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Sample records for brycon amazonicus characidae

  1. Dinâmica populacional da matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae na Amazônia Central Population dynamics of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae in Central Amazon

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    Leocy C. dos Santos Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 is one of the most important fishery resources of the Amazonas state. Its population dynamics in Central Amazon was analyzed based on total landing and biometry data registered in the main landing port of Manaus, between 1994 and 2002. Growth and mortality rates were estimated separately for the rivers Purus, Madeira and Solimões. Differences in size structure and growth curves suggest that different population units exist among these rivers, requiring individualized evaluation and fisheries management strategies. The analysis of the yield per recruit does not indicate overexploitation. However, the highest relative exploitation rate was observed in the Madeira river. The suggested management strategies are related to restrictions to the fishery in the main fishing grounds during the migratory dispersal period, instead of restrictions during reproductive periods.

  2. Comparative study on hematological parameters of farmed matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Characidae: Bryconinae with others Bryconinae species Estudo comparativo sobre parâmetros hematológicos de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz, 1892(Characidae: Bryconinae criados em cativeiro, com outras espécies de Bryconinae

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was not only to determine the red blood cells parameters, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts in farmed Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, to compare these parameters among Bryconinae species from literature, and also to investigate the presence of special granulocytic cells in these fish. The results of the blood cells parameters here established for farmed B. amazonicus, a species of great economic importance in Brazilian aquaculture, could help a better understanding of the blood features in natural populations of this Amazon species. Blood parameters varied between Bryconinae species investigated, mainly the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. The presence of the blood granulocytes, neutrophils and heterophils in matrinxã suggest that both leukocytes can be a characteristic for Bryconinae family. Furthermore, it indicates that the existence of special granulocytic cells in the blood of Bryconinae species from literature is an artifact, and this was herein discussed.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os parâmetros eritrocíticos, as contagens de trombócitos e de leucócitos de espécimes de Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, criados em cativeiro e compará-los com aqueles descritos na literatura para outras espécies de Bryconinae. Além disso, foi ainda investigada a presença de células granulocíticas especiais nestes peixes. Os resultados dos parâmetros sangüíneos apresentados para B. amazonicus podem ajudar a entender melhor as características sangüíneas em população natural desta espécie de grande importância para a aqüicultura brasileira. Os parâmetros sangüíneos das espécies de Bryconinae investigadas apresentaram variação interespecíficas principalmente a contagem de eritrócitos, hemoglobina, hematócrito e volume corpuscular médio (VCM. A presença dos granulócitos sangüíneos, neutrófilos e heterófilos em matrinxã sugere que esta pode ser uma

  3. Parasitos nas brânquias de Brycon amazonicus (Characidae, Bryconinae cultivados em canais de igarapé do Turumã-Mirim, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil = Parasites in gills of farmed Brycon amazonicus (Characidae, Bryconinae in stream channels of Turumã-Mirim, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Jefferson Raphael Gonzaga Lemos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos nas brânquias, bem como o fator de condição em matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz (1829 cultivados em três canais de igarapé da região do Tarumã-Mirim, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas. As condições sanitárias dos canais de igarapé, o manejo dospeixes e os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram monitorados. De 150 peixes examinados, 25,0% estavam parasitados pelo protozoário Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (18,0% e por sanguessungas Placobdella sp. (7,0%. A prevalência de I. multifiliis, nos três canais deigarapé, foi de 22,0%, 18,0% e 14,0%, respectivamente, e a intensidade média foi maior em um dos canais que mantinha peixes em grande densidade populacional. As sanguessugas Placobdella sp. ocorreram somente em um dos canais de igarapé. Não houve variação sazonal na infecção de I. multifiliis, mas Placobdella sp. ocorreu somente em janeiro e março. O fator de condição dos peixes parasitados foi significativamente (p The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasites in the gills as well as the condition factor of farmed Brycon amazonicus (Spix e Agassiz, 1829 from three stream channels in Tarumã-Mirim, Manaus, Amazonas State. Sanitary conditions of stream channels, fish handling, and water physiochemical parameters were monitored. From the 150 examined fish, 25.0% were contaminated by protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (18,0% and by leeches Placobdella sp. (7.0%. The prevalence of I. multifiliis in the stream channels was of 22.0%, 18.0% and 14.0%, respectively, and the average intensity was high only in the stream channel that maintained fish in high population density. The leeches Placobdella sp. were found only in one stream channel. There was no seasonal variation in the infection by I. multifiliis; however Placobdella sp.infected the hosts only in January and March

  4. Embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829

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    A. C. S. Sampaio Nakauth

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus, featuring the main events up to 50 hours after fertilization (AF. The material was provided by the Aquaculture Training, Technology and Production Center, Presidente Figueiredo (AM. The characterization was based on stereomicroscopic examination of the morphology of eggs, embryos and larvae and comparison with the literature. Matrinxã eggs are free, transparent, and spherical, with a perivitelline space of 0.56 ± 0.3 mm. The successive divisions give rise to cells with 64 blastomeres during the first hour AF. The gastrula stage, beginning 02 h 40 min AF, was characterized by progressive regression cells and the formation of the embryonic axis, leading to differentiation of the head and tail 05 h 30 min AF. From 06 to 09 h AF the somites, notochord, otic and optic vesicles and otoliths were observed, in addition to heart rate and the release of the tail. The larvae hatched at 10 h 30 min AF (29.9 °C, with a total length of 3.56 ± 0.46 mm. Between 19 and 30 h AF, we observed 1 pigmentation and gut formation, 2 branchial arches, 3 pectoral fins, 4 a mouth opening and 5 teeth. Cannibalism was initiated earlier (34 h AF which was associated with rapid yolk absorption (more than 90% until 50 h AF, signaling the need for an exogenous nutritional source. The environmental conditions (especially temperature influenced the time course of some events throughout the embryonic and larval development, suggesting the need for further studies on this subject.

  5. Frugivory by the fish Brycon hilarii (Characidae) in western Brazil

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    Reys, Paula; Sabino, José; Galetti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Frugivory and seed dispersal have been poorly studied in Neotropical freshwater fishes. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by the piraputanga fish ( Brycon hilarii, Characidae) in the Formoso River, Bonito, western Brazil. We examined the stomach contents of 87 fish and found the diet of piraputanga consisted of 24% animal prey (arthropods, snails, and vertebrates), 31% seeds/fruits and 45% other plant material (algae/macrophytes/leaves/flowers). The piraputangas fed on 12 fruit species, and were considered as seed dispersers of eight species. Fruits with soft seeds larger than 10 mm were triturated, but all species with small seeds (e.g. Ficus, Psidium) and one species with large hard seed ( Chrysophyllum gonocarpum) were dispersed. Piraputangas eat more fruits in the dry season just before the migration, but not during the spawning season. Fish length had a positive relation with the presence of fruits in their guts. The gallery forest of the Formoso River apparently does not have any plant species that depend exclusively on B. hilarii for seed dispersal because all fruit species are also dispersed by birds and mammals. Based on seed size and husk hardness of the riparian plant community of Formoso River, however, the piraputangas may potentially disperse at least 50% of the riparian fleshy fruit species and may be particularly important for long-distance dispersal. Therefore, overfishing or other anthropogenic disturbances to the populations of piraputanga may have negative consequences for the riparian forests in this region.

  6. A revision of the cis-andean species of the genus Brycon Müller & Troschel (Characiformes: Characidae).

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    Lima, Flávio C T

    2017-01-22

    A revision of the cis-andean species of Brycon, with the exception of the Brycon pesu species-complex, is presented. Twenty-one Brycon species (including B. pesu) are recognized from cis-andean river systems: Brycon stolzmanni Steindachner, from the upper Río Marañon basin, Peru; Brycon coxeyi Fowler, from the Río Marañon basin, Ecuador and Peru; Brycon polylepis Moscó Morales, from the Lago de Maracaibo, Río Orinoco, upper rio Amazonas, and rio Tocantins basins, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil; Brycon coquenani Steindachner, from the upper Río Caroni, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela; Brycon insignis Steindachner, from the rio Paraíba do Sul and small adjacent coastal river basins of eastern Brazil; Brycon vermelha Lima & Castro, endemic from the rio Mucuri basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon howesi new species, endemic from the rio Jequitinhonha basin, Brazil; Brycon dulcis new species, endemic from the rio Doce basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon ferox Steindachner, from several small coastal river systems, including the rio Mucuri basin in eastern Brazil; Brycon vonoi new species, from the rio Pardo basin and apparently also from a adjacent river system, the rio Una, in eastern Brazil; Brycon opalinus (Cuvier), from the headwaters of the rio Paraíba do Sul and rio Doce basins, eastern Brazil; Brycon nattereri Günther, from the headwaters of the upper rio Paraná, rio São Francisco, and upper rio Tocantins basins, Brazil; Brycon orthotaenia Günther, endemic from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil; Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraná and rio Uruguai basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay; Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraguai, middle rio Paraná, and upper rio Amazonas basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador; Brycon whitei Myers & Weitzman, from the Río Orinoco basin in Colombia and Venezuela; Brycon amazonicus (Agassiz), from the Rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, Brazil, Peru, Colombia

  7. Seasonal variation of sperm quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and sperm concentration in yamú Brycon amazonicus

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    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Medina-Robles, Víctor M.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2007-01-01

    Osmolality, the concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, and the concentrations of ions such as Na+, Cl-, K+, and Mg2+ in the seminal plasma of yamú Brycon amazonicus were evaluated during one reproductive season. Semen quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and ...

  8. Cadmium-induced disruption of environmental exploration and chemical communication in matrinxa, Brycon amazonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, R.T. [Centro Universitario Nilton Lins - CUNL, Laboratory of Toxicology, Av. Prof. Nilton Lins 3259, Parque das Laranjeiras, Zip 69058-040 Manaus, AM (Brazil)], E-mail: rhonda@niltonlins.br; Fernandes-de-Castilho, M. [Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Research Center on Animal Welfare (RECAW), Laboratory of Studies on Animal Stress, Department of Physiology, Sector of Biological Science, Jardim das Americas, Zip 81531-970 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Val, A.L. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia - INPA, Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, Av. Andre Araujo 2936, Aleixo, Zip 69083-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2008-09-17

    The effects of cadmium exposure on both environment exploration and behavioral responses induced by alarm substance in matrinxa (Brycon amazonicus), a fish species endemic to the Amazon basin, were investigated. Fish exposed to 9.04 {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/L waterborne cadmium for 96 h followed by 24 h depuration period in clean water, were video-recorded for 15 min, followed by immediate introduction of conspecific skin extract to the tank and a new 30 min period of fish video-recording. Cd-exposed matrinxa showed a significantly lowered locomotor activity (t-test t{sub 12} = 2.7; p = 0.025) and spatial distribution (t-test t{sub 12} = 2.4; p = 0.03) relative to the unexposed control fish prior to the alarm substance introduction, and did not present any significant reaction when the skin extract was introduced. The control fish, in opposite, showed a higher level of activity and spatial distribution prior the skin extract contact and significantly decreased their response after the chemical stimulus (locomotion-repeated-measure ANOVA F{sub 1,11} = 5.6; p = 0.04; spatial distribution F{sub 1,11} = 19.4; p = 0.001). In conclusion, exposure to a low level of cadmium affects both the environment exploration performance and the conspecific chemical communication in matrinxa. If the reduced environmental exploration performance of Cd-exposed fish is an adjustment to the compromised chemical communication or an independent effect of cadmium is the next step to be investigated.

  9. Dietary L-tryptophan alters aggression in juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus.

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    Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Serra, Mônica; Hoshiba, Márcio Aquio; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with L: -tryptophan (L-TRP), a serotonin precursor, on the aggressiveness of juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus. Fish were kept in individual aquaria for 7 days receiving the diets: D1 (control: 0.47% of TRP), D2 (0.94% of TRP), D3 (1.88% of TRP), and D4 (3.76% of TRP). After this, they were grouped with an intruder fish to establish a resident-intruder relationship during periods of 20 min. Blood cortisol, glucose, chloride, sodium and calcium; hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count and volume; liver glycogen and lipids were measured. Territoriality had significant effect on the aggressiveness of matrinxã (the residents were more aggressive than intruders, P tryptophan significantly affected their behavior. Fish fed with the D2 diet presented a longer latency until the first attack (P = 0.0069) and bit the intruder fewer times (P = 0.0136) during the period of observation, compared to the control group. The frequency of bites and chases after the first attack was not affected by the dietary supplementation of TRP. Physiological variables were not significantly affected by the diet, except for a moderate increase in cortisol level in fish fed with D2 diet after the fight, indicating slight activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis. The results show that juvenile matrinxã have aggressive and territorial behavior and that a diet containing 9.4 g TRP kg(-1) alter their aggressiveness, without affecting the stress-related physiological parameters.

  10. The time course of aggressive behaviour in juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus fed with dietary L-tryptophan supplementation.

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    Wolkers, C P B; Serra, M; Szawka, R E; Urbinati, E C

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of dietary L-tryptophan (TRP) supplementation on the time course of aggressive behaviour and on neuroendocrine and hormonal indicators in juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus. Supplementation with TRP promoted a change in the fight pattern at the beginning of an interaction with an intruder, resulting in decreased aggressive behaviours during the first 20 min. The decrease in aggression did not persist throughout the interaction but increased at 3 and 6 h after the beginning of the fight. Monoamine levels in the hypothalamus were not influenced by TRP before or after the fight; however, the hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) concentration and the 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5HIAA):5-HT ratio were significantly correlated with the reduction in aggressive behaviour at the beginning of the fight. Cortisol was not altered by TRP before the fight. After the fight cortisol increased to higher levels in B. amazonicus fed with supplementary TRP. These results indicate that TRP supplementation alters the aggressive behaviour of B. amazonicus and that this effect is limited to the beginning of the fight, suggesting a transient effect of TRP on aggressive behaviour. This is the first study reporting the effects of TRP supplementation on the time course of aggressive interaction in fishes. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Probiotic in feeding of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus: economic viability=Probiótico na alimentação de juvenis de matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus: viabilidade econômica

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    Leonardo Tachibana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic feasibility of supplement probiotics Bacillus subtilis to “matrinxã” Brycon amazonicus, raised in cages. The experiment was conducted at the Polo Regional Vale do Ribeira, in Pariquera-açu municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to July 2009. A total of 960 juvenile matrinxã were stocked in twelve 2.7 m³-net cages (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.2 m, in ponds with a total area of 600 m2 and an average depth of 1.50 m. The tests were conducted with a control treatment (T1 and two probiotic doses (T2 = 5 g and T3 = 10 g kg-1 of diet with four replicates. Results showed that T2 produced better economic performance for matrinxã at the juvenile stage in intensive rearing system.Objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade econômica do uso do probiótico Bacillus subtilis na alimentação de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus, em tanques-rede. O experimento foi conduzido no Polo Regional do Vale do Ribeira, no município de Pariquera-Açu, São Paulo, Brasil, entre fevereiro e julho de 2009. Foram avaliados 960 peixes juvenis, divididos em 12 tanques-rede de 2,7 m³ (1,5 x 1,5 x 1,2 m em uma área total de 600 m2, com profundidade média de 1,50 m. Os testes foram conduzidos com um tratamento testemunha (T1, duas doses de probiótico (T2 = 5 g e T3 = 10 g kg-1 de ração e quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que o T2 proporcionou melhor desempenho zootécnico e econômico da matrinxã na fase de engorda no sistema intensivo de criação.

  12. Caracterización citogenética del pez neotropical Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae

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    Diana David López

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La sabaleta Brycon henni, es un pez nativo del occidente colombiano importante para la seguridad alimentaria de las poblaciones ribereñas y para la pesca deportiva por sus característica combativas. El desarrollarse entre los 18 y 28ºC la convierte en una especie de cultivo promisoria. Un estudio citogenético a partir de células branquiales indicó diferentes complementos cromosómicos. Este trabajo aplicó la técnica de cultivo de linfocitos a muestras de sangre de adultos. Las muestras de sangre total fueron sembradas en 4 ml de medio de cultivo Ham-F12, suplementado con 0.5 ml de Suero Fetal Bovino y 0.7 ml del mitógeno Fitohemaglutinina M (Gibco® durante 96 hr a 28ºC; 1.5 hr antes de la cosecha agregamos 100µl de Colcemid al 10% como factor antimitótico. Cada cultivo se incubó con 10 ml de solución hipotónica KCl 0.56% por 24 min a 37ºC, para continuar con tres fijaciones sucesivas, centrifugaciones y tinción Giemsa al 5%. Las mejores metafases fueron fotografiadas en microscopio, correspondientes a 6 machos y 8 hembras, indicando un número diploide de 50 cromosomas, clasificados en Metacéntricos (26M, Submetacéntricos (16SM y Subtelocéntricos (8ST, para un número fundamental (NF de 100 brazos. La tendencia evolutiva hallada fue de tipo B; no se encontraron cromosomas supernumerarios pero sí un primer par de cromosomas metacéntricos grandes, considerado marcador para el género Brycon, no determinante de heteromorfismo sexual. Estos resultados coinciden con los demás bricónidos investigados, en donde se podría considerar un ancestro común con un número cromosómico básico y cariotipos simétricos.Cytogenetic characterization of the neotropical fish Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae. Brycon henni, is a native fish from Western Colombia is important as food and in sport fishing, and could be cultured in waters between 18 and 28ºC. A previous cytogenetic study in branchial cells indicated different chromosomal

  13. Restriction site heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial DNA of Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconiae

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    A.W.S. Hilsdorf

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Homoplasmy is a feature usually found in the mtDNA of higher animal taxa. On the other hand, the presence of two classes of mtDNA in the same cell or organism is rare and may appear in length or site variation. Data from mtDNA RFLP analysis of Brycon opalinus populations (Cuvier, 1819; Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae revealed site heteroplasmy from endonuclease NheI digestion. Southern blotting hybridization was used to survey a total of 257 specimens with 24 restriction enzymes. Three different restriction fragment patterns of mtDNA were obtained from NheI digestion. Two individuals from hatchery broodstock were found to have two of them. NheI digests of heteroplasmic individuals yielded two fragments of approximately 1180 and 1260 bp. Despite the low frequency of this type of heteroplasmy in the whole B. opalinus population, the presence of site heteroplasmy in this species supports the evidence of this phenomenon in lower vertebrate groups.

  14. Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

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    Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-03-15

    The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of sustaining swimming speed of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus: performance and adaptive aspects Otimização da velocidade de nado sustentado em matrinxã Brycon amazonicus: rendimento e aspectos adaptativos

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    Gustavo Arbeláez-Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious changes in metabolism, growth performance and body composition may be observed if fish are constrained to swimming continuously or intermittently at over-speeds. This study evaluates effects of four water speeds on growth, body composition and hematologic profile of juvenile matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. Fish (33.3 ± 0.9 g and 13.44 ± 0.1 cm were held for 90 days in five water speeds (0.0 - control, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 body lengths per second - BLAt swimming speeds ranging on 1.0 and 1.5 BL s–1, in fish growth was 20% higher. Hemoglobin and red blood cells at 1.5 BL s–1 increased 24% and 18% respectively; hematocrit was 17% higher in all exercised fish; protein content of white muscle at 1.0 BL s–1 was 2% higher; lipid deposition in red muscle at 1.0 BL s–1 was 22% higher and water retention 3% lower. Crude energy levels enhanced 10% in all exercised fish; liver water retention was 6% lower at 1.0 BL s–1; liver lipid composition was 29% higher than control and 34% higher than 1.5 BL s–1; liver crude energy increased at 1.0 BL s–1 as compared with control and 2.5 BL s–1. Lipid deposition in ventral muscle was 9% higher at 2.0 BL s–1. Although high lipid deposition of matrinxã has been achieved in moderate swimming speeds, lipids may be the main fuel source to maintain the metabolic demands of exercised matrinxã. The best water flow speed for optimized growth of matrinxã ranged on 1.0 and 1.5 BL s–1.Modificações deletérias no metabolismo, rendimento de crescimento e composição corporal podem ser observadas em peixes forçados à natação contínua ou intermitente sob velocidades excessivas. Neste trabalho, os efeitos de quatro velocidades de água no crescimento, composição corporal e perfil hematológico foram avaliados em matrinxãs juvenis, Brycon amazonicus. Os peixes (33,3 ± 0,9 g e 13,44 ± 0,1 cm foram mantidos durante 90 dias em cinco velocidades de água (0,0 – controle; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2

  16. LD5o of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus DL5o da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus

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    Sarah Ragonha de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the lethal dose (96-h LD50 of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, to be applied in challenge tests, 90 fish (63.23 ± 6.39 g were divided into five treatments, with different bacterial solutions: T1 - Control (0.9% NaCl saline solution; T2 (4 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T4 (1.36 x 10(12 cells/ mL and T5 (3.06 x 10(12 cells/ mL. Fish were previously anesthetized with benzocaine (60 mg L-1, inoculated in the peritoneal cavity with the bacterial suspensions and then distributed into fifteen 80-L test chambers, where the water variables were monitored and fish mortality was observed. The experiment was randomly designed in three replicates and the 96-h LD50 was estimated according to the trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Water quality variables remained within adequate ranges for fish health and performance. Fish mortality rate increased with the bacterial concentrations of A. hydrophila (T1 = 0%; T2 = 16.66%; T3 = 44.44%; T4 = 72.22% and T5 = 100%, and the first mortalities were observed after 57 h, although the signs of the bacterial infection were already observed 24 h after the inoculation. The results indicate that the 96-h LD50 value of A. hydrophila to matrinxã is 6.66 x 10(11 cells/ mL.Para determinar a dose letal (DL50 96-h da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, com aplicabilidade para testes de desafio, foram utilizados 90 peixes (63,23 ± 6,39 g, divididos em cinco tratamentos, com diferentes soluções bacterianas: T1 - Controle (solução salina 0,9% NaCl; T2 (4 x 10(11 células/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 células/ mL-1; T4 (1,36 x 10(12 células/mL-1 e T5 (3,06 x 10(12 células/ mL-1. Os peixes foram previamente anestesiados com benzocaína (60 mg L-1, inoculados na cavidade peritoneal com as suspensões bacterianas e distribuídos em 15 aquários de vidro de 80 L de capacidade, com aeração constante. O experimento teve duração de 96 h, no

  17. Influence of food restriction on the reproduction and larval performance of matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829

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    ACS. Camargo

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of food restriction and refeeding of matrinxã females, Brycon amazonicus, on their reproductive performance and on the growth and survival of the progeny. Broodstocks were distributed in 8 earthen tanks (15 fish/tank and fish from 4 tanks were fed daily (G1 while fish from the other 4 tanks were fed for 3 days and not fed for 2 days (G2 during 6 months prior to artificial spawning. Among the induced females, 57% in G1 group and 45% in G2 group spawned and the mean egg weights were 208.1 g (G1 and 131.6 g (G2. Oocytes of G2 fish were smaller (1.017 ± 0.003 mm than oocytes of G1 fish (1.048 ± 0.002 mm. Fertilization (71.91 ± 12.6% and 61.18 ± 13.7% and hatching (61.28 ± 33.9% and 67.50 ± 23.4% rates did not differ between G1 and G2 fish. Larvae were collected at hatching and at 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation and fixed for growth measurement. After incubation, fry were transferred to aquaria and sampled 1, 5, 9 and 15 days later. G1 and G2 larvae had similar weight (1.51 ± 0.15 and 1.46 ± 0.07 mg but the G2 length was significantly higher (6.26 ± 0.13 and 6.74 ± 0.14 mm. By the ninth day of rearing, G2 fry had higher weight (13.6 ± 0.26 and 18.9 ± 0.07 mg and length (11.8 ± 0.09 and 14.5 ± 0.04 mm but by the fifteenth day, G1 fry had higher weight (90.2 ± 1.19 and 68.6 ± 0.77 mg and length (18.8 ± 0.16 and 18.5 ± 0.04 mm than G2 fry. By the ninth day of rearing, when fry are recommended to be transferred to outdoor tanks, G2 fry were larger and after 15 days, fry produced by restricted-fed females showed higher survival. The survival rate of G2 progeny by the fifteenth day was significantly higher (24.7 ± 2.07% than that of G1 progeny (19.2 ± 1.91%. The ration restriction (35% reduction imposed on matrinxã broodstock during 6 months prior to spawning reduced the number of spawned females and the egg amount, but it did not affect fertilization and hatching rates. Otherwise restricted

  18. Caracterización de la diversidad genética en el pez Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae en Colombia central por medio de marcadores RAPD

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    Hermes Pineda Santis

    2007-12-01

    natural.Characterization of the genetic diversity of the fish Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae in central Colombia with RAPD markers. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of wild fish species is essential for conservation and appropriate management of individuals in repopulation programs. In Colombia, Brycon henni has been reported in the Magdalena and Cauca river basins, but the population and range have diminished as a consequence of anthropic activities. In this study, the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD was used to estimate the actual genetic structure in this species. For the purpose, six sample sites located in the department of Antioquia (Central Chain Mountains of Colombia were used. Thirty five primers (87.5 %, out of forty used, yielded 1 466 reliable and consistent fragments; 417 were considered as unique fragments able to discriminate among the Magdalena (Humarada-1 and Humarada-2 and Cauca (Piedras, La Clara y Guaracú river basins samples, suggesting that each is a discrete unit. This diversity suggests that anthropic effects of over fishing, dam building, deforestation and water pollution, have contributed to the isolation of these fish groups on the high mountains. Brycon moorei and Colossoma macropomum, as an interspecific control groups, were placed out of the B. henni general group, confirming their taxonomic classification through morphologic data. The RAPD technique was useful to know the genetic diversity and to discriminate among B. henni populations from different geographic origins, as a basis for an appropriate plan of repopulation, conservation and wildlife management. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4: 1025-1035. Epub 2007 December, 28.

  19. Influência do fotoperíodo no crescimento e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae Influence of photoperiod on the growth and survival of piranjuba post-larvae Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae

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    Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do fotoperíodo no cultivo de pós-larvas de piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae, submetidas a quatro tratamentos: 0L-24E (L=Luz; E= Escuro, 10L-14E, 14L-10E e 24L-0E, com três 3 repetições. Pós-larvas com comprimento de 7,8±0,7mm e com peso de 3,5±0,8mg foram distribuídas em 12 aquários de 10L, estocados com 12 pós-larvas por aquário. Os indivíduos foram diariamente alimentados com naúplios de Artemia, ao longo dos 10 dias de experimento. Ao final, observou-se relação positiva entre a sobrevivência e o aumento do período com luz, sendo o maior valor de sobrevivência 88,9±9,7%, obtido no tratamento com 24 horas de luminosidade, e o menor valor 58,3±8,3%, no tratamento com 24 horas em escuridão. O comprimento e peso das pós-larvas de piracanjuba não apresentaram diferenças significativas (P>0,05 entre os diferentes tratamentos, porém foi observada uma maior heterogeneidade entre as pós-larvas cultivadas com maior período de escuridão.This paper aims at studying the influence of photoperiod on the cultivation of Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae post-larvae submitted to four treatments: 0L-24D (L=Light; D=Dark, 10 - L14D, 14L - 10D and 24L-0D, with 3 repetitions. Post-larvae measuring 7.8±0.7mm and weighting 3.5±0.8mg were distributed in 12 aquariums (10L, stocked with 12 post-larvae per aquarium. Fishes were fed daily with Artemia sp. nauplii, in 10 days experiment. A positive relationship between the survival rate (88.9±9.7% observed in the treatment with 24 hours of luminosity, and the lowest (58.3±8.3%, in the treatment with 24 hours of darkness. No difference was showed (P>0.05 in the mean length and weight of the post-larvae, although there was greater heterogeneity among the post-larvae cultivated at the longer darkness period.

  20. [Genotoxic evaluation of Río Grande (Antioquia, Colombia) water using micronucleus frequency in erythrocytes of Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Restrepo, Lina M; Orozco-Jiménez, Luz Y; Rueda-Cardona, Maribel; Echavarría, Sandra L; Mena-Moreno, Nehir; Palacio-Baena, Jaime A

    2017-03-01

    The permanent monoculture of bananas and plantains farming in the middle of Río Grande (Turbo - Antioquia) requires the application of a variety of pesticides. Inappropriate banana production practices in this region, have often led to waterbody pollution by agrochemicals from leachate and runoff processes. Currently, fish are the most common vertebrates used as bioindicators of water quality, because they are very sensitive to the presence of contaminants. Our main goal with this study was to compare the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in peripheral blood specimens of fish Brycon henni, from two locations (polluted and unpolluted) in the Rio Grande. We evaluated the frequency of MNE in peripheral blood samples of fish B. henni from each location during two rainy seasons in 2010 and two dry seasons in 2011. Blood samples were collected, fixed for 24 h, and then were stained with Giemsa. Among results, we found that the median frequency of MNE was higher in the polluted site by agrochemical discharges (0.15±0.18), than in the unimpacted site (0.06±0.08). Furthermore, the frequency of MNE in B. henni during the dry season was highly significant for both locations. The results of this study indicated that the analysis of MNE in B. henni could be recommended as a suitable method for in situ detection of environmental genotoxins.

  1. Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864 (Pisces: Characidae in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    T. L. Gonçalves

    Full Text Available The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning.

  2. Efecto de la pluviosidad y el brillo solar sobre la producción y características del semen en el pez Brycon henni (Pisces:Characidae

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    C.J Tabares

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El pez Brycon henni es una especie endémica protegida por la legislación colombiana, que habita cuerpos de agua de zonas cafeteras (700-1900 m. s. n. m,comprendidas entre los 4º35’56’’ N y 74º04’51’’ W, con temperaturas que oscilan entre los 18 y los 28ºC. A pesar de las características promisorias de esta especie, su reproducción en cautiverio a nivel comercial no ha sido posible por falta de conocimientos básicos de su biología y comportamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar la producción y la fisiología espermática de machos en cautiverio. A lo largo de un año se tomaron 20 muestras de cada uno de 10 ejemplares. El semen se obtuvo mediante masaje abdominal cráneo-caudal y se transportó a 4ºC para su análisis en el laboratorio. Con excepción de septiembre y octubre que fueron los meses más lluviosos, siempre se obtuvo semen de al menos el 50% de los animales. El color, la osmolalidad y el pH fueron similares en todas las muestras a lo largo del año. El volumen, la concentración, la viabilidad, la movilidad y el tiempo de activación fueron variables: El efecto del brillo solar fue positivo sobre el volumen (Spearman pEffect of pluviosity and sun shine on sperm production and seminal characteristics of the fish Brycon henni (Pisces:Characidae. In Colombia the fish Brycon henni is a protected endemic species. It inhabits water bodies in coffee producing areas (700-1900 ma.s.l.; 4º35’56’’ N -74º04’51’’ W; 18-28°C. Insufficient knowledge of its basic biology and behavior prevent the commercial culture of this promising fish. We studied the production and sperm physiology of captive males. Along a year 20 samples were taken from each of 10 males. The sample was obtained by abdominal cefalo-caudal massage and transported to the laboratory at 4°C. Except for September and October (maximum rainfall,sperm was always obtained in at least 50% of the males. Color, osmolality and pH were

  3. Variabilidad genética de Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae en la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, sistema Río Magdalena, Colombia

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    Julio César Hurtado-Alarcón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brycon henni es una especie nativa de la cuenca del río Magdalena, Colombia, donde es fuertemente explotada, por lo cual en este trabajo se estudió la variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional en individuos provenientes de la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, Antioquia. Se recolectaron 195 ejemplares y se les extrajo ADN genómico total del tejido muscular y/o sanguíneo. Se evaluaron 14 cebadores para la técnica RAPD (Random Amplifyed Polimorphic DNA, siendo cuatro de ellos polimórficos, los cuales generaron 66 fragmentos diferentes (63% polimorfismo. Por medio de un análisis de varianza molecular (AMOVA, se determinó la estructuración poblacional para todos los sitios evaluados y la cuenca del río Nare ( ΦST =0.297 y ΦST =0.163, respectivamente. Las distancias genéticas de Nei mostraron que todas las poblaciones diferían entre sí y que la mayor diferenciación genética se dio para las poblaciones del río Guatapé y la quebrada El Cardal. Un test de Mantel mostró correlación entre las distancias genéticas y geográficas (ambas cuencas, r=0.431; cuenca del río Nare, r=0.377. Esto sugiere aislamiento por distancia y separación de grupos genéticos producidos por los embalses sobre los ríos Nare y Guatapé, lo cual puede tener implicaciones relevantes en la conservación de la variabilidad genética de las poblaciones naturales de esta especie en el oriente antioqueño.Genetic variability of Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae in the middle basin of Nare and Guatapé rivers, Magdalena River system, Colombia. Brycon henni is a native species in Magdalena´s River basin, and because of its cultural and economic importance, is strongly overexploited. This study aimed to describe the genetic variability and population structure of this species from Nare and Guatapé rivers basins. A total of 195 individuals were collected and DNA extractions were obtained from muscle and blood tissue. Fourteen primers were

  4. Feeding and social behavior of the piabanha, Brycon devillei (Castelnau, 1855 (Characidae: Bryconinae in the wild, with a note on following behavior

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    Pedro G Azevedo

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the behavior of wild freshwater fishes in Brazil is restricted to a few studies, despite such studies being able to answer fundamental questions about conservation. Species of Brycon are amongst the most threatened in the Neotropics, particularly in southeast Brazil, due to anthropogenic activities in this region. This study investigated the feeding and social behaviors of the endangered fish, Brycon devillei in the Preto River, Jequitinhonha basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Behavioral data were collected by snorkeling with four spatially separated groups (habituated, and direct observations of shoals were made using an underwater video camera (a total of 448 hours of observations. This species showed diverse tactics to obtain food. However, the species proved to be predominately a specialist surface-picker, which adopted alternative tactics to find food at certain times of the year, most notably when food items on the water surface became low. Feeding frequency was shown to be negatively correlated to agonistic behavior between conspecifics. Feeding associations were also recorded between the anostomid Leporinus garmani, acting as a nuclear species, and B. devillei, as follower species. The data presented here showed the importance of conserving the riparian environment to protect B. devillei populations. Furthermore, the present study included rare observations of nuclear-follower feeding association among freshwater fishes, especially between medium-sized characiforms, being the first observations of such kind in a Cerrado stream.

  5. Ecología trófica de la Sabaleta Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae en el río Portugal de Piedras, Alto Cauca, Colombia

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    Alvaro Botero-Botero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la ecología trófica de la sabaleta (Brycon henni en el río Portugal de Piedras, cordillera Oriental, departamento del Valle del Cauca. Materiales y métodos. Desde octubre de 2008 hasta junio de 2009 se realizaron pescas exploratorias y se determinaron parámetros físico y químicos del hábitat. Los ejemplares capturados fueron eviscerados y el contenido estomacal fue determinado hasta el mínimo taxón posible. Resultados. La especie presenta una dieta generalista que incluye 35 categorías alimenticias, con tendencia al consumo de larvas y ninfas de insectos acuáticos entre los cuales se destacan tricópteros, dípteros y odonatos; también, consume organismos alóctonos al cauce como hormigas (Hymenoptera, escarabajos (Coleoptera y material vegetal: frutos, semillas y hojas. La relación longitud intestino (LI vs. longitud estándar (LS indican que la especie presenta características propias de una especie carnívora (LI = -13.8728 + 1.02377*LS, r= 0.35, n= 22, a su vez, el peso total (PT depende directamente de la longitud total (LT y LS del pez (PT = -49.308 + 0.609962*LT; r= 0.92 n=30; PT = -41.6011 + 0.672529*LS; r= 0.89, n=30, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La sabaleta (Brycon henni presentó caracteristicas de una especie carnivora.

  6. Ontogenic changes in the feeding habits of the fishes Agonostomus monticola (Mugilidae and Brycon behreae (Characidae, Térraba River, Costa Rica

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    Thiago Cotta-Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las dietas de los peces varían con respecto a la calidad, la cantidad y el tamaño del alimento. Esta variación puede deberse a factores como la estacionalidad y la fase del desarrollo del individuo. Estudiamos los cambios ontogénicos en los hábitos alimentarios de dos peces dulceacuícolas, Agonostomus monticola y Brycon behreae, de la Cuenca del Río Térraba, Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Ambas poblaciones son omnívoras, pero con cambios ontogénicos en la cantidad y calidad de los ítemes consumidos. Conforme crecía, A. monticola modificó su dieta de insectívora hacia un mayor consumo de materia vegetal, asociado con un aumento en la longitud relativa del intestino. Aunque mantuvo su dependencia de alimentos vegetales, B. behreae diversificó su dieta de dos formas. Primero, pasó de partes suaves de plantas a semillas, hojas y frutos. Luego, los ítemes cambiaron de insectos hacia una dieta más carnívora (peces y camarones. Estos hallazgos para ambas especies enfatizan la importancia de proteger la vegetación riparia de estos ecosistemas tropicales.Fish diets can vary in food quality, quantity and size. The variation can be caused by several factors, including season and the ontogenic phase of the individual (McCormick 1998. We studied the ontogenic changes in feeding habits of two freshwater fishes, Agonostomus monticola and Brycon behreae, from the Térraba River basin, South Pacific of Costa Rica. Both populations were omnivorous, but displayed ontogenic shifts in terms of quantity and quality of the food items consumed. As it grew, A. monticola modified its diet from insectivorous towards a higher consumption of vegetables, which was accompanied by an increase in relative length of the intestine. While remaining dependent on vegetation as staple food, B. behreae diversified its diet in two ways. Initially, from soft plant parts to seeds, leaves, and fruits. Secondly, prey items changed from insects into a more carnivore diet

  7. Ontogenic changes in the feeding habits of the fishes Agonostomus monticola (Mugilidae and Brycon behreae (Characidae, Térraba River, Costa Rica

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    Thiago Cotta-Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las dietas de los peces varían con respecto a la calidad, la cantidad y el tamaño del alimento. Esta variación puede deberse a factores como la estacionalidad y la fase del desarrollo del individuo. Estudiamos los cambios ontogénicos en los hábitos alimentarios de dos peces dulceacuícolas, Agonostomus monticola y Brycon behreae, de la Cuenca del Río Térraba, Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Ambas poblaciones son omnívoras, pero con cambios ontogénicos en la cantidad y calidad de los ítemes consumidos. Conforme crecía, A. monticola modificó su dieta de insectívora hacia un mayor consumo de materia vegetal, asociado con un aumento en la longitud relativa del intestino. Aunque mantuvo su dependencia de alimentos vegetales, B. behreae diversificó su dieta de dos formas. Primero, pasó de partes suaves de plantas a semillas, hojas y frutos. Luego, los ítemes cambiaron de insectos hacia una dieta más carnívora (peces y camarones. Estos hallazgos para ambas especies enfatizan la importancia de proteger la vegetación riparia de estos ecosistemas tropicales.

  8. Influência do formato do aquário na sobrevivência e no desenvolvimento de larvas de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Osteichthyes, Characidae Effects of two formats of aquariums on survival and development of matrinxã Brycon cephalus larvae (Osteichthyes, Characidae

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    Marcelo Mattos Pedreira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento, utilizaram-se cinco aquários cilíndricos com relevo no fundo (em forma de anel e cinco retangulares com fundo liso para estudo da influência do formato do aquário na sobrevivência e no desenvolvimento de larvas de matrinxã Brycon cephalus. Observou-se melhor eficiência dos aquários retangulares, confirmada pela maior sobrevivência e biomassa. Os valores de temperatura, pH, condutividade e oxigênio dissolvido foram similares entre os tipos de aquários, sugerindo que esses parâmetros não influenciaram os resultados. O relevo no fundo dos aquários cilíndricos afetou negativamente o cultivo de larvas de matrinxã, pela criação de zonas com pequena capacidade da água em suspender partículas, o que resultou em acúmulo de dejetos, predadores, competidores e alimento. Aquários retangulares com fundo liso são mais adequados ao cultivo de larvas de matrinxã, por promover melhor circulação da água.This experiment compared the effects of five cylindrical aquarium with circular relief in the bottom or a rectangular aquariums with flat bottom on the intensive cultivation of matrinxã larvae (Brycon cephalus. Five aquariums of each format were used and the rectangular aquarium was the most efficient, confirmed by better survival average and biomass. Limnological variables were similar between aquariums, assuming that the parameters did not affect the results. The bottom relief in the aquarium resulted in areas with slow flow velocity, which resulted in the accumulation of waste, predators competitors and aliment, showing negative effects to culture of matrinxã. Rectangular aquariums with flat bottom are more recommended for matrinxã culture, because it provides better water circulation.

  9. Development of fingerlings of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae in tanks fertilized with organic manures/ Desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae em tanques experimentais fertilizados com adubação orgânica

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    Carmino Hayashi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the development of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus in tanks under differents organic fertilizers. The experiment, entirely randomized, was accomplished in 16 tanks of 1000 liters, fertilized with manures of bovine (BOV, pigs (SUI, chickens (FRG and others without fertilizer (SAO, using 15 fish/m3 with an initial average weight and length of 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. After 30 days, the experiment showed a uniform development of the fish and high survival rate in thestudied density. The treatments presented significant statistical differences (PO objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, em tanques com adubações orgânicas. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado, foi realizado em 16 tanques de 1000 litros, adubados com estercos de bovinos (BOV, suínos (SUI, frangos de corte (FRG e outros sem adubação (SAO, utilizando 15 peixes/m3 com peso e comprimento médios iniciais de 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. Após 30 dias, o experimento mostrou um desenvolvimento uniforme dos peixes e alta taxa de sobrevivência na densidade estudada. Os tratamentos apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05 para ganho de peso e crescimento diário, com exceção dos tratamentos BOV e SUI quando comparados entre si. A temperatura e o oxigênio dissolvido foram os fatores abióticos que exerceram maior influência sobre a biota aquática, afetando o desenvolvimento dos peixes. Entre o fitoplâncton houve maior abundância de organismos nanoplanctônicos favorecendo o desenvolvimento do zooplâncton, destacando-se as clorófitas, com o gênero Scenedesmus, e as cianofíceas, com o gênero Microcystis, e entre o zooplâncton, a maior abundância foi de rotíferos dos gêneros Brachionus e Keratella, seguido por copépodas. O tratamento adubado com esterco de frangos possibilitou um maior desenvolvimento da comunidade planctônica, e melhores

  10. Desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660 Embryonic and larvae development of piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660

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    Juan Ramón Esquivel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do desenvolvimento embrionário e larval das espécies de peixes é de extrema importância por permitir um melhor estudo da biologia e sistemática da espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Foram realizadas amostragens contínuas de 15 a 20 embriões durante toda a embriogênese. Os ovos se apresentaram semidensos, transparentes, esféricos e com um grande espaço perivitelínico. Depois de 18 horas e 30 minutos da fertilização, mantidos a 25 ± 0,8°C aconteceu a eclosão. O comprimento total das larvas recém eclodidas foi de 4,46 ± 0,39mm e o peso de 2,56 ± 0,73mg. As larvas de piracanjuba apresentaram forte canibalismo depois de 36 horas da eclosão, quando foi observada também a presença de olhos bem desenvolvidos e pigmentados, assim como uma abertura vertical da boca de 15,2 ± 1,9% do comprimento corporalThe knowledge of embryonic and larvae development of fishes is a fundamental key which enables a closer approach to their biology and taxonomy. The present study aims to characterize piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus embryonic and larvae development. During the whole embryogenesis, 15 to 20 embryos were sampled and analyzed. Eggs of B. orbignyanus are semidense, transparent, spherical, and bear a large perivitelline space. Hatching takes place 18 hours and 30 minutes after fertilization at 25 ± 0.8ºC. Total length and weight of just hatched larvae were 4.46 ± 0.39mm and 2.56 ± 0.73mg, respectively. Larvae presented entirely developed and pigmented eyes, as well as a vertical mouth opening of 15.2 ± 1.9% of body length, 36 hours after hatching, period from which intense cannibalism was observed

  11. Metabolismo antioxidativo, biotransformação hepática e alterações histológicas de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829, CHARACIDAE) exposto ao fenol

    OpenAIRE

    Ive Marchioni Avilez

    2008-01-01

    A poluição é hoje um problema que afeta todos os ambientes inclusive o de água doce, e conseqüentemente, os organismos que vivem nele. Entre estes, os peixes formam um grupo de grande importância sob a perspectiva ecotoxicológica, pois é o maior dentre os vertebrados. O fenol é uma substância química exógena que está usualmente em concentrações acima da permitida por lei. Este xenobiótico é um composto orgânico e lipofílico e sua presença nos corpos de água se deve principalmente aos despejos...

  12. Variabilidad genética de Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae en la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, sistema Río Magdalena, Colombia

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    Julio César Hurtado-Alarcón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brycon henni es una especie nativa de la cuenca del río Magdalena, Colombia, donde es fuertemente explotada, por lo cual en este trabajo se estudió la variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional en individuos provenientes de la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, Antioquia. Se recolectaron 195 ejemplares y se les extrajo ADN genómico total del tejido muscular y/o sanguíneo. Se evaluaron 14 cebadores para la técnica RAPD (Random Amplifyed Polimorphic DNA, siendo cuatro de ellos polimórficos, los cuales generaron 66 fragmentos diferentes (63% polimorfismo. Por medio de un análisis de varianza molecular (AMOVA, se determinó la estructuración poblacional para todos los sitios evaluados y la cuenca del río Nare ( ΦST =0.297 y ΦST =0.163, respectivamente. Las distancias genéticas de Nei mostraron que todas las poblaciones diferían entre sí y que la mayor diferenciación genética se dio para las poblaciones del río Guatapé y la quebrada El Cardal. Un test de Mantel mostró correlación entre las distancias genéticas y geográficas (ambas cuencas, r=0.431; cuenca del río Nare, r=0.377. Esto sugiere aislamiento por distancia y separación de grupos genéticos producidos por los embalses sobre los ríos Nare y Guatapé, lo cual puede tener implicaciones relevantes en la conservación de la variabilidad genética de las poblaciones naturales de esta especie en el oriente antioqueño.

  13. Determinação da razão ótima de espermatozóides por ovócitos de piabanha Brycon insignis (pisces - characidae Determination of the optimum ratio of spermatozoa per oocyte of the piabanha Brycon insignis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shimoda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a razão ótima de espermatozóides por ovócitos da piabanha Brycon insignis, utilizando-se dois machos e duas fêmeas da espécie, submetidos ao procedimento de desova induzida. Os gametas foram extrusados manualmente 200 horas-grau após a aplicação do extrato bruto de hipófise. Os ovócitos foram misturados e deste pool retiraram-se amostras com 2g de ovócitos (701 ovócitos/g. O sêmen do pool foi diluído em solução de NaCL 1,2% de tal forma que, após a adição de 1ml do sêmen diluído aos ovócitos, fossem obtidas as seguintes razões espermatozóides por ovócitos em cada tratamento: T1=86.662, T2=173.324, T3=259.986, T4=346.648 e T5=433.310. A taxa de fertilização do sêmen não diluído usado como controle foi de 65,3%. Após ativação espermática com NaHCO3 1% e fecundação, os ovos foram transferidos para as incubadoras e nelas foram observadas as seguintes percentagens de fertilização em relação à do grupo-controle: T1=35,7%, T2=53,1%, T3=79,1%, T4=93,4% e T5=87,8%. A percentagem de fertilização (em relação ao controle aumentou de forma linear, segundo a equação de regressão: Y=15,55+0,0002297X (PThe optimum spermatozoa:oocyte ratio of piabanha Brycon insignis was studied. Two males and two females were induced to spawn, and the gametes were stripped after 200 hourgrades starting from the application of carp pituitary gland. Oocytes from two females were mixed, and samples of 2g (701 oocytes/g were collected from the obtained pool and placed into plastic cups. The semen from the two males, after mixed to compose a pool, was diluted in NaCl solution (1.2% so that, after the addition of 1ml of diluted sperm into the oocytes, the following spermatozoa:oocyte ratios (tri-replicated were obtained: T1=86,662, T2=173,324, T3=259,986, T4=346,648 and T5=433,310. After the activation using 1% NaHCO3 and fertilization, the eggs were transferred to incubators, and observed the percentages of fertilization

  14. Cryopreservation of yamú (Brycon amazonicus) sperm for large scale fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Medina-Robles, Mauricio; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

    . Sperm was diluted (1:4) in a solution of glucose, egg yolk and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Sperm concentration was determined using a Neubauer chamber, and motility evaluated after activation with 1% NaHCO3. In the laboratory, four sizes of straw (0.5, 1.8, 2.5 and 4.0 mL) and two thawing temperatures...... (35 °C or 80 °C water bath) were evaluated. To assess fertility, 2 g of eggs (ca. 2800) were inseminated with 500 μL of frozen-thawed sperm (ca. 75,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) from each straw thawed at 35 °C or 80 °C, or 160 μL (ca. 50,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) of fresh sperm. Large scale fertility...... assays consisted of 40 g eggs inseminated with approximately 5.0 mL (ca. 75,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) of cryopreserved sperm in large straws thawed at 35 °C. The fertilization rate was estimated 6 h post-insemination. In all straws, postthaw motility was significantly lower than for fresh sperm (pb0...

  15. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Criação e domesticação de fêmeas de Brycon siebenthalae destinadas a reprodução - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1860 Breeding and domesticating Brycon siebenthalae females for reproduction - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1860

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    Walter Vásquez-Torres

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Brycon siebenthalae (yamú (Characidae tem uma natureza indomável, apresentando respostas ao estresse intensas e duradouras. Três grupos de fêmeas foram tratados com hormônios gonadotróficos para induzir a maturação final e desova, buscando avaliar o efeito da manipulação das fêmeas durante o período de maturação gonadal. O primeiro e segundo grupo eram formados por peixes de quatro anos de idade criados em viveiros de terra. As fêmeas do primeiro grupo foram submetidas ao manejo mensal de “domesticação” a partir do sexto mês de idade. O segundo grupo foi submetido a esse manejo com freqüência anual. O terceiro grupo de fêmeas foi capturado do ambiente natural. As fêmeas submetidas ao manejo mensal apresentaram melhores resultados referente a resposta ao tratamento hormonal, a fecundiade relativa e a sobrevivência após o manejo da reprodução. Os distintos procedimentos de manejo das fêmeas durante a maturação gonadal não afetaram (p>0,05 a taxa de fertilização e a sobrevivência dos ovos e larvas provenientes dos diferentes grupos.Brycon siebenthalae (yamú (Characidae have quite an untamable “nature”, with intense, enduring responses to stress. Three groups of females were induced to spawn in order to study the effects of manipulation during breeding. Groups one and two were formed by four year-old specimens bred in earth ponds. Females from group one and two were subjected to monthly and anual “domestication” practices, respectively, from the time they were six months old. The third group of females was brought from the natural environment. It was observed that females bred and monthly tamed had better induction responses, relative fecundity and post-spawn survival. The physiological responses to different stress situations during the reproductive procedure did not significantly affect (p>0.05 fertility and embryonic and larval survival among groups.

  17. Third record of Rhodnius amazonicus and comparative study with R. pictipes (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, João Aristeu; Souza, Eder Santos; da Costa Teixeira, Adelson; Barbosa, Rosenildo Ribeiro; de Souza, Aecildo José; Belintani, Tiago; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Gil-Santana, Hélcio Reinaldo; de Oliveira, Jader

    2017-12-01

    Rhodnius amazonicus Almeida et al. (1973) is a triatomine of rare occurrence. This species was found for the third time in Breves city, Pará state, Brazil. Morphometric and morphological studies were carried out on one male and one female. Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979) considered this species as a synonym of R. pictipes, until its revalidation after 23 years by Bérenger and Pluot-Sigwalt (2002). Considering the synonym mentioned above, a comparative study between these two species was performed in order to report the third encounter of this species, and increase the number of morphological characters that distinguish R. amazonicus from R. pictipes. The dorsal side of the head, the dorsal and ventral portions of the thorax, the dorsal, ventral and posterior sides of the female genitalia, eggs and the median process of the pygophore were examined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The head, thorax, abdomen and egg parameters of these two species were also measured. The identification of characters on the head, stridulatory sulcus, mesosternum, metasternum, scutellum, process of urotergite I, external female genitalia, pygophore and eggs made the distinction between R. amazonicus and R. pictipes possible. This study has shown the new characters recorded and described for the first time for R. amazonicus and R. pictipes by SEM here made it possible to confirm the morphological separation between these two species. The morphometric analysis also confirmed that the above two taxa are different at specific level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Rhodnius amazonicus Almeida, Santos & Sposina, 1973, Bona Species, Close to R. pictipes Stål, 1872 (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Bérenger J-M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of two atypical specimens of Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1872 in French Guiana and the examination of the female holotype of R. amazonicus Almeida, Santos & Sposina, 1973, the only specimen of this species so far known, lead us to propose the rehabilitation of R. amazonicus synonymized with R. pictipes. The male is described for the first time and the female redescribed. Both external characters and genitalia distinguish R. amazonicus from R. pictipes. R. amazonicus shows affinities not only with pictipes but also with R. stali Lent, Jurberg & Galvão, 1993 and R. paraensis Sherlock, Guitton & Miles, 1977. A key is provided for these four species forming, in all likelihood, a natural group, i.e. the "pictipes group".

  19. Biogeochemical behavior of Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke in the Pitinga mining district, Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima E Cunha, M. C.; Pereira, V. P.; Menegotto, E.; Bastos Neto, A. C.; Oliveira, L. D.; Formoso, M. L. L.

    2008-09-01

    The vegetal species Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke (Rhamnaceae Family) was chosen as a sampling medium for the lateritic surfaces of the Pitinga Mine in the Amazon region, in order to study the biogeochemical behavior of this species and compare it with the chemical composition of a reference plant. The Pitinga mining district is one of the largest producers of tin in the world. This district contains unique deposits of cryolite and rare metals such as Zr, Nb, Ta, Y and REEs related to granitic bodies that intrude into the volcanic and acid pyroclastic rocks. The results showed that the species A. amazonicus predominantly concentrates significant levels of Zr, Nb, Ta, Th, Be, Sc over U, Hf, Ga and In. These elements are characteristic of the mineral paragenesis for the region, suggesting that this plant can provide a representative sampling medium future geochemical exploration programs in the region.

  20. 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis protein profiles of the scorpion venom from Brotheas amazonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, A.M.; Noronha, M.D.N. [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Rede Proteomica do Amazonas (Proteam). Lab. de Genomica e Proteomica; Rocha-Oliveira, F.; Lopez-Lozano, J.L.L. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biotecnologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Scorpions venoms show specific neurotoxins to insect or mammals. These toxins are very important molecular tools to development of news drugs or bioinsecticides. Brotheas amazonicus scorpion is an endemic specie in Amazonian Rain Forest, but your venom do not show toxicity in humans. Information about biological specific activity on insect of this venom is not known yet. Objectives: Molecular protein toxins profiles of the venom from Brotheas amazonicus scorpion by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis methods to detected toxins with potential biotech applications. Results: Several spots 'families' with {approx} 60, 70 and 80 kDa were detected in gel acidic region with pI {approx} 4,5 - 6 range, in the same region 1-D zimography showed proteolytic activity on gelatin and fibrinogen and proteolytic activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting scorpion serine proteinases. 50 kDa proteins were detected with pI {approx} 6,5 - 7 range. In 23 - 50 kDa gel acid region were observed some proteins. In 23 - 14 kDa gel acidic region were detected proteins with pI 4 - 7 range. 1-D Tris-tricine gel showed proteins with {approx} 7 kDa, suggesting scorpion neurotoxins. In gel basic region only 14 kDa proteins were observed with pI {approx} 9 - 10 range. Conclusion: Molecular profile of the scorpion venom from B. amazonicus showed proteins with high and low molecular masses, mainly with acidic pI. Proteolytic activity suggest serine proteinases with high molecular masses and 7 kDa proteins in B. amazonicus venom suggest scorpion neurotoxins. Purification and molecular characterization of these toxins are in course.

  1. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

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    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.

  2. Phylogeny of the family Characidae (Teleostei: Characiformes): from characters to taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mirande, Juan Marcos

    2010-01-01

    The family Characidae is the most diverse among Neotropical fishes. Systematics of this family are mainly based on pre-cladistic papers, and only recently a phylogenetic hypothesis for Characidae was proposed by the author. That phylogeny was based on 360 morphological characters studied for 160 species, including representatives of families related to Characidae. This paper is based on that phylogenetic analysis, with the analyzed characters described herein and documented, accompanied by co...

  3. Daños por Sennius amazonicus, Sennius sp. y Amblycerus sp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) en semillas de Sclerolobium sp. (Leguminosae) .

    OpenAIRE

    Porto Santos, Germi; Vinha Zanuncio, Teresinha; Lourenco de Assis Junior, Sebastiao; Cola Zanuncio, José

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Sclerolobium sp.(N=l000), collected in two localities of Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil were damaged by bruchid beetles: Sennius amazonicus, and two undescribed species of Sennius and Amblycerus. Total seed darnage was 22.3±1.93% including 3.40±0.97% of darnage by Amblycerus sp. Other agents contributed to seed darnage including O.9±O.4% by fungi. Eighty seven mg of Sclerolobium sp. seeds were necessary Cor development oC either S. amazonicus or Sennius sp. which represented 38.3...

  4. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and trypanocidal activities of Ampelozizyphus amazonicus (Rhamnaceae

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    L.V. Rosas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke is a tree commonly found in the Amazon region and an extract of its stem bark is popularly used as an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent and as an antidote to snake venom. Ursolic acid; five lupane type triterpenes: betulin, betulinic acid, lupenone, 3ß-hydroxylup-20(29-ene-27,28-dioic acid, and 2a,3ß-dihydroxylup-20(29-ene-27,28-dioic acid, and three phytosteroids: stigmasterol, sitosterol and campesterol, have been isolated from stem extracts of A. amazonicus Ducke. Their structures were characterized by spectral data including COSY and HMQC. In an in vitro biological screening of the isolated compounds, 3ß-hydroxylup-20(29-ene-27,28-dioic acid was cytotoxic against the SKBR-3 human adenocarcinoma cell line (1 to 10 mg/mL, while 2a,3ß-dihydroxylup-20(29-ene-27,28-dioic acid exhibited cytotoxicity against both SKBR-3 human adenocarcinoma and C-8161 human melanoma tumor cell lines (>0.1 mg/mL. In the present study, different extracts and some fractions of this plant were also investigated for trypanocidal activity due to the presence of pentacyclic triterpenes. The triterpene classes are potent against Trypanosoma cruzi. The bioassays were carried out using blood collected from Swiss albino mice by cardiac puncture during the parasitemic peak (7th day after infection with the Y strain of T. cruzi. The results obtained showed that A. amazonicus is a potential source of bioactive compounds since its extracts and fractions isolated from it exhibited in vitro parasite lysis against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi at concentrations >100 µg/mL. Fractions containing mainly betulin, lupenone, 3ß-hydroxylup-20(29-ene-27,28-dioic acid, and 2a,3ß-dihydroxylup-20(29-ene-27,28-dioic acid showed more activity than crude extracts.

  5. Stress responses of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus after transport in a closed system under different loading densities Respostas de estresse de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus juvenil após transporte em sistema fechado sob diferentes densidades de carga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janessa Sampaio de Abreu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimum loading density for the transport of matrinxã juveniles was investigated in a closed system with plastic bags. Transport was conducted for 4 h with fish (23.5± 0.4g and 11.6 (0.08cm starved for 24h at loading densities of 83g L-1 (D1, 125g L-1 (D2, 168g L-1 (D3 and 206g L-1 (D4. Fish were sampled before transport (BT, after transport (AT and 24h AT. The water quality was monitored before capturing fish in depuration tanks, after transport in plastic bags and in recovery tanks. Water oxygen decreased to values below 4mg L-1 in D2, D3 and D4, temperature was around 32°C, pH 6.5-6.78, total ammonia 1.09-1.7mg L-1, un-ionized ammonia 3.58-9.33x10³mg L-1 and alkalinity 134-165mg CaCO3 L-1. Blood cortisol and glucose concentrations increased in fish of all densities AT and recovered the BT levels 24h after arrival. Osmolality did not change AT but increased 24h AT in fish of all densities whereas plasma chloride decreased inversely to the loading densities after the procedure. Hematocrit decreased 24h AT in fish of all densities but no differences were verified in the number of erythrocytes. No mortality was registered in any treatment during the next week after transport. Matrinxã demonstrated to be a crowding tolerant-species in transport operations besides tolerating low levels of oxygen in the water.Neste estudo, foram investigadas as densidades de carga adequadas para transporte de matrinxãs juvenis em sistema fechado com sacos plásticos. O transporte de 4h foi feito com peixes (23,5±0,4g; 11,6 (0,08cm em jejum por 24h, em densidades de 83g L-1 (D1, 125g L-1 (D2, 168g L-1 (D3 e 206g L-1 (D4. Os peixes foram amostrados antes do transporte (AT, logo após o transporte (chegada (DT e 24h depois. A qualidade da água foi monitorada antes da captura dos peixes nos tanques de depuração, após o transporte nos sacos plásticos e nos tanques de recuperação. O oxigênio da água diminuiu para valores inferiores a 4mg L-1 em D2, D3 e D4, a temperatura esteve em torno de 32°C, pH 6,5-6,78, a amônia total foi de 1,09-1,7mg L-1, a amônia não-ionizada foi de 3,58-9,33 x 10³mg L-1 e alcalinidade 134-165mg CaCO3 L-1. O cortisol plasmático e a glicose sanguínea aumentaram após o transporte nos peixes em todas as densidades ensaiadas, voltando aos valores controle 24h depois. Os valores de osmolaridade não mudaram logo após o transporte, mas aumentaram 24h depois de modo igual em todas as densidades. O cloreto plasmático diminuiu na chegada, de modo inversamente proporcional à densidade de carga. O hematócrito diminuiu 24h depois da chegada dos peixes, em todas as densidades testadas, mas não houve diferença no número de eritrócitos. Não houve mortalidade até uma semana após o transporte. O matrinxã mostrou ser uma espécie tolerante a altas densidades de carga em embalagens para transporte além de suportar baixos níveis de oxigênio na água.

  6. Curvas de crescimento morfométrico de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Morphometric growth curves of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sampaio Guedes Gomiero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras M.G., com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de crescimento morfométrico em função do peso corporal para a piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Alevinos de piracanjuba foram cultivados em viveiros de terra e alimentados com ração comercial até atingirem peso aproximado de 1 kg. Durante o período experimental realizaram-se amostragens aleatórias, onde foram avaliadas as medidas morfométricas comprimento da cabeça (CCAB, comprimento padrão (CP, altura (AND e largura (LND tomada no 1ºraio da nadadeira dorsal e as razões morfométricas (CCAB/CP, AND/CP, LND/CP, AND/LND utilizando-se as funções de Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz e Logística. As funções estudadas apresentaram bom ajuste para todas as medidas morfométricas e para a razão CCAB/CP. As funções de Brody, von Bertalanffy e Gompertz apresentaram qualidades de ajuste semelhantes e superiores à função Logística para as medidas morfométricas. Para a razão CCAB/CP a função Logística apresentou-se superior às demais. A taxa de crescimento da CCAB e LND foi superior às do CP e AND, indicando um crescimento mais rápido da cabeça e largura do que do comprimento padrão e altura. Conclui-se que todos os modelos estudados apresentaram bom ajuste, sendo o de Brody e o de von Bertalanffy os que descrevem melhor o crescimento morfométrico da piracanjuba.An experiment was carried out at the fish farming sector of the Universidade Federal de Lavras M.G., with the objective of establishing morphometric growth curves as a function of the body weight of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Fingerlings of piracanjuba were cultivated in earthen ponds and fed a commercial diet (ad libitum until they reached weight of about 1 kg. During the experimental period, samplings were randomly selected to take morphometric measures of the head length (CCAB, standard length (CP, height (AND, and breadth (LND

  7. Embryonic and Morphological Development of Larvae and Juvenile of the Buenos Aires Tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Pisces Characidae) Characidae Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ran

    2015-03-01

    We have launched an investigation for Embryonic Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology, of Buenos aires tetra in order to build basic data of Characidae and fish seeding production. We brought 50 couples of Characidae from Bizidduck aquarium in Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea on March of 2015. We put them in the tetragonal glass aquarium (50×50×30 cm). Breeding water temperature was 27.5~28.5°C (mean 28.0±0.05°C) and being maintained. The shape of fertilized egg was round shape, and it was adhesive demersal egg. The egg size was 0.63~0.91 mm (mean 0.74±0.07 mm, n=20). After getting fertilized egg, the developmental stage was gastrula stage, and embryo covered almost two-thirds of Yolk. Incubation was happened after 16 hours 13 minutes from gastrula stage, and the tail of juvenile came out first with tearing egg capsule. Immediately after the incubation, prelarvae had 3.78~3.88 mm length (mean 3.84±0.04 mm, n=5), and it had no mouth and anus yet. 34 days after hatching from the incubation, juvenile had 8.63~13.1 mm (mean 10.9±1.66 mm), and it had similar silver-colored body shape with its mother.

  8. Evaluation of Antiplasmodial activity of extracts and constituents from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Dominique F M; Amaral, Ana Claudia F; Machado, Marta; Lopes, Dinora; Echevarria, Aurea; Rosário, Virgílio E; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A

    2015-10-01

    Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke, a plant that is widely used by the population of the Amazonian region to prevent and treat malaria, was investigated in this work, which describes, for the first time, the antiplasmodial activity of its extracts and associates this activity with its isolated constituents. Different extracts with solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water) were obtained of the root bark. This procedure resulted in extracts that were characterized for their constituents. The cytotoxicity and activity of the extracts against Plasmodium berghei (schizontocidal activity, liver stage) and Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 and Dd2 strains, erythrocyte stage) were assessed in vitro. Of the four extracts assayed against P. berghei, the chloroform extract showed the greatest activity, with an inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) value of 30.1 µg/mL, followed by the aqueous extract (IC50 = 39.9 µg/mL). The chloroform extract exhibited the highest antiplasmodial activity in the erythrocyte stage of P. falciparum, with an IC50 value lower than 15 µg/mL. Fractionation of this more active extract led to the isolation and elucidation of pentacyclic triterpenes, lupeol, betulin and betulinic acid, which showed antiplasmodial activities with IC50 values ranging from 5.6 to 80.30 µM. The most active of these, betulinic acid, was further quantified in the extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector analyzes. The higher amount was found in the chloroform extract, which was the most active one against P. falciparum. The results obtained in this work may partly explain the popular intake of A. amazonicusas an antimalarial remedy in the Amazon region.

  9. Milt quality and spermatozoa morphology of captive Brycon siebenthalae (Eigenmann) broodstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Lombo-Rodríguez, Dora A.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop artificial reproduction in freshwater fish for potential species to be developed in South American aquaculture, milt quality and sperm morphology were studied in yamu (Brycon siebenthalae) under captive conditions during the natural middle spermiation period. The volume of milt...... collected for each male was 1.8 mL and the sperm concentration was 13.99 spermatozoa/mL. Spermatocrit (41.5%) was positively associated (r2: 0.30) with sperm density calculated using a corpuscle counting chamber. Sperm motility was 88% and the average duration of forward motility was 41 s. Fertilization...

  10. Diluidores e crioprotetores no resfriamento e congelamento do sêmen de piracanjuba ( Brycon orbignyanus)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, Alexandre Nizio

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo de preservação de sêmen do piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus) através dos processos de resfriamento a 4ºC e congelamento. Os trabalhos foram realizados na Estação de Piscicultura da Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Itutinga-MG. No experimento 1 foram avaliados diversos diluidores, crioprotetores (DMSO, metanol e metil glicol) e antibiótico (sulfato de gentamicina) no resfriamento do sêmen. No experimento 2, os diluidores que me...

  11. Evaluacion de un sistema de recirculacion para la etapa de larvicultura de dorada (Brycon moorei-Steindachner 1878) del Rio Magdalena

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castaneda Alvarez, German David; David Ruales, Carlos Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Los sistemas con recirculacion para acuicultura permiten el incremento de la productividad en la etapa de larvicultura, debido al mayor control de los parametros de calidad de agua. Larvas de dorada (Brycon moorei...

  12. Efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus) durante cortos períodos de almacenamiento

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Corredor-Santamaría, Wilson; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

    seminal. Oocitos obtenidos de la misma hembra fueron sometidos a tres sistemas de conservación: in situ (IS, mantenidos dentro de la cavidad ovárica), ex situ a temperatura ambiente (T°A) y ex situ a temperatura de refrigeración (T°R). El diámetro ovocitario (DO) y la viabilidad fueron evaluados a los 0...... (control), 15, 30, 60 y 120 min de almacenamiento. El DO fue medido con reglilla acoplada al ocular del estéreomicroscopio y la viabilidad mediante prueba de fertilidad, seminando 3 g de oocitos con 250 μL de semen fresco. También fueron medidos la longitud total y el volumen del saco vitelino de las...

  13. Genetic evidence of population structuring in the neotropical freshwater fish Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850

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    A Sanches

    Full Text Available Brycon hilarii is a migratory fish widely distributed throughout the Paraguay River Basin. It is appreciated in sport fishing and for its superior meat quality. It is also the main species for tourist attraction in the Bonito region (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Considering the lack of information on the genetic structure of the fish of this species, the aim of the present study was to detect the genetic variability of Brycon hilarii through RAPD markers. A total of eighty specimens collected in different seasons at four sites of the Miranda River sub-basin (Paraguay River Basin, Brazil were used for analysis. The results of genetic similarity, Shannon diversity, and AMOVA revealed differences between the sampling sites. Through AMOVA, differences between populations were more evident among the animals collected during the non-reproductive season, corresponding to a time of less movement of these fish. A population structuring model in which B. hilarii appears organized into genetically differentiated reproductive units that coexist and co-migrate through the studied system was suggested, contrasting the currently accepted idea that freshwater migratory fish form large panmictic populations in a determined hydrographic system. Despite the lack of a complete picture regarding the distribution of B. hilarii in the studied region, this initial idea on its population genetic structure could be an important contribution to providing aid for management and conservation programs of these fish.

  14. Caracterização genética de Brycon orbignyanus utilizando o sistema seminatural Genetic characterization of Brycon orbignyanus using the semi-natural system

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    N.M. Lopera-Barrero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do sistema seminatural na diversidade genética de um estoque de Brycon orbignyanus, utilizado em programas de repovoamento, com o marcador molecular RAPD. Vinte e quatro reprodutores, 12 machos e 12 fêmeas e 95 larvas da progênie foram analisados. Os nove primers utilizados produziram 90 fragmentos, dos quais 94,4% foram polimórficos. Houve diferença significativa na frequência de 20 dos 90 fragmentos entre os reprodutores e sua progênie sem a presença de fragmentos exclusivos. O índice de diversidade genética de Shannon, a porcentagem de fragmentos polimórficos e a diversidade genética de Nei foram mais altos nos indivíduos da progênie. A similaridade genética foi maior nos indivíduos do estoque de reprodutores. A análise de variância molecular mostrou que a maior parte da variação está dentro de cada grupo (89,1% e não entre os grupos (10,9%. A identidade e a distância genética entre os estoques foram de 0,944 e 0,057, respectivamente. Assim, a utilização do sistema seminatural evitou a mortalidade de reprodutores B. orbignyanus e conservou a variabilidade genética da progênie.The effect of the semi-natural system on the genetic diversity of a Brycon orbignyanus stock, used in stock enhancement programs, was evaluated with the RAPD molecular marker. Twenty-four broodstocks - 12 males and 12 females - and 95 larvae of the offspring were analyzed. The nine used primers produced 90 fragments, of which 94.4% were polymorphic. There was significant difference in the frequency of 20 out of the 90 fragments between the broodstocks and their offspring without the presence of exclusive fragments. The Shannon genetic diversity index, the percentage of polymorphic fragments and the Nei gene diversity were higher in the offspring individuals. Genetic similarity was higher in broodstock individuals. The analysis of molecular variance results showed that the major part of the genetic variation is within the

  15. Efeito da restrição alimentar sobre o desempenho reprodutivo das fêmeas de yamu Brycon siebenthalae (Osteichthyes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1227 Effect of food restriction in spawning of yamú females Brycon siebenthalae (Osteichthyes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1227

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    Sandra Clemencia Pardo-Carrasco

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies de peixes, tais como os reofílicos tropicais, apresentam uma restrição alimentar voluntária durante o período pré-reprodutivo, quando se encontram no ambiente natural. Fêmeas maduras alimentadas com ração comercial foram divididas em dois grupos quatro meses antes do período reprodutivo. Um grupo foi alimentado com o equivalente a 3% da biomassa/dia, enquanto o outro recebeu a metade desta quantia. Fêmeas originárias dos dois grupos foram induzidas à desova durante dois períodos reprodutivos simultâneos, quando foi comparada a performance reprodutiva e o índice de gordura visceral. Fêmeas provenientes do tratamento com restrição alimentar mostraram melhores resultados após o tratamento de indução hormonal, produzindo óvulos maiores na desova, enquanto que o índice de gordura visceral foi menor (P Under natural conditions, many fish species, such as freshwater tropical reofilics, voluntarily restrict their food supply during the period before reproduction. Mature females fed with commercial food were divided in two groups four months before their reproduction period. One group was fed with 3% biomass/day of food, while for the other group food was restricted 50% of that amount. During two consecutive reproductive cycles females from both groups were induced to spawn, and the reproductive performance and visceral fat index were compared as well. Females from restricted treatment showed better results after hormonal injection and produced larger eggs after spawning, although the visceral fat index was significantly smaller (P < 0.05. The spawn weight, fertility and embryonic survivals were not different among groups during the two years

  16. Muscle biopsy technique for electrophoresis analysis of fish from the genus Brycon

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    Hilsdorf Alexandre

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein and mitochondrial DNA have been used as molecular markers to assess variability in stock identification studies of fishes. Protein and mtDNA used for electrophoretic analysis are extracted from tissues, which often leads to death of the individuals. In this study, we present a skeletal muscle biopsy procedure to extract mitochondrial DNA that does not require specimen sacrifice. Eighty pirapitinga-do-sul (Brycon opalinus were biopsied by the present technique, with no mortalities recorded. Total DNA was extracted from muscle and digested by restriction enzymes ApaI and HpaI. The mtDNA fragment patterns were hybridized with 32P-labeled pirapitinga-do-sul mtDNA probes. The described technique is simple and may be useful in protocols requiring tissue extraction for DNA and protein analyses without loss of the individual investigated.

  17. A new species of Bryconamericus (Characiformes, Stevardiinae, Characidae) from the Pacific coast of northwestern Ecuador, South America

    OpenAIRE

    Román–Valencia, C.; Ruiz–C., R. I.; Taphorn B., D. C.; Jiménez–Prado, P.; García–Alzate, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Una nueva especie de Bryconamericus (Characiformes, Stevardiinae, Characidae) de la costa pacífica al noroeste de Ecuador, América del SurSe describe una nueva especie de Bryconamericus (Characiformes, Stevardiinae, Characidae) de la costa Pacífica al noroccidente de Ecuador, América del Sur. La nueva especie se distingue de todos sus congéneres por la presencia en machos de espinas sobre los radios de la aleta caudal (vs. ausencia). Observamos que las diferentes capas de pigmentos que confor...

  18. Fish stock assessment of piraputanga Brycon microlepis in the Cuiabá River basin, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    L. A. de F. MATEUS

    Full Text Available Fork length measurements of individuals of Brycon microlepis landed and commercialized at the Porto Market in Cuiabá, MT, from May-October 1996 to May-October 1997 were used to estimate growth and mortality parameters for this species. The average estimated populational parameters were: L¥ = 705 mm, k = 0.275 year--1, C = 0.775, WP = 0.465, Lc = 164 mm, M = 0.585 year--1, Z = 0.822 year--1, with F = 0.237 year--1. Yield per recruit analysis suggests that the stock is not yet overexploited.

  19. Redescription of Hyphessobrycon flammeusMyers, 1924 (Ostariophysi: Characidae, a threatened species from Brazil

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    Fernando R. Carvalho

    Full Text Available One of the most gorgeous colored and endangered Hyphessobryconspecies, H. flammeus Myers, is redescribed. Diagnostic characters of the species are two vertically elongated humeral spots, no caudal peduncle blotch, 5-8 maxillary teeth, caudal fin hyaline, and longitudinal dark stripe of the body absent. Sexual dimorphism is present, with males being more colored than females and having bony hooks in the anal and pelvic fins, which are dark in their terminal portions. Comments about its occurrence in the upper rio Tietê drainage (upper rio Paraná basin, its conservation status, and the phylogenetic position into Characidae context are also presented.

  20. Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis sp. n. (Teleostei, Characidae una nueva especie para el Alto Cauca, Colombia

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    García-Alzate, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis n. sp. (Teleostei, Characidae a new species from the Alto Cauca, Colombia Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis n. sp. (Characiformes, Characidae from heterorhabdus group (Gery, 1977 is described from the upper Cauca River in Colombia. The new species is distinguished from all other known species by the following combination of characters: three unbranched and eight branched fins in the dorsal fin; short maxillary bone with one or no teeth; four small foramens in the maxillary bone, and five in the premaxillary; 5-17 scales with pores in the lateral line, six between the lateral line and anal-fin origin, six between the lateral line and pelvic-fin origin, and nine predorsals; depth of the caudal peduncle has a mean of 16.7% in standard length; interorbital width 50.6% in head; a dark spot on caudal peduncle and a dark lateral band that extends vertically from the dorsal–fin origin to the tips of the middle caudal fin rays. Physical and chemical data of their habitat are included.

  1. Effect of methyl parathion on the muscle and brain acetylcholinesterase activity of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

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    Almeida Luciana Cristina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming of the freshwater fish is emerging in Brazil and many species from the wild are promising. The teleost matrinxã (Brycon cephalus holds several characteristics such as fast growth rate, high commercial value and adaptability to artificial raring conditions, which make it a promising species for commerce. The use of pesticides in aquatic environment is frequent in Brazil, and methyl parathion is very common in aquaculture. We have determined the enzymatic activity of acetyl cholinesterase in white muscle and brain of matrinxã exposed to 2ppm of environmental methyl parathion for 24 hours. There was 64% and 69% of acetyl cholinesterase inhibition in muscle and brain respectively. These activities were not recovered after 8 days from exposure to this pesticide. It can be concluded that acetyl cholinesterase from those tissues was inhibited by small amounts of methyl parathion, and the main effect was observed in the brain.

  2. Gonadossomatic relation and reproductive strategy of Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819 in the Serra do Mar State Park - Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    LM Gomiero

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the gonadossomatic relation of males and females of Brycon opalinus (the Pirapitinga do Sul in the Serra do Mar State Park-Núcleo Santa Virgínia. The study area included three rivers: Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande. From the gonadossomatic relation, it was possible to determine the reproductive season and strategy of this species. The gonadossomatic relation was high throughout the year for both males and females. Sperm competition and dilution of the ejaculate in the spawning locations favored substantial development of the testicles. The sex ratio of Brycon opalinus was always in favor of females. The existence of sexual dimorphism in this species was confirmed from the larger size of the females.

  3. The effect of saponins from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke on the renal Na+ pumps’ activities and urinary excretion of natriuretic peptides

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    Diniz Lúcio Ricardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we showed that a saponin mixture isolated from the roots of Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke (SAPAaD reduces urine excretion in rats that were given an oral loading of 0.9 % NaCl (4 ml/100 g body weight. In the present study, we investigated whether atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP and renal ATPases play a role in the SAPAaD- induced antidiuresis in rats. Methods To evaluate the effect of SAPAaD on furosemide-induced diuresis, Wistar rats (250-300 g were given an oral loading of physiological solution (0.9 % NaCl, 4 ml/100 g body weight to impose a uniform water and salt state. The solution containing furosemide (Furo, 13 mg/kg was given 30 min after rats were orally treated with 50 mg/kg SAPAaD (SAPAaD + Furo or 0.5 ml of 0.9 % NaCl (NaCl + Furo. In the SAPAaD + NaCl group, rats were pretreated with SAPAaD and 30 min later they received the oral loading of physiological solution. Animals were individually housed in metabolic cages, and urine volume was measured every 30 min throughout the experiment (3 h. To investigate the role of ANP and renal Na+ pumps on antidiuretic effects promoted by SAPAaD, rats were given the physiological solution (as above containing SAPAaD (50 mg/kg. After 90 min, samples of urine and blood from the last 30 min were collected. Kidneys and atria were also removed after previous anesthesia. ANP was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA and renal cortical activities of Na+- and (Na+,K+-ATPases were calculated from the difference between the [32P] Pi released in the absence and presence of 1 mM furosemide/2 mM ouabain and in the absence and presence of 1 mM ouabain, respectively. Results It was observed that SAPAaD inhibited furosemide-induced diuresis (at 90 min: from 10.0 ± 1.0 mL, NaCl + Furo group, n = 5, to 5.9 ± 1.0 mL, SAPAaD + Furo group n = 5, p +-ATPase (from 25.0 ± 5.9 nmol Pi

  4. Effects of clove oil on the stress response of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus subjected to transport Efeito do óleo de cravo na resposta de estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus submetido ao transporte

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    Luís Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish transport is one of the most stressful procedures in aquaculture facilities. The present work evaluated the stress response of matrinxã to transportation procedures, and the use of clove oil as an alternative to reduce the stress response to transport in matrinxã (Brycon cephalus. Clove oil solutions were tested in concentrations of 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg/L during matrinxã transportation in plastic bags, supplied with water and oxygen as the usual field procedures in Brazil. Clove oil reduced some of the physiological stress responses (plasma cortisol, glucose and ions that we measured. The high energetic cost to matrinxã cope with the transport stress was clear by the decrease of liver glycogen after transport. Our results suggest that clove oil (5 mg/l can mitigate the stress response in matrinxã subjected to transport.O transporte de peixes vivos é certamente um dos principais estímulos adversos à homeostase dos peixes nas condições de criação em cativeiro. O presente trabalho mensurou o estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, quando submetido ao transporte em sacos plásticos, bem como avaliou os efeitos do uso do anestésico óleo de cravo nessa etapa do manejo. Foram testadas as concentrações de 0, 1, 5 e 10 mg/L de óleo de cravo em bolsas plásticas preenchidas com água e oxigênio, de acordo com as práticas comumente utilizadas no Brasil. O óleo de cravo reduziu algumas das principais respostas ao estresse (cortisol, glicose plasmática e íons mensuradas. O alto gasto de energia para o matrinxã tolerar o transporte foi evidenciado pela diminuição dos valores de glicogênio hepático. Os resultados sugerem que o óleo de cravo em concentração de 5 mg/L pode atenuar as principais respostas de estresse do matrinxã durante o transporte.

  5. Juveniles of the piscivorous dourado Salminus brasiliensis mimic the piraputanga Brycon hilarii as an alternative predation tactic

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    Eduardo Bessa

    Full Text Available In the district of Bom Jardim, in Nobres, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, there are clear water streams originating on karstic terrain. The dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, is an apex stalking predator in these streams. In clear waters, where visually oriented prey may perceive predator in advance, surprise is needed for successful attacks. These streams are cohabited by other Characiformes, like the frugivorous piraputanga Brycon hilarii, which lives in schools and exhibits body colour and shape similar to the dourados. Here we describe an alternative predatory tactic for juvenile dourado occurring in headwater streams of the Paraguay River basin, in which they act as an aggressive mimic of the piraputanga. Based on 43 h of observations in Bom Jardim, and on additional 11 h in the Bodoquena Plateau Rivers of Mato Grosso do Sul State, we quantified the number of rushes by dourados when they were among piraputangas or foraging alone, and observed the proportion of piraputangas per dourado in multispecific schools. Dourados of up to 30 cm total length (TL stayed among the piraputangas of similar size hiding within the school and going to the periphery of the school before rushing against prey. The dourados exhibited colours similar to the piraputangas. They not only stayed longer among piraputangas (78% of the observation time, but also rushed against prey more often than when foraging alone (53 rushes/h against 14 rushes/h, respectively.

  6. Una nueva especie ecuatoriana del género de peces andinos Grundulus (Characiformes: Characidae

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    César Román-Valencia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Grundulus quitoensis nueva especie (Characiformes, Characidae proveniente de las Lagunas El Voladero reserva biológica El Angel al norte de Ecuador. El nuevo taxon se distingue de las demás especies por el menor número de radios simples en la aleta anal (tres vs. cuatro a cinco y en las aletas pectorales (uno vs. dos a tres, por el mayor número de dientes en cada dentario (12- 14 vs. 8-10, perfil ventral posterior a la cintura pectoral hasta el origen de la aleta anal plano (vs. curvo, el segundo infraorbital es tres veces más grande que el primero (vs. dos veces más grande, el tercer infraorbital está separado del preopérculo (vs. en contacto con la superficie del preopérculo, dentario presenta cuatro pequeñas fenestras en el margen infero-lateral (vs. uno a dos, el premaxilar presenta un proceso lateral largo (vs. corto, maxilar con dos muescas en la superficie infero-lateral (vs. maxilar con una muesca en la superficie inferolateral.A new Ecuadorian species of the Andean fish genus Grundulus (Characiformes: Characidae. The new species Grundulus quitoensis is described from El Voladero Lake, El Angel Biological Reserve, Northern Ecuador. The new taxon can be distinguished from all congeners by the following characters, respectively: a low number of unbranched rays in the anal fin (three vs. four-five and in pectoral fins (on vs. two - three, a higher number of dentary teeth (12-14 vs. 8-10, a second infraorbital about three times larger than the first (vs. about two times larger, a third infraorbital which is not in contact with the preopercle (vs. in contact with preopercle, the presence of four small fenestrae in the infero-lateral bone dentary (vs. one - two; and a premaxilla which presents a long lateral process (vs. short, a maxilla with two notches in the infero-lateral surface (vs. one notch in the infero-lateral surface. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 537-544. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

  7. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN Genetic Variability in Brycon orbignyanus Stocks Used in Stocking Programs: Management and Conservation

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    NELSON M LOPERA-BARRERO

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar.Environmental alterations caused by the global heating and mainly caused by man's action, have reduced natural fish populations. As a conservation measure, stocking programs have been used; however, without scientific orientation these measures can generate genetic disturbances on the genetic diversity of natural fish populations and the

  8. Reprodução induzida da pirapitinga-do-sul, Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819, mantida em condições de confinamento Induced spawning of pirapitinga-do-sul, Brycon opalinus, in captivity conditions

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    Massuka Yamane Narahara

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de obter a reprodução da pirapitinga-do-sul, Brycon opalinus, por intermédio da aplicação de hormônios indutores e determinar a distribuição de freqüência dos diâmetros dos ovócitos em fêmeas aptas à indução. Cento e vinte reprodutores apresentando comprimento entre 25,5 e 32,0 cm foram mantidos em um tanque circular de alvenaria, de 10 m de diâmetro, na Estação de Aqüicultura de Paraibuna/CESP. Para determinação das fêmeas aptas à reprodução, retiraram-se amostras de ovócitos com cateter plástico introduzido pela abertura urogenital. Estes ovócitos foram analisados quanto à cor, tamanho, posição da vesícula germinativa (núcleo e distribuição de freqüência porcentual dos diâmetros. Os machos foram selecionados pela qualidade do sêmen. Vinte e nove fêmeas aptas à reprodução receberam duas injeções intramusculares de EPS (extrato de pituitária de salmão, sendo a 1ª, na dose de 5 mg/kg e a 2ª, de 10 mg/kg, com intervalo de 12 horas. Os machos que apresentavam ao redor de 90% de motilidade espermática e 85% de espermatozóides vivos receberam dose única de 5 UI de hCG/g (gonadotropina coriônica humana, por ocasião da aplicação da 2ª dose nas fêmeas. Os ovócitos das 14 fêmeas que responderam ao tratamento hormonal eram de cor acinzentada ou vinho, e aquelas que apresentaram alta taxa de fertilização mostraram distribuição de freqüência porcentual dos diâmetros com moda igual a 1900 µm. A taxa média de fertilização foi de 90%, e a de eclosão, 40%.The objective of this study was to induce spawning in pirapitinga-do-sul, Brycon opalinus, with the application of hormones and to determine the pattern of oocyte diameter frequency distribution in females prepared to induction. One hundred and twenty spawners with 25.5 to 32.0 cm of length were placed in circular ponds of 10 m of diameter, at Estação de Aqüicultura de Paraibuna-SP of CESP. In

  9. Avaliação espermática pós-descongelamento em piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Vallenciennes, 1849 Sperm evaluation of piracanjuba fish (Brycon orbignyanus, Vallenciennes, 1849, after thawing

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    Luis David Solis Murgas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de testar o efeito de dois meios diluidores (Glicose 5% e água de côco no congelamento do sêmen de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Vallenciennes, 1849 e dois descongelamentos do sêmen (60ºC durante 5 segundos e 50ºC durante 10 segundos. Foi utilizado como ativador da motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento o bicarbonato de sódio 1%. Um fatorial 2 x 2 foi utilizado para analisar o efeito dos dois modelos de descongelamento e dos diluidores sobre a motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento, sua duração e porcentagem de espermatozóides vivos pós-descongelamento. A motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento média foi de 74,17 ± 22,45%, quando se utilizou a glicose 5% como diluidor e descongelamento a 50ºC, durante 10 segundos, observando-se diferença significativa na interação entre diluidor e descongelamento. A duração da motilidade espermática não apresentou diferença entre os diluidores e descongelamentos, com média de 153,33 ± 59,61 segundos. A porcentagem de espermatozóides vivos pode ser utilizada para avaliação de sêmen de peixes e apresentou resultados significativos apenas quando da interação entre descongelamento a 50ºC durante 10 segundos e diluidor com glicose 5%. Esta combinação foi mais efetiva na preservação da integridade dos espermatozóides de piracanjuba pós-descongelamento, com média de 67,83 ± 17,67% de espermatozóides vivos.The aim of this experiment was to test the effects of two extenders (Glucose 5% and Coconut Water and two thawing rates (60ºC during 5 seconds and 50ºC during 10 seconds for semen of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbygnianus, Vallencienens, 1849. A solution of NaHCO3 1% was used to activate motility. A factorial 2 x 2 was used to analyze the results on sperm motility and its duration, and the percentage of living sperm after thawing. The highest sperm motility values (74.17 ± 22.45% were achieved when the combination of

  10. Coptobrycon bilineatus (Ellis, 1911 (Characiformes: Characidae: redescription and comments on its phylogenetic relationships

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    Francisco Langeani

    Full Text Available Coptobrycon bilineatus (Ellis, 1911 is redescribed on the basis of specimens from the District of Paranapiacaba, Municipality of Santo André, upper rio Tietê, and additional ones recently collected in a small coastal river system of Serra do Mar, very near the headwaters of the rio Tietê. The genus was compared to other Characidae lacking a supraorbital, and it seems to be more phylogenetically related to Grundulus based on the possession of various putative apomorphic character states related to: the absence of a rhinosphenoid and fourth, fifth (sometimes and sixth infraorbitals; nasal pores separated; nares with up to six nasal lamellae; cephalic laterosensory system poorly developed on supraorbital and infraorbital series; and a globose scapula. Furthermore, Coptobrycon and Grundulus are characterized by the absence of the adipose fin, of the supraorbital laterosensory series on the parietal, and of the humeral spot, and by the reduction of lateral musculature in front of the first pleural rib and between the first and second pleural ribs. Biogeographic comments are also provided.

  11. Markiana nigripinnis (Perugia, 1891 as a putative member of the subfamily Stevardiinae (Characiformes: Characidae: spermatic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarianna Martins Baicere-Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Markiana was until recently recognized as incertae sedis in the family Characidae, even though alternative placements for this genus have been advanced since its original description. More recently, it was hypothesized that Markiana nigripinnis is part of a clade informally named the Astyanax clade, indicating the putative close relationship of Markiana with the genus Astyanax. Examination of sperm ultrastructure of representatives of Astyanax and M. nigripinnis shows no evidence for this hypothesized close relationship. Rather, the spermatozoa of M. nigripinnis share characters found in spermatozoa of the non-inseminating members of the subfamily Stevardiinae, such as an angle of nuclear rotation equal to 85º resulting in a lateral position of the double nuclear fossa and flagellum. As with the non-inseminating Stevardiinae, sperm nuclei are also slightly elongate toward the flagellum, the proximal centriole is partially inside the nuclear fossa and anterior and oblique to the distal centriole, and the midpiece is short and strongly asymmetric. Additionally, M. nigripinnis shares with the other members of the Stevardiinae the presence of only four teeth in the inner row of the premaxillary and a short triangular ectopterygoid, which is never more than twice the length of the palatine.

  12. Juveniles of the piscivorous dourado Salminus brasiliensis mimic the piraputanga Brycon hilarii as an alternative predation tactic

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    Eduardo Bessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the district of Bom Jardim, in Nobres, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, there are clear water streams originating on karstic terrain. The dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, is an apex stalking predator in these streams. In clear waters, where visually oriented prey may perceive predator in advance, surprise is needed for successful attacks. These streams are cohabited by other Characiformes, like the frugivorous piraputanga Brycon hilarii, which lives in schools and exhibits body colour and shape similar to the dourados. Here we describe an alternative predatory tactic for juvenile dourado occurring in headwater streams of the Paraguay River basin, in which they act as an aggressive mimic of the piraputanga. Based on 43 h of observations in Bom Jardim, and on additional 11 h in the Bodoquena Plateau Rivers of Mato Grosso do Sul State, we quantified the number of rushes by dourados when they were among piraputangas or foraging alone, and observed the proportion of piraputangas per dourado in multispecific schools. Dourados of up to 30 cm total length (TL stayed among the piraputangas of similar size hiding within the school and going to the periphery of the school before rushing against prey. The dourados exhibited colours similar to the piraputangas. They not only stayed longer among piraputangas (78% of the observation time, but also rushed against prey more often than when foraging alone (53 rushes/h against 14 rushes/h, respectively.No distrito de Bom Jardim, Nobres, Mato Grosso, Brasil, existem rios de águas claras que se originam sobre terreno cárstico. O dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, é um predador perseguidor de topo de cadeia nestes rios. Em águas, onde presas visualmente orientadas são capazes de perceber antecipadamente o predador, o fator surpresa é necessário para ataques bem sucedidos. Estes córregos são coabitados por outros Characiformes, como a frugívora piraputanga, Brycon hilarii, a qual vive em cardumes e exibe colora

  13. VALOR AGREGADO DE LAS ESPECIES Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE y Agouti paca (MAJAS

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    Doylith Vásquez Jurafo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo  la obtención de  productos mínimamente procesados (PMP de Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE, y Agouti paca (MAJAS congelado y empacado al vacio. Para las especies piscícolas, se ha aplicado un diseño factorial de 32 con dos factores de estudios: concentración de NaCl en la solución osmótica con tres niveles (15, 20 y 25 % y temperatura de proceso  con tres niveles de estudio (5, 10 y 15 °C. Para el Agouti paca (majas se aplico un diseño factorial completamente aleatorizado con tres factores de estudio: tiempo de proceso (30, 60 y 90 minutos, método de ahumado (ahumado líquido y ahumado en caliente y tipo de corte del músculo (partes y filetes. Para trabajar se ha diseñado y montado un deshidratador Osmótico teniendo en cuenta, diámetro de tubería, deshidratador propiamente dicho con doble chaqueta, capacidad del deshidratador en función del volumen de la Salmuera.  Todos los productos se obtuvieron  en procesos con 10 °C y tiempos entre 30 min y  90 min. El tiempo de vida en almacenamiento en las evaluaciones de aroma y color en majas tienen una vida útil de 4 meses de almacenados a -18 °C. Los análisis microbiológicos realizados a los PMP no pasan los límites de la NTS Nº 071 MINSA/DIGESA V01.

  14. VALOR AGREGADO DE LAS ESPECIES Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE y Agouti paca (MAJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doylith Vásquez Jurafo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la obtención de productos mínimamente procesados (PMP de Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE, y Agouti paca (MAJAS congelado y empacado al vacio. Para las especies piscícolas, se ha aplicado un diseño factorial de 32 con dos factores de estudios: concentración de NaCl en la solución osmótica con tres niveles (15, 20 y 25 % y temperatura de proceso con tres niveles de estudio (5, 10 y 15 °C. Para el Agouti paca (majas se aplicó un diseño factorial completamente aleatorizado con tres factores de estudio: tiempo de proceso (30, 60 y 90 minutos, método de ahumado (ahumado líquido y ahumado en caliente y tipo de corte del músculo (partes y filetes. Para trabajar se ha diseñado y montado un deshidratador Osmótico teniendo en cuenta, diámetro de tubería, deshidratador propiamente dicho con doble chaqueta, capacidad del deshidratador en función del volumen de la Salmuera.  Todos los productos se obtuvieron en procesos con 10 °C y tiempos entre 30 min y 90 min. El tiempo de vida en almacenamiento en las evaluaciones de aroma y color en majas tienen una vida útil de 4 meses de almacenados a -18 °C. Los análisis microbiológicos realizados a los PMP no pasan los límites de la NTS Nº 071 MINSA/DIGESA V01.

  15. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

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    VARGAS LAURO

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar

  16. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

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    NELSON M. LOPERA-BARRERO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa- das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios gené- ticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosis- tema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD ( Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar.

  17. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

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    NELSON M LOPERA-BARRERO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar

  18. APRENDIENDO Y JUGANDO CON AQUATAMBO, UNA PROPUESTA DIDÁCTICA BASADA EN LA BIOLOGÍA REPRODUCTIVA DEL PEZ BRYCON

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    DARÍO ÁLVAREZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el procedimiento empleado para la construcción de un juego didáctico que permita a los docentes de Ciencias Naturales y Educación Ambiental, estimular en sus estudiantes actitudes favorables para la conservación del recurso hídrico a partir del conocimiento que adquieren sobre este y las diferentes interacciones con los seres vivos. El juego se diseñó teniendo como centro la biología reproductiva del pez Brycon henni, conocido en la región como Sabaleta, y se aplicó a estudiantes de grado sexto y séptimo de la Institución Educativa Rural El Tambo, localizada en el municipio de San Pedro de los Milagros, en el departamento de Antioquia (Colombia. El diseño metodológico parte de considerar las preferencias y carencias de los estudiantes de la comunidad académica, continúa con la selección de los postulados teóricos de Vygotsky, Piaget y Ausubel asociados al aprendizaje a través del juego, incorporando estos elementos desde el contexto local y concluye con la evaluación de la aplicación del instrumento. El uso del instrumento demostró favorecer el aprendizaje, tal como lo indica un test aplicado antes y después de haberse jugado en el que se observa un incremento del 18 % en respuestas acertadas.

  19. PISCES: CHARACIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , but the species is of little economic importance in the lake. The breeding season is short and coincides with the main river floods. Females are larger than males and fecundity is extremely high. Like other A/este.t species it is a very versatile ...

  20. (Pisces, Characidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % (Olifants River), with a genetic distance value of 0.005 between these populations. The low amount of genetic variability ... miller & Kelso-Winemiller, 1994). It has a well—deserved reputation as the most sought-after sport. fish on the African ...

  1. PISCES: CHARACIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zooplankton and fish are not important food items. Condition factors appear to be ... Alestes imberi Peters is a small characid fish with a wide distribution in eastern Central. Africa. It occurs throughout the ...... The role of A. imberi in the ecology of the lake has not yet been fully determined. It appears to be the only species ...

  2. Pisces, Characidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % (Olifants River), with a genetic distance value of 0.005 between these populations. The low amount of genetic variability ... miller & Kelso-Winemiller, 1994). It has a well—deserved reputation as the most sought-after sport. fish on the African ...

  3. Markiana nigripinnis (Perugia, 1891 as a putative member of the subfamily Stevardiinae (Characiformes: Characidae: spermatic evidence

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    Clarianna Martins Baicere-Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Markiana was until recently recognized as incertae sedis in the family Characidae, even though alternative placements for this genus have been advanced since its original description. More recently, it was hypothesized that Markiana nigripinnis is part of a clade informally named the Astyanax clade, indicating the putative close relationship of Markiana with the genus Astyanax. Examination of sperm ultrastructure of representatives of Astyanax and M. nigripinnis shows no evidence for this hypothesized close relationship. Rather, the spermatozoa of M. nigripinnis share characters found in spermatozoa of the non-inseminating members of the subfamily Stevardiinae, such as an angle of nuclear rotation equal to 85º resulting in a lateral position of the double nuclear fossa and flagellum. As with the non-inseminating Stevardiinae, sperm nuclei are also slightly elongate toward the flagellum, the proximal centriole is partially inside the nuclear fossa and anterior and oblique to the distal centriole, and the midpiece is short and strongly asymmetric. Additionally, M. nigripinnis shares with the other members of the Stevardiinae the presence of only four teeth in the inner row of the premaxillary and a short triangular ectopterygoid, which is never more than twice the length of the palatine.O gênero Markiana até recentemente foi reconhecido como incertae sedis na família Characidae, apesar da localização alternativa para este gênero desde sua descrição original. Mais recentemente, surgiu a hipótese de que Markiana nigripinnis faz parte de um clado chamado informalmente de "Astyanax clade", indicando a suposta relação de Markiana com o gênero Astyanax. A análise da ultraestrutura dos espermatozoides de representantes do gênero Astyanax e M. nigripinnis não mostra nenhuma evidência de estreita relação. Pelo contrário, os espermatozóides de M. nigripinnis compartilham o padrão encontrado nos espermatozoides dos membros n

  4. Efeito do resfriamento sobre a textura post-mortem da carne do peixe matrinxã Brycon cephalus Chilling effect on the post-mortem texture of the matrinxã fish muscle Brycon cephalus

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    H. Suárez-Mahecha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos que causam o amolecimento e a perda na textura post-mortem da carne de matrinxã foram determinados por meio das mudanças na microestrutura do músculo, imediatamente após a morte e depois de 12 horas de estocagem a -3°C. As observações na microestrutura, realizadas com microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, foram semelhantes aos resultados obtidos na força de ruptura do músculo medidos com o texturômetro. Os valores da força da ruptura foram menores para a carne após o resfriamento. Observou-se que as fibras do colágeno do tecido conectivo pericelular se desintegraram e que as do colágeno do tecido conectivo do miocommata conservaram sua arquitetura e integridade. Houve pouca degradação da linha Z. Isso sugere que o amolecimento post-mortem da carne de mantrinxã, durante a estocagem a -3°C, é causado pela degradação do tecido conectivo pericelular.In order to determine the mechanisms that cause the post mortem muscle softness of the matrinxã Brycon cephalus, changes in the micro structure of the muscle were observed immediately after death and after 12 hours of storage at -3º C, measuring the firmness of the flesh with test instruments. Observations by the transmission electron microscope were similar to the results obtained in the breaking strength of the muscle measured with a texturometer. The values of the breaking strength of the fish muscle were smaller after chilling. At the same time, it was observed that the collagen fibers of the pericellular connective tissue had disintegrated, while the collagen fibers of the miocommata connective tissue maintained their organization and integrity. No evident breakdown of Z-discs was observed. It is suggested that the post-mortem tenderization of the matrinxã muscle during chilled storage was due to the disintegration of the collagen fibers in the pericellular connective tissue and, in a smaller extent, to the weakening of Z-disk.

  5. Utilização da fibra bruta na nutrição da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Effect of crude fiber on the nutrition of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Evoy Zaniboni Filho

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho da piracanjuba, quando arraçoada com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra bruta. Empregou-se um lote de 60 alevinos, com peso médio de 17,40±3,06g e comprimento padrão médio de 11,70±0,73cm, alojados em 12 aquários circulares de fibra de vidro com capacidade para 150L e numa lotação de cinco peixes por aquário, com abastecimento de água proporcionado por um sistema de circulação fechada. Utilizaram-se rações com semelhante composição em proteína (32%, níveis de energia que variaram de 3.037 a 3.356 kcal ED/kg de ração e níveis crescentes de fibra bruta (5%, 7%, 8% e 9% por 105 dias. Constatou-se que os peixes apresentaram melhor resposta de ganho de peso, quando arraçoados com dietas contendo 9% de fibra bruta e que a utilização de níveis de fibra bruta, acima dos convencionalmente empregados, proporcionou baixos níveis de gordura na carcaça, sem que houvesse prejuízos ao desempenho zootécnico, e que as rações podem ser elaboradas empregando-se subprodutos de origem vegetal ricos em fibra bruta.The present experiment evaluated the performance of Brycon orbignyanus fed on diets with different levels of crude fiber. Fish with mean weight of 17.40±3.06 g and total length of 11.70±0,73cm were stocked in 12 fiberglass aquariums (150 L fitted with center standpipes in a recirculating system at a density of 5 fish/aquarium. The fish were fed four diets containing similar levels of protein (32%, energy levels varyng from 3,037 to 3,356 kcal DE/kg, and crude fiber levels of 5%; 7%; 85 and 9% for 105 days. The fish had better weight gain when fed diet containing 9% of crude fiber, and it can be concluded that fish fed diets containing higher levels of crude fiber than usually used result in fish with less fat on carcass without loss of growth, and by products of plant origin rich in fiber could be used to produce diets for this kind of fish.

  6. Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913 EFFECT OF SOME IONS ON SPERM ACTIVATION IN Brycon henni (EIGENMANN 1913

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    JAVIER TABARES

    2007-06-01

    M (p<0.05. The conclusion is that interaction of the ionic environment with the cell membrane leads to changes in membrane potential and intracellular signalling that trigger sperm motility in Brycon henni.

  7. Una nueva especie de pez del género Hemibrycon (Characiformes:Characidae

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    César Román-Valencia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Hemibrycon pautensis (Characiformes: Characidae, una especie nueva de pez del río Paute al oriente de Ecuador. El nuevo taxón se distingue de las demás especies por las siguientes caracteristicas: ocho a nueve radios ramificados enaleta dorsal (vs. seis a siete, y 27 -28 en la aleta anal (vs.16 -26, excepto en H. dariensis la cual presenta 22 -27, en H. metae 26 -31 y H. jabonero 23 -28; no presenta placa faringea dorsal (vs. presenta; basihial dividido en dos y cartilaginoso (vs. óseo y cartilaginoso en la parte superior. Hemibrycon pautensis es parecida a H. metae es parecida a H. metae por el borde externo de las aletas pélvicas oblicuo. Se distinguen por la posición de las aletas pectorales con relación al extremo del hocico (38.24- 41.6 en H. pautensis vs. 21.21-25.87 y por la posición de las aletas pectorales con relación al origen de la aleta dorsal (20.95-24.30 en Hemibrycon pautensis vs. 35.89-42.63, y por el número de radiales proximales en la cintura pectoral (cinco en Hemibrycon pautensis vs. tres a cuatro. Además, la distribución geográfica de H. metae está restringida a la cuenca alta del río Meta en Colombia. Se distingue de H. boquiae por el número de escamas entre la línea lateral y el origen de la aleta dorsal (ocho en H. pautensis vs. 5-7, por la distancia entre el hocico y el origen de las aletas pélvicas (38.00-42.90% en H. pautensis vs.42.9-46.19%, por la longitud de las aletas pélvicas (13.77-17.96% en H. pautensis vs. 10.72-13.21%, y por la longitud del hocico (21.34-27.88 en H. pautensis vs. 26.92-33.66%.Una nueva especie de pez del género Hemibrycon (Characiformes: Characidae. Hemibrycon pautensis (Characiformes, Characidae, a new fish species from Paute River, eastern Ecuador is described. Diagnostic characteristics: eight to nine branched rays in the dorsal fin (vs.six to seven, and 27 -28 in the anal fin (vs.16 -26, except in H. dariensis which presents 22 -27, in H. metae 26 -31 and H

  8. Descrição cariótica e novas ocorrências de cromossomos supranuméricos em Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes: Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Cristiano Neves do [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    The cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNA has been applied in several studies in fish, which allowed a better characterization about the biodiversity and genomic evolution of Neotropical ichthyofauna. Among the several fish species living in this area, the genus Moenkhausia, one of the specious groups inside Characidae, is remarkable. From a cytogenetic point of view, this genus show variations in diploid numbers of 48 to 50 chromosomes, as well as the occurrence of B chromosomes in different...

  9. New species of miniature fish from Marajó Island, Pará, Brazil, with comments on its relationships (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Manoela M. F. Marinho

    Full Text Available A new miniature species of the family Characidae from Marajó Island, Pará State, Brazil is described and assigned to the genus Tyttobrycon. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners primarily by having multicuspid teeth on jaws, and additionally by having the combination of 5-7 premaxillary teeth, dorsal fin only with scattered melanophores and the presence of an adipose fin.

  10. Dose inseminante utilizada na fertilização artificial de ovócito de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Viviane de Oliveira Felizardo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 é uma espécie de peixe migratória, ameaçada de extinção. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a dose inseminante na fertilização artificial de ovócitos de piracanjuba. Para isso, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Três casais de piracanjuba, selecionados dos tanques de reprodutores da Estação Ambiental de Itutinga (EAI - CEMIG, no período de piracema 2006/2007, receberam aplicação de hormônio extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa (EBHC para obtenção dos gametas. Adotaram-se quatro tratamentos diferentes para a fertilização de 0,1 grama de ovócitos: 10µL, 20µL, 30µL e 40µL de sêmen. As amostras foram ativadas com 5 mL de água do próprio tanque e, em seguida, levadas para incubadoras, dotadas de renovação constante de água, à temperatura de 28ºC. Após 8 e 16 horas, analisaram-se as taxas de fertilização (ovos viáveis e de eclosão dos ovos, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. As relações sêmen-ovócitos testadas não alteraram as taxas de fertilização e eclosão (P>0,05. O número de espermatozoides-ovócitos, variando de 10,4 x10(5 a 41,6 x10(5, foi eficiente para obtenção de boas taxas de fertilidade.

  11. Evaluación del cultivo de la dorada ( Brycon moorei sinuensis en jaulas flotantes utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados.

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    Robinsón Rosado

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se inició el 30 de septiembre del2000 con el cultivo de Dorada (Brycon mooreisinuensis en jaulas flotantes en el reservorio de laGranja Piscícola Tamarindo (El Espinal, Colombia,utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados durante 180días. Se determinó el crecimiento mediante laganancia en longitud, ganancia en peso, tasa decrecimiento específico, sobre-vivencia final, biomasatotal, factor de condición, factor de conversiónalimenticia. Se sembraron 816 juveniles con longitudpromedio de 17.8 cm y peso promedio de 78.9 g,divididos en cuatro tratamientos con densidad desiembra de 25 peces/cm3 y tres réplicas cada uno.Las dietas balanceadas (proteína bruta y la cantidadde energía (Kcal/Kg suministrada fueron: Tratamiento1: 20% y 2637; tratamiento 2: 32% y 3127;tratamiento 3: 28% y 2852; y tratamiento 4: 24% y2751, respectivamente. El diseño experimental fuecompletamente aleatorio y se aplicó la técnica deanálisis de varianza a los datos biométricos yparámetros físico-químicos. Como prueba designificancia se usó la prueba de Tukey-Kramer con95% de confiabilidad. El modelo matemático de VIONBERTALANFY y la transformación de FOR-WALFORDfueron válidos para el ajuste de las curvas decrecimiento en longitud, peso y la relación longitud– peso. Se puede afirmar que la Dorada consumiólas dietas de origen vegetal de igual manera que lasde origen animal, sin embargo la dieta del 28% deproteína bruta (tratamiento 3 muestra los mejoresresultados, sin diferencias significativas entretratamientos (p > 0.05. De acuerdo con la literaturacitada no hay investigaciones que muestren losrequerimientos nutricionales óptimos para laalimentación de esta especie. En todos los trabajosanteriores, la ganancia de peso diaria fue baja, peromejores que las obtenidas en esta investigación.Mientras que el rendimiento en biomasa fue mayorque los reportados para cultivo en tierra, para todoslos tratamientos en este estudio fue muy bajo.

  12. Exigência Protéica e Relação Energia/Proteína para Alevinos de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Dietary Protein Requirement and Energy to Protein Ratio for Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Fingerlings

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    Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a exigência protéica e correspondente relação energia/proteína em dietas para alevinos de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus. Seis dietas semi-purificadas isocalóricas foram formuladas para conter 3.000 kcal de energia metabolizável (EM/kg e concentrações de proteína bruta (PB de 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42%. Para essas concentrações, as relações E/P das dietas foram de 12,3; 11,6; 10,4; 9,2; 8,5 e 7,1 kcal EM/g PB, respectivamente. As fontes de proteína, lipídios e carboidratos digestíveis foram, respectivamente, caseína/gelatina, óleo de fígado de bacalhau/óleo de soja e dextrina. Após condicionamento de cinco dias, as dietas foram fornecidas, até a saciedade, em duas alimentações diárias, a 162 alevinos (27 peixes/dieta, que apresentaram 8,38 ± 0,09 g de peso médio inicial, distribuídos em 18 tanques de fibra-de-vidro de 100 L, conectados a um sistema de recirculação de água. A temperatura média da água foi de 26,3°C, com extremos de 23,7 e 30,2°C. Após 90 dias, a concentração de proteína na dieta que proporcionou ganho em peso máximo aos peixes foi 29% PB, com relação E/P igual a 10,4 kcal EM/g PB. As dietas com concentrações de PB iguais a 32, 36 e 42% não se mostraram superiores para conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, valor produtivo da proteína e retenção de energia bruta. A deposição corporal de proteína e gordura não sofreu influência da concentração de PB da dietaThe aim of this study was to determine the dietary protein requirement and associated energy to protein (E/P ratio for "Piracanjuba", Brycon orbignyanus, fingerlings. Casein-gelatin semipurified diets were formulated to contain six crude protein (CP concentrations: 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42% at one energy level, 3,000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg. These diets resulted in E/P ratios of 12.3, 11.6, 10.4, 9.2, 8.5 and 7.1 kcal ME/g CP, respectively. The protein, lipid

  13. Viabilidade espermática do sêmen de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus resfriado a 4°C Spermatic viability of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus semen cooled at 4°C

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    Luis David Solis Murgas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de três meios diluidores (BTS+KCl - D1, BTS+2KCL - D2 e BTS+Citrato de Sódio - D3, considerando três diferentes tempos de resfriamento (0, 72 e 144 horas, foram analizados no sêmen de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus a 4°C. Testou-se, ainda, a utilidade do meio diluidor BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution, adicionado a citrato de sódio e cloreto de potássio, na manutenção da imobilidade dos espermatozóides e na conservação de características do sêmen. Resultados satisfatórios foram encontrados até 144 horas de resfriamento. A motilidade espermática média do sêmen in natura foi de 94 ± 5,48%, com duração média de 55,6 ± 32,25 segundos (s. Para o sêmen diluído, as médias da motilidade e sua duração foram de 76,00 ± 1,86% e 56,6 ± 6,54 s, 77,00 ± 1,86% e 54,6 ± 6,54 s, e 74,33 ± 1,86% e 75,0 ± 6,54 s, respectivamente, para os diluidores D1, D2 e D3. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os diluidores, que apresentaram efeitos semelhantes nos diferentes tempos. As análises nos tempos 0 e 72 horas mostraram motilidades espermáticas superiores àquelas nas 144 horas, embora as durações da motilidade espermática não tenham diferido nesses tempos. A concentração espermática média do sêmen foi de 8,21 ± 2,26 X 10(9 sptz/mL. Algumas amostras evidenciaram motilidade espermática antes da ativação do sêmen (pré-ativação, principalmente a partir das 96 horas de resfriamento. O meio diluidor BTS pode ser recomendado para conservação de sêmen de piracanjuba (B. orbignyanus, desde que sua osmolaridade seja elevada.The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of 3 diluents BTS+KCl - D1, BTS+2KCL - D2 and BTS+Sodium Citrate - D3 and three different times (hour 0, 72 hours and 144 hours in Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus semen at 4°C. The assay aimed to test usefulness of BTS (Betsville Thawing Solution diluent medium, added to Sodium citrate and Potassium clorate, in maintenance

  14. Description of the composition of fatty acids and lipids in the breeders muscle, oocytes and in the embryonic development of Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fatima Ferreira Martins, Edenilce; Magnone, Larisa; Bessonart, Martin; Costa, Deliane Cristina; Dos Santos, José Cláudio Epaminondas; Bazzoli, Nilo; Nakayama, Cintia Labussière; Luz, Ronald Kennedy

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the fatty acid and lipid composition of oocytes, newly hatched larvae (NHL), first feeding larvae (FFL) and muscle tissue of female Brycon orthotaenia broodstock. Total and polar lipid was significantly (P0.05) between stages. C18:3n 3 was highest (P<0.05) in NHL and FFL. C20:4n 6 (AA) and C22:6n 3 (DHA) showed the highest percentages during the larval stages. The fatty acids n-3 series was significantly higher (P<0.05) in FFL. The n-6HUFA was highest during development larval (P<0.05). The increases DHA reflects the ability of the species to elongate and desaturate to obtain n-3HUFA from 18:3n 3, shows the importance of this fatty acid during early development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efeito da composição e osmolalidade do diluidor do sêmen criopreservado de piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus (Characiformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis, Dominga Isabel López

    2014-01-01

    A piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus é um peixe da ordem Characiformes, nativo da América do Sul. As mudanças no curso do rio, urbanização, poluição e construção de hidrelétricas são algumas das razões pelas quais o B. orbignyanus está atualmente classificado como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. A criopreservação de sêmen de peixes fornece uma ferramenta pela qual a reprodução é otimizada, melhorando os programas de conservação e melhoramento genético das espécies. Um meio de ...

  16. Variación morfológica de las especies de Astyanax, subgénero Zygogaster (Teleostei, Characidae

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    Ruiz-C., R. I.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation of Astyanax species, subgenus Zygogaster (Teleostei, Characidae The diverse Neotropical fish genus Astyanax inhabits a variety of aquatic environments. As with other species in this genus, the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of species of this subgenus remain largely undetermined. Based on 354 individuals, we analyzed the morphological variation of four species of the subgenus Zygogaster (A. atratoensis, A. caucanus, A. filiferus, and A. magdalenae using procrustes analysis and compared findings with two species of the sister group: subgenus Poecilurichthys (A. orthodus and A. superbus. The PCA (Principal Component Analysis and CVA (Canonical Variates Analysis showed morphological affinity between the subgenera and indicated variance in body depth, anterior trend of dorsal fin origin and humeral spot, depression on the dorsal surface of the skull, and ventral displacement of the orbit and snout. The variation in these structures may provide evidence supporting adaptive speciation as an alternative to speciation driven by geographical isolation.

  17. Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913 Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913

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    Olivera Martha

    2007-04-01

    +, Mg2+ and Na+ as well as the effect of channel blocking agents. The parameters measured were cells with motility (%, duration of motility (s, plasma membrane potential, and the effect of channel blockers on activation time and on motility. There was an increased motility when the semen was incubated in solutions containing K+ (p<0.05 compared with the control (CaNaMgK solution; the longest duration of motility was attained when the incubation was performed in solutions containing Na+ and Mg2+ (p<0.05. All solutions induced a change in membrane potential detected
    after 15 s of activation. Blocking K+, Ca2+ and Na+ channels did not alter motility but decreased the activation time (p<0.05. Potassium induced activation at all concentrations up to 105 mM, but motility was drastically decreased at concentrations higher than 140 mM (p<0.05. The conclusion is that interaction of the ionic environment with the cell membrane leads to changes in membrane potential and intracellular signalling that trigger sperm motility in Brycon henni.

  18. Feeding ecology of Dash-dot Tetra Hemigrammus belottii(Steindachner 1882) (Characiformes: Characidae) in the streams of the Urucu River basin, central Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Andrey Felipe Gomes; Prudente,Bruno da Silveira; Carvalho Filho,Fernando da Silva; Montag,Luciano Fogaça de Assis

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo descreve a dieta da espécie Hemigrammus belottii (Characiformes: Characidae) coletados na bacia do Rio Urucu no município de Coari, Amazonas, (Brasil), buscando responder o seguinte questionamento: Qual a influência dos períodos hidrológicos (seco e chuvoso) e da distribuição espacial na dieta de H. belottii? Os espécimes tiveram seus estômagos retirados e os itens alimentares pesados e identificados para posteriores análises relacionadas à intensidade alimentar, pelo Índice...

  19. Estudo etnofarmacognóstico da saracuramirá (Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke, uma planta medicinal usada por comunidades quilombolas do Município de Oriximiná-PA, Brasil Ethnopharmacology Study of Saracuramirá (Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke in the "Quilombola" communities of Oriximiná, Pará State, Brazil

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    Danilo Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento etnobotânico realizado em comunidades quilombolas de Oriximiná, Pará, destacou a saracuramirá (SAR, Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke, com vasto uso popular no tratamento da malária, como tônica e depurativa. Por este motivo, o presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo etnofarmacognóstico da SAR nas respectivas comunidades. Por meio de uma análise etnobotânica quantitativa, foi verificado que SAR apresentou-se dentre as 10 espécies mais versáteis pela elevada importância relativa (1,3, dentre as cinco espécies com maior importância cultural pelo elevado índice de saliência (0,311 e a espécie com maior concordância de uso principal para malária (85,7%. Uma análise do índice de espuma e do índice de hemólise para SAR demonstra a presença de saponinas com elevado índice de espuma (833 e uma baixa atividade hemolítica (CH50 2,6 mg mL-1. Para realizar uma análise das agliconas das saponinas de SAR, a bebida preparada pelo método tradicional quilombola (BMT foi hidrolisada e, após reação com diazometano, foi analisada por cromatografia gasosa. Dois sinais majoritários foram caracterizados por espectrometria de massas, um referente a um triterpeno de esqueleto damarânico, característico das saponinas da SAR, e outro referente ao éster metílico do ácido betulínico. Partindo das informações de uso popular da SAR, foi avaliada in vitro a atividade inibidora da acetilcolinesterase. Apesar de BMT não ter mostrado atividade neste ensaio, é possível supor que as indicações de uso desta planta pelos quilombolas como fortificante e contra malária podem estar relacionadas a uma possível atividade adaptógena e imunoestimulante, dada à presença das saponinas e do ácido betulínico em BMT.In an ethnobotanical survey conducted within "Quilombola" communities of Oriximiná, Pará State, "saracuramirá" (SAR, Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke, stood out as one of the most cited species with wide

  20. Crescimento do matrinxã,Brycon cephalus (Gunther,1869) criados em gaiolas flutuantes construídas com matéria-prima da região amazônica.

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Alexis Ramos Tortolero

    2003-01-01

    São apresentados os primeiros resultados obtidos sobre a criação do matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, em gaiolas de pequeno volume utilizando altas densidades no Lago do Catalão latitude 3 09′ 75′′ Sul, longitude 59 54′ 51′′ W município de Iranduba AM. O objetivo foi gerar informações que subsidie a piscicultura sustentável no Amazonas, já que são poucos os trabalhos desenvolvidos nesta modalidade na região. Por outro lado, definiu-se um protótipo de gaiola flutu...

  1. Crescimento, desenvolvimento gonadal e composição muscular de matrinxãs (Brycon cephalus submetidos à restrição alimentar e realimentação durante um ano Growth, gonadal development and composition of white and red muscles of matrinxã, Brycon cephalus submitted to food restriction and refeeding during a year

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    Elisa Garcia Carvalho

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da restrição de ração alternada com realimentação no crescimento, desenvolvimento gonadal e composição muscular de matrinxãs (Brycon cephalus adultos, de ambos os sexos, durante um ano (janeiro de 1998 a janeiro de 1999. Foram utilizados 135 peixes, separados em dois grupos: controle, alimentado diariamente até aparente saciação, e experimental, submetido ininterruptamente a ciclos de três dias de alimentação/2 dias de restrição de ração (40% de restrição ao mês. Foram realizadas 7 amostragens, nas quais foram utilizados 8 a 10 peixes por grupo. Após anestesia, os peixes foram pesados e as gônadas foram retiradas para determinação do IGS, sexo e fase do ciclo reprodutivo. Porções dos músculos branco e vermelho foram retiradas para determinação da porcentagem de lipídio total, proteína bruta, matéria seca e umidade. Os resultados mostraram que a estratégia alimentar utilizada não afetou o crescimento, o desenvolvimento gonadal e a composição muscular do matrinxã. A restrição de ração seguida por realimentação parece ter desencadeado mecanismos de ajuste metabólico para melhor utilização do alimento e aporte suficiente de energia para o crescimento, processo de maturação gonadal e composição corporal. É possível estabelecer formas de manejo alimentar mais econômicas para o matrinxã sem que processos fisiológicos importantes sejam afetados.This work determined the effect of food restriction and refeeding on the body weight, gonadal maturation and muscle composition of matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, throughout a year (Jan 1998 to Jan 1999. A total of 135 fish, males and females, were split out into two groups. The control group received ration daily up to apparent satiation and the experimental group was alternately fed for 3 days and starved for 2 days (40% of restriction monthly. Seven samplings were carried out, during the experimental period, and at each

  2. Alterações bioquímicas post-mortem de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura, mantido em gelo Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice

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    Gilvan Machado Batista

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foram estudadas as alterações bioquímicas post-mortem que ocorreram em matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura e mantido em gelo em Manaus - AM. Foi determinado o tempo de estocagem em gelo por meio das avaliações sensoriais físicas e gustativas, das análises de pH, Nitrogênio das Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT e bacteriológicas durante 29 dias. Foram determinados os índices de rigor-mortis, as concentrações de ATP e seus produtos de degradações e o valor K. De acordo com a composição química, o peixe foi classificado como "semi-gordo". Os peixes entraram em rigor-mortis aos 75 minutos após a morte por hipotermia, tendo permanecido durante 10 dias. As avaliações sensoriais (físicas e gustativas mostraram que os peixes apresentaram condição de consumo até 26 dias. As análises de ATP e de seus produtos de degradação mostraram que a referida espécie foi considerada formadora de inosina (HxR, nas condições de experimento. O valor K mostrou que os exemplares de matrinxãs permaneceram "muito frescos" até 16 dias de estocagem em gelo, concordante com a avaliação sensorial gustativa.Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice in Manaus-AM, were studied in this paper. The storage time on ice was determined through tasting and physical sensory evaluations, pH, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVB-N and bacteriological analyses during 29 days. Rigor-mortis index, ATP-related compounds and K value were also determined. Chemical composition demonstrated that fish was classified as "semi-fat". The specimens presented rigor-mortis 75 minutes after death caused by hypothermia and remained that way for 10 days. Shelf life time on ice was 26 days, according to sensory evaluations, pH, TVBN determinations and bacteriological analyses. ATP-related compounds pointed out that the referred species was considered to

  3. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 24. Rhinoxenus bulbovaginatus n. sp. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae from the nasal cavity of Salminus maxillosus (Osteichthyes, Characidae from the Rio Paraná, Paraná, Brazil

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    Walter A. Boeger

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoxenus bulbovaginatus n. sp. is described from the nose of Salminus maxillosus (Characidae collected in the basin of the rio Paraná, near the city of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. The new species can be differentiated from the other three species in the genus by the morphology of the copulatory complex, vagina, and ventral anchor. The sister group relationship of the known species of Rhinoxenus was determined using techniques of Phylogenetic Systematics (Cladism. The resulting cladogram (C.I.=100% indicates that the new species is most closely related to R. piranhus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988. The other two species of the genus, R. arietinus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988 and R. nyttus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988, both parasites of Anostomidae fishes, have a paraphyletic position in the cladogram, suggesting that the origin of at least one of them can not be associated to cospeciation.

  4. Reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus Cuvier, 1819) in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Núcleo Santa Virgínia, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize seasonally and locally the reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus). The study area included three rivers (Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande) in the Santa Virgínia Unit of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Breeding occurred in spring, summer, and autumn. The L(50) and the L(100) of this species were 16 to 18 cm and 26 to 28 cm, respectively. Spawning was total, with synchronous development in two groups. The size of mature oocytes was 1,346.4 microm, reaching a maximum of 2,570.4 microm, with a mean fecundity of 9,190.5 oocytes. This species has external fertilization, is non-migratory, and lacks parental care of the young. Preservation of the Pirapitinga do Sul depends, in great part, on maintaining water quality, preservation of the riverine forests, and access to breeding areas.

  5. Avaliação de níveis protéicos para a nutrição de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus Evaluation of dietary protein contents for juvenile matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

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    Antônio Cláudio Uchôa Izel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã (Brycon cephalus - Gunther, 1869, é uma espécie de peixe nativa da bacia Amazônica que tem despertado grande interesse entre pesquisadores e piscicultores de todo o Brasil. A crescente demanda pelo cultivo desta espécie em ambiente controlado se deve, principalmente, à sua pronta adaptação ao cativeiro e à aceitação de alimentos artificiais, tanto de origem vegetal quanto animal, ao lado do seu elevado valor comercial. Contudo, para ser um empreendimento comercial bem sucedido, o alimento a ser fornecido a esta espécie deve atender a suas necessidades em proteína e permitir elevados ganhos de peso em períodos curtos. O experimento foi conduzido na estação de aqüicultura da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental. Foram testados cinco níveis de proteína bruta (16, 19, 22, 25 e 28% em dietas isocalóricas (EB = 390 kcal/100g em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com três repetições para cada tratamento. Os resultados obtidos após 210 dias de estudo mostraram que a dieta contendo 28 % de proteína bruta promoveu o maior ganho de peso, melhor conversão alimentar e mais alto crescimento corporal entre os níveis testados, indicando que este nível protéico atendeu satisfatoriamente às necessidades de proteína para esta espécie, nas condições deste experimento.Matrinxã (Brycon cephalus - Gunther, 1869 a native fish species from the Amazon basin, has been causing a great deal of interest among researchers and fish culturists all over Brazil. The rising demand for the culture of this species in controlled environment is mainly due, to its ready adaptation to captivity, the acceptance of manufactured feed made with either animal or plant ingredients, along with its high commercial value. However, for a successful commercial enterprise, feed must meet protein requirements of the fish to allow high weight gain in a short period. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental aquaculture

  6. Time of feed transition and inclusion levels of exogenous protease in rations for piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp. hatchery=Momento para a transição alimentar e níveis de inclusão de protease exógena na ração da larvicultura de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp.

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    Afonso Pelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted which consisted of determining the ideal time to make a feed transition from larvae of ‘curimba’ Prochilodus hartii to ration (from third, fifth and seventh days of life, with three days of co-feeding, and assess inclusion levels of exogenous protease (0, 0.02 and 0.2% in the diet of larvae of piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., in a completely randomized experimental design and duration of 15 and 17 days, respectively. Biomass, survival, total length, weight and specific growth rate were measured at the end of the experiments. Water quality parameters were measured every three days. The different transition periods and levels of exogenous protease did not affect water quality. The animals subjected to feed transition on the seventh day of life showed better results for length (23.1 mm, weight (110.9 mg and SGR (25.5%, being similar in biomass and survival at the fifth day of life. Therefore, the transition can be made on the fifth day of life. The inclusion levels of exogenous protease in the commercial diet had no effect on performance.Foram realizados dois experimentos, que consistiram em determinar o momento ideal de se realizar a transição alimentar de larva de curimba Prochilodus hartii para ração (a partir do terceiro, quinto e sétimo dia de vida, com três dias de coalimentação, e avaliar níveis de inclusão de protease exógena (0; 0,02 e 0,2% na dieta de larvas de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e duração de 15 e 17 dias, respectivamente. A biomassa, sobrevivência, comprimento total, peso médio e taxa de crescimento específico foram mensurados ao final dos experimentos. Já os parâmetros de qualidade de água foram aferidos a cada três dias. Os diferentes períodos de transição alimentar e níveis de protease exógena não interferiram na qualidade da água. Os animais submetidos à transição alimentar no sétimo dia de vida apresentaram melhores

  7. Falha na resposta do cortisol ao estresse por captura e por carragenina em Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae Failure of cortisol response in induced capture handling stress and carrageenin in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae

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    Julieta Rodini Engrácia de Moraes

    2000-05-01

    Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae was evaluated. The fish were subjected to 30 s capture handling stress applied repeatedly at 60 min intervals over 6 h. Blood sampling was as following: time 0: basal blood sampling and first stress; time 1: injection with carrageenin or saline and sampling after 5 min; time 2: stress and sampling after 5 min; time 3: stress and sampling after 5 min; time 4: stress and sampling after 5 min; time 5: blood sampling after 90 min. Circulanting cortisol levels showed significant decrease in time 4 and 5 in both carageenin and saline injected fish. In saline injected fish, glucosis increased in time 2 while in carrageenin injected fish this fact occurred in time 3. An increase in the special granulocitic cells and lymphocitopenia in blood were observed in the time 2. Neutrophilia was reported in time 3.

  8. HEMOPARASITOS DE PIRANHAS VERMELHAS PYGOCENTRUS NATTERERI (KNER, 1858 (CHARACIFORMES: CHARACIDAE CAPTURADAS NA REGIÃO DO MÉDIO RIO ARAGUAIA, ESTADO DE GOIÁS, GO

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    Isabela Vieira Carneiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate blood smears of 128 red piranha specimens Pygocentrus nattereri (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes: Characidae as for the presence of hemoparasites and blood cells that were visualized. Samples were collected in Rio Vermelho (Red River (15°10'44.73''S and 51°09'55.83W'', in the Brazilian state of Goiás, between April 2012 and August 2013, including ebb, full and dry phases. After identificating and numbering the piranhas, we collected approximately 0.5 mL of blood from each animal, from the caudal vein or through intracardiac puncture, and two blood smears were done and stained with May GrünwaldGiemsa and Fast Panoptic stains. After euthanasia, the body mass and biometrics of every fish were measured. Abiotic factors of the river water were also analyzed, such as temperature and transparency. In general, the biometric parameters were higher in the full phase of the river, and the values obtained on water quality were similar in relation to the average temperature of the water, which was around 82,4°F. The average transparency of the water varied, being greater at low tide. Erythrocytes, thrombocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, heterophile and lymphocytes were identified as blood cells of red piranhas and hemogregarines have been found in about 25% (32/128 of the blood smears.

  9. Cytogenetic analysis in the incertae sedis species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britzki, 2000 and Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characiformes, Characidae) from the upper Paraná river basin

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    Martinez, Emanuel R. M.; Alves, Anderson L.; Silveira, Sara M.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic analyses were accomplished in two populations of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britzki, 2000 and one population of Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882, considered incertae sedis in Characidae family. Two populations of Astyanax altiparanae (Mogi-Guaçu and Tietê rivers) presented 2n=50, with the same karyotype formula: 6M+12SM+20ST+12A (FN=88). Hyphessobrycon eques from Capivara river presented 2n=52 and karyotype formula 14M+16SM+4ST+18A (FN=86). In each karyotype, the nucleolus organizer regions were detected at the end of the short arm of a single medium-sized subtelocentric chromosome. The Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) marking is coincident for the NORs in chromosomes of the two species and present additionally in two different chromosomes of Astyanax altiparanae thus showinginterpopulation differences in this species. In Hyphessobrycon eques, weak heterochromatic blocks in the position of centromeres and telomeres of most chromosomes and negative C-banding for the NOR bearing chromosome were visualized. The obtained results contribute both to the understanding of karyotype evolution of these species and to the clarifying their phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24260651

  10. A new species of Auriculostoma (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) from the intestine of Brycon guatemalensis (Characiformes: Bryconidae) from the Usumacinta River Basin, Mexico, based on morphology and 28S rDNA sequences, with a key to species of the genus.

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    Hernández-Mena, David Iván; Lynggaard, Christina; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; DE León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2016-11-22

    We describe a new species of Auriculostoma Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo & Choudhury, 2004 based on several sources of information including morphology (light and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]), sequences of two nuclear genes, host association, and geographical distribution. Morphologically, the new species most closely resembles Auriculostoma astyanace Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo & Choudhury, 2004, but differs by having deeply lobated testes and cirrus-sac extending posteriorly to seminal receptacle level. Auriculostoma lobata n. sp. can be readily distinguished from all the other congeners by the combination of the following characters: testes located in tandem, testes deeply lobated, and larger body size. A phylogenetic analysis using 28S rDNA sequences along with those available for other allocreadiid trematodes, revealed that the new species is a sister taxon of A. astyanace, a species described from the banded astyanax, Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier) in Nicaragua. Auriculostoma totonacapanensis Razo-Mendivil, Mendoza-Garfias, Pérez-Ponce de León & Rubio-Godoy, 2014 from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi) in Mexico is the sister taxon of A. astyanace plus the new species. Genetic divergence levels for the 28S rDNA and ITS2 were estimated among the Middle-American species of Auriculostoma infecting characiforms. The validity of the new species is then established by reliable morphological differences, its host association to bryconids (Brycon guatemalensis Regan), restricted geographical distribution (Usumacinta and Lacantun River basins), and genetic divergence levels, albeit relatively low. A morphometric comparison between the new species and the other seven congeneric species was undertaken and, in addition, a taxonomic key to identify the species contained in the genus Auriculostoma, widely distributed across the Americas, is provided.

  11. Genetic population structure of two migratory freshwater fish species (Brycon orthotaenia and Prochilodus argenteus from the São Francisco River in Brazil and its significance for conservation Estructura genética poblacional de dos especies de peces migratorios de agua dulce (Brycon orthotaenia y Prochilodus argenteus en la cuenca del Río San Francisco (Brasil y su importancia para la conservación

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    Alexandra Sanches

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous geoetic studies cooducted with migratory fish populatioos from dowostream of the Três Marias dam io the São Fraocisco River Basio (Brazil have documeoted the occurreoce of populatioo structuriog, as reported for Brycon orthotaenia aod Prochilodus argenteus, two commercially importaot species io this basio. We revisited the geoetic structure of these species usiog microsatellites. B. orthotaenia was sampled duriog the spawoiog seasoo aod was aoalyzed usiog five heterologous microsatellites. P. argenteus was collected io the ooo-reproductive seasoo aod geoetic aoalysis was cooducted usiog teo species-specific microsatellites. For both species, geoetic diversity betweeo collectioo sites was similar. Coosideriog B. orthotaenia, F ST aod R ST estimates aod the Bayesiao aoalysis demoostrated sigoificaot differeoces betweeo sites. Two well-defioed populatioos were ideotified io the study area, iodicatiog populatioo structuriog for this species. No sigoificaot differeoces were fouod for P. argenteus. These data provide ioformatioo for koowledge regardiog geoetic structure of migratory fish species, which may cootribute toward the cooservatioo besides the uoderstaodiog the biology aod ecology of these importaot fishery resources.Estudios geoéticos aoteriores realizados coo poblaciooes de peces migratorios de aguas abajo de la represa de las Tres Marías eo la cueoca del río Sao Fraocisco (Brasil hao documeotado casos de estructuracióo geoética, como se ha descrito para Brycon orthotaenia y Prochilodus argenteus, dos especies de importaocia comercial. Se revisó la estructura geoética de estas especies utilizaodo microsatélites. Se obtuvieroo muestras de B. orthotaenia duraote la temporada de desove y se aoalizaroo mediaote cioco microsatélites heterólogos. Muestras de P. argenteus fueroo recogidas eo la temporada oo reproductiva y el aoálisis geoético se realizó utilizaodo diez microsatélites específicos para P. argenteus. Para

  12. A new species of Auriculostoma (Digenea: Allocreadiidae) in the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from Central Veracruz, Mexico, described with the use of morphological and molecular data.

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    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. is described from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii, Characidae) collected in a tributary creek of the Bobos River in Filipinas, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is set apart from all congeners by the combination of some morphological characters such as the testes position (oblique in most specimens), the ventral to oral sucker ratio (1:1.2 × 1:1.1), the cirrus sac originating at the ovarian region, and by having vitelline follicles not confluent in the posttesticular region. Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. closely resembles Auriculostoma platense (Szidat, 1954) Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 and Auriculostoma diagonale Curran, Tkach and Overstreet, 2011 by possessing oblique testes; however, it differs from both species by possessing a genital pore located at level of the cecal bifurcation and by having vitelline follicles extending anteriorly up to the cecal bifurcation level, instead of a genital pore located between the anterior margin of the ventral sucker and cecal bifurcation, and vitelline follicles extending anteriorly to the mid level of the esophagus as in A. platense or to the pharynx level as in A. diagonale. Additionally, the new species differs from A. diagonale by having vitelline follicles not confluent or scarcely confluent in the posttesticular region rather than extensively confluent. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of the new species demonstrated the presence of a single pair of muscular lobes on either side of the oral sucker, with a broad base, stretching from the ventrolateral to the dorsolateral side. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of the 28S rRNA gene sequences placed A. totonacapanensis as sister species of Auriculostoma astyanace Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 . Nucleotide variation between A. totonacapanensis and A. astyanace was 2.0% and 3.6% for the 28S rRNA gene and ITS2 sequences, respectively. Sequence variation

  13. Alterações hematológicas e histopatológicas em pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae, Hematological and histopathological alteration in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae after treatment with copper sulphate (CuSO4

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    Flávio Ruas de Moraes

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou os valores hematológicos e glicêmicos e histopatologia de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes, Characidae infectados com Monogenea Anacanthorus penilabiatus Boeger, Husak & Martins, 1995 (Dactylogyridae após tratamento com 0,50 mg/L e 1,00 mg/L de sulfato de cobre (CuSO4. A eficiência da droga sobre as infecções com Monogenea foi observada no primeiro dia após administração mas não após 8, 15 ou 30 dias do tratamento. As análises histopatológicas mostraram hiperplasia do epitélio e alterações circulatórias nas brânquias. No primeiro dia após tratamento, foram observadas alterações significativas (P4 mostraram redução da taxa de hemoglobina e do percentual de neutrófilos. No 8o dia do tratamento a dose de 1,00 mg/L provocou aumento da glicemia mas redução no percentual de linfócitos quando comparada com 0,50 mg/L. No 15o dia após tratamento com 1,00 mg/L os valores médios do volume corpuscular médio e o percentual de células granulocíticas especiais (C.G.E. decresceram mas o número de leucócitos totais aumentaram. No 30o dia após tratamento com 0,50 mg/L de sulfato de cobre houve aumento de C.G.E. e no tratamento com 1,00 mg/L o aumento foi de linfócitos.This paper evaluated the haematological and glycaemic parameters in Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes, Characidae infected with Monogenea Anacanthorus penilabiatus Boeger, Husak & Martins, 1995 (Dactylogyridae after treatment with 0.50 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L of copper sulphate (CuSO4. The efficacy of the CuSO4 was observed in the first day after administration but not after eight, fifteen or thirty days. The histopathological analyses showed hyperplasia of the epithelium and circulatory changes in the gills. In the first day after treatment significant changes (Pth day. Fifteen days after 1.00 mg/L treatment, values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV and special granulocitic cells (S.G.C. percentage decreased. Nevertheless, increase of

  14. Una nueva especie de Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae de la cuenca del río Telembí, vertiente sur del Pacífico, Colombia

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    Carlos A. García-Alzate

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El género Hyphessobrycon, se incluye dentro de la subfamilia Tetragonopterinae. Las especies generalmente son pequeñas, no sobrepasan los 70mm de longitud estándar, son importantes económicamente como peces ornamentales, con 128 especies validas que se distribuyen desde el sur de México hasta Río de La Plata en Argentina. Se describe una nueva especie de Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae de la cuenca del río Barbacoas, vertiente sur del Pacífico, Colombia, Hyphessobrycon chocoensis de la cuenca del río Telembí, vertiente del Pacífico Colombiano. Las recolectas de los peces fueron realizadas con redes de arrastres y se hicieron en un solo biotopo, zona litoral de remanso y a favor de la corriente. Las medidas de los ejemplares se tomaron punto a punto con un calibrador digital Las observaciones de estructuras óseas y cartílagos se hicieron sobre ejemplares clareados y teñidos (C&T. Las relaciones morfométricas entre especies fueron exploradas empleando 21 variables mediante un análisis de componentes principales (ACP. La nueva especie de Hyphessobrycon, H. chocoensis se distingue de sus congéneres no miembros del grupo flammeus por tener una mancha humeral difusa, no tener una mancha oscura en la aleta dorsal o en el pedúnculo caudal. Se distingue de las demás especies del grupo por el número de radios de la aleta dorsal (ii, 8, i, por el número de radios ramificados en la aleta anal (25-26 y por presentar la mancha humeral difusa, se diferencia de H. tortuguerae por el número de dientes en el maxilar (1-2, por el número de escamas pre- dorsales (10-12 y un alto número de escamas entre la línea lateral y la aleta anal (6-7. Hyphessobrycon chocoensis se puede separar de todos los otros Hyphessobrycon conocidos de las cuencas del Pacifico Colombiano por presentar: un alto número de escamas con poros en la línea lateral, por la longitud hocico-aleta dorsal, por la profundidad del pedúnculo caudal y por el di

  15. Variação periódica da triiodotironina (T3 plasmática e sua ação na reprodução induzida do matrinxã, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 em cativeiro Periodic variation of plasma triiodotironina (T3 and its effect on the induced reproduction of matrinxã, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869

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    Maria do Carmo Figueredo Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, espécie nativa oriunda da Bacia Amazônica, apresenta características adequadas para a piscicultura. Entretanto, trata-se de peixe reofílico, sendo necessário manejo adequado para induzir à reprodução. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o perfil da triiodotironina (T3 plasmática no matrinxã, durante 16 meses (outubro/97 a janeiro/99, relacionando-o com a maturação sexual, além de testar a ação do T3 associado ao extrato pituitário de carpa na reprodução induzida da espécie. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Peixes Tropicais - CEPTA, Pirassununga, SP, e no Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal, da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal - UNESP. Foram amostrados, mensalmente, 8 a 12 peixes, de ambos os sexos, totalizando 173 animais, de onde retirou-se sangue para dosagem do T3 plasmático. As gônadas foram removidas para análise histológica com identificação do sexo e determinação do estádio de maturação. Analisaram-se testículos e ovários de 161 peixes em corte transversal, tendo predominado machos (63,35% e o estádio sexual imaturo entre ambos. A concentração plasmática de T3 foi maior de dezembro a janeiro, para machos e fêmeas, coincidindo com o período de maior atividade reprodutiva da espécie e maiores temperaturas da água. Em janeiro/99, reprodutores de matrinxã foram induzidos com extrato de pituitária de carpa (EPC associado à administração de T3 (20 mg/kg em 0,1 mL de suspensão oleosa. Os resultados sugeriram que o T3 atuou sinergicamente à gonadotropina do extrato hipofisário e que o tratamento agudo de triiodotironina com o EPC pode estimular o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-ovário. O tempo de eclosão das larvas provenientes das fêmeas tratadas com o T3 foi menor e o crescimento inicial e a sobrevivência dessas larvas, maiores.The matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, native specie from the Amazonian

  16. Alterações histopatológicas em fígado de dourado Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Characidae causadas por Neocucullanus neocucullanus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira 1828 (Nematoda “Dourado”, Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Characidae liver histopatologic alterations caused by Neocucullanus neocucullanus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira 1828 (Nematoda

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    Antenor Aguiar Santos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram capturados 293 exemplares de Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840, (Osteichthyes, Characidae no rio Mogi-Guaçu, Cachoeira de Emas, de agosto de 1996 a dezembro de 1997. Amostras de fígado de 45 exemplares que apresentaram parasitos, Neocucullanus neocullanus Travassos, Artigas e Pereira, 1928 (prevalência de 15,35%, foram fixadas em Bouin e processadas para inclusão em parafina. Cortes de 5 µm foram corados por HE, Tricrômico de Mallory e submetidos ao PAS contracorados com Hematoxilina. Macroscopicamente nos fígados que se apresentavam parasitados, havia infecção nas regiões centrais e periféricas, algumas vezes com perfuração do estroma do órgão, permitindo visão do cisto externamente. Microscopicamente e circunscrito à região da instalação do parasito, encontrou-se desorganização intensa do tecido, com células típicas de processo inflamatório ativo e de uma discreta deposição de fibrina ao redor do foco inflamatório. Justaposto ao parasito há a cápsula delgada constituída por fibroblastos e fibras colágenas. A presença de leucócitos e o encapsulamento do parasito demonstram um processo inflamatório agudo.From August 1996 to December 1997, 293 specimens of Salminus maxillosus were captured in the Mogi-Guaçu river, at Cachoeira de Emas, municipality of Pirassununga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The livers of 45 fishes were parasitized by Neocucullanus neocucullanus Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 (15.35% prevalence. Liver samples were fixed in Bouin and processed for paraffin inclusion. 5µm-sections were stained with ME, Mallory trichromic and submitted to Hematoxilin-contrasted PAS. Macroscopically, the parasitized livers had central and peripheral infection, sometimes perforating the stroma, allowing the cyst to be seen externally. Microscopically, and only surrounding the parasite, intense tissue disorganization, with typical active inflammatory process cells, and discrete fibrin deposition

  17. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNA Sequences in Five Species of Astyanax (Characiformes, Characidae) Reveals Independent Location of U1 and U2 snRNA Sites and Association of U1 snRNA and 5S rDNA.

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    Silva, Duilio M Z A; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Oliveira, Cláudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Astyanax is a genus of Characidae fishes currently composed of 155 valid species. Previous cytogenetic studies revealed high chromosomal diversification among them, and several studies have been performed using traditional cytogenetic techniques to investigate karyotypes and chromosomal locations of 18S and 5S rDNA genes. However, only a few studies are currently available about other repetitive sequences. Here, the chromosomal location of small nuclear RNA genes, identified as U1 and U2 snRNA clusters, was established and compared to the distribution of 5S rDNA and histone clusters in 5 Astyanax species (A. paranae, A. fasciatus, A. bockmanni, A. altiparanae, and A. jordani) using FISH. The cytogenetic mapping of U1 and U2 snRNA demonstrated a conserved pattern in the number of sites per genome independent of the location in Astyanax species. The location of the U1 snRNA gene was frequently associated with 5S rDNA sequences, indicating a possible interaction between the distinct repetitive DNA families. Finally, comparisons involving the location of U1 and U2 snRNA clusters in the chromosomes of Astyanax species revealed a very diverse pattern, suggesting that many rearrangements have occurred during the diversification process of this group. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Histología y morfometría del ojo del pez dulceacuícola Paracheirodon axelrodi (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Mario O Tovar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El pez dulceacuícola P. axelrodi es de gran importancia comercial en la Orinoquía Colombiana y a nivel mundial, pero carece de estudios acerca de su visión. Se utilizaron diez individuos, con longitud total promedio de 2.7 cm (SD= 0.2, n= 20. Se realizaron cortes a 8 μm y se tiρeron con H-E. El tamaρo relativo del ojo es 9.8% (SD= 1.1, n= 20; el cristalino tiene un tamaρo relativo de 64.3% (SD= 4.9, n=20. Una esclerótica con tejido cartilaginoso. La retina está constituida por ocho capas y dos membranas, hay areae centrales en la zona posterior, por lo tanto tiene mayor espesor que la zona lateral. El espesor promedio de las estructuras es: retina lateral: 144.5 μm (SD= 5.4, n= 20, retina temporal: 210.4 μm (SD= 14.8, n= 20; cristalino (esfιrico: dorso-ventral 759.6 μm (SD= 31.7, n= 20 y antero- posterior 763.4 μm (SD= 30.7, n= 20 y cσrnea: 27.6 μm (SD= 4.3, n= 20. El tamaρo relativo del ojo, relacionado con la presencia de areae centrales y una córnea delgada, muestra las necesidades visuales del neón cardenal (cazador para adaptarse al hábitat, lo que hace necesario tener un sistema visual desarrollado que le permita tener mejor sensibilidad y resolución visual.Histology and morphometry of the eye in the freshwater Paracheirodon axelrodi (Characiformes: Characidae. The visual system of Teleost fishes has a wide range of adaptations. The eye has suffered modifications, mainly towards better sensitivity and visual resolution according to specific environmental conditions. In that way, this organ is so important for survival. In spite of being the most commercialized Orinoquía species, and one of the most important ornamental fish worldwide, there are almost no studies on the communication systems of P. axelrodi (including vision. We studied the eye in ten individuals of P. axelrodi, with a mean total length of 2.7 cm (SD= 0.2, n= 20. We measured eye relative size (TRO after sacrifice. Heads were processed for hematoxylin

  19. Respostas metabólicas do matrinxã submetido a banhos anestésicos de eugenol - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474 Metabolic responses of matrinxã to eugenol in anesthetic baths - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474

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    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus é uma espécie de interesse comercial. Porém, este peixe movimenta-se em excesso durante práticas de manejo, podendo sofrer ferimentos e perdas de escamas que, muitas vezes, resultam em taxas elevadas de mortalidade. O eugenol, principal componente do óleo de cravo, tem sido bastante utilizado como um anestésico alternativo para peixes por ser um produto natural e de baixo custo. Entretanto, estudos que tratam de respostas metabólicas, em peixes tropicais expostos a diferentes anestésicos, são ainda necessários. Dentro deste intuito, o presente trabalho avaliou respostas metabólicas do Brycon amazonicus ao eugenol, em simulações de banhos anestésicos. A demanda metabólica do matrinxã foi suprida principalmente pelo catabolismo de aminoácidos. Respostas típicas ao estresse foram detectadas por causa do manuseio imposto aos peixes para a realização dos banhos anestésicos. O eugenol não reduziu totalmente essas reações ao estresse. Por outro lado, esse anestésico não provocou estresse adicional em virtude de sua presença em exposições curtas de até 60 mg L-1 por 10 min. O eugenol proporciona segurança aos trabalhadores durante práticas de manejo, sem maiores prejuízos ao matrinxã.Matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus is a commercial fish that presents excessive movements during handling. This characteristic predisposes the animals to injuries and losses of scales that may result in high mortality rates. Eugenol, the main component of clove oil, has been reported as an alternative fish anesthetic because it is a natural product and cheap. However, studies remain necessary about the metabolic responses of tropical fishes to anesthetics. The present work evaluated metabolic responses of Brycon amazonicus to eugenol in simulated anesthetic baths. The fish metabolic demand was supplied mainly by amino acids catabolism. Typical metabolic stress responses to handling were detected but eugenol could

  20. Una nueva especie de Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae de la cuenca del río Telembí, vertiente sur del Pacífico, Colombia A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae from the Telembí River drain- age, Southern Pacific slope of Colombia

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    Carlos A. García-Alzate

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El género Hyphessobrycon, se incluye dentro de la subfamilia Tetragonopterinae. Las especies generalmente son pequeñas, no sobrepasan los 70mm de longitud estándar, son importantes económicamente como peces ornamentales, con 128 especies validas que se distribuyen desde el sur de México hasta Río de La Plata en Argentina. Se describe una nueva especie de Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae de la cuenca del río Barbacoas, vertiente sur del Pacífico, Colombia, Hyphessobrycon chocoensis de la cuenca del río Telembí, vertiente del Pacífico Colombiano. Las recolectas de los peces fueron realizadas con redes de arrastres y se hicieron en un solo biotopo, zona litoral de remanso y a favor de la corriente. Las medidas de los ejemplares se tomaron punto a punto con un calibrador digital Las observaciones de estructuras óseas y cartílagos se hicieron sobre ejemplares clareados y teñidos (C&T. Las relaciones morfométricas entre especies fueron exploradas empleando 21 variables mediante un análisis de componentes principales (ACP. La nueva especie de Hyphessobrycon, H. chocoensis se distingue de sus congéneres no miembros del grupo flammeus por tener una mancha humeral difusa, no tener una mancha oscura en la aleta dorsal o en el pedúnculo caudal. Se distingue de las demás especies del grupo por el número de radios de la aleta dorsal (ii, 8, i, por el número de radios ramificados en la aleta anal (25-26 y por presentar la mancha humeral difusa, se diferencia de H. tortuguerae por el número de dientes en el maxilar (1-2, por el número de escamas pre- dorsales (10-12 y un alto número de escamas entre la línea lateral y la aleta anal (6-7. Hyphessobrycon chocoensis se puede separar de todos los otros Hyphessobrycon conocidos de las cuencas del Pacifico Colombiano por presentar: un alto número de escamas con poros en la línea lateral, por la longitud hocico-aleta dorsal, por la profundidad del pedúnculo caudal y por el di

  1. Composición proximal, ácidos grasos y características fisicoquímicas de aceite de harina artesanal de caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus Pisces: Characidae proveniente de Caicara del Orinoco-Venezuela

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    Granados, Ángel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Caribe (Serrasalmus rhoembeus is a Characidae fish that lives in the basins of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. It is an  underutilized specie although in the last years has been marketed in the form of of a meal which is obtained through a handmade process but without information about its chemical composition. This research was conducted to evaluate the proximate composition of commercial caribe meal, the fatty acids profile and some physicochemical properties of its lipidic extract. Three aleatory samples of meal were selected in Caicara del Orinoco shops, Bolívar state –Venezuela. Moisture (6.00 ± 0.45 %, crude protein (N x 6.25: 52.78 ± 2.36 %, crude fat (22.47 ± 1.08 % and total ash (24.58 ± 3.12 % were determined in each sample. The fat was extracted with nhexane and it was analyzed for free fatty acids (5.66 ± 0.15 % as oleic acid, peroxide value (23.50 ± 1.02 meq O2/kg, iodine value (152.2 ± 0.5, saponification value (186.5 ± 0.3 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 ± 0.4 g/kg. The fatty acids profile showed an unsaturated acids/ saturated acids ratio of 5.62 with 59.9 % of monounsaturated fatty acids and 25.0 % of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Caribe meal is an important source of nutrients and a potential raw material for human food.El caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus es un pez de la familia Characidae de la cuenca de los ríos Orinoco y Amazonas, de poco valor comercial debido a su estructura espinosa y a creencias relacionadas con su hábito alimentario, pero que en años recientes los pobladores de las zonas donde existe naturalmente le han dado utilidad mediante la obtención artesanal de una harina que es expendida para consumo humano; sin embargo, no se dispone de información referente a su composición química. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química proximal del producto comercializado como harina de caribe y algunas características fisicoquímicas del extracto lipídico de la misma

  2. Putative relationships among inseminating and externally fertilizing characids, with a description of a new genus and species of Brazilian inseminating fish bearing an anal-fin gland in males (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Stanley H. Weitzman

    Full Text Available A new inseminating fish species of the family Characidae, Bryconadenos tanaothoros, from tributaries of the upper rio Xingu and upper rio Tapajós basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil is described as the type species of a new genus. This new species and the genus are characterized by a glandular organ on the anterior region of the anal fin of sexually mature males, curved lower jaw teeth, and an inseminating reproductive mode. This new genus is hypothesized as most closely related to Attonitus, a genus with three inseminating species from Peru. Bryconadenos and Attonitus are suggested as related to certain inseminating, but undescribed characid species of uncertain relationships that are similar in certain respects to species of the glandulocaudine Planaltina and to the inseminating species of Knodus. These and a few other inseminating characids are included in a previous tentative characid subgroup designated as Clade A. No species among a relatively small sample of the many species of the Clade A genus Bryconamericus were found inseminating, except Bryconamericus pectinatus. However, newly collected specimens of B. pectinatus were found to have caudal-fin squamation like that of the species of Knodus and this species is here tentatively referred to Knodus. Our investigations indicate that at least several species of Knodus, including the type species, Knodus meridae, are not inseminating, but we found two inseminating apparently new characid species that currently would be referred to Knodus. These species lack the derived anal-fin rays present in the males of K. pectinatus. Other Clade A taxa known to be inseminating, such as two species of the large genus Creagrutus, three species of Monotocheirodon (two undescribed, and the species and genera of the characid subfamily Glandulocaudinae are briefly discussed regarding possible relationships to Attonitus and Bryconadenos. The anatomical aspects of the primary and secondary sexual characteristics of

  3. Alimentación del pez insectívoro neotropical Creagrutus bolivari (Pisces: Characidae según los métodos gráfico y de importancia relativa

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    Mario Ortaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la alimentación de un pez neotropical (Creagrutus bolivari usando diferentes métodos: el método gráfico de Cortés (1997 y dos índices de importancia relativa (George y Hadley, 1979 (% RIi y Cortés, 1997 (% IRIi. Sólo las presas discretas (invertebrados acuáticos y terrestres se emplearon en el análisis de dieta. Se estimó ara cada ítem, las frecuencias de aparición (% A, numérica (% N y gravimétrica (% G. Se analizó un total de 240 ejemplares (intervalo de talla desde 25.3 hasta 64.7 mm de longitud estándar. Para valores de % A > 50 %, el % IRIi resultó mayor al obtenido para el % RIi, con una tendencia opuesta (hasta 130 veces para valores de % A por debajo del 50 %. El % IRIi sobreestimó la importancia relativa de las presas para valores altos de % A, mientras que subestimó la importancia relativa de las presas para valores bajos de % A y mostró un comportamiento no lineal a medida que varió el % A. Las variables empleadas en el método gráfico de Cortés son insuficientes para evaluar la estrategia alimentaria del depredador (generalismo-especialismo. De este modo, se sugiere incluir otras variables como el ancho de nicho trófico poblacional e individual así como un adecuado registro de campo. Es necesario un amplio registro de campo para clasificar a las presas como escasa o dominante de acuerdo a la clasificación de Cortés. Los índices compuestos que incluyen las variables: masa, número y aparición proporcionan una descripción más precisa de la dieta y permiten realizar estudios comparativos. El análisis gráfico es fácil de interpretar y ayuda a evaluar aspectos como la importancia de la presa y la estrategia alimentaria del depredadorThe diet of the neotropical insectivorous fish Creagrutus bolivari (Pisces: Characidae according to the "graphic" and "relative importance" methods. The diet of a neotropical fish species (Creagrutus bolivari was studied using different methods: the Cortés 1997

  4. Biologia do saguirú (Characidae, Curimatinae

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    P. de Azevedo

    1938-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil all the fishes belonging to the sub-family Curimatinae are called « saguirú ». The present work gives a biological study of the Curimatus elegans Steind., a small fish without any economical importance, which is to be found along the whole brazilian coast, down till Paraguay. The specimens utilized for the present study come from Fortaleza (Ceará, north-eastern Brazil. The C. elegans is « ilyophagus », that means, it feeds itself exclusively with those organic materials to be found in mud, specially with microscopical algae. The intestines are very extent, some of them measuring about 9 to 11 times body's length. Studies have been made about growth and age of the C. elegans; the biggest sizes found were of 153 mm. for females and 88 mm. for males. The C. elegans shows developed sexual glands during a long period (April to September. The movements of the spermatozoa, in contact with water is of 40 to 50 seconds of intense movements, ceasing after 70 to 100 seconds. In contact with 0.5% NaCl-solution spermatozoa show a big increase in movements-time, that can last till about 25 minutes. The eggs' diameter measures 0.70 to 0.73 mm., mature and hydrated it attains 0.93 to 1,00 mm. There is a certain correlation between the size of the body and the quantity of eggs. Big specimens can produce a total of 200.000 eggs. The average quantity contained in 1 gr. and 1 cc. is 6018 and 6229 eggs, respectively. Maturity and spawning in laboratory has been obtained due to injections of suspension of fish-hypophysis. Three or four hours after the injection, fishes show more movement and evident signs of excitation, proceeding spawning after 5 to 6 hours. Males, persecuting females, describe successive circles (merry-go-round - carroussel, swimming side by side with females up to water's surface, where sexual products are start beating dry, for there is no blood yet. Circulation-scheme is to be found on fig. 4 and 5. The swim-bladder and the stomach are but delineated; the intestine is formed by a cylindric tube, all closed. At the place, where later on there will open the mouth, we find a group of ciliary hairs that produce a liquid current, very evident by the semi-circle formed by attached solid particles. After 36 hours, opening of the mouth and formation of the gill slits begin. At the age of 90 hours (4 mm. the larvas swim well and start to feed themselves; the digestive tube is now all open and the swimbladder works already. During the first days of life, larvas have an adhesive organ situated at their frontal region (fig. 7 in form of a crescent, by means of which they hang to surrounding vegetation (fig. 6. When the larva begins to swim and to feed itself and its yolk are having been absorbed. the adhesive organ retracts and disappears. While larvas and alevins feed themselves with plancton, they have small eye-teeth, which disappear,. when fishes become « ilyophagus ». There exist too, during their life as larvas, pharyngeal-teeth. The lateral line appears in the larva after 16 to 18 days; more or less at the same time all fins are completely developed. Shortly after, first scales appear (20 to 23 days. Evolution of intestines twisting followed (fig. 9. Larvas show at different parts of their bodies small of organs excretory functions, that are constituted by bottons in serial disposition, every one with an excretory canal that opens towards the outside. These formations disappear suddenly when larvas attain their phase of alevin. The existence of a great number of said formations at the caudal fin (fig. 12 is of great interest. In our experiences of breeding we have employed several thousands of C. elegans larvas in different environs and we made conditions of surrounding change (illumination, depth of water, temperature, presence of sand at bottom of aquariums and without sand, food. In this way we could compare the results obtained, estimate the action of each factor for the realisation of a good bring-up of larvas.

  5. Taxonomic revision of Galeocharax (Characiformes: Characidae: Characinae

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    Victor Giovannetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy of Galeocharax, a genus of freshwater fishes distributed in most South American cis-Andean river systems, except the rio Negro, rio São Francisco and rio Xingu basins and the eastern drainages of Brazil, is herein revised. A total of 1229 specimens were examined from which 680 had meristic and morphometric data taken. Osteological and morphological features were also examined through radiographs, scanning electron microscopy and in cleared and stained specimens. Three of the four species previously considered as valid are herein recognized: Galeocharax humeralis from rio Paraguay and lower rio Paraná basins; Galeocharax goeldii, from rio Madeira basin, with records of geographical distribution expanded to the río Madre de Dios, río Beni, rio Mamoré and rio Guaporé basins and Galeocharax gulo, which is widespread throughout rio Amazonas, río Orinoco, rio Tocantins, and upper rio Paraná basins. Galeocharax knerii is herein considered a junior synonym of Galeocharax gulo. A key to species of Galeocharax is presented.

  6. Fauna parasitária de peixes oriundos de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, São Paulo, Brasil = Parasitic fauna of cultivated fishes in fee fishing farm of Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Sergio Henrique Canello Schalch

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a ocorrência e a sazonalidade de parasitos em peixes de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (21o15`22``S, 48o18`58``W e 595 m de altitude, durante o período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002. A presença de parasitos foi pesquisada em pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, carpacomum Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, híbrido tambacu (macho de P. mesopotamicus x fêmea de tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum e piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Os resultados demonstram que dos 100 peixes examinados, 15% estavam parasitados por pelo menos um dos seguintes parasitos: Trichodina sp.; helmintos monogenóides; copepoditos de Lernaea cyprinacea; L. cyprinacea adulta ou Dolops carvalhoi. Por ordem decrescente, o grau de suscetibilidade dos hospedeiros foi C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B. hillari, híbrido tambacu e O. niloticus. Por ordem decrescente, os parasitos encontrados foram helmintos monogenóides, Dolops carvalhoi, Trichodina sp., Lernaea cyprinacea adultas e suas formas jovens.This study describes the occurrence and the seasonality of parasites of cultivated fish from a fee fishing farm located in Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º15`22`` S, 48º18`58`` W and 595 m of altitude, from August, 2001 to July, 2002. The presence of parasiteswas researched in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, common carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, tambacu hybrid (male of P. mesopotamicus x female of tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum and piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Results demonstrate that out of 100 fish examined, 15% were sponged for at least one of the following parasites: Trichodina sp.; monogenean helminths; copepodits of Lernaea cyprinacea; adults of L. cyprinacea; or Dolops carvalhoi. In decreasing order, the susceptibility degree of the hosts was C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B

  7. Fauna parasitária de peixes oriundos de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.253 Parasitic fauna of cultivated fishes in fee fishing farm of Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.253

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    Julieta Rodini Engracia de Moraes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a ocorrência e a sazonalidade de parasitos em peixes de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (21º15`22``S, 48º18`58``W e 595 m de altitude, durante o período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002. A presença de parasitos foi pesquisada em pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, carpa comum Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, híbrido tambacu (macho de P. mesopotamicus x fêmea de tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum e piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Os resultados demonstram que dos 100 peixes examinados, 15% estavam parasitados por pelo menos um dos seguintes parasitos: Trichodina sp.; helmintos monogenóides; copepoditos de Lernaea cyprinacea; L. cyprinacea adulta ou Dolops carvalhoi. Por ordem decrescente, o grau de suscetibilidade dos hospedeiros foi C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B. hillari, híbrido tambacu e O. niloticus. Por ordem decrescente, os parasitos encontrados foram helmintos monogenóides, Dolops carvalhoi, Trichodina sp., Lernaea cyprinacea adultas e suas formas jovens.This study describes the occurrence and the seasonality of parasites of cultivated fish from a fee fishing farm located in Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º15`22`` S, 48º18`58`` W and 595 m of altitude, from August, 2001 to July, 2002. The presence of parasites was researched in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, common carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, tambacu hybrid (male of P. mesopotamicus x female of tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum and piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Results demonstrate that out of 100 fish examined, 15% were sponged for at least one of the following parasites: Trichodina sp.; monogenean helminths; copepodits of Lernaea cyprinacea; adults of L. cyprinacea; or Dolops carvalhoi. In decreasing order, the susceptibility degree of the hosts was C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B

  8. Swimming performance of the small characin Bryconamericus stramineus (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Miriam A. de Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little research has been conducted on the swimming capacity of Neotropical fish. The few studies available have focused on large migratory species. The present study used fixed and increasing velocity tests to determine prolonged and sustained speeds of the "pequira", Bryconamericus stramineus Eigenmann, 1908, a small, abundant species found in fish passages implemented at the Paraná basin, Brazil. The results of increasing velocity tests showed significant relationships between critical speeds, total and standard lengths, and body weight. When compared with other Neotropical fish, the "pequira" is able to swim faster than individuals of other species of similar length. The point of change from sustained to prolonged swimming was found to occur at an approximate speed of 8.7 lengths per second. These data provide guidance and criteria for design and proper maintenance of structures such as fishways, fish screens and other systems that aim to facilitate or avoid upstream passages as part of management strategies.

  9. Systematics of the neotropical fish subfamily Glandulocaudinae (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae

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    Naércio A. Menezes

    Full Text Available The systematics of the Glandulocaudinae is reviewed in detail and justification for the recognition of the group as a subfamily is discussed. The subfamily Glandulocaudinae consists of three genera: Lophiobrycon with one species plesiomorphic in some anatomical features but some others exclusively derived relative to the species in the other genera; Glandulocauda with two species intermediate in phylogenetic derivation; and Mimagoniates with seven species (one new, all more phylogenetically derived concerning their pheromone producing caudal-fin organs and with other anatomical characters presumably more derived than in the species of the other genera. Glandulocauda melanogenys Eigenmann, 1911, is considered a junior synonym of Hyphessobrycon melanopleurus Ellis, 1911. A replacement name, Glandulocauda caerulea Menezes & Weitzman, is proposed for G. melanopleura Eigenmann, 1911. Gland cells found in the caudal-fin organs of all species are histologically indistinguishable from club cells and probably secrete a pheromone during courtship. The club cells are associated with somewhat modified to highly derived caudal scales forming a pheromone pumping organ in the more derived genera and species. This subfamily is distributed in freshwaters of eastern and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northeastern Uruguay.

  10. Revision of the genus Macropsobrycon Eigenmann, 1915 (Characidae: Cheirodontinae: Compsurini

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    Fernando C. Jerep

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The cheirodontine genus Macropsobrycon is redefined and considered monotypic. The type species, M. uruguayanae, is redescribed based on samples from the entire known geographical distribution of the species. Sexually dimorphic characters of M. uruguayanae are further described and the relationships of the species with the remaining Compsurini are discussed.O gênero Macropsobrycon de Cheirodontinae é redefinido e considerado monotípico. A espécie-tipo, M. uruguayanae, é redescrita com base em amostras de toda a distribuição geográfica conhecida da espécie. Caracteres de dimorfismo sexual secundário de M. uruguayanae são descritos e as relações da espécie com outros Compsurini são discutidas.

  11. A new species of Acestrocephalus (Characiformes: Characidae from Venezuela

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    Carlos A Lasso

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Acestrocephalus is described from 60 specimens collected in the Río Orinoco and Río Negro drainages, Venezuela. This species is distinguished from all other Acestrocephalus by the combination of the following characters: anal rays, 29-36; 63-71 perforated scales on the lateral line; 10-12 scales above and 9-12 below the lateral line; 39-52 teeth on the maxillary; 9-12 premaxillary teeth; 8-12 teeth in the inner row on the dentary; 5-7 gill rakers on the lower part of the first gill arch; humeral, peduncular and caudal blotch absent.Se describe una nueva especie, Acestrocephalus ginesi, con base a 60 ejemplares recolectados en las cuencas del Río Orinoco y Río Negro, Venezuela. Esta especie difiere de otros miembros del género por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: aleta anal, 29-36 radios; 63-71 escamas con poro en la línea lateral; escamas transversales 10-12 / 9-12; 39-52 dientes en el maxilar; 9-12 dientes en el premaxilar; 8-12 dientes en la fila interna del dentario; 5-7 branquispinas en la parte inferior del primer arco branquial; mancha humeral, peduncular y caudal, ausentes.

  12. A pesca comercial na bacia do rio Madeira no estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira The Commercial fisheries of the Madeira river basin in the Rondônia state, brazilian Amazon

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    Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracteriza quali e quantitativamente a atividade pesqueira comercial na bacia do rio Madeira, afluente do rio Amazonas, no trecho entre Guajará-Mirim e Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia. No período de janeiro a dezembro/2004, foram registrados 460 t, correspondendo 935 viagens. A análise dos dados oriundos do monitoramento dos desembarques demonstrou que a pesca na região tem caráter artesanal de pequena escala, destacando a maior participação das canoas motorizadas (131 unidades do que barcos pesqueiros (45 unidades; capacidade média: 3.000kg na frota pesqueira. Os peixes migradores jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans e filhote (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum se destacaram na composição das espécies desembarcadas. As informações técnicas geradas são importantes para subsidiar ações de ordenamento pesqueiro, bem como para avaliar futuras variações que possam ocorrer na atividade frente aos impactos dos empreendimentos hidrelétricos em construção na região.This study presents qualitative and quantitative information about commercial fishery in the basin of the Madeira River, tributary of the Amazon River, describing the fishing activity in the segment between Guajará-Mirim and Porto Velho, in Rondônia State. From January to December/2004, 219 fishermen and 935 trips were registered, corresponding to the capture of 460 t of fish. Data from fish landings demonstrate that fisheries in the region are small-scaled and point to a higher participation of small motorized canoes (130 units than of fishing boats (45 units; average capacity: 3000 kg in the fishing fleet. Migratory species like jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans

  13. Benzocaína sobre respostas ao estresse do matrinxã submetido ao transporte em sacos plásticos Benzocaine on the stress response of matrinxã subjected to transport in plastic bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Hackbarth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O transporte é uma prática de manejo necessária em todas as estações de piscicultura. Entretanto, tal evento é um estímulo adverso e agudo, que interrompe o equilíbrio dos animais com o ambiente, de forma a promover o estresse. Alguns peixes de importância comercial, como o matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, apresentam movimentação excessiva durante o manejo em geral, o que pode ocasionar consequências indesejáveis como perda de muco, de escamas, ferimentos e mortalidade. No presente trabalho, foi testado o anestésico benzocaína adicionado à água de transporte, como forma de reduzir estresse. Foram testadas duas concentrações de benzocaína, 10 e 15mg/L. Os resultados não mostraram efeitos de diminuição de estresse, apesar de a utilização da benzocaína ter reduzido a movimentação dos animais durante o transporte. As concentrações testadas podem ter aumentado o estresse por sofrimento respiratório, entretanto, o equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico não foi alterado, com sugestão de ação do anestésico sobre a liberação de catecolaminas.Transport is a necessary procedure in fish farming. However, it is an adverse and acute stimulus that breaks the balance between fish and environment, starting the stress condition. Some economic relevant species, as “matrinxã” (Brycon amazonicus, present excessive movements in handling, which may result in the unwanted consequences as loss of mucus, scales, injuries and death. In this work, the addition of the anesthetic benzocaine to the transport water was evaluated in juvenile “matrinxã”, in order to still the fish and possibly reducing stress. Two concentrations of benzocaine (10 and 15mg/L were tested. The results did not show any diminution of indices related to stress, notwithstanding the use of benzocaine during transport. Concentrations tested increased the stress responses by respiratory affliction, however, hydro-electrolytic balance was unaltered, being suggested some

  14. Fauna parasitária de peixes oriundos de "pesque-pagues" do município de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil. II. Metazoários Parasitic fauna of cultivated fishes in feefishing farm of franca, state of São Paulo, Brazil. II. Metazoans

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan fauna from cultivated fishes (N = 433 in two feefishing farm of Franca, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was studied during a period of April 1997 through March 1999. Specimens of piauçú Leporinus macrocephalus Garavello & Britski, 1988 (Anostomidae, pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Characidae, carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (Cyprinidae, Tillapia rendalli Boulenger, 1896 (Cichlidae, nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 (Cichlidae, matrinxã Brycon cephalus Günther, 1869 (Characidae and tambacu hybrid (male of P. mesopotamicus x female of Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 were collected. A total of 29.3% was parasitized by monogenean, 9.7% with crustacean (copepodits and adults of Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, 1758 and Argulus sp. and 1.6% with myxosporean (Henneguya piaractus Martins & Souza, 1997 and Myxobolus colossomatis Moinar & Békési, 1993.The most susceptible species to myxosporean infestation was P. mesopotamicus. L. macrocephalus and P. mesopotamicus that showed a higher susceptibility to Argulus sp infestation. It was not observed significant difference (P > 0.05 in the seasonal variation of L. cyprinacea infection of all species. L. macrocephalus, P. mesopotamicus and tambacu showed a great number of P. pillulare with no significant difference (P > 0.05 between them. Monogenean infections were observed in all examined species, without significant difference (P > 0.05 in the seasonal variation. Nevertheless, occurrence of monogenean was higher in P. mesopotamicus and lower in Nile-tilapia. By the other hand, parasites number collected from P. mesopotamicus was lower in the winter. Copepodits of L. cyprinacea were found in the gills of P. mesopotamicus, tambacu and L. macrocephalus. However, adults of L. cyprinacea were observed only in the P. mesopotamicus and tambacu.

  15. Optimization of Artificial Propagation in Piracanjuba Fish Brycon orbignyanus Using Cryopreserved Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felizardo, V O; Melo, C C V; Murgas, L D S; Andrade, E S; Navarro, R D; Ftreitas, T F

    BACKGROUND: Cryopreserved semen could facilitate procedures during the artificial reproduction in fish. Factors affecting cryopreservation efficiency are important to define efficient protocols. This study investigated the application of cryoprotectants on the quality of piracanjuba fish semen, the sperm concentration required for oocyte fertilization and spermatic activation. We evaluated two intracellular cryoprotectant solutions (DMSO and methanol) and two extracellular cryoprotectant solutions (egg yolk and lactose) to cryopreserved piracanjuba semen. Sperm motility rate, motility duration and spermatic alterations were assessed. The protocol for piracanjuba semen cryopreservation can use solutions including either DMSO or methanol as intracellular cryoprotectant and egg yolk or lactose as extracellular cryoprotectants.

  16. EFFECT OF SOME IONS ON SPERM ACTIVATION IN Brycon henni (EIGENMANN 1913

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    JAVIER TABARES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espermatozoides en los carácidos se mantienen inmóviles en plasma seminal, acti- vándose cuando se liberan en el agua. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer algunos de los mecanismos que inducen la activación espermática (porcentaje de espermato- zoides que adquieren movilidad y el tiempo que dura la misma. El efecto de las solucio- nes isosmóticas, se analizó considerando las combinaciones de los iones Ca2+, K+, Mg2+ y Na+, y el efecto de algunos bloqueadores de canales iónicos. Se evaluó el porcentaje y duración de la movilidad, así como el potencial de la membrana plasmática. La motili- dad espermática fue mayor cuando el semen se incubó en las soluciones que contenían K+ (p<0,05 comparado con el control positivo. La mayor duración de la movilidad se obtuvo cuando se incubaron los espermatozoides en soluciones que contenían Na+ y Mg2+ (p<0,05. Todas las soluciones probadas indujeron un cambio en el potencial de membrana, detectado después de 15 segundos de la activación. Bloqueo de los canales de K+, Ca2+ y Na+ no alteró la movilidad, sino que disminuyó el tiempo de activación (p<0,05. Los iones potasio indujeron la activación en todas las concentraciones hasta 105 mM, pero la movilidad disminuyó drásticamente cuando las concentraciones fue- ron mayores de 140 mM (p<0,05. Se concluye que la interacción del ambiente iónico con la membrana de la célula conduce a cambios en el potencial de la membrana que conllevan a señales intracelulares que desencadenan la movilidad del esperma.

  17. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    In Colombia and the rest of the world, the decrease in capture fisheries production has turned the aquaculture into an alternative source of protein for the populations food security as well as an important productive activity, generating employment and income for the rural communities. The Colom......In Colombia and the rest of the world, the decrease in capture fisheries production has turned the aquaculture into an alternative source of protein for the populations food security as well as an important productive activity, generating employment and income for the rural communities...... Prochilodus magdalenae (Steindachner), carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) and yamu Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz). From the three main fish species, cachama blanca is the only native species, which has shown excellent performance in pond farming due to its rusticity, omnivorous habits, docility, meat quality......, food conversion and disease resistance. The limited offer of Colombian fish farmed species determines its currently low competitiveness and restricted impact on the international markets; thus making necessary to explore the potential of new fish species in order to introduce them to the pisciculture...

  18. Revisión taxonómica y geográfica de Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae Taxonomic and geographic revision of Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae

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    César Román-Valencia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectúa un análisis taxonómico y geográfico de Bryconamericus peruanus y se compara con las especies de este género presentes en las vertientes del Pacífico sur en Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. Bryconamericus peruanus restringe su distribución al sistema hidrográfico del Pacífico en Perú y se plantea que algunas formas del Pacífico y Amazonas de Ecuador son especies por describir. Los caracteres asociados al dimorfismo sexual, como ganchos en todas las aletas con radios excepto la aleta caudal, son útiles en la diferenciación de B. peruanus y Bryconamericus sp.1 con respecto a B. brevirostris, B. dahli, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis, Bryconamericus sp. 2 y Bryconamericus sp. 3. De acuerdo con la forma (de la mandíbula superior, longitud aleta dorsal-hipurales y longitud pedúnculo caudal, el análisis de componentes principales distingue 2 grupos de especies: I B. peruanus, B. brevirostris, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis y Bryconamericus sp. 3 y II B. dahli, Bryconamericus sp. 1 y Bryconamericus sp. 2.Axonomic and geographic status of Bryconamericus peruanus were analyzed and compared with species belonging to the genus Bryconamericus that occurs in the Pacific basin from Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Distribution range of B. peruanus is restricted to Peruvian drainages and the populations from the Pacific basin and those located at the Amazons in Ecuador are regarded new species. The presence of hooks on all the fins, except on the caudal fin, was the most reliable character to separate populations of B. peruanus and Bryconamericus sp.1 from B. brevirostris, B. dahli, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis, Bryconamericus sp. 2 and Bryconamericus sp. 3. According to the form upper jaw, dorsal fin-hypurals distance and caudal peduncle length from the principal component analysis, 2 groups are distinguished: I B. peruanus, B. brevirostris, B.guaytarae, B. miraensis y Bryconamericus sp. 3, and II B. dahli, Bryconamericus sp. 1 and Bryconamericus sp. 2.

  19. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE Alimentary tract of juvenile Rubio Salminus affinis (Pisces: Characidae morphological description

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    VJ ATENCIO GARCÍA

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de "Y", grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.The aim of work was giving biological information about Salminus affinis,a morphological description of the alimentary tract was carried out. Five juvenile Rubio were analyzed (23.6±2.6 cm of total length and 142.8±62.5 g of weight. Topographical and morphological description organs and histology with H-E stain were carried out. The esophagus is a short tubular thick-walled organ that represents 7.8% of the alimentary tract total length; it presents internal folds that offer great distension capacity allowing the step of great volume of bit meat. The stomach is an asymmetric bag in "Y" form, big and muscular, wide in anterior part and narrow toward the bottom; the number of pyloric cecum can vary between 13 and 23 and could be monotubular and branching. The intestine, with three loops, extends from the pyloric sphincter until the anus. Histologycally alimentary tract is formed by four layers: mucous, submucous, muscular and serous; the epithelium lining of the esophagus is stratified plane non keratinized with chaliced cells changing to simple cylindrical mucosecretor up to stomach; in the stomach epithelium simple cylindrical mucosecretor are found and the pyloric and intestine cecum are covered by cylindrical simple epithelium with chaliced cells. So the middle value of the intestinal coefficient (0.58, as the distensible wall of the stomach suggest that Rubio has an alimentary tract of carnivorous and its histologycal characteristics are similar with most of superior vertebrates.

  20. Revisión taxonómica y geográfica de Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae) Taxonomic and geographic revision of Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    César Román-Valencia; María Dolly García; Hernán Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Se efectúa un análisis taxonómico y geográfico de Bryconamericus peruanus y se compara con las especies de este género presentes en las vertientes del Pacífico sur en Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. Bryconamericus peruanus restringe su distribución al sistema hidrográfico del Pacífico en Perú y se plantea que algunas formas del Pacífico y Amazonas de Ecuador son especies por describir. Los caracteres asociados al dimorfismo sexual, como ganchos en todas las aletas con radios excepto la aleta caudal...

  1. Clove oil as anaesthetic for juveniles of matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869 Óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869

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    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Many chemicals have been used as anaesthetics in fish farms and fish biology laboratories to keep the fish immobilized during handling procedures and to prevent accidents and animal stress. In Brazil, tricaine methane sulfonate (MS 222, quinaldine sulfate, benzocaine, and phenoxyethanol are the most common fish anaesthetics used to prevent fish stress during handling, but many side effects such as body and gill irritations, corneal damage and general risks of intoxication have been reported. Clove oil is a natural product proposed as an alternative fish anaesthetic by many researchers and it has been used in many countries with great economic advantages and no apparent toxic properties. In this work, we assessed the suitability of clove oil to anaesthetize matrinxã. Sixty-three juveniles of matrinxã were exposed to seven anaesthetic batches of clove oil (pharmaceutical grade namely 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mg/L. The times to reach total loss of equilibrium and to recover the upright position were measured. Clove oil concentration about 40 mg/L was enough to anaesthetize the fish in approximately one minute and the recovery time was independent in regard to anaesthetic concentration.Diversos produtos químicos têm sido empregados como anestésicos para peixes nas estações de piscicultura e laboratórios de biologia de peixes para a devida imobilização dos organismos, afim de se prevenir acidentes e ferimentos na superfície do corpo dos próprios peixes, que podem ficar susceptíveis a patógenos e taxas altas de mortalidade. A tricaina metano sulfonato (MS 222, a quinaldina, a benzocaina e o phenoxyethanol têm sido amplamente utilizados no Brasil, mas alguns efeitos colaterais são observados como perda de muco, irritação nas brânquias e olhos, e também alguns incômodos aos trabalhadores como a necessidade do uso de luvas. Dessa forma, o óleo de cravo é proposto como um anestésico alternativo por ser um produto natural de custo acessível e sem riscos aparentes de intoxicações. No presente trabalho estudamos a possibilidade do uso do óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã, utilizando-se 63 peixes, expondo-os a banhos anestésicos nas concentrações de 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 60 mg/L, de forma que foram mensurados os tempos necessários para que os peixes atingissem a perda total de equilíbrio e a incapacidade de retornar a posição normal de nado. A concentração de 40 mg/L foi suficiente para anestesiar juvenis de matrinxã em aproximadamente 1 minuto, sendo a recuperação independente da concentração do anestésico.

  2. Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

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    Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of extract of Aloe vera in the transport water of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus fish on stress response and leukocyte respiratory activity. Fish was transported for 4 h in water containing Aloe at levels 0; 0.02; 0.2 and 2 mg/L, and sampled before transport 2, 4, 24 and 96 h after for determination of plasma glucose and respiratory activity of leukocytes. An additional in vitro assay was conducted with another fish species, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, to test the respiratory burst of leukocytes exposed to Aloe extract (0.0, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS only at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. Plasma glucose increased after 2 and 4 h of transport and returned to control levels within 24 h, but the addition of Aloe in the transport water did not affect the level of blood glucose. However, at 2 h of transport, Aloe enhanced the respiratory activity of leukocytes in a dose-dependent way. The highest value of respiratory burst activity of leukocytes was observed in the fish transported in water containing Aloe at 2 mg/L. The enhancing effect of the plant extract on the production of oxygen radicals was confirmed in vitro in leukocytes of pacu incubated in Aloe at concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L. The results suggest that Aloe vera is a modulator of the immune system in fish improving the innate immune response tested.

  3. Diet of Astyanax species (Teleostei, Characidae in an Atlantic Forest River in Southern Brazil

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    Fábio Silveira Vilella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of six species of Astyanax from river Maquiné are described. Fishes were sampled bi-monthly from November/95 to September/96 in two zones of the river. Items were identified, counted and had their abundance estimated according to a semi-quantitative scale. Frequency of occurrence, alimentary importance index (IFI values and a similarity analysis of diets for each species-river zone sample were examined. All the species were considered typically omnivorous, with insects and vegetal matter being the most important items in their diet. These species could act as seed dispersers, particularly for macrophytes. Intra-specific spatial differences were not observed in comparisons of samples from two diferent regions of the river, except for A. fasciatus. The presence of Podostemaceae macrophytes in the mid-course of the river seemed to be important both as an autochthonous food resource and as habitat for several organisms preyed by the Astyanax species.Seis espécies do gênero Astyanax, presentes no rio Maquiné, RS, foram estudadas quanto aos seus hábitos alimentares. Os exemplares foram amostrados bimensalmente de novembro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 nas zonas ritral e potamal do rio. Os itens alimentares foram identificados e quantificados de acordo com uma escala semi-quantitativa de abundância, utilizando-se para análise a frequência de ocorrência e um índice de importância alimentar para cada espécie e zona do rio. Análises multivariadas de agrupamento e ordenação foram utilizadas para comparar as dietas intra e interespecíficas. Todas as espécies foram consideradas onivoras, sendo que os itens mais importantes foram os insetos e restos de vegetais superiores. Sugere-se que as espécies estudadas possam atuar como dispersoras de sementes, particularmente para macrófitas. Diferenças espaciais intraespecíficas não foram encontradas, exceto para A. fasciatus. A presença de Podostemaceae no curso médio do rio parece ser uma fonte importante de alimento para as espécies, além de servir de refúgio para diversos organismos que são predados por Astyanax sp.

  4. Anatomy of the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

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    Eliane Menin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis, an ichthyophagous species of fresh water, is anatomically adapted to predation. The wide buccal rift, the oral-aboral enlargement of the buccal cavity and the reduced thickness of the pharyngeal mastigatory apparatus favor the capture and deglutition of larger prey. In function of the oral and pharyngeal dentition type, pre-digestive food preparation does not occur. The pointed and curved teeth, together with the tongue which is relatively mobile, prevent the prey’s escape from the buccopharyngeal cavity. The passage of the food is facilitated by the absence of pronounced folds in the mucous membrane of this cavity and by the disposition of the oral and pharyngeal teeth. The characteristics of flat and thin lips, developed oral dentition, relatively mobile tongue, mucous membrane without folds, pharynx with denticules disposed in dentigerous areas and plates, and short and sharp gill-rackers are anatomical adaptations which are shared by S. brasiliensis and other ichthyophagous Characiformes species such as Salminus maxillosus, Salminus hilarii, Hoplias malabaricus, Hoplias lacerdae, Acestrorhynchus lacustris and Acestrorhynchus britskii. However, different to the mentioned species, except other Salmininae, S. brasiliensis possesses oral teeth of an unique type, present only in the jawbones and distributed in two series.

  5. Cytogenetic data on Astyanax jacuhiensis (Characidae in the lago Guaíba and tributaries, Brazil

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    Rosiley B. Pacheco

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analyses were performed in Astyanax jacuhiensis from lago Guaíba, Brazil. The diploid number was 50, with a karyotype composed of 8m+30sm+4st+8a chromosomes, FN = 92. The AgNORs were observed in 2 to 5 chromosomes, with intra- and interindividual variation. The sm pair 8 observed always carried NORs on the short arms, presenting size heteromorphism between homologous. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with an 18S rDNA probe only confirmed the location of ribosomal cistrons in the sm pair 8, and heteromorphism of these regions between the homologous chromosomes. C-banding revealed the occurrence of weak C-positive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of several chromosomes, in addition to more evident bands interstitially located on some chromosome pairs and in the terminal region of the short arms in pair 8. C-banding plus CMA3 revealed light fluorescent signals in different chromosomes of the karyotype, with a strong terminal site in pair 8, indicating the occurrence of several GC-rich heterochromatic regions in this species. Our results provide the first description of the Astyanax jacuhiensis karyotype, showing karyotype similarities when compared to various populations of A. altiparanae and A. bimaculatus, indicating that chromosomal features are very similar for these three species.

  6. DNA barcodes of Rosy Tetras and allied species (Characiformes: Characidae: Hyphessobrycon) from the Brazilian Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Paz, Francis Paola; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo

    2014-01-01

    DNA barcoding can be an effective tool for fast and accurate species-level identification based on sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COI) gene. The diversity of this fragment can be used to estimate the richness of the respective species. In this study, we explored the use of DNA barcoding in a group of ornamental freshwater fish of the genus Hyphessobrycon. We sequenced the COI from 10 species of Hyphessobrycon belonging to the "Rosy Tetra Clade" collected from the Amazon and Negro River basins and combined our results with published data. The average conspecific and congeneric Kimura 2-parameter distances were 2.3% and 19.3%, respectively. Six of the 10 species were easily distinguishable by DNA barcoding (H. bentosi, H. copelandi, H. eques, H. epicharis, H. pulchrippinis, and H. sweglesi), whereas the remaining species (H. erythrostigma, H. pyrrhonotus, H. rosaceus and H. socolofi) lacked reciprocal monophyly. Although the COI gene was not fully diagnostic, the discovery of distinct evolutionary units in certain Hyphessobrycon species under the same specific epithet as well as haplotype sharing between different species suggest that DNA barcoding is useful for species identification in this speciose genus.

  7. DNA barcodes of Rosy Tetras and allied species (Characiformes: Characidae: Hyphessobrycon from the Brazilian Amazon basin.

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    Francis Paola Castro Paz

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding can be an effective tool for fast and accurate species-level identification based on sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COI gene. The diversity of this fragment can be used to estimate the richness of the respective species. In this study, we explored the use of DNA barcoding in a group of ornamental freshwater fish of the genus Hyphessobrycon. We sequenced the COI from 10 species of Hyphessobrycon belonging to the "Rosy Tetra Clade" collected from the Amazon and Negro River basins and combined our results with published data. The average conspecific and congeneric Kimura 2-parameter distances were 2.3% and 19.3%, respectively. Six of the 10 species were easily distinguishable by DNA barcoding (H. bentosi, H. copelandi, H. eques, H. epicharis, H. pulchrippinis, and H. sweglesi, whereas the remaining species (H. erythrostigma, H. pyrrhonotus, H. rosaceus and H. socolofi lacked reciprocal monophyly. Although the COI gene was not fully diagnostic, the discovery of distinct evolutionary units in certain Hyphessobrycon species under the same specific epithet as well as haplotype sharing between different species suggest that DNA barcoding is useful for species identification in this speciose genus.

  8. Comparative cytogenetics in Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae with focus on the cytotaxonomy of the group

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    Renata Cristina Claudino de Oliveira Tenório

    Full Text Available Astyanax is a diverse group of Neotropical fishes, whose different forms occupy different environments. This great diversity is also reflected on cytogenetic aspects and molecular markers, which have repeatedly been demonstrated by cytogenetic studies. In order to characterize the karyotype of species of this genus, six species were studied: Astyanax altiparanae, A.argyrimarginatus, A. elachylepis, A. xavante, and two new species provisionally called Astyanax sp. and A. aff. bimaculatus. A detailed cytogenetic study based on conventional staining with Giemsa, AgNORs, C-banding, base-specific fluorochromes, and FISH using ribosomal genes 18S and 5S was conducted, aiming to understand some of the chromosomal mechanisms associated with the high diversification that characterizes this group and culminated with the establishment of these species. The results showed 2n = 50 chromosomes for five species and a karyotype with 52 chromosomes in Astyanax sp. Small variations in the macrostructure of the karyotypes were identified, which were quite relevant when analyzed by classical banding, fluorochromes, and FISH methods. These differences among Astyanax spp. (2n = 50 are largely due to changes in the amount and types of heterochromatic blocks. Astyanax sp (2n = 52, in addition to variations due to heterochromatic blocks, has its origin possibly by events of centric fission in a pair of chromosomes followed by minor rearrangements.These results show an interesting karyotypic diversity in Astyanax and indicate the need of a review of the group referred as A. aff. bimaculatus and the description of Astyanax sp., including the possibility of inclusion of this unit in another genus.

  9. Variations of Salminus hilarii diet (Ostariophysi, Characidae: seasonal and ontogenetic effects

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    GA Villares Junior

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study described the variations seasonal and ontogenetic of Salminus hilarii diet. Samples were collected in the Sorocaba River, São Paulo, Brazil, one of the few rivers where individuals of the species still occur in a higher frequency. The preys consumed were analyzed by Importance Alimentary Index (AIi. To determine similarities between year seasons, the AIi data were analyzed by the Morisita-Horn index and reduced in cluster analysis, along with a statistical comparison made by one-way ANOSIM test (5%. The feeding activity was analyzed according to the stomach repletion index and compared among the year seasons using non parametric variance analysis Kruskal-Wallis test (5%. Comparison of prey consumed between immature and adult individuals was made by Spearman correlation (5%. A Pearson correlation (5% was applied between the standard length of the fish and prey consumed, as well as between the mouth and prey heights. The analyzes of stomach contents showed that the diet of this species was exclusively piscivorous, with significant difference of prey consumption during the period, the same happening among adult and immature individuals. It was observed that these fishes use to swallow their prey whole and that significant correlations between size of predator and prey size can be observed. There is also correlation between the mouth height and the maximum prey depth. Salminus hilarii feeds on the available prey, and the species food composition and feeding activity depends on prey`s abundance, their size and morphology, as do the water temperatures.

  10. Abundancia relativa y dieta de Grundulus bogotensis (Characiformes: Characidae en el altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia

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    Saúl Prada-Pedreros1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la abundancia relativa de Grundulus bogotensis entre dos cuencas y la dieta entre poblaciones de tres cuencas del altiplano Cundiboyacense. Entre marzo y junio de 2006 se realizaron muestreos en 10 localidades utilizando un equipo de electropesca. Laabundancia relativa de cada localidad se expresó como el número deindividuos capturado por hora en un tramo de 100m. Se utilizó untest de Kruskal-Wallis para determinar diferencias significativas en la abundancia relativa entre cuencas. Para cuantificar la dieta se utilizó el método volumétrico y para determinar el grado de similaridad entre cuencas se recurrió a tres análisis multivariados: análisis de escalonamiento multidimensional no métrico (NMDS, análisis de similaridad (ANOSIM y análisis de porcentaje de similaridad (SIMPER. Se capturaron en total 675 individuos, empleando 600 minutos de esfuerzo de captura. La abundancia de la especie en la cuenca del río Bogotá fue significativamente menor respecto a la del río Suárez. La composición de la dieta y volumen de ítems entre cuencas fue similar. El material consumido fue de origen autóctono y los ítems más importantes fueron los insectos inmaduros y los microcrustáceos. La abundancia relativa de las poblaciones de G.bogotensis en la cuenca del río Bogotá fue menor que en la cuenca delrío Suárez. La cuenca del río Suárez probablemente soporta la mayorabundancia de la especie en todo su rango de distribución y los datossugieren condiciones favorables para la sobrevivencia de la Guapuchaen el lago de Tota. El análisis de la dieta indicó una similaridad mayor al 60% en la utilización del recurso alimentar en las tres cuencas.

  11. Seasonal diet shift in a Tetragonopterinae (Osteichthyes, Characidae) from the Ubatiba River, RJ, Brazil.

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    Mazzoni, R; Rezende, C F

    2003-02-01

    In the present study, we describe feeding habits of Deuterodon sp. from the Ubatiba River and explore if diet changes according to a temporal cycle of dry and wet seasons. We observed that Deuterodon sp. fed on an extremely high diversity of items ranging from organic matter, sediment (sand plus quartz parts), algae, seeds and leaves to animal organisms, such as, crustaceans, oligochaets and several life stages of terrestrial and aquatic insects, indicating an omnivorous diet. An important shift in the use of feeding resources was also registered; animal and vegetal items had alternated importance between both seasons. Allochthonous vs. autochthonous items analysis showed predominance of allochthonous items during dry season while no significant differences were registered during wet season.

  12. Five new species of Hemibrycon (Characiformes: Characidae from the Río Magdalena basin, Colombia

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    César Román-Valencia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Five new fish species of the genus Hemibrycon are described from the Río Magdalena basin, Colombia, using morphometric, meristic and osteological characters. Hemibrycon paez (n=40 differs in number of lateral line scales (39 to 42 vs. 43 to 54, by the number of scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin (6 to 7 vs. 4 to 5 and between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin (6 to 7 vs. 8; H. quindos (n=66 distinguished from its congeners by one autopomorphy: Males with cartilaginous protuberance, rounded on the anal fin ray branched, along all rays (vs. cartilaginous protuberance not present on anal-fin rays in males, by the maxilla without a fold on its anterior end (vs. maxilla with folding only at posterior end, by the number of pored scales in the lateral line (35 to 40 vs. 40 to 46; H. raqueliae (n=117 distinguished by a widened first tooth on the maxilla with the remaining teeth decreasing sharply in size (vs. first tooth of maxilla slender, remaining teeth gradually diminishing, by the first maxilla tooth pentacuspid and wider than the others (vs. first tooth on maxilla unicuspid or tricuspid and of same size as the others; H. virolinica (n=34 distinguished by the posterior end of the extrascapular spine surpassing the postemporal (vs. posterior end of extrascapular not exceeding postemporal spine, by having the posterior end of the first proximal pteryigiophores of dorsal fin of the same size as the anterior edge (vs. the posterior end of the first proximal pteryigiophores of dorsal fin more elongated than the anterior edge; and H. yacopiae (n=78 is distinguished by the following autopomorphic characters: first laterosensorial infraorbitals canal in contact with the posterior end of antorbital (vs. laterosensorial canal not reaching posterior end of antorbital, by the tip of the supraoccipital spine widened (vs. supraoccipital spine acute, by the posterior end of ectopterygoids failing to come in contact with the quadrate bone (vs. in contact; by the posterior edge of palatine more widened than the anterior edge of ectopterygoids (vs. posterior edge of the palatine approximately the same size, except for H. paez. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 339-356. Epub 2010 March 01.Cinco nuevas especies son descritas para la cuenca del Río Magdalena, Colombia, con base en caracteres morfométricos, merísticos y osteológicos. Hemibrycon paez se distingue por el número de escamas en la línea lateral (39 a 42 vs. 43 a 54, entre la línea lateral y el origen de la aleta anal (6 a 7 vs. 4 a 5, y entre la línea lateral y el origen de la aleta dorsal (6 a 7 vs. 8. H. quindos se distingue por una autopomorfia: machos con protuberancias cartilaginosas redondeadas sobre los radios ramificados de la aleta anal, sobre toda su extensión (vs. no presentes en los radios de las aletas anal en machos, la maxila que no posee un plegamiento en su extremo posterior (vs. maxilar con doblamiento en su extremo posterior, por el número de escamas con poros en la línea lateral (35 a 40 vs. 40 a 46. H. raqueliae, se distingue por presentar el primer diente del maxilar ensanchado al comparar con los demás dientes que disminuye abruptamente en tamaño (vs. Primer diente del maxilar delgado, los demás dientes disminuyen gradualmente, por presentar el primer diente de la maxila pentacúspide y más ancho que los demás (vs. primer diente sobre la maxila uni o tricúspide y de igual tamaño que los otros. H. virolinica se distingue por poseer en el extremo posterior del extraescapular una espina que sobre pasa el postemporal (vs. extremo posterior del extrascapular no sobre pasa la espina del postemporal, por tener el extremo posterior del primer pterigióforo proximal de la aleta dorsal del mismo tamaño que el borde anterior (vs. el extremo posterior del primer pterigióforo proximal de la aleta dorsal mas alargado que el borde anterior. H. yacopiae se diferencia por una autopomorfia: el canal laterosensorial sobre primer infraorbital en contacto con el extremo posterior del antorbital (vs. el canal laterosensorial no alcanza el extremo posterior del antorbital, por el extremo de la espina supraoccipital ancha (vs. espina supraoccipital aguda, por el extremo posterior del ectopterigoide no en contacto con el cuadrado (vs. en contacto, por el borde posterior del palatino más ancho que el borde anterior del ectopterigoide (vs. borde posterior del palatino aproximadamente del mismo tamaño.

  13. Daily feeding activity of Bryconamericus microcephalus (Characiformes, Characidae from Córrego Andorinha, Ilha Grande - RJ

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    R. Mazzoni

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at the Córrego Andorinha on the eastern slope of Ilha Grande and aimed to determine the alimentary daily rhythm of Bryconamericus microcephalus. Fishes were sampled at a 4 hours interval over a 24 hours period during winter 2002 and summer 2003. Gut fullness was determined according to a numerical scale ranging from 0 (empty gut to 3 (full gut. No differences were registered for the daily ration estimates between seasons. It is concluded that B. microcephalus is a diurnal feeding species, as the high values of gut fullness occurred between 11:00 AM and 3:00 PM.

  14. Osteology of Priocharax and remarkable developmental truncation in a miniature Amazonian fish (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, George M T; Britz, Ralf; Toledo-Piza, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Establishing phylogenetic relationships of miniature fishes is challenging in taxa with developmental truncation. Within the Characiformes, developmental truncation appears to be relatively rare, with the Neotropical genus Priocharax being an example. Priocharax includes three miniature species among the smallest of the order and has been hypothesized to belong to the Heterocharacinae. The pronounced reduction in its skeleton, however, prevented a clearer evaluation of its relationships. The present detailed osteological study was designed to address this question and revealed that 21 bones are absent and nine other skeletal structures are simplified in Priocharax when compared to other characids. Comparison of the skeleton of adult Priocharax with early developmental stages of other characids demonstrated that most of the absences and simplifications can be interpreted as developmental truncations. The most striking developmental truncations are in the pectoral girdle, in which the endoskeleton remains entirely cartilaginous. Other interesting truncations are in the ethmoid region of the skull, infraorbital series, and Weberian apparatus, in which the claustrum is absent. Our study also revealed some unusual sexual dimorphisms in the pelvic girdle. Two cladistic analyses were performed to assess the relationships of Priocharax within the Heterocharacinae. The first consisted of a traditional analysis in which all absences and reductions of Priocharax were coded in the same way as in the remaining taxa. This resulted in three equally most parsimonious topologies, all of which have Priocharax as the most basal taxon of the Heterocharacinae. The second analysis incorporated ontogenetic information, and most absences and reductions of Priocharax were reinterpreted as apomorphic conditions and thus, coded differently from similar conditions in outgroups. This resulted in a single phylogenetic hypothesis with Priocharax and Gnathocharax as sister groups based on seven synapomorphies. Our approach demonstrates the importance of developmental studies to better understand morphological evolution of miniaturized, truncated taxa, and to generate hypotheses of their relationships. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Xingu basin, Brazil

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    Manoela M. F. Marinho

    Full Text Available A new species of Moenkhausia from the upper rio Xingu basin is described. Moenkhausia eurystaenia is distinguished from all congeners, except M. heikoi and M. phaeonota, by the presence of a dark, broad longitudinal stripe from the opercle to the end of caudal peduncle. The new species is distinguished from M. heikoi mainly by having 18-21 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 24-26 and the absence of a round blotch at the end of the caudal peduncle (vs. present. Moenkhausia eurystaenia can be distinguished from M. phaeonota mainly by the anterior portion of longitudinal band darker at horizontal septum (vs. darker below horizontal septum, the deep dark pigmentation along horizontal septum extending anteriorly up to humeral region (vs. extending up to vertical through pelvic-fin origin, number of vertebrae 34 (vs. 36-37, and others additional measurements.

  16. Morphological variation among populations of Hemigrammus coeruleus (Characiformes: Characidae in a Negro River tributary, Brazilian Amazon

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    Henrique Lazzarotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We explored patterns of phenotypic variation in Hemigrammus coeruleus from the Unini River basin, a blackwater river in the Brazilian Amazon. Geometric morphometrics was used to evaluate variation in body shape among populations from four tributaries (UN2-UN5. We found no evidence for sexual dimorphism in body size and shape. However, morphological differences among populations were detected as the analyses recovered significant groups corresponding to each sub-basin, with some overlap among them. The populations from UN2, UN3 and UN5 had more elongate bodies than fish from UN4. The most morphologically divergent population belonged to UN4, the tributary with the most divergent environmental conditions and the only one with seasonally-muddy waters. The morphological variation found among these populations is likely due to phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation, arising as a product of divergent ecological selection pressures among sub-basins. This work constitutes one of the first to employ a population-level geometric morphometric approach to assess phenotypic variation in Amazonian fishes. This method was able to distinguish subtle differences in body morphology, and its use with additional species can bring novel perspectives on the evaluation of general patterns of phenotypic differentiation in the Amazon.

  17. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio Amazonas basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gustavo D; Marinho, Manoela M F

    2016-03-24

    Moenkhausia abyss is herein described from the rio Amazonas basin lowlands. The new species can be distinguished from the congeners by presenting the combination of the following characters: a dark blotch located on the upper caudal-fin lobe and the lower lobe hyaline, 25-29 branched anal-fin rays, humeral spot rectangular, vertically oriented, extending horizontally through two or two and a half scales and located over the third to the fifth lateral line scales, five longitudinal scale rows above the lateral line, predorsal scales arranged in a single not interrupted median row and 30-34 perforated lateral line scales. Brief comments on Moenkhausia megalops are provided.

  18. Spermatic characteristics and sperm evolution on the subfamily Stevardiinae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae

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    Clarianna Martins Baicere-Silva

    Full Text Available The monophyly and phylogenetic relationships among the members of Clade A characids (sensu Malabarba & Weitzman, later redefined and named as the Stevardiinae (sensu Mirande, have been primarily supported by traditional morphological and molecular data. Herein were examined, described and compared spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of 12 species of the genera Boehlkea, Bryconacidnus, Bryconamericus, Creagrutus, Cyanocharax, Hemibrycon, Knodus, Odontostoechus, Piabina, and Rhinobrycon in order to evaluate possible phylogenetic signals and their potential use in recovering relationships of the Stevardiinae. All examined species demonstrated a nuclear rotation equal or less than 95º resulting in a lateral position of the double nuclear fossa and flagellum. In all species, sperm nuclei are slightly elongate toward the flagellum, the proximal centriole is partially inside the nuclear fossa and lies anterior and oblique to the distal centriole, and the midpiece is short and strongly asymmetric. All species analyzed herein and other species previously examined for these systems in the Stevardiinae share homologous sperm characteristics as evidenced by spermiogenesis, further supporting the monophyly of this clade. Spermatozoa of the Stevardiinae further show three morphotypes (M1, M2, M3 of arrangement of centrioles, flagellum, nucleus and midpiece, hypothesized as successively derived in a series of transformation from the most basal morphotype (M1.

  19. Spermatic characteristics and sperm evolution on the subfamily Stevardiinae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae

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    Clarianna Martins Baicere-Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The monophyly and phylogenetic relationships among the members of Clade A characids (sensu Malabarba & Weitzman, later redefined and named as the Stevardiinae (sensu Mirande, have been primarily supported by traditional morphological and molecular data. Herein were examined, described and compared spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of 12 species of the genera Boehlkea, Bryconacidnus, Bryconamericus, Creagrutus, Cyanocharax, Hemibrycon, Knodus, Odontostoechus, Piabina, and Rhinobrycon in order to evaluate possible phylogenetic signals and their potential use in recovering relationships of the Stevardiinae. All examined species demonstrated a nuclear rotation equal or less than 95º resulting in a lateral position of the double nuclear fossa and flagellum. In all species, sperm nuclei are slightly elongate toward the flagellum, the proximal centriole is partially inside the nuclear fossa and lies anterior and oblique to the distal centriole, and the midpiece is short and strongly asymmetric. All species analyzed herein and other species previously examined for these systems in the Stevardiinae share homologous sperm characteristics as evidenced by spermiogenesis, further supporting the monophyly of this clade. Spermatozoa of the Stevardiinae further show three morphotypes (M1, M2, M3 of arrangement of centrioles, flagellum, nucleus and midpiece, hypothesized as successively derived in a series of transformation from the most basal morphotype (M1.A monofilia e filogenia dos membros do Clado A (sensu Malabarba & Weitzman, mais tarde redefinido e nomeado Stevardiinae (sensu Mirande, é suportada por dados morfológicos e moleculares. Aqui são examinadas, descritas e comparadas a espermiogênese e ultraestrutura do espermatozoide de 12 espécies dos gêneros Boehlkea, Bryconacidnus, Bryconamericus, Creagrutus, Cyanocharax, Hemibrycon, Knodus, Odontostoechus, Piabina e Rhinobrycon, a fim de avaliar possíveis sinais filogenéticos e seu uso potencial no estudo de relações filogenéticas em Stevardiinae. Em todas as espécies examinadas observa-se uma rotação nuclear igual ou menor que 95º, resultando em uma posição lateral da fossa nuclear dupla e do flagelo. Em todas as espécies o núcleo do espermatozoide é alongado em direção ao flagelo, o centríolo proximal é anterior e oblíquo ao centríolo distal e localiza-se parcialmente inserido na fossa nuclear, e a peça intermediária é pequena e fortemente assimétrica. Todas as espécies de Stevardiinae analisadas aqui e outras analisadas previamente compartilham características homólogas dos espermatozoides evidenciadas por sua espermiogênese, corroborando a monofilia deste clado. Os espermatozoides de Stevardiinae apresentam ainda três morfotipos (M1, M2, M3 de acordo com o arranjo dos centríolos, flagelo e peça intermediária, considerados como sucessivamente derivados em uma série de transformações a partir do morfotipo mais basal (M1.

  20. Reproductive traits and population structure of Astyanax aeneus (Characiformes: Characidae from a subtropical river in Mexico

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    Patricia Trujillo-Jiménez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Champotón River is an unknown area within the Mesoamerican hotspot in Southestern México. Reproductive traits and population structure of Astyanax aeneus were analyzed along an environmental gradient of the upper, middle and lower sections of the river, where diverse environmental factors were recorded. For this, nets were cast for 1h at each site and A. aeneus were collected from all sections with sweep nets (5 and 10m long by 5m deep, 0.03m mesh size and a casting net (0.05m mesh size. At each study site and campaign, a total of 80 specimens (in average were collected and were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for further analysis. Population structure by size was analyzed for each study site, based on the relative frequencies by standard length classes. The length-weight relationship was determined, and the identification of gonadal developmental stages, reproductive period, size at first sexual maturity, relative fecundity, sex ratio and somatic indexes (gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic and Fulton’s condition factor were also assessed. Seven size classes were found in the upper and middle sections, and nine downstream, with seasonal and spatial pattern in size-class frequency distribution. Size at first maturity was 45.7mm for females and 40.8mm for males. The maximum relative fecundity was recorded at the downstream site and was positively correlated with body weight and standard length. Sex ratio (1.8:1 males: females differed significantly from expected values (1:1. Gonadosomatic index scores indicated that the reproductive period of this species in the Champotón River was from April to July, during the warm and wet season. Hepatosomatic index was negatively correlated with the Gonadosomatic index, evidencing transfer of energy from the liver towards gamete production. This strategy enabled A. aeneus to maintain robustness during the study period with tiny changes in condition factor. A. aeneus in the Champotón River, as opposed to South American river congeneric species of similar size, shows early sexual maturity, a short reproductive period with high gonadosomatic index values, and high fecundity, a trade-off for the short reproductive period. Spatio-temporal segregation was evident: breeders congregate down- stream, while juveniles prefer the upper reaches. This pattern allows A. aenus to be successful in a river with high frequency of hurricanes.

  1. Seasonal diet shift in a Tetragonopterinae (Oateichthyes, Characidae from the Ubatiba river, RJ, Brazil

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    Mazzoni R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we describe feeding habits of Deuterodon sp. from the Ubatiba River and explore if diet changes according to a temporal cycle of dry and wet seasons. We observed that Deuterodon sp. fed on an extremely high diversity of items ranging from organic matter, sediment (sand plus quartz parts, algae, seeds and leaves to animal organisms, such as, crustaceans, oligochaets and several life stages of terrestrial and aquatic insects, indicating an omnivorous diet. An important shift in the use of feeding resources was also registered; animal and vegetal items had alternated importance between both seasons. Allochthonous vs. autochthonous items analysis showed predominance of allochthonous items during dry season while no significant differences were registered during wet season.

  2. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes: Characidae with comments on the Moenkhausia oligolepis species complex

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    Ricardo C. Benine

    Full Text Available A new species of Moenkhausia is described from tributaries of the rio Paraguay, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from congeners by characters related to body coloration, the number of lateral line scales, the degree of poring of the lateral line, and number of scales rows above and below the lateral line. Molecular analyses using partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase I from specimens of the new species and specimens belonging to morphologically similar species demonstrated that the new species is easily differentiated by their high genetic distance and by their position in the phylogenetic hypothesis obtained through the Maximum Parsimony methodology. The analyses of three samples of M. oligolepis also revealed that they have high genetic distances and belong to different monophyletic groups suggesting that this species corresponds to a species complex rather than a single species.

  3. Three new species of Hemibrycon (Characiformes: Characidae from the Magdalena River Basin, Colombia

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    César Román-Valencia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems is highly threatened by different economic activities driven by human populations, and its description is increasingly a priority. For the Cauca-Magdalena River system we have described 14 species, and the purpose of this paper was to describe three new species belonging to the same genus Hemibrycon from the Nare and Guatapé River drainages of the middle Magdalena River, Colombia. The description was based on a series of 200 specimens, and the use of morphometric, meristic and osteological characters, as well as fish distribution and morphogeometric analytical methods. We have found that Hemibrycon fasciatus n. sp. (n=54 differs from other species of Hemibrycon (that also have a vertical humeral spot in having: melanophores outlining the posterior margins of the scales along sides of body; humeral spot extending onto posterior margin of opercle; a dark lateral stripe, formed by deep pigment that is continuous with the peduncular spot; the toothed portion of the maxilla not reaching the dorsal margin of the dentary (vs. toothed portion of maxilla extending beyond dorsal margin of dentary; all maxillary teeth tricuspid (vs. some unicuspid teeth present on maxilla. H. cardalensis n. sp. (n=64 differs in having: a vertically elongate humeral spot that extends one or two scales below the lateral line canal. H. cardalensis n. sp. differs from all congeners in having the pigment of the caudal spot restricted to the ventral half of the caudal peduncle, and in having melanophores around the anterior scales of the lateral line. Hemibrycon antioquiae n. sp. (n=82 differs in having a circular humeral spot. It differs from the other species with a circular humeral spot, like H. mikrostiktos, in having a projection of disperse melanophores extending from the dorsal margin of the humeral spot to below the lateral stripe. Habitat data and environmental impacts caused by the construction of reservoirs for hydroelectric projects and other threats in the area are included, as well as a key to all species Hemibrycon present in the Magdalena River Basin. The synonymy of H. pautensis with H. polyodon is discussed and H. pautensis is evalidated.

  4. Chrysobrycon yoliae, a new species of stevardiin (Characiformes: Characidae from the Ucayali basin, Peru

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    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    Full Text Available Chrysobrycon yoliae, new species, is described from a drainage flowing into the río Yucamia basin, río Ucayali basin, Peru. Chrysobrycon yoliaeis readily distinguished from its congeners by the anterior tip of pelvic bone situated anterior to the fifth rib (vs. situated posterior to the fifth rib, the presence of 20-26 dentary teeth (vs. 11-19, and the possession of a terminal lateral-line tube between caudal-fin rays 10 and 11 (vs. the absence of this tube, except in C. eliasi. The new species differs from C. eliasiand C. myersiby the presence of teeth on third pharyngobranchial (vs. the absence of teeth on this bone and also differs from C. eliasiby the dorsal-fin origin situated at vertical through anal-fin rays 5 to 7 (vs. located at vertical through anal-fin rays 8 to 10, the posterior extent of the ventral process of quadrate reaching the vertical through posterior margin of symplectic (vs. not reaching the vertical through posterior margin of symplectic, the dorsal-fin to adipose-fin length 26.8-28.8% SL (vs. 23.9-26.8% SL, and the body depth at dorsal-fin origin 34.4-42.2% SL (vs. 24.1-34.5% SL. A key for the identification of Chrysobryconspecies is provided.

  5. First study on parasites of Hemibrycon surinamensis (Characidae, a host from the eastern Amazon region

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    Maria Danielle Figueiredo Guimarães Hoshino

    Full Text Available This study was the first investigation of communities and infracommunities of parasites of Hemibrycon surinamensis. All the fish collected in a tributary of the Amazon river were parasitized by one or more parasite species. The Brillouin diversity index (HB was 0.46 ± 0.28 and the mean species richness was 3.5 ± 1.2 parasites per host. A total of 14,734 parasites were collected, including Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Piscinoodinium pillulare (Protozoa; Jainus hexops and Tereancistrum sp. (Monogenoidea; Ergasilus turucuyus and Argulus sp. (Crustacea; metacercariae of Derogenidae gen. sp.; metacercariae and adults of Genarchella genarchella (Digenea; and Cucullanus larvae and Contracaecum larvae (Nematoda. The dominant parasite was I. multifiliis, followed by P. pillulare. The parasites showed aggregated dispersion, except for E. turucuyus, which had random dispersion. The condition factor (Kn indicated that the parasitism levels had not affected host body condition. The high levels of infection observed were due to host behavior, and this was discussed. This was the first report of I. multifiliis, P. pillulare, Argulus sp., E. turucuyus, G. genarchella, J. hexops and Tereancistrum sp. in H. surinamensis, and it expanded the occurrence of E. turucuyus and G. genarchella to the eastern Amazon region.

  6. Cytogenetic and molecular markers reveal the complexity of the genus Piabina Reinhardt, 1867 (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Marlon Felix Pazian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic and molecular analyses were carried out in fish representative of the genus Piabina. This study specifically involved the species P. argentea and P. anhembi collected from areas of the Paranapanema and Tietê River basins, Brazil. Our findings suggest that fish classified as Piabina argentea in the Paranapanema and Tietê Rivers may represent more than one species. The samples analyzed differed by cytogenetic particularities and molecular analyses using partial sequences of the genes COI and CytB as genetic markers revealed three distinct groups of P. argentea with genetic distances sufficient to support the conclusion that the three samples analyzed are three distinct taxonomic units.Foram realizadas análises citogenéticas e moleculares em representantes do gênero Piabina. O estudo envolveu especificamente as espécies P. argentea e P. anhembi coletadas nas áreas das bacias hidrográficas dos rios Paranapanema e Tietê (Brasil. Os dados sugerem que a espécie P. argentea coletada nas bacias dos rios Paranapanema e Tietê podem representar mais de uma espécie. As amostras analisadas diferem por particularidades citogenéticas e nas análises moleculares utilizando-se sequências parciais dos genes COI e CytB, revelando três grupos distintos de P. argentea com distâncias genéticas suficientes para sustentar a conclusão de que as três amostras analisadas são unidades taxonômicas distintas.

  7. Cytogenetic and molecular markers reveal the complexity of the genus Piabina Reinhardt, 1867 (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Marlon Felix Pazian

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic and molecular analyses were carried out in fish representative of the genus Piabina. This study specifically involved the species P. argentea and P. anhembi collected from areas of the Paranapanema and Tietê River basins, Brazil. Our findings suggest that fish classified as Piabina argentea in the Paranapanema and Tietê Rivers may represent more than one species. The samples analyzed differed by cytogenetic particularities and molecular analyses using partial sequences of the genes COI and CytB as genetic markers revealed three distinct groups of P. argentea with genetic distances sufficient to support the conclusion that the three samples analyzed are three distinct taxonomic units.

  8. Extensive polymorphism and chromosomal characteristics of ribosomal DNA in the characid fish Triportheus venezuelensis (Characiformes, Characidae

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    Mauro Nirchio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype and chromosomal characteristics of the characid fish Triportheus venezuelensis were investigated using differential staining techniques (C-banding, Ag-NOR staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 52, karyotype composition and sex chromosome determination system of the ZZ/ZW type were the same as previously described in other species of the genus Triportheus. However, extensive variation regarding nucleolus organizer regions (NOR different from other species was observed. 18S rDNA sequences were distributed on nine chromosome pairs, but the number of chromosomes with Ag-NORs was usually lower, reaching a maximum of four chromosomes. When sequential staining experiments were performed, it was demonstrated that: 1. active NORs usually corresponded to segments with 18S rDNA genes identified in FISH experiments; 2. several 18S rDNA sequences were not silver-stained, suggesting that they do not correspond to active NORs; and 3. some chromosomes with silver-stained regions did not display any 18S rDNA signals. These findings characterize an extensive polymorphism associated with the NOR-bearing chromosomes of T. venezuelensis and emphasize the importance of combining traditional and molecular techniques in chromosome studies.

  9. Comparative cytogenetic and morphological analysis of Astyanax scabripinnis paranae (Pisces, Characidae, Tetragonopterinae

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    Maistro Edson Luis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic and morphological studies were carried out on nine local populations of Astyanax scabripinnis paranae. All populations exhibited 2n = 50 chromosomes as well as conspicuous differences involving karyotype morphology, number and position of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs and amount and/or locations of constitutive heterochromatin blocks. A quantitative study of the cytogenetic data showed that eight populations possessed different karyotypes. Morphological analyses based on nine measurements and two meristic parameters were effective in establishing clear identification of five populations. Comparative analysis of cytogenetic and morphological traits suggests that chromosomal changes have occurred at a more rapid rate than morphological differentiation. Despite the close morphological similarity found among some populations, chromosomal differentiation was identified in all of them, even in those presenting only small morphological differences.

  10. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae.

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    Ricardo Utsunomia

    Full Text Available B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000. Our results showed that i B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes (B1, while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like (B2; iv the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA, with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger; and vii the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive.

  11. Growth of the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier (Characiformes: Characidae: which is the best model?

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    M. A. H Penna

    Full Text Available In order to decide which is the best growth model for the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818, we utilized 249 and 256 length-at-age ring readings in otholiths and scales respectively, for the same sample of individuals. The Schnute model was utilized and it is concluded that the Von Bertalanffy model is the most adequate for these data, because it proved highly stable for the data set, and only slightly sensitive to the initial values of the estimated parameters. The phi' values estimated from five different data sources presented a CV = 4.78%. The numerical discrepancies between these values are of not much concern due to the high negative correlation between k and L¥ viz, so that when one of them increases, the other decreases and the final result in phi' remains nearly unchanged.

  12. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive.

  13. Origin of B chromosomes in the genus Astyanax (Characiformes, Characidae) and the limits of chromosome painting.

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    de A Silva, Duílio M Z; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Penitente, Manolo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryote genomes are frequently burdened with the presence of supernumerary (B) chromosomes. Their origin is frequently investigated by chromosome painting, under the hypothesis that sharing the repetitive DNA sequences contained in the painting probes is a sign of common descent. However, the intragenomic mobility of many anonymous DNA sequences contained in these probes (e.g., transposable elements) adds high uncertainty to this conclusion. Here we test the validity of chromosome painting to investigate B chromosome origin by comparing its results for seven B chromosome types in two fish species genus Astyanax, with those obtained (1) by means of the physical mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), H1 histone genes, the As51 satellite DNA and the (AC)15 microsatellite, and (2) by comparing the nucleotide sequence of one of these families (ITS regions from ribosomal DNA) between genomic DNA from B-lacking individuals in both species and the microdissected DNA from two metacentric B chromosomes found in these same species. Intra- and inter-specific painting suggested that all B chromosomes that were assayed shared homologous DNA sequences among them, as well as with a variable number of A chromosomes in each species. This finding would be consistent with a common origin for all seven B chromosomes analyzed. By contrast, the physical mapping of repetitive DNA sequences failed to give support to this hypothesis, as no more than two B-types shared a given repetitive DNA. Finally, sequence analysis of the ITS regions suggested that at least some of the B chromosomes could have had a common origin.

  14. Plasma testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone levels of male pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Cypriniformes, Characidae

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    R. Gazola

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The levels of testosterone (T and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT of the South American pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus were determined by radioimmunoassay during two stages of the reproductive cycle, i.e., resting and maturation, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. The highest levels of T and 11-KT were reached during the maturation stage (T = 2400 ± 56 pg/ml; 11-KT = 2300 ± 60 pg/ml and lower levels were maintained during the resting period. The rise in androgen levels occurred with the appearance of spermatozoa in the maturation stage, when GSI was highest

  15. Spatial and temporal variations' of characidae habitat, case study in Abras de Mantequilla wetland, Ecuador

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    Alvarez Mieles, M.G.; Corzo, G.; Irvine, K.; Mynett, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    A central component of predictive ecology in wetlands is the analysis of species distribution as a function of their biotic and abiotic environment. This analysis is normally used by decision-makers in biodiversity conservation, species monitoring and environmental planning, among others. Habitat

  16. Identification and chromosome mapping of repetitive elements in the Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei: Characidae) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Pucci, Marcela Baer; Santos, Mateus Henrique; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Most part of the eukaryotic genome is composed of repeated sequences or multiple copies of DNA, which were considered as "junk DNA", and may be associated to the heterochromatin. In this study, three populations of Astyanax aff. scabripinnis from Brazilian rivers of Guaratinguetá and Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo) and a population from Maringá (Paraná) were analyzed concerning the localization of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), the As51 satellite DNA, the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the 5S rDNA. Repeated sequences were also isolated and identified by the Cot - 1 method, which indicated similarity (90%) with the LINE UnaL2 retrotransposon. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the retrotransposon dispersed and more concentrated markers in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. These sequences were co-localized and interspaced with 18S and 5S rDNA and As51, confirmed by fiber-FISH essay. The B chromosome found in these populations pointed to a conspicuous hybridization with LINE probe, which is also co-located in As51 sequences. The NORs were active at unique sites of a homologous pair in the three populations. There were no evidences that transposable elements and repetitive DNA had influence in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in our analyses.

  17. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

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    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae, during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm. The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the larvae (standard length = 6.25 ± 0.13 mm showed the following structural and behavioral characteristics that made them become active predators able to overcome a larval critical phase, the beginning of exogenous feeding: presence of pigmented eyes, terminal and wide mouth, developed oral dentition, developing digestive tube, yolk sac reduction, fins and swim bladder formation, horizontal swimming, cannibalism, and predation. Intense cannibalism among larvae was verified from 26 to 72 hours. At the end of the metamorphosis - 172 hours after hatching - the larvae measuring 11.94 + 0.80 mm in standard length presented a flexed notochord, caudal fin bifurcation, dorsal and anal fin formation, synchronized movements, and formation of shoals, characteristics that together allow enhanced perception and locomotio in exploration of the environment, determining the best moment for transfering to the fishponds. New studies can contribute to commercial fish farming by improving feeding management, performance, survival, and productivity of this species.Objetivou-se estudar o desenvolvimento morfológico e os comportamentos natatório e alimentar de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae no período de 0 a 172 horas após a eclosão (comprimento-padrão = 3,62 - 11,94 mm. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas com auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico trinocular e as comportamentais, por meio de

  18. Spawning and nursery habitats of neotropical fish species in the tributaries of a regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.

  19. Histology of the liver of Oligosarcus jenynsii (Ostariophysi, Characidae from Los Padres Lake, Argentina Histología del hígado de Oligosarcus jenynsii (Ostariophysi, Characidae de la Laguna de Los Padres, Argentina

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    Gladys M. Petcoff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an organ notable for its sensitivity to a great variety of environmental factors. It is composed of a parenchyma divided into irregular lobules by the exocrine pancreas or hepatopancreas; the pancreatic cells are arranged around a branch of the portal vein. The hepatocytes are radially arranged in cords around a central sinusoid. The liver histomorphology and the organization of exocrine pancreatic tissue of O. jenynsii (Günther, 1864 is similar to the acinar morphology of many teleosts, including freshwater and marine species. The aim of the present work was to carry out the histological analysis of the liver of Oligosarcus jenynsii, one of the most common species inhabiting Los Padres Lake (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.El dientudo Oligosarcus jenynsii (Günther, 1864 es una de las especies más comunes que habita en la Laguna de Los Padres. Se ha realizado el análisis histológico del hígado del dientudo, un órgano destacable por su sensibilidad a una variedad de factores del medio ambiente. El hígado está compuesto por un parénquima con hepatocitos dispuestos en cordones alrededor de un sinusoide central. El parénquima se halla dividido en lóbulos irregulares por el páncreas exócrino o hepatopáncreas, que posee una disposición acinar y cuyas células se organizan alrededor de una rama de la vena porta. La histomorfología del hígado y la organización del tejido pancreático exócrino de Oligosarcus jenynsii es similar a la de muchos peces teleósteos, tanto marinos como de agua dulce.

  20. Características hematológicas do tambaqui Colossoma macropomum Cuvier (Osteichthyes, Characidae em sistema de monocultivo intensivo: II. Leucócitos Hematological characteristics of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum Cuvier (Osteichthyes, Characidae under intensive system: II. Leukocytes

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The leukocytes parameters in approximately one-year-old freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 (tambaqui kept in an intensive monobreeding system as well as the correlation among these parameters and the biometric data (total weight and standard length were investigated. The mean value of the white blood cell count (WBC in the peripheral blood of tambaqui was 2663.3±1288µl and in the differential count, the following means were observed: neutrophils (1566.2±754µl; lymphocytes (973.6±447µl; monocytes (86.7±123µl and special granulocitic cells (7.8±144µl. The blood parameters studied were positively correlated among one another, but were negatively correlated with the standard length. However, no correlation was with the weigth of the animals was shown. The leukocytes in Colossoma macropomum kept in an intensive monobreeding system were morphologically similar to those of other Brazilian teleosts described in literature.

  1. The food spectrum of the cardinal - tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi, Characidae in its natural habitat Estratégias alimentares do cardinal-tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi, Characidae em seu ambiente natural

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    Ilse Walker

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi is the most intensively commercialized ornamental fish from the Rio Negro Basin (Amazonas State, Brasil. Analysis of the stomach and gut contents of fish caught in their natural habitats show conclusively that the cardinal is essentially a predator, feeding on the mesofauna that adheres to submerged litter, roots and waterplants. Microcrustacea and chironomid larvae (Diptera were the most frequently ingested prey, while algae intake was relatively infrequent. It is argued that the relatively small size of the cardinals captured in their natural habitat is due to the annual migrations imposed by the inundation cycles, rather than to resource limitation, because it is known from earlier investigations of similar habitats, that these plant substrates are densely colonized by the aquatic mesofauna. Cardinals raised in captivity are larger and have higher rates of growth.O cardinal (Paracheirodon axelrodi é o peixe ornamental comercializado com maior intensidade na Bacia do Rio Negro (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Análise do conteúdo estomacal de peixes capturados nos seus habitats naturais mostra, que o cardinal é essencialmente um predador, alimentando-se da mesofauna que está colonizando a liteira submersa, arbustos submersos, raízes flutuantes e plantas aquáticas. As presas principais são microcrustáceos e larvas de quironomídeos (Chironomidae, Diptera, enquanto ingestão de algas é pouco freqüente. Considera-se que o tamanho relativamente pequeno de cardinais capturados nos ambientes naturais é devido as migrações anuais que acompanham os ciclos anuais de enchente e vazante, e não à falta de recursos; já que é conhecido de ambientes parecidos de outros rios da região, que estes substratos aquáticos são densamente colonizados pela mesofauna. Cardinais criados em cativeiros tem taxas de crescimento mais altas e são de tamanho maiores.

  2. Dieta de Bryconamericus iheringii (Ostariophysi: Characidae em riachos da bacia do rio Tibagi, Estado do Paraná =Diet of Bryconamericus iheringii (Ostariophysi: Characidae from streams of Tibagi river basin, Parana State

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    Maria Carolina Gomiero Oricolli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Exemplares de Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 coletados nos riachos Cambé, Taquari, Água da Floresta e Baroré, localizados na bacia do rio Tibagi, Estado do Paraná, foram analisados para verificar sua dieta. As coletas foram padronizadas em todos os riachos. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente. Verificou-se que a dieta de B. iheringii nos quatro riachos consistiu de itens alimentares que variaram em número, e os de maior importância foram: restos vegetais e detrito, no Cambé;detrito, no Taquari; algas filamentosas e restos vegetais, no Água da Floresta; detrito e restos de insetos, no Baroré. O comportamento de mudar de estratégia, de generalista para especialista, e de utilizar o item detrito, que é capturado apenas no fundo, como principalalimento, podem ser indicadores que trechos de riachos com águas mais lentas e profundas não são preferenciais para B. iheringii, como também não são para alguns grupos de insetos aquáticos que servem como seu alimento. Individuals of Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887, collected in the streams of Cambé, Taquari, Água da Floresta and Baroré, which belong to the Tibagi river basin (Parana Sate, Brazil, were analyzed for the purpose of diet study. The collection procedures were standardized in every stream. The stomach contents of the individuals were analyzed qualitative and quantitatively. The food items consumed by the species varied in number, and the main food item consumed differed in each stream. Thus, it was found: vegetable remains and debris, in Cambé; debris, in Taquari; filamentous algae and vegetable remains, in the Água da Floresta; and debris and remains of insects, in Baroré stream. The behavior shift from generalist to specialist strategy as well as the use of detritus as the main food, which can only be found in the river bottom, can indicate that stretches of streams with slower and deeper waters are not preferred by B. iheringii, as neither they are for some groups of aquatic insects which are used as food resource by this fish species.

  3. Biologia reprodutiva de Astyanax henseli (Teleostei, Characidae do curso superior do Rio dos Sinos, RS, Brasil Reproductive biology of Astyanax henseli (Teleostei, Characidae in the upper Rio dos Sinos, RS, Brazil

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    Renato B Dala-Corte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo é descrita a biologia reprodutiva de uma população de Astyanax henseli Melo & Buckup, 2006 do curso superior do rio dos Sinos, Caraá, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram analisados 336 exemplares, sendo 169 machos, 154 fêmeas e 13 cujo sexo não foi possível ser determinado. O período reprodutivo teve aproximadamente cinco meses de duração, ocorrendo entre agosto e dezembro, com pico do índice gonadossomático (IGS em outubro, correspondendo ao final do inverno e a primavera no hemisfério sul. Não houve correlação estatisticamente significativa do IGS com os fatores abióticos (temperatura, precipitação e fotoperíodo. No entanto, sugere-se que estes fatores estejam atuando como desencadeadores da maturação gonadal. Fatores bióticos como o índice de repleção estomacal (IR e índice hepatossomático (IHS, também não mostraram correlação estatisticamente significativa com o IGS. Apesar disso, os valores de IR indicam que A. henseli continua se alimentando ativamente durante o período reprodutivo, enquanto que os baixos valores de IHS durante do pico reprodutivo sugerem um maior gasto das reservas hepáticas neste período. A proporção sexual de 1:1 foi encontrada ao longo dos meses do ano, nas classes de comprimento e na população como um todo. O comprimento de primeira maturação gonadal foi estabelecido em 69 mm para os machos e 60 mm para as fêmeas. A média da fecundidade absoluta foi de 3.038 ovócitos e a da fecundidade relativa 0,13 ovócitos mg-1. O desenvolvimento ovocitário indicou uma desova total.This study describes the reproductive biology of a population of Astyanax henseli Melo & Buckup, 2006 from the upper Rio dos Sinos, Caraá, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A total of 336 specimens was analyzed, comprising 169 males, 154 females and 13 individuals of undetermined sex. The reproductive season lasted approximately five months, from August to December, gonadossomatic index (GSI peaked of in October, corresponding to the end of winter and the spring in the southern hemisphere. No correlation was found between the GSI and abiotic factors (temperature, rainfall and photoperiod. However, these factors may trigger gonad maturation. Also, no correlation was observed between biotic variables, such as stomach repletion index (RI and hepatosomatic index (HSI, and GSI. Despite that, high RI values during the reproductive period may indicate that A. henseli maintains its feeding activity throughout the reproductive months, while low HSI values during the peak of GSI suggest a higher energy expenditure of the liver during this period. The sex ratio in the population was 1:1 for the total number of individuals sampled, among different classes of length, and among the different months of the year. The size at first gonadal maturation was 69 mm for males and 60 mm for females. The absolute fecundity mean was 3,038 oocytes and the relative fecundity mean was 0.13 oocytes mg-1. The oocyte development indicated that A. henseli is a total spawner.

  4. Dieta de Astyanax asuncionensis (Characiformes, Characidae, em riachos da bacia do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso = Diet of Astyanax asuncionensis (Characiformes, Characidae, in streams of the Cuiabá river basin, Mato Grosso State

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    Cristina da Silva Borba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A dieta de Astyanax asuncionensis, em riachos da bacia do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso, durante períodos de chuva e seca, foi descrita, sendo suas variações associadas ao grau de integridade da vegetação ciliar. Para isso, foram realizadas amostragens mensais,entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003, em quatro riachos, com o emprego de pesca elétrica. Foram analisados 213 estômagos, e a dieta foi descrita por meio das porcentagens de ocorrência e volume, combinados ao Índice Alimentar (IAi. Os aspectos da dieta abordadosconsistiram na composição, na origem dos recursos e na amplitude do nicho alimentar (Índice de Levins. O espectro alimentar incluiu 22 itens, sendo que os recursos alóctones dominaram, principalmente insetos, independente do local e período. A amplitude do nichoalimentar foi, em geral, maior no período de chuva. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que essas populações de A. asuncionensis são sustentadas por recursos de origem terrestre, especialmente Hymenoptera e demonstram a importância da mata ciliar no aporte dealimento. Considerando que os riachos apresentam diferentes graus de degradação da mata ciliar, estes resultados indicam que a manutenção da vegetação e a recuperação das áreas degradadas é condição altamente relevante para manutenção desta espécie nestes riachos.The goal of this study was to assess the diet of A. asuncionensis in four streams. Fish samples were carried out monthly from January to December 2003, using electrofishing. Stomach contents of 213 individuals were analyzed, and the diet was described as for occurrence and volumetric percentage of each item combined in a feeding index (IAi. The diet composition, importance of allochthonous and autochthonous resources, and diet breadth (Levin’s index were assessed among streams and between seasons (dry and rainy. The diet was composed of 22 feeding items; allochthonous resources (especially insects dominated the diet in all streams and in both seasons. The highest values of diet breadth were recorded, in general, during the rainy period. These results showed that A. asuncionensis populations are supported by terrestrial food (especially Hymenoptera, indicating the importance of riparian vegetation. Considering that streams differ according to riparian vegetation cover, our results indicate that the maintenance of vegetation and recovery of degraded areas are essential forconservation of this fish species in these streams.

  5. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE

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    VJ ATENCIO GARCÍA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de “Y”, grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.

  6. Population structure, fluctuating asymmetry and genetic variability in an endemic and highly isolated Astyanax fish population (Characidae

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    Maria Claudia Gross

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and chromosomal markers were used to infer the structure and genetic variability of a population of fish of the genus Astyanax, geographically isolated at sinkhole 2 of Vila Velha State Park, Paraná, Brazil. Two morphotypes types were observed, the standard phenotype I and phenotype II which showed an anatomical alteration probably due to an inbreeding process. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA analysis of different characters showed low levels of morphological variation among the population from sinkhole 2 and in another population from the Tibagi river (Paraná, Brazil. The Astyanax karyotype was characterized in terms of chromosomal morphology, constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolar organizer regions. Males and females presented similar karyotypes (2n=48, 6M+18SM+14ST+10A with no evidence of a sex chromosome system. One female from sinkhole 2 was a natural triploid with 2n=3x=72 chromosomes (9M+27SM+21ST+15A. The data are discussed regarding the maintenance of population structure and their evolutionary importance, our data suggesting that Astyanax from the Vila Velha State Park sinkhole 2 is a recently isolated population.

  7. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA among five freshwater fish species of the genus Astyanax (Pisces, Characidae

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    Cinthia Bachir Moysés

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA was employed to characterize species and populations of Astyanax, a Neotropical freshwater fish genus. Samples of five species, A. altiparanae, A. fasciatus, A. lacustris, A. scabripinnis paranae and A. schubarti, from the Upper Paraná and São Francisco river basins were analyzed. Two out of the ten restriction enzymes employed generated species-specific mtDNA patterns for each of the five species. MtDNA exhibited considerable polymorphism within and among populations. All populations sampled showed relatively high values of haplotype diversity. Geographically localized haplotypes were detected for A. altiparanae and A. fasciatus from the Upper Paraná and São Francisco basins. The relationships between populations are discussed.

  8. Temporal and ontogenetic variations in feeding habits of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae in coastal Atlantic rainforest streams, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the characin Hollandichthys multifasciatus were investigated. Samplings were made between March 2004 and February 2005 in two black water streams of the coastal Atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. The diet, evaluated by qualitative and quantitative methods, included aquatic and terrestrial insects, decapods, oligochaetes, plants and spiders. Large individuals feed mainly on plants, terrestrial insects, and spiders, whereas small fish feed basically on plants and oligochaetes. The species showed an omnivorous feeding habit, and its diet was composed of autochthonous (mainly oligochaetes and allochthonous (plants and terrestrial insects material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do caracídeo Hollandichthys multifasciatus. Amostras foram obtidas entre março de 2004 e fevereiro de 2005, em dois riachos de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. A dieta, avaliada por métodos quantitativos e qualitativos, inclui insetos aquáticos e terrestres, decápodes, oligoquetos aquáticos, plantas e aranhas. Os maiores indivíduos alimentaram-se principalmente de plantas, insetos terrestres e aranhas, enquanto que os menores indivíduos alimentaram-se basicamente de plantas e oligoquetos aquáticos. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar onívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por material autóctone (principalmente oligoquetos aquáticos e alóctone (plantas e insetos terrestres.

  9. Temporal and ontogenetic variations in feeding habits of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae in coastal Atlantic rainforest streams, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the characin Hollandichthys multifasciatus were investigated. Samplings were made between March 2004 and February 2005 in two black water streams of the coastal Atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. The diet, evaluated by qualitative and quantitative methods, included aquatic and terrestrial insects, decapods, oligochaetes, plants and spiders. Large individuals feed mainly on plants, terrestrial insects, and spiders, whereas small fish feed basically on plants and oligochaetes. The species showed an omnivorous feeding habit, and its diet was composed of autochthonous (mainly oligochaetes and allochthonous (plants and terrestrial insects material.

  10. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

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    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  11. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE

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    VJ Atencio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de “Y”, grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.

  12. Morphology of the urogenital papilla and its component ducts in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira-Silva

    Full Text Available The histological description of the urogenital papilla is an important tool to comprehension of the reproductive mechanisms in fish, as well as a pre-requisite to germ cell transplantation in adult fish, besides to be a good biological indicator to environmental changes. Was performed the histological description of the urogenital papilla and its component ducts in the tetra Astyanax altiparanae. The genital and urinay ducts pass separately throughout most part of its extension, joining in a single duct before opening. In males this opening is asymmetric and seems to have double origin, being completely surrounded by striated muscle fibers, while in females it is symmetric and the muscle fibers does not surround it totally. Spermatic duct and oviduct undergo changes throughout their extension, mainly in the morphology of the surrounding epithelium. In the spermatic duct, squamous epithelial cells change to columnar and cuboid with possible secretory activity, close to testes. In the oviduct, anteriorly epithelial cells are also squamous, however, close to ovary there are lamellae composed by a pseudostratified epithelium with columnar and cuboid cells. The urinary duct is highly similar for both sexes presenting globoid cells, which description is known in mammals, however, rare in fish.

  13. Diet of fish (Characiformes: Characidae during early developmental stages in the Upper Paraná river basin, Brazil

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    Claudemir Martins Soares

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the diet during early developmental stages of Astyanax lacustris (AA, Piaractus mesopotamicus (PM, Megaleporinus obtusidens (MO and Prochilodus lineatus (PL, under experimental conditions. Fish larvae, 350 of each species, were stocked separately in 16 fiber-cement tanks (500 L, from which, three larvae of each species were collected every three days, for 36 days. Tanks were fertilized (1.5 g NPK-7: 14: 8 and had 50% of the surface with macrophytes. Larvae were grouped in age classes = I: 5 to 11, II: 14 to 20, III: 23 to 29 and IV: 32 to 38 days and, dissected for analysis of the digestive tract. Methodologies of dominance, frequency of occurrence and points of food items were used. For AA and PM larvae, measurements were taken for the number and size of organisms to determine the percent participation in biovolume. Changes in diets of larvae in different age classes were found as well as between different species, with the same age. Rotifers were dominant in the content of digestive tracts of all species at Class I, and the larvae diets became more distinct with increasing age, in which AA consumed mainly rotifers, PM, larger organisms (mainly cladocerans, PL, algae (diatoms as the main item and PP with a more diversified diet (rotifers, ostracodes and algae. In conclusion, early stages of these species presented distinct diets, undergoing remarkable changes in the first 38 days of life.

  14. [Performance of recirculating aquaculture systems in the intensive farming of Pacú Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characiformes: Characidae)].

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    Domínguez Castanedo, Omar; Martínez Espinosa, David Alberto

    2012-03-01

    An alternative to intensify fish production, reducing the environmental impact and production costs are recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The performance of a RAS was evaluated, as fish growth and water quality conditions, in a culture of Piaractus mesopotamicus reared for ornamental purposes. Two commercial food brands with different protein contents (18%-T1 and 28%-T2), were given to juvenile fishes during an eight weeks period. Growth was measured bi-weekly: standard length (Lp), peak height (A), weight and multiple condition factor (KM). The evaluation of water parameters included: dissolved oxygen, NH3-NH4, pH, NO2, NO3, KH carbonate hardness and PO4. NH3-N rate production was analyzed following Timmons-Ebeling model. Results demonstrated significant differences in weight only, and T2 showed a 7.5% higher value than T1; nevertheless, treatment T1 had a higher KM. In general, water quality values were suitable for growth: OD=T1: 4.23 +/- 1.23; T2: 4.13 +/- 0.86; NH3=T1: 0.02 +/- 0.02; T2: 0.06 +/- 0.10; however, pH was an exception (T1: 6.95 +/- 0.98; T2: 7.11 +/- 1.03), displaying lethal rates (<5) by the fifth week. Systems NH3 removal had a 99.4% to 100% efficiency. Final fish biomass was 22.03kg for T1 and 27.49kg for T2. We concluded that the systems were able to maintain suggested density up to the experimental fifth week. Water quality parameters remained in suitable levels, with the pH exception. Cultured fishes reached their commercial size (10cm) in eight weeks.

  15. Alimentación y reproducción de Creagrutus brevipinnis (Pisces: Characidae en Alto Cauca, Colombia

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    César Román-Valencia

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Contenido estomacal y aspectos reproductivos fueron estudiados en un pez caracido (C. brevipinnis de el Alto Cauca (Julio 1995 a diciembre de 1996. La temperatura promedio en la región fue de 21° C, pH alrededor de la neutralidad; oxígeno disuelto alto (8 ppm; es una especie no migratoria. El pez es predominantemente insectívora y especializado (Diptera: Simuliidae ; Ephemeroptera, siendo ubicado en el tercer nivel de la red trófica. La actividad alimentaria registró diferencias altamente significativas entre la época lluviosa y la seca de la región (F=19.04 ; PStomach contents and reproduction were studied in characid fish (C. brevipinniscollected in the Vieja River Basin, Alto Cauca, Colombia (July 1995 and December 1996; the temperature in the region was 21.7 °C (18.70-24.40 °C, pH was neutral and water oxygen content high (8 ppm; C . brevipinnis is nonmigratory and sympatric with other 30 fish species; The fish is insectivorous and specializes on Diptera (Simuliidae and Ephemeroptera; being a third level predator in the trophic web; it feeds from 06:00-18:00 hr ; the results indicate seasonal variation in feeding activity (F= 19.04 P< 0.0001 and a negative correlation between stomach weight and voracity indexes; in the reproductive season food in take is low; the ovaries mature primarily between May and January ; fecundity is low (613 oocytes and the eggs are of small (diameter 0.6254 mm ; the sex ratio is 1:1 (X²= 2.56 P< 0.1 df = 1 and the mean size at maturity is 4.0 cm (standard length.

  16. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854) (Actinopterygii, Characidae) in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies.

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    Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2008-12-22

    Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI) and a single nuclear gene (RAG1) yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations), with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya) explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (approximately 8 Mya), which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (approximately 3.3 Mya).

  17. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854 (Actinopterygii, Characidae in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

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    Doadrio Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI and a single nuclear gene (RAG1 yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations, with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Conclusion Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (~8 Mya, which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (~3.3 Mya.

  18. Can weight/length relationship predict size at first maturity? A case study with two species of Characidae

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    Nelson F. Fontoura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A weight/length relationship was established for Astyanax jacuhiensis (Cope, 1894 (n = 370 and Cheirodon ibicuhiensis Eigenmann, 1915 (n = 701, from samples taken monthly in Fortaleza Lagoon, Cidreira, Rio Grande do Sul, from December 1991 through November 1992. Both species showed a polyphasic allometric growth pattern, each stanza described by an independent power equation controlled by a switch function. For C. ibicuhiensis, this change in the growth pattern occurred at 2.948 cm standard length (SL, close to published sizes for the attainment of female maturity. The change in the growth pattern of A. jacuhiensis (SL = 3.481 cm was below the predicted size at first maturity, and merits further investigation. Although not conclusive, our data suggest that a complex growth pattern is frequent in nature, and perhaps is not usually identified because trends are obscured by natural variability. Despite the increased complexity resulting from the application of a more-complex equation, the identification of a change in the growth pattern could indicate important aspects of fish biology, including the attainment of sexual maturity.A relação peso/comprimento para Astyanax jacuhiensis (Cope, 1894 (n = 370 e Cheirodon ibicuhiensis Eigenmann, 1915 (n = 701 foi estimada a partir de amostras mensais efetuadas na lagoa Fortaleza, Cidreira, Rio Grande do Sul (dezembro de 1991 a novembro de 1992. As espécies analisadas apresentaram padrão de crescimento alométrico polifásico, sendo cada fase descrita por uma equação potência independente controlada por uma função interruptora. Para C. ibicuhiensis foi identificada uma modificação no padrão de crescimento com 2,948 cm de comprimento padrão (CP, valor próximo à dados publicados relativos ao início da maturação sexual. A alteração observada no padrão de crescimento de A. jacuhiensis (CP = 3,481 cm encontra-se abaixo do tamanho previsto para a primeira maturação e sugere a necessidade de investigação adicional. Embora não conclusivos, nossos dados sugerem que padrões complexos de crescimento são frequentes na natureza e, talvez, não identificados porque tendências sutis acabam por ser obscurecidas pela variabilidade natural dos dados. Apesar do aumento de complexidade resultante da aplicação de uma equação complexa, a identificação de mudanças no padrão de crescimento pode apontar para aspectos relevantes da biologia de peixes, incluindo a maturação sexual.

  19. Feeding of Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Characidae): a post impoundment studies on Itaipu reservoir, upper Paraná River, PR

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    Hahn,Norma Segatti; Delariva,Rosilene Luciana; Loureiro,Valdirene Esgarbosa

    2000-01-01

    With objective to know feeding spectrum of Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Reinhardt, 1874), a middle size predator in different places of influence area of Itaipu reservoir, stomach contents were analyzed. Samples were collected from March 1984 to February 1989 from Itaipu Reservoir and its adjacent areas. Its fed mainly on fishes, but it was an opportunistic (consumed 17 species of prey). Despite of the wide feeding spectrum, few preys were dominant in the diet, according to the different habita...

  20. Feeding of Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Characidae: a post impoundment studies on Itaipu reservoir, upper Paraná River, PR

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    Norma Segatti Hahn

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With objective to know feeding spectrum of Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Reinhardt, 1874, a middle size predator in different places of influence area of Itaipu reservoir, stomach contents were analyzed. Samples were collected from March 1984 to February 1989 from Itaipu Reservoir and its adjacent areas. Its fed mainly on fishes, but it was an opportunistic (consumed 17 species of prey. Despite of the wide feeding spectrum, few preys were dominant in the diet, according to the different habitats sampled. As a result, it significant spatial differences in the diet was observed. Was observed through "Detrented Correspondence Analysis" (DCA these were divided into three groups in relation with diet: preys from upstream, with higher scores; preys from the reservoir, with intermediate scores; and preys from a tributary with smaller scores. This discrimination may be a function of prey availability in each habitat. The mean size of preys consumed increased with the size of the predator, as well as the variance, i. e. the largest fish also consumed small preys.Com o objetivo de conhecer o espectro alimentar de Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Reinhardt, 1874, um predador de médio porte, em diferentes locais da área de influência do reservatório de Itaipu, foram analisados conteúdos estomacais coletados no período de março/84 a fevereiro/89. Os dados evidenciaram tratar-se de uma espécie exclusivamente piscívora, porém oportunista, visto que consumiu 17 espécies de peixes-presa. Apesar do amplo espectro alimentar, poucas presas se destacaram nos distintos ambientes amostrados, resultando em diferenças significativas entre suas dietas. A análise de correspondência (DCA discriminou espacialmente três grupos; montante, com maiores escores; reservatório, com valores intermediários e tributário com menores valores, provavelmente em função dos tipos de presas disponíveis em cada ambiente. O tamanho das presas ingeridas aumenta com o crescimento do predador, porém os maiores exemplares não descartam peixes de pequeno porte de sua dieta.

  1. Morphometric variation between two morphotypes within the Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Characidae) genus, from a Mexican tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-García, Claudia P; Bastir, Markus; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic variation is important for evolutionary processes because it can allow local adaptation, promote genetic segregation, and ultimately give rise to speciation. Lacustrine systems provide a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms by which sister species can co-occur by means of ecological segregation. The fish genus Astyanax is characterized by high levels of phenotypic variability, providing an excellent model for the study of local specialization. Here, we analyze the morphological specializations through geometric morphometrics of two sympatric species described as different genera: Bramocharax caballeroi endemic to Lake Catemaco, and the widely distributed Astyanax aeneus. Additionally, we assess the correlation between phenotypic and genetic structure, and the phylogenetic signal of morphological variation. We examined body size and shape variation in 196 individuals and analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences in 298 individuals. Our results confirm the striking morphological divergence among the sympatric characids. Differences between them were mainly found in the body depth and profile and orientation of the head, where B. caballeroi in contrast with the A. aeneus, presented a fusiform body and an upward mouth. Moreover, different growth trajectories were observed among morphotypes, suggesting that a heterochronic process could be involved in the diversification of our study system. Morphological differences did not correspond with the molecular differentiation, suggesting high levels of homoplasy among the lineages of B. caballeroi morphs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Oligosarcus jacuiensis (Characiformes: Characidae, a new species from the Uruguay and Jacuí River basins, southern Brazil

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    Naércio Aquino Menezes

    Full Text Available The new species herein described, collected in the Jacuí and Uruguay River basins, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, can be distinguished from the already known species of the genus, but Oligosarcus jenynsii, O. perdido, O. acutirostris, O. solitarius and O. hepsetus, by the number of perforated lateral line scales. It shares with the first two species the absence of a premaxillary foramen, present in the last three species and differs from O. jenynsii by having a smaller orbital diameter and the tip of the pectoral fin failing to reach the pelvic-fin origin, and from O. perdido by the presence of more horizontal scale rows around the caudal peduncle.

  3. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE

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    Hernandez J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de “Y”, grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.

  4. Pacu fish (Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae landed in Porto Velho (Rondônia fish market from 1985 to 2004

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    Maria Alice Leite Lima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated various aspects of the profile of pacu (Mylossoma spp., Myleus spp., Metynnis spp. fish marketed on the Cai N’água floating platform of Porto Velho (RO from 1985 to 2004. Inter- and intra-annual variations in yield, variation in fish length and general characteristics of the fishing are reported. The annual pacu yield ranged from 33,000kg to 146,000kg (average = 86,585kg, representing from 6.6% to 20.45% of the total landings in the studied period. These variations followed the hydrologic cycle, and the greatest yields were recorded in the years following the highest water levels. The monthly production ranged from 0 to 42,366kg (average = 5,772kg and it was related to reproductive migration. The pacu presented variations in standard length from 14 to 20cm (18.72cm ± 3.69, mean ± sd. The fishing was based on the use of seines and gill nets and the main environments of capture were tributaries of the low Madeira River (Jamari, Oropiara, Machado and Novo Aripuanã. The CPUE calculated for 2003 to 2005 was 15kg*fisherman 1day-1 (sd = ±21. The results show that the category constituted during this period an important resource for local commercial exploitations, as verified in other regions of the Amazon.

  5. Chromosomal location of 18S and 5S rDNA sites in Triportheus fish species (Characiformes, Characidae

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    Débora Diniz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The location of 18S and 5S rDNA sites was determined in eight species and populations of the fish genus Triportheus by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. The males and females of all species had 2n = 52 chromosomes and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. A single 18S rDNA site that was roughly equivalent to an Ag-NOR was detected on the short arms of a submetacentric pair in nearly all species, and up to two additional sites were also observed in some species. In addition, another 18S rDNA cluster was identified in a distal region on the long arms of the W chromosome; this finding corroborated previous evidence that this cluster would be a shared feature amongst Triportheus species. In T. angulatus, a heterozygotic paracentric inversion involving the short arms of one homolog of a metacentric pair was associated with NORs. The 5S rDNA sites were located on the short arms of a single submetacentric chromosomal pair, close to the centromeres, except in T. auritus, which had up to ten 5S rDNA sites. The 18S and 5S rDNA sites were co-localized and adjacent on the short arms of a chromosomal pair in two populations of T. nematurus. Although all Triportheus species have a similar karyotypic macrostructure, the results of this work show that in some species ribosomal genes may serve as species-specific markers when used in conjunction with other putatively synapomorphic features.

  6. Chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNAs in Triportheus trifurcatus (Characidae, Characiformes: insights into the differentiation of the Z and W chromosomes.

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    Cassia Fernanda Yano

    Full Text Available Repetitive DNA sequences play an important role in the structural and functional organization of chromosomes, especially in sex chromosome differentiation. The genus Triportheus represents an interesting model for such studies because all of its species analyzed so far contain a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. A close relationship has been found between the differentiation of the W chromosome and heterochromatinization, with the involvement of different types of repetitive DNA in this process. This study investigated several aspects of this association in the W chromosome of Triportheus trifurcatus (2 n = 52 chromosomes, including the cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNAs such as telomeric sequences (TTAGGGn, microsatellites and retrotransposons. A remarkable heterochromatic segment on the W chromosome was observed with a preferential accumulation of (CAC10, (CAG10, (CGG10, (GAA10 and (TA15. The retrotransposons Rex1 and Rex3 showed a general distribution pattern in the chromosomes, and Rex6 showed a different distribution on the W chromosome. The telomeric repeat (TTAGGGn was highly evident in both telomeres of all chromosomes without the occurrence of ITS. Thus, the differentiation of the W chromosome of T. trifurcatus is clearly associated with the formation of heterochromatin and different types of repetitive DNA, suggesting that these elements had a prominent role in this evolutionary process.

  7. Spatial and temporal biomarkers responses of Astyanax jacuhiensis (Cope, 1894(Characiformes: Characidae from the middle rio Uruguai, Brazil

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    Vania Lucia Loro

    Full Text Available Due to intense agricultural activity in the rio Uruguai (South Brazil, there is the potential for aquatic contamination by agrochemicals. In this region, there are many reservoirs to meet the water demand for rice fields, forming lentic environments. In line with this information, the aim of this study was to show a comparative analysis of some biomarkers, such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS, gluthatione S-transferase (GST, non-protein thiols (NPSH, amino acids (AA and piscine micronucleus tests (MNE in Astyanax jacuhiensis from lentic and lotic environments in the middle rio Uruguai region, comparing warm and cold seasons. Eight pesticides were found in water samples, with propoxur having the highest concentration found in both environments and seasons. Fish from the warm season showed higher levels of biochemical biomarkers, and fish from the cold season showed higher levels of MNE and AA. TBARS and AA presented higher levels in fish from the river, while GST, NPSH, MNE and AA presented higher levels in fish from dams. These environments have different characteristics in terms of redox potential, aeration, sedimentation, trophic structure, agrochemicals input and others, which may affect the physiological and biochemical responses of fish in against adverse situations.

  8. An ultrastructural and histopathological study of Henneguya pellucida n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae infecting Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae cultivated in Brazil

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    Adriano E.A.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available During a study of myxosporean parasites of cultivated freshwater fish, a new myxosporean species, Henneguya pellucida n. sp., was discovered. Of the 120 Piaractus mesopotamicus sampled, only 10 specimens (8.3% were infected. Yellow, round plasmodia measuring 0.5-3 mm were found in the serous membrane of the visceral cavity and in the tunica externa of the swim bladder. Sporogenesis was asynchronous, with the earliest developmental stages aligned prevailingly along the endoplasmic periphery and mature spores in the central zone. The mature spores were pear shaped (total length: 33.3 ± 1.5 μm, mean ± SD; width: 4.1 ± 0.4 μm; body length: 11.4 ± 0.3 μm; caudal process length: 24.1 ± 1.5 μm. The polar capsules were elongated (length: 4.0 ± 0.4 μm; width: 1.6 ± 0.2 μm. The development of the parasite in the swim bladder produced thickening of the tunica externa and a granulomatous reaction. There was no correlation between the prevalence of the parasite and the chemical and physical characteristics of the water. Infection was recorded only in juvenile specimens ranging in size from 9.5 to 20 cm.

  9. Myxobolus cuneus n. sp. (Myxosporea infecting the connective tissue of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Pisces: Characidae in Brazil: histopathology and ultrastructure

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    Adriano E.A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of Myxobolus cuneus n. sp. and its relationship to the host Piaractus mesopotamicus are described based on light and electron microscopy and histological observations. Polysporic plasmodia measuring 20 μm to 2.1 mm in size were found in 63.3 % of the P. mesopotamicus examined. The parasite was found in the gall bladder, urinary bladder, gills, spleen, fins, head surface, liver and heart. Generative cells and disporoblastic pansporoblasts occurred along the periphery of the plasmodia, and mature spores were found in the internal region. The mature spores had a pear shaped body in frontal view, with a total length of 10.0 ± 0.6 μm and a width of 5.1 ± 0.3 μm (mean ± SD. The spore wall was smooth with sutural folds. The polar capsules were elongated, were pear shaped, and equal in size (length 5.7 ± 03 μm; width 1.7 ± 0.2 μm, with the anterior ends close to each other. The polar filaments were tightly coiled in 8-9 turns perpendicular to the axis of the capsule. The plasmodia were always found in connective tissue (wall of the arterioles of the gill filaments, serous capsule of the gall bladder, middle layer and subepithelial connective tissue of the urinary bladder, connective tissue between the rays of the fins, subcutaneous tissue of the head surface and fibrous capsule spleen. The parasite caused important damage in the gills, where development occurred in the wall of gill filament arterioles; a mild macrophage infiltrate was also observed. In advanced developmental stages, the plasmodia caused deformation of the arteriole structure, with a reduction and, in some cases, obstruction of the lumen. The parasite was found throughout the period studied and its prevalence was unaffected by host size, season or water properties.

  10. Myxobolus cuneus n. sp. (Myxosporea) infecting the connective tissue of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Pisces: Characidae) in Brazil: histopathology and ultrastructure.

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    Adriano, E A; Arana, S; Cordeiro, N S

    2006-06-01

    The characteristics of Myxobolus cuneus n. sp. and its relationship to the host Piaractus mesopotamicus are described based on light and electron microscopy and histological observations. Polysporic plasmodia measuring 20 microm to 2.1 mm in size were found in 63.3 % of the P. mesopotamicus examined. The parasite was found in the gall bladder, urinary bladder, gills, spleen, fins, head surface, liver and heart. Generative cells and disporoblastic pansporoblasts occurred along the periphery of the plasmodia, and mature spores were found in the internal region. The mature spores had a pear shaped body in frontal view, with a total length of 10.0 +/- 0.6 microm and a width of 5.1 +/- 0.3 microm (mean +/- SD). The spore wall was smooth with sutural folds. The polar capsules were elongated, were pear shaped, and equal in size (length 5.7 +/- 03 microm; width 1.7 +/- 0.2 microm), with the anterior ends close to each other. The polar filaments were tightly coiled in 8-9 turns perpendicular to the axis of the capsule. The plasmodia were always found in connective tissue (wall of the arterioles of the gill filaments, serous capsule of the gall bladder, middle layer and subepithelial connective tissue of the urinary bladder, connective tissue between the rays of the fins, subcutaneous tissue of the head surface and fibrous capsule spleen). The parasite caused important damage in the gills, where development occurred in the wall of gill filament arterioles; a mild macrophage infiltrate was also observed. In advanced developmental stages, the plasmodia caused deformation of the arteriole structure, with a reduction and, in some cases, obstruction of the lumen. The parasite was found throughout the period studied and its prevalence was unaffected by host size, season or water properties.

  11. An ultrastructural and histopathological study of Henneguya pellucida n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae) cultivated in Brazil.

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    Adriano, E A; Arana, S; Cordeiro, N S

    2005-09-01

    During a study of myxosporean parasites of cultivated freshwater fish, a new myxosporean species, Henneguya pellucida n. sp., was discovered. Of the 120 Piaractus mesopotamicus sampled, only 10 specimens (8.3%) were infected. Yellow, round plasmodia measuring 0.5-3 mm were found in the serous membrane of the visceral cavity and in the tunica externa of the swim bladder. Sporogenesis was asynchronous, with the earliest developmental stages aligned prevailingly along the endoplasmic periphery and mature spores in the central zone. The mature spores were pear shaped (total length: 33.3 +/- 1.5 microm, mean +/- SD; width: 4.1 +/- 0.4 microm; body length: 11.4 +/- 0.3 microm; caudal process length: 24.1 +/- 1.5 microm). The polar capsules were elongated (length: 4.0 +/- 0.4 microm; width: 1.6 +/- 0.2 microm). The development of the parasite in the swim bladder produced thickening of the tunica externa and a granulomatous reaction. There was no correlation between the prevalence of the parasite and the chemical and physical characteristics of the water. Infection was recorded only in juvenile specimens ranging in size from 9.5 to 20 cm.

  12. A new species of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) from Dolina Água Milagrosa, Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

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    da Graça, W J; Oliveira, C A M; Lima, F C T; da Silva, H P; Fernandes, I M

    2017-10-01

    A new species of Astyanax is described from the upper Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having the body intensely yellowish in life (v. silvery, reddish or lightly yellow) and by morphometric and meristics traits. Astyanax dolinae n. sp. cannot be assigned to any of the Astyanax species complex currently recognized for the genus. It is only known from the Dolina Água Milagrosa, a karstic sinkhole lake, entirely fed by groundwater, surrounded by Cerrado, the savannah-like vegetation of central South America. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. HYPHESSOBRYCON NATAGAIMA (CHARACIFORMES: CHARACIDAE A NEW SPECIES FROM COLOMBIA, WITH A KEY TO THE MAGDALENA BASIN HYPHESSOBRYCON SPECIES

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    CARLOS A. GARCÍA-ALZATE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Hyphessobrycon natagaima, is described from the upper Magdalena River Basin in Colombia. It differs from all other species of Hyphessobrycon with a dark lateral stripe inhabiting the Magdalena River Basin: H. poecilioides, H. proteus and H. ocasoensis, by having eight to twelve pored lateral-line scales (vs. 14-26; four scales between the lateral line and the pelvic-fin insertions (vs. five or six; one tooth on the maxilla (vs. zero in H. poecilioides, and two to five in H. proteus; except H. ocasoensis, with one, a dark, interrupted, lateral stripe that is not in contact with the caudal peduncle spot (vs. absence of caudal spot in H. poecilioides, lateral stripe continued that is in contact with the caudal peduncle spot in H. ocasoensis. It has a rhomboid shaped caudal-peduncle spot that continues on to middle caudal-fin rays (vs. absence of caudal peduncle spot in H. poecilioides and caudal peduncle spot round and not continued on to middle caudal-fin rays in H. ocasoensis; and presence of hooks on all fins in mature males (vs. males with hooks on anal, pelvic and pectoral fins. Hyphessobrycon natagaima differs from H. ocasoensis, in addition to the above characters, by having four scale rows between the lateral line and the anal-fin origin (vs. six; three or four scale rows between the lateral line and the pelvic-fin insertions (vs. six; ten or eleven predorsal scales (vs. nine; i,9,i dorsal-fin rays (vs. ii,8,i; 18-20 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 21-22 and eleven branched pectoral-fin rays (vs. twelve. A key for the identification of Hyphessobrycon species present in the Magdalena River Basin is provided.

  14. Clave artificial de las familias de peces del río Magdalena

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    Miles Cecil

    1942-11-01

    Full Text Available Patamotrygonidae / Ageneiosidae / Pimelodidae / Auchenipteridae / Bunocephalidae / Cetopsidae /  Pygidiidae / Astroblepidae / Doradidae / Loricariidae / Callichthyidae / Characidae / Erythrinidae / Cyprinodotitidae / Poeciliidae / Sciaenidae / Cichlidae / Gymnotidae / Synbrenchidae.

  15. Influence of the weight of juveniles Matrinxã (“Brycon cephalus” and Tambaqui (“Colossoma macropomum” to the anesthetic action of the eugenol Influência do peso de juvenis de matrinxã ("Brycon cephalus" e tambaqui ("Colossoma macropomum" à ação anestésica do eugenol

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    Elitieri Batista dos Santos Neto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the influence of the weight in the effect of the anesthetic eugenol for juveniles of matrinxã and tambaqui. For that, it was used a total of 69 matrinxãs and 49 tambaquis. The animals were anesthetized individually, weighed and observed during the induction and the recover of the anesthesia. For the induction it was used the concentration of the anesthetic's 50 mg/L, previously diluted in alcohol. The obtained weights were gathered in five classes and no difference statistics was observed for the times of induction and recovery among them.Foi avaliada a influência do peso de juvenis de matrinxã e tambaqui sobre a ação do anestésico eugenol. Para isso, foram utilizados 69 matrinxãs e 49 tambaquis. Os animais foram individualmente anestesiados, pesados e observados durante a indução e a recuperação da anestesia. Para a indução foi utilizada a concentração de 50 mg/L do anestésico, previamente diluído em álcool. Os pesos obtidos foram reunidos em cinco classes, não sendo observada diferença estatística para os tempos de indução e de recuperação entre elas.

  16. Mapping of the 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae from the upper Paraná river basin, Brazil

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    Carlos Alexandre Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was undertaken in order to determinate the chromosomal distribution pattern of 18S and 5S ribosomal DNAs (rDNA in four populations of the characid fish Astyanax altiparanae from the upper Paraná river basin, Brazil. The 18S rDNA probe FISH revealed numerical and positional variations among specimens from the Keçaba stream compared to specimens of the other populations studied. In contrast to the variable 18S rDNA distribution pattern, highly stable chromosomal positioning of the 5S rDNA sites was observed in the four A. altiparanae populations. Divergence in the distribution pattern of 18S and 5S rDNA sites is also discussed.

  17. Variações ecomorfológicas e de uso de habitat em Piabina argentea (Characiformes, Characidae da bacia do Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Cecília G. Leal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os padrões local e regional de uso de habitat de Piabina argentea Reinhardt, 1867 em quatro diferentes rios da bacia do rio das Velhas. Os habitat amostrados foram caracterizados quanto à velocidade da água, profundidade e tipo de substrato. Para a análise ecomorfológica, foram calculados 17 atributos ecomorfológicos de 40 exemplares de cada rio. Embora estas populações tenham se sobreposto no espaço ecomorfológico, a Análise Discriminante Canônica mostrou haver diferença significativa entre elas, principalmente da população do rio das Velhas em relação às demais. A separação se deu em termos do índice de compressão, altura relativa do corpo e índice de achatamento ventral. Os padrões locais de seleção de habitat não foram congruentes em todos os rios, mas em geral, houve predomínio do padrão regional: habitat lênticos, profundidade entre 20 e 40 cm e 60 e 80 cm e substrato areia, silte+argila e banco de folhas. Considerando as características físicas de cada rio e o padrão regional da espécie, a maior parte dos seus requerimentos de habitat é contemplada nos quatro rios. Entretanto, um corpo d'água assoreado como o trecho do rio das Velhas, tende a ter maiores velocidades da água, menores profundidades e substrato finos, o que atende em parte à seleção de habitat da espécie estudada.

  18. A new Hasemania Ellis from the upper rio Paraná basin, with the redescription of Hasemania crenuchoides Zarske & Géry (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Jane Piton Serra

    Full Text Available A new Hasemania species is described from the headwaters of the rio Uberaba, rio Grande basin, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of a black, vertically-elongate humeral spot, a single ossification in the position primitively occupied by infraorbitals four and five, four teeth on the inner series of premaxilla, and scales covering the anal-fin base. Hasemania crenuchoides is redescribed and its known geographic distribution is extended; it can be differentiated from other species of the genus by the combination of a black vertically-elongate humeral spot, ii,8 dorsal-fin rays, 11-14 branched anal-fin rays, the presence of separate infraorbitals four and five, and the presence of scales covering the anal-fin base. Phylogenetic relationships of H. crenuchoides and the new species within Hasemania are discussed.

  19. Spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Ostariophysi: Characidae in an Atlantic Forest river, Southern Brazil

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    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    Full Text Available This study described the feeding habits of the characin Astyanax aff. fasciatus. The diet compositions of specimens from two sites (A and B on a river in Southern Brazil were compared according to the size of individuals and seasonal period. The collections were performed monthly from March 2005 to February 2006, where the stomach contents of 290 specimens were assessed. Food items for A. aff. fasciatus were basically composed of plants and insects, especially leaf fragments, seeds, fruits, filamentous algae, aquatic and terrestrial insects and insect fragments. At site A, the most common items were insect and plant fragments. Conversely at site B, plant fragments were more representative. In general, all items of animal origin showed the highest feeding index values at site A, whereas at site B detritus and grass items were more abundant. The composition of items varied seasonally, with higher diversity of items being recorded during the spring at both sites. Smaller individuals preferred items of animal origin, while the larger ones consumed mainly items of plant origin. According to its size, A. aff. fasciatus in this study may be considered a species with insectivorous tendencies when immature or herbivorous tendencies when adult. Nevertheless, its feeding habits may be flexible according to resource availability, showing wide ontogenetic, besides spatial and temporal variation.

  20. A new species of Henneguya, a gill parasite of Astyanax altiparanae (Pisces: Characidae from Brazil, with comments on histopathology and seasonality

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    Barassa Bianca

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya chydadea, is described parasitizing the gills of Astyanax altiparanae collected from a lake on Rio das Pedras farm near Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the fish examined, 88.3% had gills parasitized by myxosporeans. The prevalence of the parasite ranged from 80% in the spring and fall, 93% in the summer and 100% in the winter. The parasite induced the formation of white, oval-shaped cysts measuring 40-64 µm x 64-80 µm which deformed the gill lamellae, compressed the capillaries, and caused retraction of the neighboring lamellae. The mature spores were elongated and had two identical, parallel elongate polar capsules. Each capsule contained a polar filament with 9-10 turns. There was no mucous envelope or iodinophilous vacuole. Morphometric differences between this parasite and other species of the genus Henneguya indicated, that he parasite observed in A. altiparanae is a new species. This is the first report of a myxosporeanparasitizing A. altiparanae.

  1. Taxonomy of Probolodus Eigenmann, 1911 (Characiformes: Characidae with description of two new species, and comments about the phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the genus

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    Osmar Santos

    Full Text Available Probolodus is a genus of tetras distributed along the coastal basins of southeastern Brazil, from Espírito Santo on the north, to São Paulo states. It was proposed by Eigenmann in 1911, to include the single species P. heterostomus. However, examining of material recently collected we identified two new species: P. oyakawai, new species, from the rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, and P. sazimai, new species, from the rio Itapemirim (Espírito Santo, and drainages of the rio Doce basin (Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais states. Therefore, the distribution of P. heterostomus was restricted to the rio Paraíba do Sul basin, southeastern Brazil. The genus Probolodus was redefined based on osteological characters, in particular details of oral dentition. Probolodus heterostomus differs from its congeners by a combination of meristic and osteological characters. An identification key for the species of the genus is presented. The possible evolutionary relationships of Probolodus with other characids, especially some lepidophagous taxa are discussed. Regarding the biogeography of the group, some geological events are hypothesized as responsible for the cladogenetic events among species of the genus.

  2. A new species of Hemigrammus Gill, 1858 (Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Madeira and rio Paraguai basins, with a redescription of H. lunatus

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    Rafaela P. Ota

    Full Text Available A new Hemigrammusis described from the rio Paraguai and rio Madeira basins, Mato Grosso and Rondônia States, Brazil. The new species is characterized by possessing a wide dark horizontal stripe across the eye, a vertically elongated humeral blotch, and 4-5 gill-rakers on upper branch and 9-10 on lower. The new species can be easily diagnosed from H. lunatus, the sympatric and morphologically most similar congener, by the shape of humeral blotch and the number of gill rakers. Data of the type material of both Hemigrammus lunatus and H. maxillaris, as well as extensive examination of specimens, allowed us to conclude that H. maxillarisis a junior subjective synonym of H. lunatus. A redescription of H. lunatus, as well as a formal restriction of its type locality, is provided. A putative monophyletic group within Hemigrammus, composed by H. barrigonae, Hemigrammus lunatus, H. machadoi new species, and H. ulreyi, named Hemigrammus lunatus group, is proposed based on overall body morphology and color pattern. Additionally, a discussion on the biogeographical relationships between the rio Paraguai and rio Guaporé basins is provided.

  3. HEMATOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA SANGUÍNEA DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO (Salminus affinis PISCES: CHARACIDAE DEL RÍO SINÚ

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    VÍCTOR ATENCIO-GARCÍA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubio Salminus affinis es un pez reofílico, distribuido en ríos de Colombia y Ecuador. Se estudiaron características hematológicas y química sanguínea buscando generar información básica para desarrollar tecnologías de producción piscícola. Fueron examinados diez rubios juveniles aparentemente sanos (117,5±38,6 g de peso y 17,6±3,3 cm de longitud total capturados en el río Sinú. Los peces se tranquilizaron durante cinco minutos en agua a 18 °C y se tomaron 2 mL de sangre por vacutecnia con EDTA (Vacuette®, Greiner Bio-one, USA. La química se determinó utilizando reactivos para cada parámetro (ByoSystems SA, España y el hemograma se desa- rrolló con técnicas tradicionales, a excepción del recuento total de leucocitos y trom- bocitos en el que se utilizó el reactivo de Natt y Herricks. Los frotis sanguíneos fueron teñidos con Wright y en ellos se determinaron las dimensiones celulares. El recuento total de eritrocitos fue 2,2±0,4x106/mm3, los trombocitos 25,4±4,4x103/mm3 y los leu- cocitos fueron estimados en 6,1±2,0x103/mm3. El conteo diferencial de leucocitos fue 68,8±5,9% linfocitos, 28,5±5,2% neutrófilos, 2,1±0,9% monocitos, 0,4±1,3% basó- filos y 0,2±0,4% eosinófilos. La hemoglobina en 12,53±2,2 g/dL y el hematocrito 36,2%. Los índices eritrocitarios: volumen corpuscular medio (VCM 163,8±22,6 fL, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media (CHCM 35,0±7,5 g/dL y hemo- globina corpuscular media (HCM de 58,5±19,7 pg. Las proteínas totales fueron 3,8±5,9 g/dL, glucosa 128,9±21,9 mg/dL, colesterol 277,8±92,7 mg/dL, triglicéridos 192,0±109,1 mg/dL y albúmina 2,0±0,3 g/dL. Los resultados sugieren que las carac- terísticas hematológicas de rubio están en el rango reportado para peces neotro- picales aparentemente sanos.

  4. Feeding aspects of Knodus heteresthes (Characiformes, Characidae in igarapé of the Nove Machado river basin, Rondônia, Brazil

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    Wesclen Vilar Nogueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p97 In this study, we describe the feeding habit of Knodus heteresthes in an Amazonian igarapé and explore the hypothesis that variations in diet are due to alternation of seasons and ontogenetic development. Most specimens collected were small-sized (< 30 mm. We observed that the species eats a wide variety of items, ranging from vegetal material, such as algae, seeds, and leaves, and animal material, such as arachnids, bryozoans, and terrestrial and aquatic insects at various life stages, suggesting an omnivorous diet with a significant consumption of allochthon insects. Items of allochthon origin were more representative than autochthon items for young (χ2 = 70.4; p < 0.05 and adults individuals (χ2 = 60.6; p < 0.05, in both seasons (rainy, χ2 = 53.0; p < 0.05; dry, χ2 = 77.0; p < 0.05, and they accounted for over 70% of the species’ diet in all samples, indicating some degree of specialization. Such specialization, in turn, can be related to the high abundances found by the species, which possibly show a good ability to allocate energy to growth, in the case of young individuals, and reproduction, in the case of adults, making it a dominant species in preserved igarapés.

  5. Feeding aspects of Knodus heteresthes (Characiformes, Characidae in igarapé of the Nove Machado river basin, Rondônia, Brazil

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    Wesclen Vilar Nogueira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe the feeding habit of Knodus heteresthes in an Amazonian igarapé and explore the hypothesis that variations in diet are due to alternation of seasons and ontogenetic development. Most specimens collected were small-sized (< 30 mm. We observed that the species eats a wide variety of items, ranging from vegetal material, such as algae, seeds, and leaves, and animal material, such as arachnids, bryozoans, and terrestrial and aquatic insects at various life stages, suggesting an omnivorous diet with a significant consumption of allochthon insects. Items of allochthon origin were more representative than autochthon items for young (χ2 = 70.4; p < 0.05 and adults individuals (χ2 = 60.6; p < 0.05, in both seasons (rainy, χ2 = 53.0; p < 0.05; dry, χ2 = 77.0; p < 0.05, and they accounted for over 70% of the species’ diet in all samples, indicating some degree of specialization. Such specialization, in turn, can be related to the high abundances found by the species, which possibly show a good ability to allocate energy to growth, in the case of young individuals, and reproduction, in the case of adults, making it a dominant species in preserved igarapés.

  6. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  7. Influence of spawning procedure on gametes fertilization success in Salminus hilarii Valenciennes, 1850 (Teleostei: Characidae: Implications for the conservation of this species

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    Renato M. Honji

    Full Text Available Artificial reproduction and gamete fertilization were evaluated in Salminus hilarii wild and domesticated broodstocks. Wild and domesticated broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduction using a carp pituitary treatment. Four groups were considered: Group 1 (G1, fish caught in the wild maintained for three years in the same conditions as the domesticated broodstocks and spawned naturally; Group 2 (G2, broodstock born and raised in captivity and spawned naturally; Group 3 (G3, wild broodstocks, which were manually stripped for gamete collection and dry fertilization; and Group 4 (G4, domesticated males and females, also manually stripped. Oocytes, eggs, and larvae were sampled at different time intervals throughout embryonic development. Yolk sac absorption occurred approximately 24-29 h after hatching. Twenty-six h after hatching, the larvae mouths opened. Cannibalism was identified just 28-30 h after hatching. There was no morphological difference in embryonic development among all groups. The number of released eggs per gram of female was: G1: 83.3 ± 24.5 and G2: 103.8 ± 37.4; however, the fertilization success was lower in G2 (42.0 ± 6.37 % compared with G1 (54.7 ± 3.02% (P = 0.011. Hand-stripping of oocytes was not successful and the fertilization rate was zero. The reproduction of this species in captivity is viable, but it is necessary to improve broodstock management to enhance fertilization rates and obtain better fingerling production for restocking programs.

  8. Two new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae from upper rio Tapajós basin on Chapada dos Parecis, central Brazil

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    Tiago Pinto Carvalho

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hyphessobrycon are described from the upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon melanostichos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of a conspicuous longitudinal broad black band beginning on the posterior margin of orbit and reaching the tip of middle caudal fin rays, a distinct vertically elongate humeral spot, and 16 to 18 branched anal-fin rays. Hyphessobrycon notidanos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of an elongate dorsal fin in mature males, a vertically elongate humeral spot, 2-4 maxillary teeth, iii,8 dorsal-fin rays, and 16 to 21 branched anal-fin rays.

  9. Contribución al estudio de los peces Cheirodontinae (Familia Characidae) de Costa Rica y Panamá. Géneros Compsura y Pseudocheirodon

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    López S., Myrna I.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper defines the taxonomic position of Compsura gorgonae. The genus Pseudocheirodon is maintained tentatively distinct from Cheirodon. Compsura gorgonae is distinguished from Pseudocheirodon affinis by the presence of spines on the anal fin of males, fewer maxillary teeth and longer maxillary bone. A key is pravided to distinguish the genera Compsura, Cheirodon, Odontostilbe and Pseudocheirodon. Over 2,800 specimens from 54 Panamanian and Costa Rican collections were utilized. Th...

  10. The occurence of black spot disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus(characiformes: characidae in the Guaíba Lake basin, RS, Brazil

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    F Flores-Lopes

    Full Text Available Black spot disease is common in freshwater fish and is usually caused by the metacercaria stage of digenetic trematodes, normally from the Diplostomidae family. The present study evaluated the prevalence and intensity of this disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus(Teleostei: Characiformes in the Guaíba Lake basin (RS, Brazil, including body parts assessment and the points of sampling with higher occurrence of black spots. Fish samples were taken seasonally from December 2002 until October 2004. The samples were collected with the use of a seine net at eleven points. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and stored in 70% ethanol. Black spot disease showed a low frequency in the Guaíba lake basin (2.07% and no specificity to the species Astyanax aff. fasciatus was observed. A high prevalence among the individuals and high intensity of infection levels was found in the ventral and dorsal regions in relation to other body parts (e.g., pectoral, pelvic and anal regions. Among the sampling points studied, we observed a higher prevalence on samples collected at points Gasômetro, Saco da Alemoa and Sinos, located in open areas with less occurrence of mollusks.

  11. Chrysobrycon eliasi, new species of stevardiine fish (Characiformes: Characidae from the río Madre de Dios and upper río Manuripe basins, Peru

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    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    Full Text Available Chrysobrycon eliasi is described from several drainages of río Madre de Dios and upper río Manuripe basins, río Madeira basin, Peru. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the maxillary teeth, which are tricuspidate, bicuspidate and conical, and the terminal lateral-line tube developed between caudal-fin rays 10-11. Other characters that help to recognize C. eliasi are the possession of maxilla with 6-15 (usually 11 teeth occupying more than 70% of the length of the maxilla in adults, predorsal scales 18-22, dorsal-fin to hypural complex length 36.32-41.17% of standard length (SL, gill-gland length in males 3.57-5.05% SL, maxillary length 33.76-38.75% of head length, and branched anal-fin rays 24-30. The discovery of C. eliasi allows us to extend the geographic distribution of the genus to the southeast, into the río Madeira basin.

  12. Knodus shinahota (Characiformes: Characidae a new species from the río Shinahota, río Chapare basin (Mamoré system, Bolivia

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    Katiane M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Knodus shinahota, new species, is described from río Shinahota, a tributary of the upper rio Mamoré basin, Província de Tiraque, Cochabamba State, Bolivia. The new species can be distinguished from all congeners except K. chapadae and K. geryi by having six rows of scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (vs 4 or 5 rows of scales in the other species. Knodus shinahota differs from K. chapadae by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 3½ or 4, respectively and more lateral line scales (38-41 vs 36-38, respectively. It differs from K. geryi by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral-line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 4, respectively; fewer branched anal-fin rays (17-20 vs 15-17, respectively, and by lacking the two symmetric, large, dark, blotches on the basal portions of the caudal-fin lobes that characterize K. geryi.

  13. Coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente de harina de pescado peruana y maíz amarillo duro para Colossoma macropomum (Actinopterygii, Characidae

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    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Coeficientes de Digestibilidad Aparente (CDA de la materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, lípido crudo(LC y energía bruta (EB de los ingredientes alimenticios harina de pescado peruana (HPP y de maíz amarillo duro (MAD fueron determinados en juveniles de Colossoma macropomum (150,0 ± 25,5 g. En el experimento la dieta de referencia se mezcló con cada uno de los ingredientes prueba en una relación de 70:30. El óxido crómico se usó como indicador inerte. La dieta de referencia y las dietas prueba fueron suministradas a C. macropomum, criada a 27 ºC, 7 mg/L de oxígeno disuelto y pH entre 7,5. Las muestras fecales fueron colectadas por sifoneo. Los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB de la HPP fueron de 88,06 ± 0,83%, 87,08 ± 1,34%, 85,87 ± 2,69 y 87,29 ± 1,57% respectivamente. Igualmente los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB del MAD fueron de 82,38 ± 1,02%, 75,46 ± 1,53%, 76,17 ± 2,43% y 75,04 ± 1,80% respectivamente. La energía digestible aparente calculada fue de 3950 Kcal/kg para la HPP y 2830 kcal/kg para el MAD. Se concluye que C. macropomum digiere mejor las fracciones proteicas y energéticas de la HPP. Al mismo tiempo muestra que digiere también la fracción energética del MAD, proveniente de los carbohidratos solubles.

  14. [Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae) two new species of fish in the basin of Madre de Dios river, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alzate, Carlos A; Romin-Valencia, César; Ortega, Hernán

    2013-06-01

    Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM); and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) samples. The morphometric relationships between species using 21 variables were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA). Here we describe two new species, Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae from the Madre de Dios River drainage, Peru. Hyphessobrycon taphorni sp. n. can be distinguished by the number of dorsal-fin rays (iii, 8), by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (4-5), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (1-2), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (7-8), by: the caudal-peduncle length (11.4-16.4% SL), number of lateral scales (28-29, except from H. loretoensis which has 29-30) and absence of a humeral spot (vs. present), it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: scales between the lateral line and the anal fin origin (4 vs. 3) and maxillary teeth (2 vs. 3-4), and it differs from H. agulha by the number of branched pectoral-fin rays (11-12 vs. 9-10). Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae sp. n. is distinguished by the number of: simple anal-fin rays (iv), teeth on the dentary (13-15), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (6), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (3, except from H. heterorhabdus and H. loretoensis which have 3-4); it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (7 vs. 9-10), scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (5 vs. 3-4); it differs from H. agulha in the number of lateral scales (30-31 vs. 33-34), by the number of: predorsal scales (9 vs. 10), maxillary teeth (4 vs. 0-1); in having in life a red lateral stripe above the dark lateral stripe that extends from the posterior part of the opercle to the caudal peduncle (vs. absent) and by the presence of bony hooks in mature males only on the anal fin (vs. hooks on all fins, including the caudal).

  15. Chromosomal differentiation between populations of Oligosarcus hepsetus (Teleostei, Characidae from small tributaries at opposite margins of the Paraíba do Sul river (Brazil

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    Liano Centofante

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analyses were carried out in two populations of Oligosarcus hepsetus from tributaries at opposite margins of the Paraíba do Sul river. The same diploid number was observed in both populations (2n=50, but they showed remarkable differences related to karyotype formula and distribution of rDNA sites as revealed by silver nitrate staining and in situ hybridization with 18S probes. The results suggested that the main channel of the Paraíba do Sul river acted as barrier to gene flow between populations.Análises citogenéticas foram realizadas em duas populações de Oligosarcus hepsetus provenientes de riachos de margens opostas do rio Paraíba do Sul. O número diplóide foi o mesmo para ambas as populações (2n=50, porém diferenças significativas foram observadas com relação à fórmula cariotípica e distribuição dos sítios de DNAr detectados pela impregnação por prata e pela hibridação "in situ" com sonda 18S. Estes resultados sugerem que a calha principal do rio Paraíba do Sul estaria atuando como uma barreira para o fluxo gênico entre essas populações.

  16. Evaluation of the haematological parameters in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg (Osteichthyes, Characidae with Argulus sp. (Crustacea, Branchiura infestation and treatment with organophosphate

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Haematological parameters as erythrocytes, leukocytes and plasma glucose in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 were analyzed. Fish were parasitized with Argulus sp. (Crustacea, Branchiura and treated with 0.4 mg of thriclorphon 500/L water. The effects of parasitism and the action of the treatment were evaluated. Parasitized fish showed greater number of monocytes (P>0.05 and special granulocitic cells (P0.05. Organophosphate treatment presented significantly reduction (P>0.05 in red blood cells (RBC and hemoglobin.

  17. A multi-approach analysis of the genetic diversity in populations of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei: Characidae from Northeastern Brazil

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    Vanessa de Carvalho Cayres Pamponet

    Full Text Available Few reports are available about the ichthyofauna of typical semi-arid rivers, although the regional diversity has been constantly threatened by human activities, mainly related to impoundment and construction of dams. The goal of the present work was to evaluate using different methods, the population genetic structure of a characin fish, Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, widespread throughout hydrographic basins of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Morphological (meristic and morphometric data, cytogenetic (karyotype and Ag-NOR, and molecular (RAPD and SPAR analyses were carried out in specimens collected upstream and downstream of Pedra Dam, in the main channel of Contas River (Contas River Basin, and in the Mineiro stream, which belongs to the adjacent Recôncavo Sul basin. Few external differences were detected among populations, where the individuals collected upstream of Pedra Dam were slightly larger than the others. Cytogenetic data also showed a similar karyotypic pattern (2n=50; 6m+28sm+12st+4a; FN= 96 and NORs located on the short arms of up to two chromosome pairs, with numerical inter- and intra-populational variation. Nonetheless, RAPD and SPAR analyses differentiated reliably the three populations, revealing striking differences in the allele frequencies among the localities studied and a significant difference in population structure index (Fst=0.1868, P<0.0001. The differences between populations within a same river were as significant as those between distinct hydrographic basins, indicating that the dam/reservoir represents an effective barrier to gene flow. Additionally, environmental peculiarities from each locality are also believed to influence the genetic patterns detected herein. On the other hand, the similarity between samples from Contas River and Recôncavo Sul basins could be related to a common evolutionary history, since both basins are geographically close to each other. Finally, the present study shows that a multi-approach analysis is particularly useful in identifying the population structure of widely distributed species and to evaluate the impacts of human activities on natural fish populations.

  18. UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE PEZ DEL GÉNERO HEMIBRYCON (CHARACIFORMES: CHARACIDAE DEL ALTO RÍO ATRATO, NOROCCIDENTE DE COLOMBIA

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    ROMÁN-VALENCIA CÉSAR

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Hemibrycon para la cuenca alta del río Atrato,al noroccidente de Colombia. La especie se distingue de sus congéneres por supequeño tamaño (de las órbitas y la parte ventral de la mandíbula superior planos, las mandíbulas noson iguales: la mandíbula superior sobresale con relación a la inferior, aleta pélvicalarga y su extremo alcanza el origen de la aleta anal, bajo número de vértebras yde radios ramifi cados en la aleta anal. Se incluyen datos ecológicos propios delambiente acuático del nuevo taxón y una clave para las especies de Hemibrycon deColombia.

  19. Identification of Astyanax altiparanae (Teleostei, Characidae in the Iguaçu River, Brazil, based on mitochondrial DNA and RAPD markers

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    Prioli Sônia M.A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Astyanax fishes are among the most important food-web components of South America rivers. In the Iguaçu River basin, the Astyanax genus is represented mainly by endemic species. For millions of years, that hydrographic basin has been geographically isolated from the Paraná River basin by the Iguaçu Falls. Recently, a species from the Upper Paraná River basin identified as Astyanax bimaculatus was revised and described as a new species named Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000. Fauna endemism and geographic isolation triggered interest in investigations to evaluate the identification and genetic relatedness among two A. altiparanae populations from the Upper Paraná River basin and the population identified as A. bimaculatus in the Iguaçu River, upstream from the Iguaçu Falls. Mitochondrial DNA sequences and RAPD markers revealed high genetic diversity within each population, as well as low genetic distance, high gene flow, and high mitochondrial DNA similarity among all three populations. In conjunction with morphological similarities, these results demonstrated that the population presently known as Astyanax bimaculatus in the Iguaçu River should actually be stated as Astyanax altiparanae. Furthermore, it could be inferred that the A. altiparanae population is not endemic and most likely it was recently introduced in the Iguaçu River basin, maintaining the ancestral genetic identity.

  20. Características morfológicas do miocárdio ventricular de Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomun; Characidae, Cuvier, 1818

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    Karina Simões

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The neotropical teleost fish Colossoma macropomun an active swimming species showed cardiac ventricle with pyramidal shape and myocardium with mixed structure. The myocardium presented an outer compact layer and an inner spongy layer whose particular bilaminar structure hitherto has been correlated to swimmer habit as well as to ventricular shape.

  1. ANÁLISIS FILOGENÉTICO Y BIOGEOGRÁFICO DE LAS ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO BRYCONAMERICUS (CHARACIFORMES, CHARACIDAE DE LA BAJA AMÉRICA CENTRAL

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    Román Cesar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una hipótesis preliminar de monofi lia para las especies de Bryconamericusde la baja América Central, basada en caracteres moleculares de ADNmt, que resultaen el siguiente arreglo de relaciones fi logenéticas: (B. emperador (B. gonzalezoi(B. bayano, (B. terrabensis, B. scleroparius. Esta hipótesis es preliminar en elcontexto fi logenético del género, sin embargo, aumenta la probabilidad de que estegrupo se constituya en un grupo natural. Se halla concordancia entre la hipótesisde relaciones presentada para las especies de Bryconamericus analizadas aquí y loshallazgos con base en caracteres morfológicos. A través de biogeografi a cladística,cladogramas de áreas, cladogramas resueltos de áreas y Análisis de Dispersión-Vicarianza (DIVA se comprueba que la hipótesis biogeográfi ca para las especiesde Bryconamericus está relacionada con un proceso de dispersión desde el noroestede América del Sur, que permitió colonizar la baja Centroamérica. Simultáneamenteocurrieron extinciones, y como producto de la reorganización geológica y aislamientogeográfi co de las poblaciones, aparece la vicarianza.

  2. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

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    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D. langei reproduz em toda a bacia, porém a atividade reprodutiva é mais intensa nos trechos mais a montante da bacia. O período chuvoso e as chuvas torrenciais se mostraram fatores abióticos muito importantes para a dinâmica da população. Durante seu ciclo de vida os adultos maximizam sua estratégia reprodutiva concentrando o período reprodutivo, com desova total em um curto espaço de tempo antes das chuvas de verão que carregam juvenis, formas larvais e/ou ovos para as regiões a jusante onde existe uma ampla quantidade de micro-ambientes (gramíneas submersas e áreas rasas e calmas. Desta forma a espécie estudada utilizou diferentes porções da bacia em distintos estágios de seu ciclo de vida, demonstrando estar ecologicamente adaptada às variações temporais e físicas do ambiente.

  3. Gill histopathology and micronucleus test of Astyanax jacuhiensis (Cope, 1894 (Teleostei, Characidae to evaluate effects caused by acute exposure to aluminum

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    Thaís Dalzochio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n1p75 The contamination of aquatic environments by aluminum (Al is usually caused by several anthropogenic activities. Diverse morphological, physiological and biochemical alterations in aquatic organisms have been attributed to exposure to Al. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute exposure to different concentrations of Al on the histology of gills and frequency of micronucleus (MN and nuclear abnormalities (NA in erythrocytes of the fish Astyanax jacuhiensis. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.3 mg/L and 30 mg/L of aluminum at neutral pH for 72 h. A control group was kept in filtrated water. The alterations in the gills were characterized by epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, lamellar fusion, edema, epithelial lifting, aneurism and necrosis. A significant increase (p<0.05 in the frequency of abnormal lamellae was observed in groups exposed to both concentrations of Al in comparison with the control group. On the other hand, no statistical differences were observed in the frequencies of MN and NA. Although no evidence of genotoxicity was observed, the results found in the gill morphological analysis suggest that Al was toxic to the fish at both concentrations tested under neutral pH.

  4. Diet-morphology relationship in the stream-dwelling characid Deuterodon stigmaturus (Gomes, 1947 (Characiformes: Characidae is partially conditioned by ontogenetic development

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    Renato Bolson Dala-Corte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We tested whether interindividual variations in diet composition within a population of Deuterodon stigmaturus can be explained by morphological differences between individuals, and whether diet-morphology relationships are dependent on the ontogenetic development. We analyzed diet of 75 specimens sampled in a coastal stream of Southern Brazil. Variation in stomach content was summarized with a Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA. The retained PCoA axes were tested as response to standard length (SL, and to values of intestine length (IL and mouth length (ML independent of body size, using linear mixed-effects models (LMM. The most consumed food items by D. stigmaturus were filamentous algae (41%, terrestrial plants (20.3%, detritus (12%, and aquatic invertebrates (8.8%. The LMMs showed that SL was positively related to consumption of terrestrial plants, whereas IL independent of SL was negatively related to aquatic invertebrates and positively related to filamentous algae. When body sized was held constant, ML was not related to diet variation. Interindividual diet differences conditioned to body size suggest that individuals shift their trophic niche and function in the ecosystem along the ontogenetic development. Relationships between intestine length and diet composition suggest interindividual differences in foraging ability and digestibility of distinct food items.

  5. A new species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin(Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Juruena basin, Central Brazil, with notes on H. loweae Costa & Géry

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    Leonardo F. S. Ingenito

    Full Text Available A new species of Hyphessobrycon, H. peugeoti, is described from the middle portions of the rio Juruena drainage, upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. It can be distinguished from all congeners, with the exception of H. loweae and H. heliacus, by a filamentous elongation of the dorsal fin and the approximately straight margin of the anal fin in adult males. It can be distinguished from both H. loweae and H. heliacus by an overall red coloration in life (vs. a golden coloration in life in the latter. Additionally, it can be distinguished from H. heliacus by the lack of chevron-like dark markings along the midline (vs. presence of chevron-like dark-markings in H. heliacus, and from H. loweae by the presence of only five horizontal scale rows between the dorsal-fin origin and the lateral line (vs. 6-7 in H. loweae, and the higher number of branched anal-fin rays (21-24, modally 22, vs. 17-21, modally 20, in H. loweae. Additional meristic, morphometric, and distributional data are provided for Hyphessobrycon loweae, including its first record in the rio Araguaia/Tocantins basin. Comments on a putative monophyletic group including H. peugeoti, H. loweae, H. heliacus, H. elachys, and H. moniliger are presented.

  6. Parallel body shape divergence in the Neotropical fish genus Rhoadsia (Teleostei: Characidae) along elevational gradients of the western slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malato, Grace; Shervette, Virginia R.; Navarrete Amaya, Ronald; Valdiviezo Rivera, Jonathan; Nugra Salazar, Fredy; Calle Delgado, Paola; Karpan, Kirby C.

    2017-01-01

    Neotropical mountain streams are important contributors of biological diversity. Two species of the characid genus Rhoadsia differing for an ecologically important morphological trait, body depth, have been described from mountain streams of the western slopes of the Andes in Ecuador. Rhoadsia altipinna is a deeper-bodied species reported from low elevations in southwestern Ecuador and northern Peru, and Rhoadsia minor is a more streamlined species that was described from high elevations (>1200 m) in the Esmeraldas drainage in northwestern Ecuador. Little is known about these species and their validity as distinct species has been questioned. In this study, we examine how their body shape varies along replicated elevational gradients in different drainages of western Ecuador using geometric morphometrics and the fineness ratio. We also use sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c I gene and the second intron of the S7 nuclear gene to examine whether genetic data are consistent with the existence of two species. We found that body depth varies continuously among populations within drainages as a function of elevation, and that body shape overlaps among drainages, such that low elevation populations of R. minor in the Esmeraldas drainage have similar body depths to higher elevation R. altipinna in southern drainages. Although a common general trend of declining body depth with elevation is clear, the pattern and magnitude of body shape divergence differed among drainages. Sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear genes failed to meet strict criteria for the recognition of two species (e.g., reciprocal monophyly and deep genetic structure). However, there was a large component of genetic variation for the COI gene that segregated among drainages, indicating significant genetic divergence associated with geographic isolation. Continued research on Rhoadsia in western Ecuador may yield significant insight into adaptation and speciation in Neotropical mountain streams. PMID:28658255

  7. Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

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    Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2014-09-01

    In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.

  8. First record of Hysterothylacium sp. Moravec, Kohn et Fernandes, 1993 larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) infecting the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characiformes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, A A; Silva, R J

    2015-08-01

    This study reports for the first time infection with Hysterothylacium sp. larvae in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques from the Paranapanema River, Jurumirim Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil. A sample of 33 specimens of H. eques was collected in October, 2011. Four specimens of H. eques were parasitized by Hysterothylacium sp. larvae in the intestine and coelomic cavity, with prevalence of 12.1%, mean intensity of infection of 1, and mean abundance of 0.121 ± 0.05. A total of 40 unidentified free-living nematodes were found in the stomach content of 17 fish. This fish species is introduced in the Paranapanema River. Invasive species may affect the native fauna given the introduction of pathogens and parasites. This study also complements data on the diet of H. eques due to the records of free-living nematode as part of the stomach content. Infections with Hysterothylacium sp. larvae may affect the biology of this fish and bring about profit losses to aquarists.

  9. Host-parasite interactions between the piranha Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Characidae and isopods and branchiurans (Crustacea in the rio Araguaia basin, Brazil

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    Lucélia Nobre Carvalho

    Full Text Available In the tropics, studies on the ecology of host-parasite interactions are incipient and generally related to taxonomic aspects. The main objective of the present work was to analyze ecological aspects and identify the metazoan fauna of ectoparasites that infest the piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri. In May 2002, field samples were collected in the rio Araguaia basin, State of Goiás (Brazil. A total of 252 individuals of P. nattereri were caught with fishhooks and 32.14% were infested with ectoparasite crustaceans. The recorded ectoparasites were branchiurans, Argulus sp. and Dolops carvalhoi and the isopods Braga patagonica, Anphira branchialis and Asotana sp. The prevalence and mean intensity of branchiurans (16.6% and 1.5, respectively and isopods (15.5% and 1.0, respectively were similar. Isopods were observed in the gills of the host; branchiurans were more frequent where the skin was thinner, and facilitated attachment and feeding. The ventral area, the base of the pectoral fin and the gular area were the most infested areas. The correlations between the standard length of the host and the variables intensity and prevalence of crustaceans parasitism, were significant only for branchiurans (rs = 0.2397, p = 0.0001; chi2 = 7.97; C = 0.19. These results suggest that both feeding sites and body size probably play an important role in the distribution and abundance of ectoparasites.

  10. Determination of growth curve throwgh scales lecture in different body regions of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces, Characidae, in Ibitinga reservoir, São Paulo State

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    Maria Teresa Duarte Giamas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a curva de crescimento segundo a expressão de von Bertalanffy, referente à espécie Astyanax bimaculatus presente na Represa de Ibitinga (21°46’S e 48°59’, foi empregado o método de contagem dos anéis etários de escamas. Para a extração destas estruturas, foi também identificada dentre seis áreas, a mais adequada do corpo, quanto à precisão de leitura, segundo WERDER e SOARES18 (1984. Foram examinados 50 exemplares, amostrados no período de julho de 1989 a junho de 1990. Observaram-se 8 classes etárias, e os comprimentos totais médios de 1 a 8 anos foram, respectivamente: 61,03 mm: 75,30 mm; 86,67 mm; 97,92  mm; 109,80 mm; 121,75 mm; 134,13 mm e 144,40 mm. A curva de crescimento determinada foi: ^Lt = 223,14 [1 – e -0,1027 (t + 1,8549

  11. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae from the upper rio Machado at Chapada dos Parecis, rio Madeira basin, Brazil

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    William M. Ohara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Moenkhausia is described from the upper rio Machado at Chapada dos Parecis, rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. Among congeners, the new species is similar to Moenkhausia chlorophthalma, M. cotinho , M. lineomaculata , M. plumbea, and M. petymbuaba by having dark blotches on the anterior portion of the body scales, which are absent in the remaining species of the genus. The new speciesdiffers from aforementioned species by possessing blue eyes in life, 15-18 branched anal-fin rays, and a well-defined, round caudal-peduncle spot that does not reach the upper and lower margins of the caudal peduncle and does not extend to the tip of the middle caudal-fin rays.

  12. Oportunismo alimentar de Knodus moenkhausii (Teleostei, Characidae: uma espécie abundante em riachos do noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Feeding opportunism of Knodus moenkhausii (Teleostei, Characidae: an abundant species in streams of the northwestern in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mônica Ceneviva-Bastos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a biologia alimentar de Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 em riachos do Alto rio Paraná no Estado de São Paulo. Em oito riachos (R1-R8, K. moenkhausii se alimentou de 18 itens, dos quais algas, ninfas de efemerópteros e larvas de dípteros foram os itens autóctones mais freqüentes e dominantes; fragmentos de insetos terrestres, himenópteros e aranhas foram os itens alóctones mais freqüentes e dominantes. No riacho R2, K. moenkhausii apresentou dieta distinta dos demais riachos, principalmente em função da profundidade, tipo de substrato e da presença de vegetação ripária. No riacho R9, amostrado mensalmente durante um ano, foram identificados 15 itens, dos quais insetos terrestres predominaram ao longo do ano; larvas de dípteros e algas foram pouco expressivas nos períodos de dezembro-janeiro (período mais quente e chuvoso e junho-julho (período mais frio e seco. No riacho R9 foram realizadas observações subaquáticas durante mergulho livre, onde observamos a cata de itens na coluna d'água junto do substrato, da vegetação submersa e na superfície da água. A elevada variedade de itens consumidos - condicionada às variações do hábitat e sazonais - e a prática de diversas táticas nos permitem considerar K. moenkhausii uma espécie oportunista quanto ao uso dos recursos alimentares. Este oportunismo aparentemente se reflete na abundância da espécie, demonstrando boa capacidade em alocar parte significativa de sua energia à reprodução, mesmo em ambientes fisicamente impactados por ação antrópica.In the present investigation we studied the feeding biology of Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 in streams of the Upper Paraná river system in the state of São Paulo. In eight streams (R1-R8, K. moenkhausii consumed 18 items, of which algae, ephemeropteran nymphs, and dipteran larvae were the most frequent and dominant autochthonous items, as were terrestrial insects, hymenopterans, and spiders regarding allochthonous items. In the R2 stream, K. moenkhausii showed distinct diet, mostly due to depth, substrate type, and presence of riparian vegetation. In the R9 stream (monthly sampled for one year, 15 items were consumed, of which terrestrial insects predominated all year round; dipteran larvae and algae were least relevant during December-January (hot and wet period and June-July (cold and dry period, respectively. During snorkeling observations in this stream, we recorded individuals performing drift feeding, picking at relatively small preys close to the substrate and submerged vegetation, and surface picking. The large diversity of consumed items - conditioned to habitat and seasonal variations - and the diversity of feeding tactics allow us to consider K. moenkhausii a rather opportunistic fish species. Such opportunism apparently reflects on the species abundance, showing its ability to allocate a significant part of its energy to reproduction, even in physically impacted habitats by human actions.

  13. Fauna parasitária de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Characidae cultivado em tanque-rede no estado do Amapá, Amazônia oriental Parasitic fauna of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum(Characidae farmed in cages in the State of Amapá, eastern Amazon

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    Evandro Freitas Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi estudar a parasitofauna e a relação hospedeiro- parasito em tambaqui Colossoma macropomum cultivados em tanques-rede no Rio Matapi, município de Santana, estado do Amapá, região da Amazônia oriental, Brasil. Foram examinados 60 tambaquis, dos quais 96,7% estavam parasitados por protozoários Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora e Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideas Mymarotheciun boegeri e Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae e sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. Os maiores níveis de parasitismo foram causados por protozoários I. multifiliis e P. pillulare e os menores por sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. Porém, os índices de infestação não tiveram efeitos na saúde dos peixes hospedeiros, uma vez que o fator de condição relativo (Kn não foi estatisticamente (pThe purpose of this paper was to evaluate the parasitic fauna and the host-parasite relationship in Colossoma macropomum farmed in cages of Matapi River, municipally of Santana, State of Amapá, in eastern Amazon, Brazil. Of 60 specimens of tambaqui examined, 96.7% were parasitized by protozoans Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora and Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideans Mymarotheciun boegeri and Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae, and leeches Glossiphoniidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. The higher infestation levels were caused by protozoans I. multifiliis and P. pillulare, while the lower infestation levels were caused by leeches. No effects of parasitic infestation rates on fish health were observed. The relative condition factor (Kn was not correlated with the intensity of parasites found. This was the first record of I. multifiliis and P. pillulare in C. macropomum farmed in cages in the Brazilian Amazon.

  14. Extension of geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus and C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae for several drainages flowing into the Amazon River Basin in Peru and Colombia Extensión de la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus y C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae para varios drenajes fluyendo hacia la cuenca del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia

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    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke and C. myersi Weitzman and Menezes is extended to new localities from the upper Amazon Basin in Peru and Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus is recorded for the first time for the Putumayo River Basin in Colombia.Se amplía la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke y C. myersi Weitzman y Menezes para nuevas localidades de la cuenca alta del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus se registra por primera vez para la cuenca del río Putumayo en Colombia.

  15. Influência de diferentes níveis de vitamina C na ração sobre parâmetros hematológicos de alevinos de Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg (Osteichthyes, Characidae Influence of different levels of vitamin C in the ration on the haematological parameters of Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg (Osteichthyes, Characidae fries

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    Maurício Laterça Martins

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Haematological changes in ascorbic acid deficient fishes, observed by some authors, awoked the interest in the haematological response of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus. The present work studied the influence of different levels of ascorbic acid (vitamin C in the ration on the haematological parameters of pacu. Fishes at the beginning of the experiment, presented average body weight 8.64±1.62g and 6.15±0.33cm standard length, were fed with diets containing 0. 50, 100 and 200mg ascorbic acid/kg dry ration. The present work was developed for a period of 24 weeks at the Fish Nutrition Laboratory of Aquaculture Center of Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp, Jaboticabal (São Paulo. The fishes were distributed by the completely randomized design in 20 aquaria of 100 liters capacity with six animals in each and five fold treatment. Condutivity, alcalinity. pH and oxigen were measured weekly and temperature daily. The blood colect was done in 60 anesthetized fishes with 50mg MS-222/1. The results suggests that 50mg ascorbic acid/kg dry ration improved the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and decreased haematocril in unsupplemented fishes, although not differing significantly (P>0.05. The erytrocyte diameter indicated the presence of macrocytic cells in unsupplemented fishes (P<0.05 and the regression analysis showed too reduced neutrophils in unsupplemenled ones, 50mg ascorbic acid/kg dry ration supplementation was enough to development and haematological responses. Furthtermore, the optimum level to the growth is 139mg vitamin C/kg dry ration (P<0.05.

  16. Biologia alimentar de quatro espécies simpátricas de Cheirodontinae (Characiformes, Characidae do rio Ceará Mirim, Rio Grande do Norte Feeding biology of four sympatric Cheirodontinae species (Characiformes, Characidae from Ceará Mirim River, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Tatiana S. Dias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado no rio Ceará Mirim, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. No local de coleta, este rio apresenta águas transparentes e predominância de macrófitas aquáticas nas margens. Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever os hábitos alimentares e verificar a existência de sobreposição alimentar na dieta de quatro espécies simpátricas de Cheirodontinae: Compsura heterura Eigenmann, 1915 (n= 452, Serrapinnus heterodon (Eigenmann, 1915 (n= 473, S. piaba (Lütken, 1875 (n= 509 e Serrapinnus sp. A (n= 313. Os espécimes foram coletados mensalmente, entre abril de 2001 e abril de 2002, com redes de arrasto. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados através dos métodos de frequência de ocorrência, composição percentual e índice de importância alimentar. A sobreposição alimentar foi calculada entre os pares de espécies através do índice de Morisita. As espécies não mostraram variação sazonal na dieta. Algas, matéria vegetal, microcrustáceos e insetos autóctones foram predominantes na dieta das espécies. Serrapinnus heterodon e Serrapinnus sp. A apresentaram hábito alimentar onívoro, enquanto C. heterura e S. piaba apresentaram o hábito alimentar onívoro com tendência à herbivoria. Além disso, altos valores de sobreposição alimentar entre as espécies foram observados em decorrência do consumo de itens similares. Estes resultados sugerem que os recursos alimentares são abundantes e suficientes para serem partilhados por estas quatro espécies onívoras em simpatria.This study was carried in Ceará Mirim River, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. At this location, the river shows high water transparency and predominance of aquatic macrophytes in the margins. This study aims to describe the feeding habits and verify the presence of feeding overlap in the diet of four sympatric species of Cheirodontinae: Compsura heterura Eigenmann, 1915 (n= 452, Serrapinnus heterodon (Eigenmann, 1915 (n= 473, S. piaba (Lütken, 1875 (n= 509 and Serrapinnus sp. A (n= 313. The specimens were collected monthly, from April 2001 to April 2002, using seine nets. The stomach contents were analyzed using the frequency of occurrence, percentage composition and an alimentary importance index. The feeding overlap was calculated through the index of Morisita between pairs of species. The species did not showed seasonal variation in the diet. Algae, vegetal matter, microcrustaceans and autochthonous insects were predominant in the species diet. Serrapinnus heterodon and Serrapinnus sp. A presented omnivorous feeding behaviour, while C. heterura and S. piaba showed omnivorous feeding behaviour with tendency to herbivory. In addition, the species showed high feeding overlap due to the consumption of similar items. These results suggest that food resources are abundant and enough to be partioned by these four omnivorous sympatric species.

  17. Reproducción y dinámica poblacional de Cheirodon interruptus (Ostariophysi: Characidae en el arroyo El Portugués, alta cuenca del río Samborombón, Argentina Reproduction and population dynamics of Cheirodon interruptus (Ostariophysi: Characidae in El Portugués, a stream in the upper watershed of the Samborombon River, Argentina

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    Ricardo A Ferriz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el período reproductivo de Cheirodon interruptus mediante el análisis de 1.658 especímenes capturados mensualmente en el arroyo El Portugués, Argentina, desde mayo 2004 hasta abril 2005. En base a los estadios de madurez y del índice gonodosomático (IGS de las hembras se determinaron dos etapas de desove, una en primavera y otra en otoño. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre el IGS medio mensual de los machos con la profundidad. El IGS de las hembras presentó una correlación significativa con el fotoperíodo y la profundidad. El resto de las variables ambientales, incluyendo temperatura, pH, conductividad y precipitación mensual, no mostró una correlación con la media mensual del IGS. La primera madurez sexual en hembras y machos se observó en la clase 24-26 mm de longitud estándar. La fecundidad absoluta media fue de 448 ovocitos (DE = 217,8 y la fecundidad relativa media fue de 0,33 (DE = 0,097 ovocitos por miligramo de peso corporal, siendo un desovante del tipo parcelado. El diámetro de los ovocitos varió entre 0,05 y 0,70 mm, con una media de 0,48 mm (DE = 0,16.The reproductive period of Cheirodon interruptus was determined by analyzing 1658 individuals collected monthly in the stream El Portugués, Argentina, from May 2004 to April 2005. Two prolonged spawning seasons, one in spring and another in autumn, were observed based on the maturity stages and gonadosomatic índex (GSI of female specimens. The mean monthly GSI of males was significantly correlated with depth. In females, the GSI exhibited a significant correlation with photoperiod and depth. The remaining environmental variables, including temperature, pH, conductivity, and monthly rainfall, did not show a correlation with the mean monthly GSI. The first sexual maturity in females and males was reached within the 24-26 mm standard length class. The mean absolute fecundity was 448 oocytes (SD = 217.8, and the mean relative fecundity was 0.33 (SD = 0.097 oocytes per milligram of body weight; this species is a múltiple spawner. The oocyte diameter ranged from 0.05 to 0.70 mm, with a mean of 0.48 mm (SD = 0.16.

  18. Biologia reprodutiva e reprodução induzida de duas espécies de Characidae (Osteichthyes, Characiformes da bacia do São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil Reproductive biology and induced breeding of two Characidae species (Osteichthyes, Characiformes from the São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Yoshimi Sato

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 são duas importantes espécies de peixes forrageiros da bacia do São Francisco. Espécimes destas duas espécies foram submetidos à indução da desova através de hipofisação, para observação de aspectos reprodutivos e obtenção de subsídios para definição de protocolo de reprodução artificial. Machos e fêmeas receberam dose única de extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa comum (6 mg/kg de peixe. A extrusão de ovócitos foi realizada cerca de 12,8 e 11 h após a aplicação da injeção de hipófise, respectivamente para A. bimaculatus e T. chalceus, com a temperatura da água a 26ºC. Mais de 70% das fêmeas das duas espécies responderam positivamente ao tratamento e as taxas médias de fertilização dos ovos foram acima de 70%. Os ovócitos de A. bimaculatus e T. chalceus são esféricos, opacos, demersais, levemente adesivos, de coloração amarela ou parda, e contendo em média respectivamente 4774 e 2563 ovos por grama de ova. O desenvolvimento embrionário nas duas espécies foi rápido, com duração de menos de um dia, estando a temperatura da água entre 24 e 25ºC.Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 are two important foraging species occurring at the São Francisco River basin. Specimens from both species were submitted to spawning induction through hypophysation, to study some reproductive features and to obtain subsidiary information for the definition of the artificial reproduction protocol. Males and females were treated with a single dose of crude carp pituitary extract (6 mg/kg. In water at 26ºC, the extrusion of the oocytes was made 12,8 and 11 hours after the hypophisis injection, for A. bimaculatus and T. chalceus respectively. More than 70% of the females of both species showed a positive response to the treatment and mean egg fertilization rates were above 70%. The eggs of A. bimaculatus and T. chalceus are yellow or medium brown, spherical, opaque, demersal, and slightly adhesive. The ova contained 4774 and 2563 eggs (mean values per gram respectively. The embryonic development in both species was fast, lasting less than a day when water temperature was between 24 and 25ºC.

  19. Alimentação e ecomorfologia de duas espécies de piranhas (Characiformes: Characidae do lago de Viana, estado do Maranhão, Brasil Feeding and ecomorphology of two species of piranhas (Characiformes: Characidae from the Viana Lake, Maranhão state, Brazil

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    Nivaldo Magalhães Piorski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Serrasalmus aff. brandtii e Pygocentrus nattereri são duas espécies de piranhas comuns no Lago de Viana, um lago formado a partir das inundações do Rio Pindaré, tributário da margem esquerda do Rio Mearim. Uma amostra composta por 249 exemplares destas espécies foi estudada a fim de identificar a composição da dieta e as estratégias alimentares empregadas pelas duas. Os peixes foram coletados trimestralmente durante um ano, entre março de 1998 e março de 1999, usando redes de emalhar e tarrafas. A composição qualitativa da dieta foi analisada com uso do método de freqüência de ocorrência. As estratégias alimentares empregadas pelas espécies foram inferidas através do método gráfico de Costello (1990, modificado por Amundsen et al. (1996. Os resultados indicaram que peixes foi o item encontrado com maior freqüência nos estômagos de ambas as espécies, seguido de matéria vegetal, com maior participação na dieta de P. nattereri. Os recursos peixes e vegetais tenderam a apresentar relações inversas quando comparados com as diferentes classes de comprimento. A análise gráfica da dieta de P. nattereri e S. aff. brandtii sugere que a maioria dos indivíduos utiliza vários recursos simultaneamente. Uma análise multivariada de índices ecomorfológicos indicou que as espécies são segregadas com relação à habilidade natatória, posição ocupada na coluna d'água e tamanho relativo das presas.Serrasalmus aff. brandtii and Pygocentrus nattereri are two species of piranhas, both common in the Viana Lake, which is formed by the flooding waters of the Pindaré River, a tributary of the left bank of the Mearim River. A sample composed of 249 specimens of these species was studied in order to identify diet composition and feeding strategies employed by the two species. The piranhas were captured thrimonthly, during one year from March 1998 to March 1999 using gill and fishing nets of different mesh sizes. The qualitative composition of the diet was analysed through the frequency of occurrence method. The feeding strategies employed by the piranhas were inferred using the graphic method of Costello (1990, modified by Amundsen et al. (1996. The results indicated that fish was the main food item in the stomach contents of the two species, followed by plant material, more in the P. nattereri. Fish and plant material showed different relationships in relation to piranhas's length classes. The graphic analysis of the feeding strategies employed by P. nattereri and S. aff. brandtii suggest a generalist habit, wide width niche with strong participation of the within-phenotype component, which indicated that the majority of individuals of these species use several resources simultaneously. A multivariate analysis of the ecomorphological index indicated that the species are discriminated by swimming ability, water column position and relative prey size.

  20. Uso do alimento por duas espécies simpátricas de Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae em um riacho da Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil Food used by two sympatric species of Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae, in a stream of center-western Brazil

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    Raffael M Tófoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo avaliou sazonalmente a dieta de Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 e M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, coletadas em simpatria no riacho Cancela, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Independente do período hidrológico, alimentos de origem alóctone predominaram na dieta de ambas as espécies (>50% do total de itens consumidos, sendo insetos terrestres o recurso principal, embora, para M. dichroura insetos aquáticos tenham contribuído na dieta também. Hymenoptera (Formicidae foi o alimento mais consumido, sendo ambas as espécies caracterizadas como insetívoras terrestres. A dieta restrita dessas espécies é confirmada pelos baixos valores de amplitude de nicho trófico: Ba=0,26 para M. dichroura em ambos os períodos e Ba=0,41 no período de seca e 0,38 no período de chuva, para M. sanctaefilomenae. A sobreposição alimentar foi elevada no período de chuva (Ojk=0,75 e apresentou valor intermediário no período de seca (Ojk=0,41, evidenciando maior partilha do alimento entre as espécies neste período.This study evaluated the seasonality in the diet of Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 and M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, sympatric species of the Cancela stream, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Regardless of the seasonal period, allochthonous food source predominated in the diet of both species (>50% of all items consumed and among these terrestrial insects were the dominant resource. However, aquatic insects were important in the diet of M. dichroura as well. Hymenoptera (Formicidae was the dominant item to both species, thus they were characterized as terrestrial insectivorous. The restricted diet of these species is confirmed by the trophic niche breadth, whose values were in general low: Ba=0.26 to M. dichroura in both periods and Ba=0.41 and 0.38 in the dry and rainy period, respectively, to M. sanctaefilomenae. The feeding overlap was high in the rainy period (Ojk=0.75 and intermediate in the dry period (Ojk=0.41, showing that the food partitioning between species was larger in this period.

  1. Análisis comparado de las especies del género Bryconamericus (Teleostei: Characidae en la cuenca de los ríos Cauca-Magdalena y Ranchería, Colombia Comparative analysis of species of the genus Bryconamericus (Teleostei: Characidae from Cauca, Magdalena and Ranchería basin rivers in Colombia

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    César Román-Valencia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las especies de Bryconamericus Eigenmann 1907 para la cuenca de los ríos Magdalena-Cauca y Ranchería, con base en material tipo y no tipo; además se establece la distribución geográfica de B. caucanus. Se emplean caracteres merísticos, morfométricos y osteológicos para definir la variación morfológica entre las especies de Bryconamericus analizadas. La forma de los Bryconamericus se estudió mediante un análisis de componentes principales (ACP, donde las medidas fueron previamente transformadas para corregir el efecto de talla y alometría. El número de vértebras diferenció a B. caucanus de otras especies del río Magdalena (37-39 vs. 40-42. Se encontró que B. arilepis Román-Valencia, Vanegas-Ríos and Ruiz-C. 2008 se distingue de los demás Bryconamericus del río Magdalena por las escamas en la línea lateral (50-54 vs. 34-50 y las escamas entre el origen de la aleta dorsal y la línea lateral (9-11 vs. 5-8. El índice de forma (IF construido a partir del ACP confirmó las especies que comparten el mismo perfil: B. caucanus Eigenmann 1913 y B. plutarcoi Román-Valencia 2001, B. tolimae Eigenmann 1913, B. huilae Román-Valencia 2003, B. arilepis y Bryconamericus sp. nov. (en prensa, ambos grupos distinguibles entre sí. El análisis de varianza demostró que existen diferencias significativas entre las longitudes de las aletas pélvicas entre las especies de Bryconamericus (F= 44,7; p= 0,000. Se observaron significancias en las longitudes de la aleta anal, al confrontar las especies de Bryconamericus analizadas (F= 44,03; p= 0,000. Las poblaciones de B. caucanus de la parte baja del río Cauca son las que poseen mayor afinidad en forma con las demás poblaciones del río Ranchería, alto y medio Cauca y bajo Magdalena. Se determina que Hemibrycon dentatus y H. decurrens son sinónimos modernos de B. caucanus; se confirma la existencia de 2 especies nuevas para el río Sogamoso, cuenca del río Magdalena, y se establece la distribución geográfica de B. caucanus en la cuenca de los ríos Sinú, Ranchería, Cauca y bajo Magdalena.We reviewed Bryconamericus species from the Cauca, Magdalena and Ranchería rivers in Colombia using type and new specimens. The geographic distribution of B.caucanus was determined. We determined the morphological variation among Bryconamericus species analyzed using meristic, morphometric and osteological characters. The shape of Bryconamericus was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA, in which measurements were previously processed to correct for the effect of size. The number of vertebrae differentiated B. caucanus from other species of the Magdalena River (37-39 vs.40-42. Bryconamericus arilepis Roman-Valencia et al 2008 differs from other Río Magdalena Bryconamericus in lateral-line scales (50-54 vs. 34-50 and scales between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line (9-11 vs. 5-8. The index of form (IF built with PCA confirmed the validity of species that share the same shape: B. caucanus Eigenmann 1913 andB. plutarcoi Roman-Valencia 2001, B. tolimae Eigenmann 1913, B. huilae Roman-Valencia 2003, B. arilepis and Bryconamericus sp. nov. Román-Valencia, Vanegas-Ríos and Ruiz-C. in press, and the 2 groups were distinguishable from each other. An ANOVA showed significant differences in pelvic-fin length among species of Bryconamericus (F = 44.7, p = 0000. Anal-fin length was also useful to distinguish the studied species (F = 44.03, p = 0000. Populations of B. caucanus from the lower Río Cauca show greatest similarity in shape with all other populations from Río Ranchería, upper and lower Cauca, and middle Magdalena. Hemibrycon dentatus andH. decurrens are shown to be synonyms of B. caucanus. We reconfirm the existence of 2 new species of Bryconamericus from Río Sogamoso, in the Río Magdalena basin. The geographical distribution of B. caucanus in the Sinú, Ranchería, Cauca and lower Magdalena river basins is established.

  2. Praziquantel, levamisol e diflubenzuron no controle de Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea: Branchiura e Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae em Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae Praziquantel, levamisole and diflubenzuron in the control of Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea: Branchiura and Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae

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    Sergio Henrique Canello Schalch

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficácia antiparasitária do praziquantel, levamisol e diflubenzuron administrados via oral, adicionados à ração, para pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados por Anacanthorus penilabiatus e Dolops carvalhoi. Foram utilizadas 19 caixas d'água de 300 L de capacidade, comportando 28 peixes cada. Os tratamentos foram feitos misturando os princípios ativos nas dietas. A intensidade parasitária e eficácia foram avaliadas 1 dia antes e 3, 7 e 15 dias após o início da alimentação com ração contendo diflubenzuron, levamisol e praziquantel isolados ou associados em diferentes concentrações por 7 dias. Os resultados da eficácia terapêutica sugerem que, isoladamente ou associado com levamisol e praziquantel, o diflubenzuron é eficiente contra o crustáceo D. carvalhoi, demonstrando que a eficácia dos tratamentos nos dias 3, 7 e 15 variou de 96,2 a 100%. Contra os monogenóides, as drogas não apresentaram eficácia satisfatória. Os resultados sugerem o uso do diflubenzuron para o controle de D. cavalhoi em peixes de cativeiro e em condições de quarentenário.This assay evaluated the control efficacy of diflubenzuron, praziquantel and levamisole added to the diet of pacu (Piaractus mesoptamicus infected with Anacanthorus penilabiatus and Dolops carvalhoi. 19 water tanks of 300 L capacity were utilized with 28 fish in each one. The treatments were made by mixing the active principles in the diet. The experiment was evaluated in four harvests done 1 day before and 3, 7 and 15 days after the treatment. The medicated feeding was applied for 7 days. The results of efficacy suggest that the diflubenzuron alone or associated with levamisole and praziquantel was efficient against the crustacean D. carvalhoi and the efficacy in the 3, 7 and 15 days evaluations ranged from 96,2 to 100%. Against the monogenean the drugs did not present efficacy. The results suggest the use of diflubenzuron for the control of D. carvalhoi in captive fishes in special conditions.

  3. Reproductive traits and population structure of Astyanax aeneus (Characiformes: Characidae from a subtropical river in Mexico Rasgos reproductivos y estructura de la población de Astyanax aeneus (Characiformes: Characidae de un río subtropical en México

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    Patricia Trujillo-Jiménez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Champotón River is an unknown area within the Mesoamerican hotspot in Southestern México. Reproductive traits and population structure of Astyanax aeneus were analyzed along an environmental gradient of the upper, middle and lower sections of the river, where diverse environmental factors were recorded. For this, nets were cast for 1h at each site and A. aeneus were collected from all sections with sweep nets (5 and 10m long by 5m deep, 0.03m mesh size and a casting net (0.05m mesh size. At each study site and campaign, a total of 80 specimens (in average were collected and were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for further analysis. Population structure by size was analyzed for each study site, based on the relative frequencies by standard length classes. The length-weight relationship was determined, and the identification of gonadal developmental stages, reproductive period, size at first sexual maturity, relative fecundity, sex ratio and somatic indexes (gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic and Fulton’s condition factor were also assessed. Seven size classes were found in the upper and middle sections, and nine downstream, with seasonal and spatial pattern in size-class frequency distribution. Size at first maturity was 45.7mm for females and 40.8mm for males. The maximum relative fecundity was recorded at the downstream site and was positively correlated with body weight and standard length. Sex ratio (1.8:1 males: females differed significantly from expected values (1:1. Gonadosomatic index scores indicated that the reproductive period of this species in the Champotón River was from April to July, during the warm and wet season. Hepatosomatic index was negatively correlated with the Gonadosomatic index, evidencing transfer of energy from the liver towards gamete production. This strategy enabled A. aeneus to maintain robustness during the study period with tiny changes in condition factor. A. aeneus in the Champotón River, as opposed to South American river congeneric species of similar size, shows early sexual maturity, a short reproductive period with high gonadosomatic index values, and high fecundity, a trade-off for the short reproductive period. Spatio-temporal segregation was evident: breeders congregate down- stream, while juveniles prefer the upper reaches. This pattern allows A. aenus to be successful in a river with high frequency of hurricanes.El Río Champotón es un área de desconocimiento científico dentro del hotspot de Mesoamérica en el sureste de México. Las características reproductivas y la estructura de la población de Astyanax aeneus fueron analizadas a lo largo de un gradiente ambiental en la porción dulceacuícola del río. Se estudiaron tres sitios: en la parte alta del río San Juan Carpizo, en la porción media San Antonio del Río y río abajo en Ulumal, en cinco períodos entre 2007 y 2008. Se registraron diversos factores ambientales en cada sitio de estudio. Los ejemplares de A. aeneus se recolectaron con redes de arrastre de 5 y 10m de largo por 5m de profundidad (0.03m malla y atarraya (con luz de malla de 0.05m. Las redes fueron lanzadas durante 1 hora en cada sitio. En cada visita se recolectaron un promedio de 80 especímenes en cada sitio de estudio que se preservaron en formaldehído al 10% para su posterior análisis. Para cada sitio de estudio se analizó la estructura de la población por talla, con base en las frecuencias relativas de las clases de longitud estándar. Se determinó la relación peso-talla, se identificaron las etapas del desarrollo gonadal, la época reproductiva, el tamaño de primera madurez sexual, la fecundidad absoluta y relativa, la proporción de sexos y los índices somáticos (gonadosomático, hepatosomático y el factor de condición de Fulton. Se obtuvieron siete clases de talla en la parte alta y media del río y nueve río abajo, con un patrón de distribución estacional y espacial en las frecuencias de clase de tallas. La talla de primera madurez fue de 45.7mm en hembras y 40.8mm en machos. La máxima fecundidad absoluta se registró río abajo y se correlacionó positivamente con el peso corporal y la longitud estándar. La proporción de sexos (1.8:1 machos: hembras difiere significativamente de los valores esperados (1:1. Los resultados del índice gonadosomático (IGS indican que el período reproductivo en el Río Champotón es en julio, durante la temporada húmeda y cálida. El índice hepatosomático se correlacionó negativamente con el IGS, evidenciando la transferencia de energía desde el hígado hacia la producción de gametos. Esta estrategia permitió que A. aeneus mantuviera una condición robusta durante el periodo de estudio con pequeños cambios en el factor de condición. Nuestros resultados indican que A. aeneus en el río Champotón, a diferencia de otras especies del mismo género y de la misma talla en ríos de Sudamérica, presenta una maduración sexual precoz, una temporada reproductiva corta con elevados valores del IGS, y una elevada fecundidad, lo que compensa la temporada de reproducción corta. También se percibe una tendencia a la segregación espacial y temporal: los reproductores se congregan aguas abajo y los juveniles prefieren las partes más altas. Este patrón permite a A. aeneus tener éxito en un río con una alta frecuencia de huracanes.

  4. Algunos aspectos biológicos de Bryconamericus iheringii (Ostariophysi: Characidae en dos arroyos de la alta cuenca del río Samborombón, Argentina Some aspects of biology of Bryconamericus Iheringii (Ostariophysi: Characidae in two streams in the high basin of the Samborombón river, Argentina

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    Ricardo A. Ferriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó los siguientes aspectos de la estructura poblacional de Bryconamericus iheringii: abundancia, factor de condición, relación machos-hembras, relación largo/peso y período reproductivo. Las muestras fueron tomadas en los arroyos Manantiales y El Portugués entre los meses los meses de mayo de 2004 y abril de 2005 con redes de arrastre. Los mayores valores de biomasa correspondieron a los meses de mayo, julio y marzo para el arroyo Manantiales, mientras que para El Portugués correspondieron a los meses de mayo, septiembre y marzo. En el arroyo Manantiales, tanto para machos como para hembras, el grupo de individuos This study analyzed the following aspects of the Bryconamericus iheringii population structure: abundance patterns, condition factor, male-female sex ratio, relation between weight and length, and reproductive period. Samples were made monthly from May 2004 to April 2005 using small trawling nets, in the Manantiales and El Portugués streams. The highest values of biomass for the Manantiales stream corresponded to May, July and March, the highest values of biomass for El Portugués stream were for May, September and March. In the Manantiales stream, both for males and females, the set of individuals < 25 mm Lst dominated during the spring. Individuals included among the 26-40 mm Lst predominated in the warmer months, while those between 41-60 mm Lst abounded at the end of the summer, autumn and winter. In the Portuguese stream, individuals males < 25 mm Lst, were present in the summer, the rest of the year was dominated by sizes between 26-40 mm Lst during the warmer months. Sizes between 41-60 mm Lst dominated in colder months. The relationship between the sexes differed significantly from the 1:1 reason with predominance of females in almost every month. Higher values of K factor were recorded at the end of the spring and summer for both streams. This species has a slightly allometric growth and differences between males and females in this factor may be due to the greater size of females. The largest number of females in maturation and mature was observed in the months of August, September and November in both streams and during the post-spawning period in February-May in the Manantiales stream and in March-May in the Portuguese stream. This would indicate that the spawning period would be between the months of August and November.

  5. HEMATOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA SANGUÍNEA DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO (Salminus affinis PISCES: CHARACIDAE DEL RÍO SINÚ Hematology and Blood Chemistry of Juveniles Rubio (Salminus affinis Pisces: Characidae Captured in the River Sinú

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    VÍCTOR ATENCIOGARCÍA

    Full Text Available Rubio Salminus affinis es un pez reofílico, distribuido en ríos de Colombia y Ecuador . Se estudiaron características hematológicas y química sanguínea buscando generar información básica para desarrollar tecnologías de producción piscícola. Fueron examinados diez rubios juveniles aparentemente sanos (117,5±38,6 g de peso y 17,6±3,3 cm de longitud total capturados en el río Sinú. Los peces se tranquilizaron durante cinco minutos en agua a 18 °C y se tomaron 2 mL de sangre por vacutecnia con EDTA (Vacuette®, Greiner Bioone, USA. La química se determinó utilizando reactivos para cada parámetro (ByoSystems SA, España y el hemograma se desarrolló con técnicas tradicionales, a excepción del recuento total de leucocitos y trombocitos en el que se utilizó el reactivo de Natt y Herricks. Los frotis sanguíneos fueron teñidos con Wright y en ellos se determinaron las dimensiones celulares. El recuento total de eritrocitos fue 2,2±0,4x10(6/mm³, los trombocitos 25,4±4,4x10³/mm³ y los leucocitos fueron estimados en 6,1±2,0x10³/mm³. El conteo diferencial de leucocitos fue 68,8±5,9% linfocitos, 28,5±5,2% neutrófilos, 2,1±0,9% monocitos, 0,4±1,3% basófilos y 0,2±0,4% eosinófilos. La hemoglobina en 12,53±2,2 g/dL y el hematocrito 36,2%. Los índices eritrocitarios: volumen corpuscular medio (VCM 163,8±22,6 fL, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media (CHCM 35,0±7,5 g/dL y hemoglobina corpuscular media (HCM de 58,5±19,7 pg. Las proteínas totales fueron 3,8±5,9 g/dL, glucosa 128,9±21,9 mg/dL, colesterol 277,8±92,7 mg/dL, triglicéridos 192,0±109,1 mg/dL y albúmina 2,0±0,3 g/dL. Los resultados sugieren que las características hematológicas de rubio están en el rango reportado para peces neotropicales aparentemente sanos.Rubio Salminus affinis is distributed in Colombia and Ecuador rivers. To develop new technologies of fishery production, hematological and blood chemistry of 10 juvenile Rubios captured in Sinú river, apparently healthy were examined (117.5+38.6 g of weight and 17.6+3.3 cm of total length. Fishes were calmed during five minutes in water at 18 °C and 2 mL of blood samples were taken in EDTA (Vacuette®. The chemistry was determined using ByoSystems INC ( Spain , reagents and blood count were developed with traditional techniques with the exception of total leukocyte and thrombocyte for which the reagent of Natt and Herricks was used. The blood smears were dyed with Wright and cellular dimensions were determined. The total erythrocytes were of 2.2+0.4x10(6/mm³, thrombocytes 25.4+4.4x10³/mm³ and leukocytes were estimated in 6.1+2.0x10³/mm³. The differential count of leukocytes were of 68.8+5.9% Lymphocytes, 28.5+5.2% neutrophils, 2.1+0.9% monocytes, 0.4+1.3% basophils and 0.2+0.4% eosinophils. The hemoglobin in 12.53+2.2 g/dL, and the hematocrit 36.2%. The erythrocyte index: Mean corpuscular volume (MCV 163.8+22.6 fL; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC 35.0+7.5 g/dL and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH 58.5+19.7 pg. Total proteins were 3.8+5.9 g/dL, glucose 128.9+21.9 mg/dL, cholesterol 277.8+92.7 mg/dL, triglycerides 192.0+109.1 mg/dL and albumin 2.0+0.3 g/dL. The results suggest that the hematological characteristics of Rubio are in range for neotropical apparently healthy fishes.

  6. Flood pulse are the main determinant of feeding dynamics and composition of Odontostilbe pequira (Characiformes: Characidae) in southern Pantanal, Brazil/O pulso de inundação é o principal determinante da dinâmica e composição da dieta de Odontostilbe pequira (Characiformes, Characidae) no Pantanal Sul, Brasil

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    Andréa Fernanda Lourenço da Silva Scanferla; Yzel Rondon Súarez

    2016-01-01

      Aim: This study characterized the diet of Odontostilbe pequira in Porto Murtinho, Pantanal, Brazil, and evaluated the existence of spatial, temporal and ontogenetic variation in feeding. Methods...

  7. Dieta de Astyanax asuncionensis (Characiformes, Characidae, em riachos da bacia do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1442 Diet of Astyanax asuncionensis (Characiformes, Characidae, in streams of the Cuiabá river basin, Mato Grosso State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1442

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    Gisele Caroline Novakowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A dieta de Astyanax asuncionensis, em riachos da bacia do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso, durante períodos de chuva e seca, foi descrita, sendo suas variações associadas ao grau de integridade da vegetação ciliar. Para isso, foram realizadas amostragens mensais, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003, em quatro riachos, com o emprego de pesca elétrica. Foram analisados 213 estômagos, e a dieta foi descrita por meio das porcentagens de ocorrência e volume, combinados ao Índice Alimentar (IAi. Os aspectos da dieta abordados consistiram na composição, na origem dos recursos e na amplitude do nicho alimentar (Índice de Levins. O espectro alimentar incluiu 22 itens, sendo que os recursos alóctones dominaram, principalmente insetos, independente do local e período. A amplitude do nicho alimentar foi, em geral, maior no período de chuva. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que essas populações de A. asuncionensis são sustentadas por recursos de origem terrestre, especialmente Hymenoptera e demonstram a importância da mata ciliar no aporte de alimento. Considerando que os riachos apresentam diferentes graus de degradação da mata ciliar, estes resultados indicam que a manutenção da vegetação e a recuperação das áreas degradadas é condição altamente relevante para manutenção desta espécie nestes riachosThe goal of this study was to assess the diet of A. asuncionensis in four streams. Fish samples were carried out monthly from January to December 2003, using electrofishing. Stomach contents of 213 individuals were analyzed, and the diet was described as for occurrence and volumetric percentage of each item combined in a feeding index (IAi. The diet composition, importance of allochthonous and autochthonous resources, and diet breadth (Levin’s index were assessed among streams and between seasons (dry and rainy. The diet was composed of 22 feeding items; allochthonous resources (especially insects dominated the diet in all streams and in both seasons. The highest values of diet breadth were recorded, in general, during the rainy period. These results showed that A. asuncionensis populations are supported by terrestrial food (especially Hymenoptera, indicating the importance of riparian vegetation. Considering that streams differ according to riparian vegetation cover, our results indicate that the maintenance of vegetation and recovery of degraded areas are essential for conservation of this fish species in these streams

  8. Ocorrência e ecologia trófica de quatro espécies de Astyanax (Characidae em diferentes rios da bacia do rio Tibagi, Paraná, Brasil Occurrence and trophic ecology of four species of Astyanax (Characidae in different rivers of the Tibagi River Basin, Paraná, Brazil

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    Sirlei Terezinha Bennemann

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Na bacia do rio Tibagi, trechos dos rios Fortaleza, Iapó e Tibagi foram amostrados mensalmente, de maio de 2001 a abril de 2002, com tarrafas e redes de espera de diferentes malhagens. Foram capturados indivíduos de quatro espécies de Astyanax. Para conhecer como essas espécies utilizam o hábitat desses rios, foi calculada a constância, e as freqüências em número de exemplares foram comparadas pela análise de similaridade Bray-Curtis. A composição percentual dos alimentos consumidos foi ordenada usando-se a Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. As proporções dos recursos alimentares foram avaliadas e classificadas quanto à natureza (animal ou material vegetal e origem (alóctone e autóctone. A constância e a baixa similaridade na abundância revelaram que as espécies têm preferências quanto ao porte do rio ou por determinado hábitat. Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 e A. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 ocorreram nos de maior porte, mas foram constantes somente no rio Tibagi. Astyanax eigenmanniorum (Cope, 1894 ocorreu em todos os rios, mas prefere hábitats próximos às desembocaduras de afluentes de grandes rios. Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns, 1842 esteve restrita ao Fortaleza, o rio de menor porte, subafluente do rio Tibagi. O número de itens alimentares consumidos variou de 11 a 23. Entre os alimentos principais, três itens foram comuns para as quatro espécies: restos de plantas (folhas e sementes de plantas terrestres, restos de insetos (de diferentes origens e não identificados e plantas aquáticas. Os vegetais e os insetos foram os principais alimentos para todas as espécies. A maior distinção na composição da dieta foi constatada para A. eigenmaniorum, devido à sua habilidade em explorar as plantas aquáticas, presentes em abundância, consumidas junto com carvão/sedimento, que estavam nas margens rochosas do rio Iapó. A similaridade quanto à origem e ao tipo de alimento consumido pelas quatro espécies e as diferenças em termos de hábitat ocupado podem explicar por que apenas uma delas se mantém em abundância e constância em cada trecho estudado.Stretches of the Rivers Fortaleza, Iapó and Tibagi were monthly sampled with gillnets of different mesh sizes and castnets from May 2001 to April 2002 in the Tibagi River basin. Specimens of four species of the Astyanax genera were captured. In order to assess how they use habitat and food resources in the different rivers, their constancy was calculated and the number of specimens was compared by using the Bray-Curtis similarity analysis. The composition (percentage of food items consumed was ordered by using the Principal Components Analysis (PCA. The proportion of different food items in the diet was assessed and classified according to type (animal or plant material and origin (allochtonous or autochtonous. The low similarity and constancy showed differences in the type of habitat preferred by the four fish species. Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 and A. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were present in the large rivers but were constant only in the Tibagi River. Astyanax eigenmanniorum (Cope, 1894 was present in all rivers but prefers habitats in the mouth of affluents of large rivers. Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns, 1842 was restricted to Fortaleza River, a small Tibagi River affluent. The number of food items consumed by the different species varied from 11 to 23. Among the main food, three items were common for the four species: 1- plant residuals (leaves and seeds from the earth community of plants, 2- insect residuals (from different origins and unidentified and 3- aquatic vegetation. So plants and insects were the main food consumed by all the species. Astyanax eigenmanniorum showed the highest distinction in the diet composition among the species studied. Such distinction was due to its ability of exploring an abundant food resource: the aquatic plants that were consumed together with portions of coal/sediments near the rocky shores at the Iapó River. The similarity of the origin and type of food consumed by the four species and the differences in terms of the habitat occupied may explain why one species is abundant and constant in only one of the river stretches studied.

  9. Alimentação da pirambeba Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1858 (Characidae; Serrasalminae em um reservatório do Sudeste brasileiro - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1331 Feeding aspects of Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1858 (Characidae; Serrasalminae in a Southeast Brazilian reservoir - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1331

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    Marina Luisa Fonseca

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados aspectos da alimentação de 158 exemplares de Serrasalmus spilopleura capturados no reservatório de Porto Colômbia, localizado no rio Grande, bacia do rio Paraná, no período entre novembro de 2001 e agosto de 2002. Utilizaram-se redes de malhar com tamanhos entre 3cm e 16 cm entre nós opostos armadas ao entardecer e retiradas pela manhã, permanecendo expostas por um período de aproximadamente 12 horas. A análise da dieta dos exemplares mostrou-se predominantemente piscívora, sendo exclusivo para exemplares de comprimento padrão superior a 22 cm. Insetos aquáticos também foram ingeridos, complementando a dieta dos indivíduos pertencentes às menores classes de tamanho, demonstrando uma evidente ontogenia tróficaWe studied the feeding aspects from 158 individuals of Serrasalmus spilopleura captured in Porto Colômbia Reservoir, situated on the Grande River, at the Paraná basin, between November 2001 and August 2002. Mesh nets were used to capture the individuals, with sizes ranging from 3 cm to 16 cm, between opposed knots set at sunset, and collected in the following morning; remaining exposed during approximately 12 hours. The analysis from the stomach content of the captured individuals showed a predominantly piscivore feeding habit, and exclusive to individuals over 22 cm. Aquatic insects were also found, complementing the diet of individuals belonging to smaller size groups, indicating a clear trophic ontogeny

  10. Fish filleting residues for enrichment of wheat bread: chemical and sensory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Tavares, Tássia; de Sousa Gomes Pimenta, Maria Emília; Leal, Renato; Fabrício, Luís Felipe; Pimenta, Carlos José; Nunes,Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro,Ana Carla Marques

    2014-01-01

    The fish processing industry generates a large amount of materials discarded as residue. It is known that fish and its residue are a source of essential nutrients. Conversely, bread is a food accessible to different social classes but is deficient in protein, minerals, and fatty acids. Thus, this study aimed to develop bread products based on the addition of flour from Red-tailed Brycon (Brycon cephalus) processing residue and then evaluate the chemical and sensory qualities of the products. ...

  11. A new species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin (Characiformes: Characidae from the middle rio São Francisco and upper and middle rio Tocantins basins, Brazil, with comments on its biogeographic history

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    Fernando C. P. Dagosta

    Full Text Available A new species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin is described from tributaries of the rio Grande (rio São Francisco basin draining east to the Serra Geral de Goiás, of the rio São Domingos (upper rio Tocantins basin and rio do Sono basins (middle rio Tocantins basin. Hyphessobrycondiastatos can be diagnosed from its congeners by the absence of humeral spot, 15-18 branched anal-fin rays, 1-3 maxillary conical to tricuspid teeth, a relatively well-defined dark caudal-peduncle spot, and elongation of dorsal- and anal-fin rays in mature males. The biogeographical significance of the distribution of the new species is evaluated and discussed.

  12. A taxonomic review of the species of CharaxScopoli, 1777 (Teleostei: Characidae: Characinae with description of a new species from the rio Negro bearing superficial neuromasts on body scales, Amazon basin, Brazil

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    Naércio A. Menezes

    Full Text Available The species of Charaxwere reviewed by Lucena (1987 who a little later (1989 added three new species to the genus. Examination of recently collected specimens from museum collections documented the more extensive geographic distribution for most species and revealed the existence of a new species in which superficial neuromasts were discovered and are herein described. These skin structures were also detected in C. metae Eigenmann, 1922. Anal- and pelvic-fin hooks previously observed only on the anal-fin of one species of the genus are described herein in some other species. Charax unimaculatus Lucena is considered a junior synonym of C. michaeli Lucena. All the species are redescribed and the new species described.

  13. Ocorrência e ecologia trófica de quatro espécies de Astyanax (Characidae) em diferentes rios da bacia do rio Tibagi, Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sirlei Terezinha Bennemann; Ana Maria Gealh; Mário Luís Orsi; Leda Maria de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Na bacia do rio Tibagi, trechos dos rios Fortaleza, Iapó e Tibagi foram amostrados mensalmente, de maio de 2001 a abril de 2002, com tarrafas e redes de espera de diferentes malhagens. Foram capturados indivíduos de quatro espécies de Astyanax. Para conhecer como essas espécies utilizam o hábitat desses rios, foi calculada a constância, e as freqüências em número de exemplares foram comparadas pela análise de similaridade Bray-Curtis. A composição percentual dos alimentos consumidos foi orden...

  14. Histología de branquias, hígado y riñón de juveniles del pez neotropical Colossoma macropomum (Characiformes, Characidae expuesto a tres temperaturas

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    Luz-Marina Rojas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colossoma macropomum es uno de los peces tropicales de agua dulce con mayor éxito en el cultivo en aguas continentales tropicales. Se realizó una evaluación histológica de branquias, hígado y riñón de este pez expuesto a tres temperaturas (T18, T29 y T35ºC. Se utilizaron 18 ejemplares juveniles con índices biométricos de 17.87±7.88cm y 87.69±34.23g. Los análisis histológicos fueron hechos de acuerdo a técnicas previamente descritas. Se encontró que las branquias, el hígado y el riñón de los peces T29 presentaron citoarquitectura normal. Por el contrario, en las branquias de los peces T18, se observaron gotas lipídicas inmersas en el tejido branquial; los peces T35 presentaron desorganización en la estructura del tejido branquial y necrosis celular. El hígado de los peces T18, mostró hepatocitos claros y oscuros y el de T35, presentó células con granulaciones citoplasmáticas y daño en la membrana plasmática. En el riñón de los T18, se observaron alteraciones en la distribución del tejido hematopoyético. La característica más resaltante en el riñón de los peces T35, fue la desorganización del tejido glomerular. En conclusión, la temperatura de 18°C se puede considerar crítica para la cachama y la de 35ºC severa. De los tres órganos evaluados, el hígado y las branquias resultaron ser los más sensibles a los daños inducidos por las temperaturas en esta especie.

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE NUEVA TECNOLOGÍA PARA MITIGAR LAS ESPINAS INTRAMUSCULARES EN FILETES DE CACHAMA Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces: Characidae EVALUATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY TO MITIGATE INTRAMUSCULAR THORNS IN CACHAMA FILLETS

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    Héctor Suárez Mahecha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de espinas intramusculares en filetes de cachama dificulta la comercializacion y demanda por parte de los consumidores. Hasta el momento no existen tecnologías que permitan ofrecer filetes de cachama que garanticen condiciones de seguridad frente a las espinas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar una nueva tecnología para mitigar la presencia de espinas en filetes de cachama Piaractus brachypomus empacados al vacío y almacenados durante 30 días a 3±0,5 °C. A filetes en presentación lateral interna fueron realizados cortes profundos, paralelos y perpendiculares al eje longitudinal, a una distancia de 3 mm entre cada corte, en sentido dorso-ventral. Fueron realizados análisis microbiológico, fisicoquímico y sensorial. El análisis microbiológico muestra condiciones aceptables para el final del periodo de almacenamiento. Los valores obtenidos para este periodo, fueron de log UFC/g 7,07; 4,7 y 1100 NMP, 18 NMP para organismos psicrotrofilos, mesófilos, coliformes totales y coliformes fecales, respectivamente. No fue determinada presencia de Salmonella ni de organismos sulfito reductores. El análisis fisicoquímico mostró valores de 39,36 para BVT-N; 6,22 pH; 3,3% de pérdida de humedad 1,52; ácido tiobarbitúrico mg MA/kg. El efecto del sajado no incrementó los valores de oxidación de ácidos grasos, ni aumentó las BVT que pudiesen indicar degradación de la proteína. En el análisis sensorial los filetes sometidos a cocción fueron rechazados solamente a partir del día 25 del periodo de almacenamiento, para los atributos aroma y sabor. Durante la evaluación los panelistas no encontraron presencia de espinas, mostrando que la temperatura de cocción utilizada y los cortes en las espinas, permiten degradar la espina intramuscular evitando que sea detectada.The presence of pin bones in cachama fillets makes marketing and demand difficult by the consumers. So far, there are no technologies to provide cachama fillets to ensure security conditions about thorns. This work had as objective to assess a new technology to mitigate the presence of thorns in cachama fillets Piaractus brachypomus vacuum packed and stored for 30 days at 3±0.5 °C. To fillets in lateral internal presentation were made deep cuts, parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, at a distance of 3 mm between each court, in a back-ventral. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analysis were made. Microbiological analysis shows acceptable conditions at the end of storage period. The obtained values for this storage period were 7.07x106 CFU mL, 4.7x106 CFU mL, 1100 NMP, 18 NMP for psychrotrophics organisms, mesophiles, total and fecal coliforms, respectively. There was no presence of Salmonella nor sulphite reductor organisms. Physicochemical analysis showed values of 39.36 for BVT-N; 6.22 pH; 3.3% of moisture loss; 1.52 thiobarbituric acid mg MA/kg. Cutting effect did not increase oxidation values of fatty acids, nor increased the BVT that could indicate protein degradation. In sensory analysis, fillets subjected to cooking were rejected only since the day 25 of storage period for aroma and flavor attributes. During the assay panelists found no presence of thorns, showing that cooking temperature used and cuts in thorns, allow degrade pin bones avoiding their detection.

  16. Avaliação da toxicidade de nanopartículas de dióxido de titânio (TiO2) e chumbo inorgânico (Pbll) em Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lirola, Juliana Roratto

    2016-01-01

    Orientadora : Profª Drª Marta Margarete Cestari Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética. Defesa: Curitiba, 22/03/2016 Inclui referências : f. 70-85 Resumo: O aumento das indústrias juntamente ao crescimento populacional tem elevado de forma considerável os níveis de poluição no meio ambiente e o ambiente aquático é o ecossistema mais suscetível ao despejo de substâncias. Diversas alterações estrutura...

  17. Review of species of the Astyanax bimaculatus "caudal peduncle spot" subgroup sensu Garutti & Langeani (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages and coastal systems of southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Carlos Alberto S De; Soares, Helena Gouvea

    2016-01-28

    The species of the Astyanax bimaculatus 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup of the drainages of the rios La Plata and São Francisco, as well as southeastern coastal systems of Brazil and Uruguay, are revised. Two nominal species are considered valid and are redescribed: Astyanax lacustris and A. abramis. Astyanax jacuhiensis, A. asuncionensis and A. altiparanae are recognized as new junior synonyms of A. lacustris. Bertoniolus paraguayensisis recognized as a new junior synonym of A. abramis. The names Astyanax orbignyanus, A. vittatus, and A. borealis are considered species inquirendae. Notes on A. maculisquamis, included in the 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup from rio Guaporé (rio Madeira drainage), and Astyanax bahiensis from Bahia, mistakenly considered of the same subgroup, are presented.

  18. Range extension of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther,1864 to the Pindaré river drainage, of Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin of northeastern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Erick Cristofore Guimarães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports range extansion of Moenkhausia oligolepis to the Pindaré river drainage, of the Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. This species was previously known only from Venezuela, Guianas, and the Amazon River basins. In addition, we present some meristic and morphometric data of the specimens herein examined and discuss on its diagnostic characters.

  19. Hyphessobrycon uaiso: new characid fish from the rio Grande, upper rio Paraná basin, Minas Gerais State (Ostariophysi: Characidae), with a brief comment about some types of Hyphessobrycon

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Fernando R.; Francisco Langeani

    2013-01-01

    Hyphessobrycon uaiso é descrito da bacia do alto rio Paraná, drenagem do rio Grande, Minas Gerais. A espécie nova difere de seus congêneres por apresentar nadadeira anal curta, com 12-17 raios ramificados, e nadadeira dorsal com ii,7-8 raios. Além disso, a espécie nova pode ser distinguida pelo número de raios da nadadeira pélvica, com i,5-6 e padrão de colorido do olho (quando vivo), levemente azulado na parte inferior e escurecido na parte superior. Ocorrências novas de Hyphessobrycon são r...

  20. Hyphessobrycon uaiso: new characid fish from the rio Grande, upper rio Paraná basin, Minas Gerais State (Ostariophysi: Characidae, with a brief comment about some types of Hyphessobrycon

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    Fernando R. Carvalho

    Full Text Available Hyphessobrycon uaiso is described from the upper rio Paraná basin, rio Grande drainage, Minas Gerais State. The new species differs from its congeners by the short anal fin with 12-17 branched rays, and dorsal fin with ii,7-8 rays. Besides, it can be distinguished by the presence of i,5-6 pelvic fin rays, and by the coloration of the eyes (in life, slightly blue on the lower half and blackish on the upper half. New records of Hyphessobryconare recognized for the upper rio Paraná basin: H. eilyos Lima & Moreira, H. guarani Mahnert & Géry, and H. herbertaxelrodi Géry. The knowledge status about the ichthyofauna from the upper rio Paraná basin and comments about the type material of some species of Hyphessobrycon are briefly discussed.

  1. Protozoários e metazoários parasitos do cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, peixe ornamental proveniente de exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872 Protozoan and metazoan parasites of the cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, ornamental fish from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872

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    Maria Leonora Silva Brito

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a parasitofauna de peixes ornamentais cultivados são de grande relevância para o conhecimento das espécies de parasitos, permitindo interferência em sua proliferação para evitar epizootias e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas na criação. O presente estudo investigou a prevalência e intensidade de parasitos protozoários e metazoários em cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi (N = 89, mantidos em tanques de um exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Dos espécimes de P. axelrodi necropsiados, 65,2% (N = 58 estavam parasitados pelos Protozoa Piscinoodinium pillulare (3,4% e Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (7,9%, Monogenoidea Gyrodactylus sp. (42,7%, Nematoda Procamallanus sp. (23,6% e Trematoda (1,1%. Gyrodactylus sp. e Procamallanus sp., porém, foram os parasitos de maior prevalência e intensidade. Apesar da elevada prevalência de parasitismo em P. axelrodi durante a sua permanência no exportador, a intensidade de protozoários e metazoários foi baixa pelo manejo profilático nos tanques. Os resultados demonstram que os cuidados com tratamento e profilaxia são de extrema importância na aquicultura de peixes ornamentais.Studies regarding parasites fauna in farmed ornamental fish are of great relevance for knowledge of the parasites species, allowing interference in their proliferation to avoid epizooties and consequently, economical losses. This study was designed to investigate the protozoan and metazoan parasites prevalence and intensity on cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi, maintained in tanks of an exporter from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. On necropsy 65.2% of P. axelrodi were found parasitized by Piscinoodium pillulare, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa, Gyrodactylus sp. (Monogenoidea, Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda and Trematoda. Gyrodactylus sp. (42.7% and Procamallanus sp. (23.6% were the parasites of greatest prevalence, and protozoan I. multifiliis was the parasite of greatest mean intensity (4.9. Low intensity of parasites was influenced by chemotherapeutic and prophylactic management. Therefore, the concern with treatment and prophylaxis are of extreme importance for ornamental fish aquaculture.

  2. Características hematológicas, bioquímicas e biométricas de Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae oriundos de cultivo intensivo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1647 Hematological, biochemical and biometric characteristics of Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae, reared in captivity - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1647

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    Marcos Tavares Dias

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo das características sangüíneas pode fornecer subsídios importantes para o diagnóstico e prognóstico das condições mórbidas em populações de peixes e, contribuir para a compreensão da fisiologia comparativa, relação filogenética, condições alimentares e outros parâmetros ecológicos. Foram estudados no teleósteo Piaractus mesopotamicus o eritrograma, leucograma, trombograma, a glicemia, o cortisol, a relação hepatosomática e a relação esplenosomática. Os valores da relação hepatosomática variaram de 0,67% a 2,79%, a relação esplenosomática de 0,011% a 0,108%, número de eritrócitos de 1,870 a 4,590 x 106/µL de sangue, concentração de hemoglobina de 5,7 a 12,1g/dL, hematócrito de 24,0% a 40,0%, volume corpuscular médio de 98,0 a 174,0fL, concentração da hemoglobina corpuscular média de 19,1 a 34,2g/dL, glicose plasmática de 40,6 a 89,2mg/dL e cortisol plasmático de 4,73 a 110,5ng/dL. O número de trombócitos totais variou de 12160,0 a 89280,0/µL de sangue e leucócitos de 2019,0 a 47473,0/µl de sangue. Na contagem diferencial de leucócitos foram observados 54,1% de linfócitos; 10,9% de neutrófilos; 10,3% de monócitos; 9,9% de leucócitos granulares PAS-positivos (LG-PAS; 6,7% de eosinófilos; 0,3% de basófilos e 7,8% de leucócitos imaturos. Variações intraespecíficas foram observadas em todas as características estudadas, podendo ser consideradas como normais, no que tange aos peixes. Não se deve esperar, portanto, que as características biológicas em peixes apresentem- se distribuídas normalmenteHematological characteristics are important tools for diagnosis and prognostic features in fish population and they contribute to the comprehension of comparative physiology, phylogenetic relation, food habit and other ecological parameters. Red blood cell count (RBC, white blood cell count (WBC, thrombocytes counts, glucose, cortisol, hepatosomatic and splenosomatic relation were evaluated in Piaractus mesopotamicus. The values of hepatosomatic relation varied from 0.67% to 2.79% and splenosomatic relation from 0.011% to 0.108%. RBC 1.870 to 4.590 x 10,sup>6/µL, hemoglobin concentration 5.7 to 12.1g/dL, haematocrit 24.0% to 40,0%, mean corpuscular volume 98.0 to 174.0 fL, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration 19.1 to 34.2g/dL, glucose 40.6 to 89.2mg/dL and cortisol 4.73 to 110.5ng/dL. The number of total thrombocytes was 12,160.0 to 89,280.0/µL and WBC 2,019.0 to 47,473.0/µL. Differential count of leucocytes showed 54.1% limphocytes, 10.9% neutrophils, 10.3% monocytes, 9.9% PAS-positive granular leukocytes (PAS-GL, 6.7% eosinophils, 0.3% basophils and 7.8% immature leucocytes. Variation of these haematological characteristics in the same fish species was observed, being considered as the normal variation in the fish concerned. Hence it is incorrect to assume that biological characteristics in fishes are distributed normally

  3. Distribuição e alimentação de duas espécies simpátricas de piranhas Serrasalmus maculatus e Pygocentrus nattereri (Characidae, Serrasalminae do rio Ibicuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Distribution and feeding of two sympatric species of piranhas Serrasalmus maculatus and Pygocentrus nattereri (Characidae, Serrasalminae of the Ibicuí river, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton R. Behr

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Duas espécies de piranhas ocorrem no rio Ibicuí, um dos principais afluentes do rio Uruguai. Com o objetivo de analisar a distribuição e a alimentação destas espécies, foram realizadas coletas de dezembro de 1999 a janeiro de 2002, utilizando-se diferentes artes de pesca em três pontos do rio, sendo que cada ponto foi amostrado em dois ambientes (lêntico e lótico. Foram capturados 203 indivíduos de Serrasalmus maculatus Kner, 1858 e 86 de Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858, sendo que a maior captura de ambas as espécies ocorreu no ambiente lêntico e próximo ao rio Uruguai, onde P. nattereri parece estar mais concentrada. O número de exemplares capturados por horário não apresentou variações significativas em P. nattereri enquanto que S. maculatus apresentou a maior captura na revisão da meia-noite. Juvenis de S. maculatus (2-4 cm de comprimento padrão consumiram preferencialmente nadadeiras e insetos. Nas demais classes de tamanho de ambas as espécies, restos de peixes foi o alimento predominante, havendo sobreposição alimentar intra e interespecífica nas maiores classes (8-16 cm e >16 cm de comprimento padrão. Não foram constatadas diferenças no índice de repleção entre os horários e os ambientes para as duas espécies.Two species of piranhas occur in the Ibicuí River, one of the main tributaries of the Uruguay River in southern Brazil, Serrasalmus maculatus Kner, 1858 and Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858. In order to analyze the distribution and feeding habits of these species we conducted collecting expeditions from December 1999 to January 2002, using a variety of fishing gears in three sites along the river, both in lentic and lotic habitats. A total of 203 individuals of S. maculatus and 86 of P. nattereri were caught, mostly in lentic habitats and closer to the Uruguay River, were P. nattereri seems to be more concentrated. The number of individuals captured at different times did not show variation in P. nattereri while the number of S. maculatus captured at mid-night was the highest. Young S. maculatus (2-4 cm standard length fed mainly on fish fins and insects. Fish was the predominant item in remaining size classes for both species, with intra- and inter-specific overlap in larger classes (8-16 cm and >16 cm standard length. No differences in the repletion index between day time or habitats, were observed for the two species.

  4. Studies in Moraceae I. The genera Trymatococcus poepp. et endl. and Craterogyne lanj

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, J.

    1935-01-01

    The genus Trymatococcus has been published in 1838 by Poeppig and Endlicher in Nova Genera ac Spec. Plant II. p. 30, and the genus was based on the species T. amazonicus. In 1876 Baillon added the species T. africanus to the genus. This gave a peculiar distribution for a genus with two species only:

  5. RESEARCH ARTICLE Distinct classical and molecular cytogenetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-01-27

    Jan 27, 2017 ... Sedis in Characidae. In: Reis R, Kullander ESO and Ferraris Jr C (eds). Check List of the. Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Edipucrs, Porto Alegre, pp 106–169. Martins C and Galetti Jr PM (1999) Chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA genes in. Leporinus fish (Anostomidae, Characiformes).

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. VICTOR, REGINALD, Oman. Vol 6 (1997) - Articles Some aspects of the ecology of Characidae (Pisces) in river Ase, southern Nigeria Details. ISSN: 0795-0101.

  7. Fish communities along environmental gradients within the Comoé ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fish species and the absence of Mochokidae. The middle catchment was characterised by the presence of more Characidae, Clariidae and Cichlidae than in the other sectors. The main environmental factors influencing fish distribution were substrate types — comprising rocks, mud and leaves or wood — pH, total dissolved ...

  8. Promoting aquatic tourism potentials of Nigerian parks: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of the river was equally determined using standards methods (A.O.A.C, 2000). The result revealed 5 ornamental fish families and 10 species namely; Cichlidae, Bagridae, Characidae, Schilbeidae and Mormyridae. Mormyrus rume a member of Mormyridae is the dorminant ornamental fish ...

  9. Fish distribution in a small domestic water supply reservoir: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the composition and distribution of fish populations in the inshore, surface and bottom water habitats of Kangimi Reservoir showed that the most abundant family was the Cichlidae followed in order of abundance by the families Cyprinidae, Schilbeidae, Mormyridae, Mochokidae, Characidae, Centropomidae and ...

  10. Fish communities of Tagwai dam, Niger state, Nigeria. | Ojutiku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... families and species of Characidae, Cypirinidae, and Clariidae but the family Clupeidae was significantly (p<0.05) different from the rest families. The species Auchanoglanis biscitutus only occurred twice during the three month of sampling making it the least species available. Key words: Fish, communities, Tagwai, Dam ...

  11. Novas espécies de Lamiinae (Cerambycidae neotropicais e transferência de Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas do Brasil: Nesozineus amazonicus sp. nov. (Amazonas, Xenofrea diagonalis sp. nov. (Rondônia. Mauesia submetallica sp. nov. (Amazonas; da Bolívia: Psapharochrus nearnsi sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Adetus basalis, sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, La Paz, Palpicrassus inexpectatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Cyrtinus meridialis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz.. Do Panamá: Aerenea panamensis sp. nov. (Chiriqui. O gênero Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007, originalmente descrito em Pteropliini é transferido para Apomecynini.New species described from Brazil: Nesozineus amazonicus sp. nov. (Amazonas, Xenofrea diagonalis sp. nov. (Rondônia, Mauesia submetallica sp. nov. (Amazonas; from Bolivia: Psapharochrus nearnsi sp. nov. (Santa Cruz; Adetus basalis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, La Paz, Palpicrassus inexpectatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Cyrtinus meridialis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz., Aerenea panamensis sp. nov. from Panama (Chiriqui. The genus Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007, originally described in Pteropliini, is transferred to Apomecynini.

  12. Nuevos registros de nemátodes parásitos de animales de vida silvestre en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registran, por primera vez para el Perú, 4 especies de nemátodes: Dipetalonema graciliformis Freitas, 1964 parásito de Saguinus labiatus; Evaginuris branickii (McCiure, 1932 Quentín, 1973 de Dinomys branickii; Alaeuris caudatus (Lent & Freitas, 1948 de Iguana iguana y Serpinema amazonicus de Podocnemis expansa. También, se considera a Saguinus labiatus como un nuevo huésped para Dipetalonema graciliformis.

  13. Histología de branquias, hígado y riñón de juveniles del pez neotropical Colossoma macropomum (Characiformes, Characidae expuesto a tres temperaturas Histology of gill, liver and kidney in juvenile fish Colossoma macropomum exposed to three temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz-Marina Rojas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colossoma macropomum es uno de los peces tropicales de agua dulce con mayor éxito en el cultivo en aguas continentales tropicales. Se realizó una evaluación histológica de branquias, hígado y riñón de este pez expuesto a tres temperaturas (T18, T29 y T35ºC. Se utilizaron 18 ejemplares juveniles con índices biométricos de 17.87±7.88cm y 87.69±34.23g. Los análisis histológicos fueron hechos de acuerdo a técnicas previamente descritas. Se encontró que las branquias, el hígado y el riñón de los peces T29 presentaron citoarquitectura normal. Por el contrario, en las branquias de los peces T18, se observaron gotas lipídicas inmersas en el tejido branquial; los peces T35 presentaron desorganización en la estructura del tejido branquial y necrosis celular. El hígado de los peces T18, mostró hepatocitos claros y oscuros y el de T35, presentó células con granulaciones citoplasmáticas y daño en la membrana plasmática. En el riñón de los T18, se observaron alteraciones en la distribución del tejido hematopoyético. La característica más resaltante en el riñón de los peces T35, fue la desorganización del tejido glomerular. En conclusión, la temperatura de 18°C se puede considerar crítica para la cachama y la de 35ºC severa. De los tres órganos evaluados, el hígado y las branquias resultaron ser los más sensibles a los daños inducidos por las temperaturas en esta especie.Water temperature is an important factor that affects growth and antioxidant enzyme activities in fish, and when adverse, it may trigger diseases in fish populations. C. macropomum is a freshwater neotropical fish widely distributed in South America and abundant in river basins as the Amazon and Orinoco. It is highly used for intensive aquaculture development and is a very important product for the local riverside economy in Venezuela. The purpose of our study was to examine the water temperature effect on gills, liver and kidneys of juvenile fishes of C. macropomum. Eighteen juveniles with biometrical index of 17.87±7.88cm and 87.69±34.23g were respectively exposed to three culture temperatures (T18, T29 and T35ºC during a period of 21 days. Histological analyses on gills, liver and kidney were made according to standard methodologies. Our results showed that these tissues exhibited normal citoarchitecture at T29. On the contrary, T18-gills displayed brachiallipid droplets inside brachial epithelium; and disorganization in the brachial tissue was observed at T35. Furthermore, we observed two kinds of hepatocytes (dark and light on T18°C-liver. The T35-liver samples showed cytoplasmatic granulation and damages in cytoplasmatic membrane. Kidney samples from T18 observed alterations in the cellular distribution of the hematopoietic tissue; while, at T35, the most important feature observed was the disorganization of the glomerular structure. We concluded that T18 and T35 are respectively critical and severe temperatures to C. macropomum; besides, the most sensible tissues to changes induced by temperature in this species were the liver and gills.

  14. Variation in the diet of a small characin according to the riparian zone coverage in an Atlantic Forest stream, northeastern Brazil/Variação na dieta de um pequeno Characidae de acordo com a cobertura da mata ripária em um riacho da Mata Atlântica, nordeste do Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Márcia Emília de Jesus Trindade; Alexandre Peressin; Maurício Cetra; Ricardo Jucá-Chagas

    2013-01-01

      In this study, the authors present data from the diet of Astyanax vermilion which were used as a tool to compare two sites of streams with different vegetation cover in Ribeirao Limoeiro, Cachoeira River Basin, BA...

  15. Primer hallazgo de una Población Paleoendémica del pez Grundulus cf. bogotensis (Humboldt, 1821) en los Altos Andes del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Ramiro; Ternaus, Esteban

    2005-01-01

    Se documenta la presencia del pez de la familia Characidae en las lagunas El Voladero ubicadas en la región septentrional de los Andes del Ecuador. Este hallazgo, es importante desde el punto de vista biogeográfico y evolutivo ya que se registra a Grundulus cf bogotensis por primera vez en un lago ecuatoriano de alta montaña (3680 msnm), siendo la localidad típica el Valle de Bogotá-Colombia.

  16. Ecological Factors and Diversification among Neotropical Characiforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cástor Guisande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and DNA sequence data has been used to propose hypotheses of relationships within the Characiformes with minimal comparative discussion of causes underpinning the major intraordinal diversification patterns. We explore potential primary morphological factors controlling the early diversification process in some Neotropical characiforms as the first step to identifying factors contributing to the pronounced intraordinal morphological and species diversity. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA (mitochondrial and 18S rDNA (nuclear genes provided the framework for the identification of the main morphological differences among the Acestrorhynchidae, Anostomidae, Characidae, Ctenoluciidae, Curimatidae, Cynodontidae, Gasteropelecidae, Prochilodontidae and Serrasalmidae. Results indicate an initial split into two major groupings: (i species with long dorsal-fin bases relative to the size of other fins (Curimatidae, Prochilodontidae, Anostomidae, Serrasalmidae which primarily inhabit lakes, swamps, and rivers (lineage I; and (ii species with short dorsal-fin bases (Acestrorhynchidae, Gasteropelecidae, Characidae which primarily inhabit creeks and streams (lineage II. The second diversification stage in lineage I involved substantial morphological diversification associated with trophic niche differences among the monophyletic families which range from detritivores to large item predators. Nonmonophyly of the Characidae complicated within lineage II analyzes but yielded groupings based on differences in pectoral and anal fin sizes correlated with life style differences.

  17. Neolinoptes gen. n., a replacement name for the net-winged beetle genus Linoptes Gorham, 1884 and a new species of Lycomorphon from Guyana (Coleoptera: Lycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Elynton Alves DO; Bocakova, Milada

    2017-01-09

    Neolinoptes gen. n. is erected to replace Linoptes Gorham, 1884, preoccupied by Linoptes Menge, 1854 (Arachnida: Araneae). Consequently, Neolinoptes imbrex (Gorham, 1884) comb. n., N. amazonicus (Pic, 1923) comb. n., N. atronotatus (Pic, 1922) comb. n., N. atripennis (Pic, 1932) comb. n. are proposed. Calocladon rubidum Gorham, 1884 is transferred to Neolinoptes. Lycomorphon iwokrama sp. n. is proposed as new to science and the genus is recorded from Guyana for the first time. Additionally, Falsocaenia irregularis var. germaini Pic, 1931 is elevated to species rank and past confusion on F. irregularis discussed. New data on geographical distribution of Falsocaenia paranana (Pic, 1922) are presented.

  18. MIRÍDEOS NEOTROPICAIS, XL: DESCRIÇÕES DE NOVAS ESPÉCIES DA AMAZÔNIA (HEMIPTERA).

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, José C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Resumo Descreve seis novas espécies de Miridae. Hemiptera, da Amazônia, Brasil, como: Orthotylis manauensis n. sp., Manaus, Paraproba amazonica n. sp., Manaus; Phytocoris manauensis n. sp., Manaus; Taedia rondonia n. sp.; Taedia Manauensis n. sp., Manaus e Tytthus amazonicus n. sp., Manaus. Estão incluídas as ilustrações dos hábitos e órgãos masculinos. SUMMARY The author describes six new species of Miridae, Hemiptera, from the Amazonia, Brasil, as follows: Orthotylus manauensis n. sp., M...

  19. Variação espaço-temporal na distribuição e abundância de Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Characiformes: Characidae em lagoas da planície de inundação do rio Cuiabá, Pantanal, Brasil=Spatial-temporal variation of the distribution and abundance of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae at lagoons of the Cuiaba river floodplain, Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Penha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identificar os fatores bióticos e abióticos que determinam a variação na distribuição e abundância das populações, tornou-se nos últimos anos um grande desafio para os ecologistas. Assim neste estudo foram avaliados o efeito das variáveis abióticas e a abundância de predadores sobre a abundância de Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae, a variação no comprimento médio dos indivíduos entre lagoas e períodos e o efeito das variáveis abióticas e da abundância de predadores sobre a estrutura em comprimento. Foram amostradas 16 lagoas da planície de inundação do rio Cuiabá, no período de junho (vazante, setembro (seca e dezembro (enchente de 2005 e março (cheia de 2006. Para M. sanctaefilomenae, a distribuição é mais ampla e a abundância é maior no final da vazante, início da seca, reduzindo-se gradualmente ao longo dos períodos de seca, enchente e cheia. Adicionalmente, o período afeta a estrutura em tamanho das populações, que são espacialmente homogêneas. Indivíduos menores foram capturados no final do período de vazante e os maiores ao início da enchente. Durante o final da vazante/início da seca, a variação espacial na abundância da população foi relacionada positivamente com o pH, o oxigênio dissolvido e cobertura de macrófitas e área da lagoa, mas, não com a abundância local de predadores na zona litorânea das lagoas.Identifying the biotic and abiotic factors that determine the variation in the distribution and abundance of populations has become a great challenge for the field of ecology in recent years. Thus, in this study we evaluated the effect of abiotic variables and the abundance of predators on the abundance of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae, the variation in the average length of the individuals between lakes and periods, and the effect of the abiotic variables and abundance of predators on the structure in length of that species. Sixteen lakes of the Cuiabá river flood plain were sampled in June (drying period, September (dry period and December (flooding period 2005 and March (flood period 2006. For M. sanctaefilomenae, the distribution is ampler and the abundance is greater at the end of the drying period, beginning of dry season, reducing gradually over the periods of dry, drying and flood season. Additionally, the period affects the structure in size of the populations that are spatially homogeneous. Smaller individuals were captured at the end of the drying period and the larger individuals at the start of flooding. During the end of the drying period and in the beginning of the dry season, the spatial variation in the abundance of the population was positively related with pH, dissolved oxygen and macrophyte cover and area of the lake, but not with the local abundance of predators in the littoral zone of the lakes.

  20. Comparação da dieta de duas espécies de Triportheus (Characidae, Triportheinae, em trechos do reservatório de Manso e lagoas do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2023 Diet Comparison of two species of Triportheus in Manso Reservoir and lagoons of Cuiabá River, Mato Grosso do Sul - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Beal Galina

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo conhecer aspectos da alimentação de duas espécies de Triportheus, no reservatório de Manso e lagoas do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente (março/00 a fevereiro/01 e os conteúdos estomacais analisados pelos métodos de Ocorrência (O% e Volumétrico (V%. Os dados foram sintetizados graficamente no Índice de Costello. T. nematurus explorou insetos terrestres (Hymenoptera e Coleoptera e insetos aquáticos (larvas de Diptera no reservatório, durante todo o período de estudos. Nas lagoas, a dieta foi baseada principalmente em algas e insetos terrestres no período de cheia, sendo mais diversificada na seca. No reservatório, T. paranensis consumiu preferencialmente invertebrados aquáticos (Cladocera e Copepoda enquanto que, nas lagoas, explorou insetos terrestres no período de seca e insetos aquáticos na cheia. A sobreposição alimentar (Índice de Schoener intra e interespecífica apresentou valores baixos (The aim of this paper is to determine the diet of two species of Triportheus (T. paranensis e T. nematurus, in Manso Reservoir and lagoons of Cuiabá River, MT. Samples were monthly taken from March 2000 to February 2001. Stomach contents were analyzed by the occurrence and volumetric methods, and data were graphically grouped by Costello Index. The diet of T. nematurus was composed of terrestrial (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera and aquatic insects (larvae of Diptera in the reservoir. In lagoons it consumed algae and terrestrial insects during the flood period, and the diet was more diversified during the dry season. In the reservoir, T. paranensis consumed specially aquatic invertebrates, while in lagoons its diet was composed of terrestrial insects in dry season and aquatic insects in flood period. Schoener Index presented low values (< 0,6, showing partial segregation in both species diet

  1. Characteristics of the male reproductive system and spermatozoa of Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, P.; Dolder, H., E-mail: heidi@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IB/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia, Biologia Celular e Fisiologia; Salles, F.F. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Dept. de Ciencias da Saude, Biologicas e Agrarias

    2011-01-15

    This study describes morphological changes in the male reproductive system of Miroculis amazonicus (Savage and Peters) from mature nymphs to subimago stages. The sperm ultrastructure of Massartela brieni (Lestage), Farrodes carioca (Dominguez et al) and Miroculis mourei (Savage and Peters), as well as aspects of cell fragments observed in these species' subimagos deferent ducts were described. Sperm from the three species studied are aflagellated and immotile, while those from F. carioca and Ma. brieni are approximately spherical with a homogenous nucleus and acrosome. Sperm of F. carioca present two or three mitochondria located between the nucleus and the acrosome. In Ma. brieni, only one lateral mitochondria was found. Sperm from Mi. mourei are shaped as a number 'eight', with electron lucent spots inside the nucleus and two mitochondria above the acrosome. Large cell fragments containing degenerative vesicles and some sperm were observed in the deferent duct lumen of the three species. Tests of Mi. amazonicus are extremely reduced in the subimago stage, which suggests that these cell fragments originated from testes degeneration. (author)

  2. Contribución al conocimiento de los Machiloidea de Colombia (Archaeognatha: Insecta Contribución al conocimiento de los Machiloidea de Colombia (Archaeognatha: Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturm Helmut

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen cuatro nuevas especies y una subespecie de Meinertellidae recolectadas en Colombia y en un bosque pluvial cerca de Manaos, Brasil. Son las siguientes: Meinertellus adisi, M. bogotensis santaemartae, Neomachilellus aboucbaari, N. amazonicus y N. rangeli. Se discute la posición sistemática de los ejemplares recolectados cerca de Bogotá, en el valle del río Magdalena y en la Cordillera Oriental cerca de Neiva. Se da una clave para los géneros suramericanos de la familia.Four new species and one new subspecies of Meinertellidae occurring respectively in Colombia and in the rain forest near Manaus, Brazil, are described:  Meinertellus adisi, M. bogotensis santaemartae , Neomachilellus abouchaari, N. amazonicus and N. rangeli. The systematical position of specimens collected near Bogota, in the Magdalena Valley and in the Eastern Andes near Neiva is discussed. A key for the South American genera of the family is given.

  3. Diversidad genética de piracanjuba usada en programas de repoblación con marcadores microsatélites Genetic diversity of piracanjuba used in stock enhancement programs with microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Rodriguez-Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la diversidad genética de un lote de Brycon orbignyanus usado en programas de repoblación, a través de marcadores microsatélites. Se analizaron muestras de 44 reproductores, de 70 larvas y de 69 alevinos, con la amplificación de cinco loci descritos para Brycon opalinus. El número de alelos, la heterozigosidad observada (Ho y esperada (He, el índice de Shannon (IS, la diversidad genética de Nei (DGN, el coeficiente de endogamia (Fis, la distancia (DG e identidad genética (IG, el número efectivo de alelos, el test del equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (EHW y el desequilibrio de ligación fueron calculados. Reproductores y progenie tuvieron un número similar de alelos en los loci evaluados. La Ho media, IS, DGN, DG e IG mostraron que existe menor distancia genética entre parentales y larvas y una disminución de variabilidad genética en los alevinos. Fueron observados desvíos en EHW y desequilibrio de ligación en seis pares de loci. El Fis mostró exceso de heterocigotos en parentales y larvas y déficit de heterocigotos en los alevinos. El lote de reproductores está en proceso de pérdida de alelos y hubo disminución de la variabilidad genética entre la fase de larva y alevino.The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic diversity of a Brycon orbignyanus lot used in stock enhancement programs, using microsatellite markers. Samples of 44 broodstocks, 70 larvae and 69 fingerlings, were analyzed with amplification of five loci described for Brycon opalinus. The number of alleles, the observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosity, Shannon index (IS, Nei's genetic diversity (DGN, the inbreeding coefficient (Fis, distance (DG and genetic identity (IG, the effective number of alleles, the test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (EHW and the linkage disequilibrium were calculated. Broodstocks and offspring had a similar number of alleles at the tested loci. Ho average, IS, DGN, DG and IG showed

  4. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e histoquímica do aparelho digestório do Prochilodus lineatus. Análise da diversidade da microbiota intestinal de Prochilodus lineatus e Pterygoplichthys anisitsi

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Lilian Cristina [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo descrever o aparelho digestório sob os pontos de vista estrutural, ultraestrutural e histoquímico de uma espécie de peixe de água doce: o curimba (Prochilodus lineatus) (Characidae, Prochilodontidae). Adicionalmente foi realizado um estudo da diversidade da microbiota intestinal do Prochilodus lineatus e do cascudo cinza (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi). Para os estudos morfológicos de anatomia, histologia, histoquímica e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura...

  5. Two new species of Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae from South America Dos especies nuevas de Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae de América del Sur

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    Stephen S. Curran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de

  6. Fish, Marmelos Conservation Area (BX044, Madeira River basin, states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil.

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    Camargo, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a species list of fish from the Marmelos River Area – BX044 in the states ofAmazonas and Rondônia in northern Brazil. During a Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA performed in October andNovember of 2003, 133 fish species from six orders and 24 families were recorded. The most diverse families wereCharacidae (47 species, Cichlidae (15 species, Loricariidae (12 species and Pimelodidae (7 species. 23 fish specieswere common to the entire river basin and 4 were endemic to the aquatic system studied.

  7. Fishes from the Itapecuru River basin, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil

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    MC Barros

    Full Text Available The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22% of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American.

  8. Caracterización cromosómica de dos especies icticas nativas; guapucha, (Grundulus bogotensis y capitan, (Eremophilus mutisii, de la sabana de Bogotá

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    Julio A. Gonzalez

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Grundulus bogotensis Humboldt 1821 (Guapucha and Eremophilus mutisii Humboldt 1805 (Capitán, from the Neusa reservoir (Cundinamarca-Colombia, were characterized on the basia cariology. The Guapucha, Grundulus bogotensis (Pisces: characidae, exhibited a basic number oC2n= 50 chromosomes. There is not chromosomic sexual dimorfísm. The Capitán, Eremophilus mutisii (Piscee: Tricomycteridae, on the other hand, has a basic chromosomes number of 2n = 54; and similarly does not show sexual dimorfism at the level chromosomes.

  9. Spatial and temporal distribution of fish larvae in marginal lagoons of Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Karina Keyla Tondato

    Full Text Available An analysis was made of the spatial and temporal distribution of the abundance and composition of fish larvae assemblies, aiming to ascertain correlations with biotic and abiotic factors in marginal lagoons of the Cuiabá River floodplain in Brazil's Pantanal wetlands. Samples were collected bimonthly in the pelagic region of the marginal lagoons (fourteen lagoons close to the littoral zone covered by aquatic macrophytes from December 2006 to April 2007. The captured individuals consisted of 2,739 larvae, represented predominantly by Triportheus spp. (Characidae, Parodontidae, Anostomidae, Characidae and Serrasalmidae. Larval density varied among the sample lagoons in December, but the biotic (zooplankton density and abiotic (water temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, water transparency and lagoon depth factors did not significantly affect larval composition and abundance. Larvae were captured throughout the sample period, with the highest densities occurring in December and early January. Temporally, lagoon depth, water transparency and fluviometric level showed a negative correlation with larval density. Both the zooplankton and the larval density vary positively, responding likewise to the environmental conditions imposed by flooding. The highest larval density was also found to coincide with the first rains (early December, when the rainfall has not yet reached its peak.

  10. Nuclear DNA content determination in Characiformes fish (Teleostei, Ostariophysi from the Neotropical region

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    Carvalho Margarida Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, nuclear DNA content was analyzed in 53 species of Characiformes fish from the Neotropical region. Diploid number ranged from 2n = 48 in Astyanax fasciatus, Gymnocorymbus ternetzi and Hyphessobrycon griemi to 2n = 102 in Potamorhina squamoralevis, with a modal number of 54 chromosomes. Nuclear DNA content ranged from 1.70 ± 0.04 pg of DNA per diploid nucleus in Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro to 3.94 ± 0.09 pg in Tetragonopterus chalceus. A general analysis showed a mean value of 2.9 pg of DNA per diploid nucleus. Very similar DNA content values were observed in the species of the family Cynodontidae which showed a variation of 3% between the two genera studied. Small variations were observed between populations of Gymnocorymbus ternetzi, Astyanax fasciatus and Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Characidae, Tetragonopterinae. The subfamilies Tetragonopterinae and Acestrorhynchinae (Characidae presented the widest range, about 96%. Even in those families in which diploid number and karyotypic formulae were conserved such as the families Anostomidae, Curimatidae, and Prochilodontidae, episodes leading to losses or gains of genetic material became fixed in their evolutionary history.

  11. Monogenoidea en Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766 de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana

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    Leslie Córdova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la diversidad de parásitos monogenoideos como un carácter indepen- diente, esperando que por su alta especifi cidad, éstos parásitos puedan caracterizar las poblaciones de sus hospederos, la piraña blanca, Serrasalmus rhombeus . El estudio se llevó acabo en cuatro sub-cuencas de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana (Iténez, Beni, Madre de Dios e Ichilo; se obtuvie- ron 1135 parásitos, los cuales fueron agrupados en seis géneros y once especies: Anacanthorus jegui, A. amazonicus , A. rondonensis, A. gravihamulatus, A. sciponophallus, Anacanthorus sp.1 , Anacanthorus sp.2 , Anacanthorus sp.3 ; Notothecium deleastum, N. deleastoideum, Notozothecium teinodendrum; Mymarothecium galeolum; Anphithecium diclonophallum y Enallothecium aegidatum. La elevada diversidad de parásitos encontrada puede deberse a que existe o existió un complejo de especies o poblaciones diferenciadas de Serrasalmus rhombeus.

  12. Comparative study of sperm ultrastructure of five species of teiid lizards (Teiidae, Squamata), and Cercosaura ocellata (Gymnophthalmidae, Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, G R; Teixeira, R D; Scheltinga, D M; Mesquita, D O; Wiederhecker, H C; Báo, S N

    2007-02-01

    Sperm ultrastructure of five teiid lizards (Callopistes flavipunctatus, Crocodilurus amazonicus, Dicrodon guttulatum, Dracaena guianensis, and Teius oculatus), and the gymnophthalmid Cercosaura ocellata is described for the first time. Comparisons of sperm ultrastructure among these species and with those of previously examined teiids and gymnophthalmids revealed that the two groups of Teiioidea (Gymnophthalmidae and Teiidae), and the two subfamilies of Teiidae (Teiinae and Tupinambinae) could be distinguished on the basis of sperm ultrastructure data. Significant differences in sperm dimensions between Cnemidophorus and Aspidoscelis support the recent splitting of these two lineages into different genera. Our results revealed high levels of inter-generic variability in sperm ultrastructure within Teiidae, which produces a data set useful in analyzing relationships between genera and families. In phylogenetic analyses, however, sampling multiple species within teiid genera is essential and recording sperm measurements may profitably complement qualitative ultrastructural characters, maximizing the information content of these structures.

  13. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  14. First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala) in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Almeida, Edilene Santos; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro; Eiras, Jorge Costa; Martins, Mauricio Laterça

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae), in the "Mato Grosso" Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae) (Steindachner, 1882), collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season) and June 2007 (dry season) and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season), 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region.

  15. Physical factors and their influence on fish species composition in Asa Lake, Ilorin, Nigeria

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    P.A Araoye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of physical factors on fish species composition was studied during 12 months in Asa Lake, Nigeria. Fish and water samples were collected bimonthly (March 2003 to February 2004 in the morning. Fish samples were caught with gill nets set at the surface and bottom habitats. There were 11 fish families and 21 species. Osteoglossidae, Anabantidae, Channidae, Schilbedae and Cyprinidae were rare and occurred seasonally in fishermen catches, while Mormyridae, Cichlidae, Mochokidae, Characidae, Bagridae and Clariidae showed less variation and were more common. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most abundant (23.0 and 18.6% respectively while Osteoglossidae, Channidae and Anabantidae were the least (1.7, 2.1 and 2.3% respectively. Clariidae and Mormyridae had the highest weight with 16.0% and 12.3% respectively, while Anabantidae had the lowest (3.4%. Surface water temperatures were generally higher than air temperatures during the afternoon, except from January to March when air temperatures were high (28.1 to 28.7 ºC due to low relative humidity (39 to 70%. In the morning, surface water temperatures (25.5 to 26.3 ºC became higher than air temperatures (25.2 to 26.0 ºC from May to December, when relative humidity values were also high (50 to 88%. The differences between surface and bottom water temperatures was generally higher (0.7 to 3.1 ºC; P Estudié la composición de especies de peces y las temperaturas durante 12 meses en el lago Asa, Nigeria. Recolecté muestras de peces y de agua bimestralmente en la mañana, de marzo 2003 a febrero 2004. Los peces (11 familias y 21 especies fueron capturados con atarrayas en la superficie y el fondo. Osteoglossidae, Anabantidae, Channidae, Schilbedae y Cyprinidae fueron raras y aparecieron estacionalmente en las capturas de pescadores, mientras que Mormyridae, Cichlidae, Mochokidae, Characidae, Bagridae y Clariidae mostraron menos variación y fueron más comunes. Las familias Characidae y

  16. Plasticity in the diet of Astyanax taeniatus in a coastal stream from south-east Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, L R; Rezende, C F; Mazzoni, R

    2012-11-01

    In this work we aimed to characterise the diet of Astyanax taeniatus (Jenyns 1842) (Characiformes, Characidae) along the Mato Grosso stream and we hypothesised that the diet of this species would vary according to spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic differences. Specimens were collected every second month at three sites with different physical attributes. The feeding habits of 651 specimens were analysed using the Alimentary Index (IA(i)). Analysis of the diet showed an effect of spatial, temporal and ontogenetic factors. Vegetal allochthonous items were more important in the diet of Astyanax taeniatus in upstream sites while animal autochthonous items were more important downstream. Ontogenetic differences in the diet were significant only in upstream sites, where adults consumed a greater amount of vegetal matter than juveniles. These results reinforce the idea that Astyanax species are opportunistic and show trophic plasticity.

  17. How does diet influence the reproductive seasonality of tropical freshwater fish?: A case study of a characin in a tropical mountain river

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    Tania M. Ballesteros

    Full Text Available Seasonal breeding of tropical freshwater fish may be synchronized with periods of high food consumption. We explored this hypothesis by studying the relationship between diet and reproductive activity of Creagrutus guanes (Teleostei, Characidae. Our results showed that C. guanes had a generalist and omnivorous diet dominated by aquatic insects (mainly Diptera larvae and seeds. Creagrutus guanes did not show intersexual or ontogenetic variation in diet. Peaks of feeding activity during rainy months were not synchronized with breeding in dry months. Our results do not support the hypothesis that the reproductive season has to be synchronized with high food consumption. We discussed the hypothesis fat reserves may be an important factor for the desynchronization of peaks of feeding and reproduction as explanation of seasonal breeding of this species.

  18. Eco-morphological attributes and feeding habits in coexisting characins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, T; Lobón-Cerviá, J; Manna, L R; Bergallo, H G; Mazzoni, R

    2017-01-01

    The head morphology and feeding habits of pairs of characin species (family Characidae) that coexist in four different coastal rainforest streams were analysed. Coexisting species differed in size, but were very similar in eco-morphological attributes. Gut analyses revealed differences in feeding preferences for each coexisting species, indicating resource partitioning. A pattern of organization in species pairs that was repeated in the four studied streams was noticed. The pattern consisted of one slightly larger species with a feeding preference for items of allochthonous origin and another smaller species with a preference for autochthonous items. The hypothesis that small morphological differences enable the current coexistence of those species pairs was proposed. Furthermore, the results show ecological equivalence among different species in the studied streams. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques Primeira ocorrência de Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala no peixe ornamental Hyphessobrycon eques

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    Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae, in the “Mato Grosso” Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae (Steindachner, 1882, collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season and June 2007 (dry season and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season, 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region.O objetivo desse trabalho foi registrar a primeira ocorrência sazonal do acantocefala Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae no peixe “Mato Grosso”, Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characidae, capturados no Rio Chumucuí, região Bragantina, Pará, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados no período de julho∕2006 a junho∕2007 e examinados com técnica padrão para detecção de parasitas. Um total de 75 parasitas foram encontrados no estômago e intestino. Dos 83 peixes capturados (50 na estação seca e 33 na chuvosa, 22 estavam parasitados por cistacantos de Quadrigyrus nickoli. No presente trabalho discute-se a importância do H. eques como hospedeiro paratênico para Quadrigyrus nickoli. Os presentes dados constituem o primeiro estudo sobre a biologia e a infecção de Q. nickoli na Amazônia oriental.

  20. Revisão dos gêneros Sitalces, Eusitalces e Parasitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini e descrição de três novos gêneros

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    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Revisão dos gêneros Sitalces, Eusitalces e Parasitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini e descrição de três novos gêneros. Os gêneros sulamericanos de Abracrini Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris gen. nov., Robustusacris gen. nov., e Arimacris gen. nov. são revisados, descritos, redescritos e redefinidos. Quatro espécies são novas combinações: Liebermannacris dorsualis (Giglio-Tos, 1898 comb. nov., Liebermannacris punctifrons (Stål,1878 comb. nov., Robustusacris balzapambae (Rehn, 1913 comb. nov., e Arimacris trinitatis (Bruner, 1906 comb. nov., todas removidas de Sitalces Stål, 1878. Nove espécies são novos sinônimos: Sitalces robustus Bruner, 1908 (de S. volxemi Stål, 1878; S. infuscatus Bruner, 1908, S. nudus Bruner, 1908, S. ovatipennis Bruner, 1908, S. madeirensis Rehn, 1916 (de Liebermannacris dorsualis (Giglio-Tos, 1898; S. rubripes Hebard, 1924 (de Robustusacris balzapambae (Rehn, 1913; E. amazonicus Günther, 1940 e S. apolinari Hebard, 1923 (de Eusitalces vittatus Bruner, 1911; E. rubripes Günther, 1940 (de P. vulneratus (Bruner,1919. Lectótipos e paralectótipos são designados. São fornecidas chaves para identificação, medidas, mapa de distribuição geográfica e ilustrações dos gêneros e espécies.Revision of the genera Sitalces, Eusitalces and Parasitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini and description of three new genera. The South American Abracrini genera Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris gen. nov., Robustusacris gen. nov., and Arimacris gen. nov. are reviewed, described, redescribed and redefined. Four species are new combinations: Liebermannacris dorsualis (Giglio-Tos, 1898 comb. nov., Liebermannacris punctifrons (Stål,1878 comb. nov., Arimacris trinitatis (Bruner, 1906 comb. nov., and Robustusacris balzapambae (Rehn, 1913 comb. nov., all removed of Sitalces Stål, 1878. Nine species

  1. Parasitas de populações naturais e artificiais de tucunaré (Cichla spp. Parasites of natural and artificial populations of Cichla spp.

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    Cleusa Suzana Oliveira de Araujo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os ciclídeos, peixes economicamente importantes na região, foram coletados no médio rio Negro (Cichla orinocensis, C. monoculus e C. temensis e na iIlha da Marchantaria (C. monoculus, no Amazonas e em três açudes do Piauí (C. kelberi. Para verificar a ocorrência de parasitas as brânquias, narinas e intestino foram removidos e observados em microscópio esteroscópio, a boca a olho nu. Os parasitas encontrados foram retirados e armazenados em álcool 70% para posterior identificação. Dos 96 espécimes analisados provenientes do rio Negro 51 (52% estavam parasitadas; dos 34 da ilha da Marchantaria 16 (47% e dos 50 dos açudes do Piauí, apenas dois (4%. Nos peixes coletados no Amazonas, as brânquias estavam parasitadas por Ergailus coatiarus, Argulus amazonicus, Acusicola tucunarense e a boca por Braga cichlae, enquanto que os peixes do Piauí não apresentaram parasitas branquiais, mas registrou-se a ocorrência do nematóide Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, parasita intestinal.The cichlids, economically important fish specie in the region, were collected along the Negro River (Cichla orinocensis, C. monoculus e C. temensis and in the Marchantaria Island (C. monoculus Amazon State and in three reservoirs localized in the Piauí State. In order to verify the occurrence of parasites, gills, nostrils and the intestine were removed and observed by stereomicroscope and the mouth by naked eyes. The observed parasites were isolated and conserved in 70% ethanol for posterior identification. From 96 specimens collected in Negro River, 51 specimens (52% were parasitized. In the Marchantaria Island from 34 specimens collected, 16 (47% showed the presence of parasites, and from 50 specimens collected in the reservoirs only 2 (4% were parasitized. In fishes collected in the Amazon State, the grill was parasitized by Ergailus coatiarus, Argulus amazonicus, Acusicola tucunarense and the mouth by Braga cichlae, whereas the species collected

  2. The search for new antimalarial drugs from plants used to treat fever and malaria or plants ramdomly selected: a review

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    Krettli Antoniana U

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the ongoing situation of human malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, where it is endemic causing over 610,000 new acute cases yearly, a number which is on the increase. This is partly a result of drug resistant parasites and new antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. The approaches we have used in the search of new drugs during decades are now reviewed and include ethnopharmocology, plants randomly selected, extracts or isolated substances from plants shown to be active against the blood stage parasites in our previous studies. Emphasis is given on the medicinal plant Bidens pilosa, proven to be active against the parasite blood stages in tests using freshly prepared plant extracts. The anti-sporozoite activity of one plant used in the Brazilian endemic area to prevent malaria is also described, the so called "Indian beer" (Ampelozizyphus amazonicus, Rhamnaceae. Freshly prepared extracts from the roots of this plant were totally inactive against blood stage parasites, but active against sporozoites of Plasmodium gallinaceum or the primary exoerythrocytic stages reducing tissue parasitism in inoculated chickens. This result will be of practical importance if confirmed in mammalian malaria. Problems and perspectives in the search for antimalarial drugs are discussed as well as the toxicological and clinical trials to validate some of the active plants for public health use in Brazil.

  3. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

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    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  4. Contribution to the knowledge of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Brazil: seven new species and description of females and immatures of some previously known species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Galileu P S; Hamada, Neusa; Mendes, Humberto F

    2016-05-30

    Twenty two species of Stenochironomus Kieffer are known from Brazil, 19 of which occur in the Amazon region. In order to increase knowledge of the taxonomy of this genus in the Amazon region, collections were carried out in streams located in Presidente Figueiredo, Manaus and Itacoatiara municipalities, Amazonas State. Leaves and wood mined by Stenochironomus larvae were collected and transported to the laboratory where they were kept until adult emergence. Seven new species were found, one of which is described in the immature stages and as adults of both sexes (S. amazonicus sp. n.), one as immatures and adult male (S. liviae sp. n.), four as male and pupa (S. bare sp. n., S. figueiredoensis sp. n., S. gracilis sp. nov. and S. manauara sp. n.) and one only as male (S. suzanae sp. n.). Additionally, the female, pupa and larva of S. impendens Borkent, pupa and larva of S. jubatus Borkent, female and pupa of S. zonarius Borkent and female of S. palliaculeatus Borkent were described.

  5. Fish fauna of small streams of the Catua-Ipixuna Extractive Reserve, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Py-Daniel, L. H. R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in an Amazonas state conservation unit, the Catuá-Ipixuna Extractive Reserve (Catuá-IpixunaRESEX. The main purpose was to provide an ichthyological survey of its small streams, all them tributaries of theSolimões River. Nine small streams (up to 4 m width and 1 m depth were sampled in September 2006. A total of 1,525specimens were captured, belonging to 78 species, 24 families and eight orders. Eight species had higher abundancesand represented altogether 61.4 % of all collected specimens (Hemigrammus belotii, Microphilypnus amazonicus,Physopyxis ananas, Apistogramma agassizii, Elachocharax pulcher, Apistogramma cf. cruzi, Gladioglanisconquistador and Copella nigrofasciata. Based on the high number of singletons and doubletons present in oursamples, as well as the estimated number of species for those streams (106 spp., we believe that the total fish speciesrichness present in the Catuá-Ipixuna Extractive Reserve may be considerably higher than indicated by our samples.This seems especially true when considering the dimensions of the Catuá-Ipixuna RESEX and the dense hydrographicnetwork present in the area.

  6. Attraction of Chagas disease vectors (Triatominae to artificial light sources in the canopy of primary Amazon rainforest

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    Marcelo CM Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult triatomines occasionally fly into artificially lit premises in Amazonia. This can result in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to humans either by direct contact or via foodstuff contamination, but the frequency of such behaviour has not been quantified. To address this issue, a light-trap was set 45 m above ground in primary rainforest near Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil and operated monthly for three consecutive nights over the course of one year (432 trap-hours. The most commonly caught reduviids were triatomines, including 38 Panstrongylus geniculatus, nine Panstrongylus lignarius, three Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus, five Rhodnius robustus, two Rhodnius pictipes, one Rhodnius amazonicus and 17 Eratyrus mucronatus. Males were collected more frequently than females. The only month without any catches was May. Attraction of most of the known local T. cruzi vectors to artificial light sources is common and year-round in the Amazon rainforest, implying that they may often invade premises built near forest edges and thus become involved in disease transmission. Consequently, effective Chagas disease prevention in Amazonia will require integrating entomological surveillance with the currently used epidemiological surveillance.

  7. Gastrointestinal parasites of taricaya, Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudines: Podocnemididae from Iquitos, Peru

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    Nofre Sánchez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Many Amazonian animals are a valuable food source, for the rural and urban people of the Peruvian forest. Their meat is called carne de monte, and is the third source of protein food in the region. Podocnemis unifilis (Yellow-spotted Amazon River turtle or taricaya is utilized for both its meat and eggs. The efforts for restocking this reptile through breeding in semicaptivity and captivity, has allowed increasing the population, and now they are abundant. However, the breeding process had not taken into account the sanitary aspect, and this information is barely known in Peru. With the objective of identifying the parasitic fauna of the taricaya, the digestive tracts of 12 females (2 adults, 10 young captured in the Pacaya Samiria National Reserve where examined. Different grades of parasitic infection were found in all turtles investigated. The parasites identified were the nematodes Serpinema amazonicus (100% and Ancyracanthus pinnatifidus Diesing, 1934 (83%, and the trematode Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1939, Travassos, 1934 (100%. Ancyracanthus pinnatifidus is a new record from Peru.

  8. Differential degradation of antbird songs in a Neotropical rainforest: Adaptation to perch height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Winkler, Hans; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2001-12-01

    Habitat characteristics that affect transmission and degradation of acoustical signals should influence strongly the evolution of bird songs. In this study propagation properties of songs of five antbird species were measured in a rainforest in southern Venezuela. The investigated species (Myrmothera campanisona, Thamnophilus aethiops, Thamnophilus amazonicus, Myrmotherula axillaris, and Herpsilochmus dorsimaculatus) use different song post heights at all levels of the rainforest. Because there is a height-specific pattern in degradation, it is hypothesized that their songs are adapted to species-specific transmission paths. To test this assumption, transmission parameters (excess attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio, and blur ratio) were measured for the songs at five different heights and at three different distances. In three of the five species, the results indicate a strong influence of environmental conditions on the design of the vocalizations. Degradation was minimized by the concentration of the signal to a narrower frequency range, the usage of lower frequencies, or a slower time structure for the songs near the ground. The results are discussed in relation to acoustical models of sound propagation and physiology, and it is suggested that height-dependent degradation within a forest is an important selection pressure for transmissibility in avian communication.

  9. Short-term cold storage of sperm from six neotropical characiformes fishes

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    Simone Marques

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sperm of the following Neotropical Characiformes fish species were tested for cold storage: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus and Prochilodus marggravii. Each sperm sample was split into two aliquots. The first was placed into a plastic bag with air or oxygen and the second, in a plastic tube with air. The samples were maintained at temperatures between 1.7-4.9 ºC. The rate of sperm motility was estimated using a 50 mM NaCl solution as the activating solution. The shortest sperm storage duration (7 h was recorded for L. friderici, when the sperm motility rate reached ~ 30%, whereas the longest duration (20 h was obtained with the sperm of P. lineatus. A fertilisation test using Prochilodus marggravii sperm refrigerated for 8 h yielded 88-90% of viable embryos. The refrigerated storage method could be of practical applications, especially in fish reproductive management at hatchery stations.O sêmen das seguintes espécies de Characiformes neotropicais foi testado para armazenamento em ambiente resfriado: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus e Prochilodus marggravii. Amostras de sêmen, obtidas por massagem da parede celômica, foram armazenadas em saco plástico com ar ou oxigênio ou em tubo plástico com ar, e mantidas resfriadas entre 1,7-4,9º C. A taxa de motilidade espermática foi estimada usando-se NaCl 50 mM como solução ativadora. O sêmen com menor duração de viabilidade (7 h foi o de L. friderici, quando a taxa de motilidade espermática alcançou ~30%, enquanto que o de maior duração (20 h foi o de P. lineatus. A fertilização de ovócitos utilizando sêmen refrigerado por 8 h de Prochilodus marggravii produziu 88-90% de embriões viáveis. O método de armazenamento desenvolvido neste trabalho tem aplicações práticas, especialmente no manejo reprodutivo de peixes em estações de

  10. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA DIET OF THE NEOTROPICAL OTTER Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae IN THE ROBLE RIVER, UPPER CAUCA BASIN, COLOMBIA

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    Rosemary Mayor-Victoria

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja , alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble. En el laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia. Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae , presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp. (9,55% y Ancistrus sp. (8,54%; otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae , especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.The diet of Neotropical otters was studied at Roble river, a tributary of La Vieja river, Upper Cauca basin, Colombia . From August 2006 to March 2007 otter scats were collected twice per month using plastic bags, from the lower stretch of the Roble river. In the laboratory, the scats were washed, sieved and items were identified by comparing them with a reference collection. Fourteen food categories were recognized. Ranked by frequency of occurrence, benthic sucker-mouthed catfish were the favored food items, especially Chaetostoma sp (22,6 % followed by Hypostomus sp. (9,55% and Ancistrus sp. (8,54%. Other species of fish eaten by the otters are: Apteronotus sp. (11,6 %, Brycon henni (9,86 %, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15 %; (Family Loricariidae., followed by insects Corydalus sp (9% (Family Corydalidae. The lowest frequency observed was for

  11. Caracterización y dinámica de la población de peces ornamentales en dos épocas del año en el Caño Matecaña, Arauca, Colombia

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    Lugo Rugeles Luz Myrian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se llevó acabo en el caño Matecaña ubicado geográficamente en 7°03,16N-70°44,06OE, en el departamento de Arauca, Colombia. El caño fue muestreado durante dos períodos, el primero en los meses de febrero, marzo, abril y mayo, el segundo en los meses de agosto y septiembre cubriendo así el régimen climático anual de lluvia y sequía de la región. En los muestreos realizados se emplearon dos artes de pesca, atarraya y aro, con un esfuerzo de captura de dos horas día durante dos días, los ejemplares fueron colectados
    en formol al 10% dejándolos fijar durante 15 días, luego fueron preservados en alcohol al 70%; los individuos fueron clasificados, contados y medidos para su posterior  almacenamiento en la colección del laboratorio de ictiología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Orinoquía. Se capturaron un total de 5.292 ejemplares, distribuidos en cinco órdenes, 17 familias con 46 géneros, representados por 60 especies; las familias con mayor riqueza de especies fueron Characidae con 21 especies y Loricariidae con un total de 13, mientras que Callichtyidae, Characididae, Gasteropelecidae, Gymnotidae, Lebiasinidae, Parodontinidae, Poecilidae,
    Sternarchidae, Trichomycteridae tuvieron la menor riqueza con solo una especie. La familia más abundante fue Characidae con un 74,33% de los ejemplares colectados, seguido por Loricariidae con 7,63% y la menos abundante fue Callichtyidae con 0,02%. Existe un cambio muy marcado en la población entre el mes de abril y mayo, ya que en abril se capturaron un total de 648 individuos, mientras que en mayo fueron 1.728,
    probablemente por el cambio en el tamaño del cuerpo de agua que frecuentan las especies.

  12. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in a pool system in Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil=Dieta de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae em um sistema de poções na Floresta Atlântica do Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil

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    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the feeding habits of Lontra longicaudis in a pool system within the Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN Usina Maurício, located in Paraíba do Sul river basin, Atlantic Forest of southeastern Minas Gerais State. The diet composition was determined based on the identification of items present in 212 scats sampled between July 2008 and October 2009 in a 4.1 km stretch of the pool system. The found items and its respective percentages of occurrence were: mollusks (0.5%, insects (16.5%, spiders (1.4%, crustaceans (3.3%, fish (96.7%, amphibians (0.9%, snakes (3.8%, birds (2.8%, mammals (8.5% and fruits (0.5%. Among fish, the identified families and respective percentages of occurrence were: Loricariidae (65.4%, Pimelodidae (42.9% Cichlidae (22%, Characidae (7.3%, Erythrinidae (3.9%, Synbranchidae (2.4%, Anostomidae (2%. Therefore fish make up the most consumed item in the study area, with the predominance of benthic siluriformes (families Loricariidae and Pimelodidae. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os hábitos alimentares de Lontra longicaudis em um sistema de poções na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural – RPPN Usina Maurício, localizada na bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul, Mata Atlântica do Sudeste do Estado de Minas Gerais. A composição da dieta foi determinada com base na identificação de itens presentes em 212 amostras de fezes coletadas entre julho de 2008 e outubro de 2009 em um trecho de 4,1 km de um sistema de poções. Os itens alimentares encontrados e suas respectivas porcentagens de ocorrência foram: moluscos (0,5%, insetos (16,5%, aranhas (1,4%, crustáceos (3,3%, peixes (96,7%, anfíbios (0,9%, serpentes (3,8%, aves (2,8%, mamíferos (8,5%, frutos (0,5%. Dentre os peixes, famílias identificadas e suas respectivas porcentagens de ocorrência foram: Loricariidae (65,4%, Pimelodidae (42,9% Cichlidae (22%, Characidae (7,3%, Erythrinidae (3,9%, Synbranchidae (2

  13. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleisson S. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the analysis of spraints (n = 294 collected between December 2005 and November 2007. The importance of each type of prey was determined by absolute and relative frequency. Niche breadth was also estimated. The results were reported as mean (± SD of relative frequencies. Fish were the main prey found in spraints (57.8 ± 7.0%. Fish from Callichthyidae family were the main prey, followed by Cichlidae, the species Hoplias malabaricus and the family Characidae. The frequencies of other fish and taxa were lower than 13.9% (absolute frequency and 5.6% (relative frequency. Despite significant seasonal variations, (P = 0.001, niche breadth values were low in all seasons (0.39 ± 0.11. Therefore, Lontra longicaudis presented a narrow niche breadth as a result of consistent fish predation. Based on these data, fish with rapid movement presenting territorial behavior and benthic fish with slow movements are the most consumed. Seasonal fluctuations are caused by the increase of secondary prey in the diet during some seasons.O presente estudo foi baseado na análise das fezes (n = 294, coletadas entre dezembro de 2005 e novembro de 2007. A importância de cada tipo de presa foi determinada pela frequência absoluta e relativa. A amplitude de nicho também foi estimada. Os resultados foram reportados como média (± DP da frequência relativa. Peixes foram a principal presa encontrada nas fezes (57,8 ± 7,0%. Peixes da família Callichthyidae foram a principal presa, seguido por Cichlidae, e espécies Hoplias malabaricus e Characidae. A frequência de outros peixes e a taxa foram menores do que 13,9% (frequência absoluta e 5,6% (frequência relativa. Apesar das variações sasonais significativas, (P = 0,001 os valores de amplitude de nicho foram baixos em todas as estações baixos (0,39 ± 0,11. Portanto, Lontra longicaudis apresentou uma amplitude de nicho estreita, como resultado de uma predação consistente em peixes

  14. Suplementação de lisina e metionina em dietas com baixo nível protéico para o crescimento inicial do pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg Lysine and methionine supplementation in diets with low protein level for the initial growth of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg

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    Adriana Patrícia Muñoz-Ramírez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da suplementação de metionina ou lisina em dietas com baixo teor protéico para o crescimento do pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg (Characiformes, Characidae. Foram formuladas uma dieta basal com 22% de proteína bruta (PB, 4100kcal de energia bruta (EB/kg, 0,42% de metionina e 1,16% de lisina e outras 6 dietas, com a mesma formulação básica, suplementadas com 0,2, 0,4 ou 0,6% de metionina ou lisina. Uma 8ª dieta (controle continha 26% PB, 4100kcal EB/kg, 0,48% metionina e 1,43% de lisina. As dietas foram administradas à vontade a 144 alevinos com 14,98 ± 1,16g de peso médio inicial. As médias de ganho em peso, eficiência de retenção de energia bruta e dos consumos alimentares da dieta controle mostraram-se maiores (P The objective of this research was to study the effects of methionine or lysine supplementation in diets with low protein level for growth of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg (Characiformes, Characidae. Diets were formulated as a basal diet presenting 22% crude protein (CP, 4100 kcal gross energy (GE/kg, 0.42% of methionine and 1.16% of lysine and other six diets, with the same basic formulation, supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% methionine or lysine. An eighth diet (control contained 26% CP, 4100 kcal (GE/kg, 0.48% methionine and 1.43% of lysine. The diets were administered ad libitum to 144 fingerlings with initial medium weight of 14.98 ± 1.16 g. Averages weight gain, gross energy efficiency retention and feed intake for the control treatment were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those of smaller protein level diets. Averages protein retention efficiency were only higher (P < 0.01 in the diets supplemented with lysine, showing the advantages of lysine supplementation in diets with low crude protein level. A higher growth of pacu was confirmed with diets containing 26% of CP.

  15. Diâmetro do ingrediente e a digestibilidade aparente de rações por duas espécies de peixes tropicais Ingredient diameter and apparent digestibility of diet by two tropical fish species

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    Margarida Maria Barros

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado no Laboratório de Pesquisas em Nutrição de Organismos Aquáticos, da FMVZ - Unesp Campus de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, unidade integrada ao Centro de Aquicultura da Unesp. Teve por objetivo avaliar a influência do diâmetro do ingrediente alimentar (0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5 mm, por meio da digestibilidade aparente de rações pela tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes cichlidae, e pelo pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg Characiformes, Characidae, com peso médio de 100,0 gramas. Foram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Estes tratamentos foram avaliados por meio de análise de variância em um esquema fatorial 2 x 5 (duas espécies de peixes e cinco diâmetros. Os resultados demonstram que existe interação significativa entre o diâmetro da partícula alimentar e a espécie, e que o diâmetro mais adequado da partícula para a confecção de rações apresenta-se entre 1,0 mm e 2,0 mm para o pacu e, de 1,5 mm para a tilápia do Nilo.This research was carried out at the Aquatic Organisms Nutrition Research Laboratory, FMVZ - Unesp - Campus of Botucatu, a unit of Aquaculture Center of Unesp (Universidade Estadual de São Paulo - Brazil. The objective was to evaluate the ingredient diameter influence (0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 mm, using the apparent digestibility of diets by Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes cichlidae and pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg Characiformes, Characidae. The coefficients were determined according to dry matter, crude protein and ether extract. These treatments were analyzed by variance analysis in the factorial design 2 x 5 (two fish species and five diameters. The result showed that there is significant interaction between ingredient diamater and species and that, the most appropriate ingredient diameter to manufacture fish diets is between 1.0 and 2.0 mm to pacu

  16. Cross-amplification of heterologous microsatellite markers in Rhamdia quelen and Leporinus elongatus

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    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Native fish species in Brazil are an asset in fish farming, but their natural stocks have been significantly reduced in recent years. To mitigate this negative impact, studies on fish conservation are being conducted and genetic tools for the discrimination of population parameters are increasingly achieving great importance. Current analysis evaluates a set of microsatellite heterologous primers in the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and in the piapara (Leporinus elongatus. Samples from the caudal fin of 15 broodstock from each species were analyzed. DNA extraction was performed with NaCl protocol and the integrity of the extracted DNA was checked with agarose gel 1%. Twenty primers developed for Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum, Prochilodus lineatus, Brycon opalinus and Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated. Cross amplification of four primers of the B. opalinus and P. lineatus species (BoM12, Pli43 and Pli60 in R. quelen and BoM2, Pli43 and Pli60 in L. elongatus was assessed. Primers of P. mesopotamicus, C. macropomum and O. niloticus showed no cross amplification in the two species analyzed. Results revealed the possibility of using the four amplified heterologous primers in genetic studies for R. quelen and L. elongatus.

  17. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA.

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    ROSEMARY MAYOR-VICTORIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja, alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron recolectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble. En el laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia. Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimentarias, dentro de las cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae, presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp. (9,55% y Ancistrus sp. (8,54%; otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9%; Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae, especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontraron diferencias significativas, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0,00001.

  18. How to catch a falling fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2015-03-01

    A variety of fish engage in complex hunting behaviors involving catching airborne prey falling to the surface of the water. In principle this requires that the fish develop internal models describing both the falling prey and its own motion relative to that prey. However learning such models is complicated by the fact that the fish must also account for noise in optical measurements and the refraction occurring at the air/water interface. Inspired by experimental observations, we describe how one such species (Brycon guatemalensis) might feasibly overcome these obstacles and learn a model accurate enough to catch falling fruit. Instead of learning a model for how the fruit falls and a model for how it moves in the water and a model accounting for refraction, we argue that the fish could instead learn one approximate linear model relating a set of measured inputs to a set of measured outputs valid in a limited domain of initial conditions. The fish could then make its control decisions based on the outcome predicted by this combined linear model. We also discuss how the fish can leverage neural transformations of raw data to learn a model with a larger domain of validity and yet more sensitive to noise due to nontrivial Jacobians arising from the neural transformations.

  19. Seminal characteristics of piabanha before and after induction with different hormones

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    Raycon Roberto Freitas Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The migratory species piabanha does not reproduce in lentic environments since it requires environmental stimuli for the maturation and extrusion of gametes, and therefore hormonal induction is mandatory. Current study compares the seminal characteristics of Brycon insignis without any hormonal induction (Control - Ctrl and with two types of hormonal inductors, or rather, carp pituitary extract (T1 - 2.5 mg kg-1 body weight and GnRH analogues, the latter applied in two different concentrations (T2 - 0.7 mg kg-1 body weight and T3 - 1.4 mg kg-1 body weight. Post-induction analyses showed that the hormones increased the motility rate - Ctrl (95%, T1 (100%, T2 (100% and T3 (98%, although sperm concentration - Ctrl (11.52 x 109; T1 (4.37 x 109; T2 (4.34 x 109; T3 (4.01 x 109 decreased. Assessments for sperm vigor, motility time and spermatic morphology did not vary with hormonal induction. Hormonal inducer does not alter negatively the seminal characteristics of the piabanha, and the choice for the proper hormone depends on the preference of the dispenser.

  20. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA

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    Rosemary Mayor-Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja, alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble, en laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia.Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae, presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp.  (9,55% y  Ancistrus sp.  (8,54%;  otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni  (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae, especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.

  1. Morphometrics and allometry of the larvae of five Characiformes species in the Paraíba do Sul River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Guilherme; Caramaschi, Erica P; Monteiro, Leandro R

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the morphology and allometry of larvae belonging to five potamodromous species. Five breeding species belonging to the order Characiformes [Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816), Leporinus steindachneri, Eigenmann, 1907, Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837), Prochilodus vimboides (Kner,1859) and Brycon insignis, Steindachner, 1877] were used to obtain larvae samples during the pre-flexing, post-flexing, and juvenile developmental stages. When we observed the degree-hour (DH) amplitude time values, we found three developmental groups based on allometry and morphometrics within the period between the pre-flexing and post-flexing phases. Group 1 consists of the species S. brasiliensis and B. insignis, Group 2 consists of P. lineatus and P. vimboides, and Group 3 consists of L. steindachneri. Group 1 requires less development time and has more slender larvae. Group 2 has a moderate development time and larvae with a more rounded shape. Group 3 presents a greater development time and an intermediate larval morphology. It was possible to classify the larvae through cross-validated discriminant analyses based on seven morphometric variables with 90% accuracy in B. insignis, 83% in L. steindachneri, 91% in P. lineatus, 80% in P. vimboides, and 96% in S. brasiliensis. These results indicate larval characteristics that can be used for the taxonomic identification of the icthyoplankton.

  2. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

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    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  3. Checklist comparison and dominance patterns of the fish fauna at Taim Wetland, South Brazil

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    Alexandre M. Garcia

    Full Text Available Taim Hydrological System is a unique subtropical wetland in southern Brazil harboring an exceptional biological diversity. In 1978, an ecological reserve was established to protect part of this area from increasing anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Fishes have been poorly investigated in this system. Based on a multi-gear sampling study encompassing several years (2001-2005, and on comparisons with previous fish inventories, we provide an up-to-date species list of fishes occurring in the Taim Wetland. In addition, we made the first preliminary description of fish dominance patterns found in the main lakes of the system (Flores, Nicola, Jacaré and Mangueira. Checklist comparison resulted in 62 fish species distributed in 24 families, with Characidae (19 species and Cichlidae (7 showing the highest species richness. Six species are cited for the first time in the reserve: Trachelyopterus lucenai (Auchenipteridae, Hoplosternum littorale (Callichthyidae, Rineloricaria cadeae (Loricariidae, Eigenmannia trilineata (Sternopygidae, Odontesthes mirinensis and O. perugiae (Atherinopsidae. Apparently, the black catfish T. lucenai invaded the system in the last decade and became one of the dominant species in the pelagic waters. Although differences in gears hindered direct comparisons, differences in species composition and dominance patterns between shallow margins and pelagic waters of lakes seem to occur in the lakes. A more diverse assemblage dominated by small fishes ( 15 cm seemed to dominate in pelagic waters.

  4. Composición de especies y diversidad de peces en tres cuerpos de agua en la cuenca alta del río Itaya

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    Javier del Águila Chávez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe sobre la diversidad en tres cuerpos de agua de la cuenca alta del río Itaya, concesión de conservación de la universidad científica del Perú, en una evaluación rápida en los meses de junio y julio del 2012. Se colectaron datos y muestras de peces en Lamas cocha (LC, cocha Anguilla (CA y Tipishca Luz de Oriente (TLO. Los peces fueron colectados utilizando una batería de redes de diferentes medidas 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 y 4 pulgadas de de abertura de malla. Se reportan 17 familias taxonómicas, de las cuales 9 familias pertenecen al orden Characiformes (53%, 3 familias pertenecen al orden de los Siluriformes (17%, 2 familias pertenecen al orden de los Gymnotiformes (12% y al orden Perciformes (12% y una familia pertenece al orden Beloniformes (6%. La predominancia de las familias taxonómicas en los tres ambientes fueron Characidae, Curimatidae, Acestrorhynchidae (Characiformes y Cichlidae (Perciformes. Sin embargo, la ocurrencia de exclusividad de una determinada familia fue observada en los tres cuerpos de aguas; tenemos de esta forma la familia Hemiodontidae solo tienen ocurrencia en Lamas cocha, la ocurrencia de la familia Prochilodontidae (Characiformes y Callichthyidae (Siluriformes en Cocha Anguillal y finalmente la ocurrencia de las familias Pimelodidae (Siluriformes, Sciaenidae (Perciformes y Belonidae (Beloniformes en la Tipishca Luz de Oriente.

  5. Discovering Hidden Diversity of Characins (Teleostei: Characiformes) in Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Camacho, Daniel; Barriga, Ramiro; Ron, Santiago R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management and conservation of biodiversity requires adequate species inventories. The Yasuní National Park is one of the most diverse regions on Earth and recent studies of terrestrial vertebrates, based on genetic evidence, have shown high levels of cryptic and undescribed diversity. Few genetic studies have been carried out in freshwater fishes from western Amazonia. Thus, in contrast with terrestrial vertebrates, their content of cryptic diversity remains unknown. In this study, we carried out genetic and morphological analyses on characin fishes at Yasuní National Park, in eastern Ecuador. Our goal was to identify cryptic diversity among one of the most speciose fish families in the Amazon region. This is the first time that genetic evidence has been used to assess the species content of the Napo Basin, one of the richest regions in vertebrate diversity. Results Phylogenetic analyses of partial mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (∼600 pb) DNA sequences from 232 specimens of the family Characidae and its closest groups revealed eight candidate new species among 33 species sampled, representing a 24% increase in species number. Analyses of external morphology allowed us to confirm the species status of six of the candidate species. Conclusions Our results show high levels of cryptic diversity in Amazonian characins. If this group is representative of other Amazonian fish, our results would imply that the species richness of the Amazonian ichthyofauna is highly underestimated. Molecular methods are a necessary tool to obtain more realistic inventories of Neotropical freshwater fishes. PMID:26275041

  6. The ichthyofauna of limnic systems in Quaternary deposits of extreme southern Brazil

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    Cindy Marques

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, is geologically represented by the coastal plain and was originated by successive events of Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgressions and the occurrence of alluvial deposits. This paper aimed to characterize the fish assemblage occurring in a swampy Quaternary area adjacent to Lagoa Pequena, a lacustrine system connected to the west margin of the Laguna dos Patos estuary. A checklist is also provided of the ichthyofauna so far recorded in limnic systems of Quaternary deposits in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 42 species was recorded, distributed in nine orders, 18 families and 31 genera. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most representative families, comprising 15 and 4 species respectively. A bibliographic revision associated to our sample data revealed the occurrence of 156 species in limnic systems inserted in RS Quaternary deposits (114 limnic, 15 marine/estuarine/limnic, ten marine/estuarine, nine estuarine/limnic and eight marine. Characiformes and Siluriformes are the most diverse orders, corroborating the Neotropical pattern. Seven species can be considered endemic to RS Quaternary deposits.

  7. Probing diversity in freshwater fishes from Mexico and Guatemala with DNA barcodes.

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    Valdez-Moreno, M; Ivanova, N V; Elías-Gutiérrez, M; Contreras-Balderas, S; Hebert, P D N

    2009-02-01

    The freshwater fish fauna of Mexico and Guatemala is exceptionally diverse with >600 species, many endemic. In this study, patterns of sequence divergence were analysed in representatives of this fauna using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcodes for 61 species in 36 genera. The average divergence among conspecific individuals was 0.45%, while congeneric taxa showed 5.1% divergence. Three species of Poblana, each occupying a different crater lake in the arid regions of Central Mexico, have had a controversial taxonomic history but are usually regarded as endemics to a single lake. They possess identical COI barcodes, suggesting a very recent history of isolation. Representatives of the Cichlidae, a complex and poorly understood family, were well discriminated by barcodes. Many species of Characidae seem to be young, with low divergence values (Mexico, but it includes two deeply divergent barcode lineages, one a possible new endemic species. Aside from these special cases, the results confirm that DNA barcodes will be highly effective in discriminating freshwater fishes from Central America and that a comprehensive analysis will provide new important insights for understanding diversity of this fauna.

  8. Highlighting Astyanax Species Diversity through DNA Barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos Alexandre Miranda; de Melo, Filipe Augusto Gonçalves; Bertaco, Vinicius de Araújo; de Astarloa, Juan M. Díaz; Rosso, Juan J.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been used extensively to solve taxonomic questions and identify new species. Neotropical fishes are found in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, with a large number of species yet to be described, many of which are very difficult to identify. Characidae is the most species-rich family of the Characiformes, and many of its genera are affected by taxonomic uncertainties, including the widely-distributed, species-rich genus Astyanax. In this study, we present an extensive analysis of Astyanax covering almost its entire area of occurrence, based on DNA barcoding. The use of different approaches (ABGD, GMYC and BIN) to the clustering of the sequences revealed ample consistency in the results obtained by the initial cutoff value of 2% divergence for putative species in the Neighbor-Joining analysis using the Kimura-2-parameter model. The results indicate the existence of five Astyanax lineages. Some groups, such as that composed by the trans-Andean forms, are mostly composed of well-defined species, and in others a number of nominal species are clustered together, hampering the delimitation of species, which in many cases proved impossible. The results confirm the extreme complexity of the systematics of the genus Astyanax and show that DNA barcoding can be an useful tool to address these complexes questions. PMID:27992537

  9. Lesser known aquarium fish tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, J C; Slatick, M S

    2001-06-01

    The repeated use of particular species for experimental oncology in fish increases their future value by accumulating background information for these models and justifies the establishment of genetic stock centers. However, the wide diversity that exists within the class Osteichthyes and Chondrichthyes suggests that the ideal surrogate models for studying some types of neoplasms might be found among lesser known species. To help assess cultured fish as surrogates for some other types of human neoplasia, we examined cases in the archives of the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals and reviewed reports in the literature. Spontaneous and induced neoplasms originating from a spectrum of cell types were seen in more than 215 fish species commonly raised in aquaria or cultured for study among 69 families. Prominent families include the Poeciliidae (livebearers), Cyprinidae (carps and minnows), Cichlidae (cichlids), Cyprinodontidae (killifish), Characidae (tetras), Adrianichthyidae (medakas), Aplocheilidae (rivulins), and Salmonidae (salmon and trout). The following are examples of potential fish tumor models that have received less consideration than some others: papilloma and carcinoma of the urinary bladder in oscar (Astronotus ocellatus); osteogenic neoplasms, peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and ependymoblastoma in coho salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus kisutch); and nephroblastoma resembling Wilms' tumor in Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica).

  10. Fish assemblages in a small temperate estuary on the Argentinian coast: spatial variation, environmental influence and relevance as nursery area

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    Agustín Solari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe effects of different environmental variables on the fish community structure were evaluated in a small temperate estuary. The biological and environmental data were collected bimonthly between 2007 and 2009 along the main estuarine axis. Multivariate analyses were applied (CLUSTER, SIMPER, CCA to determine the spatial structure of fish community and to estimate the environmental influence on it. A total of 48 species of "teleost" fishes were observed, with the families Characidae and Sciaenidae presenting the largest number of species, 90% of the catches being juveniles. The fish community was overwhelmingly dominated by one species (Micropogonias furnieri, 88.9%, and only four species contributed more than 1% of total catch (Odontesthes argentinensis5.4%, Brevoortia aurea 1.1%, Paralonchurus brasiliensis 1.1%, and Mugil platanus 1.0%. Estuarine and freshwater stragglers dominated in number of species, followed by freshwater migrants and marine migrants. Three areas with different fish assemblages, with distinctive species and functional guilds, were defined along the main axis. The occurrence and spatial spread of these areas were linked to spatial variation in salinity, which was consistently influenced by discharge from the Río de la Plata and local precipitation. The results highlight the importance of shallow environments as nursery areas and permit emphasis on their susceptibility to environmental changes.

  11. Parasitic fauna of eight species of ornamental freshwater fish species from the middle Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon Region.

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    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Lemos, Jefferson Raphael Gonzaga; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven specimens of cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosy tetra Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae), 28 marbled hatchetfish Carnegiella strigata, 26 blackwing hatchetfish Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae), 27 bodó Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae), 31 brown pencilfish Nannostomus eques, 38 oneline pencilfish Nannostomus unifasciatus (Lebiasinidae) and 13 angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Cichlidae) were collected from the middle Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, for parasitological studies. Out of the total of 223 fish examined, 143 (64.1%) were parasitized by at least one parasite species. The highest prevalence rate was for Monogenea (36.7%), followed by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) (20.6%), Trichodina spp. (Ciliophora) (4.0%), Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida) (1.3%), Tetrahymena sp. (Ciliophora) (0.89%), and Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda) (0.4%). All eight fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in the gills, but the highest prevalence occurred in P. scalare and the lowest in P. axelrodi and C. strigata. However, the highest mean intensity of Monogenea was found in P. scalare and A. hoplogenys. The protozoan I. multifiliis occurred in the six ornamental fish species examined, but C. strigata and C. martae had higher prevalence and mean intensity. Trichodina spp. were found only in the gills of C. strigata, C. martae and N. eques, and with higher mean intensity in C. strigata. On the other hand, the protozoan P. pilullare was found only in the gills of C. martae. This is the first report of Tetrahymena sp. in Brazil, and it occurred in the gills of C. strigata.

  12. Riffle and pool fish communities in a large stream of southeastern Brazil

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    Francisco Langeani

    Full Text Available The structure of the fish communities of a pool and a rapid in the ribeirão Santa Bárbara is described. This stream of 5th order is a direct tributary of the rio Tietê in the system of the upper rio Paraná. Thirty three species, from nine families and three orders, were referred in the two mesohabitats: the pool with 31 species, and the rapid with 18. Orders Characiformes, Siluriformes, and Perciformes presented the greatest number of species in the two mesohabitats. The families Characidae and Loricariidae were the most specious, followed by Cichlidae in the pool, and by Parodontidae in the rapid. Most species were accidental, 17 in the pool, and 10 in the rapid, and only six were constant in the two mesohabitats. The greatest diversity and evenness occurred in the pool. The seasonal variation for both assemblages was high, with the pool having a high turnover of species that could be due to the proximity with main channel of the rio Tietê.

  13. Dendropaemon Perty, 1830: taxonomy, systematics and phylogeny of the morphologically most derived phanaeine genus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génier, François; Arnaud, Patrick

    2016-04-08

    The taxonomy and systematics of the Neotropical genus Dendropaemon Perty is revised. The current study recognize 41 species organized into 12 subgenera. The establishment of the subgenera is reflecting the presented phylogenetic analysis. Six subgenera are established from previously available genus group names: Coprophanaeoides Edmonds, 1972; Dendropaemon Perty, 1830; Enicotarsus Laporte, 1831; Eurypodea Klages, 1906; Onthoecus Lacordaire, 1856; Paradendropaemon Edmonds, 1972 and Tetramereia Klages, 1907. Six additional subgenera are described as new: Glaphyropaemon n. subg.; Nigropaemon n. subg.; Rutilopaemon n. subg.; Streblopaemon n. subg.; Sulcopaemon n. subg. and Titthopaemon n. subg. The following 18 species are described as new: Dendropaemon (Coprophanaeoides) bluti n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Coprophanaeoides) carinifer n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Coprophanaeoides) compressipennis n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Coprophanaeoides) cribrosus n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Coprophanaeoides) furtadoi n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Coprophanaeoides) inflatus n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Coprophanaeoides) pilosissimus n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Dendropaemon) aenigmaticus n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Dendropaemon) amazonicus n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Dendropaemon) angustulus n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Dendropaemon) flechtmanni n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Dendropaemon) larseni n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Glaphyropaemon) inemarginatus n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Nigropaemon) nigritulus n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Onthoecus) lydiae n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Onthoecus) morettoi n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Paradendropaemon) vazdemelloi n. sp.; Dendropaemon (Sulcopaemon) latistriatus n. sp.. The following nomen novum: Dendropaemon (Onthoecus) attalus nom. nov. is created to replace the primary junior homonym Dendropaemon amyntas Harold, 1868. Except for Dendropaemon montei Pessôa & Lane, 1936, type material of all the species have been examined and lectotypes designated for the following two species: Dendropaemon fasces Blut, 1939 and Dendropaemon lobatus Waterhouse

  14. Antimalarial plants used by indigenous people of the Upper Rio Negro in Amazonas, Brazil.

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    Kffuri, Carolina Weber; Lopes, Moisés Ahkʉtó; Ming, Lin Chau; Odonne, Guillaume; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira

    2016-02-03

    This is the first intercultural report of antimalarial plants in this region. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used against malaria by indigenous people in the Upper Rio Negro region and to review the literature on antimalarial activity and traditional use of the cited species. Participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and ethnobotanical walks were conducted with 89 informants in five indigenous communities between April 2010 and November 2013 to obtain information on the use of medicinal plants against malaria. We reviewed academic databases for papers published in scientific journals up to January 2014 in order to find works on ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany, and antimalarial activity of the species cited. Forty-six plant species belonging to 24 families are mentioned. Fabaceae (17.4%), Arecaceae (13.0%) and Euphorbiaceae (6.5%) account together for 36.9% of these species. Only seven plant species showed a relatively high consensus. Among the plant parts, barks (34.0%) and roots (28.0%) were the most widely used. Of the 46 species cited, 18 (39.1%) have already been studied for their antimalarial properties according to the literature, and 26 species (56.5%) have no laboratory essays on antimalarial activity. Local traditional knowledge of the use of antimalarials is still widespread in indigenous communities of the Upper Rio Negro, where 46 plants species used against malaria were recorded. Our studies highlight promising new plants for future studies: Glycidendron amazonicum, Heteropsis tenuispadix, Monopteryx uaucu, Phenakospermum guianensis, Pouteria ucuqui, Sagotia brachysepala and notably Aspidosperma schultesii, Ampelozizyphus amazonicus, Euterpe catinga, E. precatoria, Physalis angulata, Cocos nucifera and Swartzia argentea with high-use consensus. Experimental validation of these remedies may help in developing new drugs for malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogenetics of the Idarnes incertus species-group (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae, Sycophaginae

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    Fernando H.A. Farache

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sycophaginae is a group of non-pollinating fig wasps considered closely related to the fig pollinators (Agaoninae, Tetrapusiinae, and Kradibiinae in the most recent phylogenetic analyses. They occur in all tropical regions and are associated with Ficus subgenera Urostigma and Sycomorus. There are six described genera of Sycophaginae, and two are native and confined to the Neotropics, namely Idarnes Walker, 1843 and Anidarnes Bouček, 1993. Genus Idarnes is divided into three morphologically distinct groups that were proven to be monophyletic by recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. In this paper we reviewed the Idarnes incertus species-group and provide detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for the species belonging to this group. Three previously described species were redescribed: I. brasiliensis (Mayr, 1906 comb. nov., I. hansoni Bouček, 1993, and I. incertus (Ashmead, 1900. Seventeen new species are described by Farache and Rasplus: I. amacayacuensis sp. n., I. amazonicus sp. n., I. americanae sp. n., I. badiovertex sp. n., I. brevis sp. n., I. brunneus sp. n., I. comptoni sp. n., I. cremersiae sp. n., I. dimorphicus sp. n., I. flavicrus sp. n., I. flaviventris sp. n., I. gibberosus sp. n., I. gordhi sp. n., I. maximus sp. n., I. nigriventris sp. n., I. pseudoflavus sp. n. and I. ramirezi sp. n. We provided keys for the identification of the species as well as for recognising the different species-groups of Idarnes and a closely related genus (Sycophaga Westwood, 1840. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships among 13 species of the I. incertus species-group were inferred using four molecular markers and discussed in the light of Ficus taxonomy and host specificity.

  16. Superfamilia Scarabaeoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera como elemento bioindicador de perturbación antropogénica en un parque nacional amazónico

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    Samuel Eduardo Otavo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes grupos de insectos se consideran importantes elementos bioindicadores de la calidad de los ecosistemas, los coleópteros son hoy en día uno de los grupos más reconocidos y utilizados para el monitoreo y establecimiento de áreas protegidas. Se evaluó el uso de la superfamilia Scarabaeoidea como bioindicador del grado de perturbación antropogénica de los bosques húmedos amazónicos. En tres niveles de perturbación (alta, media y baja se establecieron 12 transectos, utilizando tres trampas de interceptación, dos trampas de luz, tres trampas de caída, cuatro trampas de botella y captura manual. Se capturaron 593 individuos, 92 especies, 44 géneros y 7 familias. Las familias con el mayor número de individuos y especies fueron Scarabaeidae (n=232, 27 spp. y Dynastidae (n=161, 26 spp.. Las especies más abundantes fueron: Ateuchus sp., Cyclocephala verticalis, Ceratocanthus amazonicus y Chaetodus asuai. El número de especies e individuos fue mayor a medida que el gradiente de perturbación aumentó. Dynastidae presenta el mayor número de especies exclusivas mientras Scarabaeidae comparte la mayoría. Diez especies fueron registradas en los tres bosques, 26 en dos y 56 en solo uno. De las especies más abundantes C. asuai muestra una reducción significativa del número de individuos con el aumento de la perturbación, mientras se observa una relación inversa para C. verticalis. Se discute la utilización de la riqueza y la diversidad como indicadores de perturbación, mientras se ratifica la abundancia de ciertos táxones como una mejor variable a medir.

  17. The effect of structural enrichment in hatchery tanks on the morphology of two neotropical fish species

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    Sarah de Oliveira Saraiva

    Full Text Available Reared fish differ from wild fish in several aspects, including morphology, because they are adapted to captive conditions that are totally different from natural conditions. To minimize the influence of the hatchery environment on the morphology of fish, the use of environmental enrichment through the incorporation of natural designs in captivity, has been proposed. In the present study, we performed the physical structuring of fish farming tanks to verify the enrichment effect on the morphology of two species of neotropical fishes: Prochilodus lineatus and Brycon orbignyanus. Each species was subjected to four different treatments over two months: tanks with submersed logs, with artificial aquatic plants, with both structures and without any structure. Results showed that the structural enrichment had a strong effect on the morphology of the cultured fish, which varied with each species analyzed and with the type of structural complexity added to the tanks. There was an increase of morphological variability in the population of P. lineatus and an increase of the average length in the population of B. orbignyanus. This shows that the environmental enrichment is capable to induce morphological differentiation through phenotypic plasticity, probably generating phenotypes more adapted to exploiting a complex environment. Peixes cultivados diferem de peixes selvagens em vários aspectos, incluindo morfologia, pois são adaptados às condições de cativeiro, que são totalmente diferentes das condições naturais. Para minimizar a influência do meio de cultivo sobre a morfologia dos peixes, o enriquecimento ambiental, através da incorporação de 'designs' naturais em cativeiro, tem sido proposto. No presente estudo, foi realizada a estruturação física de tanques de piscicultura para verificar o efeito deste tipo de enriquecimento ambiental sobre a morfologia de duas espécies de peixes neotropicais: Prochilodus lineatus e Brycon orbignyanus

  18. Parasitic fauna of eight species of ornamental freshwater fish species from the middle Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon Region Fauna parasitária de oito espécies de peixes ornamentais de água doce do médio Rio Negro na Amazônia brasileira

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven specimens of cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosy tetra Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae, 28 marbled hatchetfish Carnegiella strigata, 26 blackwing hatchetfish Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae, 27 bodó Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae, 31 brown pencilfish Nannostomus eques, 38 oneline pencilfish Nannostomus unifasciatus (Lebiasinidae and 13 angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Cichlidae were collected from the middle Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, for parasitological studies. Out of the total of 223 fish examined, 143 (64.1% were parasitized by at least one parasite species. The highest prevalence rate was for Monogenea (36.7%, followed by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora (20.6%, Trichodina spp. (Ciliophora (4.0%, Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida (1.3%, Tetrahymena sp. (Ciliophora (0.89%, and Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda (0.4%. All eight fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae in the gills, but the highest prevalence occurred in P. scalare and the lowest in P. axelrodi and C. strigata. However, the highest mean intensity of Monogenea was found in P. scalare and A. hoplogenys. The protozoan I. multifiliis occurred in the six ornamental fish species examined, but C. strigata and C. martae had higher prevalence and mean intensity. Trichodina spp. were found only in the gills of C. strigata, C. martae and N. eques, and with higher mean intensity in C. strigata. On the other hand, the protozoan P. pilullare was found only in the gills of C. martae. This is the first report of Tetrahymena sp. in Brazil, and it occurred in the gills of C. strigata.Para estudos parasitológicos, 27 espécimes de cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosa-céu Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae, 28 peixes borboleta Carnegiella strigata e 26 Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae, 27 bodó ou cascudo Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae, 31 peixes-lápis Nannostomus eques e 38 Nannostomus unifasciatus

  19. Sondeo ecológico rápido de las comunidades de peces tropicales en un área de explotación minera en Costa Rica

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    Mario Espinoza Mendiola

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El impacto de las minerías de oro ha generado una gran preocupación por el deterioro de los hábitats acuáticos y la fragmentación de los sistemas naturales. Las perturbaciones antropogénicas sobre la estructura y heterogeneidad del sistema pueden influir en la estabilidad de las comunidades acuáticas. Sondeos ecológicos rápidos (1996, 2002, 2007 fueron empleados para determinar la estructura, composición y distribución de las comunidades de peces tropicales en varios ríos y quebradas del área de una minería de oro en el Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. Además, la composición de especies y abundancia relativa se relacionó con la estructura del hábitat. Se registró un total de 35 especies, de las cuales la sardina Astyanax aeneus (Characidae y la olomina Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae fueron las especies más abundantes (71%. La mayor riqueza de especies se observó en el Caño Crucitas (s = 19 y la quebrada Minas (s = 18. Se encontró una gran variación en la estructura y composición de las comunidades de peces, principalmente, en el río Infiernillo y Minas (λ = 0.0, F132, 66 = 2.24, p Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica. Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007 were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae were the most abundant fish (71%. The highest species

  20. Factors determining the structure of fish assemblages in an Amazonian river near to oil and gas exploration areas in the Amazon basin (Brazil: establishing the baseline for environmental evaluation

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    Igor David Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Determining the significance of biotic and abiotic factors in the structuring of fish assemblages in freshwater environments is an important question in ecology, particularly in view of environmental changes caused by man. In this paper we sought to identify the factors responsible for the composition and abundance of fish species collected with gill nets in six locations near ports in forest clearance areas opened up for oil and natural gas exploration (Petrobras Pedro Moura Base in the Urucu River, during drought and flood cycles. In all, 923 individuals from 23 families and 82 species were collected, totalling a biomass of 182,244 g. The most abundant species during the flood season were Bryconops alburnoides (Kner, 1858 and Dianema urostriatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912; in the drought season, the predominant species were Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 and Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766. The species with the greatest biomass during the flood season were Pellona castelnaeana (Valenciennes, 1847, S. rhombeus and Pellona flavipinis (Valenciennes, 1847. During the drought season, the predominant species was O. bicirrhosum. When both periods were analysed together, electrical conductivity, water transparency and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors. The species Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840, O. bicirrhosum, Chaetobranchus flavenscens Heckel, 1840, Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855 were strongly related to high values of conductivity, pH and water current velocity during the drought season, as well as Serrasalmus altispinis Merckx, Jégu & Santos, 2000, Triportheus albus Cope, 1872, Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 and Brycon melanopterus (Cope, 1872 that were associated with less depth and width in the drought season whereas P. castelnaeana, D. urostriatum, Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner, 1858 and Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were mainly associated with high transparency and

  1. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

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    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad libitum for 30 days, and then were sacrificed for collection of whole blood and tissues. RESULTS: The groups treated with enriched diets showed a significant reduction in body mass and lipogenesis in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and carcass when compared with the control group. However, lipogenesis in the liver showed an increase in Matrinxã group compared with the others groups. The levels of serum triglycerides in the treated groups with Amazonian fish were significantly lower than those of the control group. Moreover, total cholesterol concentration only decreased in the group Matrinxã. High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly in the Mapará and Tambaqui compared with control group and Matrinxã group. The insulin and leptin levels increased significantly in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin changed the lipid metabolism by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats fed with diets enriched with Mapará, Matrinxã, and Tambaqui.

  2. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA

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    Botero-Botero Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja, alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble, en laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia.Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae, presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp.  (9,55% y  Ancistrus sp.  (8,54%;  otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni  (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae, especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.

  3. Importance of dam-free stretches for fish reproduction: the last remnant in the Upper Paraná River

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    Jislaine Cristina Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This study uses the abundance of fish eggs and larvae to evaluate the importance of the main channel of the Paraná River and the adjacent areas of the floodplain, in the last dam-free stretch in the Brazilian territory, for the spawning and development of fish of different reproductive guilds, in order to obtain subsidies to assist in the management and conservation policies of this area, focusing on the maintenance of dam-free areas. Methods Data were taken quarterly from August 2013 to May 2015, in 25 sites, grouped into three biotopes: main channel, tributaries and lagoons. Possible spatial variations in fish spawning and development as well as composition and structure of larvae were evaluated. Results Higher densities of eggs were found in tributaries (Paracaí and Amambai rivers and greater densities of larvae were observed in lagoons (Saraiva. Significant differences in composition and structure of larvae were detected only between sampling stations. As for taxonomic composition, 29 taxa were recorded, mostly non-migratory. However, long-distance migratory were also widely distributed, such as Brycon orbignyanus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Prochilodus lineatus, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Rhaphiodon vulpinus, as well as invasive species Platanichthys platana and Hemiodus orthonops. In turn, Salminus brasiliensis presented low occurrence. Conclusions This study evidenced that different species spawn in the region, mainly in tributaries, and their eggs and larvae are transported to the main channel of the Paraná River and adjacent lagoons, to complete their early development. The capture of larvae of important migratory species suggests that this environment still exhibits suitable conditions for their reproduction, mainly due to the presence of dam-free tributaries. Also, they emphasize the importance of the integrity of these environments for the maintenance of the regional fish fauna, and it is extremely important the

  4. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone.

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    Härer, Andreas; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far-reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Feeding dynamics and ecomorphology of Oligosarcus jenynsii (Gunther, 1864 and Oligosarcus robustus (Menezes, 1969 in the Lagoa Fortaleza, southern Brazil

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    D. M. Nunes

    Full Text Available Oligosarcus jenynsii and Oligosarcus robustus are fishes of Characidae family that occur in Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay and northern Argentina. This work purported to study the feeding dynamics (repletion and hepatosomatic indexes and condition factor over time, and to investigate the coexistence of these two species by evaluating the partition of resources using qualitative and quantitative analyses of diet, temporal and spatial segregation throughout the water column and some ecomorphological aspects of the species in the Lagoa Fortaleza. Specimens were sampled monthly, from May 2000 to April 2001 during 24 h/month, using stationary gill nets of different mesh sizes. The records of each individual included total and standard length; total, stomach and liver weight; sex and stomach repletion. The variation of the mean values of repletion index and relative frequencies of stomach repletion stages indicate that O. jenynsii and O. robustus do not present seasonal differences in feeding intensity. The hepatosomatic index shows an allocation of energy to the liver during every period except reproduction, when part of the energy is used for gonad maturation. The estimated condition factor for both species reveals an increase in the reproductive period, evidencing the influence of gonads upon the condition of the fish. The diet analysis revealed that O. robustus is piscivorous, whereas O. jenynsii is a generalist carnivore, tending to piscivory as well. The active period of O. robustus is more concentrated at sunrise and sunset, whereas O. jenynsii is continually active, a characteristic related to hunting for prey. The ecomorphological analysis revealed differences between the two species in the dimensions of the mouth. Evidence suggests that the species coexist, sharing food sources, differing in oral morphology but ingesting similar prey, possibly because food is not a limiting factor in the environment.

  6. A successful case of biological invasion: the fish Cichla piquiti, an Amazonian species introduced into the Pantanal, Brazil

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    EK. Resende

    Full Text Available The "tucunaré", Cichla piquiti, an exotic Amazonian fish has become established along the left bank of the Paraguay River in the Pantanal. It was introduced by escaping from culture ponds in the Upper Piquiri River and spread downstream, along the lateral flooded areas of that river, continuing through the clear waters of the left bank of the Paraguay River and reaching south as far as the Paraguai Mirim and Negrinho rivers. Adult spawners have been found in the region, meaning that it is a self-sustained population. Reproduction occurs in the period of low waters. They were found feeding on fishes of lentic environments belonging to the families Characidae, Cichlidae and Loricariidae. Until the end of 2004, its distribution was restricted to the left bank of the Paraguay River, but in March 2005, some specimens were found on the right bank, raising a question for the future: what will be the distribution area of the tucunaré in the Pantanal? Information about its dispersion is increasing: it is known to be in the Tuiuiú Lake, Pantanal National Park and in the Bolivian Pantanal, all of them on the right bank of the Paraguay River. The hypothesis that the "tucunaré" could not cross turbid waters, such as in the Paraguay River, was refuted by these recent findings. Possibly, the tucunaré's capacity to lay more than one batch of eggs in a reproductive period, as well as its care of eggs and young, lead them to establish themselves successfully in new environments, as has been observed in the Pantanal and other localities.

  7. Structure and integrity of fish assemblages in streams associated to conservation units in Central Brazil

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    Thiago Belisário d'Araújo Couto

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the spatial and seasonal distribution of the fish assemblage and evaluate the integrity of streams in a sustainable use area that includes integral protection conservation units in Distrito Federal, Central Brazil (Cerrado biome. For the study, 12 stretches of 8 streams were sampled in 2008 (dry season and 2009 (wet season. For that evaluation was estimated the Physical Habitat Index (PHI, vegetation cover (VC, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and conductivity. We recorded 22 species, about eight undescribed species, by a total of 2,327 individuals. The most representative families in number of species were Characidae (31.8%, Loricariidae (31.8%, and Crenuchidae (13.6%. Knodus moenkhausii was the most abundant species with 1,476 individuals, added to Astyanax sp., Phalloceros harpagos, and Hasemania sp. they represent over 95% of the total abundance. The species Astyanax sp. (occurring in 79.2% of the stretches and K. moenkhausii (50.0% were considered constant in both seasons. The longitudinal gradient (River Continuum exerts a strong influence on the studied assemblage. According to CCA, the variables that structure the fish assemblage are based on aspects related to water volume and habitat complexity. No seasonal variation in richness, diversity, abundance, and mass were detected. A cluster analysis suggests a separation of species composition between the stretches of higher and lower orders, which was not observed for seasonality. The streams were considered well preserved (mean PHI 82.9±7.5%, but in some stretches were observed anthropogenic influence, detected in the water quality and, mainly, on the riparian vegetation integrity. The exotic species Poecilia reticulata was sampled in the two stretches considered most affected by anthropogenic activities by PHI, conductivity, and VC.

  8. A successful case of biological invasion: the fish Cichla piquiti, an Amazonian species introduced into the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, E K; Marques, D K S; Ferreira, L K S G

    2008-11-01

    The 'tucunaré', Cichla piquiti, an exotic Amazonian fish has become established along the left bank of the Paraguay River in the Pantanal. It was introduced by escaping from culture ponds in the Upper Piquiri River and spread downstream, along the lateral flooded areas of that river, continuing through the clear waters of the left bank of the Paraguay River and reaching south as far as the Paraguai Mirim and Negrinho rivers. Adult spawners have been found in the region, meaning that it is a self-sustained population. Reproduction occurs in the period of low waters. They were found feeding on fishes of lentic environments belonging to the families Characidae, Cichlidae and Loricariidae. Until the end of 2004, its distribution was restricted to the left bank of the Paraguay River, but in March 2005, some specimens were found on the right bank, raising a question for the future: what will be the distribution area of the tucunaré in the Pantanal? Information about its dispersion is increasing: it is known to be in the Tuiuiú Lake, Pantanal National Park and in the Bolivian Pantanal, all of them on the right bank of the Paraguay River. The hypothesis that the 'tucunaré' could not cross turbid waters, such as in the Paraguay River, was refuted by these recent findings. Possibly, the tucunaré's capacity to lay more than one batch of eggs in a reproductive period, as well as its care of eggs and young, lead them to establish themselves successfully in new environments, as has been observed in the Pantanal and other localities.

  9. Use of cholinesterase activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure used on Costa Rican banana plantations in the native tropical fish Astyanax aeneus (Günther, 1860).

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    Mena, F; Azzopardi, M; Pfennig, S; Ruepert, C; Tedengren, M; Castillo, L E; Gunnarsson, J S

    2014-01-01

    In Costa Rica, thousands of tones of agricultural pesticides have been used for decades and their use is continuously increasing due to intensive and expanding production of coffee, pineapple, rice, ornamental plants and bananas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether choline esterase (ChE) activity could be used as a biomarker of exposure to pesticides in the Costa Rican native fish Astyanax aeneus (characidae). Three methods used in order to evaluate the ChE biomarker were as follows: Laboratory studies where A. aeneus was exposed to organophosphate pesticide (ethoprophos); In situ 48 hr exposure assessment using caging experiments with fish exposed upstream and downstream of banana plantations and ChE activity estimation of in fish captured directly at sites with different degrees of pesticide exposure. Results from the laboratory studies showed that ChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue was significantly lower in fish exposed to ethoprophos than in controls. Fish from the caging experiments showed no difference in ChE activity neither in brain nor in muscle tissue between the four tested sites and was attributed to the short duration of the exposure. Asignificant difference in ChE activity was determined in muscle of fish captured from Laguna Madre de Dios compared to fish from Canal Batán. Although our laboratory results revealed that ChE activity in A. aeneus was highly responsive to ethoprophos, results from field experiments were less conclusive and showed that the captured fish showed large variability in ChE activity and that more research is needed before ChE activity can be used as reliable biomarker of pesticide exposure.

  10. Patterns in fish species composition and assemblage structure in the upper Salado River lakes, Pampa Plain, Argentina

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    Juan José Rosso

    Full Text Available The Pampa Plain, in the central region of Argentina, is mostly drained by the Salado River. The fish fauna of this river is mostly known from field collections in lower reach lakes. Consequently, we aimed to explore the composition and structure of the fish assemblages in the upper Salado River lakes. Patterns in dominance and persistence of species and assemblage level attributes were correlated with environmental and human activity-derived (NO3:NH4 variables. Overall, 19,913 individuals of 17 species included in 5 orders and 11 families were collected. Several species are first records for the upper Salado River lakes. There was a marked proliferation of species in the family Characidae. Conversely, the remainder 10 families were only represented by one or two species. The species composition along the study lakes changed slightly but their relative contribution to the total fish collected (dominance varied greatly. Rather few species were present in all collections suggesting an important interannual variability in assemblage stability. The gradient in water conductivity was an important factor for the persistence of particular species in the lakes. The gradients in water conductivity and NO3:NH4 ratio were associated with particular fish communities dominated by different groups of species. These results suggest that even when broad management and conservation strategies should encompass the system as a whole, lake-specific approaches must also be addressed. Overall, our results highlight that human impacts on surface waters may interact with environmental factors to influence the dynamics of fish species and the structure of their communities.

  11. Caracterización de la estructura de peces ornamentales durante dos períodos hidrológicos en el caño agua limón, departamento de Arauca, Colombia

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    Ruiz Moreno Andrés Ricardo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventarió de los peces ornamentales en el caño Agua Limón, en el municipio de Arauca, Arauca (Colombia, en los períodos comprendidos de febrero a mayo de 2005 y de septiembre a agosto de 2005. Como estrategia metodológica para el estudio se realizó un esfuerzo de captura de dos horas por jornada empleando como artes de pesca el trasmallo de fibra de nylon y el aro. Se registraron 4.753 individuos que
    corresponden a 74 especies pertenecientes a 21 familias donde las especies más abundantes fueron Ctenobrycon spilurus (22%, Astyanax sp. (18% y Gephyrocharax sp. (10%. Los órdenes con mayor representación específica fueron Characiformes y Siluruformes (reuniendo el 71% de las capturas. Las familias con mayor riqueza de especies fueron Characidae (24 spp. y Loricariidae (12 spp. seguidas por las familias Cichlidae (6 spp., Apteronotidae y Pimelodidae con cuatro especies, Auchenipteridae y Callichthydae con tres especies cada una. La mayor riqueza de especies se encontró en los meses de septiembre, agosto y marzo, se sugiere que estos resultados están relacionados con las variaciones del régimen hidrológico de esta región dando como consecuencia cambios de distribución en los cuerpos de agua que frecuentan las especies. El mes de mayo tiene la menor diversidad y al
    mayor abundancia de especies.

  12. Lake size and fish diversity in southern Brazil coastal lagoons

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    Lucia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, presents a series of shallow lagoons with diverse size and morphology. The objective of this study is to determine whether the size of the lagoon is an effective factor for structuring fish diversity. In this regard, nine lagoons with distinct areas were sampled: three with an area up to 40 hectares, three with area between 40 and 80 hectares, and three with an area of over 80 hectares. Each lagoon was sampled once on the littoral and pelagic zones. At each point, fish were captured through a set of gill nets with different mesh sizes. Captured specimens were identified, quantified and evaluated for weight and length. A total of 24 fish species belonging to 10 families was obtained, with Characidae presenting the highest species richness. Cyanocharax alburnus was the only species that occurred in all lagoons. Cyphocharax voga, Astyanax eigenmmaniorum, Oligosarcus jenynsii and O. robustus were also frequent species, present in most of the sampled lagoons. Lycengraulis grossidens was captured in just two lagoons with increased conductivity. The community structure showed the highest species richness in lakes with an area over 40 ha, however the highest mean diversity values were observed in ponds up to 40 ha. Cluster Analysis yielded the formation of two groups: a group formed by just one lagoon and a second one cluster grouping all the other lagoons. This pattern may be associated with the presence of Lycengraulis grossidens as a dominant species in this lagoon clustered apart. The results indicate that lagoons with up to 40 ha present greater homogeneity on the species composition and higher average values of diversity; while intermediate ponds (between 40 and 80 ha have lower average diversity for the fish fauna due to increased heterogeneity in species abundance.

  13. CARACTERIZACION DE LA PRODUCTIVIDAD PESQUERA DESARROLLADA EN LA COCHA JACINTO, RESERVA NACIONAL PACAYA SAMIRIA

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    Javier del Águila Chávez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio describe las características de la productividad pesquera por un periodo de cuatro años  en la “cocha Jacinto”. La “cocha Jacinto” está ubicada en la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria (RNPS (coordenadas UTM E 0623314 y N 9495909, Loreto, Perú. Los datos fueron recolectados a partir de fichas de registro de pesca llenadas por el propio pescador. La productividad pesquera se estimó por el número de individuos con mayor captura, captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE  y biomasa bruta según consumo (BBC. Los datos fueron digitados y analizados utilizando el programa Microsoft Excel v. 2000. Durante el periodo 2006 – 2009: a Los individuos con mayor captura fueron la “Carachama” (Fam. Loricaridae, “sardina” (Fam. Characidae, “Fasaco” (Fam. Erythrinidae y “Shuyo” (Fam. Erythrinidae; b con respecto a la CPUE: 0.16 kg/hora,  0.15 kg/hora, 0.38 kg/hora y 0.65 kg/hora; y c la BBC osciló entre 56.85 kg, 45.81 kg, 202.04 kg y  81.63 kg, según respectivo año. Las diferencias de la CPUE indican un probable incremento de la producción pesquera. Sin embargo se necesitan mayores estudios para evaluar las dinámicas de la producción pesquera y evaluar factores sociales.  Limitación a considerar es la calidad de los datos recolectados.

  14. CARACTERIZACION DE LA PRODUCTIVIDAD PESQUERA DESARROLLADA EN LA COCHA JACINTO, RESERVA NACIONAL PACAYA SAMIRIA

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    Javier del Águila Chávez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio describe las características de la productividad pesquera por un periodo de cuatro años  en la “cocha Jacinto”. La “cocha Jacinto” está ubicada en la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria (RNPS (coordenadas UTM E 0623314 y N 9495909, Loreto, Perú. Los datos fueron recolectados a partir de fichas de registro de pesca llenadas por el propio pescador. La productividad pesquera se estimó por el número de individuos con mayor captura, captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE  y biomasa bruta según consumo (BBC. Los datos fueron digitados y analizados utilizando el programa Microsoft Excel v. 2000.Durante el periodo 2006 – 2009: a Los individuos con mayor captura fueron la “Carachama” (Fam. Loricaridae, “sardina” (Fam. Characidae, “Fasaco” (Fam. Erythrinidae y “Shuyo” (Fam. Erythrinidae; b con respecto a la CPUE: 0.16 kg/hora,  0.15 kg/hora, 0.38 kg/hora y 0.65 kg/hora; y c la BBC osciló entre 56.85 kg, 45.81 kg, 202.04 kg y  81.63 kg, según respectivo año. Las diferencias de la CPUE indican un probable incremento de la producción pesquera. Sin embargo se necesitan mayores estudios para evaluar las dinámicas de la producción pesquera y evaluar factores sociales.  Limitación a considerar es la calidad de los datos recolectados

  15. Histologia e ultraestrutura do rim e rim cefálico do pacu

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    Gerlane M. Costa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, é um teleósteo da Família Characidae, intensivamente cultivado no Brasil devido sua rusticidade, crescimento rápido e fácil adaptação. O conhecimento morfológico dos sistemas corpóreos, incluído órgãos linfóide, se faz necessário, para uma melhor produção no cultivo de peixes, fornecendo subsídios na manutenção dos estoques. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever morfologicamente o rim e rim cefálico de Piaractus mesopotamicus, analisando os perfis celulares de cada órgão com o uso de microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O resultado da análise macroscópica mostrou que a localização do rim e rim cefálico são as mesmas encontradas na maioria dos teleósteos. O rim apresentou uma forma em "H", onde a região média se expandia sobre a bexiga natatória. O rim cefálico se apresentou como uma dilatação na região cranial do rim, mostrando-se bem visível. Na microscopia eletrônica de transmissão também foram observadas similaridades ultraestruturais com outros teleósteos. Observando nossos resultados concluímos que histologicamente e ultraestruturalmente, os órgãos linfóides rim e rim cefálico de Piaractus mesopotamicus são similares aos de outros teleósteos.

  16. Changes in the fish community of the Kpong Headpond, lower Volta River, Ghana after 25 years of impoundment

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    Theodore Quarcoopome

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kpong Headpond was the second created on the Volta River after Akosombo Dam, primarily as a source of hydroelectric power generation and potable water supply, and additionally, it has supported some fish production in Ghana since impoundment. The changes in fish community of the Kpong Headpond were studied to provide baseline information for strategies formulation to support the socio-economic development of the reservoir. The study identified changes in the fish community of the reservoir by comparing occurrence, composition, relative abundance and relative importance estimates of fish species, families and trophic groups, from available previous studies in the reservoir. From the collated information all fishes identified in the reservoir were categorised based on occurrence and importance as disappeared, appeared, permanent, declined or important, to show current status. The results indicated that the fish community has experienced a shift in the composition and relative abundance of important species, families and trophic groups in terms of number and weight, while remaining ecologically balanced. Representatives of the families Osteoglossidae, Centropomidae and Characidae have declined while representatives of the families Claroteidae, Cyprinidae and Cichlidae have increased. The aufwuch-detritus and herbivores declined while semi-pelagic omnivores increased resulting in a shift in dominance to benthic and semi pelagic omnivores. The appearance of five species and the disappearance of 25 others indicated a dynamic restructuring of the fish community in the reservoir, as expected. Enforcement of fishing regulations including the use of appropriate gear and fishing methods, fishery access control, promotion of culture-based fisheries and improvement in fisher education are recommended topics for sustainable fisheries in the reservoir. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1685-1696. Epub 2011 December 01.

  17. Aerocistite aguda induzida por tioglicolato, lipolisacarídeo e Aeromona hydrophila inativada em Piaractus mesopotamicus: efeitos hematológicos

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    Julieta Rodini Engrácia de Moraes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da injeção de tioglicolato, lipolissacarídio de Escherichia coli e Aeromonas hydrophila inativada na bexiganatatória de pacus, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae foram avaliados quanto às respostas de células vermelhas,leucócitos e trombócitos do sangue. Ensaios quantitativos de eritrócitos, leucócitos e trombócitos foram realizados6, 24 e 48 h após os estímulos e comparados com peixes que receberam solução salina 0,65% pela mesma via. Peixes inoculados com A. hydrophila apresentaram redução do número de eritrócitos e da taxa de hemoglobina enquanto ohematócrito aumentou 6 h após o estímulo. Os resultados mostraram que o tioglicolato e o LPS também induziram redução da hemoglobina e aumento do hematócrito. A contagem de trombócitos diminuiu 6 h após a inoculação deA. hydrophila inativada e aumentou 48 horas após a injeção de LPS. A contagem de leucócitos aumentou 6 h após ainoculação de A. hydrophila enquanto a de linfócitos a leucócitos granulares PAS positivos (PAS_LG diminuiu 24 hdepois. Peixes injetados com tioglicolato o LPS apresentaram aumento do número de LG_PAS em relação aos inoculadoscom A. hydrophila inativada ou grupo controle. A contagem de monócitos não foi afetada pelos diferentes agentes.

  18. The Canal da Piracema at Itaipu Dam as a fish pass system

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    Sérgio Makrakis

    Full Text Available The Canal da Piracema is the longest (nearly 10 km fish pass system in the world. The construction of this fish pass was somehow controversial, because it connected two distinct ichthyofaunistic provinces. This study evaluated the ichthyofauna present in the Canal da Piracema and the abundance and distribution of long-distance migratory fish species along this fish pass system (evaluated possible selectivity. The Canal da Piracema was shown to be difficult to sample because of its environmental heterogeneity: artificial ponds, ladders and nature-like fish pass. To solve this problem, we used several fishing gears, adequate for the several biotopes present (unstructured and structured littoral were sampled with seining nets and electrofishing; lentic were sampled with gillnets and longlines (deeper areas; and rapid water areas were sampled with cast nets. The ichthyofauna of the Canal da Piracema followed the pattern for South America and the Paraná River, with a predominance of Characiformes and Siluriformes. The most representative families were Characidae, Anostomidae, Pimelodidae and Loricariidae. We captured 116 species (17 were long-distance migratory during the period studied. Small-sized species were predominant in unstructured and structured littoral areas, especially Bryconamericus exodon and Apareiodon affinis.The most abundant species was Hypostomus spp. in lentic areas, followed by Iheringichthys labrosus. Hoplias aff. malabaricus predominated in deeper lentic areas. Long-distance migratory species were abundant in rapid waters; they were Prochilodus lineatus and Leporinus elongatus. The sharp reduction in the number of species, including migratory ones, is an indication that the Canal da Piracema is selecting the species that ascend it. Therefore, the search for information on the efficiency of the various fish passes present in the Canal da Piracema is fundamental, to facilitate upward movements of fish. If this is reached, this

  19. Superfamilia Scarabaeoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera como elemento bioindicador de perturbación antropogénica en un parque nacional amazónico Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park

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    Samuel Eduardo Otavo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes grupos de insectos se consideran importantes elementos bioindicadores de la calidad de los ecosistemas, los coleópteros son hoy en día uno de los grupos más reconocidos y utilizados para el monitoreo y establecimiento de áreas protegidas. Se evaluó el uso de la superfamilia Scarabaeoidea como bioindicador del grado de perturbación antropogénica de los bosques húmedos amazónicos. En tres niveles de perturbación (alta, media y baja se establecieron 12 transectos, utilizando tres trampas de interceptación, dos trampas de luz, tres trampas de caída, cuatro trampas de botella y captura manual. Se capturaron 593 individuos, 92 especies, 44 géneros y 7 familias. Las familias con el mayor número de individuos y especies fueron Scarabaeidae (n=232, 27 spp. y Dynastidae (n=161, 26 spp.. Las especies más abundantes fueron: Ateuchus sp., Cyclocephala verticalis, Ceratocanthus amazonicus y Chaetodus asuai. El número de especies e individuos fue mayor a medida que el gradiente de perturbación aumentó. Dynastidae presenta el mayor número de especies exclusivas mientras Scarabaeidae comparte la mayoría. Diez especies fueron registradas en los tres bosques, 26 en dos y 56 en solo uno. De las especies más abundantes C. asuai muestra una reducción significativa del número de individuos con el aumento de la perturbación, mientras se observa una relación inversa para C. verticalis. Se discute la utilización de la riqueza y la diversidad como indicadores de perturbación, mientras se ratifica la abundancia de ciertos táxones como una mejor variable a medir.Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in

  20. [Diversity and ichthyofaunistic abundance of the Rio Grande de Térraba, south of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Rodríguez, Omar

    2008-09-01

    The diversity, abundance and distributional pattern of freshwater fish communities in the Térraba River, south Costa Rica, were investigated from the early dry season of 2004 to early rain season of 2005. There have been no preview studies on the freshwater fish distribution in Térraba. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine fish species richness, abundance and distribution there. Fish sampling was done using a combination of gears such as gill net, fine mesh net and visual observation. Thirty three species, 26 genera and 14 families were collected in four sampling sites along the river. The number and biomass captured during the entire study was 984 individuals and 147 410.9 g respectively. Most of them are carnivorous species (48%), 33.3% are omnivorous and 12% detritivorous, and only two species are herbivorous. The most important species in relative abundance (56.5%) and biomass (53.7%) in the study area was the machaca (Brycon behreae). It should be clear that although the list of fish species that occur in Térraba River is reasonably complete, knowledge of their ichthyogeographic history patterns is superficial. The main community component was secondary freshwater species; with 17 invading brackish water species and one introduced species (tilapia O. niloticus). Nine species are reported for the first time in this river. The diversity index H' varied from 2.32 (El Brujo) to 1.67 (Coto), a similar pattern was also showed for the other indexes. Most of our results were similar to those of previous studies on freshwater fish distribution elsewhere, however no significant correlation between species distribution and environmental variables was found, and we hypothesized that the depth and water velocity and geomorphological are major environmental variables that influence the fish distribution. Our findings are opposed to the tendency, for species composition, to increase from upstream to the mouth of the river, which is probably due to two major

  1. Estrutura morfológica do fígado de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818

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    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever macro e microscopicamente o fígado do Tambaqui Colossoma macropomum, Teleósteo de água doce da Família Characidae, de grande interesse econômico da bacia Amazônica. Foram utilizados seis (6 exemplares jovens com idade entre seis meses e um ano, oriundos da Chácara Esteio, Alta Floresta, MT, que desenvolve principalmente a prática da piscicultura. O órgão foi fotodocumentado in situ e descrito macroscopicamente, em seguida procedeu-se a retirada de fragmentos deste, que foram processados pelas técnicas histológicas rotineiras para inclusão em parafina e coloração de HE. O fígado localizou-se ventral à bexiga natatória e craniodorsalmente ao estômago, apresentou coloração amarronzada a vermelho, constituído por três lobos hepáticos, o lobo lateral direito, o lobo lateral esquerdo e o lobo ventral. Microscopicamente, o parênquima era constituído por hepatócitos com formato que variou do arredondado irregular hexagonal ao redondo com núcleo grande e central, arranjados em cordões lineares limitados por sinusóides que irradiam para veias centrais, e com ausência de lóbulos hepáticos. As veias centrais estavam distribuídas pelo parênquima, enquanto que o espaço porta, na maioria das vezes, era constituído apenas por uma veia hepática e o ducto biliar, em outros locais foi observado, uma artéria e um ducto. Não foi observada a formação de tríades portais. Foram frequentemente observados melano macrófagos centrais dispersos pelo parênquima. O estudo morfofuncional do Aparelho Digestório de peixes da bacia Amazônica, se faz pertinente com vistas ao conhecimento do aproveitamento de ganho de peso e produção em alta escala para consumo humano e preservação da espécie, além da importância de estarem sendo utilizados como bioindicadores atualmente.

  2. Reproductive biology and development of gill glands in the inseminating characid, Macropsobrycon uruguayanae Eigenmann, 1915 (Cheirodontinae: Compsurini

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    Marco A. Azevedo

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology and development of the gill gland are described for Macropsobrycon uruguayanae, an inseminating characid species of the tribe Compsurini, subfamily Cheirodontinae. Between April 2001 and March 2002, 117 males and 143 females of this species were collected in the rio Ibicuí, Uruguay basin in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Reproductively active individuals were present during most months sampled, indicating lack of a well-defined seasonal reproductive period. Several maturing females were found to be inseminated before completing full maturation. Histological analyses demonstrated spermatozoa within the ovaries of females in different stages of gonadal maturation collected during most months. No immature females had inseminated ovaries. Standard length at first gonadal maturation was estimated to be 24 mm for both males and females. Mean absolute fecundity was 191.08 (± 48.83 SD oocytes per female, one of the lowest among characids. Relative fecundity was 0.539 (± 0.069 SD oocytes per mg weight of the female, a value similar to that found for the majority of species of Cheirodontinae. The presence of two cohorts of oocytes within ovaries of M. uruguayanae indicates synchronous development, with total spawning. The mean diameter of mature oocytes was 0.6711 (± 0.1252 SD mm, smaller than that found for the majority of species of Characidae. Gill glands occurred in all mature males, as well as in males undergoing advanced maturation. In the latter case, fewer gill filaments comprised the glands. Gill glands were not observed in immature males, males undergoing the initial stages of maturation, or in any female. A given gill gland may comprise as many as 24 filaments of the lateral hemibranch of the first gill arch. Secondary lamellae within most of the gill gland are greatly reduced, with columnar cells being present between them. These columnar cells contain abundant vesicles, suggesting secretory activity. The

  3. [Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Mendiola, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p < 0.001). Presence and/or absence of certain species such as Dormitor gobiomorus, Rhamdia nicaraguensis, Parachromis loiseillei and Atractosteus tropicus explained most of the spatial variation among sites. Habitat structure also contributed to explain differences among sites (lamda = 0.004, F(60.183) = 5.52, p < 0.001). Substratum (soft and hard bottom types) and habitat attributes (elevation, width and depth) explained most of the variability observed in Infiernillo River, Caño Crucitas and Tamagá Creek. In addition, a significant association between fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific

  4. Tropical fish community does not recover 45 years after predator introduction.

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    Sharpe, D M T; De León, L F; González, R; Torchin, M E

    2017-02-01

    Predation is considered to be an important factor structuring natural communities. However, it is often difficult to determine how it may influence long-term, broad-scale, diversity patterns, particularly in diverse tropical systems. Biological introductions can provide powerful insight to test the sustained consequences of predation in natural communities, if pre-introduction data are available. Half a century ago, Zaret and Paine demonstrated strong and immediate community-level effects following the introduction of a novel apex predator (peacock bass, Cichla monoculus) into Lake Gatun, Panama. To test for long-term changes associated with this predator introduction, we followed up on their classic study by replicating historical sampling methods and examining changes in the littoral fish community at two sites in Lake Gatun 45 years post-introduction. To broaden our inference, we complemented this temporal comparison with a spatial analysis, wherein we compared the fish communities from two lakes with and one lake without peacock bass. Comparisons with historical data revealed that the peacock bass remains the most abundant predator in Lake Gatun. Furthermore, the collapse of the littoral prey community observed immediately following the invasion has been sustained over the past 45 years. The mean abundance of native littoral fish is now 96% lower than it was prior to the introduction. Diversity (rarefied species richness) declined by 64% post-introduction, and some native species appear to have been locally extirpated. We observed a similar pattern across invaded and uninvaded lakes: the mean abundance of native fishes was 5-40 times lower in lakes with (Gatun, Alajuela) relative to the lake without peacock bass (Bayano). In particular, small-bodied native fishes (Characidae, Peociliidae), which are common prey of the peacock bass, were more than two orders of magnitude (307 times) less abundant in Gatun and one order of magnitude (28 times) less abundant in

  5. Diversidad y abundancia ictiofaunística del río Grande de Térraba, sur de Costa Rica

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    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde el inicio de la estación seca del 2004 hasta la estación lluviosa de 2005, se llevó a cabo una investigación, con el objetivo de determinar la diversidad, abundancia y patrones de distribución de las comunidades de peces de agua dulce del río Grande de Térraba. El muestreo de peces se llevó a cabo utilizando una combinación de artes de pesca, entre ellas las redes agalleras, redes finas y observaciones visuales. Fueron recolectadas 33 especies, 14 familias y 26 géneros en las cuatro estaciones. Se capturaron 984 ejemplares para una biomasa de 147 410.9 g. La mayoría de las especies son carnívoras (48%, 33.3% son omnívoras y 12% detritívoras y sólo dos especies son herbívoras. La especie con mayor abundancia relativa (56.5% y biomasa (53.7 fue la machaca (Brycon behreae. Aunque la lista de especies de peces en el río Térraba parece razonablemente completa, el conocimiento sobre los patrones ictiogegráficos es superficial. El principal componente comunitario son los peces de agua dulce secundarios con 17 especies estuarinas y una especie introducida (tilapia O. niloticus. Nueve especies son registradas por primera vez. El índice de diversidad H´ varió de 2.32 (El Brujo a 1.67 (Coto, un patrón similar se encontró para los otros índices aplicados. Muchos de nuestros resultados fueron similares a los de previos estudios sobre distribución de peces de agua dulce en otras zonas, sin embargo no se encontró correlación significativa entre la distribución de especies y las variables ambientales. Se hipotetiza que la profundidad, velocidad del agua y atributos geomorfológicos son las variables físicas que influencian la distribución de peces. Los resultados de este estudio difieren de la tendencia de que la riqueza de especies se incrementa desde la parte alta hacia la boca del río, esta condición se atribuye a dos actividades humanas (descarga al canal principal de desechos de los cultivos de piña y sedimentos

  6. Patterns in fish species composition and assemblage structure in the upper Salado River lakes, Pampa Plain, Argentina

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    Juan José Rosso

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pampa Plain, in the central region of Argentina, is mostly drained by the Salado River. The fish fauna of this river is mostly known from field collections in lower reach lakes. Consequently, we aimed to explore the composition and structure of the fish assemblages in the upper Salado River lakes. Patterns in dominance and persistence of species and assemblage level attributes were correlated with environmental and human activity-derived (NO3:NH4 variables. Overall, 19,913 individuals of 17 species included in 5 orders and 11 families were collected. Several species are first records for the upper Salado River lakes. There was a marked proliferation of species in the family Characidae. Conversely, the remainder 10 families were only represented by one or two species. The species composition along the study lakes changed slightly but their relative contribution to the total fish collected (dominance varied greatly. Rather few species were present in all collections suggesting an important interannual variability in assemblage stability. The gradient in water conductivity was an important factor for the persistence of particular species in the lakes. The gradients in water conductivity and NO3:NH4 ratio were associated with particular fish communities dominated by different groups of species. These results suggest that even when broad management and conservation strategies should encompass the system as a whole, lake-specific approaches must also be addressed. Overall, our results highlight that human impacts on surface waters may interact with environmental factors to influence the dynamics of fish species and the structure of their communities.A planície pampeana, na região central da Argentina, é em grande parte drenada pelo rio Salado. A ictiofauna desse rio é conhecida principalmente pelos estudos conduzidos nos lagos dos segmentos inferiores do rio. Em consequência, procuramos examinar a composição e a estrutura das assembleias de

  7. Estudio de los estados larvales de la ictiofauna en la zona de Puerto Nariño, Amazonia Colombiana, durante el período de aguas ascendentes (2003

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    Gutiérrez Espinosa Mónica Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó taxonómicamente las larvas de peces de la zona de Puerto Nariño (Amazonia colombiana durante el período de aguas ascendentes 2003 (enero a marzo, además se hizo un acercamiento a la dinámica ecológica de la reproducción de los peces a partir de las larvas capturadas. Los muestreos se realizaron con una jama de mano de 80 x 40 cm con marco de hierro y con una malla de anjeo con orificio de 1,5 mm instalada en la proa de una lancha, en siete diferentes localidades con tipo de aguas diferentes (río Amazonas, río Loreto Yacu, caño Zancudillo, lago El Sapo, lago El Correo, lago Tarapoto, caño Igarapé Uassú. Se colectaron 6.492 larvas y juveniles de peces, correspondientes a cinco órdenes (Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes y 15 familias. Se identificaron taxonómicamente y se describieron 56 morfoespecies de larvas de peces, de las cuales solo el 23,2% fueron a nivel específico, cifra alta si se tiene en cuenta la falta de información bibliográfica al respecto. La identificación taxonómica fue complicada; sin embargo, la presencia y ausencia de ciertos caracteres como: aletas, barbicelos, escamas y caracteres merísticos como: número de miómeros, número de radios permitió llegar en algunos casos a nivel taxonómico de familia y género. A nivel de orden la identificación fue relativamente fácil especialmente en estados avanzados de desarrollo. A nivel de familia fue un poco más complicado, especialmente en la familia Characidae, pues la similitud en estados tempranos de desarrollo es muy grande. El orden más abundante fue Characiformes (84,9%, seguido por Siluriformes (12,1%, los órdenes Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes presentaron el 3% de la abundancia. Las familias más abundantes fueron Characidae, Serrasalmidae y Curimatidae, que se caracterizan por realizar migraciones reproductivas especialmente durante el período de aguas
    ascendentes, asegurando que

  8. Changes in the fish community of the Kpong Headpond, lower Volta River, Ghana after 25 years of impoundment

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    Theodore Quarcoopome

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kpong Headpond was the second created on the Volta River after Akosombo Dam, primarily as a source of hydroelectric power generation and potable water supply, and additionally, it has supported some fish production in Ghana since impoundment. The changes in fish community of the Kpong Headpond were studied to provide baseline information for strategies formulation to support the socio-economic development of the reservoir. The study identified changes in the fish community of the reservoir by comparing occurrence, composition, relative abundance and relative importance estimates of fish species, families and trophic groups, from available previous studies in the reservoir. From the collated information all fishes identified in the reservoir were categorised based on occurrence and importance as disappeared, appeared, permanent, declined or important, to show current status. The results indicated that the fish community has experienced a shift in the composition and relative abundance of important species, families and trophic groups in terms of number and weight, while remaining ecologically balanced. Representatives of the families Osteoglossidae, Centropomidae and Characidae have declined while representatives of the families Claroteidae, Cyprinidae and Cichlidae have increased. The aufwuch-detritus and herbivores declined while semi-pelagic omnivores increased resulting in a shift in dominance to benthic and semi pelagic omnivores. The appearance of five species and the disappearance of 25 others indicated a dynamic restructuring of the fish community in the reservoir, as expected. Enforcement of fishing regulations including the use of appropriate gear and fishing methods, fishery access control, promotion of culture-based fisheries and improvement in fisher education are recommended topics for sustainable fisheries in the reservoir. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1685-1696. Epub 2011 December 01.La laguna Kpong se convirtió en la segunda

  9. An ethnobotanical study of anti-malarial plants among indigenous people on the upper Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausin, Gina; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Lima, Renata Braga Souza; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira; Ming, Lin Chau; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Milliken, William

    2015-11-04

    In this article we present the plants used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon. The region has important biological and cultural diversities including more than twenty indigenous ethnic groups and a strong history in traditional medicine. The aims of this study are to survey information in the Baniwa, Baré, Desana, Piratapuia, Tariana, Tukano, Tuyuca and Yanomami ethnic communities and among caboclos (mixed-ethnicity) on (a) plant species used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms, (b) dosage forms and (c) distribution of these anti-malarial plants in the Amazon. Information was obtained through classical ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological methods from interviews with 146 informants in Santa Isabel municipality on the upper Negro River, Brazil. Fifty-five mainly native neotropical plant species from 34 families were in use. The detailed uses of these plants were documented. The result was 187 records (64.5%) of plants for the specific treatment of malaria, 51 records (17.6%) of plants used in the treatment of liver problems and 29 records (10.0%) of plants used in the control of fevers associated with malaria. Other uses described were blood fortification ('dar sangue'), headache and prophylaxis. Most of the therapeutic preparations were decoctions and infusions based on stem bark, root bark and leaves. These were administered by mouth. In some cases, remedies were prepared with up to three different plant species. Also, plants were used together with other ingredients such as insects, mammals, gunpowder and milk. This is the first study on the anti-malarial plants from this region of the Amazon. Aspidosperma spp. and Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke were the most cited species in the communities surveyed. These species have experimental proof supporting their anti-malarial efficacy. The dosage of the therapeutic preparations depends on the kind of plant, quantity of plant

  10. Numerical analysis of palynological data from Neogene fluvial sediments as evidence for rainforest dynamics in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Sonia; van Manen, Milan; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Deep-time records that give an insight into the composition and dynamics of the ancestral Amazon rain forest are rare. Yet to understand the modern biodiversity patterns it is important to untangle the long-term evolution of this forest. Sampling Neogene strata requires drilling operations or complex fieldwork along the rivers where outcrops generally are small. In the nineties an exceptionally good exposure of fluvial sediments of early Miocene age (17.7-16.1 Ma) was documented near the island of Mariñame (Caquetá River, Colombian Amazonia) (Hoorn, 1994). This 60 m sediment succession consists of quartz-rich sands with a circa 10 m black, sandy clay intercalation. Palynomorphs are well preserved in these organic-rich clays and palynological analysis indicated high pollen diversity and changes in composition following changes in the sedimentary environment and water composition (see van Soelen et al., this session). A numerical analysis in R (2013) of the existing data, using a number of multivariate and other statistical techniques now shows a gradient of change in the composition of the Miocene palynological assemblages. Non-metric-multidimensional scaling using distance matrixes (Oksanen, 2012) and their visualizations in correlograms (Friendly, 2002) indicate that the regional (palm) swamp forests of Mauritiides franciscoi (Mauritia), frequently found together with other palms such as Psilamonocolpites amazonicus (Euterpe?) and Psilamonocolpites rinconii, were affected by a marine incursion. The latter is suggested by the change of composition and the presence of estuarine elements such as Zonocostites ramonae (Rhizophora), foraminifer linings and dinoflagellate cysts, which became common during the marine event. In the older part of the section, and at the top, Rhoipites guianensis (Sterculiaceae/Tiliaceae) is quite abundant, in contrast with the relatively low abundance of M. franciscoi. The numerical analysis allowed us to: a) group the pollen data into 3

  11. Ictiofauna de la Laguna Yahuarcaca y aspectos tróficos y reproductivos de cinco especies predominantes, Leticia - Colombia Ictiofauna de la Laguna Yahuarcaca y aspectos tróficos y reproductivos de cinco especies predominantes, Leticia - Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojica José Iván

    2000-06-01

    ="text3">de los periodos estudiados, lo que indica la gran influencia que ejerce el pulso hídrico sobre ésta. Se analizaron las variaciones en los diferentes muestreos de la dieta de cinco especies de peces predominantes: Schizodon fasciatus, Rhytiodus microlepis (Anostomidae, Triportheus albus, Triportheus angulatus, y Triportheus elongatus (Characidae. Las tres especies de Triportheus tienen una estrategia alimenticia generalista, con preferencias por insectos terrestres, partes de peces, frutos y semillas. Las dos especies de la familia Anostomidae son netamente especialistas y se alimentan preferiblemente de material vegetal, tanto de origen autóctono como alóctono. En todas las especies analizadas el tipo y cantidad de alimento consumido fue diferente en cada periodo de muestreo, debido a la variación de los recursos relacionada con el pulso hídrico.The Amazon River floodplains are highly productive pulsing systems from an ecological point,due mostly to the periodic inflow of sediments that are dragged from the Andes by the rivers.In Colombia, this Amazon systems have not been intensely studied, therefore, this study tookplace in an floodplain lake of the Amazon river near the city of Leticia. Ichthyological sampleswere taken at four different times during a year according to the