelline space. Hatching takes place 18 hours and 30 minutes after fertilization at 25 ± 0.8ºC. Total length and weight of just hatched larvae were 4.46 ± 0.39mm and 2.56 ± 0.73mg, respectively. Larvae presented entirely developed and pigmented eyes, as well as a vertical mouth opening of 15.2 ± 1.9% of body length, 36 hours after hatching, period from which intense cannibalism was observed

  6. Determinação da razão ótima de espermatozóides por ovócitos de piabanha Brycon insignis (pisces - characidae Determination of the optimum ratio of spermatozoa per oocyte of the piabanha Brycon insignis

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    E. Shimoda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a razão ótima de espermatozóides por ovócitos da piabanha Brycon insignis, utilizando-se dois machos e duas fêmeas da espécie, submetidos ao procedimento de desova induzida. Os gametas foram extrusados manualmente 200 horas-grau após a aplicação do extrato bruto de hipófise. Os ovócitos foram misturados e deste pool retiraram-se amostras com 2g de ovócitos (701 ovócitos/g. O sêmen do pool foi diluído em solução de NaCL 1,2% de tal forma que, após a adição de 1ml do sêmen diluído aos ovócitos, fossem obtidas as seguintes razões espermatozóides por ovócitos em cada tratamento: T1=86.662, T2=173.324, T3=259.986, T4=346.648 e T5=433.310. A taxa de fertilização do sêmen não diluído usado como controle foi de 65,3%. Após ativação espermática com NaHCO3 1% e fecundação, os ovos foram transferidos para as incubadoras e nelas foram observadas as seguintes percentagens de fertilização em relação à do grupo-controle: T1=35,7%, T2=53,1%, T3=79,1%, T4=93,4% e T5=87,8%. A percentagem de fertilização (em relação ao controle aumentou de forma linear, segundo a equação de regressão: Y=15,55+0,0002297X (PThe optimum spermatozoa:oocyte ratio of piabanha Brycon insignis was studied. Two males and two females were induced to spawn, and the gametes were stripped after 200 hourgrades starting from the application of carp pituitary gland. Oocytes from two females were mixed, and samples of 2g (701 oocytes/g were collected from the obtained pool and placed into plastic cups. The semen from the two males, after mixed to compose a pool, was diluted in NaCl solution (1.2% so that, after the addition of 1ml of diluted sperm into the oocytes, the following spermatozoa:oocyte ratios (tri-replicated were obtained: T1=86,662, T2=173,324, T3=259,986, T4=346,648 and T5=433,310. After the activation using 1% NaHCO3 and fertilization, the eggs were transferred to incubators, and observed the percentages of fertilization

  7. Desenvolvimento gonadal de fêmeas de matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, submetidas a restrição alimentar Gonadal development of matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, females submitted to feed restriction

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    Antonio Cleber da Silva Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de ciclos de restrição alimentar e realimentação (2/3 dias, aplicados durante seis meses antes da desova, no desenvolvimento gonadal de matrinxã. Na ocasião da desova, fêmeas alimentadas diariamente e submetidas ao regime alimentar experimental, selecionadas para a indução hormonal, foram sacrificadas para retirada das gônadas e do fígado, com os quais se calculou o IGS (índice gonadossomático e o IHS (índice hepatossomático, sendo os ovários processados para análise histológica. Não houve alteração no peso relativo dos ovários e fígado, e o desenvolvimento gonadal não foi afetado pelo esquema alimentar. Os valores de IGS foram de 5,09±4,98% e 9,79±4,17% e os de IHS foram de 0,84±0,07% e 0,91±0,11%, para as fêmeas controle e experimentais, respectivamente, sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Os ovários de peixes dos dois grupos apresentaram as mesmas características do estádio maduro, com predominância de ovócitos na fase final de maturação, repletos de vitelo. O estudo indica que a restrição alimentar não afetou a preparação das fêmeas para a reprodução e que ciclos adequados de restrição e realimentação poderão ser aplicados na criação do matrinxã, assegurando menores custos de produção.The present study evaluated the effect of cycles of feed restriction and refeeding (2/3 days during 6 months before the spawning on the gonadal development of matrinxã. At the spawning time, females selected to hormonal induction were killed for gonad and liver removal and GSI (gonadosomatic index and HSI (hepatosomatic index were calculated. Ovaries were processed for histological analysis. The feeding regime did not alter GSI and HSI and the gonadal development. The values of GSI were 5.09±4.98% and 9.79±4.17%, and of HSI were 0.84±0.07% and 0.91±0.11%, in control and experimental females, respectively, without significant difference between groups. Ovaries from both fish groups showed the same charachteristics of the mature stage, with predominance of oocytes in the final phase of maturation, presenting large amount of yolk. The study indicates that the feed restriction did not affect the matrinxã ability to reproduction and that cycles of feed restriction and refeeding can be used in matrinxã farming leading to lower production costs.

  8. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations.

  9. Rhodnius amazonicus Almeida, Santos & Sposina, 1973, Bona Species, Close to R. pictipes Stål, 1872 (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    J-M Bérenger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of two atypical specimens of Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1872 in French Guiana and the examination of the female holotype of R. amazonicus Almeida, Santos & Sposina, 1973, the only specimen of this species so far known, lead us to propose the rehabilitation of R. amazonicus synonymized with R. pictipes. The male is described for the first time and the female redescribed. Both external characters and genitalia distinguish R. amazonicus from R. pictipes. R. amazonicus shows affinities not only with pictipes but also with R. stali Lent, Jurberg & Galvão, 1993 and R. paraensis Sherlock, Guitton & Miles, 1977. A key is provided for these four species forming, in all likelihood, a natural group, i.e. the "pictipes group".

  10. Anatomia funcional e morfometria dos intestinos e dos cecos pilóricos do teleostei (pisces de água doce Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae. Foram conduzidos estudos anatomofuncionais e morfométricos nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos dessa espécie com hábito alimentar onívoro. Constatou-se, por meio destes estudos, que o padrão de enrolamento das alças intestinais em arranjo em N apresentou, na segunda classe de tamanho, freqüentes variações no intestino médio, mas foi compatível com os de outras espécies de hábitos alimentares similares. Os estudos da morfometria mostraram que o comprimento total do intestino e das alças intestinais e seus calibres, provavelmente, exercem função específica na absorção dos nutrientes. As relações entre o arranjo das pregas da mucosa e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio sugerem que os padrões transversal e oblíquo retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, possibilitando maior período digestivo e melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes, contribuindo para a preparação do bolo fecal. O comprimento e o calibre dos cecos pilóricos aumentam com o desenvolvimento do peixe, e o seu padrão de mucosa possui características anatômicas semelhantes às do intestino.

  11. 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis protein profiles of the scorpion venom from Brotheas amazonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, A.M.; Noronha, M.D.N. [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Rede Proteomica do Amazonas (Proteam). Lab. de Genomica e Proteomica; Rocha-Oliveira, F.; Lopez-Lozano, J.L.L. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biotecnologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Scorpions venoms show specific neurotoxins to insect or mammals. These toxins are very important molecular tools to development of news drugs or bioinsecticides. Brotheas amazonicus scorpion is an endemic specie in Amazonian Rain Forest, but your venom do not show toxicity in humans. Information about biological specific activity on insect of this venom is not known yet. Objectives: Molecular protein toxins profiles of the venom from Brotheas amazonicus scorpion by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis methods to detected toxins with potential biotech applications. Results: Several spots 'families' with {approx} 60, 70 and 80 kDa were detected in gel acidic region with pI {approx} 4,5 - 6 range, in the same region 1-D zimography showed proteolytic activity on gelatin and fibrinogen and proteolytic activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting scorpion serine proteinases. 50 kDa proteins were detected with pI {approx} 6,5 - 7 range. In 23 - 50 kDa gel acid region were observed some proteins. In 23 - 14 kDa gel acidic region were detected proteins with pI 4 - 7 range. 1-D Tris-tricine gel showed proteins with {approx} 7 kDa, suggesting scorpion neurotoxins. In gel basic region only 14 kDa proteins were observed with pI {approx} 9 - 10 range. Conclusion: Molecular profile of the scorpion venom from B. amazonicus showed proteins with high and low molecular masses, mainly with acidic pI. Proteolytic activity suggest serine proteinases with high molecular masses and 7 kDa proteins in B. amazonicus venom suggest scorpion neurotoxins. Purification and molecular characterization of these toxins are in course.

  12. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

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    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.

  13. Stress responses of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus after transport in a closed system under different loading densities Respostas de estresse de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus juvenil após transporte em sistema fechado sob diferentes densidades de carga

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    Janessa Sampaio de Abreu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimum loading density for the transport of matrinxã juveniles was investigated in a closed system with plastic bags. Transport was conducted for 4 h with fish (23.5± 0.4g and 11.6 (0.08cm starved for 24h at loading densities of 83g L-1 (D1, 125g L-1 (D2, 168g L-1 (D3 and 206g L-1 (D4. Fish were sampled before transport (BT, after transport (AT and 24h AT. The water quality was monitored before capturing fish in depuration tanks, after transport in plastic bags and in recovery tanks. Water oxygen decreased to values below 4mg L-1 in D2, D3 and D4, temperature was around 32°C, pH 6.5-6.78, total ammonia 1.09-1.7mg L-1, un-ionized ammonia 3.58-9.33x10³mg L-1 and alkalinity 134-165mg CaCO3 L-1. Blood cortisol and glucose concentrations increased in fish of all densities AT and recovered the BT levels 24h after arrival. Osmolality did not change AT but increased 24h AT in fish of all densities whereas plasma chloride decreased inversely to the loading densities after the procedure. Hematocrit decreased 24h AT in fish of all densities but no differences were verified in the number of erythrocytes. No mortality was registered in any treatment during the next week after transport. Matrinxã demonstrated to be a crowding tolerant-species in transport operations besides tolerating low levels of oxygen in the water.Neste estudo, foram investigadas as densidades de carga adequadas para transporte de matrinxãs juvenis em sistema fechado com sacos plásticos. O transporte de 4h foi feito com peixes (23,5±0,4g; 11,6 (0,08cm em jejum por 24h, em densidades de 83g L-1 (D1, 125g L-1 (D2, 168g L-1 (D3 e 206g L-1 (D4. Os peixes foram amostrados antes do transporte (AT, logo após o transporte (chegada (DT e 24h depois. A qualidade da água foi monitorada antes da captura dos peixes nos tanques de depuração, após o transporte nos sacos plásticos e nos tanques de recuperação. O oxigênio da água diminuiu para valores inferiores a 4mg L-1 em D2, D3 e D4, a temperatura esteve em torno de 32°C, pH 6,5-6,78, a amônia total foi de 1,09-1,7mg L-1, a amônia não-ionizada foi de 3,58-9,33 x 10³mg L-1 e alcalinidade 134-165mg CaCO3 L-1. O cortisol plasmático e a glicose sanguínea aumentaram após o transporte nos peixes em todas as densidades ensaiadas, voltando aos valores controle 24h depois. Os valores de osmolaridade não mudaram logo após o transporte, mas aumentaram 24h depois de modo igual em todas as densidades. O cloreto plasmático diminuiu na chegada, de modo inversamente proporcional à densidade de carga. O hematócrito diminuiu 24h depois da chegada dos peixes, em todas as densidades testadas, mas não houve diferença no número de eritrócitos. Não houve mortalidade até uma semana após o transporte. O matrinxã mostrou ser uma espécie tolerante a altas densidades de carga em embalagens para transporte além de suportar baixos níveis de oxigênio na água.

  14. Phylogeny of the family Characidae (Teleostei: Characiformes: from characters to taxonomy

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    Juan Marcos Mirande

    Full Text Available The family Characidae is the most diverse among Neotropical fishes. Systematics of this family are mainly based on pre-cladistic papers, and only recently a phylogenetic hypothesis for Characidae was proposed by the author. That phylogeny was based on 360 morphological characters studied for 160 species, including representatives of families related to Characidae. This paper is based on that phylogenetic analysis, with the analyzed characters described herein and documented, accompanied by comparisons of their definition and coding in previous papers. Synapomorphies of each node of the proposed phylogeny are listed, comparisons with previous classifications provided, and autapomorphies of the analyzed species listed. Taxonomic implications of the proposed classification and the position of the incertae sedis genera within Characidae are discussed. A discussion of the phylogenetic information of the characters used in the classical systematics of the Characidae is provided.

  15. Milt quality and spermatozoa morphology of captive Brycon siebenthalae (Eigenmann) broodstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Lombo-Rodríguez, Dora A.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop artificial reproduction in freshwater fish for potential species to be developed in South American aquaculture, milt quality and sperm morphology were studied in yamu (Brycon siebenthalae) under captive conditions during the natural middle spermiation period. The volume of milt...

  16. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

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    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.Para obter informações básicas para o manejo de Salminus sp. no sopé andino ocidental da Venezuela, se estudaram aspectos sobre sua ecologia e aproveitamento. Nos rios do sopé da montanha efetuaram-se capturas de peixes com variados tamanhos de malha, assim como observações subaquáticas e terrestres para estimar abundâncias e eventos de alimentação. Aplicaramse

  17. Curvas de crescimento morfométrico de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Morphometric growth curves of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Juliana Sampaio Guedes Gomiero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras M.G., com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de crescimento morfométrico em função do peso corporal para a piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Alevinos de piracanjuba foram cultivados em viveiros de terra e alimentados com ração comercial até atingirem peso aproximado de 1 kg. Durante o período experimental realizaram-se amostragens aleatórias, onde foram avaliadas as medidas morfométricas comprimento da cabeça (CCAB, comprimento padrão (CP, altura (AND e largura (LND tomada no 1ºraio da nadadeira dorsal e as razões morfométricas (CCAB/CP, AND/CP, LND/CP, AND/LND utilizando-se as funções de Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz e Logística. As funções estudadas apresentaram bom ajuste para todas as medidas morfométricas e para a razão CCAB/CP. As funções de Brody, von Bertalanffy e Gompertz apresentaram qualidades de ajuste semelhantes e superiores à função Logística para as medidas morfométricas. Para a razão CCAB/CP a função Logística apresentou-se superior às demais. A taxa de crescimento da CCAB e LND foi superior às do CP e AND, indicando um crescimento mais rápido da cabeça e largura do que do comprimento padrão e altura. Conclui-se que todos os modelos estudados apresentaram bom ajuste, sendo o de Brody e o de von Bertalanffy os que descrevem melhor o crescimento morfométrico da piracanjuba.An experiment was carried out at the fish farming sector of the Universidade Federal de Lavras M.G., with the objective of establishing morphometric growth curves as a function of the body weight of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Fingerlings of piracanjuba were cultivated in earthen ponds and fed a commercial diet (ad libitum until they reached weight of about 1 kg. During the experimental period, samplings were randomly selected to take morphometric measures of the head length (CCAB, standard length (CP, height (AND, and breadth (LND

  18. Immunobiologic and Antiinflammatory Properties of a Bark Extract from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke

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    Ligia Maria Torres Peçanha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ampelozizyphus amazonicus is used in the treatment and prevention of malaria. The effect of an aqueous extract from this plant (SART on the immune response was investigated by measuring immunoglobulin production induced by immunization with the antigen TNP-Ficoll in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. SART treatment increased antigen-specific IgM and IgG levels in TNP-Ficoll-immunized mice. The B cell response during malarial infection was also modified by SART. There was an increase in total serum IgM and IgG and a decrease in the percentage of splenic plasma cells (CD138+ cells in P. chabaudi-infected, SART-treated animals. SART (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg, p.o. and the reference drug dexamethasone (5 mg/kg were also tested in carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP. All SART doses significantly reduced leukocyte migration into the SAP. The protein concentration resulting from extravasation into the peritoneum was also significantly reduced. Our data indicate that SART possesses immunomodulatory properties, inducing an in vivo modification of the B lymphocyte response and anti-inflammatory properties, which are partly due to a reduction in cell migration and are most likely due to an inhibition of the production of inflammatory mediators. Preliminary HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of SART shows a complex saponin profile with deprotonated molecule [M-H]− ions in the range of m/z 800–1000.

  19. Evaluation of Antiplasmodial activity of extracts and constituents from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Dominique F. M.; Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Machado, Marta; Lopes, Dinora; Echevarria, Aurea; Rosário, Virgílio E.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke, a plant that is widely used by the population of the Amazonian region to prevent and treat malaria, was investigated in this work, which describes, for the first time, the antiplasmodial activity of its extracts and associates this activity with its isolated constituents. Methods: Different extracts with solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water) were obtained of the root bark. This procedure resulted in extracts that were characterized for their constituents. The cytotoxicity and activity of the extracts against Plasmodium berghei (schizontocidal activity, liver stage) and Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 and Dd2 strains, erythrocyte stage) were assessed in vitro. Results: Of the four extracts assayed against P. berghei, the chloroform extract showed the greatest activity, with an inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) value of 30.1 µg/mL, followed by the aqueous extract (IC50 = 39.9 µg/mL). The chloroform extract exhibited the highest antiplasmodial activity in the erythrocyte stage of P. falciparum, with an IC50 value lower than 15 µg/mL. Fractionation of this more active extract led to the isolation and elucidation of pentacyclic triterpenes, lupeol, betulin and betulinic acid, which showed antiplasmodial activities with IC50 values ranging from 5.6 to 80.30 µM. The most active of these, betulinic acid, was further quantified in the extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector analyzes. The higher amount was found in the chloroform extract, which was the most active one against P. falciparum. Conclusion: The results obtained in this work may partly explain the popular intake of A. amazonicusas an antimalarial remedy in the Amazon region. PMID:26664012

  20. Water quality and zooplankton in tanks with larvae of Brycon Orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1949).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Alvarez, E J da S; Braga, F M de S

    2008-02-01

    Due to the importance of water variables conditions and available food in the development and survival of fish larvae, the current research evaluates the effects of two different food treatments (ration + zooplankton and only zooplankton) and water quality in tanks with Brycon orbignyanus larvae. Total water transparency (45 cm) has been mainly associated with short residence time, continuous water flow and shallowness. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.32 and 7.00 mg.L(-1) in tanks with ration + zooplankton and between 1.82 and 7.60 mg.L(-1) in tanks with only zooplankton treatments. Nutrients were directly affected by the addition of ration in water, with the exception of nitrite. Ten Rotifera species were found represented by high densities, ranging between 8.7 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(6) org.m(-3), throughout the experimental period (January to March/1996). Cladocera had the lowest density in the four tanks under analysis and ranged between 4.7 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(5) org.m(-3) for the six species. Diaphanosoma birgei has been classified as the most frequent species. Since ration + zooplankton produced better larvae yield, this treatment is recommended for Brycon orbignyanus larvae.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling

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    Vari Richard P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs. The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and

  2. Efeito do peso de abate nos rendimentos do processamento da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849 Effect of body weight on processing yields of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849

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    Thiago Archangelo Freato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito do peso de abate sobre os rendimentos do processamento do peixe teleósteo piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849. Inicialmente, alevinos com peso médio de 12 g, oriundos da Estação Experimental da Usina Hidrelétrica de Itutinga, foram estocados e cultivados em um viveiro de terra na Estação de Piscicultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Ao final de 18 meses de cultivo, 121 peixes foram insensibilizados, abatidos, pesados e dissecados, para a determinação das porcentagens de cabeça (%CAB, nadadeiras (%NAD, vísceras (%VIS, pele com escamas (%PE, e resíduos da filetação (%RF e dos rendimentos de carcaça (RCAR e de filé sem pele (RFSP, em relação ao peso de abate. Para as análises de variância, os dados obtidos foram agrupados em 4 classes de peso (CP1=515 g a 629 g; CP2=630 g a 744 g; CP3=745 g a 859 g; e CP4=860 g a 975 g e as equações de regressão estimadas em função do peso médio de cada classe. Não foi constatado (P>0,05 efeito de classe de peso sobre RCAR, %NAD e %PE. Por outro lado, observaram-se efeito linear do peso de abate sobre %CAB (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body weight on processing yields of a teleost fish piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849. Firstly, fingerlings were reared in ponds in the Fish Culture of the Animal Sciences Department, Federal University of Lavras, M.G. - Brazil, for 18 months. Then, 121 fishes were insensibilized, slaughtered, weighed and dissected, in order to determine the percentages of head (%CAB, fins (%NAD, visceras (%VIS, skin with scales (%PE, and fillet residues (%RF, and the carcass yield (RCAR and fillet without skin yield (RFSP, in relation to body weight. For analyses of variances, data were distributed over four weight classes (CP1 = 515 to 629g; CP2 = 630 to 744g; CP3 = 745 to 859g; and CP4 = 860 to 975g and the regression

  3. Stocking densities of juvenile Brycon orthotaenia: production parameters and economic benefits in net cages

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    Aline de Assis Lago

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing a rearing technology requires the determination of the optimum stocking density. This study aimed to determine the best stocking density for Brycon orthotaenia juveniles grown in net cages, during the rearing phase. The research was conducted at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG, in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais State, in the Três Marias Reservoir. 9,000 fingerlings were distributed into 12 net cages, 2 m3each, according to a completely randomized design with three replications and four different stocking densities (150, 300, 450, 600 fish m-3. Random samples were taken from each net cage, at the onset of the experiment and at 60 rearing days, to assess production parameters, specific growth rate and uniformity. We verified a positive linear relationship (p 0.05 for growth parameters, uniformity and final weight. It can be concluded that the density of 300 fish m-3 is the most suitable, because it provides higher net revenue, survival, and a good feed conversion.

  4. Fish stock assessment of piraputanga Brycon microlepis in the Cuiabá River basin, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    L. A. de F. MATEUS

    Full Text Available Fork length measurements of individuals of Brycon microlepis landed and commercialized at the Porto Market in Cuiabá, MT, from May-October 1996 to May-October 1997 were used to estimate growth and mortality parameters for this species. The average estimated populational parameters were: L¥ = 705 mm, k = 0.275 year--1, C = 0.775, WP = 0.465, Lc = 164 mm, M = 0.585 year--1, Z = 0.822 year--1, with F = 0.237 year--1. Yield per recruit analysis suggests that the stock is not yet overexploited.

  5. Redescription of Hyphessobrycon flammeusMyers, 1924 (Ostariophysi: Characidae, a threatened species from Brazil

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    Fernando R. Carvalho

    Full Text Available One of the most gorgeous colored and endangered Hyphessobryconspecies, H. flammeus Myers, is redescribed. Diagnostic characters of the species are two vertically elongated humeral spots, no caudal peduncle blotch, 5-8 maxillary teeth, caudal fin hyaline, and longitudinal dark stripe of the body absent. Sexual dimorphism is present, with males being more colored than females and having bony hooks in the anal and pelvic fins, which are dark in their terminal portions. Comments about its occurrence in the upper rio Tietê drainage (upper rio Paraná basin, its conservation status, and the phylogenetic position into Characidae context are also presented.

  6. Cultivo de matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864 em tanques-rede, em diferentes densidades de estocagem = Matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia rearing in floating cage in different stocking densities

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    Marcelo Mattos Pedreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento avaliou o desempenho e sobrevivência de juvenis de matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia cultivados em tanques-rede de 4 m3, por 197 dias, em três densidades de estocagem: 20, 40 e 60 peixes m-3. Foram utilizados exemplares com 19,9 ± 0,3 cm de comprimento total e 90,0 ± 0,15 g de peso. Os animais foram alimentados com ração extrusada contendo 36% de proteína bruta. O comprimento total e o peso foram superiores (p 0,05 entre as diferentes densidades; porém, a biomassa produzida foi superior (p This experiment evaluated the development and survival of matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia juveniles reared during a 197-day experiment, in a 4 m3 floating cage, in three stocking densities: 20, 40 and 60 fish m-3. Juveniles with 19.9 ± 0.3 cm of total length and 90.0 ± 0.15 g of weight were used. The animals were fed with floating pellets (commercial diet with 36% crude protein. The total length, and weight were higher (p 0.05 among the different densities; however, the produced biomass was higher (p < 0.05 in densities of 40 and 60 fish m-3. The increased stocking density showed a more homogeneous growth. The increase in stocking density for B. orthotaenia juveniles presented a higher biomass, homogeneity of fishes, lesser growth, but had no effect in survival.

  7. Population genetic structure revealed by a school of the freshwatermigratory fish, Brycon hilarii Estructura genética poblacional revelada por un cardumen del pez migratorio de agua dulce, Brycon hilarii

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    Alexandra Sanches

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that different genetic populations of migratory fishes can co-exist in a single hydrographic system. Although different populations may occupy and explore the river together, they segregate during the spawning season and consequently the population genetic structuring is maintained. Genetic variation of a Brycon hilarii spawning school and samples from different collection sites in the Miranda River basin were surveyed using seven microsatellites. Population structuring was revealed by a significant differentiation of the spawning school related to the supposed local populations. The genetic differentiation detected may be supported by behavior during the reproductive season that promotes the maintenance of the genetic integrity of different populations. These data may contribute toward the understanding of the behavior and biology of these fish as well as fishery management and species conservation programs.Se ha documentado que diferentes poblaciones genéticas de peces migratorios pueden coexistir en un único sistema hidrográfico. Diferentes poblaciones pueden ocupar y explorar el río juntas, pero se segregan durante la temporada de desove y consecuentemente la estructuración genética poblacional se mantiene. La diversidad genética de un cardumen reproductivo de Brycon hilarii y muestras de diferentes sitios en la cuenca del Río Miranda fueron analizadas mediante siete microsatélites. La estructura poblacional fue revelada por una diferenciación genética significativa del cardumen reproductivo con las muestras de las poblaciones locales. La diferenciación genética detectada puede ser resultado de un probable comportamiento durante la temporada reproductiva, que promueve el mantenimiento de la integridad genética de las diferentes poblaciones. Estos datos pueden contribuir a la comprensión del comportamiento y biología de estos peces, así como amparar programas de gestión de la pesca y conservación de las

  8. Effect of methyl parathion on the muscle and brain acetylcholinesterase activity of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

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    Almeida Luciana Cristina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming of the freshwater fish is emerging in Brazil and many species from the wild are promising. The teleost matrinxã (Brycon cephalus holds several characteristics such as fast growth rate, high commercial value and adaptability to artificial raring conditions, which make it a promising species for commerce. The use of pesticides in aquatic environment is frequent in Brazil, and methyl parathion is very common in aquaculture. We have determined the enzymatic activity of acetyl cholinesterase in white muscle and brain of matrinxã exposed to 2ppm of environmental methyl parathion for 24 hours. There was 64% and 69% of acetyl cholinesterase inhibition in muscle and brain respectively. These activities were not recovered after 8 days from exposure to this pesticide. It can be concluded that acetyl cholinesterase from those tissues was inhibited by small amounts of methyl parathion, and the main effect was observed in the brain.

  9. Gonadossomatic relation and reproductive strategy of Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819 in the Serra do Mar State Park - Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    LM Gomiero

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the gonadossomatic relation of males and females of Brycon opalinus (the Pirapitinga do Sul in the Serra do Mar State Park-Núcleo Santa Virgínia. The study area included three rivers: Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande. From the gonadossomatic relation, it was possible to determine the reproductive season and strategy of this species. The gonadossomatic relation was high throughout the year for both males and females. Sperm competition and dilution of the ejaculate in the spawning locations favored substantial development of the testicles. The sex ratio of Brycon opalinus was always in favor of females. The existence of sexual dimorphism in this species was confirmed from the larger size of the females.

  10. Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis sp. n. (Teleostei, Characidae una nueva especie para el Alto Cauca, Colombia

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    García-Alzate, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis n. sp. (Teleostei, Characidae a new species from the Alto Cauca, Colombia Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis n. sp. (Characiformes, Characidae from heterorhabdus group (Gery, 1977 is described from the upper Cauca River in Colombia. The new species is distinguished from all other known species by the following combination of characters: three unbranched and eight branched fins in the dorsal fin; short maxillary bone with one or no teeth; four small foramens in the maxillary bone, and five in the premaxillary; 5-17 scales with pores in the lateral line, six between the lateral line and anal-fin origin, six between the lateral line and pelvic-fin origin, and nine predorsals; depth of the caudal peduncle has a mean of 16.7% in standard length; interorbital width 50.6% in head; a dark spot on caudal peduncle and a dark lateral band that extends vertically from the dorsal–fin origin to the tips of the middle caudal fin rays. Physical and chemical data of their habitat are included.

  11. The effect of saponins from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke on the renal Na+ pumps’ activities and urinary excretion of natriuretic peptides

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    Diniz Lúcio Ricardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we showed that a saponin mixture isolated from the roots of Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke (SAPAaD reduces urine excretion in rats that were given an oral loading of 0.9 % NaCl (4 ml/100 g body weight. In the present study, we investigated whether atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP and renal ATPases play a role in the SAPAaD- induced antidiuresis in rats. Methods To evaluate the effect of SAPAaD on furosemide-induced diuresis, Wistar rats (250-300 g were given an oral loading of physiological solution (0.9 % NaCl, 4 ml/100 g body weight to impose a uniform water and salt state. The solution containing furosemide (Furo, 13 mg/kg was given 30 min after rats were orally treated with 50 mg/kg SAPAaD (SAPAaD + Furo or 0.5 ml of 0.9 % NaCl (NaCl + Furo. In the SAPAaD + NaCl group, rats were pretreated with SAPAaD and 30 min later they received the oral loading of physiological solution. Animals were individually housed in metabolic cages, and urine volume was measured every 30 min throughout the experiment (3 h. To investigate the role of ANP and renal Na+ pumps on antidiuretic effects promoted by SAPAaD, rats were given the physiological solution (as above containing SAPAaD (50 mg/kg. After 90 min, samples of urine and blood from the last 30 min were collected. Kidneys and atria were also removed after previous anesthesia. ANP was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA and renal cortical activities of Na+- and (Na+,K+-ATPases were calculated from the difference between the [32P] Pi released in the absence and presence of 1 mM furosemide/2 mM ouabain and in the absence and presence of 1 mM ouabain, respectively. Results It was observed that SAPAaD inhibited furosemide-induced diuresis (at 90 min: from 10.0 ± 1.0 mL, NaCl + Furo group, n = 5, to 5.9 ± 1.0 mL, SAPAaD + Furo group n = 5, p +-ATPase (from 25.0 ± 5.9 nmol Pi

  12. Effects of clove oil on the stress response of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus subjected to transport Efeito do óleo de cravo na resposta de estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus submetido ao transporte

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    Luís Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish transport is one of the most stressful procedures in aquaculture facilities. The present work evaluated the stress response of matrinxã to transportation procedures, and the use of clove oil as an alternative to reduce the stress response to transport in matrinxã (Brycon cephalus. Clove oil solutions were tested in concentrations of 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg/L during matrinxã transportation in plastic bags, supplied with water and oxygen as the usual field procedures in Brazil. Clove oil reduced some of the physiological stress responses (plasma cortisol, glucose and ions that we measured. The high energetic cost to matrinxã cope with the transport stress was clear by the decrease of liver glycogen after transport. Our results suggest that clove oil (5 mg/l can mitigate the stress response in matrinxã subjected to transport.O transporte de peixes vivos é certamente um dos principais estímulos adversos à homeostase dos peixes nas condições de criação em cativeiro. O presente trabalho mensurou o estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, quando submetido ao transporte em sacos plásticos, bem como avaliou os efeitos do uso do anestésico óleo de cravo nessa etapa do manejo. Foram testadas as concentrações de 0, 1, 5 e 10 mg/L de óleo de cravo em bolsas plásticas preenchidas com água e oxigênio, de acordo com as práticas comumente utilizadas no Brasil. O óleo de cravo reduziu algumas das principais respostas ao estresse (cortisol, glicose plasmática e íons mensuradas. O alto gasto de energia para o matrinxã tolerar o transporte foi evidenciado pela diminuição dos valores de glicogênio hepático. Os resultados sugerem que o óleo de cravo em concentração de 5 mg/L pode atenuar as principais respostas de estresse do matrinxã durante o transporte.

  13. Benzocaine and eugenol as anesthetics for Brycon hilarii - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16644

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    Fábio Bittencourt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic products are frequently employed during fish handling practices; however, the correct doses of the various chemicals for different species are still unknown. This study determined the ideal concentrations of benzocaine and eugenol as anesthetics used in Brycon hilarii juveniles. The fish were acquired from a commercial fish farm located in western Paraná state, Brazil, totaling 104 juveniles, with average body weight and length of 50.04 ± 20.80 g and 16.30 ± 12.32 cm respectively. The study was carried out at the Aquiculture Laboratory from the Aquaculture Management Study Group - GEMAq at the West Parana State University. Five benzocaine concentrations (50.0, 100.0, 150.0, 200.0 and 250.0 mg L-1 and seven eugenol concentrations (50.0, 100.0, 150.0, 200.0, 250.0, 300.0 and 350 mg L-1 were evaluated in order to assess the induction time to anesthesia. The fish were transferred to anesthetic-free tanks to recover, and the time needed to return to normal activity was recorded. The best results were observed with the benzocaine dose of 100 mg L-1 and the eugenol dose between 100 and 150 mg L-1.  

  14. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN Genetic Variability in Brycon orbignyanus Stocks Used in Stocking Programs: Management and Conservation

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    NELSON M LOPERA-BARRERO

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar.Environmental alterations caused by the global heating and mainly caused by man's action, have reduced natural fish populations. As a conservation measure, stocking programs have been used; however, without scientific orientation these measures can generate genetic disturbances on the genetic diversity of natural fish populations and the

  15. Otimização das condições de extração de saponinas em Ampelozizyphus amazonicus usando planejamento experimental e metodologia de superfície de resposta

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    Fabiane M dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This works describes the use of experimental design and surface response methodology for optimization of saponin extraction from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus. For this purpose, a method employing extraction based on maceration assisted by ultrasound technique was utilized. The following factors were studied: extraction length of time and solvent composition. The total saponin was determined by using a gravimetric method and the results expressed by their relative proportion to total crude extract. For the specific condition, 60% hydro-alcoholic solution and 18 minutes extraction length of time has shown the best results. This method can be useful for extraction of substances with biological importance

  16. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

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    NELSON M. LOPERA-BARRERO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa- das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios gené- ticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosis- tema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD ( Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar.

  17. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

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    VARGAS LAURO

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar

  18. VALOR AGREGADO DE LAS ESPECIES Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE y Agouti paca (MAJAS

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    Doylith Vásquez Jurafo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo  la obtención de  productos mínimamente procesados (PMP de Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE, y Agouti paca (MAJAS congelado y empacado al vacio. Para las especies piscícolas, se ha aplicado un diseño factorial de 32 con dos factores de estudios: concentración de NaCl en la solución osmótica con tres niveles (15, 20 y 25 % y temperatura de proceso  con tres niveles de estudio (5, 10 y 15 °C. Para el Agouti paca (majas se aplico un diseño factorial completamente aleatorizado con tres factores de estudio: tiempo de proceso (30, 60 y 90 minutos, método de ahumado (ahumado líquido y ahumado en caliente y tipo de corte del músculo (partes y filetes. Para trabajar se ha diseñado y montado un deshidratador Osmótico teniendo en cuenta, diámetro de tubería, deshidratador propiamente dicho con doble chaqueta, capacidad del deshidratador en función del volumen de la Salmuera.  Todos los productos se obtuvieron  en procesos con 10 °C y tiempos entre 30 min y  90 min. El tiempo de vida en almacenamiento en las evaluaciones de aroma y color en majas tienen una vida útil de 4 meses de almacenados a -18 °C. Los análisis microbiológicos realizados a los PMP no pasan los límites de la NTS Nº 071 MINSA/DIGESA V01.

  19. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed.

  20. Molecular phylogeny of the Neotropical fish genus Tetragonopterus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

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    Melo, Bruno F; Benine, Ricardo C; Silva, Gabriel S C; Avelino, Gleisy S; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Tetragonopterinae encompasses characid species of the genus Tetragonopterus, which are widely distributed throughout east of the Andes in South America. While taxonomy has recently clarified the species diversity and molecular evidence strongly supports the monophyly of Tetragonopterus, no interspecific relationship studies are currently available. Here we used a large molecular dataset composed of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci containing an extensive taxon sampling within the family Characidae and included eleven species of Tetragonopterus to generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for Tetragonopterinae. Our results support monophyly of the subfamily represented solely by Tetragonopterus and corroborate previous molecular hypothesis of close relationship with Exodon plus Roeboexodon and the subfamily Characinae. Internally, we found Moenkhausia georgiae as sister species to all remaining species followed by T. rarus, being both species endemic to the Guiana Shield drainages. Species-level relationships are first hypothesized and putative morphological apomorphies are discussed as support to monophyletic clades. Our time-calibrated phylogeny suggested an origin of the genus during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. We hypothesized that the Andean geological activity followed by transformations in the Amazonian hydrographic scenario during the Miocene may have promoted most of the lineage diversification within the Tetragonopterus.

  1. Feeding ecology of stream-dwelling Characidae (Osteichthyes: Characiformes from the upper Tocantins River, Brazil

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    Maíra Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we studied the trophic ecology of four Characidae species from the Cavalo Stream, upper Tocantins River, considering diet overlap and trophic niche breadth. The diet of the four species was composed of adult and immature insects, both autochthonous and allochthonous in origin. Autochthonous items dominated the diet of Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858, Bryconamericus sp., and Creagrutus atrisignum Myers, 1917. By contrast, allochthonous items were dominant in the diet of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758. Trophic niche breadth varied among species, with the highest value recorded for M. dichroura (0.48, followed by Bryconamericus sp. (0.39, A. bimaculatus (0.33 and C. atrisignum (0.29. Similarity analysis revealed two groups with different patterns of food preference. The first group was composed of insectivorous and the second by omnivorous species. The overlap in food items consumed by the four species studied was high. We suggest that resources are not limited in this stream and that competition might not be regulating these populations. This is one more case corroborating the general pattern registered for Tropical environments, where resource partitioning and specialization are responsible by the organization of fish communities.

  2. Utilização da fibra bruta na nutrição da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Effect of crude fiber on the nutrition of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Evoy Zaniboni Filho

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho da piracanjuba, quando arraçoada com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra bruta. Empregou-se um lote de 60 alevinos, com peso médio de 17,40±3,06g e comprimento padrão médio de 11,70±0,73cm, alojados em 12 aquários circulares de fibra de vidro com capacidade para 150L e numa lotação de cinco peixes por aquário, com abastecimento de água proporcionado por um sistema de circulação fechada. Utilizaram-se rações com semelhante composição em proteína (32%, níveis de energia que variaram de 3.037 a 3.356 kcal ED/kg de ração e níveis crescentes de fibra bruta (5%, 7%, 8% e 9% por 105 dias. Constatou-se que os peixes apresentaram melhor resposta de ganho de peso, quando arraçoados com dietas contendo 9% de fibra bruta e que a utilização de níveis de fibra bruta, acima dos convencionalmente empregados, proporcionou baixos níveis de gordura na carcaça, sem que houvesse prejuízos ao desempenho zootécnico, e que as rações podem ser elaboradas empregando-se subprodutos de origem vegetal ricos em fibra bruta.The present experiment evaluated the performance of Brycon orbignyanus fed on diets with different levels of crude fiber. Fish with mean weight of 17.40±3.06 g and total length of 11.70±0,73cm were stocked in 12 fiberglass aquariums (150 L fitted with center standpipes in a recirculating system at a density of 5 fish/aquarium. The fish were fed four diets containing similar levels of protein (32%, energy levels varyng from 3,037 to 3,356 kcal DE/kg, and crude fiber levels of 5%; 7%; 85 and 9% for 105 days. The fish had better weight gain when fed diet containing 9% of crude fiber, and it can be concluded that fish fed diets containing higher levels of crude fiber than usually used result in fish with less fat on carcass without loss of growth, and by products of plant origin rich in fiber could be used to produce diets for this kind of fish.

  3. Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913 EFFECT OF SOME IONS ON SPERM ACTIVATION IN Brycon henni (EIGENMANN 1913

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    JAVIER TABARES

    2007-06-01

    M (p<0.05. The conclusion is that interaction of the ionic environment with the cell membrane leads to changes in membrane potential and intracellular signalling that trigger sperm motility in Brycon henni.

  4. Evaluación del cultivo de la dorada ( Brycon moorei sinuensis en jaulas flotantes utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados.

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    Robinsón Rosado

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se inició el 30 de septiembre del2000 con el cultivo de Dorada (Brycon mooreisinuensis en jaulas flotantes en el reservorio de laGranja Piscícola Tamarindo (El Espinal, Colombia,utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados durante 180días. Se determinó el crecimiento mediante laganancia en longitud, ganancia en peso, tasa decrecimiento específico, sobre-vivencia final, biomasatotal, factor de condición, factor de conversiónalimenticia. Se sembraron 816 juveniles con longitudpromedio de 17.8 cm y peso promedio de 78.9 g,divididos en cuatro tratamientos con densidad desiembra de 25 peces/cm3 y tres réplicas cada uno.Las dietas balanceadas (proteína bruta y la cantidadde energía (Kcal/Kg suministrada fueron: Tratamiento1: 20% y 2637; tratamiento 2: 32% y 3127;tratamiento 3: 28% y 2852; y tratamiento 4: 24% y2751, respectivamente. El diseño experimental fuecompletamente aleatorio y se aplicó la técnica deanálisis de varianza a los datos biométricos yparámetros físico-químicos. Como prueba designificancia se usó la prueba de Tukey-Kramer con95% de confiabilidad. El modelo matemático de VIONBERTALANFY y la transformación de FOR-WALFORDfueron válidos para el ajuste de las curvas decrecimiento en longitud, peso y la relación longitud– peso. Se puede afirmar que la Dorada consumiólas dietas de origen vegetal de igual manera que lasde origen animal, sin embargo la dieta del 28% deproteína bruta (tratamiento 3 muestra los mejoresresultados, sin diferencias significativas entretratamientos (p > 0.05. De acuerdo con la literaturacitada no hay investigaciones que muestren losrequerimientos nutricionales óptimos para laalimentación de esta especie. En todos los trabajosanteriores, la ganancia de peso diaria fue baja, peromejores que las obtenidas en esta investigación.Mientras que el rendimiento en biomasa fue mayorque los reportados para cultivo en tierra, para todoslos tratamientos en este estudio fue muy bajo.

  5. Dose inseminante utilizada na fertilização artificial de ovócito de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Viviane de Oliveira Felizardo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 é uma espécie de peixe migratória, ameaçada de extinção. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a dose inseminante na fertilização artificial de ovócitos de piracanjuba. Para isso, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Três casais de piracanjuba, selecionados dos tanques de reprodutores da Estação Ambiental de Itutinga (EAI - CEMIG, no período de piracema 2006/2007, receberam aplicação de hormônio extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa (EBHC para obtenção dos gametas. Adotaram-se quatro tratamentos diferentes para a fertilização de 0,1 grama de ovócitos: 10µL, 20µL, 30µL e 40µL de sêmen. As amostras foram ativadas com 5 mL de água do próprio tanque e, em seguida, levadas para incubadoras, dotadas de renovação constante de água, à temperatura de 28ºC. Após 8 e 16 horas, analisaram-se as taxas de fertilização (ovos viáveis e de eclosão dos ovos, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. As relações sêmen-ovócitos testadas não alteraram as taxas de fertilização e eclosão (P>0,05. O número de espermatozoides-ovócitos, variando de 10,4 x10(5 a 41,6 x10(5, foi eficiente para obtenção de boas taxas de fertilidade.

  6. Viabilidade espermática do sêmen de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus resfriado a 4°C Spermatic viability of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus semen cooled at 4°C

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    Luis David Solis Murgas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de três meios diluidores (BTS+KCl - D1, BTS+2KCL - D2 e BTS+Citrato de Sódio - D3, considerando três diferentes tempos de resfriamento (0, 72 e 144 horas, foram analizados no sêmen de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus a 4°C. Testou-se, ainda, a utilidade do meio diluidor BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution, adicionado a citrato de sódio e cloreto de potássio, na manutenção da imobilidade dos espermatozóides e na conservação de características do sêmen. Resultados satisfatórios foram encontrados até 144 horas de resfriamento. A motilidade espermática média do sêmen in natura foi de 94 ± 5,48%, com duração média de 55,6 ± 32,25 segundos (s. Para o sêmen diluído, as médias da motilidade e sua duração foram de 76,00 ± 1,86% e 56,6 ± 6,54 s, 77,00 ± 1,86% e 54,6 ± 6,54 s, e 74,33 ± 1,86% e 75,0 ± 6,54 s, respectivamente, para os diluidores D1, D2 e D3. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os diluidores, que apresentaram efeitos semelhantes nos diferentes tempos. As análises nos tempos 0 e 72 horas mostraram motilidades espermáticas superiores àquelas nas 144 horas, embora as durações da motilidade espermática não tenham diferido nesses tempos. A concentração espermática média do sêmen foi de 8,21 ± 2,26 X 10(9 sptz/mL. Algumas amostras evidenciaram motilidade espermática antes da ativação do sêmen (pré-ativação, principalmente a partir das 96 horas de resfriamento. O meio diluidor BTS pode ser recomendado para conservação de sêmen de piracanjuba (B. orbignyanus, desde que sua osmolaridade seja elevada.The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of 3 diluents BTS+KCl - D1, BTS+2KCL - D2 and BTS+Sodium Citrate - D3 and three different times (hour 0, 72 hours and 144 hours in Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus semen at 4°C. The assay aimed to test usefulness of BTS (Betsville Thawing Solution diluent medium, added to Sodium citrate and Potassium clorate, in maintenance

  7. Exigência Protéica e Relação Energia/Proteína para Alevinos de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Dietary Protein Requirement and Energy to Protein Ratio for Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Fingerlings

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    Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a exigência protéica e correspondente relação energia/proteína em dietas para alevinos de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus. Seis dietas semi-purificadas isocalóricas foram formuladas para conter 3.000 kcal de energia metabolizável (EM/kg e concentrações de proteína bruta (PB de 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42%. Para essas concentrações, as relações E/P das dietas foram de 12,3; 11,6; 10,4; 9,2; 8,5 e 7,1 kcal EM/g PB, respectivamente. As fontes de proteína, lipídios e carboidratos digestíveis foram, respectivamente, caseína/gelatina, óleo de fígado de bacalhau/óleo de soja e dextrina. Após condicionamento de cinco dias, as dietas foram fornecidas, até a saciedade, em duas alimentações diárias, a 162 alevinos (27 peixes/dieta, que apresentaram 8,38 ± 0,09 g de peso médio inicial, distribuídos em 18 tanques de fibra-de-vidro de 100 L, conectados a um sistema de recirculação de água. A temperatura média da água foi de 26,3°C, com extremos de 23,7 e 30,2°C. Após 90 dias, a concentração de proteína na dieta que proporcionou ganho em peso máximo aos peixes foi 29% PB, com relação E/P igual a 10,4 kcal EM/g PB. As dietas com concentrações de PB iguais a 32, 36 e 42% não se mostraram superiores para conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, valor produtivo da proteína e retenção de energia bruta. A deposição corporal de proteína e gordura não sofreu influência da concentração de PB da dietaThe aim of this study was to determine the dietary protein requirement and associated energy to protein (E/P ratio for "Piracanjuba", Brycon orbignyanus, fingerlings. Casein-gelatin semipurified diets were formulated to contain six crude protein (CP concentrations: 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42% at one energy level, 3,000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg. These diets resulted in E/P ratios of 12.3, 11.6, 10.4, 9.2, 8.5 and 7.1 kcal ME/g CP, respectively. The protein, lipid

  8. New species of miniature fish from Marajó Island, Pará, Brazil, with comments on its relationships (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Manoela M. F. Marinho

    Full Text Available A new miniature species of the family Characidae from Marajó Island, Pará State, Brazil is described and assigned to the genus Tyttobrycon. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners primarily by having multicuspid teeth on jaws, and additionally by having the combination of 5-7 premaxillary teeth, dorsal fin only with scattered melanophores and the presence of an adipose fin.

  9. Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913 Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913

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    Olivera Martha

    2007-04-01

    +, Mg2+ and Na+ as well as the effect of channel blocking agents. The parameters measured were cells with motility (%, duration of motility (s, plasma membrane potential, and the effect of channel blockers on activation time and on motility. There was an increased motility when the semen was incubated in solutions containing K+ (p<0.05 compared with the control (CaNaMgK solution; the longest duration of motility was attained when the incubation was performed in solutions containing Na+ and Mg2+ (p<0.05. All solutions induced a change in membrane potential detected
    after 15 s of activation. Blocking K+, Ca2+ and Na+ channels did not alter motility but decreased the activation time (p<0.05. Potassium induced activation at all concentrations up to 105 mM, but motility was drastically decreased at concentrations higher than 140 mM (p<0.05. The conclusion is that interaction of the ionic environment with the cell membrane leads to changes in membrane potential and intracellular signalling that trigger sperm motility in Brycon henni.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic Carlastyanax aurocaudatus (Eigenmann with remarks on the phylogeny of the Stevardiinae (Teleostei: Characidae

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    Juan Marcos Mirande

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Carlastyanax Géry was defined to include Astyanax aurocaudatus, a morphologically odd species having, among other features, four teeth in the posterior premaxillary row and eight branched dorsal-fin rays. Later on, the characters used to define Carlastyanax were considered as invalid and this genus was synonymized with Astyanax. In this paper, we include Astyanax aurocaudatus in a phylogeny of the Characidae and obtain a sister-group relationship between this species and Creagrutus, within the Stevardiinae. The resurrection of Carlastyanax as a valid genus is therefore proposed. The analysis presented is the largest phylogeny of the Stevardiinae so far published. Relationships of this subfamily are also discussed.

  11. Variación morfológica de las especies de Astyanax, subgénero Zygogaster (Teleostei, Characidae

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    Ruiz-C., R. I.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation of Astyanax species, subgenus Zygogaster (Teleostei, Characidae The diverse Neotropical fish genus Astyanax inhabits a variety of aquatic environments. As with other species in this genus, the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of species of this subgenus remain largely undetermined. Based on 354 individuals, we analyzed the morphological variation of four species of the subgenus Zygogaster (A. atratoensis, A. caucanus, A. filiferus, and A. magdalenae using procrustes analysis and compared findings with two species of the sister group: subgenus Poecilurichthys (A. orthodus and A. superbus. The PCA (Principal Component Analysis and CVA (Canonical Variates Analysis showed morphological affinity between the subgenera and indicated variance in body depth, anterior trend of dorsal fin origin and humeral spot, depression on the dorsal surface of the skull, and ventral displacement of the orbit and snout. The variation in these structures may provide evidence supporting adaptive speciation as an alternative to speciation driven by geographical isolation.

  12. Population structure of two Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 (Teleostei, Characidae species from upper Paraguaçu river

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    Alexandre Clistenes de Alcântara Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The fishes of the family Characidae are among the main species of fresh water fishes in South America. In this work, some aspects of the population structure of two Astyanax species were assessed. The fishes were caught in Santo Antônio and São José rivers, in the Paraguaçu basin, by standardized monthly samplings adapted to the microhabitats. Astyanax sp. b (São José river presented larger size than Astyanax sp. a (Santo Antônio river. The length-weight relationship showed positive allometric growth for Astyanax sp. a, and negative for Astyanax sp. b. Both the species showed a long reproductive period, with higher activities in dry period.Os peixes da família Characidae estão entre os principais representantes de peixes de água doce da região Neotropical. Este trabalho apresenta alguns aspectos da estrutura populacional de duas espécies de Astyanax coletadas a partir de amostragens mensais padronizadas e adaptadas a diferentes microhabitats, em trechos dos rios Santo Antônio e São José, tributários do alto curso do rio Paraguaçu. Astyanax sp. b, coletada no rio São José apresentou maior tamanho que Astyanax sp. a, coletada no rio Santo Antônio. A relação peso-comprimento indicou um crescimento alométrico positivo para Astyanax sp. a e negativo para Astyanax sp. b. Ambas as espécies apresentaram um longo período reprodutivo, com maior atividade reprodutiva no período seco.

  13. Desenvolvimento e diferenciação dos ovócitos de pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae Oocyte development and differentiation in pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae

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    Massuka Yamane Narahara

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de esclarecer dúvidas referentes ao desenvolvimento e à diferenciação dos ovócitos de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes, Characidae, ultra-estruturalmente, acompanhando as transformações que ocorreram durante o processo de ovogênese tais como: formação e acúmulo de várias organelas, inclusões nucleares e/ou citoplasmáticas e a camada ou envelope folicular. Na fase de crescimento primário são evidentes os corpúsculos de Balbiani, mas não são claros seus papéis. Estão presentes, também, as peculiares estruturas lamelares. A segunda fase, a de crescimento secundário, caracteriza-se, inicialmente, pela formação de alvéolos corticais. A seguir, os grânulos de vitelo protéico formam-se na região periférica com abundância de mitocôndrias e ribossomos. Mudanças no epitélio folicular (granulosa são descritas concomitantemente com a formação da zona radiata, que constitui o envoltório folicular (envelope.This work aim is to clarify doubts about the Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes, Characidae oocyte ultrastructural development and differentiation, following the transformations during the ovogenic processes, such as formation and accumulation of various organelles, nucleolar and/or citoplasmic inclusions, and follicular wall (envelope. During the primary growth phase, Balbiani corpuscles are evident, but their role is not clear. The peculiar lamellae structures are also present. The second phase (secondary growth is initially characterized by cortical alveolus formation. After that, protein yolk granules appear in the peripherical regions, where mitochondria and ribosomes are abundant. Changes in the follicle epitelium (granulosa are described together with the radiate zone formation, which constitutes the follicular envelope.

  14. Estudo etnofarmacognóstico da saracuramirá (Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke, uma planta medicinal usada por comunidades quilombolas do Município de Oriximiná-PA, Brasil Ethnopharmacology Study of Saracuramirá (Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke in the "Quilombola" communities of Oriximiná, Pará State, Brazil

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    Danilo Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento etnobotânico realizado em comunidades quilombolas de Oriximiná, Pará, destacou a saracuramirá (SAR, Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke, com vasto uso popular no tratamento da malária, como tônica e depurativa. Por este motivo, o presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo etnofarmacognóstico da SAR nas respectivas comunidades. Por meio de uma análise etnobotânica quantitativa, foi verificado que SAR apresentou-se dentre as 10 espécies mais versáteis pela elevada importância relativa (1,3, dentre as cinco espécies com maior importância cultural pelo elevado índice de saliência (0,311 e a espécie com maior concordância de uso principal para malária (85,7%. Uma análise do índice de espuma e do índice de hemólise para SAR demonstra a presença de saponinas com elevado índice de espuma (833 e uma baixa atividade hemolítica (CH50 2,6 mg mL-1. Para realizar uma análise das agliconas das saponinas de SAR, a bebida preparada pelo método tradicional quilombola (BMT foi hidrolisada e, após reação com diazometano, foi analisada por cromatografia gasosa. Dois sinais majoritários foram caracterizados por espectrometria de massas, um referente a um triterpeno de esqueleto damarânico, característico das saponinas da SAR, e outro referente ao éster metílico do ácido betulínico. Partindo das informações de uso popular da SAR, foi avaliada in vitro a atividade inibidora da acetilcolinesterase. Apesar de BMT não ter mostrado atividade neste ensaio, é possível supor que as indicações de uso desta planta pelos quilombolas como fortificante e contra malária podem estar relacionadas a uma possível atividade adaptógena e imunoestimulante, dada à presença das saponinas e do ácido betulínico em BMT.In an ethnobotanical survey conducted within "Quilombola" communities of Oriximiná, Pará State, "saracuramirá" (SAR, Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke, stood out as one of the most cited species with wide

  15. Feeding ecology of Dash-dot Tetra Hemigrammus belottii (Steindachner 1882) (Characiformes: Characidae) in the streams of the Urucu River basin, central Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    GONÇALVES, Andrey Felipe Gomes; PRUDENTE, Bruno da Silveira; CARVALHO FILHO, Fernando da Silva; MONTAG, Luciano Fogaça de Assis

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo descreve a dieta da espécie Hemigrammus belottii (Characiformes: Characidae) coletados na bacia do Rio Urucu no município de Coari, Amazonas, (Brasil), buscando responder o seguinte questionamento: Qual a influência dos períodos hidrológicos (seco e chuvoso) e da distribuição espacial na dieta de H. belottii? Os espécimes tiveram seus estômagos retirados e os itens alimentares pesados e identificados para posteriores análises relacionadas à intensidade alimentar, pelo Índice...

  16. A new myxozoan parasite from the Amazonian fish Metynnis argenteus (Teleostei, Characidae): light and electron microscope observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Graça; Matos, Edilson; Azevedo, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Myxobolus metynnis n. sp. (Phylum Myxozoa) is described in the connective subcutaneous tissues of the orbicular region of the fish, Metynnis argenteus (Characidae), collected in the lower Amazon River, near the city of Peixe Boi, Pará State, Brazil. Polysporic, histozoic plasmodia were delimited by a double membrane with numerous microvilli on the peripheral cytoplasm. Several life-cycle stages, including mature spores, were observed. An envelope formed by numerous fine and anastomosed microfibrils was observed at the spore surface. The spore body presented an ellipsoidal shape and was about 13.1 microm long, 7.8 microm wide, and 3.9 microm thick. Elongated-pyriform polar capsules were of equal size, measuring 5.2 microm in length, 3.2 microm in width, and possessing a polar filament with 8-9 turns around the longitudinal axis. The binucleated sporoplasm contained a vacuole and numerous sporoplasmosomes. These were circular in cross-section, showing an adherent eccentric, dense structure, with a half-crescent section. Based on the morphological differences and host specificity, we propose that the parasite is a new species named Myxobolus metynnis n. sp.

  17. Population genetic patterns revealed by microsatellite data challenge the mitochondrial DNA based taxonomy of Astyanax in Mexico (Characidae, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst; Strecker, Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    Astyanax has become an important model system for evolutionary studies of cave animals. We investigated correlations of population genetic patterns revealed by microsatellite data and phylogeographic patterns shown by mitochondrial DNA sequences in Mexican cave and surface fish of the genus Astyanax (Characidae, Teleostei) to improve the understanding of the colonization history of this neotropical fish in Central and North America and to assess a recent taxonomic classification. The distribution of nuclear genotypes is not congruent with that of the mitochondrial clades. Admixture analyses suggest there has been nuclear gene flow between populations defined by different mitochondrial clades. The microsatellite data indicate that there was mitochondrial capture of a cave population from adjacent populations. Furthermore, gene flow also occurred between populations belonging to different nuclear genotypic clusters. This indicates that neither the nuclear genotypic clusters nor the mitochondrial clades represent independent evolutionary units, although the mitochondrial divergences are high and in a range usually characteristic for different fish species. This conclusion is supported by the presence of morphologically intermediate forms. Our analyses show that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt limited gene flow, but has been crossed by Astyanax several times. In Yucatán, where obvious geographic barriers are missing, the incongruence between the distribution of nuclear and mitochondrial markers reflects random colonization events caused by inundations or marine transgressions resulting in random phylogeographic breaks. Thus, conclusions about the phylogeographic history and even more about the delimitation of species should not be based on single genetic markers.

  18. Cultivo de matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864 em tanques-rede, em diferentes densidades de estocagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.3687 Matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia rearing in floating cage in different stocking densities - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.3687

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    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento avaliou o desempenho e sobrevivência de juvenis de matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia cultivados em tanques-rede de 4 m3, por 197 dias, em três densidades de estocagem: 20, 40 e 60 peixes m-3. Foram utilizados exemplares com 19,9 ± 0,3 cm de comprimento total e 90,0 ± 0,15 g de peso. Os animais foram alimentados com ração extrusada contendo 36% de proteína bruta. O comprimento total e o peso foram superiores (p -3. Valores intermediários e inferiores foram registrados para a densidade de 40 e 60 peixes m-3, respectivamente. A sobrevivência e o Fator de condição de Fulton foram semelhantes (p > 0,05 entre as diferentes densidades; porém, a biomassa produzida foi superior (p -3. O aumento da densidade de estocagem também resultou em crescimento mais homogêneo dos animais. Para juvenis de B. orthotaenia, o aumento na densidade de estocagem leva a maior biomassa final, peixes mais homogêneos, menor crescimento, mas não tem efeito na sobrevivência.This experiment evaluated the development and survival of matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia juveniles reared during a 197-day experiment, in a 4 m3 floating cage, in three stocking densities: 20, 40 and 60 fish m-3. Juveniles with 19.9 ± 0.3 cm of total length and 90.0 ± 0.15 g of weight were used. The animals were fed with floating pellets (commercial diet with 36% crude protein. The total length, and weight were higher (p -3. The density of 40 and 60 fish m-3 showed intermediary and low values, respectively. Survival and Fulton condition factor were similar (p > 0.05 among the different densities; however, the produced biomass was higher (p -3. The increased stocking density showed a more homogeneous growth. The increase in stocking density for B. orthotaenia juveniles presented a higher biomass, homogeneity of fishes, lesser growth, but had no effect in survival.

  19. Alterações bioquímicas post-mortem de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura, mantido em gelo Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice

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    Gilvan Machado Batista

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foram estudadas as alterações bioquímicas post-mortem que ocorreram em matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura e mantido em gelo em Manaus - AM. Foi determinado o tempo de estocagem em gelo por meio das avaliações sensoriais físicas e gustativas, das análises de pH, Nitrogênio das Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT e bacteriológicas durante 29 dias. Foram determinados os índices de rigor-mortis, as concentrações de ATP e seus produtos de degradações e o valor K. De acordo com a composição química, o peixe foi classificado como "semi-gordo". Os peixes entraram em rigor-mortis aos 75 minutos após a morte por hipotermia, tendo permanecido durante 10 dias. As avaliações sensoriais (físicas e gustativas mostraram que os peixes apresentaram condição de consumo até 26 dias. As análises de ATP e de seus produtos de degradação mostraram que a referida espécie foi considerada formadora de inosina (HxR, nas condições de experimento. O valor K mostrou que os exemplares de matrinxãs permaneceram "muito frescos" até 16 dias de estocagem em gelo, concordante com a avaliação sensorial gustativa.Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice in Manaus-AM, were studied in this paper. The storage time on ice was determined through tasting and physical sensory evaluations, pH, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVB-N and bacteriological analyses during 29 days. Rigor-mortis index, ATP-related compounds and K value were also determined. Chemical composition demonstrated that fish was classified as "semi-fat". The specimens presented rigor-mortis 75 minutes after death caused by hypothermia and remained that way for 10 days. Shelf life time on ice was 26 days, according to sensory evaluations, pH, TVBN determinations and bacteriological analyses. ATP-related compounds pointed out that the referred species was considered to

  20. Reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus Cuvier, 1819) in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Núcleo Santa Virgínia, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize seasonally and locally the reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus). The study area included three rivers (Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande) in the Santa Virgínia Unit of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Breeding occurred in spring, summer, and autumn. The L(50) and the L(100) of this species were 16 to 18 cm and 26 to 28 cm, respectively. Spawning was total, with synchronous development in two groups. The size of mature oocytes was 1,346.4 microm, reaching a maximum of 2,570.4 microm, with a mean fecundity of 9,190.5 oocytes. This species has external fertilization, is non-migratory, and lacks parental care of the young. Preservation of the Pirapitinga do Sul depends, in great part, on maintaining water quality, preservation of the riverine forests, and access to breeding areas.

  1. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 24. Rhinoxenus bulbovaginatus n. sp. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae from the nasal cavity of Salminus maxillosus (Osteichthyes, Characidae from the Rio Paraná, Paraná, Brazil

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    Walter A. Boeger

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoxenus bulbovaginatus n. sp. is described from the nose of Salminus maxillosus (Characidae collected in the basin of the rio Paraná, near the city of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. The new species can be differentiated from the other three species in the genus by the morphology of the copulatory complex, vagina, and ventral anchor. The sister group relationship of the known species of Rhinoxenus was determined using techniques of Phylogenetic Systematics (Cladism. The resulting cladogram (C.I.=100% indicates that the new species is most closely related to R. piranhus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988. The other two species of the genus, R. arietinus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988 and R. nyttus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988, both parasites of Anostomidae fishes, have a paraphyletic position in the cladogram, suggesting that the origin of at least one of them can not be associated to cospeciation.

  2. First description of B chromosomes in the Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes, Characidae genus: a hypothesis for the extra element of Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882

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    Diovani Piscor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hyphessobrycon are allocated in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family, one of the genera with more species of the group. The chromosomes of some species of Hyphessobrycon are known, and the diploid number most common for genus is 2n = 50 chromosomes. The aims of this study were to examine the karyotype macrostructure in the Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882, and show a new origin hypothesis for B chromosomes. The diploid number observed for H. eques was 2n = 52 chromosomes, and a karyotype formulae of 12m + 18sm + 8st + 14a, with FN (fundamental number = 90 for both sexes. Only two females showed one B chromosome. The heterochromatin was observed mainly on centromeric regions, and in the long arm of the B chromosome. In this paper, the relationship of the B chromosome of H. eques with an occasional chromosome rearrangement was discussed.

  3. Osteología de Astyanax aurocaudatus Eigenmann, 1913 (Pisces, Characidae, con notas sobre la validez de Carlastyanax Géry, 1972

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    Ruiz-C., R. I.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteology of Astyanax aurocaudatus, Eigenmann, 1913 (Pisces, Characidae, with notes on the validity of Carlastyanax, Géry, 1972. The taxonomic status of Astyanax aurocaudatus is difficult to interpret as no relevant osteological data are available to date. In the present paper we studied the osteological, morphometric and meristic characters of this species. The osteological characters of A. aurocaudatus found include the number and shape of premaxilla, maxilla and dentary teeth, second infraorbital separate from the preopercle, anal fins with pterygiophores that differ as towards the anterior, and presence of supra–orbital. These and other characters, body shape and coloring pattern, coincide with descriptions for the genus Astyanax. The characters describing the genus Carlastyanax therefore correspond to incorrect observations and the studied species is situated in the genus Astyanax. Carlastyanax is here considered a synonym of Astyanax.

  4. Time of feed transition and inclusion levels of exogenous protease in rations for piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp. hatchery=Momento para a transição alimentar e níveis de inclusão de protease exógena na ração da larvicultura de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp.

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    Afonso Pelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted which consisted of determining the ideal time to make a feed transition from larvae of ‘curimba’ Prochilodus hartii to ration (from third, fifth and seventh days of life, with three days of co-feeding, and assess inclusion levels of exogenous protease (0, 0.02 and 0.2% in the diet of larvae of piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., in a completely randomized experimental design and duration of 15 and 17 days, respectively. Biomass, survival, total length, weight and specific growth rate were measured at the end of the experiments. Water quality parameters were measured every three days. The different transition periods and levels of exogenous protease did not affect water quality. The animals subjected to feed transition on the seventh day of life showed better results for length (23.1 mm, weight (110.9 mg and SGR (25.5%, being similar in biomass and survival at the fifth day of life. Therefore, the transition can be made on the fifth day of life. The inclusion levels of exogenous protease in the commercial diet had no effect on performance.Foram realizados dois experimentos, que consistiram em determinar o momento ideal de se realizar a transição alimentar de larva de curimba Prochilodus hartii para ração (a partir do terceiro, quinto e sétimo dia de vida, com três dias de coalimentação, e avaliar níveis de inclusão de protease exógena (0; 0,02 e 0,2% na dieta de larvas de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e duração de 15 e 17 dias, respectivamente. A biomassa, sobrevivência, comprimento total, peso médio e taxa de crescimento específico foram mensurados ao final dos experimentos. Já os parâmetros de qualidade de água foram aferidos a cada três dias. Os diferentes períodos de transição alimentar e níveis de protease exógena não interferiram na qualidade da água. Os animais submetidos à transição alimentar no sétimo dia de vida apresentaram melhores

  5. Falha na resposta do cortisol ao estresse por captura e por carragenina em Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae Failure of cortisol response in induced capture handling stress and carrageenin in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae

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    Julieta Rodini Engrácia de Moraes

    2000-05-01

    Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae was evaluated. The fish were subjected to 30 s capture handling stress applied repeatedly at 60 min intervals over 6 h. Blood sampling was as following: time 0: basal blood sampling and first stress; time 1: injection with carrageenin or saline and sampling after 5 min; time 2: stress and sampling after 5 min; time 3: stress and sampling after 5 min; time 4: stress and sampling after 5 min; time 5: blood sampling after 90 min. Circulanting cortisol levels showed significant decrease in time 4 and 5 in both carageenin and saline injected fish. In saline injected fish, glucosis increased in time 2 while in carrageenin injected fish this fact occurred in time 3. An increase in the special granulocitic cells and lymphocitopenia in blood were observed in the time 2. Neutrophilia was reported in time 3.

  6. Henneguya mbakaouensis sp. nov., Myxobolus nounensis sp. nov. and M. hydrocyni Kostoingue & Toguebaye, 1994, Myxosporea (Myxozoa parasites of centropomidae, Cichlidae and Characidae (Teleosts of the Sanaga basin in Cameroon (Central Africa

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    Fomena A.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of 102 teleost freshwater fishes of Sanaga basin in Cameroon revealed the presence of three myxosporean species, among which two were new. Host fishes were of three families: Centropomidae, Cichlidae and Characidae. New species were identified as Henneguya mbakaouensis sp. nov., a gill parasite of Lates niloticus and Myxobolus nounensis sp. nov. found in the kidney and spleen of Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia mariae. Myxobolus hydrocyni Kostoïngue & Toguebaye, 1994, previously described in Chad, was also found in Cameroon; complementary informations were given on that parasite which seemed to be specific to its host.

  7. Influência da densidade de estocagem no cultivo de alevinos de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 em condições experimentais - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1670 Stocking density influence on matrinxã fingerlings (Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869, culture on experimental conditions - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1670

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    Claudemir Martins Soares

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da densidade de estocagem no cultivo de alevinos de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, foram utilizados 300 alevinos com peso inicial de 2g ± 0,82g e comprimento inicial de 5,7cm ± 0,74cm, distribuídos em 20 tanques (200L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos (6, 12, 18 e 24 ind/tanque, correspondendo a 24, 48, 72 e 96 ind/m3 e 5 repetições. A alimentação foi à base de ração extrusada comercial, contendo 36% de proteína bruta fornecida à vontade 6 vezes ao dia, por 45 dias. Observou-se uma relação linear positiva (p 0,05 pelas diferentes densidades de estocagem. Os valores dos parâmetros físico-químicos permaneceram nos níveis adequados para o cultivo de peixes, embora esses valores tenham sofrido influência das densidades durante alguns dias de experimento. Concluiu-se, portanto, que a densidade de 96 ind/m3 é a mais indicada, pois observou-se maior biomassa total sem afetar o ganho de peso dos peixesThe aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the influence of stocking density on the culture of 300 matrinxã fingerlings (Brycon cephalus, of 2.0 ± 0.82g initial weight and 5.7 ± 0.74cm initial length, distributed in 20 ponds (250-L. The utilized experimental design was entirely randomized in four treatments (6, 12, 18 e 24 ind/pond, corresponding to 24, 48, 72, e 96ind/m3 and five replications. The food consisted of a commercial ration of 36% of crude protein, that was supplied ad libitum six times a day during 45 days. A positive linear relation (p 0.05 for the different stocking densities. The values of physical and chemical parameters remained at adequate levels for fish culture, although densities influenced these values during some days of the experiment. Results showed that the density of 96ind/m3 is the highly recommended, because higher total biomass was observed, which did not affect the fish weight gain

  8. First description of the karyotype and localization of major and minor ribosomal genes in Rhoadsia altipinna Fowler, 1911 (Characiformes, Characidae from Ecuador

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    Omar Sánchez-Romero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypic features of Rhoadsia altipinna Fowler, 1911 from Ecuador were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes through Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-color-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. The species exhibit a karyotype with 2n = 50, composed of 10 metacentric, 26 submetacentric and 14 subtelocentric elements, with a fundamental number FN=86 and is characterized by the presence of a larger metacentric pair (number 1, which is about 2/3 longer than the average length of the rest of the metacentric series. Sex chromosomes were not observed. Heterochromatin is identifiable on 44 chromosomes, distributed in paracentromeric position near the centromere. The first metacentric pair presents two well-defined heterochromatic blocks in paracentromeric position, near the centromere. Impregnation with silver nitrate showed a single pair of Ag-positive NORs localized at terminal regions of the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair number 12. FISH assay confirmed these localization of NORs and revealed that minor rDNA clusters occur interstitially on the larger metacentric pair number 1. Comparison of results here reported with those available on other Characidae permit to hypothesize that the presence of a very large metacentric pair might represent a unique and derived condition that characterize one of four major lineages molecularly identified in this family.

  9. First description of the karyotype and localization of major and minor ribosomal genes in Rhoadsiaaltipinna Fowler, 1911 (Characiformes, Characidae) from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Romero, Omar; Abad, César Quezada; Cordero, Patricio Quizhpe; de Sene, Viviani França; Nirchio, Mauro; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Karyotypic features of Rhoadsiaaltipinna Fowler, 1911 from Ecuador were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes through Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-color-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. The species exhibit a karyotype with 2n = 50, composed of 10 metacentric, 26 submetacentric and 14 subtelocentric elements, with a fundamental number FN=86 and is characterized by the presence of a larger metacentric pair (number 1), which is about 2/3 longer than the average length of the rest of the metacentric series. Sex chromosomes were not observed. Heterochromatin is identifiable on 44 chromosomes, distributed in paracentromeric position near the centromere. The first metacentric pair presents two well-defined heterochromatic blocks in paracentromeric position, near the centromere. Impregnation with silver nitrate showed a single pair of Ag-positive NORs localized at terminal regions of the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair number 12. FISH assay confirmed these localization of NORs and revealed that minor rDNA clusters occur interstitially on the larger metacentric pair number 1. Comparison of results here reported with those available on other Characidae permit to hypothesize that the presence of a very large metacentric pair might represent a unique and derived condition that characterize one of four major lineages molecularly identified in this family.

  10. Nucleotide diversity of Hemigrammus cf. marginatus (Characiformes, Characidae in the upper Paraná river floodplain - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.6669

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    Carla Simone Pavanelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characidae is the largest and more diversified family from Characiformes and presents several classification problems, with several genera currently allocated as incertae sedis, such as the genus Hemigrammus. The upper Paraná river floodplain is an environment with high fish diversity. There is at least one species of Hemigrammus, however there are divergences among some authors about the number and the identification of the species from this genus. Therefore the goal of this study was to characterize, using a molecular approach, individuals of Hemigrammus from the upper Paraná river floodplain and to compare them with individuals from the type locality of Hemigrammus marginatus, since this is the only species distributed in this floodplain. For this, the DNA was extracted and a partial region from the mitochondrial genes ATPase 6 and ATPase 8 were amplified and sequenced. The results evidenced the existence of two species of Hemigrammus in the floodplain, although impossible to be distinguished only through morphological traits. High nucleotide diversity among individuals from the upper Paraná river in relation to those from the type locality was also observed, indicating that both species of Hemigrammus present in the upper Paraná river floodplain are not Hemigrammus marginatus. 

  11. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 October 2012-30 November 2012.

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    Aksoy, Serap; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F; Azevedo, V C R; Baucom, Regina; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, L B; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Brassaloti, Ricardo A; Burgess, Treena I; Caccone, Adagisa; Chang, Shu-Mei; Ciampi, A Y; Ciancaleoni, S; Clímaco, Gisele T; Clouet, Cécil; Coimbra, Maria R M; Coutinho, Luiz L; Dantas, Hozana L; De Vega, Clara; Echodu, Richard; Enyaru, John; Figueira, Antonio; Filho, Manoel A G; Foltz, Britnie; Fressigné, L; Gadomski, Mateusz; Gauthier, Nathalie; Herrera, Carlos M; Hyseni, Chaz; Jorge, Erika C; Kaczmarczyk, Dariusz; Knott, Emily; Kuester, Adam; Lima, Ana P S; Lima, Maíra A; Lima, Marcos P; Longo, Ana Luiza B; Lor, Grant; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Marques, Thiago S; Martins, Aline R; Matoso, Daniele A; Medrano, Mónica; Mendonça, M A C; Mettler, Raeann; Nascimento, Priscila Roberta M; Negri, V; Oliveira, Karine K C; Oliveira, L O; Ovcarenko, Irina; Paula-Silva, Maria N; Raggi, L; Sandoval-Castillo, J; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Martin Schaefer, H; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seino, Miyuki M; Sistrom, Mark; Taole, Matsepo M; Teske, P R; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Verdade, Luciano M; Villela, Priscilla M S; Vinson, C C; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 153 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Brassica oleracea, Brycon amazonicus, Dimorphandra wilsonii, Eupallasella percnurus, Helleborus foetidus, Ipomoea purpurea, Phrynops geoffroanus, Prochilodus argenteus, Pyura sp., Sylvia atricapilla, Teratosphaeria suttonii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Trypanosoma brucei. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Dimorphandra coccicinea, Dimorphandra cuprea, Dimorphandra gardneriana, Dimorphandra jorgei, Dimorphandra macrostachya, Dimorphandra mollis, Dimorphandra parviflora and Dimorphandra pennigera.

  12. Comentários sobre a distribuição geográfica de Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Osteichthyes, Characidae na bacia do rio Iguaçu Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Osteichthyes, Characidae in the Iguaçu River basin

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    Weferson Júnio da Graça

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Garutti (1995 fez a revisão de algumas espécies de Astyanax (Osteichthyes, Characidae e aquela, conhecida como “tambiú” na bacia do alto rio Paraná, anteriormente identificada como Astyanax bimaculatus, foi considerada nova e posteriormente descrita por Garutti & Britski (2000 como Astyanax altiparanae (Pisces, Characiformes. Naquela oportunidade, entretanto, não foram analisados exemplares da bacia do rio Iguaçu. Esse afluente do rio Paraná apresenta um alto grau de endemismo em sua ictiofauna devido ao isolamento geográfico causado pelas cataratas situadas próximo à sua foz. No entanto, muitas dúvidas relacionadas ao status específico da população da bacia do Iguaçu, também chamada de A. bimaculatus antes dos trabalhos de Garutti, permaneceram. Com o escopo de verificar se a população do Iguaçu era da espécie A. altiparanae, comparamos espécimes das duas bacias e concluímos que elas pertencem à mesma espécie, sendo, portanto, sua distribuição geográfica ampliada.Garutti (1995 made a revision of some Astyanax (Osteichthyes, Characidae species and the species called tambiú from the upper Paraná River basin, formerly identified as Astyanax bimaculatus, was considered new. Garutti & Britski (2000 later described it as Astyanax altiparanae (Pisces, Characiformes. However, they did not analyze specimens from the Iguaçu River basin at that time. The Iguaçu River, affluent to the Paraná River, has a high degree of endemism in its ichthyofauna because of the geographic isolation caused by the falls near its mouth. Thus, there were still many doubts regarding the specific status of the population from the Iguaçu River basin, also called A. bimaculatus before Garutti’s studies. To verify if the population from the Iguaçu River belongs to the A. altiparanae species, we compared specimens from both basins and concluded that they belong to the same species, widening their geographic distribution.

  13. Relação peso-comprimento e fator de condição de Brycon opalinus (Pisces, Characiformes no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar- Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Mata Atlântica, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1034 Length-weight relationship and condition factor for Brycon opalinus (Pisces, Characiformes in Serra do Mar State Park – Santa Virgínia Unit, Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1034

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    Leandro Muller Gomiero

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados a relação peso-comprimento e o fator de condição de Brycon opalinus, em três rios do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Estado de São Paulo. Foram constatadas diferentes condições nos três ambientes abordados e determinadas a sazonalidade, a época reprodutiva e as diferenças entre fêmeas e machos, segundo os parâmetros que evidenciam as melhores condições fisiológicas dos peixes. Essa espécie apresentou fator de condição variável ao longo das estações, nos três locais de coletas, influência do comprimento de primeira maturação gonadal e longo período reprodutivo com maior intensidade na primavera e verão.In this study, the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of Brycon opalinus were analyzed in three rivers within the Santa Virgínia Unit, at Serra do Mar State Park, in São Paulo State. The different conditions in these three environments were evidenced, such as the seasonality, reproductive period, and the differences between females and males according to the parameters which evidenced the best physiological condition of the fish. In this species, the condition factor varied along the seasons at all three collection sites. The length of the first gonadal maturation and the reproductive period were long, with the highest intensity in the spring and summer.

  14. A new species of Auriculostoma (Digenea: Allocreadiidae) in the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from Central Veracruz, Mexico, described with the use of morphological and molecular data.

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    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. is described from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii, Characidae) collected in a tributary creek of the Bobos River in Filipinas, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is set apart from all congeners by the combination of some morphological characters such as the testes position (oblique in most specimens), the ventral to oral sucker ratio (1:1.2 × 1:1.1), the cirrus sac originating at the ovarian region, and by having vitelline follicles not confluent in the posttesticular region. Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. closely resembles Auriculostoma platense (Szidat, 1954) Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 and Auriculostoma diagonale Curran, Tkach and Overstreet, 2011 by possessing oblique testes; however, it differs from both species by possessing a genital pore located at level of the cecal bifurcation and by having vitelline follicles extending anteriorly up to the cecal bifurcation level, instead of a genital pore located between the anterior margin of the ventral sucker and cecal bifurcation, and vitelline follicles extending anteriorly to the mid level of the esophagus as in A. platense or to the pharynx level as in A. diagonale. Additionally, the new species differs from A. diagonale by having vitelline follicles not confluent or scarcely confluent in the posttesticular region rather than extensively confluent. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of the new species demonstrated the presence of a single pair of muscular lobes on either side of the oral sucker, with a broad base, stretching from the ventrolateral to the dorsolateral side. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of the 28S rRNA gene sequences placed A. totonacapanensis as sister species of Auriculostoma astyanace Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 . Nucleotide variation between A. totonacapanensis and A. astyanace was 2.0% and 3.6% for the 28S rRNA gene and ITS2 sequences, respectively. Sequence variation

  15. Alterações hematológicas e histopatológicas em pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae, Hematological and histopathological alteration in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae after treatment with copper sulphate (CuSO4

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    Flávio Ruas de Moraes

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou os valores hematológicos e glicêmicos e histopatologia de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes, Characidae infectados com Monogenea Anacanthorus penilabiatus Boeger, Husak & Martins, 1995 (Dactylogyridae após tratamento com 0,50 mg/L e 1,00 mg/L de sulfato de cobre (CuSO4. A eficiência da droga sobre as infecções com Monogenea foi observada no primeiro dia após administração mas não após 8, 15 ou 30 dias do tratamento. As análises histopatológicas mostraram hiperplasia do epitélio e alterações circulatórias nas brânquias. No primeiro dia após tratamento, foram observadas alterações significativas (P4 mostraram redução da taxa de hemoglobina e do percentual de neutrófilos. No 8o dia do tratamento a dose de 1,00 mg/L provocou aumento da glicemia mas redução no percentual de linfócitos quando comparada com 0,50 mg/L. No 15o dia após tratamento com 1,00 mg/L os valores médios do volume corpuscular médio e o percentual de células granulocíticas especiais (C.G.E. decresceram mas o número de leucócitos totais aumentaram. No 30o dia após tratamento com 0,50 mg/L de sulfato de cobre houve aumento de C.G.E. e no tratamento com 1,00 mg/L o aumento foi de linfócitos.This paper evaluated the haematological and glycaemic parameters in Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes, Characidae infected with Monogenea Anacanthorus penilabiatus Boeger, Husak & Martins, 1995 (Dactylogyridae after treatment with 0.50 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L of copper sulphate (CuSO4. The efficacy of the CuSO4 was observed in the first day after administration but not after eight, fifteen or thirty days. The histopathological analyses showed hyperplasia of the epithelium and circulatory changes in the gills. In the first day after treatment significant changes (Pth day. Fifteen days after 1.00 mg/L treatment, values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV and special granulocitic cells (S.G.C. percentage decreased. Nevertheless, increase of

  16. Chromosome studies of Astyanax jacuhiensis Cope, 1894 (Characidae) from the Tramandai River Basin, Brazil, using in situ hybridization with the 18S rDNA probe, DAPI and CMA3 staining.

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    da Silva, Laura Lahr Lourenço; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    The genus Astyanax comprises 86 species of fish distributed in Brazilian river basins and is considered of the Incertae sedis group within the family Characidae. This study presents an analysis of 12 specimens of Astyanax jacuhiensis from the Tramandai River Basin, RS Brazil: 6 from the Maquiné River and 6 from the Quadros Lagoon. All specimens showed a diploid number equal to 50 chromosomes with different karyotypic formula between the two localities. The population from the Maquiné River showed 10m+26sm+6st+8a (FN=92). Fish from the Quadros Lagoon showed 12m+20sm+6st+12a (FN=88). AgNORs were evidenced in the short arm of one acrocentric chromosome pair in both populations, confirmed by FISH with the 18S rDNA probe. CMA3 fluorochrome corresponded with the AgNOR sites, while DAPI staining was negative in these regions. C banding revealed that heterochromatin was weakly distributed, mainly in the pericentromeric and terminal regions in most chromosomes. Analyses of male gonadal tissue were conducted with the objective of characterizing the meiotic chromosome behavior in A. jacuhiensis. The following stages were evidenced: spermatogonial with 50 chromosomes, pachytene and metaphase I with 25 bivalents, and metaphase II with 25 chromosomes, thus confirming the diploid number of the species. Chromosomal abnormalities were not observed. This study shows preliminary data on A. jacuhiensis from the Tramandai River Basin, contributing with more chromosomal information for this group of fish.

  17. Respostas metabólicas do matrinxã submetido a banhos anestésicos de eugenol - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474 Metabolic responses of matrinxã to eugenol in anesthetic baths - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474

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    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus é uma espécie de interesse comercial. Porém, este peixe movimenta-se em excesso durante práticas de manejo, podendo sofrer ferimentos e perdas de escamas que, muitas vezes, resultam em taxas elevadas de mortalidade. O eugenol, principal componente do óleo de cravo, tem sido bastante utilizado como um anestésico alternativo para peixes por ser um produto natural e de baixo custo. Entretanto, estudos que tratam de respostas metabólicas, em peixes tropicais expostos a diferentes anestésicos, são ainda necessários. Dentro deste intuito, o presente trabalho avaliou respostas metabólicas do Brycon amazonicus ao eugenol, em simulações de banhos anestésicos. A demanda metabólica do matrinxã foi suprida principalmente pelo catabolismo de aminoácidos. Respostas típicas ao estresse foram detectadas por causa do manuseio imposto aos peixes para a realização dos banhos anestésicos. O eugenol não reduziu totalmente essas reações ao estresse. Por outro lado, esse anestésico não provocou estresse adicional em virtude de sua presença em exposições curtas de até 60 mg L-1 por 10 min. O eugenol proporciona segurança aos trabalhadores durante práticas de manejo, sem maiores prejuízos ao matrinxã.Matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus is a commercial fish that presents excessive movements during handling. This characteristic predisposes the animals to injuries and losses of scales that may result in high mortality rates. Eugenol, the main component of clove oil, has been reported as an alternative fish anesthetic because it is a natural product and cheap. However, studies remain necessary about the metabolic responses of tropical fishes to anesthetics. The present work evaluated metabolic responses of Brycon amazonicus to eugenol in simulated anesthetic baths. The fish metabolic demand was supplied mainly by amino acids catabolism. Typical metabolic stress responses to handling were detected but eugenol could

  18. Composición proximal, ácidos grasos y características fisicoquímicas de aceite de harina artesanal de caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus Pisces: Characidae proveniente de Caicara del Orinoco-Venezuela

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    Granados, Ángel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Caribe (Serrasalmus rhoembeus is a Characidae fish that lives in the basins of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. It is an  underutilized specie although in the last years has been marketed in the form of of a meal which is obtained through a handmade process but without information about its chemical composition. This research was conducted to evaluate the proximate composition of commercial caribe meal, the fatty acids profile and some physicochemical properties of its lipidic extract. Three aleatory samples of meal were selected in Caicara del Orinoco shops, Bolívar state –Venezuela. Moisture (6.00 ± 0.45 %, crude protein (N x 6.25: 52.78 ± 2.36 %, crude fat (22.47 ± 1.08 % and total ash (24.58 ± 3.12 % were determined in each sample. The fat was extracted with nhexane and it was analyzed for free fatty acids (5.66 ± 0.15 % as oleic acid, peroxide value (23.50 ± 1.02 meq O2/kg, iodine value (152.2 ± 0.5, saponification value (186.5 ± 0.3 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 ± 0.4 g/kg. The fatty acids profile showed an unsaturated acids/ saturated acids ratio of 5.62 with 59.9 % of monounsaturated fatty acids and 25.0 % of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Caribe meal is an important source of nutrients and a potential raw material for human food.El caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus es un pez de la familia Characidae de la cuenca de los ríos Orinoco y Amazonas, de poco valor comercial debido a su estructura espinosa y a creencias relacionadas con su hábito alimentario, pero que en años recientes los pobladores de las zonas donde existe naturalmente le han dado utilidad mediante la obtención artesanal de una harina que es expendida para consumo humano; sin embargo, no se dispone de información referente a su composición química. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química proximal del producto comercializado como harina de caribe y algunas características fisicoquímicas del extracto lipídico de la misma

  19. Putative relationships among inseminating and externally fertilizing characids, with a description of a new genus and species of Brazilian inseminating fish bearing an anal-fin gland in males (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Stanley H. Weitzman

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A new inseminating fish species of the family Characidae, Bryconadenos tanaothoros, from tributaries of the upper rio Xingu and upper rio Tapajós basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil is described as the type species of a new genus. This new species and the genus are characterized by a glandular organ on the anterior region of the anal fin of sexually mature males, curved lower jaw teeth, and an inseminating reproductive mode. This new genus is hypothesized as most closely related to Attonitus, a genus with three inseminating species from Peru. Bryconadenos and Attonitus are suggested as related to certain inseminating, but undescribed characid species of uncertain relationships that are similar in certain respects to species of the glandulocaudine Planaltina and to the inseminating species of Knodus. These and a few other inseminating characids are included in a previous tentative characid subgroup designated as Clade A. No species among a relatively small sample of the many species of the Clade A genus Bryconamericus were found inseminating, except Bryconamericus pectinatus. However, newly collected specimens of B. pectinatus were found to have caudal-fin squamation like that of the species of Knodus and this species is here tentatively referred to Knodus. Our investigations indicate that at least several species of Knodus, including the type species, Knodus meridae, are not inseminating, but we found two inseminating apparently new characid species that currently would be referred to Knodus. These species lack the derived anal-fin rays present in the males of K. pectinatus. Other Clade A taxa known to be inseminating, such as two species of the large genus Creagrutus, three species of Monotocheirodon (two undescribed, and the species and genera of the characid subfamily Glandulocaudinae are briefly discussed regarding possible relationships to Attonitus and Bryconadenos. The anatomical aspects of the primary and secondary sexual characteristics of

  20. Putative relationships among inseminating and externally fertilizing characids, with a description of a new genus and species of Brazilian inseminating fish bearing an anal-fin gland in males (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Stanley H. Weitzman

    Full Text Available A new inseminating fish species of the family Characidae, Bryconadenos tanaothoros, from tributaries of the upper rio Xingu and upper rio Tapajós basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil is described as the type species of a new genus. This new species and the genus are characterized by a glandular organ on the anterior region of the anal fin of sexually mature males, curved lower jaw teeth, and an inseminating reproductive mode. This new genus is hypothesized as most closely related to Attonitus, a genus with three inseminating species from Peru. Bryconadenos and Attonitus are suggested as related to certain inseminating, but undescribed characid species of uncertain relationships that are similar in certain respects to species of the glandulocaudine Planaltina and to the inseminating species of Knodus. These and a few other inseminating characids are included in a previous tentative characid subgroup designated as Clade A. No species among a relatively small sample of the many species of the Clade A genus Bryconamericus were found inseminating, except Bryconamericus pectinatus. However, newly collected specimens of B. pectinatus were found to have caudal-fin squamation like that of the species of Knodus and this species is here tentatively referred to Knodus. Our investigations indicate that at least several species of Knodus, including the type species, Knodus meridae, are not inseminating, but we found two inseminating apparently new characid species that currently would be referred to Knodus. These species lack the derived anal-fin rays present in the males of K. pectinatus. Other Clade A taxa known to be inseminating, such as two species of the large genus Creagrutus, three species of Monotocheirodon (two undescribed, and the species and genera of the characid subfamily Glandulocaudinae are briefly discussed regarding possible relationships to Attonitus and Bryconadenos. The anatomical aspects of the primary and secondary sexual characteristics of

  1. Biologia do saguirú (Characidae, Curimatinae

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    P. de Azevedo

    1938-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil all the fishes belonging to the sub-family Curimatinae are called « saguirú ». The present work gives a biological study of the Curimatus elegans Steind., a small fish without any economical importance, which is to be found along the whole brazilian coast, down till Paraguay. The specimens utilized for the present study come from Fortaleza (Ceará, north-eastern Brazil. The C. elegans is « ilyophagus », that means, it feeds itself exclusively with those organic materials to be found in mud, specially with microscopical algae. The intestines are very extent, some of them measuring about 9 to 11 times body's length. Studies have been made about growth and age of the C. elegans; the biggest sizes found were of 153 mm. for females and 88 mm. for males. The C. elegans shows developed sexual glands during a long period (April to September. The movements of the spermatozoa, in contact with water is of 40 to 50 seconds of intense movements, ceasing after 70 to 100 seconds. In contact with 0.5% NaCl-solution spermatozoa show a big increase in movements-time, that can last till about 25 minutes. The eggs' diameter measures 0.70 to 0.73 mm., mature and hydrated it attains 0.93 to 1,00 mm. There is a certain correlation between the size of the body and the quantity of eggs. Big specimens can produce a total of 200.000 eggs. The average quantity contained in 1 gr. and 1 cc. is 6018 and 6229 eggs, respectively. Maturity and spawning in laboratory has been obtained due to injections of suspension of fish-hypophysis. Three or four hours after the injection, fishes show more movement and evident signs of excitation, proceeding spawning after 5 to 6 hours. Males, persecuting females, describe successive circles (merry-go-round - carroussel, swimming side by side with females up to water's surface, where sexual products are start beating dry, for there is no blood yet. Circulation-scheme is to be found on fig. 4 and 5. The swim-bladder and the stomach are but delineated; the intestine is formed by a cylindric tube, all closed. At the place, where later on there will open the mouth, we find a group of ciliary hairs that produce a liquid current, very evident by the semi-circle formed by attached solid particles. After 36 hours, opening of the mouth and formation of the gill slits begin. At the age of 90 hours (4 mm. the larvas swim well and start to feed themselves; the digestive tube is now all open and the swimbladder works already. During the first days of life, larvas have an adhesive organ situated at their frontal region (fig. 7 in form of a crescent, by means of which they hang to surrounding vegetation (fig. 6. When the larva begins to swim and to feed itself and its yolk are having been absorbed. the adhesive organ retracts and disappears. While larvas and alevins feed themselves with plancton, they have small eye-teeth, which disappear,. when fishes become « ilyophagus ». There exist too, during their life as larvas, pharyngeal-teeth. The lateral line appears in the larva after 16 to 18 days; more or less at the same time all fins are completely developed. Shortly after, first scales appear (20 to 23 days. Evolution of intestines twisting followed (fig. 9. Larvas show at different parts of their bodies small of organs excretory functions, that are constituted by bottons in serial disposition, every one with an excretory canal that opens towards the outside. These formations disappear suddenly when larvas attain their phase of alevin. The existence of a great number of said formations at the caudal fin (fig. 12 is of great interest. In our experiences of breeding we have employed several thousands of C. elegans larvas in different environs and we made conditions of surrounding change (illumination, depth of water, temperature, presence of sand at bottom of aquariums and without sand, food. In this way we could compare the results obtained, estimate the action of each factor for the realisation of a good bring-up of larvas.

  2. Swimming performance of the small characin Bryconamericus stramineus (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Miriam A. de Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little research has been conducted on the swimming capacity of Neotropical fish. The few studies available have focused on large migratory species. The present study used fixed and increasing velocity tests to determine prolonged and sustained speeds of the "pequira", Bryconamericus stramineus Eigenmann, 1908, a small, abundant species found in fish passages implemented at the Paraná basin, Brazil. The results of increasing velocity tests showed significant relationships between critical speeds, total and standard lengths, and body weight. When compared with other Neotropical fish, the "pequira" is able to swim faster than individuals of other species of similar length. The point of change from sustained to prolonged swimming was found to occur at an approximate speed of 8.7 lengths per second. These data provide guidance and criteria for design and proper maintenance of structures such as fishways, fish screens and other systems that aim to facilitate or avoid upstream passages as part of management strategies.

  3. Astyanax scabripinnis (Pisces: Characidae hemoglobins: structure and function

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    G. F. LANDINI

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic patterns of hemoglobins, Root effect, Bohr effect in blood and stripped hemoglobin, Hb-O2 affinity GTP modulation of Astyanax scabripinnis (lambari, caught at three different altitudes in Ribeirão Grande, near Campos do Jordão (São Paulo, are described. All populations showed the same electrophoretic patterns: two cathodal components in starch gel. Normal Bohr effect values were found in these three populations both in blood (phi = -0,11 and stripped hemoglobin (phi = -0,12. Different blood O2 affinities collected in fish of these 3 populations were detected. GTP has a large influence on Hb-O2 binding properties in A. scabripinnis. Stripped hemoglobin shows small Root effect. The addition of triphosphated nucleotides increases this effect. GTP is more effective than ATP on enhancing Root effect. Oxygen availability in water can be the factor responsible for differences found in blood O2 affinity.

  4. A pesca comercial na bacia do rio Madeira no estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira The Commercial fisheries of the Madeira river basin in the Rondônia state, brazilian Amazon

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    Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracteriza quali e quantitativamente a atividade pesqueira comercial na bacia do rio Madeira, afluente do rio Amazonas, no trecho entre Guajará-Mirim e Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia. No período de janeiro a dezembro/2004, foram registrados 460 t, correspondendo 935 viagens. A análise dos dados oriundos do monitoramento dos desembarques demonstrou que a pesca na região tem caráter artesanal de pequena escala, destacando a maior participação das canoas motorizadas (131 unidades do que barcos pesqueiros (45 unidades; capacidade média: 3.000kg na frota pesqueira. Os peixes migradores jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans e filhote (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum se destacaram na composição das espécies desembarcadas. As informações técnicas geradas são importantes para subsidiar ações de ordenamento pesqueiro, bem como para avaliar futuras variações que possam ocorrer na atividade frente aos impactos dos empreendimentos hidrelétricos em construção na região.This study presents qualitative and quantitative information about commercial fishery in the basin of the Madeira River, tributary of the Amazon River, describing the fishing activity in the segment between Guajará-Mirim and Porto Velho, in Rondônia State. From January to December/2004, 219 fishermen and 935 trips were registered, corresponding to the capture of 460 t of fish. Data from fish landings demonstrate that fisheries in the region are small-scaled and point to a higher participation of small motorized canoes (130 units than of fishing boats (45 units; average capacity: 3000 kg in the fishing fleet. Migratory species like jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans

  5. EFFECT OF SOME IONS ON SPERM ACTIVATION IN Brycon henni (EIGENMANN 1913

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    JAVIER TABARES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espermatozoides en los carácidos se mantienen inmóviles en plasma seminal, acti- vándose cuando se liberan en el agua. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer algunos de los mecanismos que inducen la activación espermática (porcentaje de espermato- zoides que adquieren movilidad y el tiempo que dura la misma. El efecto de las solucio- nes isosmóticas, se analizó considerando las combinaciones de los iones Ca2+, K+, Mg2+ y Na+, y el efecto de algunos bloqueadores de canales iónicos. Se evaluó el porcentaje y duración de la movilidad, así como el potencial de la membrana plasmática. La motili- dad espermática fue mayor cuando el semen se incubó en las soluciones que contenían K+ (p<0,05 comparado con el control positivo. La mayor duración de la movilidad se obtuvo cuando se incubaron los espermatozoides en soluciones que contenían Na+ y Mg2+ (p<0,05. Todas las soluciones probadas indujeron un cambio en el potencial de membrana, detectado después de 15 segundos de la activación. Bloqueo de los canales de K+, Ca2+ y Na+ no alteró la movilidad, sino que disminuyó el tiempo de activación (p<0,05. Los iones potasio indujeron la activación en todas las concentraciones hasta 105 mM, pero la movilidad disminuyó drásticamente cuando las concentraciones fue- ron mayores de 140 mM (p<0,05. Se concluye que la interacción del ambiente iónico con la membrana de la célula conduce a cambios en el potencial de la membrana que conllevan a señales intracelulares que desencadenan la movilidad del esperma.

  6. Atividade proteolítica e crescimento de matrinxã em natação sustentada e alimentado com dois níveis de proteína

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    Gustavo Alberto Arbeláez-Rojas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da natação sustentada sobre a atividade digestiva proteolítica e o crescimento de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, alimentados com dois níveis de proteína. Foram utilizados 240 peixes, tratados com 28 ou 38% de proteína bruta (PB, durante 60 dias, em duas situações distintas: em natação sustentada à velocidade de uma vez e meia o comprimento corporal por segundo, e em sistema convencional de cultivo, sem movimento forçado. Os peixes em natação sustentada e alimentados com 28% de PB apresentaram melhor desempenho, expresso como maior crescimento, alta taxa de crescimento específico, maior ganho de peso e melhor eficiência alimentar. A natação sustentada proporcionou aumento significativo da atividade digestiva proteolítica alcalina, proporcional ao conteúdo de proteína na dieta. Juvenis de matrinxã alimentados com dietas com 28% de PB e em natação sustentada apresentam melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes como consequência de ação proteolítica digestiva mais efetiva.

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0081 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0081 gb|AAQ03363.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb|AA...Q03365.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb|AAQ03367.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argente...us] gb|AAQ03373.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb|AAQ03375.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argente...us] gb|AAQ03385.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb...|AAQ03387.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] AAQ03363.1 0.33 26% ...

  8. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE Alimentary tract of juvenile Rubio Salminus affinis (Pisces: Characidae morphological description

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    VJ ATENCIO GARCÍA

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de "Y", grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.The aim of work was giving biological information about Salminus affinis,a morphological description of the alimentary tract was carried out. Five juvenile Rubio were analyzed (23.6±2.6 cm of total length and 142.8±62.5 g of weight. Topographical and morphological description organs and histology with H-E stain were carried out. The esophagus is a short tubular thick-walled organ that represents 7.8% of the alimentary tract total length; it presents internal folds that offer great distension capacity allowing the step of great volume of bit meat. The stomach is an asymmetric bag in "Y" form, big and muscular, wide in anterior part and narrow toward the bottom; the number of pyloric cecum can vary between 13 and 23 and could be monotubular and branching. The intestine, with three loops, extends from the pyloric sphincter until the anus. Histologycally alimentary tract is formed by four layers: mucous, submucous, muscular and serous; the epithelium lining of the esophagus is stratified plane non keratinized with chaliced cells changing to simple cylindrical mucosecretor up to stomach; in the stomach epithelium simple cylindrical mucosecretor are found and the pyloric and intestine cecum are covered by cylindrical simple epithelium with chaliced cells. So the middle value of the intestinal coefficient (0.58, as the distensible wall of the stomach suggest that Rubio has an alimentary tract of carnivorous and its histologycal characteristics are similar with most of superior vertebrates.

  9. Revisión taxonómica y geográfica de Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae Taxonomic and geographic revision of Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae

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    César Román-Valencia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectúa un análisis taxonómico y geográfico de Bryconamericus peruanus y se compara con las especies de este género presentes en las vertientes del Pacífico sur en Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. Bryconamericus peruanus restringe su distribución al sistema hidrográfico del Pacífico en Perú y se plantea que algunas formas del Pacífico y Amazonas de Ecuador son especies por describir. Los caracteres asociados al dimorfismo sexual, como ganchos en todas las aletas con radios excepto la aleta caudal, son útiles en la diferenciación de B. peruanus y Bryconamericus sp.1 con respecto a B. brevirostris, B. dahli, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis, Bryconamericus sp. 2 y Bryconamericus sp. 3. De acuerdo con la forma (de la mandíbula superior, longitud aleta dorsal-hipurales y longitud pedúnculo caudal, el análisis de componentes principales distingue 2 grupos de especies: I B. peruanus, B. brevirostris, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis y Bryconamericus sp. 3 y II B. dahli, Bryconamericus sp. 1 y Bryconamericus sp. 2.Axonomic and geographic status of Bryconamericus peruanus were analyzed and compared with species belonging to the genus Bryconamericus that occurs in the Pacific basin from Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Distribution range of B. peruanus is restricted to Peruvian drainages and the populations from the Pacific basin and those located at the Amazons in Ecuador are regarded new species. The presence of hooks on all the fins, except on the caudal fin, was the most reliable character to separate populations of B. peruanus and Bryconamericus sp.1 from B. brevirostris, B. dahli, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis, Bryconamericus sp. 2 and Bryconamericus sp. 3. According to the form upper jaw, dorsal fin-hypurals distance and caudal peduncle length from the principal component analysis, 2 groups are distinguished: I B. peruanus, B. brevirostris, B.guaytarae, B. miraensis y Bryconamericus sp. 3, and II B. dahli, Bryconamericus sp. 1 and Bryconamericus sp. 2.

  10. Clove oil as anaesthetic for juveniles of matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869 Óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869

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    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Many chemicals have been used as anaesthetics in fish farms and fish biology laboratories to keep the fish immobilized during handling procedures and to prevent accidents and animal stress. In Brazil, tricaine methane sulfonate (MS 222, quinaldine sulfate, benzocaine, and phenoxyethanol are the most common fish anaesthetics used to prevent fish stress during handling, but many side effects such as body and gill irritations, corneal damage and general risks of intoxication have been reported. Clove oil is a natural product proposed as an alternative fish anaesthetic by many researchers and it has been used in many countries with great economic advantages and no apparent toxic properties. In this work, we assessed the suitability of clove oil to anaesthetize matrinxã. Sixty-three juveniles of matrinxã were exposed to seven anaesthetic batches of clove oil (pharmaceutical grade namely 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mg/L. The times to reach total loss of equilibrium and to recover the upright position were measured. Clove oil concentration about 40 mg/L was enough to anaesthetize the fish in approximately one minute and the recovery time was independent in regard to anaesthetic concentration.Diversos produtos químicos têm sido empregados como anestésicos para peixes nas estações de piscicultura e laboratórios de biologia de peixes para a devida imobilização dos organismos, afim de se prevenir acidentes e ferimentos na superfície do corpo dos próprios peixes, que podem ficar susceptíveis a patógenos e taxas altas de mortalidade. A tricaina metano sulfonato (MS 222, a quinaldina, a benzocaina e o phenoxyethanol têm sido amplamente utilizados no Brasil, mas alguns efeitos colaterais são observados como perda de muco, irritação nas brânquias e olhos, e também alguns incômodos aos trabalhadores como a necessidade do uso de luvas. Dessa forma, o óleo de cravo é proposto como um anestésico alternativo por ser um produto natural de custo acessível e sem riscos aparentes de intoxicações. No presente trabalho estudamos a possibilidade do uso do óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã, utilizando-se 63 peixes, expondo-os a banhos anestésicos nas concentrações de 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 60 mg/L, de forma que foram mensurados os tempos necessários para que os peixes atingissem a perda total de equilíbrio e a incapacidade de retornar a posição normal de nado. A concentração de 40 mg/L foi suficiente para anestesiar juvenis de matrinxã em aproximadamente 1 minuto, sendo a recuperação independente da concentração do anestésico.

  11. Efeito do resfriamento sobre a textura post-mortem da carne do Matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Pisces: Characiforme)

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    Mahecha, Hector Suarez

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências dos Alimentos. O amolecimento da carne dos peixes, post-mortem, é um fator de qualidade diretamente influenciado pelas características dos tipos de colágenos presentes em cada espécie. A degradação do colágeno está relacionada com a armazenagem dos peixes sob resfriamento. Algumas pesquisas têm demonstrado, através de testes bioquímicos e, principalmente, atra...

  12. Standardization of 2-phenoxyethanol as anesthetic for juvenile Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869: the use in field procedures

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    Inoue Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyper motility is a negative factor in fish handling procedures due to the risks of damages to the animals. Chemicals are widely used to anesthetize fish during biometry and many other handling procedures. 2-Phenoxyethanol is largely employed, but many studies are necessary about tropical fish responses. The present research evaluated the anesthesia induction time for juvenile matrinxã submitted to eight different levels of 2-phenoxyethanol. The range of 2-phenoxyethanol concentration was 250-600mg liter-1. Induction time of anesthesia decreased as a function of 2-phenoxyethanol concentrations. Fish were safely anesthetized approximately after one minute of exposure to 2-phenoxyethanol batches in concentrations above 400mg/liter, and the recover period was about one minute for all anesthetic concentrations. 2-Phenoxyethanol is a safe anesthetic for juvenile matrinxã even in exposures up to 600mg liter-1 being recommended for many field procedures of fish handling.

  13. Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

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    Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of extract of Aloe vera in the transport water of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus fish on stress response and leukocyte respiratory activity. Fish was transported for 4 h in water containing Aloe at levels 0; 0.02; 0.2 and 2 mg/L, and sampled before transport 2, 4, 24 and 96 h after for determination of plasma glucose and respiratory activity of leukocytes. An additional in vitro assay was conducted with another fish species, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, to test the respiratory burst of leukocytes exposed to Aloe extract (0.0, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS only at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. Plasma glucose increased after 2 and 4 h of transport and returned to control levels within 24 h, but the addition of Aloe in the transport water did not affect the level of blood glucose. However, at 2 h of transport, Aloe enhanced the respiratory activity of leukocytes in a dose-dependent way. The highest value of respiratory burst activity of leukocytes was observed in the fish transported in water containing Aloe at 2 mg/L. The enhancing effect of the plant extract on the production of oxygen radicals was confirmed in vitro in leukocytes of pacu incubated in Aloe at concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L. The results suggest that Aloe vera is a modulator of the immune system in fish improving the innate immune response tested.

  14. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes: Characidae with comments on the Moenkhausia oligolepis species complex

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    Ricardo C. Benine

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Moenkhausia is described from tributaries of the rio Paraguay, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from congeners by characters related to body coloration, the number of lateral line scales, the degree of poring of the lateral line, and number of scales rows above and below the lateral line. Molecular analyses using partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase I from specimens of the new species and specimens belonging to morphologically similar species demonstrated that the new species is easily differentiated by their high genetic distance and by their position in the phylogenetic hypothesis obtained through the Maximum Parsimony methodology. The analyses of three samples of M. oligolepis also revealed that they have high genetic distances and belong to different monophyletic groups suggesting that this species corresponds to a species complex rather than a single species.Uma nova espécie de Moenkhausia é descrita de tributários do rio Paraguai, Brasil. Essa nova espécie é diagnosticada de seus congêneres por caracteres relacionados ao padrão de colorido do corpo, número de escamas da linha lateral, grau de desenvolvimento dos poros sensoriais na linha lateral e número de séries de escamas acima e abaixo da linha lateral. Um análise molecular usando sequências parciais do gene mitocondrial Citocromo Oxidase I de espécimes representativos da nova espécie e espécimes pertencentes a espécies morfologicamente similares demonstrou que a nova espécie é facilmente diferenciada por sua elevada distância genética e por sua posição na hipótese filogenética obtida pelo método de máxima parcimônia. A análise de três amostras de M. oligolepis também revelou que estas apresentam distâncias genéticas elevadas e pertencem a grupos monofiléticos distintos, sugerindo que esta espécie corresponda a um complexo de espécies e não uma única espécie.

  15. Extensive polymorphism and chromosomal characteristics of ribosomal DNA in the characid fish Triportheus venezuelensis (Characiformes, Characidae

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    Mauro Nirchio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype and chromosomal characteristics of the characid fish Triportheus venezuelensis were investigated using differential staining techniques (C-banding, Ag-NOR staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 52, karyotype composition and sex chromosome determination system of the ZZ/ZW type were the same as previously described in other species of the genus Triportheus. However, extensive variation regarding nucleolus organizer regions (NOR different from other species was observed. 18S rDNA sequences were distributed on nine chromosome pairs, but the number of chromosomes with Ag-NORs was usually lower, reaching a maximum of four chromosomes. When sequential staining experiments were performed, it was demonstrated that: 1. active NORs usually corresponded to segments with 18S rDNA genes identified in FISH experiments; 2. several 18S rDNA sequences were not silver-stained, suggesting that they do not correspond to active NORs; and 3. some chromosomes with silver-stained regions did not display any 18S rDNA signals. These findings characterize an extensive polymorphism associated with the NOR-bearing chromosomes of T. venezuelensis and emphasize the importance of combining traditional and molecular techniques in chromosome studies.

  16. Anatomy of the alimentary tract of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

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    Eliane Menin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary tract of Salminus brasiliensis shows anatomic adaptations to its carnivorous, ichthyophagous feeding habit, particularly regarding the distensible esophagus and stomach, especially the caecal region, and the relatively short intestine. The great distensibility of the wall of the anterior intestine is due mainly to the pattern of the mucous membrane, which exhibits thick longitudinal folds. In the anterior intestine the transport of the food is facilitated by the longitudinal pattern of the mucous folds. In the esophagus and pyloric region, related to the propulsion of food to the net organ, the muscular tunica is more developed than in the rest of the alimentary tract. The pyloric constriction regulates the food flux to the middle intestine. Due to the pattern of mucous membrane of the middle and posterior intestines, in net form, the material being processed can be retained for a greater length of time. The intestinal effective absorption area is amplified due to the tubular structure of the middle intestine, of the mucous intestinal folds, and the pyloric caeca. The alimentary tract of S. brasiliensis is similar in structure to that of other Salmininae and to the majority of the piscivorous Characiformes such as Acestrorhynchus britskii and A. lacustris, although in these two the ileum-rectal valve is found. It also differs from the alimentary tracts of Hoplias malabarius and H. lacerdae, in that the esophagus has variable caliber, the stomach possesses a wider cardia, and the intestinal arrangement is different from “N”, besides the presence of the ileum-rectal valve.

  17. Diet of Astyanax species (Teleostei, Characidae in an Atlantic Forest River in Southern Brazil

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    Fábio Silveira Vilella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of six species of Astyanax from river Maquiné are described. Fishes were sampled bi-monthly from November/95 to September/96 in two zones of the river. Items were identified, counted and had their abundance estimated according to a semi-quantitative scale. Frequency of occurrence, alimentary importance index (IFI values and a similarity analysis of diets for each species-river zone sample were examined. All the species were considered typically omnivorous, with insects and vegetal matter being the most important items in their diet. These species could act as seed dispersers, particularly for macrophytes. Intra-specific spatial differences were not observed in comparisons of samples from two diferent regions of the river, except for A. fasciatus. The presence of Podostemaceae macrophytes in the mid-course of the river seemed to be important both as an autochthonous food resource and as habitat for several organisms preyed by the Astyanax species.Seis espécies do gênero Astyanax, presentes no rio Maquiné, RS, foram estudadas quanto aos seus hábitos alimentares. Os exemplares foram amostrados bimensalmente de novembro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 nas zonas ritral e potamal do rio. Os itens alimentares foram identificados e quantificados de acordo com uma escala semi-quantitativa de abundância, utilizando-se para análise a frequência de ocorrência e um índice de importância alimentar para cada espécie e zona do rio. Análises multivariadas de agrupamento e ordenação foram utilizadas para comparar as dietas intra e interespecíficas. Todas as espécies foram consideradas onivoras, sendo que os itens mais importantes foram os insetos e restos de vegetais superiores. Sugere-se que as espécies estudadas possam atuar como dispersoras de sementes, particularmente para macrófitas. Diferenças espaciais intraespecíficas não foram encontradas, exceto para A. fasciatus. A presença de Podostemaceae no curso médio do rio parece ser uma fonte importante de alimento para as espécies, além de servir de refúgio para diversos organismos que são predados por Astyanax sp.

  18. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive.

  19. Origin of B chromosomes in the genus Astyanax (Characiformes, Characidae) and the limits of chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de A Silva, Duílio M Z; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Penitente, Manolo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryote genomes are frequently burdened with the presence of supernumerary (B) chromosomes. Their origin is frequently investigated by chromosome painting, under the hypothesis that sharing the repetitive DNA sequences contained in the painting probes is a sign of common descent. However, the intragenomic mobility of many anonymous DNA sequences contained in these probes (e.g., transposable elements) adds high uncertainty to this conclusion. Here we test the validity of chromosome painting to investigate B chromosome origin by comparing its results for seven B chromosome types in two fish species genus Astyanax, with those obtained (1) by means of the physical mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), H1 histone genes, the As51 satellite DNA and the (AC)15 microsatellite, and (2) by comparing the nucleotide sequence of one of these families (ITS regions from ribosomal DNA) between genomic DNA from B-lacking individuals in both species and the microdissected DNA from two metacentric B chromosomes found in these same species. Intra- and inter-specific painting suggested that all B chromosomes that were assayed shared homologous DNA sequences among them, as well as with a variable number of A chromosomes in each species. This finding would be consistent with a common origin for all seven B chromosomes analyzed. By contrast, the physical mapping of repetitive DNA sequences failed to give support to this hypothesis, as no more than two B-types shared a given repetitive DNA. Finally, sequence analysis of the ITS regions suggested that at least some of the B chromosomes could have had a common origin.

  20. Habitat use by Astyanax taeniatus (Jenyns, 1842 (Characiformes: Characidae in a coastal stream from Southeast Brazil

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    Luisa Resende Manna

    Full Text Available The habitat use of a stream-dwelling Astyanax taeniatus from the State of Rio de Janeiro was investigated. We performed 12 h of underwater observation in a 200 m long stretch in the upper Roncador stream and quantified the following microhabitat descriptors: (i water velocity, (ii distance from the stream bank, (iii substratum, and (iv water column depth. Microhabitat selectivity was analyzed by comparing the microhabitat used by fish and the microhabitat available in the study site as well as by applying the Ivlev Electivity Index to the microhabitat use data. Differences in the use and availability of the various microhabitats revealed non-stochastic patterns of spatial occupation by A. taeniatus, which was selective for two of the four analyzed microhabitats. Our findings indicated that A. taeniatusis associated with habitats that have higher depths, low water velocity, and sand and bedrock substratum.

  1. Factors influencing Serrapinnus notomelas (Characiformes: Characidae) populations in upper Paraná river floodplain lagoons

    OpenAIRE

    Pitágoras Augusto Piana; Luiz Carlos Gomes; Elimaida Mayo Cortez

    2006-01-01

    Identification of variables that influence fish populations is one of the main challenges in ecology. To explore this, data were collected quarterly from February 2000 to November 2001 using seines, along the shore of four isolated lagoons of the upper Paraná River floodplain. Serrapinnus notomelas was selected to assess the effect of abiotic and biotic variables using indirect gradient analysis. Abiotic variables were summarized by principal components analysis (PCA) and then the scores of t...

  2. Factors influencing Serrapinnus notomelas (Characiformes: Characidae populations in upper Paraná river floodplain lagoons

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    Pitágoras Augusto Piana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of variables that influence fish populations is one of the main challenges in ecology. To explore this, data were collected quarterly from February 2000 to November 2001 using seines, along the shore of four isolated lagoons of the upper Paraná River floodplain. Serrapinnus notomelas was selected to assess the effect of abiotic and biotic variables using indirect gradient analysis. Abiotic variables were summarized by principal components analysis (PCA and then the scores of the axis retained for interpretation were correlated with abundances of S. notomelas. Variables that best explained S. notomelas abundance were surface area of the lagoon, total suspended solids and Secchi depth (these last two, indirectly linked to predation. The most relevant biotic variable that determined population size of S. notomelas was predation.A identificação das variáveis que influenciam nas densidades populacionais de peixesé um dos principais desafios em ecologia. Para explorar isto, assembléias de peixes foram amostradas trimestralmente de fevereiro de 2000 a novembro de 2001 com auxílio de redes de arrasto, operadas nas regiões marginais de quatro lagoas isoladas da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná. Serrapinnus notomelas foi selecionada para avaliar o efeito de variáveis abióticas e bióticas através de análise indireta de gradientes. Variáveis abióticas foram sumarizadas numa análise de componentes principais (ACP e os escores dos eixos retidos para interpretação foram então correlacionados com as abundâncias de S. notomelas.Área de superfície da lagoa, sólidos totais em suspensão e profundidade do disco de Secchi foram as variáveis que melhor explicaram a abundância de S. notomelas. Além disto, a predação, queé influenciada pela transparência daágua, foi a interação biótica que apresentou maior relevância na determinação do tamanho populacional desta espécie.

  3. Osteology of Priocharax and remarkable developmental truncation in a miniature Amazonian fish (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, George M T; Britz, Ralf; Toledo-Piza, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Establishing phylogenetic relationships of miniature fishes is challenging in taxa with developmental truncation. Within the Characiformes, developmental truncation appears to be relatively rare, with the Neotropical genus Priocharax being an example. Priocharax includes three miniature species among the smallest of the order and has been hypothesized to belong to the Heterocharacinae. The pronounced reduction in its skeleton, however, prevented a clearer evaluation of its relationships. The present detailed osteological study was designed to address this question and revealed that 21 bones are absent and nine other skeletal structures are simplified in Priocharax when compared to other characids. Comparison of the skeleton of adult Priocharax with early developmental stages of other characids demonstrated that most of the absences and simplifications can be interpreted as developmental truncations. The most striking developmental truncations are in the pectoral girdle, in which the endoskeleton remains entirely cartilaginous. Other interesting truncations are in the ethmoid region of the skull, infraorbital series, and Weberian apparatus, in which the claustrum is absent. Our study also revealed some unusual sexual dimorphisms in the pelvic girdle. Two cladistic analyses were performed to assess the relationships of Priocharax within the Heterocharacinae. The first consisted of a traditional analysis in which all absences and reductions of Priocharax were coded in the same way as in the remaining taxa. This resulted in three equally most parsimonious topologies, all of which have Priocharax as the most basal taxon of the Heterocharacinae. The second analysis incorporated ontogenetic information, and most absences and reductions of Priocharax were reinterpreted as apomorphic conditions and thus, coded differently from similar conditions in outgroups. This resulted in a single phylogenetic hypothesis with Priocharax and Gnathocharax as sister groups based on seven synapomorphies. Our approach demonstrates the importance of developmental studies to better understand morphological evolution of miniaturized, truncated taxa, and to generate hypotheses of their relationships.

  4. Three new species of Hemibrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from the Magdalena River Basin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Valencia, César; Ruiz-C, Raquel I; Taphorn, Donald C; Mancera-Rodriguez, Néstor J; García-Alzate, Carlos A

    2013-09-01

    Fish biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems is highly threatened by different economic activities driven by human populations, and its description is increasingly a priority. For the Cauca-Magdalena River system we have described 14 species, and the purpose of this paper was to describe three new species belonging to the same genus Hemibrycon from the Nare and Guatapé River drainages of the middle Magdalena River, Colombia. The description was based on a series of 200 specimens, and the use of morphometric, meristic and osteological characters, as well as fish distribution and morphogeometric analytical methods. We have found that Hemibrycon fasciatus n. sp. (n = 54) differs from other species of Hemibrycon (that also have a vertical humeral spot) in having: melanophores outlining the posterior margins of the scales along sides of body; humeral spot extending onto posterior margin of opercle; a dark lateral stripe, formed by deep pigment that is continuous with the peduncular spot; the toothed portion of the maxilla not reaching the dorsal margin of the dentary (vs. toothed portion of maxilla extending beyond dorsal margin of dentary); all maxillary teeth tricuspid (vs. some unicuspid teeth present on maxilla). H. cardalensis n. sp. (n = 64) differs in having: a vertically elongate humeral spot that extends one or two scales below the lateral line canal. H. cardalensis n. sp. differs from all congeners in having the pigment of the caudal spot restricted to the ventral half of the caudal peduncle, and in having melanophores around the anterior scales of the lateral line. Hemibrycon antioquiae n. sp. (n = 82) differs in having a circular humeral spot. It differs from the other species with a circular humeral spot, like H. mikrostiktos, in having a projection of disperse melanophores extending from the dorsal margin of the humeral spot to below the lateral stripe. Habitat data and environmental impacts caused by the construction of reservoirs for hydroelectric projects and other threats in the area are included, as well as a key to all species Hemibrycon present in the Magdalena River Basin. The synonymy of H. pautensis with H. polyodon is discussed and H. pautensis is revalidated.

  5. Bryconamericus macarenae n. sp. (Characiformes, Characidae from the Güejar River, Macarena mountain range, Colombia

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    Román-Valencia, C.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on 174 specimens, using morphometric, meristic and osteological characters, we describe a new species: Bryconamericus macarenae from the Güejar River in La Macarena mountain range, Orinoco Basin, Colombia. It differs from congeners in having: an incomplete lateral line (vs. complete lateral line in all except B. delta and fewer and less conspicuous perforations in the latero-sensorial canal of the extrascapular bone (vs. conspicuous latero-sensorial canal perforation. It has four or fewer unbranched anal-fin rays (vs. five or more unbranched anal-fin rays, a short, thickened extrascapular bone without projections from the posterior margin, or with only a reduced apophysis (vs. extrascapular long, irregular, bony projections on its margins, and with a large undulated apophysis on its posterior margin. It also differs in live coloration. A key of species of Bryconamericus known from the Orinoco Basin and the Catatumbo River is included.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations' of characidae habitat, case study in Abras de Mantequilla wetland, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Mieles, M.G.; Corzo, G.; Irvine, K.; Mynett, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    A central component of predictive ecology in wetlands is the analysis of species distribution as a function of their biotic and abiotic environment. This analysis is normally used by decision-makers in biodiversity conservation, species monitoring and environmental planning, among others. Habitat su

  7. Toxicity and genotoxicity in Astyanax bimaculatus (Characidae induced by microcystins from a bloom of Microcystis spp

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    Ricardo Rocha Pavan da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of genotoxicity in fish caused by cyanobacterial microcystins can be useful both in determining the sensitivity of native species, as well as comparing exposure routes. The genotoxicity caused by the microcystins LR and LA from a bloom collected in a eutrophic lake, was revealed in the fish Astyanax bimaculatus, a native species from South America. LC50 (72 h was determined as 242.81 µg L-1 and LD50 (72 h as 49.19 µg kg-1 bw. There was a significant increase of DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes, following intraperitoneal injection (ip with tested concentrations of 24.58 µg kg-1 bw and 36.88 µg kg-1 bw, as well as through body exposure to a concentration of 103.72 µg L-1. Micronucleus (MN induction was observed after ip injections of 24.58 µg kg-1 bw and 36.88 µg kg-1 bw for 72 h, as well as following body exposure for 72 at 103.72 µg L-1. Thus, both exposure routes resulted in MN induction and DNA damage. Apoptosis-necrosis testing was carried out only by ip injection with concentrations of 24.58 µg -1 bw and 36.88 µg kg-1 bw. Exposure to microcystins at lower concentrations induced more apoptosis than necrosis in peripheral erythrocytes, whereas exposure at higher concentrations gave rise to both conditions. Thus, Astyanax bimaculatus can be considered as a species sensitive to the genotoxic effects caused by microcystins.

  8. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes: Characidae with comments on the Moenkhausia oligolepis species complex

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    Ricardo C. Benine

    Full Text Available A new species of Moenkhausia is described from tributaries of the rio Paraguay, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from congeners by characters related to body coloration, the number of lateral line scales, the degree of poring of the lateral line, and number of scales rows above and below the lateral line. Molecular analyses using partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase I from specimens of the new species and specimens belonging to morphologically similar species demonstrated that the new species is easily differentiated by their high genetic distance and by their position in the phylogenetic hypothesis obtained through the Maximum Parsimony methodology. The analyses of three samples of M. oligolepis also revealed that they have high genetic distances and belong to different monophyletic groups suggesting that this species corresponds to a species complex rather than a single species.

  9. Identification and chromosome mapping of repetitive elements in the Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei: Characidae) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Pucci, Marcela Baer; Santos, Mateus Henrique; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Most part of the eukaryotic genome is composed of repeated sequences or multiple copies of DNA, which were considered as "junk DNA", and may be associated to the heterochromatin. In this study, three populations of Astyanax aff. scabripinnis from Brazilian rivers of Guaratinguetá and Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo) and a population from Maringá (Paraná) were analyzed concerning the localization of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), the As51 satellite DNA, the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the 5S rDNA. Repeated sequences were also isolated and identified by the Cot - 1 method, which indicated similarity (90%) with the LINE UnaL2 retrotransposon. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the retrotransposon dispersed and more concentrated markers in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. These sequences were co-localized and interspaced with 18S and 5S rDNA and As51, confirmed by fiber-FISH essay. The B chromosome found in these populations pointed to a conspicuous hybridization with LINE probe, which is also co-located in As51 sequences. The NORs were active at unique sites of a homologous pair in the three populations. There were no evidences that transposable elements and repetitive DNA had influence in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in our analyses.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the silvertip tetra, Hasemania nana (Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    We first sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of silvertip tetra (Hasemania nana). The mitogenome was determined to be 16,581 bp long circular molecule with a typical gene arrangement of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA. All genes were encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes. Mitochondrial DNA information provided the basis for the studies in species identification and conservation of the species' natural resources.

  11. Cytogenetic data on Astyanax jacuhiensis (Characidae in the lago Guaíba and tributaries, Brazil

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    Rosiley B. Pacheco

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analyses were performed in Astyanax jacuhiensis from lago Guaíba, Brazil. The diploid number was 50, with a karyotype composed of 8m+30sm+4st+8a chromosomes, FN = 92. The AgNORs were observed in 2 to 5 chromosomes, with intra- and interindividual variation. The sm pair 8 observed always carried NORs on the short arms, presenting size heteromorphism between homologous. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with an 18S rDNA probe only confirmed the location of ribosomal cistrons in the sm pair 8, and heteromorphism of these regions between the homologous chromosomes. C-banding revealed the occurrence of weak C-positive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of several chromosomes, in addition to more evident bands interstitially located on some chromosome pairs and in the terminal region of the short arms in pair 8. C-banding plus CMA3 revealed light fluorescent signals in different chromosomes of the karyotype, with a strong terminal site in pair 8, indicating the occurrence of several GC-rich heterochromatic regions in this species. Our results provide the first description of the Astyanax jacuhiensis karyotype, showing karyotype similarities when compared to various populations of A. altiparanae and A. bimaculatus, indicating that chromosomal features are very similar for these three species.

  12. A new Hyphessobrycon (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae) from the middle Amazon basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flávio C T; Coutinho, Daniel P; Wosiacki, Wolmar B

    2014-10-08

    Hyphessobrycon montagi, new species, is described from tributaries of the Rio Arapiuns, a left margin affluent of the lower Rio Tapajós, Amazon basin, Pará, Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed from all its congeners by the possession of a combination of two well-defined humeral blotches, connected by a narrow stripe, and a caudal peduncle blotch. A putatively monophyletic Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group, restricted to H. heterorhabdus, H. amapaensis, and H. eschwartzae, is herein proposed based on shared derived features of color pattern. Alternative proposals of a "Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus group" presented in the recent literature are evaluated and criticized.

  13. DNA barcodes of Rosy Tetras and allied species (Characiformes: Characidae: Hyphessobrycon) from the Brazilian Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Paz, Francis Paola; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo

    2014-01-01

    DNA barcoding can be an effective tool for fast and accurate species-level identification based on sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COI) gene. The diversity of this fragment can be used to estimate the richness of the respective species. In this study, we explored the use of DNA barcoding in a group of ornamental freshwater fish of the genus Hyphessobrycon. We sequenced the COI from 10 species of Hyphessobrycon belonging to the "Rosy Tetra Clade" collected from the Amazon and Negro River basins and combined our results with published data. The average conspecific and congeneric Kimura 2-parameter distances were 2.3% and 19.3%, respectively. Six of the 10 species were easily distinguishable by DNA barcoding (H. bentosi, H. copelandi, H. eques, H. epicharis, H. pulchrippinis, and H. sweglesi), whereas the remaining species (H. erythrostigma, H. pyrrhonotus, H. rosaceus and H. socolofi) lacked reciprocal monophyly. Although the COI gene was not fully diagnostic, the discovery of distinct evolutionary units in certain Hyphessobrycon species under the same specific epithet as well as haplotype sharing between different species suggest that DNA barcoding is useful for species identification in this speciose genus.

  14. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Xingu basin, Brazil

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    Manoela M. F. Marinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Moenkhausia from the upper rio Xingu basin is described. Moenkhausia eurystaenia is distinguished from all congeners, except M. heikoi and M. phaeonota, by the presence of a dark, broad longitudinal stripe from the opercle to the end of caudal peduncle. The new species is distinguished from M. heikoi mainly by having 18-21 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 24-26 and the absence of a round blotch at the end of the caudal peduncle (vs. present. Moenkhausia eurystaenia can be distinguished from M. phaeonota mainly by the anterior portion of longitudinal band darker at horizontal septum (vs. darker below horizontal septum, the deep dark pigmentation along horizontal septum extending anteriorly up to humeral region (vs. extending up to vertical through pelvic-fin origin, number of vertebrae 34 (vs. 36-37, and others additional measurements.Uma espécie nova de Moenkhausia da bacia do alto rio Xingu é descrita. Moenkhausia eurystaenia distingue-se de todas as congêneres, exceto M. heikoi e M. phaeonota, pela presença de uma faixa longitudinal larga e escura que se estende do opérculo ao pedúnculo caudal. A espécie nova distingue-se de Moenkhausia heikoi principalmente por apresentar 18-21 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal (vs. 24-26, e ausência de uma mácula circular no final do pedúnculo caudal (vs. presença. Moenkhausia eurystaenia distingue-se de M. phaeonota principalmente pela porção anterior da faixa longitudinal ser mais escura no septo horizontal (vs. mais escura abaixo do septo horizontal, pigmentação profunda e escura ao longo do septo horizontal se estendendo até a região umeral (vs. se estendendo até a vertical que passa pela origem da nadadeira pélvica, 34 vértebras (vs. 36-37, e outras medidas adicionais.

  15. New Astyanax from the upper rio Tapajós drainage, Central Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius A. Bertaco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Astyanax utiariti, new species, is described from the upper rio Tapajós drainage, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Astyanax utiariti has a horizontally oval black humeral spot, a lozenge-shaped caudal-peduncle spot, continuing to the tip of the middle caudal-fin rays, and two brown bars in the humeral region that allows its inclusion in the A. bimaculatus species group. It also possesses a black stripe extending along midlateral body. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a reticulate scale pattern, a black longitudinal stripe, toothless maxilla, larger dentary teeth and teeth of the inner row of the premaxilla with five to seven cusps, body depth 33.3-39.9% of standard length (SL, head length (HL 23.9-26.4% of SL, caudal-peduncle depth 12.0-13.4% of SL, orbital diameter 28.5-34.3% of HL, interorbital width 32.7-38.4% of HL, 36-38 perforated scales along the lateral line, and 22-26 branched anal-fin rays.Astyanax utiariti, nova espécie, é descrita da drenagem do alto rio Tapajós, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Astyanax utiariti tem uma mancha umeral preta horizontalmente ovalada, uma mancha losangular preta no pedúnculo caudal continuada até a extremidades dos raios caudais medianos e duas barras marrons na região humeral, que permite sua inclusão no grupo de espécies A. bimaculatus. Também possui uma faixa preta estendida ao longo do meio do corpo. A nova espécie distingue-se de suas congêneres pelo padrão reticulado nas escamas, uma faixa preta longitudinal, maxilar sem dentes, dentes maiores do dentário e dentes da série interna do pré-maxilar com cinco a sete cúspides, altura do corpo de 33,3-39,9% do comprimento padrão (CP, comprimento da cabeça (CC de 23,9-26,4% do CP, altura do pedúnculo caudal 12,0-13,4% do CP, diâmetro orbital de 28,5-34,3% do CC, largura interorbital de 32,7-38,4% do CC, 36-38 escamas perfuradas ao longo da linha lateral e 22-26 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal.

  16. The forebrain of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbsi (Characidae). I. General anatomy of the telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, G

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the cell groups in the telencephalon of the teleost Astyanax hubbsi, based on series of transverse sections stained with the Nissl-Klüver-Barrera and Bodian procedures. The work was conducted for two reasons. Firstly, it was intended to determine the contribution of the forebrain of blind cave fish to certain forms of behavior. An understanding of the anatomy of the telencephalic organization is essential for such a neuroethological approach. The second purpose was to provide the cytoarchitectural basis for the experimental analysis of the fiber connectivity of the telencephalon of A. hubbsi. Furthermore, information about the forebrain of characids is widely lacking, and this study may thus provide important knowledge about the cellular organization of characid forebrains for comparative anatomists. The brain of A. hubbsi is slender and elongated. Both optic nerves and optic tectum are reduced. Three longitudinal sulci-s. ypsiliformis, s. externus and s. limitans telencephali-can be distinguished in the telencephalon. A fiber lamina reaching from the s. externus to the s. limitans telencephali separates the area dorsalis (D) from the area ventralis telencephali (V). The two hemispheres are connected by fibers decussating in the anterior commissure. Although cross sections revealed no distinct fiber laminae between cytoarchitectonic components, 17 cell masses could be delineated: ten of these belong to D, seven to V. The topological analysis yielded the following results. The dorsal telencephalon D consists of three longitudinal columns, termed pars medialis (Dm), pars dorsalis and centralis (Dd and Dc) considered together, and par lateralis (Dl), which converge into a uniform posterior part (Dp). The columns can be divided into several subregions: Dm1 and Dm2, as well as Dlv and Dld, precommissurally, Dm3 and Dm4 postcommisurally. At polus posterior levels nucleus tenia can be identified. The ventral telencephalon (V) is arranged precommissurally in a periventricular neuronal column consisting of a dorsal (Vd) and ventral (Vv) part. Additionally, a lateral part (VI) is delineated. More caudally, a supracommissural part (Vs), a commissural part (Vc), a posterior part (Vp), and nucleus entopeduncularis are identified. This topological organization reflects many features characteristic for actinopterygian forebrains.

  17. Spermatic characteristics and sperm evolution on the subfamily Stevardiinae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae

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    Clarianna Martins Baicere-Silva

    Full Text Available The monophyly and phylogenetic relationships among the members of Clade A characids (sensu Malabarba & Weitzman, later redefined and named as the Stevardiinae (sensu Mirande, have been primarily supported by traditional morphological and molecular data. Herein were examined, described and compared spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of 12 species of the genera Boehlkea, Bryconacidnus, Bryconamericus, Creagrutus, Cyanocharax, Hemibrycon, Knodus, Odontostoechus, Piabina, and Rhinobrycon in order to evaluate possible phylogenetic signals and their potential use in recovering relationships of the Stevardiinae. All examined species demonstrated a nuclear rotation equal or less than 95º resulting in a lateral position of the double nuclear fossa and flagellum. In all species, sperm nuclei are slightly elongate toward the flagellum, the proximal centriole is partially inside the nuclear fossa and lies anterior and oblique to the distal centriole, and the midpiece is short and strongly asymmetric. All species analyzed herein and other species previously examined for these systems in the Stevardiinae share homologous sperm characteristics as evidenced by spermiogenesis, further supporting the monophyly of this clade. Spermatozoa of the Stevardiinae further show three morphotypes (M1, M2, M3 of arrangement of centrioles, flagellum, nucleus and midpiece, hypothesized as successively derived in a series of transformation from the most basal morphotype (M1.

  18. Two new species of Hemibrycon (Characiformes, Characidae from the Magdalena River, Colombia

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    Román-Valencia, C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemibrycon brevispini n. sp. can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the presence of hooks on all fins, and by an elongate projection on the fourth ventral neural arc near the first neural post-zygotic apophysis. Hemibrycon cairoense n. sp. can be distinguished from congeners by having nine proximal pteryigiophores in the dorsal fins including the terminal piece (vs. > 10. It can be distinguished from Hemibrycon species in the Upper and Middle Cauca Rivers by the number of pored lateral-line scales (43-46 vs. > 46 o < 43; F = 13.67; p < 0.000. Ecological data concerning the aquatic habitat of the taxa are presented.

  19. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

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    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4–6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive. PMID:26934481

  20. Anatomy of the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

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    Eliane Menin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis, an ichthyophagous species of fresh water, is anatomically adapted to predation. The wide buccal rift, the oral-aboral enlargement of the buccal cavity and the reduced thickness of the pharyngeal mastigatory apparatus favor the capture and deglutition of larger prey. In function of the oral and pharyngeal dentition type, pre-digestive food preparation does not occur. The pointed and curved teeth, together with the tongue which is relatively mobile, prevent the prey’s escape from the buccopharyngeal cavity. The passage of the food is facilitated by the absence of pronounced folds in the mucous membrane of this cavity and by the disposition of the oral and pharyngeal teeth. The characteristics of flat and thin lips, developed oral dentition, relatively mobile tongue, mucous membrane without folds, pharynx with denticules disposed in dentigerous areas and plates, and short and sharp gill-rackers are anatomical adaptations which are shared by S. brasiliensis and other ichthyophagous Characiformes species such as Salminus maxillosus, Salminus hilarii, Hoplias malabaricus, Hoplias lacerdae, Acestrorhynchus lacustris and Acestrorhynchus britskii. However, different to the mentioned species, except other Salmininae, S. brasiliensis possesses oral teeth of an unique type, present only in the jawbones and distributed in two series.

  1. Chrysobrycon yoliae, a new species of stevardiin (Characiformes: Characidae from the Ucayali basin, Peru

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    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    Full Text Available Chrysobrycon yoliae, new species, is described from a drainage flowing into the río Yucamia basin, río Ucayali basin, Peru. Chrysobrycon yoliaeis readily distinguished from its congeners by the anterior tip of pelvic bone situated anterior to the fifth rib (vs. situated posterior to the fifth rib, the presence of 20-26 dentary teeth (vs. 11-19, and the possession of a terminal lateral-line tube between caudal-fin rays 10 and 11 (vs. the absence of this tube, except in C. eliasi. The new species differs from C. eliasiand C. myersiby the presence of teeth on third pharyngobranchial (vs. the absence of teeth on this bone and also differs from C. eliasiby the dorsal-fin origin situated at vertical through anal-fin rays 5 to 7 (vs. located at vertical through anal-fin rays 8 to 10, the posterior extent of the ventral process of quadrate reaching the vertical through posterior margin of symplectic (vs. not reaching the vertical through posterior margin of symplectic, the dorsal-fin to adipose-fin length 26.8-28.8% SL (vs. 23.9-26.8% SL, and the body depth at dorsal-fin origin 34.4-42.2% SL (vs. 24.1-34.5% SL. A key for the identification of Chrysobryconspecies is provided.

  2. Comparative cytogenetics in Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae with focus on the cytotaxonomy of the group

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    Renata Cristina Claudino de Oliveira Tenório

    Full Text Available Astyanax is a diverse group of Neotropical fishes, whose different forms occupy different environments. This great diversity is also reflected on cytogenetic aspects and molecular markers, which have repeatedly been demonstrated by cytogenetic studies. In order to characterize the karyotype of species of this genus, six species were studied: Astyanax altiparanae, A.argyrimarginatus, A. elachylepis, A. xavante, and two new species provisionally called Astyanax sp. and A. aff. bimaculatus. A detailed cytogenetic study based on conventional staining with Giemsa, AgNORs, C-banding, base-specific fluorochromes, and FISH using ribosomal genes 18S and 5S was conducted, aiming to understand some of the chromosomal mechanisms associated with the high diversification that characterizes this group and culminated with the establishment of these species. The results showed 2n = 50 chromosomes for five species and a karyotype with 52 chromosomes in Astyanax sp. Small variations in the macrostructure of the karyotypes were identified, which were quite relevant when analyzed by classical banding, fluorochromes, and FISH methods. These differences among Astyanax spp. (2n = 50 are largely due to changes in the amount and types of heterochromatic blocks. Astyanax sp (2n = 52, in addition to variations due to heterochromatic blocks, has its origin possibly by events of centric fission in a pair of chromosomes followed by minor rearrangements.These results show an interesting karyotypic diversity in Astyanax and indicate the need of a review of the group referred as A. aff. bimaculatus and the description of Astyanax sp., including the possibility of inclusion of this unit in another genus.

  3. Reproductive biology of a characidiinae (osteichthyes, characidae from the Ubatiba river, Maricá -- RJ

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    R. MAZZONI

    Full Text Available The Ubatiba river is a coastal stream subject to stochastic spates all over the year and, Characidium sp.n. is among the twenty-two species that compose its ichthyofauna. In this study we analyse some traits of its reproductive biology and discuss whether the adopted strategy has causal relationship with the environmental variables. Specimens were collected in the upper Ubatiba river. Samplings, were carried out monthly by electrofishing, between Oct./94 and Sep./95. Some differences between male and female strategies were observed. Females were significantly (p < 0.05 bigger than males; length -- weight relationship was different (p < 0.05 between sexes with the onset of sexual maturity occuring at smaller sizes among males. Reproductive investment is high for both males and females but higher for males, maximum Gonadosomatic Index for females and males were 40.97% and 44.90%, respectively. Reproductive specimens were registered all over the year, suggesting continuous reproduction. High values of fecundity were also registered varying from 1342 to 5535 eggs for ripe females of 4.4 and 7.0 cm, respectively and an amount of 1105 oocytes per grams of fish. We suggest that differences in the reproductive strategy, between sexes, determine the observed patterns in the size structure; the absence of males in the higher SL classes could be a consequence of high mortality rates and/or reduction in the growth rates as a precocity consequence in the onset of reproduction and/or high reproductive investment. Relationship between continuous reproduction and environmental condition could be explained as an adaptation to maximise supervivency of the young fishes that is: guarantee the species maintenance in a stochastic environment.

  4. Plasma testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone levels of male pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Cypriniformes, Characidae

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    R. Gazola

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The levels of testosterone (T and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT of the South American pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus were determined by radioimmunoassay during two stages of the reproductive cycle, i.e., resting and maturation, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. The highest levels of T and 11-KT were reached during the maturation stage (T = 2400 ± 56 pg/ml; 11-KT = 2300 ± 60 pg/ml and lower levels were maintained during the resting period. The rise in androgen levels occurred with the appearance of spermatozoa in the maturation stage, when GSI was highest

  5. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

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    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae, during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm. The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the larvae (standard length = 6.25 ± 0.13 mm showed the following structural and behavioral characteristics that made them become active predators able to overcome a larval critical phase, the beginning of exogenous feeding: presence of pigmented eyes, terminal and wide mouth, developed oral dentition, developing digestive tube, yolk sac reduction, fins and swim bladder formation, horizontal swimming, cannibalism, and predation. Intense cannibalism among larvae was verified from 26 to 72 hours. At the end of the metamorphosis - 172 hours after hatching - the larvae measuring 11.94 + 0.80 mm in standard length presented a flexed notochord, caudal fin bifurcation, dorsal and anal fin formation, synchronized movements, and formation of shoals, characteristics that together allow enhanced perception and locomotio in exploration of the environment, determining the best moment for transfering to the fishponds. New studies can contribute to commercial fish farming by improving feeding management, performance, survival, and productivity of this species.Objetivou-se estudar o desenvolvimento morfológico e os comportamentos natatório e alimentar de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae no período de 0 a 172 horas após a eclosão (comprimento-padrão = 3,62 - 11,94 mm. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas com auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico trinocular e as comportamentais, por meio de

  6. Histology of the liver of Oligosarcus jenynsii (Ostariophysi, Characidae from Los Padres Lake, Argentina Histología del hígado de Oligosarcus jenynsii (Ostariophysi, Characidae de la Laguna de Los Padres, Argentina

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    Gladys M. Petcoff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an organ notable for its sensitivity to a great variety of environmental factors. It is composed of a parenchyma divided into irregular lobules by the exocrine pancreas or hepatopancreas; the pancreatic cells are arranged around a branch of the portal vein. The hepatocytes are radially arranged in cords around a central sinusoid. The liver histomorphology and the organization of exocrine pancreatic tissue of O. jenynsii (Günther, 1864 is similar to the acinar morphology of many teleosts, including freshwater and marine species. The aim of the present work was to carry out the histological analysis of the liver of Oligosarcus jenynsii, one of the most common species inhabiting Los Padres Lake (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.El dientudo Oligosarcus jenynsii (Günther, 1864 es una de las especies más comunes que habita en la Laguna de Los Padres. Se ha realizado el análisis histológico del hígado del dientudo, un órgano destacable por su sensibilidad a una variedad de factores del medio ambiente. El hígado está compuesto por un parénquima con hepatocitos dispuestos en cordones alrededor de un sinusoide central. El parénquima se halla dividido en lóbulos irregulares por el páncreas exócrino o hepatopáncreas, que posee una disposición acinar y cuyas células se organizan alrededor de una rama de la vena porta. La histomorfología del hígado y la organización del tejido pancreático exócrino de Oligosarcus jenynsii es similar a la de muchos peces teleósteos, tanto marinos como de agua dulce.

  7. Morfologia do trato digestório e dieta de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae = Morphology of Digestive tract and diet of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae

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    Renato Ziliani Borges

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar alguns aspectos da alimentação de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii, capturadas nos meses de julho e novembro de 2001, nas regiões limnética e litorânea do reservatório de Santa Maria, rio Piquiri, Estado do Paraná. As larvas apresentaram boca subterminal durante todo o seu desenvolvimento. O tubo digestório se diferenciou em estômago e intestino apenas no estágio de pós-flexão. As larvas consumiram, principalmente, algas e microcrustáceos, o que permitiu caracterizá-las como planctófagas. A intensa modificação morfológica no trato digestório nos indivíduos em pósflexão coincidiu com o aumento na abundância de algas em relação aos itens de origemanimal; porém, de forma geral, a ocorrência aumentou para todos os itens. A análise do grau de digestão dos itens alimentares sugeriu que indivíduos em pré-flexão alimentaram-se, possivelmente, durante o dia, e os mais desenvolvidos, durante o entardecer e no períodonoturno.The aim of this study was to analyze some feeding treats of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae, sampled in both the limnetic and littoral regions of the Piquiri River, in Santa Maria reservoir, between July and November 2001. The larvae presented sub-terminal mouth in larval period. The digestive tract differentiated in terms of stomach and intestine only in the postflexion larvae. The larvae fed mainly on algae and microcrustacea allowing to characterize them as planktivorous. The intense morphologic shift in the digestive tract in the postflexion larvae coincided with an increase in the abundance of algae in relation to animals items; however, in general, all the items had their occurrence increased. Analysis of the digestion stage suggested that preflexion larvae, possibly, fed themselves during the day, and those more developed, at dusk and night.

  8. The food spectrum of the cardinal - tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi, Characidae in its natural habitat Estratégias alimentares do cardinal-tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi, Characidae em seu ambiente natural

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    Ilse Walker

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi is the most intensively commercialized ornamental fish from the Rio Negro Basin (Amazonas State, Brasil. Analysis of the stomach and gut contents of fish caught in their natural habitats show conclusively that the cardinal is essentially a predator, feeding on the mesofauna that adheres to submerged litter, roots and waterplants. Microcrustacea and chironomid larvae (Diptera were the most frequently ingested prey, while algae intake was relatively infrequent. It is argued that the relatively small size of the cardinals captured in their natural habitat is due to the annual migrations imposed by the inundation cycles, rather than to resource limitation, because it is known from earlier investigations of similar habitats, that these plant substrates are densely colonized by the aquatic mesofauna. Cardinals raised in captivity are larger and have higher rates of growth.O cardinal (Paracheirodon axelrodi é o peixe ornamental comercializado com maior intensidade na Bacia do Rio Negro (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Análise do conteúdo estomacal de peixes capturados nos seus habitats naturais mostra, que o cardinal é essencialmente um predador, alimentando-se da mesofauna que está colonizando a liteira submersa, arbustos submersos, raízes flutuantes e plantas aquáticas. As presas principais são microcrustáceos e larvas de quironomídeos (Chironomidae, Diptera, enquanto ingestão de algas é pouco freqüente. Considera-se que o tamanho relativamente pequeno de cardinais capturados nos ambientes naturais é devido as migrações anuais que acompanham os ciclos anuais de enchente e vazante, e não à falta de recursos; já que é conhecido de ambientes parecidos de outros rios da região, que estes substratos aquáticos são densamente colonizados pela mesofauna. Cardinais criados em cativeiros tem taxas de crescimento mais altas e são de tamanho maiores.

  9. A eficácia do mentol como anestésico para tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Characiformes: Characidae Efficacy of menthol as an anesthetic for tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Characiformes: Characidae

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    Michelle Ferreira Façanha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os anestésicos são importantes na piscicultura para reduzir o estresse e a mortalidade no manejo. Este trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a eficácia do mentol para tambaqui durante o manejo. Na primeira série de testes, foi examinado o efeito da concentração de anestésico sobre indução à anestesia e o estresse de tambaqui. Na segunda série de testes, foi avaliada a recuperação dos peixes após a exposição a uma concentração de 150 mg/L de mentol por diferentes tempos. Na terceira série, foi avaliada se a melhor concentração encontrada para juvenil (150 mg/L também era adequada para peixes maiores. A melhor concentração para uma anestesia cirúrgica foi 150 mg/L, pois o tempo de indução é rápido, porém a recuperação é significativamente mais demorada do que para as menores concentrações testadas. Para uma anestesia, com finalidade de biometria, a melhor concentração foi 100 mg/L. Nesta concentração o tempo de indução à anestesia é prolongado, porém o tempo de recuperação está dentro da faixa considerada adequada. O tempo de recuperação do tambaqui quando exposto a 150 mg/L é significativamente igual para 10, 20 e 30 minutos de anestesia. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o mentol é um anestésico eficiente para o tambaqui.Anesthetics are important in fish culture to reduce handling stress and mortality. The objective of this work is to investigate menthol as an anesthetic for tambaqui. In the first series of tests, fish were exposed to various concentrations of menthol to evaluate induction time and stress responses. The second series examined the effect of exposure period to menthol at 150 mg/L on recovery time. The third assessed the best dosage for juveniles in larger tambaqui. The best concentration for surgical anesthesia is 150 mg/L. At this concentration the induction time is short, but their recovery time is significantly longer than that for lower concentrations. For biometry procedures, the best concentration is 100 mg/L. At this concentration the induction time is prolonged, but the recovery time is within the desired period. Recovery time for fish exposed to 150 mg/L is equal for 10, 20 or 30 minutes of exposure. The results confirmed that menthol is an adequate anesthetic for tambaqui.

  10. Light microscopy and ultrastructure ight of the liver of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae = Histologia e ultraestrutura do fígado de Astyanax altiparanae Garutti e Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae

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    Bruno Bertolucci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Livers of thirty specimens of Astyanax altiparanae obtained from a commercial fish farm were subjected to light and transmission electron microscopy, in order to describe the hepatic parenchyma and the intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue. Anatomically, theliver showed only three hepatic lobes. Histological analysis demonstrated that the hepatocytes were spread out as anastomotic cords, arranged in two cellular layers and surrounded by sinusoids. The intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue exhibited an acinararrangement and was diffused in the hepatic parenchyma. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the hepatocytes had a rounded nucleus and a rough endoplasmatic reticulum, with a parallel disposition to the nuclear membrane. The exocrine pancreatic cells showed secretion granules at the apical portion, and the rough endosplasmatic reticulum was concentrically distributed.Fígados de 30 exemplares de Astyanax altiparanae, obtidos de pesqueiros, foram submetidos à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de transmissão para descrição do parênquima hepático e do tecido pancreático exócrino intrahepático. Anatomicamente, o fígado apresenta somente três lobos hepáticos. A análise histológica demonstra que os hepatócitos se encontram arranjados na forma de cordões anastomosados, dispostos em duas camadas celulares, sendo que estes estão cercados por sinusóides. O tecido pancreático exócrino intra-hepático apresenta arranjo acinar difuso pelo parênquima hepático. A análise ultraestrutural demonstra que os hepatócitos possuem um núcleo arredondado e retículo endoplasmático rugoso, com disposição paralela à membrana nuclear. As células pancreáticas exócrinas apresentam grânulos de secreção na porção apical e retículo endoplasmático rugoso com distribuição concêntrica.

  11. Cytogenetic and morphometric analysis in the species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae) from the Iguatemi River Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Da Rocha, Rafael Henrique; Bailly, Dayani; Guterres, Zaira Da Rosa; Alves, Diandra Soares; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The genus Astyanax is relatively common and encompasses various similar taxa forming a highly complex group that is difficult to precisely delimit. The present study aims to analyze cytogenetically and morphologically specimens of A. altiparanae belonging to distinct populations of the Iguatemi River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, for a better understanding of the evolutionary processes in this fish group. This study analysed 32 specimens of Astyanax altiparanae from Iguatemi River basin, MS, Brazil: 24 from the Agua Boa stream and 8 from the Santa Maria stream. All specimens showed a diploid number equal to 50 chromosomes with differences in the karyotypic formula and types of chromosomes bearing the NOR between the two localities. The constitutive heterochromatin showed interstitial markings evident in the region of some chromosomes in both populations. In the morphometric analysis, the first three axes were retained for interpretation which together explained 81% of variance, showing morphometric distinction between populations. Chromosomal and morphometric data obtained may be useful for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in this group of fish.

  12. A systematic review of diapoma (teleostei: characiformes: characidae: stevardiinae: diapomini with descriptions of two new species from southern Brazil

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    Naércio A. Menezes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diapoma is reviewed and four species are recognized: (1 Diapoma thauma, new species, from streams of the rio Jacuí basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul; (2 D. pyrrhopteryx, new species collected from the rio Canoas and streams flowing into this basin in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil; (3 Diapoma terofali, from streams flowing into rio Uruguay in Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and streams flowing into rio de la Plata, Argentina; and (4 Diapoma speculiferum, from lowland coastal streams in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Uruguay. Diapoma pyrrhopteryx possess the posteroventral opercular elongation typical of D. speculiferum, type species of the genus, but which is absent in D. thauma and D. terofali. Nonetheless, all the diapomin species have the caudal pouch organ about equally developed in both sexes and the dorsal portion of the pouch opening bordered by a series of 3 to 8 elongated scales, the two derived features that characterize the group. The two previously described species, D. speculiferum and D. terofali, are redescribed. Previous hypotheses of relationships among the diapomin genera Planaltina, Diapoma and Acrobrycon are discussed on the basis of preliminary morphological information. It is proposed that the Diapomini is a monophyletic group. An identification key, information on sexual dimorphism, gonad anatomy, reproductive mode and distribution of the species of Diapoma are provided.

  13. Morphology of the urogenital papilla and its component ducts in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira-Silva

    Full Text Available The histological description of the urogenital papilla is an important tool to comprehension of the reproductive mechanisms in fish, as well as a pre-requisite to germ cell transplantation in adult fish, besides to be a good biological indicator to environmental changes. Was performed the histological description of the urogenital papilla and its component ducts in the tetra Astyanax altiparanae. The genital and urinay ducts pass separately throughout most part of its extension, joining in a single duct before opening. In males this opening is asymmetric and seems to have double origin, being completely surrounded by striated muscle fibers, while in females it is symmetric and the muscle fibers does not surround it totally. Spermatic duct and oviduct undergo changes throughout their extension, mainly in the morphology of the surrounding epithelium. In the spermatic duct, squamous epithelial cells change to columnar and cuboid with possible secretory activity, close to testes. In the oviduct, anteriorly epithelial cells are also squamous, however, close to ovary there are lamellae composed by a pseudostratified epithelium with columnar and cuboid cells. The urinary duct is highly similar for both sexes presenting globoid cells, which description is known in mammals, however, rare in fish.

  14. Immunohistochemical study of pituitary cells in wild and captive Salminus hilarii (Characiformes: Characidae) females during the annual reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honji, Renato Massaaki; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; Pandolfi, Matias; Shimizu, Akio; Borella, Maria Inês; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater fish that live exclusively in rivers are at particular risk from fragmentation of the aquatic system, mainly the species that migrate upriver for reproduction. That is the case of Salminus hilarii, an important migratory species currently classified as "almost threatened" in the São Paulo State (Brazil), facing water pollution, dam construction, riparian habitat destruction and environmental changes that are even more serious in this State. Additionally, this species show ovulation dysfunction in captivity. Our studies focused on the identification and distribution of the pituitary cell types in the adenohypophysis of S. hilarii females, including a morphometric analysis that compares pituitary cells from wild and captive broodstocks during the reproductive annual cycle. The morphology of adenohypophysial cells showed differences following the reproductive cycle and the environment. In general, optical density suggested a higher cellular activity during the previtellogenic (growth hormone) and vitellogenic (somatolactin) stages in both environments. Additionally, the nucleus/cell ratio analysis suggested that growth hormone and somatolactin cells were larger in wild than in captive females in most reproductive stages of the annual cycle. In contrast, prolactin hormone showed no variation throughout the reproductive cycle (in both environments). Morphometrical analyses related to reproduction of S. hilarii in different environmental conditions, suggest that somatolactin and growth hormone play an important role in reproduction in teleost and can be responsible for the regulation of associated processes that indirectly affect reproductive status.

  15. UNE NOUVELLE ESPÈCE DE TOMETES (TELEOSTEI : CHARACIDAE : SERRASALMINAE DU BOUCLIER GUYANAIS, TOMETES LEBAILI N. SP.

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    JÉGU M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tometes lebaili n. sp. diffère de Tometes trilobatus Valenciennes, 1850, par la position de la bouche, oblique et dirigée vers le haut. T. lebaili présente 7 à 8 dents à la série labiale du dentaire contre 5 chez T. trilobatus. T. trilobatus, citée des rapides de l’Araguari (Amapá, Brésil à l’Oyapock (Guyane française, est remplacée plus à l’ouest par T. lebaili n. sp., décrite de la Mana (Guyane fr. au Commewine (Surinam et peut-être présente dans le Sinnamary. La taille maximale observée pour T. lebaili est de 512 mm LS.

  16. Pacu fish (Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae landed in Porto Velho (Rondônia fish market from 1985 to 2004

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    Maria Alice Leite Lima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated various aspects of the profile of pacu (Mylossoma spp., Myleus spp., Metynnis spp. fish marketed on the Cai N’água floating platform of Porto Velho (RO from 1985 to 2004. Inter- and intra-annual variations in yield, variation in fish length and general characteristics of the fishing are reported. The annual pacu yield ranged from 33,000kg to 146,000kg (average = 86,585kg, representing from 6.6% to 20.45% of the total landings in the studied period. These variations followed the hydrologic cycle, and the greatest yields were recorded in the years following the highest water levels. The monthly production ranged from 0 to 42,366kg (average = 5,772kg and it was related to reproductive migration. The pacu presented variations in standard length from 14 to 20cm (18.72cm ± 3.69, mean ± sd. The fishing was based on the use of seines and gill nets and the main environments of capture were tributaries of the low Madeira River (Jamari, Oropiara, Machado and Novo Aripuanã. The CPUE calculated for 2003 to 2005 was 15kg*fisherman 1day-1 (sd = ±21. The results show that the category constituted during this period an important resource for local commercial exploitations, as verified in other regions of the Amazon.

  17. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE

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    VJ ATENCIO GARCÍA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de “Y”, grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.

  18. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE

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    Hernandez J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de “Y”, grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.

  19. Perulernaea gamitanae (Copepoda: Lernaeidae parasitizing tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum (Characidae and the hybrids tambacu and tambatinga, cultured in northern Brazil

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    M. Tavares-Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The infestation rate in Colossoma macropomum, hybrid tambacu (C. macropomum x Piaractus mesopotamicus and hybrid tambatinga (C. macropomum x Piaractus brachypomum with Perulernaea gamitanae Thatcher and Paredes, 1985 from two fish farms in Amapá State, Brazil was studied. Lernaeid parasites (n=2887 were collected mainly on the tongue and the mouth cavity and also on cartilage of gill arches and filaments. Inflammation and fibrous nodules were observed on the attachment sites of the parasites. The infestation rate varied according to the fish farm and host. The prevalence of P. gamitanae was of 100% in hosts from one fish farm and was lower in the other fish farm. Higher intensity of P. gamitanae occurred in hybrids tambacu and tambatinga, but despite the high prevalence its intensity was moderate. This is the first report on epidemiology of P. gamitanae in cultured fishes from Brazilian Amazonia, and the occurrence of this crustacean parasite in two new hosts, the hybrids tambacu and tambatinga.

  20. A new species of Tyttocharax (Characiformes: Characidae: Stevardiinae from the Güejar river, Orinoco river Basin, Colombia

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    César Román-Valencia

    Full Text Available A new Tyttocharax species from the Güejar River system, near the Macarena Mountains in Colombia is described. This is the first record for the genus from the Orinoco basin. The combination of the following characters distinguish Tyttocharax metae from its congeners: presence of bony hooks on the pectoral and caudal-fin rays; bony hooks on the anal-fin rays larger than those on the pelvic-fin rays; pectoral-fin rays i,5-6,i; presence of three unbranched dorsal-fin rays; absence of an adipose fin; four scales rows between the anal-fin origin and the lateral line; and four scale rows between the pelvic-fin and the lateral line. Ecological characteristics of the habitat of the new species are also presented.

  1. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854 (Actinopterygii, Characidae in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

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    Doadrio Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI and a single nuclear gene (RAG1 yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations, with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Conclusion Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (~8 Mya, which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (~3.3 Mya.

  2. Morphometric variation between two morphotypes within the Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Characidae) genus, from a Mexican tropical lake.

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    Ornelas-García, Claudia P; Bastir, Markus; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic variation is important for evolutionary processes because it can allow local adaptation, promote genetic segregation, and ultimately give rise to speciation. Lacustrine systems provide a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms by which sister species can co-occur by means of ecological segregation. The fish genus Astyanax is characterized by high levels of phenotypic variability, providing an excellent model for the study of local specialization. Here, we analyze the morphological specializations through geometric morphometrics of two sympatric species described as different genera: Bramocharax caballeroi endemic to Lake Catemaco, and the widely distributed Astyanax aeneus. Additionally, we assess the correlation between phenotypic and genetic structure, and the phylogenetic signal of morphological variation. We examined body size and shape variation in 196 individuals and analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences in 298 individuals. Our results confirm the striking morphological divergence among the sympatric characids. Differences between them were mainly found in the body depth and profile and orientation of the head, where B. caballeroi in contrast with the A. aeneus, presented a fusiform body and an upward mouth. Moreover, different growth trajectories were observed among morphotypes, suggesting that a heterochronic process could be involved in the diversification of our study system. Morphological differences did not correspond with the molecular differentiation, suggesting high levels of homoplasy among the lineages of B. caballeroi morphs.

  3. Can weight/length relationship predict size at first maturity? A case study with two species of Characidae

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    Nelson F. Fontoura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A weight/length relationship was established for Astyanax jacuhiensis (Cope, 1894 (n = 370 and Cheirodon ibicuhiensis Eigenmann, 1915 (n = 701, from samples taken monthly in Fortaleza Lagoon, Cidreira, Rio Grande do Sul, from December 1991 through November 1992. Both species showed a polyphasic allometric growth pattern, each stanza described by an independent power equation controlled by a switch function. For C. ibicuhiensis, this change in the growth pattern occurred at 2.948 cm standard length (SL, close to published sizes for the attainment of female maturity. The change in the growth pattern of A. jacuhiensis (SL = 3.481 cm was below the predicted size at first maturity, and merits further investigation. Although not conclusive, our data suggest that a complex growth pattern is frequent in nature, and perhaps is not usually identified because trends are obscured by natural variability. Despite the increased complexity resulting from the application of a more-complex equation, the identification of a change in the growth pattern could indicate important aspects of fish biology, including the attainment of sexual maturity.A relação peso/comprimento para Astyanax jacuhiensis (Cope, 1894 (n = 370 e Cheirodon ibicuhiensis Eigenmann, 1915 (n = 701 foi estimada a partir de amostras mensais efetuadas na lagoa Fortaleza, Cidreira, Rio Grande do Sul (dezembro de 1991 a novembro de 1992. As espécies analisadas apresentaram padrão de crescimento alométrico polifásico, sendo cada fase descrita por uma equação potência independente controlada por uma função interruptora. Para C. ibicuhiensis foi identificada uma modificação no padrão de crescimento com 2,948 cm de comprimento padrão (CP, valor próximo à dados publicados relativos ao início da maturação sexual. A alteração observada no padrão de crescimento de A. jacuhiensis (CP = 3,481 cm encontra-se abaixo do tamanho previsto para a primeira maturação e sugere a necessidade de investigação adicional. Embora não conclusivos, nossos dados sugerem que padrões complexos de crescimento são frequentes na natureza e, talvez, não identificados porque tendências sutis acabam por ser obscurecidas pela variabilidade natural dos dados. Apesar do aumento de complexidade resultante da aplicação de uma equação complexa, a identificação de mudanças no padrão de crescimento pode apontar para aspectos relevantes da biologia de peixes, incluindo a maturação sexual.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of the species and biogeography of the characid genus Oligosarcus Günther, 1864 (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae).

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    Ribeiro, Alexandre Cunha; Menezes, Naércio Aquino

    2015-04-23

    The characid genus Oligosarcus consists of 20 described species distributed throughout most of South American river basins below 14º south latitude. This study focus on the phylogenetic relationships of the species of Oligosarcus based on the analysis of osteological characters to provide data to discuss the biogeographic history of the genus. The analysis resulted in a single most parsimonious tree with 152 steps (CI= 0.355 and RI= 0.600). The 18 included Oligosarcus species were hierarchically organized into 17 clades. A minimal age of 15 Ma for the genus is suggested based on the putatively cladogenetic event represented by the continued shortening of the Eastern Cordillera that established the eastern boundary of the modern central Andean plateau and was responsible for cladogenesis between the common ancestor of O. schindleri + O. bolivianus versus the remaining congeners. There is a pronounced disjunction in the upland species distribution by the lowland areas of the Chaco-Pantanal basin. This indicates that upland habitats (headwater streams) are preferential habitats for a set of species including O. argenteus, O. bolivianus, O. brevioris, O. paranensis, O. perdido, O. pintoi, O. planaltinae, O. brevioris, and O. schindleri. Fragmentation of populations of O. pintoi and O. perdido are at least 2.5 Ma old, since the origin of the upper Paraguay depression clearly promoted the present-day observed disjunction in the distribution of these species. The lowland Oligosarcus species are all included in a single clade but the obtained results suggest that fragmentation of upland versus lowland components of the genus was not causally related to a single vicariant event. The available fossil record of Oligosarcus indicates that the genus already occurred in the coastal plain at about 2.3 to 1.25 Ma. The sister-group relationship between O. hepsetus and O. longirostris provided additional evidences of the so-called historical affinities between the SE Brazilian coastal plain and the Rio Iguaçu drainage basin.

  5. Genetic variability in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae from the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

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    Maria Dolores Peres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme data was used to assess the genetic diversity Astyanax altiparanae populations from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River (PR. Specimens were collected in the southern Brazilian state of Paraná from PR in Porto Rico municipality and Ribeirão Ficha (RF in Ubiratã municipality. The authors used 15% (w/v corn starch gel electrophoresis to identify 21 putative loci for 13 enzymatic systems: Aspartate aminotransferase, 2.6.1.1 (AAT, Acid phosphatase, 3.1.3.2 (ACP, Esterase, 3.1.1.1 (EST, Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.8 (G3PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.49 (G6PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 5.3.1.9 (GPI, Iditol dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.14 (IDDH, Isocitrate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.42 (IDH, L-Lactate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.27 (LDH, Malate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.37 (MDH, Malate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.40 (MDHP, Phosphoglucomutase, 5.4.2.2 (PGM, and Superoxide dismutase, 1.15.1.1 (SOD. The proportion of polymorphic loci were estimated as 52.38% in the PR population and 38.10% in the RF population. Expected estimated heterozygosities were 0.1518 ± 0.0493 for the PR population and 0.0905 ± 0.0464 for the RF population. The A. altiparanae heterozygosity data were similar to previous estimates for other PR basin characid species. Allele frequencies were significantly different between the PR and RF populations in respect to some loci (Acp-1, G3pdh-1, Gpi-A, Iddh-1, Mdhp-1 and Mdhp-2. Wright’s statistics for all loci were estimated as Fis = 0.3919, Fit = 0.4804 and Fst = 0.1455. Our results show that the A. altiparanae populations studied are genetically different and have a high degree of genetic variability.

  6. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

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    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  7. Oligosarcus amome (Ostariophysi: Characidae), a new species from the río Uruguay basin, Misiones, Argentina.

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    Almirón, Adriana; Casciotta, Jorge; Piálek, Lubomír; Doubnerová, Klára; Říčan, Oldřich

    2015-02-05

    Oligosarcus amome is described from tributaries of the arroyo Yabotí-Guazú, río Uruguay basin, Misiones Province, Argentina. This new species can be distinguished from all its congeners by the following combination of characters: presence of two conspicuous series of teeth on premaxilla bearing pentacuspidate teeth in the outer series. Oligosarcus amome is the sister taxon of all remaining analyzed species of the genus excepting O. itau. 

  8. Spatial and temporal biomarkers responses of Astyanax jacuhiensis (Cope, 1894(Characiformes: Characidae from the middle rio Uruguai, Brazil

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    Vania Lucia Loro

    Full Text Available Due to intense agricultural activity in the rio Uruguai (South Brazil, there is the potential for aquatic contamination by agrochemicals. In this region, there are many reservoirs to meet the water demand for rice fields, forming lentic environments. In line with this information, the aim of this study was to show a comparative analysis of some biomarkers, such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS, gluthatione S-transferase (GST, non-protein thiols (NPSH, amino acids (AA and piscine micronucleus tests (MNE in Astyanax jacuhiensis from lentic and lotic environments in the middle rio Uruguai region, comparing warm and cold seasons. Eight pesticides were found in water samples, with propoxur having the highest concentration found in both environments and seasons. Fish from the warm season showed higher levels of biochemical biomarkers, and fish from the cold season showed higher levels of MNE and AA. TBARS and AA presented higher levels in fish from the river, while GST, NPSH, MNE and AA presented higher levels in fish from dams. These environments have different characteristics in terms of redox potential, aeration, sedimentation, trophic structure, agrochemicals input and others, which may affect the physiological and biochemical responses of fish in against adverse situations.

  9. Efeito das classes de peso sobre a composição corporal e o rendimento de processamento de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus Effect of weight classes on body composition and processing yield of cultivated matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

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    Rose Meire Vidotti

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrinxã é um peixe originário da Bacia Amazônica que vem sendo cultivado na Região Sudeste, atendendo ao crescente mercado dos pesque-pague. Embora não exista um consenso sobre o peso de comercialização para essa espécie, ela tem sido realizada com exemplares acima de 600g. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de processamento e a composição corporal do matrinxã em três classes de peso. Foram coletados em tanques de cultivo do Caunesp, Jaboticabal, SP, 45 exemplares, separados em três classes de peso: P1 = 400 a 500g; P2 = 501 a 600g e P3 = 601 a 700g, e submetidos ao processo de filetagem manual e determinação da composição corporal. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros de rendimento (%: filé sem pele, vísceras, gordura visceral, carcaça sem cabeça, cabeça e resíduo total. Para a composição corporal foram determinados os teores de umidade, proteína bruta, lipídeos e cinzas. As classes de peso tiveram efeito (p 0,05. Os menores valores obtidos para carcaça sem cabeça e vísceras foram observados na classe P1 (75,94% e 8,38 e os maiores na P3 (78,05% e 9,48%. Destaca-se que a gordura visceral compreende em torno de 43% do total das vísceras em todas as classes de peso, havendo uma correlação positiva e significativa (r2 = 0,957* entre esses dois parâmetros. A composição corporal apresentou diferenças significativas apenas quanto aos teores de cinzas, sendo que o maior valor foi observado nos peixes da maior classe de peso. Embora não significativo, nota-se uma tendência de maior acúmulo de gordura nos peixes maiores. Este alto teor de lipídeos observado com o matrinxã reflete uma característica comum em espécies de peixes tropicais de água doce. Com base nesses resultados, pode-se concluir que os teores de proteína bruta e lipídeos apresentam-se semelhantes nas três classes de peso avaliadas, e, sem prejuízo do rendimento de filé, os peixes podem ser processados com pesos menores aos normalmente comercializados.Matrinxã is a native fish from the Amazon basin, which has been cultivated in the Southestern region due to increasing interest in sport fishing. Although there is no agreement on the ideal commercialization weight for the species, fishing has been carried out with fish above 600 g. This study aimed to determine the processing yield and body composition in three weight classes. Forty-five fish were collected in fish ponds at Caunesp, Jaboticabal, SP, according to the following weight classes: P1 = 400 to 500 g; P2 = 501 to 600 g; and P3 = 601 to 700 g. The fish were filleted and their body composition was determined. The following yield parameters (% were evaluated: skinless fillet, visceral fat, headless carcass, and total residue. For body composition, moisture (M, crude protein (CP, lipid (L, and ash (A were determined. The weight had effect on (p 0.05. The lowest value obtained for headless carcass and visceral components was observed for weight class P1 (75,94% e 8,38% and the highest for P3 (78,05% e 9,48%. It should be noted that visceral fat is about 43% of total visceral components for all weight classes with significant and positive correlation (r2 = 0.957*. The body composition showed significant differences with respect to ash: the highest value was found in the heaviest weight class. Although not significant, a tendency for higher fat accumulation in heavier fish was observed. The lipid content reflects a common feature in tropical fish species. From the analysis of the results, it is possible to conclude that crude protein and lipid were similar for all evaluated weight classes. Therefore, smaller fish may be processed while maintaining fillet yield.

  10. Three new species of Aspergillus from Amazonian forest soil (Ecuador).

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    Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Maldonado, Maria Elena; Pedrini, Paola; Colalongo, Chiara; Romagnoli, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    From an undisturbed natural forest soil in Ecuador, three fungal strains of the genus Aspergillus were isolated. Based on molecular and morphological features they are described as three new species, named A. quitensis, A. amazonicus, and A. ecuadorensis.

  11. Chromosomal differentiation between populations of Oligosarcus hepsetus (Teleostei, Characidae from small tributaries at opposite margins of the Paraíba do Sul river (Brazil

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    Liano Centofante

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analyses were carried out in two populations of Oligosarcus hepsetus from tributaries at opposite margins of the Paraíba do Sul river. The same diploid number was observed in both populations (2n=50, but they showed remarkable differences related to karyotype formula and distribution of rDNA sites as revealed by silver nitrate staining and in situ hybridization with 18S probes. The results suggested that the main channel of the Paraíba do Sul river acted as barrier to gene flow between populations.Análises citogenéticas foram realizadas em duas populações de Oligosarcus hepsetus provenientes de riachos de margens opostas do rio Paraíba do Sul. O número diplóide foi o mesmo para ambas as populações (2n=50, porém diferenças significativas foram observadas com relação à fórmula cariotípica e distribuição dos sítios de DNAr detectados pela impregnação por prata e pela hibridação "in situ" com sonda 18S. Estes resultados sugerem que a calha principal do rio Paraíba do Sul estaria atuando como uma barreira para o fluxo gênico entre essas populações.

  12. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  13. A new species of Hemigrammus Gill, 1858 (Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Madeira and rio Paraguai basins, with a redescription of H. lunatus

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    Rafaela P. Ota

    Full Text Available A new Hemigrammusis described from the rio Paraguai and rio Madeira basins, Mato Grosso and Rondônia States, Brazil. The new species is characterized by possessing a wide dark horizontal stripe across the eye, a vertically elongated humeral blotch, and 4-5 gill-rakers on upper branch and 9-10 on lower. The new species can be easily diagnosed from H. lunatus, the sympatric and morphologically most similar congener, by the shape of humeral blotch and the number of gill rakers. Data of the type material of both Hemigrammus lunatus and H. maxillaris, as well as extensive examination of specimens, allowed us to conclude that H. maxillarisis a junior subjective synonym of H. lunatus. A redescription of H. lunatus, as well as a formal restriction of its type locality, is provided. A putative monophyletic group within Hemigrammus, composed by H. barrigonae, Hemigrammus lunatus, H. machadoi new species, and H. ulreyi, named Hemigrammus lunatus group, is proposed based on overall body morphology and color pattern. Additionally, a discussion on the biogeographical relationships between the rio Paraguai and rio Guaporé basins is provided.

  14. Spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Ostariophysi: Characidae in an Atlantic Forest river, Southern Brazil

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    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    Full Text Available This study described the feeding habits of the characin Astyanax aff. fasciatus. The diet compositions of specimens from two sites (A and B on a river in Southern Brazil were compared according to the size of individuals and seasonal period. The collections were performed monthly from March 2005 to February 2006, where the stomach contents of 290 specimens were assessed. Food items for A. aff. fasciatus were basically composed of plants and insects, especially leaf fragments, seeds, fruits, filamentous algae, aquatic and terrestrial insects and insect fragments. At site A, the most common items were insect and plant fragments. Conversely at site B, plant fragments were more representative. In general, all items of animal origin showed the highest feeding index values at site A, whereas at site B detritus and grass items were more abundant. The composition of items varied seasonally, with higher diversity of items being recorded during the spring at both sites. Smaller individuals preferred items of animal origin, while the larger ones consumed mainly items of plant origin. According to its size, A. aff. fasciatus in this study may be considered a species with insectivorous tendencies when immature or herbivorous tendencies when adult. Nevertheless, its feeding habits may be flexible according to resource availability, showing wide ontogenetic, besides spatial and temporal variation.

  15. Cytogenetic analysis and description of the sexual chromosome determination system ZZ/ZW of species of the fish genus Serrapinnus (Characidae, Cheirodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi-Rampazzo, A P; Nishiyama, P B; Ferreira, P E B; Martins-Santos, I C

    2007-01-01

    Four populations of Serrapinnus notomelas and one population of Serrapinnus sp.1, both belonging to the subfamily Cheirodontinae, were analyzed by Giemsa and silver nitrate impregnation techniques. We found 2n = 52 chromosomes for all populations, with interspecific differences in the karyotype formula; S. notomelas showed 16 m + 22 sm + 10 st + 4a, with fundamental number (FN) = 100 for males, and 16 m + 23 sm + 10 st + 3a, with FN = 101 for females. Serrapinnus sp.1 had 8m + 16 sm + 4 st + 24 a, with FN = 80 for males, and 8m + 15 sm + 4 st + 25 a, with FN = 79 for females. The difference in FN for the two sexes is due to a pair of heteromorphic chromosomes in the females of both species, which characterizes a ZZ/ZW-type mechanism of chromosome sexual determination. Interspecies differences were also found in nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). A simple NOR system was detected in three of four S. notomelas populations, while Serrapinnus sp.1 had two chromosome pairs with NOR. Although S. notomelas and Serrapinnus sp.1 have the same diploid number, differences in the karyotype structure indicate that these are different species. Apparently there was pericentric inversion during the karyotype evolution of these species.

  16. Host-parasite interactions between the piranha Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Characidae and isopods and branchiurans (Crustacea in the rio Araguaia basin, Brazil

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    Lucélia Nobre Carvalho

    Full Text Available In the tropics, studies on the ecology of host-parasite interactions are incipient and generally related to taxonomic aspects. The main objective of the present work was to analyze ecological aspects and identify the metazoan fauna of ectoparasites that infest the piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri. In May 2002, field samples were collected in the rio Araguaia basin, State of Goiás (Brazil. A total of 252 individuals of P. nattereri were caught with fishhooks and 32.14% were infested with ectoparasite crustaceans. The recorded ectoparasites were branchiurans, Argulus sp. and Dolops carvalhoi and the isopods Braga patagonica, Anphira branchialis and Asotana sp. The prevalence and mean intensity of branchiurans (16.6% and 1.5, respectively and isopods (15.5% and 1.0, respectively were similar. Isopods were observed in the gills of the host; branchiurans were more frequent where the skin was thinner, and facilitated attachment and feeding. The ventral area, the base of the pectoral fin and the gular area were the most infested areas. The correlations between the standard length of the host and the variables intensity and prevalence of crustaceans parasitism, were significant only for branchiurans (rs = 0.2397, p = 0.0001; chi2 = 7.97; C = 0.19. These results suggest that both feeding sites and body size probably play an important role in the distribution and abundance of ectoparasites.

  17. Two new Bryconamericus: B. cinarucoense n. sp. and B. singularis n. sp. (Characiformes, Characidae from the Cinaruco River, Orinoco Basin, with keys to all Venezuelan species

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    Román-Valencia, C.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe for the first time Bryconamericus cinarucoense n. sp. and Bryconamericus singularis n. sp., two new species of Characiformesfrom the Cinaruco River, Orinoco Basin in Venezuela. B. cinarucoense n. sp. is distinguished from all other species of the genus in having: upper jaw extending beyond lower, maxilla short with only one or two teeth, cartilaginous rhinosphenoid extending to anterior part of prevomer, pelvic bone with cartilage along anterior edge, lateral line pores in straight line. B. singularis n. sp. is distinguished from congeners by having top of head flat, dentary with six or seven small unicuspid teeth, a dark lateral band extending from posterior edge of humeral spot to midbase of caudal fin which widens behind dorsal-fin origin, and in having five supraneurals which lack cartilage on the upper and lower extremities. Keys to aid identification of all known Venezuela species are included. Bryconamericus motatanensis is placed in the synonymy of B. alpha. Previous reports of B. breviceps and B. heteresthes from Venezuela are misidentifications, and are here considered as either B. cinarucoense n. sp., or another as yet undescribed species.

  18. HEMATOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA SANGUÍNEA DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO (Salminus affinis PISCES: CHARACIDAE DEL RÍO SINÚ

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    VÍCTOR ATENCIO-GARCÍA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubio Salminus affinis es un pez reofílico, distribuido en ríos de Colombia y Ecuador. Se estudiaron características hematológicas y química sanguínea buscando generar información básica para desarrollar tecnologías de producción piscícola. Fueron examinados diez rubios juveniles aparentemente sanos (117,5±38,6 g de peso y 17,6±3,3 cm de longitud total capturados en el río Sinú. Los peces se tranquilizaron durante cinco minutos en agua a 18 °C y se tomaron 2 mL de sangre por vacutecnia con EDTA (Vacuette®, Greiner Bio-one, USA. La química se determinó utilizando reactivos para cada parámetro (ByoSystems SA, España y el hemograma se desa- rrolló con técnicas tradicionales, a excepción del recuento total de leucocitos y trom- bocitos en el que se utilizó el reactivo de Natt y Herricks. Los frotis sanguíneos fueron teñidos con Wright y en ellos se determinaron las dimensiones celulares. El recuento total de eritrocitos fue 2,2±0,4x106/mm3, los trombocitos 25,4±4,4x103/mm3 y los leu- cocitos fueron estimados en 6,1±2,0x103/mm3. El conteo diferencial de leucocitos fue 68,8±5,9% linfocitos, 28,5±5,2% neutrófilos, 2,1±0,9% monocitos, 0,4±1,3% basó- filos y 0,2±0,4% eosinófilos. La hemoglobina en 12,53±2,2 g/dL y el hematocrito 36,2%. Los índices eritrocitarios: volumen corpuscular medio (VCM 163,8±22,6 fL, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media (CHCM 35,0±7,5 g/dL y hemo- globina corpuscular media (HCM de 58,5±19,7 pg. Las proteínas totales fueron 3,8±5,9 g/dL, glucosa 128,9±21,9 mg/dL, colesterol 277,8±92,7 mg/dL, triglicéridos 192,0±109,1 mg/dL y albúmina 2,0±0,3 g/dL. Los resultados sugieren que las carac- terísticas hematológicas de rubio están en el rango reportado para peces neotro- picales aparentemente sanos.

  19. Efeitos do RoundupTM e do Thiodan® em adultos de Astyanax bimaculatus (Characidae: Teleostei): Valores de CL50 e morfologia testicular.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Filho, Paulo Burlamaqui da

    2010-01-01

    O uso indiscriminado de agroquímicos na agricultura moderna está desencadeando prejuízos graves para o meio ambiente e que representam séria ameaça para a sobrevivência de ecossistemas importantes. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a CL50-96h e avaliar a influência do herbicida Roundup™ (Monsanto) e do inseticida Thiodan® (Bayer) sobre a morfologia testicular do lambari Astyanax bimaculatus. Para isso, foram selecionados lotes homogêneos de lambaris machos, a...

  20. Coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente de harina de pescado peruana y maíz amarillo duro para Colossoma macropomum (Actinopterygii, Characidae

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    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Coeficientes de Digestibilidad Aparente (CDA de la materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, lípido crudo(LC y energía bruta (EB de los ingredientes alimenticios harina de pescado peruana (HPP y de maíz amarillo duro (MAD fueron determinados en juveniles de Colossoma macropomum (150,0 ± 25,5 g. En el experimento la dieta de referencia se mezcló con cada uno de los ingredientes prueba en una relación de 70:30. El óxido crómico se usó como indicador inerte. La dieta de referencia y las dietas prueba fueron suministradas a C. macropomum, criada a 27 ºC, 7 mg/L de oxígeno disuelto y pH entre 7,5. Las muestras fecales fueron colectadas por sifoneo. Los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB de la HPP fueron de 88,06 ± 0,83%, 87,08 ± 1,34%, 85,87 ± 2,69 y 87,29 ± 1,57% respectivamente. Igualmente los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB del MAD fueron de 82,38 ± 1,02%, 75,46 ± 1,53%, 76,17 ± 2,43% y 75,04 ± 1,80% respectivamente. La energía digestible aparente calculada fue de 3950 Kcal/kg para la HPP y 2830 kcal/kg para el MAD. Se concluye que C. macropomum digiere mejor las fracciones proteicas y energéticas de la HPP. Al mismo tiempo muestra que digiere también la fracción energética del MAD, proveniente de los carbohidratos solubles.

  1. Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2014-09-01

    In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.

  2. Diet of two serrasalmin species, Pygocentrus piraya and Serrasalmus brandtii (Teleostei: Characidae, along a stretch of the rio de Contas, Bahia, Brazil

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    Márcia Emília de Jesus Trindade

    Full Text Available Serrasalmus brandtii and Pygocentrus piraya are two common piranha species in the Barragem da Pedra Reservoir, rio de Contas. In order to identify the diet composition of the two species, monthly collections were performed at three sites between May 2001 and April 2003, using two gill nets of different mesh sizes cast at the beginning of the day and visited after 6, 12 and 24 h. The qualitative composition of the diet was analyzed by determining the frequency of occurrence. Comparison of the two species showed a higher relative abundance of S. brandtii (151 compared to P. piraya (55. The food items most frequently found in the stomachs of the two species were fins, fish and shrimp. Serrasalmus brandtii showed a greater feeding plasticity than P. piraya.

  3. Influence of spawning procedure on gametes fertilization success in Salminus hilarii Valenciennes, 1850 (Teleostei: Characidae: Implications for the conservation of this species

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    Renato M. Honji

    Full Text Available Artificial reproduction and gamete fertilization were evaluated in Salminus hilarii wild and domesticated broodstocks. Wild and domesticated broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduction using a carp pituitary treatment. Four groups were considered: Group 1 (G1, fish caught in the wild maintained for three years in the same conditions as the domesticated broodstocks and spawned naturally; Group 2 (G2, broodstock born and raised in captivity and spawned naturally; Group 3 (G3, wild broodstocks, which were manually stripped for gamete collection and dry fertilization; and Group 4 (G4, domesticated males and females, also manually stripped. Oocytes, eggs, and larvae were sampled at different time intervals throughout embryonic development. Yolk sac absorption occurred approximately 24-29 h after hatching. Twenty-six h after hatching, the larvae mouths opened. Cannibalism was identified just 28-30 h after hatching. There was no morphological difference in embryonic development among all groups. The number of released eggs per gram of female was: G1: 83.3 ± 24.5 and G2: 103.8 ± 37.4; however, the fertilization success was lower in G2 (42.0 ± 6.37 % compared with G1 (54.7 ± 3.02% (P = 0.011. Hand-stripping of oocytes was not successful and the fertilization rate was zero. The reproduction of this species in captivity is viable, but it is necessary to improve broodstock management to enhance fertilization rates and obtain better fingerling production for restocking programs.

  4. Lophiobrycon weitzmani, a new genus and species of glandulocaudine fish (Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Grande drainage, upper rio Paraná system, southeastern Brazil

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    Ricardo M. C. Castro

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of glandulocaudine, Lophiobrycon weitzmani, is described based on specimens collected in headwater tributary streams of the rio Grande, upper rio Paraná system, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The inclusion of the new species in the phylogeny of the subfamily Glandulocaudinae proposed by Weitzman & Menezes (1998, reveals a sister group relationship between the new genus and the monophyletic group composed of Glandulocauda and Mimagoniates that currently form the tribe Glandulocaudini. The new species can be readily distinguished from all other species of the tribe by the autapomorphic presence in adult male individuals (with more than 23.9 mm standard length of an adipose-fin whose base extends for almost the entire distance between the posterior terminus of the base of the dorsal fin and the base of the upper lobe of the caudal fin and averages approximately 25% standard length, along with the presence of globular expansions formed by the lepidotrichia and hypertrophied soft tissue in the middle portions of the first and second pectoral-fin rays. The diagnosis of the tribe Glandulocaudini is modified to accommodate the new genus.

  5. Population structure, condition factor and reproductive period of Astyanax paranae (Eigenmann, 1914 (Osteichthyes: Characidae in a small and old Brazilian Reservoir

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    Milza Celi Fedatto Abelha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The population structure, condition and reproductive period of Astyanax paranae adult individuals inhabiting a small reservoir were investigated. The fishes were quarterly captured from the riverine and lacustrine zones of the Alagados Reservoir, Paraná, Brazil, during 1996/1997 and 1998/1999. The sex ratio differed from 1:1 with the predominance of the females in all standard length classes and total population sample. The females showed higher condition than the males. Both the sexes presented lower mean condition values in April and higher mean condition values in July. The estimated values of the regression coefficient indicated isometric growth for the females and males. The gonadosomatic relationship reached a maximum value of 14.80% for the females and 8.43% for the males. The reproductive period possibly occurred from October to April.Foram investigados a estrutura populacional, condição e período reprodutivo de indivíduos adultos de Astyanax paranae habitantes de um pequeno reservatório. Os peixes foram capturados trimestralmente nas zonas fluvial e lacustre do reservatório de Alagados, Paraná, Brasil, durante 1996/1997 e 1998/1999. A proporção sexual diferiu de 1:1, com predomínio de fêmeas em todas as classes de tamanho padrão e na amostragem total da população. As fêmeas apresentaram melhor condição que os machos. Menores valores médios de condição ocorreram em abril e os maiores em julho, tanto para fêmeas quanto para machos. Os valores estimados do coeficiente de regressão linear indicaram crescimento isométrico para ambos os sexos. A relação gonadossomática alcançou o valor máximo de 14,80% para fêmeas e 8,43% para machos. O período reprodutivo da espécie possivelmente, se estendeu de outubro a abril.

  6. Two new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae from upper rio Tapajós basin on Chapada dos Parecis, central Brazil

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    Tiago Pinto Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hyphessobrycon are described from the upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon melanostichos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of a conspicuous longitudinal broad black band beginning on the posterior margin of orbit and reaching the tip of middle caudal fin rays, a distinct vertically elongate humeral spot, and 16 to 18 branched anal-fin rays. Hyphessobrycon notidanos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of an elongate dorsal fin in mature males, a vertically elongate humeral spot, 2-4 maxillary teeth, iii,8 dorsal-fin rays, and 16 to 21 branched anal-fin rays.Duas novas espécies do gênero Hyphessobrycon são descritas para a bacia do alto rio Tapajós, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Hyphessobrycon melanostichos distingue-se de seus congêneres pela combinação da presença de uma banda preta longitudinal larga entre a margem posterior da órbita até a ponta dos raios medianos da nadadeira caudal, de uma mancha umeral verticalmente alongada, e de 16 a 18 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal. Hyphessobrycon notidanos distingue-se de seus congêneres pela combinação da presença da nadadeira dorsal alongada nos machos maduros, de uma mancha umeral verticalmente alongada, 2-4 dentes no maxilar, iii,8 raios na nadadeira dorsal e 16 a 21 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal.

  7. Host-parasite interactions between the piranha Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Characidae and isopods and branchiurans (Crustacea in the rio Araguaia basin, Brazil

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    Lucélia Nobre Carvalho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the tropics, studies on the ecology of host-parasite interactions are incipient and generally related to taxonomic aspects. The main objective of the present work was to analyze ecological aspects and identify the metazoan fauna of ectoparasites that infest the piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri. In May 2002, field samples were collected in the rio Araguaia basin, State of Goiás (Brazil. A total of 252 individuals of P. nattereri were caught with fishhooks and 32.14% were infested with ectoparasite crustaceans. The recorded ectoparasites were branchiurans, Argulus sp. and Dolops carvalhoi and the isopods Braga patagonica, Anphira branchialis and Asotana sp. The prevalence and mean intensity of branchiurans (16.6% and 1.5, respectively and isopods (15.5% and 1.0, respectively were similar. Isopods were observed in the gills of the host; branchiurans were more frequent where the skin was thinner, and facilitated attachment and feeding. The ventral area, the base of the pectoral fin and the gular area were the most infested areas. The correlations between the standard length of the host and the variables intensity and prevalence of crustaceans parasitism, were significant only for branchiurans (rs = 0.2397, p = 0.0001; chi2 = 7.97; C = 0.19. These results suggest that both feeding sites and body size probably play an important role in the distribution and abundance of ectoparasites.Nos trópicos, os estudos sobre a ecologia de interações parasito-hospedeiro são incipientes, sendo a maioria de cunho taxonômico. O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a fauna metazoária de ectoparasitas e analisar aspectos ecológicos da piranha Pygocentrus nattereri. As coletas foram realizadas em maio de 2002, na bacia do rio Araguaia, GO. Com o auxílio de linha e anzol foram capturados 252 exemplares de P. nattereri, dos quais 32,14% estavam infestados por crustáceos ectoparasitos. As espécies de ectoparasitas registradas foram Argulus sp. e Dolops carvalhoi (Branchiura e Braga patagonica, Anphira branchialis e Asotana sp. (Isopoda. A prevalência e a intensidade média de branquiúros (16,6% e 1,5, respectivamente e isópodos (15,5% e 1,0, respectivamente foram similares. Isópodos foram observados nas brânquias do hospedeiro; os branquiúros foram mais freqüentes na região ventral, base da nadadeira peitoral e região gular. Nessas áreas, a pele é mais fina, facilitando a fixação e alimentação do parasita. As correlações entre o comprimento padrão do hospedeiro e as variáveis intensidade e prevalência de parasitismo foram significativas apenas para branquiúros (rs= 0, 2397, p= 0,0001; chi2 = 7,97; C= 0, 19, respectivamente. Os resultados sugerem que os sítios de alimentação e o tamanho corporal dos ectoparasitos provavelmente têm um papel importante na sua distribuição e abundância.

  8. Knodus shinahota (Characiformes: Characidae a new species from the río Shinahota, río Chapare basin (Mamoré system, Bolivia

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    Katiane M. Ferreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Knodus shinahota, new species, is described from río Shinahota, a tributary of the upper rio Mamoré basin, Província de Tiraque, Cochabamba State, Bolivia. The new species can be distinguished from all congeners except K. chapadae and K. geryi by having six rows of scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (vs 4 or 5 rows of scales in the other species. Knodus shinahota differs from K. chapadae by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 3½ or 4, respectively and more lateral line scales (38-41 vs 36-38, respectively. It differs from K. geryi by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral-line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 4, respectively; fewer branched anal-fin rays (17-20 vs 15-17, respectively, and by lacking the two symmetric, large, dark, blotches on the basal portions of the caudal-fin lobes that characterize K. geryi.Knodus shinahota, espécie nova, é descrita do río Shinahota, um afluente do alto da bacia do rio Mamoré, Província de Tiraque, Estado de Cochabamba, Bolívia. A espécie nova pode ser distinguida de todas as suas congêneres exceto K. chapadae e K. geryi por ter seis fileiras de escamas entre a linha lateral e a origem da nadadeira dorsal (vs 4 ou 5 fileiras de escamas nas demais espécies. Knodus shinahota difere de K. chapadae por possuir mais fileiras de escamas entre a linha lateral e a origem da nadadeira pélvica (5 vs 3½ ou 4, respectivamente e mais escamas na linha lateral (38-41 vs 36-38, respectivamente. Difere de K. geryi por possuir mais fileiras de escamas entre a linha lateral e a origem da nadadeira pélvica (5 vs 4, respectivamente; menos raios ramificados na nadadeira anal (17-20 vs 15-17, respectivamente, e pela falta das duas grandes manchas escuras, simétricas, basalmente nos lobos da nadadeira caudal que caracteriza K. geryi.

  9. A new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Ergasilidae) from Bryconops giacopinii Fernández-Yépez (Characidae) in the Vichada River Basin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel-Hoyos, Felipe; Santana-Piñeros, Ana María; Cruz-Quintana, Yanis; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    A new copepod species, Ergasilus curticrus n. sp. is described based on 14 female specimens collected from the gills of the characid teleost Bryconops giacopinii Fernández-Yépez, captured in the Vichada River Basin in Colombia. The new species has a unique combination of characters including: (i) 2-segmented endopods in legs 1 and 4; (ii) a semi-pinnate, falciform seta on the terminal segment of the first leg exopod; (iii) a 1-segmented fourth leg exopod; (iv) a reduced fifth leg with a single seta; and (v) a circular structure fused to a groove near the lateral margins of the second pedigerous tergite. Only two other known congeners have a 1-segmented leg 4 exopod, E. coatiarus Araujo & Varella, 1998 and E. iheringi Tidd, 1942. Among other characters, they differ from the new species by the lack of a semi-pinnate, falciform seta on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 1 and in the structure and armature of the fifth leg. The prevalence of E. curticrus n. sp. was 13.6% and its mean abundance was 0.4 specimens per host. This is the first new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 described from the Orinoco River Basin.

  10. Chrysobrycon eliasi, new species of stevardiine fish (Characiformes: Characidae from the río Madre de Dios and upper río Manuripe basins, Peru

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    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    Full Text Available Chrysobrycon eliasi is described from several drainages of río Madre de Dios and upper río Manuripe basins, río Madeira basin, Peru. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the maxillary teeth, which are tricuspidate, bicuspidate and conical, and the terminal lateral-line tube developed between caudal-fin rays 10-11. Other characters that help to recognize C. eliasi are the possession of maxilla with 6-15 (usually 11 teeth occupying more than 70% of the length of the maxilla in adults, predorsal scales 18-22, dorsal-fin to hypural complex length 36.32-41.17% of standard length (SL, gill-gland length in males 3.57-5.05% SL, maxillary length 33.76-38.75% of head length, and branched anal-fin rays 24-30. The discovery of C. eliasi allows us to extend the geographic distribution of the genus to the southeast, into the río Madeira basin.

  11. Diet of Astyanax paranae (Characidae) in streams with different riparian land covers in the Passa-Cinco River basin, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Ferreira; Pedro Gerhard; CYRINO,JOSÉ E.P.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the diet of Astyanax paranae Eigenmann, 1914 in nine streams located in the Passa-Cinco River basin (upper Parana River system) was performed to investigate the feeding habits of this species, check for possible spatial variations in diet and to investigate the influence of riparian vegetation in the composition of the diet. Stomach contents of 243 specimens were analyzed by the methods of relative frequency of occurrence and volume, and the diet was characterized by the alimen...

  12. [Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae) two new species of fish in the basin of Madre de Dios river, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alzate, Carlos A; Romin-Valencia, César; Ortega, Hernán

    2013-06-01

    Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM); and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) samples. The morphometric relationships between species using 21 variables were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA). Here we describe two new species, Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae from the Madre de Dios River drainage, Peru. Hyphessobrycon taphorni sp. n. can be distinguished by the number of dorsal-fin rays (iii, 8), by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (4-5), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (1-2), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (7-8), by: the caudal-peduncle length (11.4-16.4% SL), number of lateral scales (28-29, except from H. loretoensis which has 29-30) and absence of a humeral spot (vs. present), it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: scales between the lateral line and the anal fin origin (4 vs. 3) and maxillary teeth (2 vs. 3-4), and it differs from H. agulha by the number of branched pectoral-fin rays (11-12 vs. 9-10). Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae sp. n. is distinguished by the number of: simple anal-fin rays (iv), teeth on the dentary (13-15), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (6), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (3, except from H. heterorhabdus and H. loretoensis which have 3-4); it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (7 vs. 9-10), scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (5 vs. 3-4); it differs from H. agulha in the number of lateral scales (30-31 vs. 33-34), by the number of: predorsal scales (9 vs. 10), maxillary teeth (4 vs. 0-1); in having in life a red lateral stripe above the dark lateral stripe that extends from the posterior part of the opercle to the caudal peduncle (vs. absent) and by the presence of bony hooks in mature males only on the anal fin (vs. hooks on all fins, including the caudal).

  13. Variações ecomorfológicas e de uso de habitat em Piabina argentea (Characiformes, Characidae da bacia do Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Cecília G. Leal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os padrões local e regional de uso de habitat de Piabina argentea Reinhardt, 1867 em quatro diferentes rios da bacia do rio das Velhas. Os habitat amostrados foram caracterizados quanto à velocidade da água, profundidade e tipo de substrato. Para a análise ecomorfológica, foram calculados 17 atributos ecomorfológicos de 40 exemplares de cada rio. Embora estas populações tenham se sobreposto no espaço ecomorfológico, a Análise Discriminante Canônica mostrou haver diferença significativa entre elas, principalmente da população do rio das Velhas em relação às demais. A separação se deu em termos do índice de compressão, altura relativa do corpo e índice de achatamento ventral. Os padrões locais de seleção de habitat não foram congruentes em todos os rios, mas em geral, houve predomínio do padrão regional: habitat lênticos, profundidade entre 20 e 40 cm e 60 e 80 cm e substrato areia, silte+argila e banco de folhas. Considerando as características físicas de cada rio e o padrão regional da espécie, a maior parte dos seus requerimentos de habitat é contemplada nos quatro rios. Entretanto, um corpo d'água assoreado como o trecho do rio das Velhas, tende a ter maiores velocidades da água, menores profundidades e substrato finos, o que atende em parte à seleção de habitat da espécie estudada.

  14. [Effects of parasitism on gill structure of Leporinus macrocephalus Garavello and Britsk, 1988 (Anastomidae) and Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes:Characidae)].

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    Schalch, Ergio H C; de Moraes, Flávio R; de Moraes, Julieta R E

    2006-01-01

    This work described the lesions caused in different species of fish by gill parasites from fee-fishing at Guariba, State of São Paulo. The research was developed from april, 1997 to march to 1999, seeking to verified the kind tissues lesions from fish. Of these, forty and seven were Leporinus macrocephalus and fifty and five Piaractus mesopotamicus. About 87.2% of the L. macrocephalus, and 58.1% of the P. mesopotamicus were sponged by several species of parasites. The parasite most abundant in L. macrocephalus was Piscinoodinium pillulare, while monogenean, Trichodina sp and myxosporidian infected P. mesopotamicus. Severe gill lesions have been observed in L. macrocephalus and P. mesopotamicus caused by monogenean, P. pillulare e Trichodina sp. parasitism, such as intersticial hemorrhage, sub-epithelium edema, inflammation, epitelial hiperplasy in filaments and lamina, proliferation of mucosal cells and laminar fusion.

  15. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

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    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D. langei reproduz em toda a bacia, porém a atividade reprodutiva é mais intensa nos trechos mais a montante da bacia. O período chuvoso e as chuvas torrenciais se mostraram fatores abióticos muito importantes para a dinâmica da população. Durante seu ciclo de vida os adultos maximizam sua estratégia reprodutiva concentrando o período reprodutivo, com desova total em um curto espaço de tempo antes das chuvas de verão que carregam juvenis, formas larvais e/ou ovos para as regiões a jusante onde existe uma ampla quantidade de micro-ambientes (gramíneas submersas e áreas rasas e calmas. Desta forma a espécie estudada utilizou diferentes porções da bacia em distintos estágios de seu ciclo de vida, demonstrando estar ecologicamente adaptada às variações temporais e físicas do ambiente.

  16. Diet-morphology relationship in the stream-dwelling characid Deuterodon stigmaturus (Gomes, 1947 (Characiformes: Characidae is partially conditioned by ontogenetic development

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    Renato Bolson Dala-Corte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We tested whether interindividual variations in diet composition within a population of Deuterodon stigmaturus can be explained by morphological differences between individuals, and whether diet-morphology relationships are dependent on the ontogenetic development. We analyzed diet of 75 specimens sampled in a coastal stream of Southern Brazil. Variation in stomach content was summarized with a Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA. The retained PCoA axes were tested as response to standard length (SL, and to values of intestine length (IL and mouth length (ML independent of body size, using linear mixed-effects models (LMM. The most consumed food items by D. stigmaturus were filamentous algae (41%, terrestrial plants (20.3%, detritus (12%, and aquatic invertebrates (8.8%. The LMMs showed that SL was positively related to consumption of terrestrial plants, whereas IL independent of SL was negatively related to aquatic invertebrates and positively related to filamentous algae. When body sized was held constant, ML was not related to diet variation. Interindividual diet differences conditioned to body size suggest that individuals shift their trophic niche and function in the ecosystem along the ontogenetic development. Relationships between intestine length and diet composition suggest interindividual differences in foraging ability and digestibility of distinct food items.

  17. A new species of Henneguya, a gill parasite of Astyanax altiparanae (Pisces: Characidae from Brazil, with comments on histopathology and seasonality

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    Barassa Bianca

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya chydadea, is described parasitizing the gills of Astyanax altiparanae collected from a lake on Rio das Pedras farm near Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the fish examined, 88.3% had gills parasitized by myxosporeans. The prevalence of the parasite ranged from 80% in the spring and fall, 93% in the summer and 100% in the winter. The parasite induced the formation of white, oval-shaped cysts measuring 40-64 µm x 64-80 µm which deformed the gill lamellae, compressed the capillaries, and caused retraction of the neighboring lamellae. The mature spores were elongated and had two identical, parallel elongate polar capsules. Each capsule contained a polar filament with 9-10 turns. There was no mucous envelope or iodinophilous vacuole. Morphometric differences between this parasite and other species of the genus Henneguya indicated, that he parasite observed in A. altiparanae is a new species. This is the first report of a myxosporeanparasitizing A. altiparanae.

  18. Spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Ostariophysi: Characidae in an Atlantic Forest river, Southern Brazil

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    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study described the feeding habits of the characin Astyanax aff. fasciatus. The diet compositions of specimens from two sites (A and B on a river in Southern Brazil were compared according to the size of individuals and seasonal period. The collections were performed monthly from March 2005 to February 2006, where the stomach contents of 290 specimens were assessed. Food items for A. aff. fasciatus were basically composed of plants and insects, especially leaf fragments, seeds, fruits, filamentous algae, aquatic and terrestrial insects and insect fragments. At site A, the most common items were insect and plant fragments. Conversely at site B, plant fragments were more representative. In general, all items of animal origin showed the highest feeding index values at site A, whereas at site B detritus and grass items were more abundant. The composition of items varied seasonally, with higher diversity of items being recorded during the spring at both sites. Smaller individuals preferred items of animal origin, while the larger ones consumed mainly items of plant origin. According to its size, A. aff. fasciatus in this study may be considered a species with insectivorous tendencies when immature or herbivorous tendencies when adult. Nevertheless, its feeding habits may be flexible according to resource availability, showing wide ontogenetic, besides spatial and temporal variation.Este estudo descreveu os hábitos alimentares do lambari Astyanax aff. fasciatus. Foram comparadas as composições alimentares de espécimes de dois sítios (A e B de um rio no sul do Brasil de acordo com o tamanho dos indivíduos e do período sazonal. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente de março de 2005 a fevereiro de 2006, sendo o conteúdo estomacal de 290 exemplares analisado. A dieta de A. aff. fasciatus foi composta basicamente por plantas e insetos, especialmente fragmentos de folhas, sementes, frutos, algas filamentosas, insetos aquáticos e terrestres e fragmentos de insetos. No sítio A, os itens de maior importância foram fragmentos de insetos e plantas. Ao contrário no sítio B, fragmentos de plantas foram mais representativos. Em geral, todos os itens de origem animal apresentaram os maiores valores do índice alimentar no sítio A, enquanto que no sítio B detritos e gramíneas foram mais abundantes. A composição dos itens ingeridos variou sazonalmente, sendo a maior diversidade registrada durante o período da primavera para ambos os sítios. Indivíduos pequenos preferiram itens de origem animal enquanto que os maiores consumiram principalmente itens de origem vegetal. De acordo com seu tamanho A. aff. fasciatus neste estudo pode ser considerada uma espécie com tendências à insetivoria quando imaturo, ou à herbivoria quando adulto. No entanto, seu hábito alimentar pode ser flexível de acordo com a disponibilidade de recursos, mostrando ampla variação tanto ontogenética quanto espacial e temporal.

  19. Quatro espécies novas de Tropicanus DeLong (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae Four new species of Tropicanus DeLong (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

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    Keti M. R. Zanol

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritas quatro novas espécies no subgênero Tropicanus: T. taulipangus sp. nov., T. amazonicus sp. nov., T. chapadensis sp. nov. e T. lisei sp. nov., todas para o Brasil.Four new species of Tropicanus are described in the subgenus Tropicanus: T. taulipangus sp. nov., T. amazonicus sp. nov., T. chapadensis sp. nov. and T. lisei sp. nov., all from Brazil.

  20. Hematologia de teleósteos brasileiros com infecção parasitária. I. Variáveis do Leporinus macrocephalus Garavelo e Britski, 1988 (Anostomidae e Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Characidae Haematology of parasitized Brazilian teleost fishes. I. Parameters of Leporinus macrocephalus Garavelo and Britski, 1988 (Anostomidae and Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Characidae

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    Dilermando Perecin

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Espécimes de Leporinus macrocephalus (piauçu e de Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu foram colhidos em piscicultura do município de Franca (SP para avaliação dos efeitos da infecção parasitária sobre a taxa de hemoglobina e de hematócrito, a concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, o fator relativo de condição (Kn e a distribuição percentual de células sangüíneas de defesa orgânica (leucócitos e trombócitos. Ambas as espécies apresentavam-se parasitadas por monogenea ou por monogenea e outros parasitas: monogenea e Trichodina sp; monogenea e Lernaea cyprinacea; monogenea e Piscinoodinium pillulare; monogenea e Ichthyophthirius multifiliis; monogenea, I. multifiliis e Trichodina sp. Os resultados demonstraram que os parâmetros estudados em L. macrocephalus e em P. mesopotamicus não foram significativamente (p > 0,05 alterados pelo parasitismo. A análise de regressão linear mostrou correlação negativa (p > 0,05 entre linfócitos e trombócitos em L. macrocephalus e correlação positiva (p > 0,01 da taxa de hemoglobina com o peso e com o comprimento total em P. mesopotamicus.Specimens of cultivated Leporinus macrocephalus (piauçu and Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu were collected in a fishfarm at Franca, SP. Effects of parasite infection upon hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, condition factor (Kn and differential count of defense cells (leucocyte and thrombocyte were evaluated. Both fish species were parasitized by monogenean; monogenean and Trichodina sp; monogenean and Lernaea cyprinacea; monogenean and Piscinoodinium pillulare; monogenean and Ichthyophthirius miltifiliis; monogenean, I. multifiliis and Trichodina sp. Parasitism did not influence (p > 0.05 the studied haematological characteristics in L. macrocephalus and P. mesopotamicus. Linnear regression showed negative correlation (p > 0.05 between lymphocytes and thrombocytes in L. macrocephalus and positive correlation (p > 0.01 of the hemoglobin rate with fish weight and fish length in P. mesopotamicus.

  1. Extension of geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus and C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae for several drainages flowing into the Amazon River Basin in Peru and Colombia Extensión de la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus y C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae para varios drenajes fluyendo hacia la cuenca del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia

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    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke and C. myersi Weitzman and Menezes is extended to new localities from the upper Amazon Basin in Peru and Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus is recorded for the first time for the Putumayo River Basin in Colombia.Se amplía la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke y C. myersi Weitzman y Menezes para nuevas localidades de la cuenca alta del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus se registra por primera vez para la cuenca del río Putumayo en Colombia.

  2. Descrição de nove espécies novas de Phenacogaster (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae e comentários sobre as demais espécies do gênero Description of nine new species of Phenacogaster (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae and notes on the other species of genus

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    Zilda Margarete Seixas de Lucena

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nine new species of Phenacogaster Eigenmann, 1907 are described: Phenacogaster capitulatus sp. nov. from the Neshuya River system, Ucayali River basin; Phenacogaster maculoblongus sp. nov. from the upper Cuyuni River, and tributaries of the lower Orinoco River; Phenacogaster napoatilis sp. nov. from the Napo River system, upper Amazon River basin; Phenacogaster ojitatus sp. nov. from the Xingu River system; Phenacogaster prolatus sp. nov. from the Orinoco River, canal Casiquiare and upper and middle Negro River; Phenacogaster retropinnus sp. nov. from the Negro, Madeira and Xingu river systems; Phenacogaster simulatus sp. nov. from the Potaro River, Essequibo drainage; Phenacogaster wayampi sp. nov. from the Oiapoque River, and Phenacogaster wayana sp. nov. from the Corantijn (Suriname, Maroni, Mana, Sinnamary and Approuague rivers (French Guiana. The geographic distribution of P. megalostictus, previously recorded for the Negro River, Amazon River system, is restricted to the Essequibo River system, Guiana. The distribution of P. carteri, previously known only from the type-locality (Cuyuni River, Guyana, is extended to the lower Orinoco River. The reduction of the latero-sensory canal, mentioned in the literature as an autapomorphy for P. tegatus was observed in three additional species of Phenacogaster. The posterior humeral spot, found only in P. tegatus, is herein considered autapomorphic for the species. Diagnoses are given for previously described species based on the analysis of type material and additional specimens, and a key to the species of the genus is provided.

  3. O lambari Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae pode ser um dispersor de sementes? - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2045 Can lambari, Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae, be a seed disperser? - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2045

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    Leandro Muller Gomiero

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho caracterizou a alimentação natural de Astyanax altiparanae na sub-bacia do rio Corumbataí e bacia do rio Jacaré-pepira, com enfoque principal na ingestão de sementes de Croton urucurana. Os itens alimentares de Astyanax altiparanae, em ordem decrescente de Grau de Preferência Alimentar (GPA, foram: insetos alóctones, restos de insetos, material vegetal alóctone, sementes de Croton urucurana, insetos autóctones, sedimentos, material vegetal autóctone, escamas, ovócitos e aracnídeos. Sementes de Croton urucurana ocorreram no verão, época de cheia dos rios. Sugere-se que Astyanax altiparanae seja um dispersor secundário das sementes de Croton urucurana, sendo que a intensidade e a efetividade dessa dispersão devem, ainda, ser investigadasThis work characterized the feeding of Astyanax altiparanae in the sub-basin of Corumbataí river and in the basin of Jacaré-pepira river with a focus on the ingestion of Croton urucurana seeds. The food items of Astyanax altiparanae were, in decreasing APD (Alimentary Preference Degree order: allochthonous insects, allochthonous plant material, Croton urucurana seeds, autochthonous insects, sediments, autochthonous plant material, scales, oocytes and arachnidans. Croton urucurana seeds occurred during the summer, in the flood period. Lambari, Astyanax altiparanae, could be a secondary disperser of Croton urucurana seeds, however, the intensity and effectiveness of this dispersion may be still investigated

  4. Morfologia do trato digestório e dieta de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1059 Morphology of Digestive tract and diet of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1059

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    Keshiyu Nakatani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar alguns aspectos da alimentação de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii, capturadas nos meses de julho e novembro de 2001, nas regiões limnética e litorânea do reservatório de Santa Maria, rio Piquiri, Estado do Paraná. As larvas apresentaram boca subterminal durante todo o seu desenvolvimento. O tubo digestório se diferenciou em estômago e intestino apenas no estágio de pós-flexão. As larvas consumiram, principalmente, algas e microcrustáceos, o que permitiu caracterizá-las como planctófagas. A intensa modificação morfológica no trato digestório nos indivíduos em pós-flexão coincidiu com o aumento na abundância de algas em relação aos itens de origem animal; porém, de forma geral, a ocorrência aumentou para todos os itens. A análise do grau de digestão dos itens alimentares sugeriu que indivíduos em pré-flexão alimentaram-se, possivelmente, durante o dia, e os mais desenvolvidos, durante o entardecer e no período noturnoThe aim of this study was to analyze some feeding treats of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae, sampled in both the limnetic and littoral regions of the Piquiri River, in Santa Maria reservoir, between July and November 2001. The larvae presented sub-terminal mouth in larval period. The digestive tract differentiated in terms of stomach and intestine only in the postflexion larvae. The larvae fed mainly on algae and microcrustacea allowing to characterize them as planktivorous. The intense morphologic shift in the digestive tract in the postflexion larvae coincided with an increase in the abundance of algae in relation to animals items; however, in general, all the items had their occurrence increased. Analysis of the digestion stage suggested that preflexion larvae, possibly, fed themselves during the day, and those more developed, at dusk and night

  5. Oportunismo alimentar de Knodus moenkhausii (Teleostei, Characidae: uma espécie abundante em riachos do noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Feeding opportunism of Knodus moenkhausii (Teleostei, Characidae: an abundant species in streams of the northwestern in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mônica Ceneviva-Bastos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a biologia alimentar de Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 em riachos do Alto rio Paraná no Estado de São Paulo. Em oito riachos (R1-R8, K. moenkhausii se alimentou de 18 itens, dos quais algas, ninfas de efemerópteros e larvas de dípteros foram os itens autóctones mais freqüentes e dominantes; fragmentos de insetos terrestres, himenópteros e aranhas foram os itens alóctones mais freqüentes e dominantes. No riacho R2, K. moenkhausii apresentou dieta distinta dos demais riachos, principalmente em função da profundidade, tipo de substrato e da presença de vegetação ripária. No riacho R9, amostrado mensalmente durante um ano, foram identificados 15 itens, dos quais insetos terrestres predominaram ao longo do ano; larvas de dípteros e algas foram pouco expressivas nos períodos de dezembro-janeiro (período mais quente e chuvoso e junho-julho (período mais frio e seco. No riacho R9 foram realizadas observações subaquáticas durante mergulho livre, onde observamos a cata de itens na coluna d'água junto do substrato, da vegetação submersa e na superfície da água. A elevada variedade de itens consumidos - condicionada às variações do hábitat e sazonais - e a prática de diversas táticas nos permitem considerar K. moenkhausii uma espécie oportunista quanto ao uso dos recursos alimentares. Este oportunismo aparentemente se reflete na abundância da espécie, demonstrando boa capacidade em alocar parte significativa de sua energia à reprodução, mesmo em ambientes fisicamente impactados por ação antrópica.In the present investigation we studied the feeding biology of Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 in streams of the Upper Paraná river system in the state of São Paulo. In eight streams (R1-R8, K. moenkhausii consumed 18 items, of which algae, ephemeropteran nymphs, and dipteran larvae were the most frequent and dominant autochthonous items, as were terrestrial insects, hymenopterans, and spiders regarding allochthonous items. In the R2 stream, K. moenkhausii showed distinct diet, mostly due to depth, substrate type, and presence of riparian vegetation. In the R9 stream (monthly sampled for one year, 15 items were consumed, of which terrestrial insects predominated all year round; dipteran larvae and algae were least relevant during December-January (hot and wet period and June-July (cold and dry period, respectively. During snorkeling observations in this stream, we recorded individuals performing drift feeding, picking at relatively small preys close to the substrate and submerged vegetation, and surface picking. The large diversity of consumed items - conditioned to habitat and seasonal variations - and the diversity of feeding tactics allow us to consider K. moenkhausii a rather opportunistic fish species. Such opportunism apparently reflects on the species abundance, showing its ability to allocate a significant part of its energy to reproduction, even in physically impacted habitats by human actions.

  6. Descripción del cráneo de Bramocharax caballeroi Contreras & Rivera 1985 (Pisces, Characidae, pez endémico del Lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, México Description of the skull of Bramocharax caballeroi Contreras & Rivera 1985 (Pisces, Characidae, endemic fish to Catemaco Lake, Veracruz, Mexico

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    Martha Elena Valdez-Moreno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El género Bramocharax se distribuye del centro-norte de Centro América a México. Hasta este momento se conoce a Bramocharax bransfordi de Nicaragua y Costa Rica, a B. dorioni y B. baileyi de Guatemala y a B. caballeroi del lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, México. El trabajo tuvo por objetivo estudiar detalladamente el cráneo de Bramocharax caballeroi a partir del análisis de 37 topotipos de diferentes tallas y compararlo con otras especies relacionadas. B. caballeroi presenta 58 huesos en su cráneo, de los cuales 49 son elementos pareados. En vista lateral su perfil es ovalado, debido a los huesos que conforman el hocico (etmoides, vómer, etmoides lateral, mandíbula, maxila, premaxila, ecto y mesopterigoides, así como el frontal y los circunorbitales, son alargados. El margen dorsal es ligeramente cóncavo y la parte anterior alargada. En los ejemplares menores a 80 mm todos los huesos son más lisos y conforme los organismos tienen una talla mayor, se hacen más robustos y los bordes de cada hueso se hacen más irregulares. Al comparar el cráneo de B. caballeroi con el de Astyanax mexicanus se encontraron diferencias en 25 huesos, mientras que al hacerlo con A. fasciatus, los principales contrastes fueron la longitud del supraoccipital, la forma del opérculo y del infraorbital 3. Adicionalmente, se encontraron diferencias importantes en la dentición y en las branquiespinas así, como en las placas y suspensores faríngeos con respecto a los Astyanax.The Bramocharax genus is distributed from Central America to Mexico. Until now the species known are Bramocharax bransfordi collected in Nicaragua and Costa Rica, B. dorioni and B. baileyi from Guatemala and B. caballeroi from Catemaco Lake, Veracruz, Mexico. The aim of this work is to realize a detailed description of the skull for Bramocharax caballeroi from the analysis of 37 different topotypes. The skull of this species has 58 osteological elements, 49 of them coupled. Shape is oval in lateral view, because the bones of the snout (ethmoid, vomer, lateral ethmoid, dentary, maxillae, premaxillae, ecto and mesopterygoids and the frontal and circunorbitals are elongated. The dorsal margin is slightly concave and the anterior part is elongated. In specimens less than 80 mm, all the bones are smoother, with more regular edges. With the age increase, they become more robust with more irregular edges. A comparison of S the skull between B. caballeroi and Astyanax mexicanus resulted in 25 bones with differences, while with Astyanax fasciatus, main contrasts were the supraoccipital length, the shape of the opercles and the infraorbital 3. In addition there are important differences in the dentition, gill rackers, as well as suspensory pharingeals and pharyngeal plates with respect to Astyanax.

  7. Performance and bromatologic analysis of red tail lambari Astyanax sp F (Pisces: characidae submitted to the smoking process / Rendimento e análise bromatológica do lambari do rabo vermelho Astyanax sp F (Pisces: characidae submetido ao processo de defumação

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    Carlos Eduardo Weirich

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the time of hot smoked and the influence of carcass quality of the red tail lambari Astyanax sp F. Sixty lambaris, eviscerated with head, skin, bones, spinal column, fins, however, without scale. With a medium weight and length of 22.22±4.32g and 11.32±00.63cm were utilized. The animals were submitted to humid salted (25% of sodium chloride for 45 minutes and condiments, been later hot smoked for a period of 90, 180, 270, 360 min. After the smoking process, the fish were weighted and later the humidity tenor, gross protein, lipids and mineral matter of the carcass of the animals were calculated. The results showed differences (P O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o tempo de defumação a quente e a influência sobre a qualidade de carcaça de lambaris Astyanax sp. F. Foram utilizados 60 lambaris, com peso e comprimento médio de 22,22±4,32g e 11,32±0,63cm, eviscerados e com cabeça, pele, espinhas, coluna vertebral, nadadeiras, porém, sem escamas. Os animais foram submetidos à salga úmida (25% de cloreto de sódio por 45 minutos e condimentos, sendo posteriormente defumados a quente, por um período de 90, 180, 270 e 360min. Após o processo de defumação, os peixes foram pesados e posteriormente calculados os teores de umidade, proteína bruta, lipídeos e matéria mineral da carcaça dos animais. Os resultados mostraram diferenças (P 0,05 entre os diferentes tempos de defumação. Portanto, conclui-se que para o Astyanax sp F o tempo de defumação de 225min7seg é o período de defumação indicado para o melhor produto final.

  8. Ocorrência e ecologia trófica de quatro espécies de Astyanax (Characidae em diferentes rios da bacia do rio Tibagi, Paraná, Brasil Occurrence and trophic ecology of four species of Astyanax (Characidae in different rivers of the Tibagi River Basin, Paraná, Brazil

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    Sirlei Terezinha Bennemann

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Na bacia do rio Tibagi, trechos dos rios Fortaleza, Iapó e Tibagi foram amostrados mensalmente, de maio de 2001 a abril de 2002, com tarrafas e redes de espera de diferentes malhagens. Foram capturados indivíduos de quatro espécies de Astyanax. Para conhecer como essas espécies utilizam o hábitat desses rios, foi calculada a constância, e as freqüências em número de exemplares foram comparadas pela análise de similaridade Bray-Curtis. A composição percentual dos alimentos consumidos foi ordenada usando-se a Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. As proporções dos recursos alimentares foram avaliadas e classificadas quanto à natureza (animal ou material vegetal e origem (alóctone e autóctone. A constância e a baixa similaridade na abundância revelaram que as espécies têm preferências quanto ao porte do rio ou por determinado hábitat. Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 e A. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 ocorreram nos de maior porte, mas foram constantes somente no rio Tibagi. Astyanax eigenmanniorum (Cope, 1894 ocorreu em todos os rios, mas prefere hábitats próximos às desembocaduras de afluentes de grandes rios. Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns, 1842 esteve restrita ao Fortaleza, o rio de menor porte, subafluente do rio Tibagi. O número de itens alimentares consumidos variou de 11 a 23. Entre os alimentos principais, três itens foram comuns para as quatro espécies: restos de plantas (folhas e sementes de plantas terrestres, restos de insetos (de diferentes origens e não identificados e plantas aquáticas. Os vegetais e os insetos foram os principais alimentos para todas as espécies. A maior distinção na composição da dieta foi constatada para A. eigenmaniorum, devido à sua habilidade em explorar as plantas aquáticas, presentes em abundância, consumidas junto com carvão/sedimento, que estavam nas margens rochosas do rio Iapó. A similaridade quanto à origem e ao tipo de alimento consumido pelas quatro espécies e as diferenças em termos de hábitat ocupado podem explicar por que apenas uma delas se mantém em abundância e constância em cada trecho estudado.Stretches of the Rivers Fortaleza, Iapó and Tibagi were monthly sampled with gillnets of different mesh sizes and castnets from May 2001 to April 2002 in the Tibagi River basin. Specimens of four species of the Astyanax genera were captured. In order to assess how they use habitat and food resources in the different rivers, their constancy was calculated and the number of specimens was compared by using the Bray-Curtis similarity analysis. The composition (percentage of food items consumed was ordered by using the Principal Components Analysis (PCA. The proportion of different food items in the diet was assessed and classified according to type (animal or plant material and origin (allochtonous or autochtonous. The low similarity and constancy showed differences in the type of habitat preferred by the four fish species. Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 and A. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were present in the large rivers but were constant only in the Tibagi River. Astyanax eigenmanniorum (Cope, 1894 was present in all rivers but prefers habitats in the mouth of affluents of large rivers. Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns, 1842 was restricted to Fortaleza River, a small Tibagi River affluent. The number of food items consumed by the different species varied from 11 to 23. Among the main food, three items were common for the four species: 1- plant residuals (leaves and seeds from the earth community of plants, 2- insect residuals (from different origins and unidentified and 3- aquatic vegetation. So plants and insects were the main food consumed by all the species. Astyanax eigenmanniorum showed the highest distinction in the diet composition among the species studied. Such distinction was due to its ability of exploring an abundant food resource: the aquatic plants that were consumed together with portions of coal/sediments near the rocky shores at the Iapó River. The similarity of the origin and type o

  9. Alimentação da pirambeba Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1858 (Characidae; Serrasalminae em um reservatório do Sudeste brasileiro - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1331 Feeding aspects of Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1858 (Characidae; Serrasalminae in a Southeast Brazilian reservoir - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1331

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    Marina Luisa Fonseca

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados aspectos da alimentação de 158 exemplares de Serrasalmus spilopleura capturados no reservatório de Porto Colômbia, localizado no rio Grande, bacia do rio Paraná, no período entre novembro de 2001 e agosto de 2002. Utilizaram-se redes de malhar com tamanhos entre 3cm e 16 cm entre nós opostos armadas ao entardecer e retiradas pela manhã, permanecendo expostas por um período de aproximadamente 12 horas. A análise da dieta dos exemplares mostrou-se predominantemente piscívora, sendo exclusivo para exemplares de comprimento padrão superior a 22 cm. Insetos aquáticos também foram ingeridos, complementando a dieta dos indivíduos pertencentes às menores classes de tamanho, demonstrando uma evidente ontogenia tróficaWe studied the feeding aspects from 158 individuals of Serrasalmus spilopleura captured in Porto Colômbia Reservoir, situated on the Grande River, at the Paraná basin, between November 2001 and August 2002. Mesh nets were used to capture the individuals, with sizes ranging from 3 cm to 16 cm, between opposed knots set at sunset, and collected in the following morning; remaining exposed during approximately 12 hours. The analysis from the stomach content of the captured individuals showed a predominantly piscivore feeding habit, and exclusive to individuals over 22 cm. Aquatic insects were also found, complementing the diet of individuals belonging to smaller size groups, indicating a clear trophic ontogeny

  10. Aspectos da história de vida de Bryconamericus microcephalus (Miranda Ribeiro (Characiformes, Characidae de um riacho costeiro de Mata Atlântica, Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Life history aspects of Bryconamericus microcephalus (Miranda Ribeiro (Characiformes, Characidae from a coastal stream in Mata Atlântica, Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rosana Mazzoni

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos da história de vida de Bryconamericus microcephalus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1908 do córrego Andorinha (23º11'12"S, 44º12'02"W foram analisados pela descrição da estrutura de tamanho, relação peso-comprimento e estratégia reprodutiva. Os exemplares estudados foram obtidos bimestralmente, por redes de espera e "picarés" (malhas entre 0,5 e 1,0 cm entre novembro de 1999 e setembro de 2003. A estrutura de tamanho indicou que as fêmeas alcançaram maiores tamanhos que os machos e que ocorreram maior número de fêmeas nas classes de tamanho superiores a 5,3 cm. A relação peso-comprimento mostrou-se significativamente diferente entre os sexos e indicou que, para uma mesma classe de tamanho, as fêmeas foram mais pesadas que os machos. A proporção sexual foi de 2,2:1 (fêmea:macho. O tamanho médio da primeira maturação foi 4,2 cm sem diferenças entre os sexos. Foram registrados exemplares reprodutivos entre julho e fevereiro, com pico de reprodução entre setembro e dezembro, sem diferenças no padrão reprodutivo de exemplares de duas classes de tamanho. Os valores médios do Índice Gonadossomático de fêmeas maduras indicou que o investimento reprodutivo foi superior entre os exemplares de maior tamanho. A fecundidade variou de 1025 a 408 ovócitos para fêmeas de 7,0 cm e 5,4 cm, respectivamente. A relação entre o Pt e o número de ovócitos/g de Pt foi positiva indicando que espécimes maiores têm fecundidade mais elevada.Life-history aspects of Bryconamericus microcephalus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1908 from córrego Andorinha (23º11'12"S, 44º12'02"W were assessed throught the length structure, length-weight relationship and reproductive strategy. Specimens were bimonthly sampled, between November 1999 and September 2003, through waiting nets and "picarés" (mesh size between 0,5 and 1,0 cm. Length structure showed that females attain bigger sizes then males and that higher number of females was registered for the length classes bigger than 5.3 cm. Length-weight relationship showed significant differences between sexes and indicates that, for individuals of the same size, females are weightier than males. Sex ratio was 2.2:1 (female: male. Size at first maturation was 4.2 cm without differences between sexes. Reproductive specimens were registered from July to February with the reproductive pike occurring from September to December without differences in the reproductive pattern of specimens belonging to two different standard length classes. Mean values of gonadosomatic index of ripe females of the same two standard length classes indicated that the reproductive investment are higher among bigger individuals. High values of fecundity (F were registered varying from 408 to 1025 oocytes for fish of 5.4 and 7.0 cm respectively. Relationship between weight and number of oocytes/g was positive and indicated that bigger specimens produced more oocytes.

  11. Análise qualitativa da alimentação e o coeficiente intestinal de Metynnis cf. roosevelti Eigenmann (Characidae, Myleinae, da Lagoa Redonda, Nízia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Quantitative analysis of feeding and the intestinal coefficient in Metynnis cf. roosevelti Eigenmann (Characidae, Myleinae, from Lagoa Redonda, Nízia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Hélio de Castro Bezerra Gurgel

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This species showed feeding activily ali year long. Although zooplancton, protozooplancton and other organisms have been found in the stomaches, this species can be considered, broadly speaking, herbivorous since a great amount of seaweed was found in its diet. Fulness of the stomachs was not associated with sex difference. Full stomachs were found throughout the period. Variations according to the estimated periods were not found.

  12. Hematología y química sanguínea de juveniles de Rubio (Salminus affinis Pisces: Characidae del río Sinú Hematology and Blood Chemistry of Juveniles Rubio (Salminus affinis Pisces: Characidae Captured in the River Sinú

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    Genes López Fernando

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubio Salminus affinis es un pez reofílico, distribuido en ríos de Colombia y Ecuador . Se estudiaron características hematológicas y química sanguínea buscando generar información básica para desarrollar tecnologías de producción piscícola. Fueron examinados diez rubios juveniles aparentemente sanos (117,5±38,6 g de peso y 17,6±3,3 cm de longitud total capturados en el río Sinú. Los peces se tranquilizaron durante cinco minutos en agua a 18 °C y se tomaron 2 mL de sangre por vacutecnia con EDTA (Vacuette®, Greiner Bioone, USA. La química se determinó utilizando reactivos para cada parámetro (ByoSystems SA, España y el hemograma se desarrolló con técnicas tradicionales, a excepción del recuento total de leucocitos y trombocitos en el que se utilizó el reactivo de Natt y Herricks. Los frotis sanguíneos fueron teñidos con Wright y en ellos se determinaron las dimensiones celulares. El recuento total de eritrocitos fue 2,2±0,4x106/mm3, los trombocitos 25,4±4,4x103/mm3 y los leucocitos fueron estimados en 6,1±2,0x103/mm3. El conteo diferencial de leucocitos fue 68,8±5,9% linfocitos, 28,5±5,2% neutrófilos, 2,1±0,9% monocitos, 0,4±1,3% basófilos y 0,2±0,4% eosinófilos. La hemoglobina en 12,53±2,2 g/dL y el hematocrito 36,2%. Los índices eritrocitarios: volumen corpuscular medio (VCM 163,8±22,6 fL, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media (CHCM 35,0±7,5 g/dL y hemoglobina corpuscular media (HCM de 58,5±19,7 pg. Las proteínas totales fueron 3,8±5,9 g/dL, glucosa 128,9±21,9 mg/dL, colesterol 277,8±92,7 mg/dL, triglicéridos 192,0±109,1 mg/dL y albúmina 2,0±0,3 g/dL. Los resultados sugieren que las características hematológicas de rubio están en el rango reportado para peces neotropicales aparentemente sanos.Rubio Salminus affinis is distributed in Colombia and Ecuador rivers. To develop new technologies of fishery production, hematological and blood chemistry of 10 juvenile Rubios captured in Sinú river, apparently healthy were examined (117.5+38.6 g of weight and 17.6+3.3 cm of total length. Fishes were calmed during five minutes in water at 18 °C and 2 mL of blood samples were taken in EDTA (Vacuette®. The chemistry was determined using ByoSystems INC ( Spain , reagents and blood count were developed with traditional techniques with the exception of total leukocyte and thrombocyte for which the reagent of Natt and Herricks was used. The blood smears were dyed with Wright and cellular dimensions were determined. The total erythrocytes were of 2.2+0.4x106/mm3, thrombocytes 25.4+4.4x103/mm3 and leukocytes were estimated in 6.1+2.0x103/mm3. The differential count of leukocytes were of 68.8+5.9% Lymphocytes, 28.5+5.2% neutrophils, 2.1+0.9% monocytes, 0.4+1.3% basophils and 0.2+0.4% eosinophils. The hemoglobin in 12.53+2.2 g/dL, and the hematocrit 36.2%. The erythrocyte index: Mean corpuscular volume (MCV 163.8+22.6 fL; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC 35.0+7.5 g/dL and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH 58.5+19.7 pg. Total proteins were 3.8+5.9 g/dL, glucose 128.9+21.9 mg/dL, cholesterol 277.8+92.7 mg/dL, triglycerides 192.0+109.1 mg/dL and albumin 2.0+0.3 g/dL. The results suggest that the hematological characteristics of Rubio are in range for neotropical apparently healthy fishes.

  13. HEMATOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA SANGUÍNEA DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO (Salminus affinis PISCES: CHARACIDAE DEL RÍO SINÚ Hematology and Blood Chemistry of Juveniles Rubio (Salminus affinis Pisces: Characidae Captured in the River Sinú

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    VÍCTOR ATENCIOGARCÍA

    Full Text Available Rubio Salminus affinis es un pez reofílico, distribuido en ríos de Colombia y Ecuador . Se estudiaron características hematológicas y química sanguínea buscando generar información básica para desarrollar tecnologías de producción piscícola. Fueron examinados diez rubios juveniles aparentemente sanos (117,5±38,6 g de peso y 17,6±3,3 cm de longitud total capturados en el río Sinú. Los peces se tranquilizaron durante cinco minutos en agua a 18 °C y se tomaron 2 mL de sangre por vacutecnia con EDTA (Vacuette®, Greiner Bioone, USA. La química se determinó utilizando reactivos para cada parámetro (ByoSystems SA, España y el hemograma se desarrolló con técnicas tradicionales, a excepción del recuento total de leucocitos y trombocitos en el que se utilizó el reactivo de Natt y Herricks. Los frotis sanguíneos fueron teñidos con Wright y en ellos se determinaron las dimensiones celulares. El recuento total de eritrocitos fue 2,2±0,4x10(6/mm³, los trombocitos 25,4±4,4x10³/mm³ y los leucocitos fueron estimados en 6,1±2,0x10³/mm³. El conteo diferencial de leucocitos fue 68,8±5,9% linfocitos, 28,5±5,2% neutrófilos, 2,1±0,9% monocitos, 0,4±1,3% basófilos y 0,2±0,4% eosinófilos. La hemoglobina en 12,53±2,2 g/dL y el hematocrito 36,2%. Los índices eritrocitarios: volumen corpuscular medio (VCM 163,8±22,6 fL, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media (CHCM 35,0±7,5 g/dL y hemoglobina corpuscular media (HCM de 58,5±19,7 pg. Las proteínas totales fueron 3,8±5,9 g/dL, glucosa 128,9±21,9 mg/dL, colesterol 277,8±92,7 mg/dL, triglicéridos 192,0±109,1 mg/dL y albúmina 2,0±0,3 g/dL. Los resultados sugieren que las características hematológicas de rubio están en el rango reportado para peces neotropicales aparentemente sanos.Rubio Salminus affinis is distributed in Colombia and Ecuador rivers. To develop new technologies of fishery production, hematological and blood chemistry of 10 juvenile Rubios captured in Sinú river, apparently healthy were examined (117.5+38.6 g of weight and 17.6+3.3 cm of total length. Fishes were calmed during five minutes in water at 18 °C and 2 mL of blood samples were taken in EDTA (Vacuette®. The chemistry was determined using ByoSystems INC ( Spain , reagents and blood count were developed with traditional techniques with the exception of total leukocyte and thrombocyte for which the reagent of Natt and Herricks was used. The blood smears were dyed with Wright and cellular dimensions were determined. The total erythrocytes were of 2.2+0.4x10(6/mm³, thrombocytes 25.4+4.4x10³/mm³ and leukocytes were estimated in 6.1+2.0x10³/mm³. The differential count of leukocytes were of 68.8+5.9% Lymphocytes, 28.5+5.2% neutrophils, 2.1+0.9% monocytes, 0.4+1.3% basophils and 0.2+0.4% eosinophils. The hemoglobin in 12.53+2.2 g/dL, and the hematocrit 36.2%. The erythrocyte index: Mean corpuscular volume (MCV 163.8+22.6 fL; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC 35.0+7.5 g/dL and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH 58.5+19.7 pg. Total proteins were 3.8+5.9 g/dL, glucose 128.9+21.9 mg/dL, cholesterol 277.8+92.7 mg/dL, triglycerides 192.0+109.1 mg/dL and albumin 2.0+0.3 g/dL. The results suggest that the hematological characteristics of Rubio are in range for neotropical apparently healthy fishes.

  14. Reproducción y dinámica poblacional de Cheirodon interruptus (Ostariophysi: Characidae en el arroyo El Portugués, alta cuenca del río Samborombón, Argentina Reproduction and population dynamics of Cheirodon interruptus (Ostariophysi: Characidae in El Portugués, a stream in the upper watershed of the Samborombon River, Argentina

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    Ricardo A Ferriz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el período reproductivo de Cheirodon interruptus mediante el análisis de 1.658 especímenes capturados mensualmente en el arroyo El Portugués, Argentina, desde mayo 2004 hasta abril 2005. En base a los estadios de madurez y del índice gonodosomático (IGS de las hembras se determinaron dos etapas de desove, una en primavera y otra en otoño. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre el IGS medio mensual de los machos con la profundidad. El IGS de las hembras presentó una correlación significativa con el fotoperíodo y la profundidad. El resto de las variables ambientales, incluyendo temperatura, pH, conductividad y precipitación mensual, no mostró una correlación con la media mensual del IGS. La primera madurez sexual en hembras y machos se observó en la clase 24-26 mm de longitud estándar. La fecundidad absoluta media fue de 448 ovocitos (DE = 217,8 y la fecundidad relativa media fue de 0,33 (DE = 0,097 ovocitos por miligramo de peso corporal, siendo un desovante del tipo parcelado. El diámetro de los ovocitos varió entre 0,05 y 0,70 mm, con una media de 0,48 mm (DE = 0,16.The reproductive period of Cheirodon interruptus was determined by analyzing 1658 individuals collected monthly in the stream El Portugués, Argentina, from May 2004 to April 2005. Two prolonged spawning seasons, one in spring and another in autumn, were observed based on the maturity stages and gonadosomatic índex (GSI of female specimens. The mean monthly GSI of males was significantly correlated with depth. In females, the GSI exhibited a significant correlation with photoperiod and depth. The remaining environmental variables, including temperature, pH, conductivity, and monthly rainfall, did not show a correlation with the mean monthly GSI. The first sexual maturity in females and males was reached within the 24-26 mm standard length class. The mean absolute fecundity was 448 oocytes (SD = 217.8, and the mean relative fecundity was 0.33 (SD = 0.097 oocytes per milligram of body weight; this species is a múltiple spawner. The oocyte diameter ranged from 0.05 to 0.70 mm, with a mean of 0.48 mm (SD = 0.16.

  15. Algunos aspectos biológicos de Bryconamericus iheringii (Ostariophysi: Characidae en dos arroyos de la alta cuenca del río Samborombón, Argentina Some aspects of biology of Bryconamericus Iheringii (Ostariophysi: Characidae in two streams in the high basin of the Samborombón river, Argentina

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    Ricardo A. Ferriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó los siguientes aspectos de la estructura poblacional de Bryconamericus iheringii: abundancia, factor de condición, relación machos-hembras, relación largo/peso y período reproductivo. Las muestras fueron tomadas en los arroyos Manantiales y El Portugués entre los meses los meses de mayo de 2004 y abril de 2005 con redes de arrastre. Los mayores valores de biomasa correspondieron a los meses de mayo, julio y marzo para el arroyo Manantiales, mientras que para El Portugués correspondieron a los meses de mayo, septiembre y marzo. En el arroyo Manantiales, tanto para machos como para hembras, el grupo de individuos This study analyzed the following aspects of the Bryconamericus iheringii population structure: abundance patterns, condition factor, male-female sex ratio, relation between weight and length, and reproductive period. Samples were made monthly from May 2004 to April 2005 using small trawling nets, in the Manantiales and El Portugués streams. The highest values of biomass for the Manantiales stream corresponded to May, July and March, the highest values of biomass for El Portugués stream were for May, September and March. In the Manantiales stream, both for males and females, the set of individuals < 25 mm Lst dominated during the spring. Individuals included among the 26-40 mm Lst predominated in the warmer months, while those between 41-60 mm Lst abounded at the end of the summer, autumn and winter. In the Portuguese stream, individuals males < 25 mm Lst, were present in the summer, the rest of the year was dominated by sizes between 26-40 mm Lst during the warmer months. Sizes between 41-60 mm Lst dominated in colder months. The relationship between the sexes differed significantly from the 1:1 reason with predominance of females in almost every month. Higher values of K factor were recorded at the end of the spring and summer for both streams. This species has a slightly allometric growth and differences between males and females in this factor may be due to the greater size of females. The largest number of females in maturation and mature was observed in the months of August, September and November in both streams and during the post-spawning period in February-May in the Manantiales stream and in March-May in the Portuguese stream. This would indicate that the spawning period would be between the months of August and November.

  16. Dinâmica da reprodução e da nutrição de Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae do rio Mogi Guaçu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Reproductive and nutritional dynamics of Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae at Mogi Guaçu river, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marcos Antonio Cestarolli

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica da reprodução e a dinâmica da alimentação de Salminus maxillosus Val. foram estudadas em 327 exemplares (195 fêmeas e 132 machos capturados no rio Mogi-Guaçu, estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1996 a julho de 1997. A dinâmica da reprodução foi analisada pela análise das variações médias mensais do índice gonadossomático, índice hepatossomático, freqüência relativa dos estádios de maturação gonadal e tamanho de primeira maturação gonadal. A reprodução ocorreu no período de novembro a janeiro (a maior atividade reprodutiva foi registrada no mês de dezembro, época em que foram registradas as maiores temperaturas da água e os maiores índices pluviométricos na região. O tamanho de primeira maturação gonadal foi estimado em 346,7 mm (machos e 447,4 (fêmeas, quando os exemplares atingiram 2 anos de idade. O valor de L100 foi estimado em 525,0 mm para machos e 625,0 mm para fêmeas. A análise da dinâmica da alimentação, estudada pela variação mensal do índice de repleção e das freqüências relativas dos estádios de repleção, permitiu concluir que os exemplares encontram-se em melhores condições alimentares durante a reproduçãoThe reproductive and nutritional dynamics of Salminus maxillosus Val. were studied in 327 specimens (195 females and 132 males collected in the Mogi Guaçu river, São Paulo, Brazil from August, 1996 to July, 1997. Reproductive dynamics were assessed through analysis of monthly variation in gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, relative frequencies of gonadal maturity stages and first sexual maturation size. Reproduction occurred from November to January (the highest values recorded in December,when the highest water temperatures and pluviometric index were observed. The size of S. maxillosus at first sexual maturation (Lpm was calculated to be 346.7 mm (males and 447.4 mm (females, the age being two years for both males and females. The L100 values calculated were 525.0 mm for males and 625.0 mm for females, respectively. The nutritional dynamics were estimated through analysis of the monthly variation and the relative frequency of the repletion stages. S. maxillosus from Mogi Guaçu River is in its optimum feeding condition before and during the reproductive season

  17. Praziquantel, levamisol e diflubenzuron no controle de Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea: Branchiura e Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae em Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae Praziquantel, levamisole and diflubenzuron in the control of Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea: Branchiura and Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae

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    Sergio Henrique Canello Schalch

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficácia antiparasitária do praziquantel, levamisol e diflubenzuron administrados via oral, adicionados à ração, para pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados por Anacanthorus penilabiatus e Dolops carvalhoi. Foram utilizadas 19 caixas d'água de 300 L de capacidade, comportando 28 peixes cada. Os tratamentos foram feitos misturando os princípios ativos nas dietas. A intensidade parasitária e eficácia foram avaliadas 1 dia antes e 3, 7 e 15 dias após o início da alimentação com ração contendo diflubenzuron, levamisol e praziquantel isolados ou associados em diferentes concentrações por 7 dias. Os resultados da eficácia terapêutica sugerem que, isoladamente ou associado com levamisol e praziquantel, o diflubenzuron é eficiente contra o crustáceo D. carvalhoi, demonstrando que a eficácia dos tratamentos nos dias 3, 7 e 15 variou de 96,2 a 100%. Contra os monogenóides, as drogas não apresentaram eficácia satisfatória. Os resultados sugerem o uso do diflubenzuron para o controle de D. cavalhoi em peixes de cativeiro e em condições de quarentenário.This assay evaluated the control efficacy of diflubenzuron, praziquantel and levamisole added to the diet of pacu (Piaractus mesoptamicus infected with Anacanthorus penilabiatus and Dolops carvalhoi. 19 water tanks of 300 L capacity were utilized with 28 fish in each one. The treatments were made by mixing the active principles in the diet. The experiment was evaluated in four harvests done 1 day before and 3, 7 and 15 days after the treatment. The medicated feeding was applied for 7 days. The results of efficacy suggest that the diflubenzuron alone or associated with levamisole and praziquantel was efficient against the crustacean D. carvalhoi and the efficacy in the 3, 7 and 15 days evaluations ranged from 96,2 to 100%. Against the monogenean the drugs did not present efficacy. The results suggest the use of diflubenzuron for the control of D. carvalhoi in captive fishes in special conditions.

  18. Fauna parasitária de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Characidae cultivado em tanque-rede no estado do Amapá, Amazônia oriental Parasitic fauna of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum(Characidae farmed in cages in the State of Amapá, eastern Amazon

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    Evandro Freitas Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi estudar a parasitofauna e a relação hospedeiro- parasito em tambaqui Colossoma macropomum cultivados em tanques-rede no Rio Matapi, município de Santana, estado do Amapá, região da Amazônia oriental, Brasil. Foram examinados 60 tambaquis, dos quais 96,7% estavam parasitados por protozoários Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora e Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideas Mymarotheciun boegeri e Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae e sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. Os maiores níveis de parasitismo foram causados por protozoários I. multifiliis e P. pillulare e os menores por sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. Porém, os índices de infestação não tiveram efeitos na saúde dos peixes hospedeiros, uma vez que o fator de condição relativo (Kn não foi estatisticamente (pThe purpose of this paper was to evaluate the parasitic fauna and the host-parasite relationship in Colossoma macropomum farmed in cages of Matapi River, municipally of Santana, State of Amapá, in eastern Amazon, Brazil. Of 60 specimens of tambaqui examined, 96.7% were parasitized by protozoans Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora and Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideans Mymarotheciun boegeri and Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae, and leeches Glossiphoniidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. The higher infestation levels were caused by protozoans I. multifiliis and P. pillulare, while the lower infestation levels were caused by leeches. No effects of parasitic infestation rates on fish health were observed. The relative condition factor (Kn was not correlated with the intensity of parasites found. This was the first record of I. multifiliis and P. pillulare in C. macropomum farmed in cages in the Brazilian Amazon.

  19. Alimentação e ecomorfologia de duas espécies de piranhas (Characiformes: Characidae do lago de Viana, estado do Maranhão, Brasil Feeding and ecomorphology of two species of piranhas (Characiformes: Characidae from the Viana Lake, Maranhão state, Brazil

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    Nivaldo Magalhães Piorski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Serrasalmus aff. brandtii e Pygocentrus nattereri são duas espécies de piranhas comuns no Lago de Viana, um lago formado a partir das inundações do Rio Pindaré, tributário da margem esquerda do Rio Mearim. Uma amostra composta por 249 exemplares destas espécies foi estudada a fim de identificar a composição da dieta e as estratégias alimentares empregadas pelas duas. Os peixes foram coletados trimestralmente durante um ano, entre março de 1998 e março de 1999, usando redes de emalhar e tarrafas. A composição qualitativa da dieta foi analisada com uso do método de freqüência de ocorrência. As estratégias alimentares empregadas pelas espécies foram inferidas através do método gráfico de Costello (1990, modificado por Amundsen et al. (1996. Os resultados indicaram que peixes foi o item encontrado com maior freqüência nos estômagos de ambas as espécies, seguido de matéria vegetal, com maior participação na dieta de P. nattereri. Os recursos peixes e vegetais tenderam a apresentar relações inversas quando comparados com as diferentes classes de comprimento. A análise gráfica da dieta de P. nattereri e S. aff. brandtii sugere que a maioria dos indivíduos utiliza vários recursos simultaneamente. Uma análise multivariada de índices ecomorfológicos indicou que as espécies são segregadas com relação à habilidade natatória, posição ocupada na coluna d'água e tamanho relativo das presas.Serrasalmus aff. brandtii and Pygocentrus nattereri are two species of piranhas, both common in the Viana Lake, which is formed by the flooding waters of the Pindaré River, a tributary of the left bank of the Mearim River. A sample composed of 249 specimens of these species was studied in order to identify diet composition and feeding strategies employed by the two species. The piranhas were captured thrimonthly, during one year from March 1998 to March 1999 using gill and fishing nets of different mesh sizes. The qualitative composition of the diet was analysed through the frequency of occurrence method. The feeding strategies employed by the piranhas were inferred using the graphic method of Costello (1990, modified by Amundsen et al. (1996. The results indicated that fish was the main food item in the stomach contents of the two species, followed by plant material, more in the P. nattereri. Fish and plant material showed different relationships in relation to piranhas's length classes. The graphic analysis of the feeding strategies employed by P. nattereri and S. aff. brandtii suggest a generalist habit, wide width niche with strong participation of the within-phenotype component, which indicated that the majority of individuals of these species use several resources simultaneously. A multivariate analysis of the ecomorphological index indicated that the species are discriminated by swimming ability, water column position and relative prey size.

  20. Uso do alimento por duas espécies simpátricas de Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae em um riacho da Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil Food used by two sympatric species of Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae, in a stream of center-western Brazil

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    Raffael M Tófoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo avaliou sazonalmente a dieta de Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 e M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, coletadas em simpatria no riacho Cancela, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Independente do período hidrológico, alimentos de origem alóctone predominaram na dieta de ambas as espécies (>50% do total de itens consumidos, sendo insetos terrestres o recurso principal, embora, para M. dichroura insetos aquáticos tenham contribuído na dieta também. Hymenoptera (Formicidae foi o alimento mais consumido, sendo ambas as espécies caracterizadas como insetívoras terrestres. A dieta restrita dessas espécies é confirmada pelos baixos valores de amplitude de nicho trófico: Ba=0,26 para M. dichroura em ambos os períodos e Ba=0,41 no período de seca e 0,38 no período de chuva, para M. sanctaefilomenae. A sobreposição alimentar foi elevada no período de chuva (Ojk=0,75 e apresentou valor intermediário no período de seca (Ojk=0,41, evidenciando maior partilha do alimento entre as espécies neste período.This study evaluated the seasonality in the diet of Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 and M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, sympatric species of the Cancela stream, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Regardless of the seasonal period, allochthonous food source predominated in the diet of both species (>50% of all items consumed and among these terrestrial insects were the dominant resource. However, aquatic insects were important in the diet of M. dichroura as well. Hymenoptera (Formicidae was the dominant item to both species, thus they were characterized as terrestrial insectivorous. The restricted diet of these species is confirmed by the trophic niche breadth, whose values were in general low: Ba=0.26 to M. dichroura in both periods and Ba=0.41 and 0.38 in the dry and rainy period, respectively, to M. sanctaefilomenae. The feeding overlap was high in the rainy period (Ojk=0.75 and intermediate in the dry period (Ojk=0.41, showing that the food partitioning between species was larger in this period.

  1. Descripción del cráneo de Bramocharax caballeroi Contreras & Rivera 1985 (Pisces, Characidae), pez endémico del Lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, México Description of the skull of Bramocharax caballeroi Contreras & Rivera 1985 (Pisces, Characidae), endemic fish to Catemaco Lake, Veracruz, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Elena Valdez-Moreno; Salvador Contreras-Balderas

    2009-01-01

    El género Bramocharax se distribuye del centro-norte de Centro América a México. Hasta este momento se conoce a Bramocharax bransfordi de Nicaragua y Costa Rica, a B. dorioni y B. baileyi de Guatemala y a B. caballeroi del lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, México. El trabajo tuvo por objetivo estudiar detalladamente el cráneo de Bramocharax caballeroi a partir del análisis de 37 topotipos de diferentes tallas y compararlo con otras especies relacionadas. B. caballeroi presenta 58 huesos en su cráne...

  2. Review of species of the Astyanax bimaculatus "caudal peduncle spot" subgroup sensu Garutti & Langeani (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages and coastal systems of southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Carlos Alberto S De; Soares, Helena Gouvea

    2016-01-28

    The species of the Astyanax bimaculatus 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup of the drainages of the rios La Plata and São Francisco, as well as southeastern coastal systems of Brazil and Uruguay, are revised. Two nominal species are considered valid and are redescribed: Astyanax lacustris and A. abramis. Astyanax jacuhiensis, A. asuncionensis and A. altiparanae are recognized as new junior synonyms of A. lacustris. Bertoniolus paraguayensisis recognized as a new junior synonym of A. abramis. The names Astyanax orbignyanus, A. vittatus, and A. borealis are considered species inquirendae. Notes on A. maculisquamis, included in the 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup from rio Guaporé (rio Madeira drainage), and Astyanax bahiensis from Bahia, mistakenly considered of the same subgroup, are presented.

  3. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

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    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America.

  4. EVALUACIÓN DE NUEVA TECNOLOGÍA PARA MITIGAR LAS ESPINAS INTRAMUSCULARES EN FILETES DE CACHAMA Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces: Characidae EVALUATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY TO MITIGATE INTRAMUSCULAR THORNS IN CACHAMA FILLETS

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    Héctor Suárez Mahecha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de espinas intramusculares en filetes de cachama dificulta la comercializacion y demanda por parte de los consumidores. Hasta el momento no existen tecnologías que permitan ofrecer filetes de cachama que garanticen condiciones de seguridad frente a las espinas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar una nueva tecnología para mitigar la presencia de espinas en filetes de cachama Piaractus brachypomus empacados al vacío y almacenados durante 30 días a 3±0,5 °C. A filetes en presentación lateral interna fueron realizados cortes profundos, paralelos y perpendiculares al eje longitudinal, a una distancia de 3 mm entre cada corte, en sentido dorso-ventral. Fueron realizados análisis microbiológico, fisicoquímico y sensorial. El análisis microbiológico muestra condiciones aceptables para el final del periodo de almacenamiento. Los valores obtenidos para este periodo, fueron de log UFC/g 7,07; 4,7 y 1100 NMP, 18 NMP para organismos psicrotrofilos, mesófilos, coliformes totales y coliformes fecales, respectivamente. No fue determinada presencia de Salmonella ni de organismos sulfito reductores. El análisis fisicoquímico mostró valores de 39,36 para BVT-N; 6,22 pH; 3,3% de pérdida de humedad 1,52; ácido tiobarbitúrico mg MA/kg. El efecto del sajado no incrementó los valores de oxidación de ácidos grasos, ni aumentó las BVT que pudiesen indicar degradación de la proteína. En el análisis sensorial los filetes sometidos a cocción fueron rechazados solamente a partir del día 25 del periodo de almacenamiento, para los atributos aroma y sabor. Durante la evaluación los panelistas no encontraron presencia de espinas, mostrando que la temperatura de cocción utilizada y los cortes en las espinas, permiten degradar la espina intramuscular evitando que sea detectada.The presence of pin bones in cachama fillets makes marketing and demand difficult by the consumers. So far, there are no technologies to provide cachama fillets to ensure security conditions about thorns. This work had as objective to assess a new technology to mitigate the presence of thorns in cachama fillets Piaractus brachypomus vacuum packed and stored for 30 days at 3±0.5 °C. To fillets in lateral internal presentation were made deep cuts, parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, at a distance of 3 mm between each court, in a back-ventral. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analysis were made. Microbiological analysis shows acceptable conditions at the end of storage period. The obtained values for this storage period were 7.07x106 CFU mL, 4.7x106 CFU mL, 1100 NMP, 18 NMP for psychrotrophics organisms, mesophiles, total and fecal coliforms, respectively. There was no presence of Salmonella nor sulphite reductor organisms. Physicochemical analysis showed values of 39.36 for BVT-N; 6.22 pH; 3.3% of moisture loss; 1.52 thiobarbituric acid mg MA/kg. Cutting effect did not increase oxidation values of fatty acids, nor increased the BVT that could indicate protein degradation. In sensory analysis, fillets subjected to cooking were rejected only since the day 25 of storage period for aroma and flavor attributes. During the assay panelists found no presence of thorns, showing that cooking temperature used and cuts in thorns, allow degrade pin bones avoiding their detection.

  5. Condition factor of Astyanax intermedius Eigenmann, 1908 (OSTEICHTHYES, CHARACIDAE parasitised by Paracymothoa astyanaxi Lemos de Castro, 1955 (CRUSTACEA, CYMOTHOIDAE in the Grande River, Serra do Mar State Park - Santa Virgínia Unit, São Paulo, Brazil

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    LM Gomiero

    Full Text Available In this work the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of Astyanax intermedius parasitised and not by Paracymothoa astyanaxi were analysed in the Grande River. The length-weight relationship was estimated for females, males and immatures, and seasonally for the fishes and the parasites through the expression W = aLb. The condition factor of non-parasitised specimens differed seasonally and between sexes, contrasting with the results for parasitised fishes which showed no differences between sexes and season. The condition factor of non-parasitised specimens was higher than that of the parasitised fishes. Specimens of Astyanax intermedius parasitised do not have the same biotic conditions compared to non-parasitised individuals, in which the condition factor was similar over the years. In conclusion, parasitism by P. astyanaxi has deleterious effects on this host population which may cause changes in the reproductive and food dynamics of parasitised specimens due to low body conditions.

  6. A taxonomic review of the species of CharaxScopoli, 1777 (Teleostei: Characidae: Characinae with description of a new species from the rio Negro bearing superficial neuromasts on body scales, Amazon basin, Brazil

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    Naércio A. Menezes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The species of Charaxwere reviewed by Lucena (1987 who a little later (1989 added three new species to the genus. Examination of recently collected specimens from museum collections documented the more extensive geographic distribution for most species and revealed the existence of a new species in which superficial neuromasts were discovered and are herein described. These skin structures were also detected in C. metae Eigenmann, 1922. Anal- and pelvic-fin hooks previously observed only on the anal-fin of one species of the genus are described herein in some other species. Charax unimaculatus Lucena is considered a junior synonym of C. michaeli Lucena. All the species are redescribed and the new species described.

  7. Hematología y química sanguínea de juveniles de rubio (salminus affinis pisces: characidae) del río sinú

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    VÍCTOR ATENCIO-GARCÍA; FERNANDO GENES LÓPEZ; DIANA MADARIAGA MENDOZA; SANDRA PARDO CARRASCO

    2011-01-01

    Rubio Salminus affinis es un pez reofílico, distribuido en ríos de Colombia y Ecuador . Se estudiaron características hematológicas y química sanguínea buscando generar información básica para desarrollar tecnologías de producción piscícola. Fueron examinados diez rubios juveniles aparentemente sanos (117,5±38,6 g de peso y 17,6±3,3 cm de longitud total) capturados en el río Sinú. Los peces se tranquilizaron durante cinco minutos en agua a 18 °C y se tomaron 2 mL de sangre por vacutecn...

  8. Prosthenhystera obesa (Digenea, parasita de Salminus maxillosus (Characidae da planície de inundação alto rio Paraná, Brasil: influência do tamanho e do sexo do hospedeiro Prosthenhystera obesa (Digenea, parasite of Salminus maxillosus (Characidae of the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Paraná Brazil: influence of the size and sex of host

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    Ricardo Massato Takemoto

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 126 espécimes de Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1849, coletados na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná em ambiente lótico, representado pelos rios Paraná, Ivinheima e canal Cortado e semi-lótico, representado pelo rio Baía. Para a captura dos hospedeiros utilizaram-se redes de espera de malhagens variadas. Os parasitas foram comprimidos e fixados em AFA (álcool, formalina, ácido acético, corados em carmalúmen de Mayer, desidratados em sequência alcoólica, clarificados em creosoto e montados em bálsamo do Canadá. Prosthenhystera obesa Diesing, 1850 apresentou prevalência de 14,3% e intensidade média de infecção de 1,75 (amplitude: 1-3. A prevalência de P. obesa não apresentou correlação com o comprimento-padrão do hospedeiro, o que poderia indicar homogeneidade no comportamento de S. maxillosus durante parte de seu desenvolvimento. A intensidade de infecção está diretamente relacionada com o aumento no tamanho do hospedeiro. O sexo dos hospedeiros não influenciou o prevalência e a intensidade de infecção de P. obesa, sugerindo uma semelhança no comportamento em relação ao hábito alimentar e habitat de machos e fêmeas. Todos os hospedeiros parasitados foram capturados em ambiente lóticoA hundred and twenty-six specimens of Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1849, were analyzed. Fishes were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná river in lotic environments, represented by the Paraná and the Ivinheima rivers and by the Cortado channel, and a semi-lotic one represented by the Baía river. Capture of hosts was undertaken by gill nets of various mesh sizes. Prior to light microscopy, the specimens were fixed in AFA (alcohol, formalin, acetic acid under slight coverslip pressure, stained in Mayer’s acid carmalum, dehydrated in an alcohol series, cleared in creosote and mounted in Canada balsam. Prevalence of Prosthenhystera obesa Diesing, 1850 was 14.3% and mean intensity of infection 1.75 (range: 1-3. Prevalence of P. obesa is not correlated with standard length of host, a fact that may indicate homogeneity in behavior of S. maxillosus during part of its development. Infection intensity is directly related with increase in size of host. There was no influence of sex of host on prevalence and infection intensity of P. obesa. This fact may suggest similarity in behavior with regard to feeding habit and habitat of males and females. All parasitized hosts were captured in lotic environments

  9. Distribuição e alimentação de duas espécies simpátricas de piranhas Serrasalmus maculatus e Pygocentrus nattereri (Characidae, Serrasalminae do rio Ibicuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Distribution and feeding of two sympatric species of piranhas Serrasalmus maculatus and Pygocentrus nattereri (Characidae, Serrasalminae of the Ibicuí river, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Everton R. Behr

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Duas espécies de piranhas ocorrem no rio Ibicuí, um dos principais afluentes do rio Uruguai. Com o objetivo de analisar a distribuição e a alimentação destas espécies, foram realizadas coletas de dezembro de 1999 a janeiro de 2002, utilizando-se diferentes artes de pesca em três pontos do rio, sendo que cada ponto foi amostrado em dois ambientes (lêntico e lótico. Foram capturados 203 indivíduos de Serrasalmus maculatus Kner, 1858 e 86 de Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858, sendo que a maior captura de ambas as espécies ocorreu no ambiente lêntico e próximo ao rio Uruguai, onde P. nattereri parece estar mais concentrada. O número de exemplares capturados por horário não apresentou variações significativas em P. nattereri enquanto que S. maculatus apresentou a maior captura na revisão da meia-noite. Juvenis de S. maculatus (2-4 cm de comprimento padrão consumiram preferencialmente nadadeiras e insetos. Nas demais classes de tamanho de ambas as espécies, restos de peixes foi o alimento predominante, havendo sobreposição alimentar intra e interespecífica nas maiores classes (8-16 cm e >16 cm de comprimento padrão. Não foram constatadas diferenças no índice de repleção entre os horários e os ambientes para as duas espécies.Two species of piranhas occur in the Ibicuí River, one of the main tributaries of the Uruguay River in southern Brazil, Serrasalmus maculatus Kner, 1858 and Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858. In order to analyze the distribution and feeding habits of these species we conducted collecting expeditions from December 1999 to January 2002, using a variety of fishing gears in three sites along the river, both in lentic and lotic habitats. A total of 203 individuals of S. maculatus and 86 of P. nattereri were caught, mostly in lentic habitats and closer to the Uruguay River, were P. nattereri seems to be more concentrated. The number of individuals captured at different times did not show variation in P. nattereri while the number of S. maculatus captured at mid-night was the highest. Young S. maculatus (2-4 cm standard length fed mainly on fish fins and insects. Fish was the predominant item in remaining size classes for both species, with intra- and inter-specific overlap in larger classes (8-16 cm and >16 cm standard length. No differences in the repletion index between day time or habitats, were observed for the two species.

  10. Protozoários e metazoários parasitos do cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, peixe ornamental proveniente de exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872 Protozoan and metazoan parasites of the cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, ornamental fish from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872

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    Maria Leonora Silva Brito

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a parasitofauna de peixes ornamentais cultivados são de grande relevância para o conhecimento das espécies de parasitos, permitindo interferência em sua proliferação para evitar epizootias e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas na criação. O presente estudo investigou a prevalência e intensidade de parasitos protozoários e metazoários em cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi (N = 89, mantidos em tanques de um exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Dos espécimes de P. axelrodi necropsiados, 65,2% (N = 58 estavam parasitados pelos Protozoa Piscinoodinium pillulare (3,4% e Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (7,9%, Monogenoidea Gyrodactylus sp. (42,7%, Nematoda Procamallanus sp. (23,6% e Trematoda (1,1%. Gyrodactylus sp. e Procamallanus sp., porém, foram os parasitos de maior prevalência e intensidade. Apesar da elevada prevalência de parasitismo em P. axelrodi durante a sua permanência no exportador, a intensidade de protozoários e metazoários foi baixa pelo manejo profilático nos tanques. Os resultados demonstram que os cuidados com tratamento e profilaxia são de extrema importância na aquicultura de peixes ornamentais.Studies regarding parasites fauna in farmed ornamental fish are of great relevance for knowledge of the parasites species, allowing interference in their proliferation to avoid epizooties and consequently, economical losses. This study was designed to investigate the protozoan and metazoan parasites prevalence and intensity on cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi, maintained in tanks of an exporter from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. On necropsy 65.2% of P. axelrodi were found parasitized by Piscinoodium pillulare, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa, Gyrodactylus sp. (Monogenoidea, Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda and Trematoda. Gyrodactylus sp. (42.7% and Procamallanus sp. (23.6% were the parasites of greatest prevalence, and protozoan I. multifiliis was the parasite of greatest mean intensity (4.9. Low intensity of parasites was influenced by chemotherapeutic and prophylactic management. Therefore, the concern with treatment and prophylaxis are of extreme importance for ornamental fish aquaculture.

  11. Suplementação com DL-α acetato de tocoferila e parasitismo por Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae em Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes: Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1244 Supplementation with DL-α tocopheryl acetate and parasitism by Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae in Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes: Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1244

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    Vando Edésio Soares

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O índice de parasitismo por Anacanthorus penilabiatus foi estudado em 126 pacus jovens, Piaractus mesopotamicus (peso inicial de 95,71 ± 24,23 g e peso final 155,76 ± 28,62 g, provenientes de mesma desova, naturalmente parasitados. Os peixes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três tratamentos de 42 animais cada e submetidos à suplementação com zero mg, 100 mg e 450 mg de DL-α acetato de tocoferila/kg de ração, alimentados duas vezes ao dia, por 18 semanas. Após este período, as brânquias foram avaliadas quanto à presença do parasito e amostras de sangue coletadas. Apesar de 100% dos pacus analisados apresentarem monogenea, não se observou diferença estatística (p > 0,05 quanto ao índice de parasitismo entre os grupos. Todavia, os animais que receberam a vitamina E apresentaram menores contagens de parasitos nas brânquias. Da mesma forma, os peixes alimentados com baixos níveis de vitamina E não diferiram estatisticamente (p > 0,05 dos tratados com DL-α acetato de tocoferila (100 mg/kg e 450 mg/kg quanto à contagem global de eritrócitos, hematócrito e volume corpuscular médio. A suplementação alimentar com vitamina E não interferiu no desempenho produtivo de pacusThe rates of Anacanthorus penilabiatus parasitism were investigated in 126 pacus, (Piaractus mesopotamicus -with initial weight of 95.71 ± 24.23 g and final weight of 155.76 ± 28.62 g, from the same spawn and naturally infested. Fishes were randomly distributed among three groups of 42 animals each and submitted to treatment with 0, 100 and 450 mg of DL-α tocopheryl acetate/Kg of dry diet, fed twice a day during 18 weeks. The gills were evaluated according to the presence of parasites and collected blood samples. Although 100% of pacus examined were parasited, the results did not show statistical difference (P > 0.05 for parasite counting among the groups treated. Therefore, fish supplemented with vitamin E demonstrated lower parasites counts. In the same way, fish fed with low rates of vitamin E did not differ statistically (P > 0.05 to erythrocyte counts, hematocrit and average corpuscular volume when compared to the pacus supplemented with 100 and 450 mg of DL-α tocopheryl acetate. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E did not affect the pacus growth rates

  12. On relict hydrobiid species in Brazilian Amazonia (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Hydrobiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Two extant hydrobiid species from the lower Tapajos river of Brazil are redescribed. Potamopyrgus amazonicus Haas, 1949, is assigned to the genus Dyris Conrad, 1871. At least eleven species from Miocene deposits of Western Amazonia are assigned to Dyris, a genus that was previously assumed to be ext

  13. Revisão do gênero Neotropical Myiotabanus Lutz (Diptera, Tabanidae com descrição de uma espécie nova Revision of the Neotropical genus Myiotabanus Lutz (Diptera, Tabanidae with description of a new species

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    José Albertino Rafael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Myiotabanus Lutz, 1928 é revisado. M. barrettoi Fairchild, 1969 e M. muscoideus (Hine, 1907 são redescritas de lectótipos (presente designação e M. sarcophagoides Lutz, 1928 é redescrita do holótipo. M. amazonicus sp. nov. é descrita da bacia amazônica e do pantanal, Brasil, a partir da exuvia pupal e de quatro fêmeas adultas.Three previously described and one new species are treated. M. amazonicus sp. nov. from the Brazilian Amazon Basin and the Pantanal is described from pupal exuvia and four adult females. M. barrettoi Fairchild, 1969 and M. muscoideus (Hine, 1907 are redescribed from lectotypes, here designated, and M. sarcophagoides Lutz, 1928 is redescribed from holotype. An illustrated key for female adults and for known pupae species are provided.

  14. Novas espécies de Lamiinae (Cerambycidae neotropicais e transferência de Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas do Brasil: Nesozineus amazonicus sp. nov. (Amazonas, Xenofrea diagonalis sp. nov. (Rondônia. Mauesia submetallica sp. nov. (Amazonas; da Bolívia: Psapharochrus nearnsi sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Adetus basalis, sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, La Paz, Palpicrassus inexpectatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Cyrtinus meridialis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz.. Do Panamá: Aerenea panamensis sp. nov. (Chiriqui. O gênero Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007, originalmente descrito em Pteropliini é transferido para Apomecynini.New species described from Brazil: Nesozineus amazonicus sp. nov. (Amazonas, Xenofrea diagonalis sp. nov. (Rondônia, Mauesia submetallica sp. nov. (Amazonas; from Bolivia: Psapharochrus nearnsi sp. nov. (Santa Cruz; Adetus basalis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, La Paz, Palpicrassus inexpectatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Cyrtinus meridialis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz., Aerenea panamensis sp. nov. from Panama (Chiriqui. The genus Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007, originally described in Pteropliini, is transferred to Apomecynini.

  15. Uma nova espécie de Dadayius Fukui, 1929 (Digenea: Cladorchiidae parasita do trato intestinal de Metynnis maculatus (Kner, 1858 (Characidae da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2044 A new species of Dadayius Fukui, 1929 (Digenea: Cladorchiidae, parasite of the intestinal tract of Metynnis maculates (Kner, 1858 (Characidae from the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2044

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    Ricardo Massoto Takemoto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Cladorchiidae (Trematoda, Digenea foi encontrada no trato intestinal do peixe de água-doce “pacu peva”, Metynnis maculatus (Kner, 1858 na planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil. A nova espécie foi classificada no gênero Dadayius Fukui, 1929 por apresentar testículos não lobados e acetábulo ventro-terminal com um “entalhe” postero-mediano na margem interior, características do gênero que possui apenas duas espécies conhecidas. Algumas características que diferem a espécie nova de D. marenzelleri (Daday, 1907 e D. pacuensis Thatcher, 1996 são cecos não alcançando o acetábulo, vitelária de extensão limitada e não atingindo o nível do testículo posterior e a presença de dois tamanhos diferentes de ovos em dois estágios de maturação diferentes.A new species of Cladorchiidae (Trematoda, Digenea was found in the intestinal tract of freshwater fish “pacu peva”, Metynnis maculates (Kner, 1858 from the Upper Paraná River floodplain, southern Brazil. The new species was classified in the genus Dadayius Fukui, 1929 by having non-lobate testis and a ventro-terminal acetabulum with postero median notch on rim, characters of the genus wich has only two previously known species. Some characters that differ the new species from D. marenzelleri (Daday, 1907 and D. pacuensis Thatcher, 1996 are: ceca not reaching acetabulum, vitellaria of limited extension, not reaching the level of posterior testis and the presence of two different egg sizes in two different maturity stages.

  16. Nuevos registros de nemátodes parásitos de animales de vida silvestre en el Perú

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    Manuel Tantaleán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registran, por primera vez para el Perú, 4 especies de nemátodes: Dipetalonema graciliformis Freitas, 1964 parásito de Saguinus labiatus; Evaginuris branickii (McCiure, 1932 Quentín, 1973 de Dinomys branickii; Alaeuris caudatus (Lent & Freitas, 1948 de Iguana iguana y Serpinema amazonicus de Podocnemis expansa. También, se considera a Saguinus labiatus como un nuevo huésped para Dipetalonema graciliformis.

  17. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarski, F. [UNESP; ROSSINI, AJ.; CECCARELLI, PS.

    2008-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish w...

  18. Reproductive characteristics of characid fish species (Teleostei, Characiformes) and their relationship with body size and phylogeny

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    Azevedo,Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I investigated the reproductive biology of fish species from the family Characidae of the order Characiformes. I also investigated the relationship between reproductive biology and body weight and interpreted this relationship in a phylogenetic context. The results of the present study contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the reproductive strategies present in the species of this family. Most larger characid species and other characiforms exhibit a reproductive p...

  19. Ecological Factors and Diversification among Neotropical Characiforms

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    Cástor Guisande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and DNA sequence data has been used to propose hypotheses of relationships within the Characiformes with minimal comparative discussion of causes underpinning the major intraordinal diversification patterns. We explore potential primary morphological factors controlling the early diversification process in some Neotropical characiforms as the first step to identifying factors contributing to the pronounced intraordinal morphological and species diversity. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA (mitochondrial and 18S rDNA (nuclear genes provided the framework for the identification of the main morphological differences among the Acestrorhynchidae, Anostomidae, Characidae, Ctenoluciidae, Curimatidae, Cynodontidae, Gasteropelecidae, Prochilodontidae and Serrasalmidae. Results indicate an initial split into two major groupings: (i species with long dorsal-fin bases relative to the size of other fins (Curimatidae, Prochilodontidae, Anostomidae, Serrasalmidae which primarily inhabit lakes, swamps, and rivers (lineage I; and (ii species with short dorsal-fin bases (Acestrorhynchidae, Gasteropelecidae, Characidae which primarily inhabit creeks and streams (lineage II. The second diversification stage in lineage I involved substantial morphological diversification associated with trophic niche differences among the monophyletic families which range from detritivores to large item predators. Nonmonophyly of the Characidae complicated within lineage II analyzes but yielded groupings based on differences in pectoral and anal fin sizes correlated with life style differences.

  20. Dos nuevos registros de vectores de fiebre amarilla y Mayaro en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1690-46482013000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se registran por primera vez en el Ecuador dos especies de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae), vectores potenciales de los virus de la Fiebre Amarilla y Mayaro. Sabethes amazonicus Gordon and Evans y Haemagogus anastasionis Dyar fueron colectados en fase adulta en una localidad de la provincia de Zamora-Chinchipe, en la cual se han presentado casos de Fiebre Amarilla selvática con anterio...

  1. Comparação da dieta de duas espécies de Triportheus (Characidae, Triportheinae, em trechos do reservatório de Manso e lagoas do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2023 Diet Comparison of two species of Triportheus in Manso Reservoir and lagoons of Cuiabá River, Mato Grosso do Sul - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2023

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    André Beal Galina

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo conhecer aspectos da alimentação de duas espécies de Triportheus, no reservatório de Manso e lagoas do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente (março/00 a fevereiro/01 e os conteúdos estomacais analisados pelos métodos de Ocorrência (O% e Volumétrico (V%. Os dados foram sintetizados graficamente no Índice de Costello. T. nematurus explorou insetos terrestres (Hymenoptera e Coleoptera e insetos aquáticos (larvas de Diptera no reservatório, durante todo o período de estudos. Nas lagoas, a dieta foi baseada principalmente em algas e insetos terrestres no período de cheia, sendo mais diversificada na seca. No reservatório, T. paranensis consumiu preferencialmente invertebrados aquáticos (Cladocera e Copepoda enquanto que, nas lagoas, explorou insetos terrestres no período de seca e insetos aquáticos na cheia. A sobreposição alimentar (Índice de Schoener intra e interespecífica apresentou valores baixos (The aim of this paper is to determine the diet of two species of Triportheus (T. paranensis e T. nematurus, in Manso Reservoir and lagoons of Cuiabá River, MT. Samples were monthly taken from March 2000 to February 2001. Stomach contents were analyzed by the occurrence and volumetric methods, and data were graphically grouped by Costello Index. The diet of T. nematurus was composed of terrestrial (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera and aquatic insects (larvae of Diptera in the reservoir. In lagoons it consumed algae and terrestrial insects during the flood period, and the diet was more diversified during the dry season. In the reservoir, T. paranensis consumed specially aquatic invertebrates, while in lagoons its diet was composed of terrestrial insects in dry season and aquatic insects in flood period. Schoener Index presented low values (< 0,6, showing partial segregation in both species diet

  2. Variação espaço-temporal na distribuição e abundância de Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Characiformes: Characidae em lagoas da planície de inundação do rio Cuiabá, Pantanal, Brasil=Spatial-temporal variation of the distribution and abundance of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae at lagoons of the Cuiaba river floodplain, Pantanal, Brazil

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    Jerry Penha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identificar os fatores bióticos e abióticos que determinam a variação na distribuição e abundância das populações, tornou-se nos últimos anos um grande desafio para os ecologistas. Assim neste estudo foram avaliados o efeito das variáveis abióticas e a abundância de predadores sobre a abundância de Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae, a variação no comprimento médio dos indivíduos entre lagoas e períodos e o efeito das variáveis abióticas e da abundância de predadores sobre a estrutura em comprimento. Foram amostradas 16 lagoas da planície de inundação do rio Cuiabá, no período de junho (vazante, setembro (seca e dezembro (enchente de 2005 e março (cheia de 2006. Para M. sanctaefilomenae, a distribuição é mais ampla e a abundância é maior no final da vazante, início da seca, reduzindo-se gradualmente ao longo dos períodos de seca, enchente e cheia. Adicionalmente, o período afeta a estrutura em tamanho das populações, que são espacialmente homogêneas. Indivíduos menores foram capturados no final do período de vazante e os maiores ao início da enchente. Durante o final da vazante/início da seca, a variação espacial na abundância da população foi relacionada positivamente com o pH, o oxigênio dissolvido e cobertura de macrófitas e área da lagoa, mas, não com a abundância local de predadores na zona litorânea das lagoas.Identifying the biotic and abiotic factors that determine the variation in the distribution and abundance of populations has become a great challenge for the field of ecology in recent years. Thus, in this study we evaluated the effect of abiotic variables and the abundance of predators on the abundance of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae, the variation in the average length of the individuals between lakes and periods, and the effect of the abiotic variables and abundance of predators on the structure in length of that species. Sixteen lakes of the Cuiabá river flood plain were sampled in June (drying period, September (dry period and December (flooding period 2005 and March (flood period 2006. For M. sanctaefilomenae, the distribution is ampler and the abundance is greater at the end of the drying period, beginning of dry season, reducing gradually over the periods of dry, drying and flood season. Additionally, the period affects the structure in size of the populations that are spatially homogeneous. Smaller individuals were captured at the end of the drying period and the larger individuals at the start of flooding. During the end of the drying period and in the beginning of the dry season, the spatial variation in the abundance of the population was positively related with pH, dissolved oxygen and macrophyte cover and area of the lake, but not with the local abundance of predators in the littoral zone of the lakes.

  3. Differential staining and microchromosomal variation in karyotypes of four Brazilian species of Tupinambinae lizards (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rodrigo Marques Lima; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado

    2008-11-01

    Kayotypes of four neotropical teiid lizard species (Tupinambinae) were herein studied after conventional as well as silver staining and CBG-banding: Crocodilurus amazonicus (2n = 34), Tupinambis teguixin (2n = 36), Tupinambis merianae and Tupinambis quadrilineatus (2n = 38). The karyological data for T. quadrilineatus as well as those obtained using differential staining for all species were unknown until now. The karyotypes of all species presented 12 macrochromosomes identical in morphology, but differed in the number of microchromosomes: 22 in C. amazonicus, 24 in T. teguixin and 26 in T. quadrilineatus and T. merianae. The Ag-NOR located at the secondary constriction at the distal end of pair 2 is shared by all species, contrasting with the variability observed for this character in species of the related Teiinae. CBG-banding revealed a species-specific pattern in T. quadrilineatus with conspicuous interstitial C-blocks at the proximal region of the long arm of pair 4 and the whole heterochromatic short arm of pair 6. The karyological data reported here corroborates the relationship hypothesis obtained for Tupinambis based on molecular characters. T. teguixin presents the putative ancestral karyotype for the genus with 2n = 36 whereas T. merianae and T. quadrilineatus exhibit 2n = 38, due to an additional pair of microchromosomes.

  4. Characteristics of the male reproductive system and spermatozoa of Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, P.; Dolder, H., E-mail: heidi@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IB/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia, Biologia Celular e Fisiologia; Salles, F.F. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Dept. de Ciencias da Saude, Biologicas e Agrarias

    2011-01-15

    This study describes morphological changes in the male reproductive system of Miroculis amazonicus (Savage and Peters) from mature nymphs to subimago stages. The sperm ultrastructure of Massartela brieni (Lestage), Farrodes carioca (Dominguez et al) and Miroculis mourei (Savage and Peters), as well as aspects of cell fragments observed in these species' subimagos deferent ducts were described. Sperm from the three species studied are aflagellated and immotile, while those from F. carioca and Ma. brieni are approximately spherical with a homogenous nucleus and acrosome. Sperm of F. carioca present two or three mitochondria located between the nucleus and the acrosome. In Ma. brieni, only one lateral mitochondria was found. Sperm from Mi. mourei are shaped as a number 'eight', with electron lucent spots inside the nucleus and two mitochondria above the acrosome. Large cell fragments containing degenerative vesicles and some sperm were observed in the deferent duct lumen of the three species. Tests of Mi. amazonicus are extremely reduced in the subimago stage, which suggests that these cell fragments originated from testes degeneration. (author)

  5. Diversidad genética de piracanjuba usada en programas de repoblación con marcadores microsatélites Genetic diversity of piracanjuba used in stock enhancement programs with microsatellite markers

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    Maria del Pilar Rodriguez-Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la diversidad genética de un lote de Brycon orbignyanus usado en programas de repoblación, a través de marcadores microsatélites. Se analizaron muestras de 44 reproductores, de 70 larvas y de 69 alevinos, con la amplificación de cinco loci descritos para Brycon opalinus. El número de alelos, la heterozigosidad observada (Ho y esperada (He, el índice de Shannon (IS, la diversidad genética de Nei (DGN, el coeficiente de endogamia (Fis, la distancia (DG e identidad genética (IG, el número efectivo de alelos, el test del equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (EHW y el desequilibrio de ligación fueron calculados. Reproductores y progenie tuvieron un número similar de alelos en los loci evaluados. La Ho media, IS, DGN, DG e IG mostraron que existe menor distancia genética entre parentales y larvas y una disminución de variabilidad genética en los alevinos. Fueron observados desvíos en EHW y desequilibrio de ligación en seis pares de loci. El Fis mostró exceso de heterocigotos en parentales y larvas y déficit de heterocigotos en los alevinos. El lote de reproductores está en proceso de pérdida de alelos y hubo disminución de la variabilidad genética entre la fase de larva y alevino.The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic diversity of a Brycon orbignyanus lot used in stock enhancement programs, using microsatellite markers. Samples of 44 broodstocks, 70 larvae and 69 fingerlings, were analyzed with amplification of five loci described for Brycon opalinus. The number of alleles, the observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosity, Shannon index (IS, Nei's genetic diversity (DGN, the inbreeding coefficient (Fis, distance (DG and genetic identity (IG, the effective number of alleles, the test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (EHW and the linkage disequilibrium were calculated. Broodstocks and offspring had a similar number of alleles at the tested loci. Ho average, IS, DGN, DG and IG showed

  6. Redescription of Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850 (Callodistomidae, Digenea with New Host Records and Data on Morphological Variability

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    Anna Kohn

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing,1850 Travassos, 1922 from the gall bladder of Astyanax bimaculatus, Caranx gibbosus, Galeocharax humeralis, Leporinus copelandii, Pimelodus fur, Pseudopimelodus roosevelti, Salminus brevidens, Salminus maxillosus and from the new hosts, Cynopotamus amazonum and Triurobrycon lundii is redescribed, demonstrating a large morphological variation, mainly in body and testes size and shape. New hosts harbouring immature specimens of P. obesa are presented: Brycon sp., Leporellus vittatus, Pachyurus squamipinnis, Pimelodus clarias, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Salminus hilarii. Scanning electron microscopy micrographies, original figures and measurements of adult and immature specimens from different Brazilian hosts and localities are presented

  7. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e histoquímica do aparelho digestório do Prochilodus lineatus. Análise da diversidade da microbiota intestinal de Prochilodus lineatus e Pterygoplichthys anisitsi

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Lilian Cristina [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo descrever o aparelho digestório sob os pontos de vista estrutural, ultraestrutural e histoquímico de uma espécie de peixe de água doce: o curimba (Prochilodus lineatus) (Characidae, Prochilodontidae). Adicionalmente foi realizado um estudo da diversidade da microbiota intestinal do Prochilodus lineatus e do cascudo cinza (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi). Para os estudos morfológicos de anatomia, histologia, histoquímica e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura...

  8. Two new species of Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae from South America Dos especies nuevas de Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae de América del Sur

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    Stephen S. Curran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de

  9. Determinantes ambientais da ocorrência de espécies de peixes em riachos de cabeceira da bacia do rio Ivinhema, alto rio Paraná = Environmental determinants of fish species occurrence in headwaters streams of Ivinhema river basin, upper Paraná river

    OpenAIRE

    Yzel Rondon Súarez; Sabrina Bigatão Valério; Karina Keyla Tondato; Lidiani Queli Lubas Ximenes; Thiago Rota Alves Felipe

    2007-01-01

    Com o objetivo de quantificar a importância de algumas característicasfisiográficas dos riachos sobre a ocorrência de quatro espécies de Characidae em riachos de cabeceira na bacia do rio Ivinhema, realizaram-se amostragens bimestrais em dez riachos com uso de telas de isca, com esforço amostral padronizado. A influência das variáveisambientais sobre a ocorrência das espécies de peixes foi quantificada utilizando-se do modelo da análise de regressão logística. Constatou-se que a velocidade da...

  10. Fishes from the Itapecuru River basin, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil

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    MC Barros

    Full Text Available The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22% of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, F; Rossini, A J; Ceccarelli, P S

    2008-05-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968) artificial culture medium (broth and solid) which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility), contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare.

  12. Monogenoidea en Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766 de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana

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    Leslie Córdova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la diversidad de parásitos monogenoideos como un carácter indepen- diente, esperando que por su alta especifi cidad, éstos parásitos puedan caracterizar las poblaciones de sus hospederos, la piraña blanca, Serrasalmus rhombeus . El estudio se llevó acabo en cuatro sub-cuencas de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana (Iténez, Beni, Madre de Dios e Ichilo; se obtuvie- ron 1135 parásitos, los cuales fueron agrupados en seis géneros y once especies: Anacanthorus jegui, A. amazonicus , A. rondonensis, A. gravihamulatus, A. sciponophallus, Anacanthorus sp.1 , Anacanthorus sp.2 , Anacanthorus sp.3 ; Notothecium deleastum, N. deleastoideum, Notozothecium teinodendrum; Mymarothecium galeolum; Anphithecium diclonophallum y Enallothecium aegidatum. La elevada diversidad de parásitos encontrada puede deberse a que existe o existió un complejo de especies o poblaciones diferenciadas de Serrasalmus rhombeus.

  13. How does diet influence the reproductive seasonality of tropical freshwater fish?: A case study of a characin in a tropical mountain river

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    Tania M. Ballesteros

    Full Text Available Seasonal breeding of tropical freshwater fish may be synchronized with periods of high food consumption. We explored this hypothesis by studying the relationship between diet and reproductive activity of Creagrutus guanes (Teleostei, Characidae. Our results showed that C. guanes had a generalist and omnivorous diet dominated by aquatic insects (mainly Diptera larvae and seeds. Creagrutus guanes did not show intersexual or ontogenetic variation in diet. Peaks of feeding activity during rainy months were not synchronized with breeding in dry months. Our results do not support the hypothesis that the reproductive season has to be synchronized with high food consumption. We discussed the hypothesis fat reserves may be an important factor for the desynchronization of peaks of feeding and reproduction as explanation of seasonal breeding of this species.

  14. Determinantes ambientais da ocorrência de espécies de peixes em riachos de cabeceira da bacia do rio Ivinhema, alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.520 Environmental determinants of fish species occurrence in headwaters streams of Ivinhema river basin, upper Paraná river - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.520

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Rota Alves Felipe; Lidiane Queli Lubas Ximenes; Sabrina Bigatão Valério; Karina Keyla Tondato; Yzel Rondon Súarez

    2007-01-01

    Com o objetivo de quantificar a importância de algumas características fisiográficas dos riachos sobre a ocorrência de quatro espécies de Characidae em riachos de cabeceira na bacia do rio Ivinhema, realizaram-se amostragens bimestrais em dez riachos com uso de telas de isca, com esforço amostral padronizado. A influência das variáveis ambientais sobre a ocorrência das espécies de peixes foi quantificada utilizando-se do modelo da análise de regressão logística. Constatou-se que a velocidade ...

  15. Comparison of fish assemblages in two littoral habitats in a Neotropical morichal stream in Venezuela

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    Carmen G. Montaña

    Full Text Available Morichales are lowland streams in South American savannas with riparian forest dominated by the moriche palm (Mauritia flexuosa. We sampled littoral habitats from ten flooded vegetated patches (dominated by Mauritiella aculeate and six sand banks in two months of the dry season (Feb-Mar 2005 in a stream in the savannas of Apure State, Venezuela. We collected samples that compromised 12,407 individual fishes of 107 species. Small-bodied fishes (< 100 mm, representing diverse trophic and life history strategies, were abundant. The most abundant species were in the families Characidae and Cichlidae. Fish assemblages from flooded vegetated patches differed significantly from those on adjacent sand banks. High structural complexity along vegetated shoreline habitats of morichal streams likely contributes to species richness and affects assemblage composition.

  16. Assessment of Fish Biodiversity in Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Obe Bernardine Wuraola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of sustainable exploitation of the fishery resourcesof Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria, the fish biodiversity assessment was carried out. This was conducted by enumerating and identifying fish species composition, measuring the fish length, fish weight, assessing the fish abundance and biomass, determining the length-weight relationships and the length-frequency of the fishes. Altogether, 592 fishes were sampled comprising twenty-eight (28 species belonging to sixteen (16 families. The families identified included: Cichlidae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Channidae, Malapteruridae, Gymnarchidae, Bagridae, Mochokidae, Polypteridae, Pantodontidae,Schilbeidae, Anabantidae, Osteoglossidae, Characidae, Notopteridaeand Distichodontidae. The family Mormyridae was the most abundant with 163 members followed by Cichlidae with 161 members. The least represented family was Schilbeidae with only two (2 members. On the species level, Tilapia zillii had the greatest number of representation with seventy (70 members, followed by Oreochromis niloticus with fifty-eight (58 members.

  17. First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques Primeira ocorrência de Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala no peixe ornamental Hyphessobrycon eques

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    Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae, in the “Mato Grosso” Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae (Steindachner, 1882, collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season and June 2007 (dry season and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season, 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region.O objetivo desse trabalho foi registrar a primeira ocorrência sazonal do acantocefala Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae no peixe “Mato Grosso”, Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characidae, capturados no Rio Chumucuí, região Bragantina, Pará, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados no período de julho∕2006 a junho∕2007 e examinados com técnica padrão para detecção de parasitas. Um total de 75 parasitas foram encontrados no estômago e intestino. Dos 83 peixes capturados (50 na estação seca e 33 na chuvosa, 22 estavam parasitados por cistacantos de Quadrigyrus nickoli. No presente trabalho discute-se a importância do H. eques como hospedeiro paratênico para Quadrigyrus nickoli. Os presentes dados constituem o primeiro estudo sobre a biologia e a infecção de Q. nickoli na Amazônia oriental.

  18. Revisão dos gêneros Sitalces, Eusitalces e Parasitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini e descrição de três novos gêneros

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    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Revisão dos gêneros Sitalces, Eusitalces e Parasitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini e descrição de três novos gêneros. Os gêneros sulamericanos de Abracrini Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris gen. nov., Robustusacris gen. nov., e Arimacris gen. nov. são revisados, descritos, redescritos e redefinidos. Quatro espécies são novas combinações: Liebermannacris dorsualis (Giglio-Tos, 1898 comb. nov., Liebermannacris punctifrons (Stål,1878 comb. nov., Robustusacris balzapambae (Rehn, 1913 comb. nov., e Arimacris trinitatis (Bruner, 1906 comb. nov., todas removidas de Sitalces Stål, 1878. Nove espécies são novos sinônimos: Sitalces robustus Bruner, 1908 (de S. volxemi Stål, 1878; S. infuscatus Bruner, 1908, S. nudus Bruner, 1908, S. ovatipennis Bruner, 1908, S. madeirensis Rehn, 1916 (de Liebermannacris dorsualis (Giglio-Tos, 1898; S. rubripes Hebard, 1924 (de Robustusacris balzapambae (Rehn, 1913; E. amazonicus Günther, 1940 e S. apolinari Hebard, 1923 (de Eusitalces vittatus Bruner, 1911; E. rubripes Günther, 1940 (de P. vulneratus (Bruner,1919. Lectótipos e paralectótipos são designados. São fornecidas chaves para identificação, medidas, mapa de distribuição geográfica e ilustrações dos gêneros e espécies.Revision of the genera Sitalces, Eusitalces and Parasitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini and description of three new genera. The South American Abracrini genera Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris gen. nov., Robustusacris gen. nov., and Arimacris gen. nov. are reviewed, described, redescribed and redefined. Four species are new combinations: Liebermannacris dorsualis (Giglio-Tos, 1898 comb. nov., Liebermannacris punctifrons (Stål,1878 comb. nov., Arimacris trinitatis (Bruner, 1906 comb. nov., and Robustusacris balzapambae (Rehn, 1913 comb. nov., all removed of Sitalces Stål, 1878. Nine species

  19. Gastrointestinal parasites of taricaya, Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudines: Podocnemididae from Iquitos, Peru

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    Nofre Sánchez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Many Amazonian animals are a valuable food source, for the rural and urban people of the Peruvian forest. Their meat is called carne de monte, and is the third source of protein food in the region. Podocnemis unifilis (Yellow-spotted Amazon River turtle or taricaya is utilized for both its meat and eggs. The efforts for restocking this reptile through breeding in semicaptivity and captivity, has allowed increasing the population, and now they are abundant. However, the breeding process had not taken into account the sanitary aspect, and this information is barely known in Peru. With the objective of identifying the parasitic fauna of the taricaya, the digestive tracts of 12 females (2 adults, 10 young captured in the Pacaya Samiria National Reserve where examined. Different grades of parasitic infection were found in all turtles investigated. The parasites identified were the nematodes Serpinema amazonicus (100% and Ancyracanthus pinnatifidus Diesing, 1934 (83%, and the trematode Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1939, Travassos, 1934 (100%. Ancyracanthus pinnatifidus is a new record from Peru.

  20. The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov., its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae

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    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov. , its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae.The subgenus Lycoderes (Lycoderides Sakakibara, 1972 is raised to the genus category - Lycoderides stat. nov.. - : and it now includes: Lycoderides amazonicus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides brevilobus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides burmeisteri (Fairmaire, 1846, comb. nov. , Lycoderides cultratus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fernandezi (Strümpel, 1988, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fuscus (Amyot & Serville, 1843, comb. nov. , Lycoderides gradatus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides hippocampus (Fabricius, 1803, comb. nov. , Lycoderides luteus (Funkhouser, 1940, comb. nov. , Lycoderides marginalis (Walker, 1851, comb. nov. , Lycoderides nathanieli (Cryan, 1999, comb. nov. , Lycoderides obtusus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides pennyi (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides phasianus (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. (= Enchenopa minamen Buckton, 1901,SYN. NOV: , Lycoderides protensus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides serraticornis (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. , and Lycoderides strumpeli (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. The following new species are described: Lycoderides abditus, sp. nov. , Lycoderides brulei,SP. NOV. (: both from French Guiana, Lycoderides capixaba, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Espírito Santo, Lycoderides cavichiolii, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Lycoderides meloi, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Bahia, and Lycoderides oliviae, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Minas Gerais. Other nomenclatural change: Stegaspis bracteata (Fabricius, 1787 = Lycoderes capitata Buckton, 1903, syn. nov. New records of geographical distribution and a key to the species are provided.

  1. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

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    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  2. Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J X; Guo, Q J; Yang, J; Zhou, X Y; Ren, H Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, R X; Wang, X D; Peters, M; Zhu, G X; Wei, R F; Tian, L Y; Han, X K

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals.

  3. The search for new antimalarial drugs from plants used to treat fever and malaria or plants ramdomly selected: a review

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    Krettli Antoniana U

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the ongoing situation of human malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, where it is endemic causing over 610,000 new acute cases yearly, a number which is on the increase. This is partly a result of drug resistant parasites and new antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. The approaches we have used in the search of new drugs during decades are now reviewed and include ethnopharmocology, plants randomly selected, extracts or isolated substances from plants shown to be active against the blood stage parasites in our previous studies. Emphasis is given on the medicinal plant Bidens pilosa, proven to be active against the parasite blood stages in tests using freshly prepared plant extracts. The anti-sporozoite activity of one plant used in the Brazilian endemic area to prevent malaria is also described, the so called "Indian beer" (Ampelozizyphus amazonicus, Rhamnaceae. Freshly prepared extracts from the roots of this plant were totally inactive against blood stage parasites, but active against sporozoites of Plasmodium gallinaceum or the primary exoerythrocytic stages reducing tissue parasitism in inoculated chickens. This result will be of practical importance if confirmed in mammalian malaria. Problems and perspectives in the search for antimalarial drugs are discussed as well as the toxicological and clinical trials to validate some of the active plants for public health use in Brazil.

  4. Attraction of Chagas disease vectors (Triatominae to artificial light sources in the canopy of primary Amazon rainforest

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    Marcelo CM Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult triatomines occasionally fly into artificially lit premises in Amazonia. This can result in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to humans either by direct contact or via foodstuff contamination, but the frequency of such behaviour has not been quantified. To address this issue, a light-trap was set 45 m above ground in primary rainforest near Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil and operated monthly for three consecutive nights over the course of one year (432 trap-hours. The most commonly caught reduviids were triatomines, including 38 Panstrongylus geniculatus, nine Panstrongylus lignarius, three Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus, five Rhodnius robustus, two Rhodnius pictipes, one Rhodnius amazonicus and 17 Eratyrus mucronatus. Males were collected more frequently than females. The only month without any catches was May. Attraction of most of the known local T. cruzi vectors to artificial light sources is common and year-round in the Amazon rainforest, implying that they may often invade premises built near forest edges and thus become involved in disease transmission. Consequently, effective Chagas disease prevention in Amazonia will require integrating entomological surveillance with the currently used epidemiological surveillance.

  5. Effects of hot and cold smoking processes on organoleptic properties, yield and composition of matrinxa fillet Efeitos do processo de defumação a quente e a frio sobre as propriedades organolépticas, o rendimento e a composição de filé de matrinxã

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    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza Franco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hot (45-90ºC/5 hours and cold (27-45ºC/10 hours smoking processes on the organoleptic properties, yield and composition of matrinxa (Brycon cephalus fillets are evaluated. No significant differences were observed for fillet yield in both non-smoked and smoked fillets. Smoking process losses were significantly higher for hot smoked (19.37% when compared to cold smoked (17.08%. Smoking process reduced moisture (in natura = 72.91%, for hot = 58.51% and cold = 59.68% and increased crude protein, lipid and ash contents. However, there was a significant difference only for protein level between hot smoked (28.07% and cold smoked (27.14%. Cold smoked process resulted in better fillet appearance and color, while hot smoked presented superior flavor, salt content and general acceptance. Aroma and texture did not differ significantly among processes. Therefore, hot smoking process shows the best results for organoleptic properties and protein levels.Foi avaliado o efeito do processo de defumação a quente (45-90ºC/5 horas e a frio (27-45ºC/10 horas nas propriedades organolépticas, no rendimento e na composição dos filés de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus. Não houve diferença significativa no rendimento de filés defumados e não-defumados. As perdas no processo de defumação foram significativamente maiores para defumação a quente (19,37% em comparação à defumação a frio (17,08%. O processo de defumação reduziu a umidade (in natura = 72,91%; defumado a quente = 58,51%; e defumado a frio = 59,68% e aumentou os teores de proteína bruta, lipídios e cinzas. Houve diferença significativa somente nos teores de proteína no defumado a quente (28,07% e defumado a frio (27,14%. O processo a frio resultou em melhor aparência e cor de filé, enquanto o processo a quente melhorou o sabor, o teor de sal e a aparência geral. O aroma e a textura não diferiram significativamente entre os processos. O processo de defumação a quente

  6. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA DIET OF THE NEOTROPICAL OTTER Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae IN THE ROBLE RIVER, UPPER CAUCA BASIN, COLOMBIA

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    Rosemary Mayor-Victoria

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja , alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble. En el laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia. Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae , presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp. (9,55% y Ancistrus sp. (8,54%; otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae , especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.The diet of Neotropical otters was studied at Roble river, a tributary of La Vieja river, Upper Cauca basin, Colombia . From August 2006 to March 2007 otter scats were collected twice per month using plastic bags, from the lower stretch of the Roble river. In the laboratory, the scats were washed, sieved and items were identified by comparing them with a reference collection. Fourteen food categories were recognized. Ranked by frequency of occurrence, benthic sucker-mouthed catfish were the favored food items, especially Chaetostoma sp (22,6 % followed by Hypostomus sp. (9,55% and Ancistrus sp. (8,54%. Other species of fish eaten by the otters are: Apteronotus sp. (11,6 %, Brycon henni (9,86 %, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15 %; (Family Loricariidae., followed by insects Corydalus sp (9% (Family Corydalidae. The lowest frequency observed was for

  7. Short-term cold storage of sperm from six neotropical characiformes fishes

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    Simone Marques

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sperm of the following Neotropical Characiformes fish species were tested for cold storage: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus and Prochilodus marggravii. Each sperm sample was split into two aliquots. The first was placed into a plastic bag with air or oxygen and the second, in a plastic tube with air. The samples were maintained at temperatures between 1.7-4.9 ºC. The rate of sperm motility was estimated using a 50 mM NaCl solution as the activating solution. The shortest sperm storage duration (7 h was recorded for L. friderici, when the sperm motility rate reached ~ 30%, whereas the longest duration (20 h was obtained with the sperm of P. lineatus. A fertilisation test using Prochilodus marggravii sperm refrigerated for 8 h yielded 88-90% of viable embryos. The refrigerated storage method could be of practical applications, especially in fish reproductive management at hatchery stations.O sêmen das seguintes espécies de Characiformes neotropicais foi testado para armazenamento em ambiente resfriado: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus e Prochilodus marggravii. Amostras de sêmen, obtidas por massagem da parede celômica, foram armazenadas em saco plástico com ar ou oxigênio ou em tubo plástico com ar, e mantidas resfriadas entre 1,7-4,9º C. A taxa de motilidade espermática foi estimada usando-se NaCl 50 mM como solução ativadora. O sêmen com menor duração de viabilidade (7 h foi o de L. friderici, quando a taxa de motilidade espermática alcançou ~30%, enquanto que o de maior duração (20 h foi o de P. lineatus. A fertilização de ovócitos utilizando sêmen refrigerado por 8 h de Prochilodus marggravii produziu 88-90% de embriões viáveis. O método de armazenamento desenvolvido neste trabalho tem aplicações práticas, especialmente no manejo reprodutivo de peixes em estações de

  8. Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil = Hematologia, micronúcleos e anomalias nucleares em peixes do rio São Francisco, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Robson Seriani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the variables leukocytary, erythrocytary, frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus and Myleus micans from São Francisco river basin, Minas Gerais State, during the summer and winter. Thrombocytes, hematocrit and leukocyte of P.argenteus series, was influenced by climatic conditions. In P. maculatus, not were significant differences for all leukocytes and thrombocytes. In M. micans, values are unprecedented in the literature, with MCV and absolute number of leukocytes found superior to other species of the family Characidae. The frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, the three species not showed seasonal differences between the sites. However, the highest values were found in summer. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the increase in the percentage of micronuclei with nuclear abnormalities.O presente estudo teve como objetivo, determinar as variáveis leucocitárias, eritrocíticas, freqüência de micronúcleos e anomaliasnucleares nos eritrócitos do sangue periférico de Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus e Myleus micans de um trecho da bacia do rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, no verão e inverno. Trombóctios, hematócrito e a serie leucocítária de P.argenteus, foi influenciado pela sazonalidade. Em P. maculatus, não ocorreram diferenças significativas para todos os leucócitos e trombócitos. Em M. micans, os valores são inéditos na literatura, apresentando VCM e número absoluto de leucócitos superior ao encontrados para outras espécies dafamília Characidae. A freqüência de micronúcleos e de anomalias nucleares nos eritrócitos, nas três espécies não apresentou diferenças sazonais e entre os pontos amostrais. No entanto, os valores mais altos foram encontrados no verão. Além disso, foi possível observar correlação positiva entre o aumento da

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    Kleisson S. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the analysis of spraints (n = 294 collected between December 2005 and November 2007. The importance of each type of prey was determined by absolute and relative frequency. Niche breadth was also estimated. The results were reported as mean (± SD of relative frequencies. Fish were the main prey found in spraints (57.8 ± 7.0%. Fish from Callichthyidae family were the main prey, followed by Cichlidae, the species Hoplias malabaricus and the family Characidae. The frequencies of other fish and taxa were lower than 13.9% (absolute frequency and 5.6% (relative frequency. Despite significant seasonal variations, (P = 0.001, niche breadth values were low in all seasons (0.39 ± 0.11. Therefore, Lontra longicaudis presented a narrow niche breadth as a result of consistent fish predation. Based on these data, fish with rapid movement presenting territorial behavior and benthic fish with slow movements are the most consumed. Seasonal fluctuations are caused by the increase of secondary prey in the diet during some seasons.O presente estudo foi baseado na análise das fezes (n = 294, coletadas entre dezembro de 2005 e novembro de 2007. A importância de cada tipo de presa foi determinada pela frequência absoluta e relativa. A amplitude de nicho também foi estimada. Os resultados foram reportados como média (± DP da frequência relativa. Peixes foram a principal presa encontrada nas fezes (57,8 ± 7,0%. Peixes da família Callichthyidae foram a principal presa, seguido por Cichlidae, e espécies Hoplias malabaricus e Characidae. A frequência de outros peixes e a taxa foram menores do que 13,9% (frequência absoluta e 5,6% (frequência relativa. Apesar das variações sasonais significativas, (P = 0,001 os valores de amplitude de nicho foram baixos em todas as estações baixos (0,39 ± 0,11. Portanto, Lontra longicaudis apresentou uma amplitude de nicho estreita, como resultado de uma predação consistente em peixes

  10. Caracterización y dinámica de la población de peces ornamentales en dos épocas del año en el Caño Matecaña, Arauca, Colombia

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    Lugo Rugeles Luz Myrian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se llevó acabo en el caño Matecaña ubicado geográficamente en 7°03,16N-70°44,06OE, en el departamento de Arauca, Colombia. El caño fue muestreado durante dos períodos, el primero en los meses de febrero, marzo, abril y mayo, el segundo en los meses de agosto y septiembre cubriendo así el régimen climático anual de lluvia y sequía de la región. En los muestreos realizados se emplearon dos artes de pesca, atarraya y aro, con un esfuerzo de captura de dos horas día durante dos días, los ejemplares fueron colectados
    en formol al 10% dejándolos fijar durante 15 días, luego fueron preservados en alcohol al 70%; los individuos fueron clasificados, contados y medidos para su posterior  almacenamiento en la colección del laboratorio de ictiología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Orinoquía. Se capturaron un total de 5.292 ejemplares, distribuidos en cinco órdenes, 17 familias con 46 géneros, representados por 60 especies; las familias con mayor riqueza de especies fueron Characidae con 21 especies y Loricariidae con un total de 13, mientras que Callichtyidae, Characididae, Gasteropelecidae, Gymnotidae, Lebiasinidae, Parodontinidae, Poecilidae,
    Sternarchidae, Trichomycteridae tuvieron la menor riqueza con solo una especie. La familia más abundante fue Characidae con un 74,33% de los ejemplares colectados, seguido por Loricariidae con 7,63% y la menos abundante fue Callichtyidae con 0,02%. Existe un cambio muy marcado en la población entre el mes de abril y mayo, ya que en abril se capturaron un total de 648 individuos, mientras que en mayo fueron 1.728,
    probablemente por el cambio en el tamaño del cuerpo de agua que frecuentan las especies.

  11. Determinantes ambientais da ocorrência de espécies de peixes em riachos de cabeceira da bacia do rio Ivinhema, alto rio Paraná = Environmental determinants of fish species occurrence in headwaters streams of Ivinhema river basin, upper Paraná river

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    Yzel Rondon Súarez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de quantificar a importância de algumas característicasfisiográficas dos riachos sobre a ocorrência de quatro espécies de Characidae em riachos de cabeceira na bacia do rio Ivinhema, realizaram-se amostragens bimestrais em dez riachos com uso de telas de isca, com esforço amostral padronizado. A influência das variáveisambientais sobre a ocorrência das espécies de peixes foi quantificada utilizando-se do modelo da análise de regressão logística. Constatou-se que a velocidade da correnteza foi o principal fator limitante da ocorrência de Serrapinnus notomelas, Hemigrammus marginatus e Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae, enquanto a profundidade dos riachos foi o principal determinante da ocorrência de Bryconamericus stramineus. Assim, as primeiras espécies ocorrem predominantemente em locais com baixa velocidade da correnteza, enquanto B. stramineus ocorre principalmente em locais com pouca profundidade e com elevada velocidade da correnteza, sugerindo que as características fisiográficas dos habitat sejam importantes determinantes da colonização e persistência das espécies.In order to quantify the importance of some physiographic characteristics of headwaters streams of Ivinhema basin on occurrence of four Characidae species, bimonthly samples in 10 streams using arectangular sieve, with standardized sampling effort were collected. The influence of environmental descriptors on species occurrence was quantified using a logistic regression model. It was observed that the water velocity was the main limiting factor to occurrence ofSerrapinnus notomelas, Hemigrammus marginatus and Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae while stream depth was the main determinant of Bryconamericus stramineus occurrence. Thus, the first three species are found mainly in sites with less water velocity, while B. stramineus is found mainly in sites with less depth and higher water velocity, suggesting that physiographic habitat characteristics can be

  12. Determinantes ambientais da ocorrência de espécies de peixes em riachos de cabeceira da bacia do rio Ivinhema, alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.520 Environmental determinants of fish species occurrence in headwaters streams of Ivinhema river basin, upper Paraná river - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.520

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    Thiago Rota Alves Felipe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de quantificar a importância de algumas características fisiográficas dos riachos sobre a ocorrência de quatro espécies de Characidae em riachos de cabeceira na bacia do rio Ivinhema, realizaram-se amostragens bimestrais em dez riachos com uso de telas de isca, com esforço amostral padronizado. A influência das variáveis ambientais sobre a ocorrência das espécies de peixes foi quantificada utilizando-se do modelo da análise de regressão logística. Constatou-se que a velocidade da correnteza foi o principal fator limitante da ocorrência de Serrapinnus notomelas, Hemigrammus marginatus e Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae, enquanto a profundidade dos riachos foi o principal determinante da ocorrência de Bryconamericus stramineus. Assim, as primeiras espécies ocorrem predominantemente em locais com baixa velocidade da correnteza, enquanto B. stramineus ocorre principalmente em locais com pouca profundidade e com elevada velocidade da correnteza, sugerindo que as características fisiográficas dos habitat sejam importantes determinantes da colonização e persistência das espécies. Palavras-chave: distribuição espacial, peixes de riachos, bacia do rio Ivinhema.In order to quantify the importance of some physiographic characteristics of headwaters streams of Ivinhema basin on occurrence of four Characidae species, bimonthly samples in 10 streams using a rectangular sieve, with standardized sampling effort were collected. The influence of environmental descriptors on species occurrence was quantified using a logistic regression model. It was observed that the water velocity was the main limiting factor to occurrence of Serrapinnus notomelas, Hemigrammus marginatus and Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae while stream depth was the main determinant of Bryconamericus stramineus occurrence. Thus, the first three species are found mainly in sites with less water velocity, while B. stramineus is found mainly in sites with less depth

  13. Diâmetro do ingrediente e a digestibilidade aparente de rações por duas espécies de peixes tropicais Ingredient diameter and apparent digestibility of diet by two tropical fish species

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    Margarida Maria Barros

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado no Laboratório de Pesquisas em Nutrição de Organismos Aquáticos, da FMVZ - Unesp Campus de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, unidade integrada ao Centro de Aquicultura da Unesp. Teve por objetivo avaliar a influência do diâmetro do ingrediente alimentar (0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5 mm, por meio da digestibilidade aparente de rações pela tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes cichlidae, e pelo pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg Characiformes, Characidae, com peso médio de 100,0 gramas. Foram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Estes tratamentos foram avaliados por meio de análise de variância em um esquema fatorial 2 x 5 (duas espécies de peixes e cinco diâmetros. Os resultados demonstram que existe interação significativa entre o diâmetro da partícula alimentar e a espécie, e que o diâmetro mais adequado da partícula para a confecção de rações apresenta-se entre 1,0 mm e 2,0 mm para o pacu e, de 1,5 mm para a tilápia do Nilo.This research was carried out at the Aquatic Organisms Nutrition Research Laboratory, FMVZ - Unesp - Campus of Botucatu, a unit of Aquaculture Center of Unesp (Universidade Estadual de São Paulo - Brazil. The objective was to evaluate the ingredient diameter influence (0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 mm, using the apparent digestibility of diets by Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes cichlidae and pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg Characiformes, Characidae. The coefficients were determined according to dry matter, crude protein and ether extract. These treatments were analyzed by variance analysis in the factorial design 2 x 5 (two fish species and five diameters. The result showed that there is significant interaction between ingredient diamater and species and that, the most appropriate ingredient diameter to manufacture fish diets is between 1.0 and 2.0 mm to pacu

  14. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina Relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados y peces en un arroyo de la llanura pampeana (Argentina

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    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.Se evaluó la dieta y las relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 y Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae y los peces Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae y Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae en un ecosistema lótico pampásico, sobre la base del contenido estomacal y el análisis de isótopos estables. La estrategia alimentaria fue analizada mediante el método de AMUNDSEN. La contribución relativa de cada categoría alimenticia para los taxa estudiados indicó que

  15. Suplementação de lisina e metionina em dietas com baixo nível protéico para o crescimento inicial do pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg Lysine and methionine supplementation in diets with low protein level for the initial growth of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg

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    Adriana Patrícia Muñoz-Ramírez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da suplementação de metionina ou lisina em dietas com baixo teor protéico para o crescimento do pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg (Characiformes, Characidae. Foram formuladas uma dieta basal com 22% de proteína bruta (PB, 4100kcal de energia bruta (EB/kg, 0,42% de metionina e 1,16% de lisina e outras 6 dietas, com a mesma formulação básica, suplementadas com 0,2, 0,4 ou 0,6% de metionina ou lisina. Uma 8ª dieta (controle continha 26% PB, 4100kcal EB/kg, 0,48% metionina e 1,43% de lisina. As dietas foram administradas à vontade a 144 alevinos com 14,98 ± 1,16g de peso médio inicial. As médias de ganho em peso, eficiência de retenção de energia bruta e dos consumos alimentares da dieta controle mostraram-se maiores (P The objective of this research was to study the effects of methionine or lysine supplementation in diets with low protein level for growth of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg (Characiformes, Characidae. Diets were formulated as a basal diet presenting 22% crude protein (CP, 4100 kcal gross energy (GE/kg, 0.42% of methionine and 1.16% of lysine and other six diets, with the same basic formulation, supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% methionine or lysine. An eighth diet (control contained 26% CP, 4100 kcal (GE/kg, 0.48% methionine and 1.43% of lysine. The diets were administered ad libitum to 144 fingerlings with initial medium weight of 14.98 ± 1.16 g. Averages weight gain, gross energy efficiency retention and feed intake for the control treatment were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those of smaller protein level diets. Averages protein retention efficiency were only higher (P < 0.01 in the diets supplemented with lysine, showing the advantages of lysine supplementation in diets with low crude protein level. A higher growth of pacu was confirmed with diets containing 26% of CP.

  16. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in a pool system in Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil=Dieta de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae em um sistema de poções na Floresta Atlântica do Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil

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    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the feeding habits of Lontra longicaudis in a pool system within the Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN Usina Maurício, located in Paraíba do Sul river basin, Atlantic Forest of southeastern Minas Gerais State. The diet composition was determined based on the identification of items present in 212 scats sampled between July 2008 and October 2009 in a 4.1 km stretch of the pool system. The found items and its respective percentages of occurrence were: mollusks (0.5%, insects (16.5%, spiders (1.4%, crustaceans (3.3%, fish (96.7%, amphibians (0.9%, snakes (3.8%, birds (2.8%, mammals (8.5% and fruits (0.5%. Among fish, the identified families and respective percentages of occurrence were: Loricariidae (65.4%, Pimelodidae (42.9% Cichlidae (22%, Characidae (7.3%, Erythrinidae (3.9%, Synbranchidae (2.4%, Anostomidae (2%. Therefore fish make up the most consumed item in the study area, with the predominance of benthic siluriformes (families Loricariidae and Pimelodidae. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os hábitos alimentares de Lontra longicaudis em um sistema de poções na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural – RPPN Usina Maurício, localizada na bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul, Mata Atlântica do Sudeste do Estado de Minas Gerais. A composição da dieta foi determinada com base na identificação de itens presentes em 212 amostras de fezes coletadas entre julho de 2008 e outubro de 2009 em um trecho de 4,1 km de um sistema de poções. Os itens alimentares encontrados e suas respectivas porcentagens de ocorrência foram: moluscos (0,5%, insetos (16,5%, aranhas (1,4%, crustáceos (3,3%, peixes (96,7%, anfíbios (0,9%, serpentes (3,8%, aves (2,8%, mamíferos (8,5%, frutos (0,5%. Dentre os peixes, famílias identificadas e suas respectivas porcentagens de ocorrência foram: Loricariidae (65,4%, Pimelodidae (42,9% Cichlidae (22%, Characidae (7,3%, Erythrinidae (3,9%, Synbranchidae (2

  17. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA.

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    ROSEMARY MAYOR-VICTORIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja, alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron recolectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble. En el laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia. Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimentarias, dentro de las cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae, presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp. (9,55% y Ancistrus sp. (8,54%; otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9%; Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae, especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontraron diferencias significativas, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0,00001.

  18. Hematological and morphometric blood value of four cultured species of economically important tropical foodfish

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    Genoefa Amália Dal'Bó

    Full Text Available The use and validation of fish health monitoring tools have become increasingly evident due to aquaculture expansion. This study investigated the hematology and blood morphometrics of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Brycon orbignyanus, Oreochromis niloticus and Rhamdia quelen. The fish were kept for 30 days in 300-liter aquariums, after which they were anesthetized with benzocaine and blood was collected from caudal vessels. In comparison to other species, B. orbignyanus presented the highest hematocrit (Ht, RBC averages and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV with a particular range of data. B. orbignyanus presented lower Ht, Hb, RBC averages and values, and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC. Oreochromis niloticus presented lower Ht, Hb, RBC averages and values, and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC. Rhamdia quelen and O. niloticus presented higher variation of White Blood Cells (WBC, neutrophils (Nf, lymphocytes (Lf, monocytes (Mf and thrombocytes (Trb. Data of large axes (LA, minor axes (MA, surface (SF and volume (VL are in the same variance range. This study has demonstrated that hematological variances can occur between animals of different species as well as of the same species.

  19. Cross-amplification of heterologous microsatellite markers in Rhamdia quelen and Leporinus elongatus

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    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Native fish species in Brazil are an asset in fish farming, but their natural stocks have been significantly reduced in recent years. To mitigate this negative impact, studies on fish conservation are being conducted and genetic tools for the discrimination of population parameters are increasingly achieving great importance. Current analysis evaluates a set of microsatellite heterologous primers in the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and in the piapara (Leporinus elongatus. Samples from the caudal fin of 15 broodstock from each species were analyzed. DNA extraction was performed with NaCl protocol and the integrity of the extracted DNA was checked with agarose gel 1%. Twenty primers developed for Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum, Prochilodus lineatus, Brycon opalinus and Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated. Cross amplification of four primers of the B. opalinus and P. lineatus species (BoM12, Pli43 and Pli60 in R. quelen and BoM2, Pli43 and Pli60 in L. elongatus was assessed. Primers of P. mesopotamicus, C. macropomum and O. niloticus showed no cross amplification in the two species analyzed. Results revealed the possibility of using the four amplified heterologous primers in genetic studies for R. quelen and L. elongatus.

  20. Fishing resources in the rio Cuiabá basin, Pantanal do Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Lúcia. A. F. Mateus

    Full Text Available The rio Cuiabá is one of the most important tributaries of the upper rio Paraguay basin that form the Pantanal wetlands. The fishing resources of the rio Cuiabá basin were studied based on landing data obtained from the Fish Market of the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato grosso, Brazil. A description is given of the composition and origin of the 2000 and 2001 catch. The rio Cuiabá is the main source of fish for Cuiabá, although some fish sold locally comes from the rio Paraguay. The 2000-2001 catch consisted mainly of migratory species. The main landed species were the pimelodids pintado -Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cachara -Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, and jaú -Paulicea luetkeni, and the characiforms pacu -Piaractus mesopotamicus, piraputanga -Brycon microlepis, piavuçu -Leporinus macrocephalus, and dourado -Salminus brasiliensis. Large catfishes (Pimelodidae represented 70% of the landed fish, among which pintado was the most abundant. The data indicate that current catches are smaller than those recorded in the early 1980s and fish are caught far off the urban zone. Moreover, although the number and composition of species caught were similar to those of the 80s, the distribution of species abundance has changed. Currently, fisheries catch more carnivorous species than fish from lower trophic levels. These findings cannot be credited solely to overfishing, but appear to result from a complex interaction of factors, i.e., environmental degradation, changes in market preferences, and restrictive legal fishing regulations.

  1. Composición de especies y diversidad de peces en tres cuerpos de agua en la cuenca alta del río Itaya

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    Javier del Águila Chávez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe sobre la diversidad en tres cuerpos de agua de la cuenca alta del río Itaya, concesión de conservación de la universidad científica del Perú, en una evaluación  rápida en los meses de junio y julio del 2012. Se colectaron datos y muestras de peces en Lamas cocha (LC, cocha Anguilla (CA y Tipishca Luz de Oriente (TLO. Los peces fueron colectados utilizando una batería de redes de diferentes medidas 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 y 4 pulgadas de de abertura de malla. Se reportan 17 familias taxonómicas, de las cuales 9 familias pertenecen al orden Characiformes (53%, 3 familias pertenecen al orden de los Siluriformes (17%, 2 familias pertenecen al orden de los Gymnotiformes (12%  y al orden Perciformes (12% y una familia pertenece al orden Beloniformes (6%. La predominancia de las familias taxonómicas en los tres ambientes fueron Characidae, Curimatidae, Acestrorhynchidae (Characiformes y Cichlidae (Perciformes. Sin embargo, la ocurrencia de exclusividad de una determinada familia fue observada en los tres cuerpos de aguas; tenemos de esta forma la familia Hemiodontidae solo tienen ocurrencia en Lamas cocha, la ocurrencia de la familia Prochilodontidae (Characiformes y Callichthyidae (Siluriformes en Cocha Anguillal y finalmente la ocurrencia de las familias Pimelodidae (Siluriformes, Sciaenidae (Perciformes y Belonidae (Beloniformes en la Tipishca Luz de Oriente.

  2. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

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    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  3. Feeding ecology of the Neotropical otter Lontra longicaudis in the Lower Arroio Grande River, southern Brazil

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    Kleisson S. Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the analysis of spraints (n = 294 collected between December 2005 and November 2007. The importance of each type of prey was determined by absolute and relative frequency. Niche breadth was also estimated. The results were reported as mean (± SD of relative frequencies. Fish were the main prey found in spraints (57.8 ± 7.0%. Fish from Callichthyidae family were the main prey, followed by Cichlidae, the species Hoplias malabaricus and the family Characidae. The frequencies of other fish and taxa were lower than 13.9% (absolute frequency and 5.6% (relative frequency. Despite significant seasonal variations, (P = 0.001, niche breadth values were low in all seasons (0.39 ± 0.11. Therefore, Lontra longicaudis presented a narrow niche breadth as a result of consistent fish predation. Based on these data, fish with rapid movement presenting territorial behavior and benthic fish with slow movements are the most consumed. Seasonal fluctuations are caused by the increase of secondary prey in the diet during some seasons.

  4. Fish assemblages in a small temperate estuary on the Argentinian coast: spatial variation, environmental influence and relevance as nursery area

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    Agustín Solari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe effects of different environmental variables on the fish community structure were evaluated in a small temperate estuary. The biological and environmental data were collected bimonthly between 2007 and 2009 along the main estuarine axis. Multivariate analyses were applied (CLUSTER, SIMPER, CCA to determine the spatial structure of fish community and to estimate the environmental influence on it. A total of 48 species of "teleost" fishes were observed, with the families Characidae and Sciaenidae presenting the largest number of species, 90% of the catches being juveniles. The fish community was overwhelmingly dominated by one species (Micropogonias furnieri, 88.9%, and only four species contributed more than 1% of total catch (Odontesthes argentinensis5.4%, Brevoortia aurea 1.1%, Paralonchurus brasiliensis 1.1%, and Mugil platanus 1.0%. Estuarine and freshwater stragglers dominated in number of species, followed by freshwater migrants and marine migrants. Three areas with different fish assemblages, with distinctive species and functional guilds, were defined along the main axis. The occurrence and spatial spread of these areas were linked to spatial variation in salinity, which was consistently influenced by discharge from the Río de la Plata and local precipitation. The results highlight the importance of shallow environments as nursery areas and permit emphasis on their susceptibility to environmental changes.

  5. The ichthyofauna of limnic systems in Quaternary deposits of extreme southern Brazil

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    Cindy Marques

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, is geologically represented by the coastal plain and was originated by successive events of Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgressions and the occurrence of alluvial deposits. This paper aimed to characterize the fish assemblage occurring in a swampy Quaternary area adjacent to Lagoa Pequena, a lacustrine system connected to the west margin of the Laguna dos Patos estuary. A checklist is also provided of the ichthyofauna so far recorded in limnic systems of Quaternary deposits in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 42 species was recorded, distributed in nine orders, 18 families and 31 genera. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most representative families, comprising 15 and 4 species respectively. A bibliographic revision associated to our sample data revealed the occurrence of 156 species in limnic systems inserted in RS Quaternary deposits (114 limnic, 15 marine/estuarine/limnic, ten marine/estuarine, nine estuarine/limnic and eight marine. Characiformes and Siluriformes are the most diverse orders, corroborating the Neotropical pattern. Seven species can be considered endemic to RS Quaternary deposits.

  6. Probing diversity in freshwater fishes from Mexico and Guatemala with DNA barcodes.

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    Valdez-Moreno, M; Ivanova, N V; Elías-Gutiérrez, M; Contreras-Balderas, S; Hebert, P D N

    2009-02-01

    The freshwater fish fauna of Mexico and Guatemala is exceptionally diverse with >600 species, many endemic. In this study, patterns of sequence divergence were analysed in representatives of this fauna using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcodes for 61 species in 36 genera. The average divergence among conspecific individuals was 0.45%, while congeneric taxa showed 5.1% divergence. Three species of Poblana, each occupying a different crater lake in the arid regions of Central Mexico, have had a controversial taxonomic history but are usually regarded as endemics to a single lake. They possess identical COI barcodes, suggesting a very recent history of isolation. Representatives of the Cichlidae, a complex and poorly understood family, were well discriminated by barcodes. Many species of Characidae seem to be young, with low divergence values (clusters were apparent in the Bramocharax-Astyanax complex. The symbranchid, Opisthernon aenigmaticum, has been regarded as a single species ranging from Guatemala to Mexico, but it includes two deeply divergent barcode lineages, one a possible new endemic species. Aside from these special cases, the results confirm that DNA barcodes will be highly effective in discriminating freshwater fishes from Central America and that a comprehensive analysis will provide new important insights for understanding diversity of this fauna.

  7. Composición de especies y diversidad de peces en tres cuerpos de agua en la cuenca alta del río Itaya

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    Javier del Águila Chávez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe sobre la diversidad en tres cuerpos de agua de la cuenca alta del río Itaya, concesión de conservación de la universidad científica del Perú, en una evaluación rápida en los meses de junio y julio del 2012. Se colectaron datos y muestras de peces en Lamas cocha (LC, cocha Anguilla (CA y Tipishca Luz de Oriente (TLO. Los peces fueron colectados utilizando una batería de redes de diferentes medidas 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 y 4 pulgadas de de abertura de malla. Se reportan 17 familias taxonómicas, de las cuales 9 familias pertenecen al orden Characiformes (53%, 3 familias pertenecen al orden de los Siluriformes (17%, 2 familias pertenecen al orden de los Gymnotiformes (12% y al orden Perciformes (12% y una familia pertenece al orden Beloniformes (6%. La predominancia de las familias taxonómicas en los tres ambientes fueron Characidae, Curimatidae, Acestrorhynchidae (Characiformes y Cichlidae (Perciformes. Sin embargo, la ocurrencia de exclusividad de una determinada familia fue observada en los tres cuerpos de aguas; tenemos de esta forma la familia Hemiodontidae solo tienen ocurrencia en Lamas cocha, la ocurrencia de la familia Prochilodontidae (Characiformes y Callichthyidae (Siluriformes en Cocha Anguillal y finalmente la ocurrencia de las familias Pimelodidae (Siluriformes, Sciaenidae (Perciformes y Belonidae (Beloniformes en la Tipishca Luz de Oriente.

  8. Diet and feeding of fish from Grande River, located below the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG-SP.

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    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied.

  9. [Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica].

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    Espinoza Mendiola, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific habitats that serve as essential fish habitats can improve tropical fish conservation and management strategies, thus increasing local diversity, and thereby, the biological importance of the area.

  10. Synergistic control of CO2 emissions by fish and nutrients in a humic tropical lake.

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    Marotta, Humberto; Duarte, Carlos M; Guimarães-Souza, Breno A; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Using experimental mesocosms, we tested the strength of bottom-up controls by nutrients and top-down controls by an omnivorous fish (Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus; family Characidae), and the interaction between them on the CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) in the surface waters of a tropical humic lake (Lake Cabiúnas, Brazil). The experiment included the addition of nutrients and fish to the mesocosms in a factorial design. Overall, persistent CO(2) emissions to the atmosphere, supported by an intense net heterotrophy, were observed in all treatments and replicates over the 6-week study period. The CO(2) efflux (average ± standard error) integrated over the experiment was similar among the control mesocosms and those receiving only fish or only nutrients (309 ± 2, 303 ± 16, and 297 ± 17 mmol CO(2) m(-2) day(-1), respectively). However, the addition of nutrients in the presence of fish resulted in a high algal biomass and daytime net autotrophy, reducing the CO(2) emissions by 35% (by 193 ± 7 mmol CO(2) m(-2) day(-1)). These results indicate that high CO(2) emissions persist following the eutrophication of humic waters, but that the magnitude of these emissions might depend on the structure of the food web. In conclusion, fish and nutrients may act in a synergistic manner to modulate persistent CO(2) emissions from tropical humic lakes.

  11. Discovering Hidden Diversity of Characins (Teleostei: Characiformes) in Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Camacho, Daniel; Barriga, Ramiro; Ron, Santiago R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management and conservation of biodiversity requires adequate species inventories. The Yasuní National Park is one of the most diverse regions on Earth and recent studies of terrestrial vertebrates, based on genetic evidence, have shown high levels of cryptic and undescribed diversity. Few genetic studies have been carried out in freshwater fishes from western Amazonia. Thus, in contrast with terrestrial vertebrates, their content of cryptic diversity remains unknown. In this study, we carried out genetic and morphological analyses on characin fishes at Yasuní National Park, in eastern Ecuador. Our goal was to identify cryptic diversity among one of the most speciose fish families in the Amazon region. This is the first time that genetic evidence has been used to assess the species content of the Napo Basin, one of the richest regions in vertebrate diversity. Results Phylogenetic analyses of partial mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (∼600 pb) DNA sequences from 232 specimens of the family Characidae and its closest groups revealed eight candidate new species among 33 species sampled, representing a 24% increase in species number. Analyses of external morphology allowed us to confirm the species status of six of the candidate species. Conclusions Our results show high levels of cryptic diversity in Amazonian characins. If this group is representative of other Amazonian fish, our results would imply that the species richness of the Amazonian ichthyofauna is highly underestimated. Molecular methods are a necessary tool to obtain more realistic inventories of Neotropical freshwater fishes. PMID:26275041

  12. Highlighting Astyanax Species Diversity through DNA Barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos Alexandre Miranda; de Melo, Filipe Augusto Gonçalves; Bertaco, Vinicius de Araújo; de Astarloa, Juan M. Díaz; Rosso, Juan J.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been used extensively to solve taxonomic questions and identify new species. Neotropical fishes are found in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, with a large number of species yet to be described, many of which are very difficult to identify. Characidae is the most species-rich family of the Characiformes, and many of its genera are affected by taxonomic uncertainties, including the widely-distributed, species-rich genus Astyanax. In this study, we present an extensive analysis of Astyanax covering almost its entire area of occurrence, based on DNA barcoding. The use of different approaches (ABGD, GMYC and BIN) to the clustering of the sequences revealed ample consistency in the results obtained by the initial cutoff value of 2% divergence for putative species in the Neighbor-Joining analysis using the Kimura-2-parameter model. The results indicate the existence of five Astyanax lineages. Some groups, such as that composed by the trans-Andean forms, are mostly composed of well-defined species, and in others a number of nominal species are clustered together, hampering the delimitation of species, which in many cases proved impossible. The results confirm the extreme complexity of the systematics of the genus Astyanax and show that DNA barcoding can be an useful tool to address these complexes questions. PMID:27992537

  13. Litter size, effects of maternal body size, and date of birth in South American scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones

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    Sabrina Outeda-Jorge

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present new data on litter size and date of birth (month for 21 South American scorpions species. We provide data for one katoikogenic species, the liochelid Opisthacanthus cayaporum Vellard, 1932 (offspring = 3; birth month: Jan; and for several apoikogenic species, such as the bothriurids Bothriurus araguayae Vellard, 1934 (53; Sep, B. rochensis San Martín, 1965 (22-28; Jan, Aug; the buthids Ananteris balzanii Thorell, 1891 (10-34; Jan-Mar, Physoctonus debilis (Koch, 1840 (2; Sep, Rhopalurus amazonicus Lourenço, 1986 (19; Nov, R. lacrau Lourenço & Pinto-da-Rocha, 1997 (30; Dec, R. laticauda Thorell, 1876 (41; Nov, R. rochai Borelli, 1910 (11-47; Dec-Jan, Mar-Apr, Tityus bahiensis (Perty, 1833 (4-23; Oct-Mar, T. clathratus Koch, 1844 (8-18; Nov-Jan, T. costatus (Karsch, 1879 (21-25; Jan, Apr, T. kuryi Lourenço, 1997 (4-16; Mar, T. mattogrossensis Borelli, 1901(8-9; May, T. obscurus (Gervais, 1843 (16-31; Jan-Feb, May, Jul, T. serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 (8-36; Dec, Feb-Apr, T. silvestris Pocock, 1897 (5-14; Dec-Jan, Apr, T. stigmurus (Thorell, 1876 (10-18; Nov, Jan, Mar, Tityus sp. 1 (T. clathratus group - 7-12; Feb-Apr, Tityus sp. 2 (T. bahiensis group - 2; Mar; and the chactid Brotheas sp. (8-21; Jan, Apr. We observed multiple broods: R. lacrau (offspring in the 2nd brood = 27, T. kuryi (6-16, T. obscurus (2-32, T. silvestris (8, T. stigmurus (4-9, T. bahiensis (offspring in the 2nd brood = 2-18; 3rd = 1, and T. costatus (2nd brood = 18; 3rd = 4. We found statistically significant positive correlation between female size and litter size for T. bahiensis and T. silvestris, and nonsignificant correlation for T. serrulatus.

  14. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogenetics of the Idarnes incertus species-group (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae, Sycophaginae

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    Fernando H.A. Farache

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sycophaginae is a group of non-pollinating fig wasps considered closely related to the fig pollinators (Agaoninae, Tetrapusiinae, and Kradibiinae in the most recent phylogenetic analyses. They occur in all tropical regions and are associated with Ficus subgenera Urostigma and Sycomorus. There are six described genera of Sycophaginae, and two are native and confined to the Neotropics, namely Idarnes Walker, 1843 and Anidarnes Bouček, 1993. Genus Idarnes is divided into three morphologically distinct groups that were proven to be monophyletic by recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. In this paper we reviewed the Idarnes incertus species-group and provide detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for the species belonging to this group. Three previously described species were redescribed: I. brasiliensis (Mayr, 1906 comb. nov., I. hansoni Bouček, 1993, and I. incertus (Ashmead, 1900. Seventeen new species are described by Farache and Rasplus: I. amacayacuensis sp. n., I. amazonicus sp. n., I. americanae sp. n., I. badiovertex sp. n., I. brevis sp. n., I. brunneus sp. n., I. comptoni sp. n., I. cremersiae sp. n., I. dimorphicus sp. n., I. flavicrus sp. n., I. flaviventris sp. n., I. gibberosus sp. n., I. gordhi sp. n., I. maximus sp. n., I. nigriventris sp. n., I. pseudoflavus sp. n. and I. ramirezi sp. n. We provided keys for the identification of the species as well as for recognising the different species-groups of Idarnes and a closely related genus (Sycophaga Westwood, 1840. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships among 13 species of the I. incertus species-group were inferred using four molecular markers and discussed in the light of Ficus taxonomy and host specificity.

  15. The effect of structural enrichment in hatchery tanks on the morphology of two neotropical fish species

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    Sarah de Oliveira Saraiva

    Full Text Available Reared fish differ from wild fish in several aspects, including morphology, because they are adapted to captive conditions that are totally different from natural conditions. To minimize the influence of the hatchery environment on the morphology of fish, the use of environmental enrichment through the incorporation of natural designs in captivity, has been proposed. In the present study, we performed the physical structuring of fish farming tanks to verify the enrichment effect on the morphology of two species of neotropical fishes: Prochilodus lineatus and Brycon orbignyanus. Each species was subjected to four different treatments over two months: tanks with submersed logs, with artificial aquatic plants, with both structures and without any structure. Results showed that the structural enrichment had a strong effect on the morphology of the cultured fish, which varied with each species analyzed and with the type of structural complexity added to the tanks. There was an increase of morphological variability in the population of P. lineatus and an increase of the average length in the population of B. orbignyanus. This shows that the environmental enrichment is capable to induce morphological differentiation through phenotypic plasticity, probably generating phenotypes more adapted to exploiting a complex environment. Peixes cultivados diferem de peixes selvagens em vários aspectos, incluindo morfologia, pois são adaptados às condições de cativeiro, que são totalmente diferentes das condições naturais. Para minimizar a influência do meio de cultivo sobre a morfologia dos peixes, o enriquecimento ambiental, através da incorporação de 'designs' naturais em cativeiro, tem sido proposto. No presente estudo, foi realizada a estruturação física de tanques de piscicultura para verificar o efeito deste tipo de enriquecimento ambiental sobre a morfologia de duas espécies de peixes neotropicais: Prochilodus lineatus e Brycon orbignyanus

  16. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

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    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad libitum for 30 days, and then were sacrificed for collection of whole blood and tissues. RESULTS: The groups treated with enriched diets showed a significant reduction in body mass and lipogenesis in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and carcass when compared with the control group. However, lipogenesis in the liver showed an increase in Matrinxã group compared with the others groups. The levels of serum triglycerides in the treated groups with Amazonian fish were significantly lower than those of the control group. Moreover, total cholesterol concentration only decreased in the group Matrinxã. High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly in the Mapará and Tambaqui compared with control group and Matrinxã group. The insulin and leptin levels increased significantly in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin changed the lipid metabolism by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats fed with diets enriched with Mapará, Matrinxã, and Tambaqui.

  17. Factors determining the structure of fish assemblages in an Amazonian river near to oil and gas exploration areas in the Amazon basin (Brazil: establishing the baseline for environmental evaluation

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    Igor David Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Determining the significance of biotic and abiotic factors in the structuring of fish assemblages in freshwater environments is an important question in ecology, particularly in view of environmental changes caused by man. In this paper we sought to identify the factors responsible for the composition and abundance of fish species collected with gill nets in six locations near ports in forest clearance areas opened up for oil and natural gas exploration (Petrobras Pedro Moura Base in the Urucu River, during drought and flood cycles. In all, 923 individuals from 23 families and 82 species were collected, totalling a biomass of 182,244 g. The most abundant species during the flood season were Bryconops alburnoides (Kner, 1858 and Dianema urostriatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912; in the drought season, the predominant species were Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 and Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766. The species with the greatest biomass during the flood season were Pellona castelnaeana (Valenciennes, 1847, S. rhombeus and Pellona flavipinis (Valenciennes, 1847. During the drought season, the predominant species was O. bicirrhosum. When both periods were analysed together, electrical conductivity, water transparency and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors. The species Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840, O. bicirrhosum, Chaetobranchus flavenscens Heckel, 1840, Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855 were strongly related to high values of conductivity, pH and water current velocity during the drought season, as well as Serrasalmus altispinis Merckx, Jégu & Santos, 2000, Triportheus albus Cope, 1872, Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 and Brycon melanopterus (Cope, 1872 that were associated with less depth and width in the drought season whereas P. castelnaeana, D. urostriatum, Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner, 1858 and Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were mainly associated with high transparency and

  18. Determinação do sistema endócrino difuso nos intestinos de três Teleostei (Pisces de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de verificar a presença de células endócrinas nos intestinos médio e posterior, ou reto, e nos cecos pilóricos de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes: piracanjuba, (Brycon orbignyanus e piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoro; e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans, carnívoro. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete exemplares da piracanjuba, com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 410,16 ± 66,33 g e 27,42 ± 1,17 cm, respectivamente, 13 exemplares de piau com médias de 77,71 ± 24,31 g e 14,84 ± 1,56 cm de peso e comprimento-padrão, respectivamente; e cinco exemplares do surubim com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 309,91 ± 94,23 g e 32,70 ± 1,79 cm, respectivamente. Pode-se constatar a presença de células endócrinas do "tipo aberto" nos segmentos referentes aos intestinos médio e posterior das espécies onívoras e do "tipo fechado" no intestino médio e no reto da espécie carnívora. As células argirófilas foram observadas entre as células absortivas do epitélio intestinal. Os resultados permitem concluir que a presença de células endócrinas nas espécies estudadas pode indicar que estas atuam no mecanismo de controle da absorção dos nutrientes do alimento.

  19. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA

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    Botero-Botero Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja, alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble, en laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia.Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae, presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp.  (9,55% y  Ancistrus sp.  (8,54%;  otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni  (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae, especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.

  20. Parasitic fauna of eight species of ornamental freshwater fish species from the middle Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon Region Fauna parasitária de oito espécies de peixes ornamentais de água doce do médio Rio Negro na Amazônia brasileira

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven specimens of cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosy tetra Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae, 28 marbled hatchetfish Carnegiella strigata, 26 blackwing hatchetfish Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae, 27 bodó Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae, 31 brown pencilfish Nannostomus eques, 38 oneline pencilfish Nannostomus unifasciatus (Lebiasinidae and 13 angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Cichlidae were collected from the middle Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, for parasitological studies. Out of the total of 223 fish examined, 143 (64.1% were parasitized by at least one parasite species. The highest prevalence rate was for Monogenea (36.7%, followed by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora (20.6%, Trichodina spp. (Ciliophora (4.0%, Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida (1.3%, Tetrahymena sp. (Ciliophora (0.89%, and Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda (0.4%. All eight fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae in the gills, but the highest prevalence occurred in P. scalare and the lowest in P. axelrodi and C. strigata. However, the highest mean intensity of Monogenea was found in P. scalare and A. hoplogenys. The protozoan I. multifiliis occurred in the six ornamental fish species examined, but C. strigata and C. martae had higher prevalence and mean intensity. Trichodina spp. were found only in the gills of C. strigata, C. martae and N. eques, and with higher mean intensity in C. strigata. On the other hand, the protozoan P. pilullare was found only in the gills of C. martae. This is the first report of Tetrahymena sp. in Brazil, and it occurred in the gills of C. strigata.Para estudos parasitológicos, 27 espécimes de cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosa-céu Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae, 28 peixes borboleta Carnegiella strigata e 26 Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae, 27 bodó ou cascudo Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae, 31 peixes-lápis Nannostomus eques e 38 Nannostomus unifasciatus

  1. Evaluación de la tasa de consumo de oxígeno de Colossoma macropomum en relación al peso corporal y temperatura del agua

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    Dennis Tomalá

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Colossoma macropomum es una especie de la región amazónica perteneciente a la familia Characidae, la de mayor diversidad de peces de agua dulce. A nivel de laboratorio, se determinó la tasa de consumo de oxígeno (CO en metabolismo de rutina de C. macropomum a diferentes pesos corporales: 40, 60, 90, 140 y 250 g (expresados por unidad de masa corporal y temperatura del agua de 21, 26 y 31°C. El experimento se diseñó completamente al azar en arreglo factorial (5x3x3, utilizando un respirómetro de 20 L y una bomba de recirculación de agua. Las mediciones del CO fueron realizadas cada 5 min mediante el uso de un oxímetro digital. Los resultados indican que el CO mantiene relación directa con la temperatura del agua e inversa con el peso corporal de los organismos (P < 0,05. Las regresiones entre las variables independientes y el CO se ajustaron a ecuaciones potenciales: CO = 2844,9 P-0,734, CO = 2555,9 P-0,624 y CO = 1945,4 P-0,507 a 21, 26 y 31°C respectivamente; donde P se expresa en kg, obteniéndose altos coeficientes de correlación y determinación. La ecuación resultante del análisis multivariado de regresión lineal múltiple fue: CO = 4,839 - (0,708* P + (9,106* T. Los resultados ofrecen información para estimar la capacidad de un ambiente acuícola en base a la demanda de oxígeno de C. macropomum, aportando al desarrollo de una acuicultura con mayor sustento técnico.

  2. CARACTERIZACION DE LA PRODUCTIVIDAD PESQUERA DESARROLLADA EN LA COCHA JACINTO, RESERVA NACIONAL PACAYA SAMIRIA

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    Javier del Águila Chávez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio describe las características de la productividad pesquera por un periodo de cuatro años  en la “cocha Jacinto”. La “cocha Jacinto” está ubicada en la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria (RNPS (coordenadas UTM E 0623314 y N 9495909, Loreto, Perú. Los datos fueron recolectados a partir de fichas de registro de pesca llenadas por el propio pescador. La productividad pesquera se estimó por el número de individuos con mayor captura, captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE  y biomasa bruta según consumo (BBC. Los datos fueron digitados y analizados utilizando el programa Microsoft Excel v. 2000. Durante el periodo 2006 – 2009: a Los individuos con mayor captura fueron la “Carachama” (Fam. Loricaridae, “sardina” (Fam. Characidae, “Fasaco” (Fam. Erythrinidae y “Shuyo” (Fam. Erythrinidae; b con respecto a la CPUE: 0.16 kg/hora,  0.15 kg/hora, 0.38 kg/hora y 0.65 kg/hora; y c la BBC osciló entre 56.85 kg, 45.81 kg, 202.04 kg y  81.63 kg, según respectivo año. Las diferencias de la CPUE indican un probable incremento de la producción pesquera. Sin embargo se necesitan mayores estudios para evaluar las dinámicas de la producción pesquera y evaluar factores sociales.  Limitación a considerar es la calidad de los datos recolectados.

  3. CARACTERIZACION DE LA PRODUCTIVIDAD PESQUERA DESARROLLADA EN LA COCHA JACINTO, RESERVA NACIONAL PACAYA SAMIRIA

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    Javier del Águila Chávez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio describe las características de la productividad pesquera por un periodo de cuatro años  en la “cocha Jacinto”. La “cocha Jacinto” está ubicada en la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria (RNPS (coordenadas UTM E 0623314 y N 9495909, Loreto, Perú. Los datos fueron recolectados a partir de fichas de registro de pesca llenadas por el propio pescador. La productividad pesquera se estimó por el número de individuos con mayor captura, captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE  y biomasa bruta según consumo (BBC. Los datos fueron digitados y analizados utilizando el programa Microsoft Excel v. 2000.Durante el periodo 2006 – 2009: a Los individuos con mayor captura fueron la “Carachama” (Fam. Loricaridae, “sardina” (Fam. Characidae, “Fasaco” (Fam. Erythrinidae y “Shuyo” (Fam. Erythrinidae; b con respecto a la CPUE: 0.16 kg/hora,  0.15 kg/hora, 0.38 kg/hora y 0.65 kg/hora; y c la BBC osciló entre 56.85 kg, 45.81 kg, 202.04 kg y  81.63 kg, según respectivo año. Las diferencias de la CPUE indican un probable incremento de la producción pesquera. Sin embargo se necesitan mayores estudios para evaluar las dinámicas de la producción pesquera y evaluar factores sociales.  Limitación a considerar es la calidad de los datos recolectados

  4. High-quality seed dispersal by fruit-eating fishes in Amazonian floodplain habitats.

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    Anderson, Jill T; Saldaña Rojas, Joe; Flecker, Alexander S

    2009-08-01

    Seed dispersal is a critical stage in the life history of plants. It determines the initial pattern of juvenile distribution, and can influence community dynamics and the evolutionary trajectories of individual species. Vertebrate frugivores are the primary vector of seed dispersal in tropical forests; however, most studies of seed dispersal focus on birds, bats and monkeys. Nevertheless, South America harbors at least 200 species of frugivorous fishes, which move into temporarily flooded habitats during lengthy flood seasons and consume fruits that fall into the water; and yet, we know remarkably little about the quality of seed dispersal they effect. We investigated the seed dispersal activities of two species of large-bodied, commercially important fishes (Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus brachypomus, Characidae) over 3 years in Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve (Peru). We assessed the diet of these fishes during the flood season, conducted germination trials with seeds collected from digestive tracts, and quantified fruit availability. In the laboratory, we fed fruits to captive Colossoma, quantified the proportion of seeds defecated by adult and juvenile fish, and used these seeds in additional germination experiments. Our results indicate that Colossoma and Piaractus disperse large quantities of seeds from up to 35% of the trees and lianas that fruit during the flood season. Additionally, these seeds can germinate after floodwaters recede. Overexploitation has reduced the abundance of our focal fish species, as well as changed the age structure of populations. Moreover, older fish are more effective seed dispersers than smaller, juvenile fish. Overfishing, therefore, likely selects for the poorest seed dispersers, thus disrupting an ancient interaction between seeds and their dispersal agents.

  5. A successful case of biological invasion: the fish Cichla piquiti, an Amazonian species introduced into the Pantanal, Brazil.

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    Resende, E K; Marques, D K S; Ferreira, L K S G

    2008-11-01

    The 'tucunaré', Cichla piquiti, an exotic Amazonian fish has become established along the left bank of the Paraguay River in the Pantanal. It was introduced by escaping from culture ponds in the Upper Piquiri River and spread downstream, along the lateral flooded areas of that river, continuing through the clear waters of the left bank of the Paraguay River and reaching south as far as the Paraguai Mirim and Negrinho rivers. Adult spawners have been found in the region, meaning that it is a self-sustained population. Reproduction occurs in the period of low waters. They were found feeding on fishes of lentic environments belonging to the families Characidae, Cichlidae and Loricariidae. Until the end of 2004, its distribution was restricted to the left bank of the Paraguay River, but in March 2005, some specimens were found on the right bank, raising a question for the future: what will be the distribution area of the tucunaré in the Pantanal? Information about its dispersion is increasing: it is known to be in the Tuiuiú Lake, Pantanal National Park and in the Bolivian Pantanal, all of them on the right bank of the Paraguay River. The hypothesis that the 'tucunaré' could not cross turbid waters, such as in the Paraguay River, was refuted by these recent findings. Possibly, the tucunaré's capacity to lay more than one batch of eggs in a reproductive period, as well as its care of eggs and young, lead them to establish themselves successfully in new environments, as has been observed in the Pantanal and other localities.

  6. Use of cholinesterase activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure used on Costa Rican banana plantations in the native tropical fish Astyanax aeneus (Günther, 1860).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, F; Azzopardi, M; Pfennig, S; Ruepert, C; Tedengren, M; Castillo, L E; Gunnarsson, J S

    2014-01-01

    In Costa Rica, thousands of tones of agricultural pesticides have been used for decades and their use is continuously increasing due to intensive and expanding production of coffee, pineapple, rice, ornamental plants and bananas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether choline esterase (ChE) activity could be used as a biomarker of exposure to pesticides in the Costa Rican native fish Astyanax aeneus (characidae). Three methods used in order to evaluate the ChE biomarker were as follows: Laboratory studies where A. aeneus was exposed to organophosphate pesticide (ethoprophos); In situ 48 hr exposure assessment using caging experiments with fish exposed upstream and downstream of banana plantations and ChE activity estimation of in fish captured directly at sites with different degrees of pesticide exposure. Results from the laboratory studies showed that ChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue was significantly lower in fish exposed to ethoprophos than in controls. Fish from the caging experiments showed no difference in ChE activity neither in brain nor in muscle tissue between the four tested sites and was attributed to the short duration of the exposure. Asignificant difference in ChE activity was determined in muscle of fish captured from Laguna Madre de Dios compared to fish from Canal Batán. Although our laboratory results revealed that ChE activity in A. aeneus was highly responsive to ethoprophos, results from field experiments were less conclusive and showed that the captured fish showed large variability in ChE activity and that more research is needed before ChE activity can be used as reliable biomarker of pesticide exposure.

  7. Feeding dynamics and ecomorphology of Oligosarcus jenynsii (Gunther, 1864 and Oligosarcus robustus (Menezes, 1969 in the Lagoa Fortaleza, southern Brazil

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    D. M. Nunes

    Full Text Available Oligosarcus jenynsii and Oligosarcus robustus are fishes of Characidae family that occur in Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay and northern Argentina. This work purported to study the feeding dynamics (repletion and hepatosomatic indexes and condition factor over time, and to investigate the coexistence of these two species by evaluating the partition of resources using qualitative and quantitative analyses of diet, temporal and spatial segregation throughout the water column and some ecomorphological aspects of the species in the Lagoa Fortaleza. Specimens were sampled monthly, from May 2000 to April 2001 during 24 h/month, using stationary gill nets of different mesh sizes. The records of each individual included total and standard length; total, stomach and liver weight; sex and stomach repletion. The variation of the mean values of repletion index and relative frequencies of stomach repletion stages indicate that O. jenynsii and O. robustus do not present seasonal differences in feeding intensity. The hepatosomatic index shows an allocation of energy to the liver during every period except reproduction, when part of the energy is used for gonad maturation. The estimated condition factor for both species reveals an increase in the reproductive period, evidencing the influence of gonads upon the condition of the fish. The diet analysis revealed that O. robustus is piscivorous, whereas O. jenynsii is a generalist carnivore, tending to piscivory as well. The active period of O. robustus is more concentrated at sunrise and sunset, whereas O. jenynsii is continually active, a characteristic related to hunting for prey. The ecomorphological analysis revealed differences between the two species in the dimensions of the mouth. Evidence suggests that the species coexist, sharing food sources, differing in oral morphology but ingesting similar prey, possibly because food is not a limiting factor in the environment.

  8. A successful case of biological invasion: the fish Cichla piquiti, an Amazonian species introduced into the Pantanal, Brazil

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    EK. Resende

    Full Text Available The "tucunaré", Cichla piquiti, an exotic Amazonian fish has become established along the left bank of the Paraguay River in the Pantanal. It was introduced by escaping from culture ponds in the Upper Piquiri River and spread downstream, along the lateral flooded areas of that river, continuing through the clear waters of the left bank of the Paraguay River and reaching south as far as the Paraguai Mirim and Negrinho rivers. Adult spawners have been found in the region, meaning that it is a self-sustained population. Reproduction occurs in the period of low waters. They were found feeding on fishes of lentic environments belonging to the families Characidae, Cichlidae and Loricariidae. Until the end of 2004, its distribution was restricted to the left bank of the Paraguay River, but in March 2005, some specimens were found on the right bank, raising a question for the future: what will be the distribution area of the tucunaré in the Pantanal? Information about its dispersion is increasing: it is known to be in the Tuiuiú Lake, Pantanal National Park and in the Bolivian Pantanal, all of them on the right bank of the Paraguay River. The hypothesis that the "tucunaré" could not cross turbid waters, such as in the Paraguay River, was refuted by these recent findings. Possibly, the tucunaré's capacity to lay more than one batch of eggs in a reproductive period, as well as its care of eggs and young, lead them to establish themselves successfully in new environments, as has been observed in the Pantanal and other localities.

  9. The hydraulic management of the Barra Bonita reservoir (SP, Brazil as a factor influencing the temporal succession of its fish community

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    ML. Petesse

    Full Text Available The temporal succession of fish communities allows evaluating the environmental conditions and the adaptation capacity of the fish species to anthropogenic stress in reservoirs. The fish community at Barra Bonita reservoir was sampled in two different periods of the year (dry and rainy and in three different areas of the reservoir (fluvial, transition, and lentic. The species list was compared to another four lists, trying to detect the transformations of the fish community for the last 15 years. In order to evaluate the adaptation of the present fish community to the hydraulic management of reservoir, the trophic and reproductive structures were studied. Temporal succession analysis shows little change in fish richness of the communities. The number of fish species varies between 23 and 39 for a total of 68 registered species. From this, 27 can be considered constant, 14 accessory and 27 accidental; the main differences observed were for Anostomidae, Loricariidae and Characidae families. In relation to the hydraulic management, we found a fish community stabilized and adapted to environmental stress. This is characterized by the dominance of small-sized fish species of opportunistic diet and high reproductive compensation (r-strategists. The overlap of biological cycles of the most abundant species with the reservoir level fluctuations points to the period from September to March-April as critical for reproductive success and only the species with partial reproductive strategy or parental care are best succeeded. These results, interpreted in the context of the reservoir aging process, indicate that Barra Bonita reservoir is entering a transition phase, between the colonization and aging stages.

  10. Histologia e ultraestrutura do rim e rim cefálico do pacu

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    Gerlane M. Costa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, é um teleósteo da Família Characidae, intensivamente cultivado no Brasil devido sua rusticidade, crescimento rápido e fácil adaptação. O conhecimento morfológico dos sistemas corpóreos, incluído órgãos linfóide, se faz necessário, para uma melhor produção no cultivo de peixes, fornecendo subsídios na manutenção dos estoques. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever morfologicamente o rim e rim cefálico de Piaractus mesopotamicus, analisando os perfis celulares de cada órgão com o uso de microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O resultado da análise macroscópica mostrou que a localização do rim e rim cefálico são as mesmas encontradas na maioria dos teleósteos. O rim apresentou uma forma em "H", onde a região média se expandia sobre a bexiga natatória. O rim cefálico se apresentou como uma dilatação na região cranial do rim, mostrando-se bem visível. Na microscopia eletrônica de transmissão também foram observadas similaridades ultraestruturais com outros teleósteos. Observando nossos resultados concluímos que histologicamente e ultraestruturalmente, os órgãos linfóides rim e rim cefálico de Piaractus mesopotamicus são similares aos de outros teleósteos.

  11. Lake size and fish diversity in southern Brazil coastal lagoons

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    Lucia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, presents a series of shallow lagoons with diverse size and morphology. The objective of this study is to determine whether the size of the lagoon is an effective factor for structuring fish diversity. In this regard, nine lagoons with distinct areas were sampled: three with an area up to 40 hectares, three with area between 40 and 80 hectares, and three with an area of over 80 hectares. Each lagoon was sampled once on the littoral and pelagic zones. At each point, fish were captured through a set of gill nets with different mesh sizes. Captured specimens were identified, quantified and evaluated for weight and length. A total of 24 fish species belonging to 10 families was obtained, with Characidae presenting the highest species richness. Cyanocharax alburnus was the only species that occurred in all lagoons. Cyphocharax voga, Astyanax eigenmmaniorum, Oligosarcus jenynsii and O. robustus were also frequent species, present in most of the sampled lagoons. Lycengraulis grossidens was captured in just two lagoons with increased conductivity. The community structure showed the highest species richness in lakes with an area over 40 ha, however the highest mean diversity values were observed in ponds up to 40 ha. Cluster Analysis yielded the formation of two groups: a group formed by just one lagoon and a second one cluster grouping all the other lagoons. This pattern may be associated with the presence of Lycengraulis grossidens as a dominant species in this lagoon clustered apart. The results indicate that lagoons with up to 40 ha present greater homogeneity on the species composition and higher average values of diversity; while intermediate ponds (between 40 and 80 ha have lower average diversity for the fish fauna due to increased heterogeneity in species abundance.

  12. Structure and integrity of fish assemblages in streams associated to conservation units in Central Brazil

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    Thiago Belisário d'Araújo Couto

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the spatial and seasonal distribution of the fish assemblage and evaluate the integrity of streams in a sustainable use area that includes integral protection conservation units in Distrito Federal, Central Brazil (Cerrado biome. For the study, 12 stretches of 8 streams were sampled in 2008 (dry season and 2009 (wet season. For that evaluation was estimated the Physical Habitat Index (PHI, vegetation cover (VC, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and conductivity. We recorded 22 species, about eight undescribed species, by a total of 2,327 individuals. The most representative families in number of species were Characidae (31.8%, Loricariidae (31.8%, and Crenuchidae (13.6%. Knodus moenkhausii was the most abundant species with 1,476 individuals, added to Astyanax sp., Phalloceros harpagos, and Hasemania sp. they represent over 95% of the total abundance. The species Astyanax sp. (occurring in 79.2% of the stretches and K. moenkhausii (50.0% were considered constant in both seasons. The longitudinal gradient (River Continuum exerts a strong influence on the studied assemblage. According to CCA, the variables that structure the fish assemblage are based on aspects related to water volume and habitat complexity. No seasonal variation in richness, diversity, abundance, and mass were detected. A cluster analysis suggests a separation of species composition between the stretches of higher and lower orders, which was not observed for seasonality. The streams were considered well preserved (mean PHI 82.9±7.5%, but in some stretches were observed anthropogenic influence, detected in the water quality and, mainly, on the riparian vegetation integrity. The exotic species Poecilia reticulata was sampled in the two stretches considered most affected by anthropogenic activities by PHI, conductivity, and VC.

  13. 5种沉水植物对斜生栅藻的化感作用%Allelopathic effect of five submerged macrophytes on Senedesmus obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫志强; 宋本如; 刘黾; 刘燕; 吴小业; 李洁珊; 林燕珍; 冯翊果; 陈章和

    2015-01-01

    为了解不同湿地植物和不同处理方式下化感作用的差异,在实验室条件下,研究5种常见的沉水植物黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、伊乐藻(Elodea nuttallii)、狐尾藻(Myriophyllum spicatum)、苦草(Vallisneria natans)和皇冠草(Echinodorus amazonicus)与斜生栅藻(Scenedesmus obliquus)共培养以及用这5种植物的种植水、浸提液培养斜生栅藻时藻细胞数量及叶绿素a浓度的变化.结果显示,5种植物与斜生栅藻共培养时抑藻效果最明显(1.6×108 cellsL-1),其斜生栅藻细胞数量显著低于种植水(6.2×108 cells L-1)和浸提液组(4.5×108 cells L-1) (P< 0.05),但5种植物间的差异不显著;除黑藻外,其他4种植物的浸提液培养斜生栅藻时均表现出对斜生栅藻明显的抑制效果,斜生栅藻的相对生长率显著低于对照组和黑藻组(P<0.05);5种植物的种植水培养斜生栅藻时则表现出相对较弱的抑藻效果,且植物间差异不显著.本研究表明,沉水植物对藻类的化感作用因不同植物和不同处理而有着显著不同.

  14. Comparação florística e estrutural de duas florestas de várzea no estuário amazônico, Pará, Brasil

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    Fábio de Jesus Batista

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi conhecer e comparar a composição florística e a estrutura de duas áreas de florestas de várzea localizadas na reserva extrativista Chocoaré-Mato Grosso, Santarém Novo-PA. O inventário florístico abrangeu 1,5 ha em parcelas de 10 x 100 m, distribuídas na área 1 (1,0 ha e área 2 (0,5 ha. Foram identificados os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,3 m altura do solo (CAP > 30 cm e demonstrada a riqueza, área basal e o IVI (Índice de Valor de Importância para cada área. A relação entre as áreas foi realizada por meio da similaridade de espécies, densidade, área basal, análise de agrupamento e espécies indicadoras. Na área 1, ocorreram 613 ind.ha-1 (26,67 m².ha-1 distribuídos em 17 famílias, 33 gêneros e 34 espécies com Euterpe oleracea, Enterolobium maximum, Symphonia globulifera, Pterocarpus amazonicus e Virola surinamensis apresentando os maiores IVI's e a área 2 com 744 ind.ha-1 (35,34 m².ha-1 em 13 famílias, 24 gêneros e 26 espécies com Mauritia flexuosa, Euterpe oleracea, Virola surinamensis, Tapirira guianensis e Inga thibaudiana com os maiores IVI's. As áreas registraram baixas similaridades entre si (0,18 e tanto a densidade quanto a área basal foram superiores na área 2. O agrupamento separou as áreas entre si e das 51 espécies, apenas 15 foram indicadoras. Conclui-se que, as florestas apresentaram baixa riqueza com pouca semelhança entre as populações arbóreas e as espécies indicadoras ocorreram nas áreas 1 e 2.

  15. [Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2013-06-01

    Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most

  16. Fish mercury development in relation to abiotic characteristics and carbon sources in a six-year-old, Brazilian reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomola, Leena; Niklasson, Terese [Evolutionary Biology Centre and Department of Limnology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 20, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Castro e Silva, Edinaldo de [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av. Fernando C. Costa/sn, 78 090-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air, Water and Landscape Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: Lars.Hylander@hyd.uu.se

    2008-02-01

    Time series on fish mercury (Hg) development are rare for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics. In the central-western part of Brazil, a hydroelectric reservoir, called Lago Manso, was completed in 1999 after that background levels of fish Hg concentrations had been determined. The development for the first 3 years was studied in 2002. The objective of the present study was to determine development of fish Hg concentrations for a second three-year period after flooding. The bioaccumulation factor and certain abiotic and biotic factors, possibly affecting the availability and accumulation of Hg, were also examined. The results show that Hg levels in fish from Lago Manso have increased more than five times compared to the background levels observed before construction of the reservoir. At the same time, dissolved organic carbon has increased while dissolved oxygen has decreased indicating enhanced bioavailability of Hg. In the reservoir, Salminus brasiliensis had in average a Hg content of 1.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w., Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum 1.2, Serrasalmus marginatus/spilopleura 0.9, and Brycon hilarii 0.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w. The average fish Hg contents were higher downstream, except for B. hilarii. In the reservoir, the average Hg content of each species was in 2005 always over the consumption limit (0.55 {mu}g total Hg g{sup -1} f.w.) recommended by WHO. Therefore, the people living around Lago Manso should be informed of the health effects of Hg, and fish consumption recommendations should be carried out. The accumulation of Hg varies widely between species as shown by the bioaccumulation factor which ranges between 5.08 and 5.59 log units. The observed variation is explained by differences in diet and trophic position with piscivorous fish exhibiting the highest mean Hg concentration, followed by carnivorous and omnivorous species. Carbon isotope analyses imply that trophic position is not the only cause of the observed differences in Hg levels between

  17. Análise da pele de três espécies de peixes: histologia, morfometria e testes de resistência

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    Souza Maria Luiza R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a pele de três espécies de peixes (piavuçu Leporinus macrocephalus, pacu prata Mylossoma sp e piraputanga Brycon hilarii através de análise histologica e morfometrica e testes de resistência após o curtimento. Amostras de peles da região dorsal foram coletadas, fixadas em Bouin por 24 horas, incluídas em parafina, cortadas em 5 mm de espessura e coradas por Hematoxilina-eosina. Os cortes foram analisados pela microscopia de luz. Foi utilizado o dinamômetro EMIC para a análise físico-mecânica do couro em 10 amostras no sentido longitudinal a partir da região dorsal do peixe de cada espécie. A derme desses peixes possui um padrão estrutural comum aos teleósteos, porém a disposição e distribuição das fibras colágenas apresentaram-se diferentes entre as espécies analisadas. Através da análise morfométrica constatou-se que a espessura da derme da pele diferiu entre as três espécies. Não houve diferença no teste de resistência à tração no couro da piraputanga (16,88 N/mm² e piavuçu (18,50 N/mm². Os resultados para os couros destas duas espécies de peixes foram superiores ao pacu (11,83 N/mm². O valor de alongamento até a ruptura foi superior para piavuçu (52,83% e piraputanga (60,45%, não diferindo entre eles, porém foi inferior para o pacu (33,83%. O rasgamento progressivo foi maior no couro de pacu (36,51 N/mm. As peles das três espécies analisadas podem ser transformadas em couro para sua aplicação em diversos artefatos.

  18. Tropical fish community does not recover 45 years after predator introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, D M T; De León, L F; González, R; Torchin, M E

    2017-02-01

    Predation is considered to be an important factor structuring natural communities. However, it is often difficult to determine how it may influence long-term, broad-scale, diversity patterns, particularly in diverse tropical systems. Biological introductions can provide powerful insight to test the sustained consequences of predation in natural communities, if pre-introduction data are available. Half a century ago, Zaret and Paine demonstrated strong and immediate community-level effects following the introduction of a novel apex predator (peacock bass, Cichla monoculus) into Lake Gatun, Panama. To test for long-term changes associated with this predator introduction, we followed up on their classic study by replicating historical sampling methods and examining changes in the littoral fish community at two sites in Lake Gatun 45 years post-introduction. To broaden our inference, we complemented this temporal comparison with a spatial analysis, wherein we compared the fish communities from two lakes with and one lake without peacock bass. Comparisons with historical data revealed that the peacock bass remains the most abundant predator in Lake Gatun. Furthermore, the collapse of the littoral prey community observed immediately following the invasion has been sustained over the past 45 years. The mean abundance of native littoral fish is now 96% lower than it was prior to the introduction. Diversity (rarefied species richness) declined by 64% post-introduction, and some native species appear to have been locally extirpated. We observed a similar pattern across invaded and uninvaded lakes: the mean abundance of native fishes was 5-40 times lower in lakes with (Gatun, Alajuela) relative to the lake without peacock bass (Bayano). In particular, small-bodied native fishes (Characidae, Peociliidae), which are common prey of the peacock bass, were more than two orders of magnitude (307 times) less abundant in Gatun and one order of magnitude (28 times) less abundant in

  19. Estrutura morfológica do fígado de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818

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    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever macro e microscopicamente o fígado do Tambaqui Colossoma macropomum, Teleósteo de água doce da Família Characidae, de grande interesse econômico da bacia Amazônica. Foram utilizados seis (6 exemplares jovens com idade entre seis meses e um ano, oriundos da Chácara Esteio, Alta Floresta, MT, que desenvolve principalmente a prática da piscicultura. O órgão foi fotodocumentado in situ e descrito macroscopicamente, em seguida procedeu-se a retirada de fragmentos deste, que foram processados pelas técnicas histológicas rotineiras para inclusão em parafina e coloração de HE. O fígado localizou-se ventral à bexiga natatória e craniodorsalmente ao estômago, apresentou coloração amarronzada a vermelho, constituído por três lobos hepáticos, o lobo lateral direito, o lobo lateral esquerdo e o lobo ventral. Microscopicamente, o parênquima era constituído por hepatócitos com formato que variou do arredondado irregular hexagonal ao redondo com núcleo grande e central, arranjados em cordões lineares limitados por sinusóides que irradiam para veias centrais, e com ausência de lóbulos hepáticos. As veias centrais estavam distribuídas pelo parênquima, enquanto que o espaço porta, na maioria das vezes, era constituído apenas por uma veia hepática e o ducto biliar, em outros locais foi observado, uma artéria e um ducto. Não foi observada a formação de tríades portais. Foram frequentemente observados melano macrófagos centrais dispersos pelo parênquima. O estudo morfofuncional do Aparelho Digestório de peixes da bacia Amazônica, se faz pertinente com vistas ao conhecimento do aproveitamento de ganho de peso e produção em alta escala para consumo humano e preservação da espécie, além da importância de estarem sendo utilizados como bioindicadores atualmente.

  20. Estudio de los estados larvales de la ictiofauna en la zona de Puerto Nariño, Amazonia Colombiana, durante el período de aguas ascendentes (2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Espinosa Mónica Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó taxonómicamente las larvas de peces de la zona de Puerto Nariño (Amazonia colombiana durante el período de aguas ascendentes 2003 (enero a marzo, además se hizo un acercamiento a la dinámica ecológica de la reproducción de los peces a partir de las larvas capturadas. Los muestreos se realizaron con una jama de mano de 80 x 40 cm con marco de hierro y con una malla de anjeo con orificio de 1,5 mm instalada en la proa de una lancha, en siete diferentes localidades con tipo de aguas diferentes (río Amazonas, río Loreto Yacu, caño Zancudillo, lago El Sapo, lago El Correo, lago Tarapoto, caño Igarapé Uassú. Se colectaron 6.492 larvas y juveniles de peces, correspondientes a cinco órdenes (Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes y 15 familias. Se identificaron taxonómicamente y se describieron 56 morfoespecies de larvas de peces, de las cuales solo el 23,2% fueron a nivel específico, cifra alta si se tiene en cuenta la falta de información bibliográfica al respecto. La identificación taxonómica fue complicada; sin embargo, la presencia y ausencia de ciertos caracteres como: aletas, barbicelos, escamas y caracteres merísticos como: número de miómeros, número de radios permitió llegar en algunos casos a nivel taxonómico de familia y género. A nivel de orden la identificación fue relativamente fácil especialmente en estados avanzados de desarrollo. A nivel de familia fue un poco más complicado, especialmente en la familia Characidae, pues la similitud en estados tempranos de desarrollo es muy grande. El orden más abundante fue Characiformes (84,9%, seguido por Siluriformes (12,1%, los órdenes Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes presentaron el 3% de la abundancia. Las familias más abundantes fueron Characidae, Serrasalmidae y Curimatidae, que se caracterizan por realizar migraciones reproductivas especialmente durante el período de aguas
    ascendentes, asegurando que

  1. Numerical analysis of palynological data from Neogene fluvial sediments as evidence for rainforest dynamics in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Sonia; van Manen, Milan; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Deep-time records that give an insight into the composition and dynamics of the ancestral Amazon rain forest are rare. Yet to understand the modern biodiversity patterns it is important to untangle the long-term evolution of this forest. Sampling Neogene strata requires drilling operations or complex fieldwork along the rivers where outcrops generally are small. In the nineties an exceptionally good exposure of fluvial sediments of early Miocene age (17.7-16.1 Ma) was documented near the island of Mariñame (Caquetá River, Colombian Amazonia) (Hoorn, 1994). This 60 m sediment succession consists of quartz-rich sands with a circa 10 m black, sandy clay intercalation. Palynomorphs are well preserved in these organic-rich clays and palynological analysis indicated high pollen diversity and changes in composition following changes in the sedimentary environment and water composition (see van Soelen et al., this session). A numerical analysis in R (2013) of the existing data, using a number of multivariate and other statistical techniques now shows a gradient of change in the composition of the Miocene palynological assemblages. Non-metric-multidimensional scaling using distance matrixes (Oksanen, 2012) and their visualizations in correlograms (Friendly, 2002) indicate that the regional (palm) swamp forests of Mauritiides franciscoi (Mauritia), frequently found together with other palms such as Psilamonocolpites amazonicus (Euterpe?) and Psilamonocolpites rinconii, were affected by a marine incursion. The latter is suggested by the change of composition and the presence of estuarine elements such as Zonocostites ramonae (Rhizophora), foraminifer linings and dinoflagellate cysts, which became common during the marine event. In the older part of the section, and at the top, Rhoipites guianensis (Sterculiaceae/Tiliaceae) is quite abundant, in contrast with the relatively low abundance of M. franciscoi. The numerical analysis allowed us to: a) group the pollen data into 3

  2. Aspectos ecológicos de la fauna íctica dominante en la Laguna Yahuarcaca, Leticia (Amazonía colombiana Aspectos ecológicos de la fauna íctica dominante en la Laguna Yahuarcaca, Leticia (Amazonía colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvis Vergara German

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Para esta investigación se realizaron cuatro muestreos en la laguna Yahuarcaca, formada pormeandros abandonados del río Amazonas, en inmediaciones de Leticia, a lo largo de un año,aguas altas (2, ascendentes y bajas, para caracterizar la ictiofauna y determinar el efecto delpulso hídrico en aspectos alimentarios y reproductivos. Durante los muestreos se capturaron5.856 ejemplares, pertenecientes a 7 órdenes, 23 familias, 102 géneros y 134 especies, de lascuales 57 son registros nuevos para la Amazonía colombiana. Los órdenes más abundantespor número de individuos son Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes. Así mismo, las familias másabundantes son Curimatidae, Pimelodidae, Characidae, Anostomidae, Auchenipteridae, Doradidae,Serrasalmidae, Loricariidae, y Cichlidae. La composición íctica varió dependiendo del período enel que realizó el muestreo, el mayor número de especies se presentó durante aguas altasy descendentes, mientras que el menor fue en aguas bajas. El análisis de los aspectos tróficos serealizó en cinco especies y se encontró que las preferencias alimentarias variaron de acuerdoal pulso hídrico. Las especies pertenecen a las familias Curimatidae: Potamorhina altamazonica,Psectrogaster rutiloides; Pimelodidae: Callophysus macropterus, Pimelodus blochiiy Auchenipteridae:Centromochlus heckelii. Las dos especies de la familia Curimatidaefueron detritófagas, C. macropterusconsumió restos de peces, P. blochiiprefirió frutos y semillas y C. heckeliiinsectos. En cuanto a losaspectos reproductivos, ninguno de los ejemplares estudiados presentó gónadas maduras, locual puede deberse a que la mayoría de las especies tienen su pico reproductivo al iniciar elascenso de las aguas y los muestreos utilizados para este trabajo no abarcaron ese período.ABSTRACTFour fish samplings taken during one year in the Laguna Yahuarcaca, located close to Leticia(Colombia and formed by meanders of the Amazon River, were analyzed

  3. Ictiofauna de la Laguna Yahuarcaca y aspectos tróficos y reproductivos de cinco especies predominantes, Leticia - Colombia Ictiofauna de la Laguna Yahuarcaca y aspectos tróficos y reproductivos de cinco especies predominantes, Leticia - Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojica José Iván

    2000-06-01

    ="text3">de los periodos estudiados, lo que indica la gran influencia que ejerce el pulso hídrico sobre ésta. Se analizaron las variaciones en los diferentes muestreos de la dieta de cinco especies de peces predominantes: Schizodon fasciatus, Rhytiodus microlepis (Anostomidae, Triportheus albus, Triportheus angulatus, y Triportheus elongatus (Characidae. Las tres especies de Triportheus tienen una estrategia alimenticia generalista, con preferencias por insectos terrestres, partes de peces, frutos y semillas. Las dos especies de la familia Anostomidae son netamente especialistas y se alimentan preferiblemente de material vegetal, tanto de origen autóctono como alóctono. En todas las especies analizadas el tipo y cantidad de alimento consumido fue diferente en cada periodo de muestreo, debido a la variación de los recursos relacionada con el pulso hídrico.The Amazon River floodplains are highly productive pulsing systems from an ecological point,due mostly to the periodic inflow of sediments that are dragged from the Andes by the rivers.In Colombia, this Amazon systems have not been intensely studied, therefore, this study tookplace in an floodplain lake of the Amazon river near the city of Leticia. Ichthyological sampleswere taken at four different times during a year according to the