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Sample records for brussels conv-suppl to paris conv on third party liability

  1. The reform of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and of the Brussels Supplementary Convention. An overview of the main features of the modernisation of the two conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrival of nuclear energy gave rise to the need, almost half a century ago, to devise a regime of liability in keeping with the new risks associated with this technology: risks that were not only catastrophic, but also insidious, because they were incapable of detection by ordinary human beings. The principles underlying this regime have stood the test of time, even if the accusation is now sometimes made that some of them were also designed to protect an industry in its infancy. These principles are as follows: the operator of a nuclear installation is objectively liable, meaning that the victim of nuclear damage does not have to prove fault in order to be compensated; - channelling of the liability onto the operator alone, both to avoid sterile debate between professionals and to allow the insurance sector to mobilise the necessary resources; - financial limitation on the liability of the operator. The international nature of the nuclear industry, the serious risk of transborder damage and the carriage operations in this sector led to international conventions being entered into which, having enshrined the three abovementioned principles, were designed in particular to: avoid jurisdictional conflicts arising between a number of courts belonging to more than one state; - prevent the available coverage from being unwisely used up by excluding from its benefit those assets connected with the operation of installations; - fix uniform periods of limitation; - regulate transport operations in order to guarantee continuity of coverage; unify and limit clauses excluding liability. These were the guiding principles that led to the signing, in succession, of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, a regional instrument within the framework of the OEEC (which became the OECD in 1961) in 1960 (referred to hereinafter by the initials PC), and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, a worldwide instrument under the

  2. Nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three existing instruments in the international regime governing liability for nuclear damage. The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) first laid down the principles for third party liability and insurance in 1960 within the framework of the OECD. Later reinforcement of the Paris Convention was provided by the Brussels Supplementary Convention on compensation and both conventions have undergone subsequent amendment. In 1963 the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (Vienna Convention) was established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A Joint Protocol adopted in 1988 resolved problems that had arisen over possible conflicts between the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. The Conventions are based on civil law and share two main factors: the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear installation operator irrespective of negligence and clear limitations on financial liability. Currently a revision of the Vienna convention and work on the elaboration of a supplementary funding convention are being conducted under the auspices of the IAEA. Many states have come to realize the advantages of participation in the Conventions though there are still a number with substantial nuclear programmes who have neither signed nor ratified them. A list is given of participating states. (UK)

  3. Conflict of law issues related to Switzerland's participation in the Paris Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the active role Switzerland played during the negotiation process of the Paris Convention, it only recently ratified the Convention including all its amending Protocols. The whole Paris regime will become binding for Switzerland only upon entry into force of the Protocols of 2004. Concurrently, the Federal Council will put into force a revised Swiss Nuclear Liability Act and ratify the Joint Protocol. Being a party to the Paris regime and the Joint Protocol, Switzerland will be in treaty relationships with Paris states and with Vienna states which are party to the Joint Protocol. This paper assesses the legal protection of Swiss victims and the liability risks faced by Swiss operators and other potential defendants (such as suppliers and builders) under the new legal regime with a particular view to conflict of laws issues. For the purpose of this assessment the paper examines which courts will be competent to hear claims of Swiss victims and against Swiss defendants in different scenarios, which law these courts should apply, whether or not the principle of legal channelling will apply and what the applicable liability amounts are. The assessment shows an ambiguous picture: Swiss operators, suppliers and builders clearly benefit from a higher degree of legal certainty. While in the absence of treaty relationships Swiss operators could potentially be sued before any foreign court, there will now be only one court with jurisdiction over claims of victims of convention states; Swiss suppliers and builders for their part will be protected by the principle of legal channelling, which basically exempts them from any liability risk. Swiss victims will benefit from treaty-backed entitlement to compensation from foreign operators; also, the judgements rendered in their favour will be enforceable in the whole convention territory; however, the limitation of the operator's liability in many Paris and Vienna states, raises doubts about whether the available funds

  4. Developments in international convention on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few years after the adoption of a Protocol to amend the world-wide Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a new ''global'' Convention on the Supplementary Compensation of Nuclear Damage (September 1997), the countries which are party to the Western Europe based Paris and Brussels Conventions are working on the revision of these instruments within the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The objective of this exercise is not only to preserve the compatibility of the Paris and Vienna provisions, which is now an imperative deriving from the application of the 1988 Joint Protocol linking these two Conventions, but also to substantially improve certain features of this regime such as its technical and geographical scope of application, the facilitation of the rights of victims to defend their claims and, of course, the level of funds effectively available to compensate the damage. This paper reviews briefly the recent evolution of the international nuclear liability regime and discusses some of the challenges which the nuclear countries are facing in this context. (author)

  5. Insurance considerations arising from the revision of the Paris and Brussels conventions on nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work being undertaken by the 14 countries, party to the 1960 Paris Convention in preparing a revised instrument will or so it is to be hoped provide a more comprehensive scope of liability and a larger compensatory fund for the protection of potential victims. Both these developments have serious implications for insurers or other providers of financial security. Equally they are of concern to society itself as it will be necessary to balance the needs of the individual for example, in obtaining redress for injury or damage to personal property with the need to provide for the ''common good''. The author's paper will attempt to explore these avenues, to point to perceived difficulties and, perhaps, to acceptable solutions. (author)

  6. Third party liability cover for nuclear damage and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the financial security and cover for third party liability for nuclear damage as provided for by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The relevant Sections of the Act are quoted and explained, as are the nuclear operator's obligation to furnish financial security for his liability. Different possible types of security and cover are described, also with reference to other national legislation. Finally, the author mentions the Paris Convention which provides the basis for Italian nuclear third party liability legislation. (NEA)

  7. Third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of nuclear liability legislation are discussed including absolute and limited liability and the role of the Sovereign State in idemnifying the operator for damage in excess of limited liability. European counrties realised the need for unifying the law of nuclear instability and efforts were made accordingly towards producing workable international conventions. The world's first legislation on nuclear liability - the USA Price-Anderson Act - is described in detail and a digest of nuclear liability claims experience is given. Observations of the present status of nuclear third party liability are outlined. (Author)

  8. 1988 changes to United States law regarding nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 1988 has introduced sweeping changes into the nuclear third party liability regime in the United States. The basis principle that a single, assured source of funds for compensation of those injured by a nuclear incident, regardless of the party actually at fault, has been maintained. The amount of such funding has been increased tenfold, to more than $7 billion, with a commitment that even more will be made available by the Congress, if needed. The scope of compensable injury has been broadened to include precautionary evacuations. With respect to contractors carrying out the defense-related nuclear activities of the Government, the changes have been equally momentous. The ceiling on Government idemnification has risen to keep pace with the maximum amount of licensee liability. Provisions designed to provide greater incentive to adherence to all nuclear safety standards have been added, authorizing the imposition of substantial civil and criminal sanctions for violations

  9. Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modernisation of international conventions governing third-party liability in the nuclear field is essentially an attempt to resolve certain shortcomings whilst setting out higher compensation sums and extending the cover for nuclear damage for which compensation is payable. The latest convention revisions occurred in 2004 and led to the adoption of protocols amending the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention supplementing the Paris Convention. However, the substance of the current regimes is largely the result of conventions drawn up in the 1960's and, in the eyes of the general public, the changes made in 2004 are mainly concerned with increasing the compensation sums. Despite the proposed increases in the compensation amounts, there is certainly no doubt that the potential costs of a major nuclear accident will not be fully covered by the revised Conventions. In other words, the actual compensation amount in the event of nuclear damage is quite low if we refer back to known events. By way of example, the direct cost of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident is estimated to be above EUR 100 billion according to different sources. The accident virtually bankrupted the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) immediately after this event. The economic costs of the Chernobyl accident, however, are difficult to assess even now. But, according to various sources, the costs also exceed USD 100 billion. The Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl accidents share common characteristics. First, the amount of damage could have been even higher had the accident occurred close to major population centres or if the wind direction at the time of the accident had been different. Second, no compensation was provided by the insurance world. Further, these two accidents did not occur within the framework of the new amended conventions (the latest revision of the Paris Convention has still not taken effect). These

  10. Draft law concerning the agreement concluded on 22 October 1986 by the Federal Republic of Germany and the Swiss Confederation, on third party liability in the nuclear energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bill is intented to improve the liability regime for the protection of the population of the two neighbour countries against possible transfrontier effects of nuclear facilities of the two countries. The third-party liability agreement has been signed on 22 October 1986 in Bern/Switzerland to the effect that the Swiss Confederation is regarded as having acceded to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability. The bill in hand is to create the basis for a ratification of the agreement, in accordance with Art. 59, para 2, 1st sentence of the Basic Law. (orig./HP)

  11. Claims expenses and insurance capacity in third party liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident reminded insurers that the potential expenses connected with the handling and settlement of claims following a major nuclear accident can be very significant. These are a direct consequence of the accident and funds must be available to pay for these costs as well as for indemnities to victims. Claims expenses at present have to be borne by the insurers in addition to the sums insured for the compensation of third parties. If governments intend to increase the statutory amounts of liability, this would reduce the insurers' ability to make the maximum possible capacity available for indemnities to victims. Therefore, before increasing further the statutory limits of liability, governments should - in revising the Paris Convention - consider allowing insurers to include claims handling expenses in their total sums insured

  12. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.)

  13. Public announcement of the promulgation of the Nuclear Third Party Liability Convention including supplementary conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to article 4 paragraph 2 of the act of July 8th, 1975 concerning the Convention on Third Party Liability including the Supplementary Conventions dated July 29th, 1960, concerning the Convention the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships and its Additional Protocol dated May 25th, 1962, and concerning the Convention relating to Civil Liability in the field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material it is thus announced that 1) the Convention dated July 29th, 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and its Additional Protocol dated January 28th, 1964 according to its article 19, 2) the Supplementary Convention to the Paris Convention dated July 29th, 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and its Additional Protocol dated January 28th, 1964 according to its article 20 have taken effect for the FRG with reference to 1) on September 30th, 1975, with reference to 2) on January 1st, 1976. (orig.)

  14. Third Party Nuclear Liability: The Case of a Supplier in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Anthony; Heffron, Raphael J.

    2012-01-01

    The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term "Supplier" is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...

  15. Occupational health nursing interventions to reduce third-party liability in workplace injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delk, Kayla L

    2012-03-01

    This article explores general principles of workers' compensation law and the ability to sue third parties for employee injuries by using case law and the treatise Larson's Workers' Compensation Law. This overview provides occupational health nurses with a background on workers' compensation law, who is liable for employee injuries, and how recovery from third parties is distributed between the employer or insurer and the employee. The author then explores interventions that occupational health nurses can implement to reduce employee injury and employer costs for providing workers' compensation. The goal of this article is to stimulate occupational health nurses' critical-thinking and problem-solving skills so they may identify risks and implement cost-effective solutions that will prevent injuries to employees. PMID:22387245

  16. Review on the Liability for Failure to Perform Duty of Safety Protection---Analysis of Categories of Liabilities in Case of the Third Party Involved%安全保障义务责任的断裂与缝合--第三人介入情形的责任类型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晶晶

    2014-01-01

    《侵权责任法》明确了安全保障义务的侵权法地位,并确立了第三人介入情形下安全保障义务人的补充责任。补充责任将安全保障义务人置于赔偿次位具有其独特的含义,但其也存在与侵权法原理、两大法系及司法操作的不协调。《合同法》安全保障义务人违约责任的直接责任性质进一步凸显了安全保障义务人补充责任的突兀,但两者也有诸多衔接的可能性。废除补充责任是可能的选项之一。在目前立法背景下,类型化第三人介入情形下违反安全保障义务时义务人的责任,实现违约责任与侵权责任的同时请求;或者是通过对安全保障义务补充责任的再解释,弥合两者之间的裂缝,亦是可行的方法。%In accordance with the Tort Law , the duty of safety protection is specified and where a third party is involved as tortfeasor ,the duty-holder of safety protection should assume the corresponding comple-mentary liability .Such complementary liability has its distinct effects though it is incompatible with tort law principles in the common law system and the continental law system as well as judicial practice .Since the Con-tract Law has imposed a direct Liability for breach of contract on duty -holders of safety protection , which makes the complementary tortious liability more awkward .But there are possible ways to coordinate these two liabilities and one of alternatives is to abolish the complementary liability ,Considering the current legislation ,it is suggested to categorize the liabilities of duty -holders of safety protection in case of the third party ’ s in-volvement in the tortfeasance ,so that the tortious liability and liability for breach of contract can be claimed simultaneously .Or the complementary liability for failure to perform duty of safety protection should be reinter-preted so as to coordinate the tortious liability and liability for breach of contract .

  17. Reviewing the justification and adequacy of existing legal principles governing nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a review of the legal principles governing nuclear third party liability which are applied in most countries, this paper discusses certain reforms to this regime which have already been applied or are being studied in certain countries - namely the fixing of an unlimited amount of liability for nuclear damage. (NEA)

  18. Nuclear liability: Joint protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention was adopted by the Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, which met in Vienna, at the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency on 21 September 1988. The Joint Protocol establishes a link between the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963. The Joint Protocol will extend to the States adhering to it the coverage of the two Conventions. It will also resolve potential conflicts of law, which could result from the simultaneous application of the two Conventions to the same nuclear accident. The Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication contains the text of the Final Act of the Conference in the six authentic languages, the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, also in the six authentic languages and an explanatory note, prepared by the IAEA and NEA Secretariats, providing background information on the content of the Joint Protocol

  19. Liability and prevention. Operation according to schedule and comprehensive documentation as protection against third party claims. Haftung und Risikovorsorge. Ordnungsgemaesser Betrieb und lueckenlose Dokumentation als Schutz gegen Ansprueche Dritter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattwein, A.; Schmidt, F.P.

    The environmental liability act (UmweltHG) came into force on 1. Jan 1991. It is concerned with environmental liability and third party claims. The author shows how the environmental hazard can be reduced during normal operation, and how the liability risk can be minimized. (orig./BBR).

  20. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  1. Paris and Vienna nuclear liability conventions: challenges for insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insurers have actively contributed to the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. In the course of these negotiations they have pointed out that some of the proposals for revision may have consequences for insurers and could prove incapable of finding insurance support. This paper aims at explaining the revision related points, which could cause problems in respect of insurability. Furthermore, the writer takes the liberty to expand its scope to more generally include developments, which have the potential to influence the availability of insurance capacity. Therefore, also the insurance implications of terrorist acts combined with share market developments of recent years will be dealt with.(author)

  2. Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Programs; Medicaid Managed Care, CHIP Delivered in Managed Care, and Revisions Related to Third Party Liability. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This final rule modernizes the Medicaid managed care regulations to reflect changes in the usage of managed care delivery systems. The final rule aligns, where feasible, many of the rules governing Medicaid managed care with those of other major sources of coverage, including coverage through Qualified Health Plans and Medicare Advantage plans; implements statutory provisions; strengthens actuarial soundness payment provisions to promote the accountability of Medicaid managed care program rates; and promotes the quality of care and strengthens efforts to reform delivery systems that serve Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries. It also ensures appropriate beneficiary protections and enhances policies related to program integrity. This final rule also implements provisions of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA) and addresses third party liability for trauma codes.

  3. A Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime of a Multilateral Nuclear Approaches Framework in the Asian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two primary challenges for establishing nuclear third party liability (TPL regimes within multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Asian region. The first challenge is to ensure secure and prompt compensation, especially for transboundary damages, which is also a challenge for a nation-based facility. One possible solution is that in order to share common nuclear TPL principles, all states in the region participate in the same international nuclear TPL convention, such as the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC, with a view to its entry into force in the future. One problem with this approach is that many states in the Asian region need to raise their amount of financial security in order to be able to participate in the CSC. The second challenge lies with the multiple MNA member states and encompasses the question of how decisions are to be made and responsabilities of an installation state are to be shared in case of a nuclear incident. Principally, a host state of the MNA facility takes on this responsibility. However, in certain situations and in agreement with all MNA member states, such responsibilities can be indirectly shared among all MNA member states. This can be done through internal arrangements within the MNA framework, such as reimbursement to a host state based on pre-agreed shares in accordance with investment and/or making deposits on such reimbursements in case of an incident.

  4. Ministerial Decree of 3 March 1978 approving the general conditions of the third party liability insurance policy for operators of nuclear installations and the general conditions of insurance policies for third party liability for transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree by the Ministry for Industry, Commerce and Crafts and the Ministry for transport of Italy was made in implementation of Section 2 of the Decree No. 519 by the president of the Republic of 2 May 1975 amending Section 15 to 24 of Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This present Decree approves the general conditions of third party liability insurance policies for operators of nuclear installations and for transport of radioactive materials. (NEA)

  5. Aspects concerning the lengths of the excluded shareholder’s liability towards third parties in the case of limited liability companies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Stoican

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of reinventing the trading company law, at the end of a lengthy and extremely difficult economic crisis, when every participant in the economic life tried to find their own way to adapt and make their activity survive the new social and commercial realities, not few were the cases when some of the Shareholders were excluded and their liability was drawn onto the legal person itself. Nevertheless, there is a type of legal liability of the former Shareholders, excluded from the Company, that still is quite deficiently regulated and, despite the sound argumentation and comprehensive regulation of Law no. 31/1990, it fails to provide a clear and detailed explanation of the consequences, namely, of the consequences the exclusion of a Shareholder has over the Third Parties of good-faith that the legal person (the Company had or continues to have legal relations with. This paper thus aims at analysing one of the main effects of excluding Shareholders from the company, namely the extent of their liability towards the Third Parties, and it is structured in five parts, as follows: 1 Introduction, 2 About the Shareholders’ exclusion, 3 The effects of excluding a Shareholder from the Limited Liability Company, 4 The excluded Shareholder’s liability towards the Third Parties and 5 Conclusions.

  6. Some agenda of Japanese nuclear third party liability system arising from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and proposal for the system reformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account the impact of damage owing to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, the argument of review on Japanese nuclear third party liability system is carried out. As the Fukushima Disaster raised serious legal problems on Japanese nuclear third party liability system that the JCO critical accident did not present, fundamental reformation of the system may be carried out. This paper clarified and analyzed legal problems that Fukushima Disaster raised. In addition, in order to alleviate the problems, this paper showed two options to reform the nuclear compensation system. Our conclusions are summarized as follows. (1) The compensation of the Fukushima Disaster raised the following problems. 1. Regardless of whether the operator has the legally liable for the damage, the necessity of quick victim relief and compensation forced the operator to compensate the damage. 2. Because the damage occurred in broad area and in long term, and cause identification and the calculation of damage amount are difficult, private settlements become so hard that the number of civil litigations increased dramatically. (2) The problems mentioned above are due to the following current legal shortcomings. 1. The victims are not relieved enough unless making bear the operator compensation liability, because Japanese nuclear third party liability system is based on ordinary rules of civil tort liability. 2. The procedure for immunity of operator's nuclear third party liability is not stipulated. 3. The authority of the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation is restricted and cannot discourage damage suits. (3) To overcome the problems, this report showed proposal for system reformation as follows. 1. In order to relieve the victims regardless of whether the operator is liable for the nuclear damages, it is necessary to legislate a Nuclear Disaster Relief Act to relief victims from the viewpoint of governmental aid. 2. It is necessary to introduce the

  7. Third party liability of nuclear installation decommissioning with Russian nuclear submarines as an example: insurance versus technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third party and environment of civil liability damage caused by incidents at military nuclear installations, for instance at decommissioned NPS (nuclear powered submarines), may be divided into three main trends: -) Liability of NPS without high-enriched irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) for its self-submersion (radiation incident); -) Liability of NPS with SNF aboard for its self-submersion (radiation incident); and -) Liability of floating NPS for its SNF discharge (nuclear accident). Without step-by-step transition from the Russian Federation guaranties to insurance and making allowance for liability limits according to the Vienna Convention approach, the sizes of the financial guarantee for the civil liability of the NPS owner (Russian state), in US dollars of 2000, are approximately assessed as the following: -) storing decommissioned NPS or a floating module without SNF - from 12 to 25 thousand dollars per year (per one submarine or module); -) storing decommissioned NPS with SNF inside reactors cores - from 25 to 40 thousand dollars per year; -) assembly-by-assembly removing SNF from reactors' core of decommissioned NPS - up to 1.5 million dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period; -) SNF removing within reactor using the filled in-space reactor's core by liquid-phased hardened or dispersed solid-phase materials from decommissioned NPS - from 30 to 50 thousand dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period. Both rates and sums for NPS with damaged reactors are to be estimated for the each damaged reactor and NPS at all. It is necessary to perform the measures reducing the risk of nuclear accidents of NPS with undamaged SNF and NPS with damaged reactors in possibly short time. It will allow not only to cut risks by ten times and more, but also to accumulate necessary insurance reserves faster. These measures can be partially or completely executed using the preventing measures reserves assigned to all decommissioned Russian NPS and

  8. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  9. Experimental Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Third Party Joint and Several Liability in the Polish VAT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research results, indicating, that VAT third party joint and several liability in an efficient antifraud element of the Polish VAT system. As the experimental verification of joint and several responsibility proves, there are situations, in which the VAT fraud is possible when this element of the VAT system is not applied, and is not possible any more when the element is applied, which indicates the efficiency of thereof and proves the hypothesis of the present article.

  10. The lives of others: Third parties' responses to others' injustice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Jane; Aquino, Karl; Skarlicki, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This research takes a moral perspective to studying third parties' reactions to injustice as a function of their moral identity. Drawing from theories of deontic justice, moral intuition, moral heuristics, and moral identity, we develop and test a model of the moral underpinnings of third parties' reactions to injustice. First, we compare third parties' responses with interpersonal, distributive, and procedural justice violations. We hypothesize that third parties are more likely to intuit that interpersonal justice violations are morally wrong, compared with distributive and procedural justice violations. As a result, third parties are more likely to experience stronger moral anger and punish violators in response to interpersonal transgressions compared with distributive and procedural justice transgressions. Second, we test the proposition that third parties with a strong moral identity will react more strongly to justice violations than third parties with a comparatively weak moral identity. Results from 3 studies support these predictions. PMID:26214088

  11. The effectiveness and development trend of nuclear third party liability insurance in the nuclear risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power considerably benefited mankind since it was utilized peaceably. The cleanness, safety and high efficiency of nuclear power were gradually known and recognized by the public. However at the same time, nuclear power had produced significant accident and consequently caused severe aftereffects during its utilization. Therefore, effective management of nuclear risk and reducing its accident probability are the social responsibilities of every nuclear nation. From the insurance point of view, this document analyzes the validity and development trends of nuclear third party insurance in nuclear risk management. It also introduces effectual experience in this field from nuclear insurance developed countries. This document discusses the necessity of consummating nuclear third party insurance under the aggressive development situation of nuclear power in our country. (author)

  12. Profitability, third-party reimbursement, and access to community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, N V; Miederhoff, P A; Waters, L W

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which third-party reimbursement programs have affected the profitability and availability of community pharmacies. Data were taken from records maintained by the Virginia Board of Pharmacy and a survey of 177 community pharmacies. Between 1989 and 1994, 258 outpatient pharmacies opened and 342 closed. Chain and independent pharmacies suffered net losses, and supermarket and mass merchandiser pharmacies experienced net increases. Few significant changes occurred in the distribution of pharmacies over the study period. Fifty-nine chain and independent pharmacies and 1 supermarket pharmacy chain provided usable profit and reimbursement data. These pharmacies experienced declines in profits and increases in the percentage of prescriptions reimbursed by private third-party prescription programs over the last several years. Regression analyses indicated that higher ratios of sales of private third-party prescriptions to private-pay prescriptions were associated with lower profits. All respondents indicated that changes in private third-party reimbursement had substantially reduced profits over the past 5 years. The results indicate that the growth of private third-party payment has led to lower pharmacy profits but has not yet resulted in problems of consumer access.

  13. 第三方物流经营人民事法律责任概述%Summary of Civil Liabilities of Third Party Logistics Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴坤埔

    2014-01-01

    对第三方物流经营人的含义、法律地位与责任形式进行了界定,讨论了《合同法》中关于第三方物流经营人对委托方法律责任的认定及其异同,最后对第三方物流经营人对实际物流经营人的追偿问题进行了讨论。%In this paper, we defined the connotation, legal status and liability form of the third party logistics operator, discussed the recognition of the liability against it in favor of the clients in the Contract Law, and at the end, studied the issues in the damage recovery of the third party logistics operator against the logistics activity providers.

  14. Third-party financing in international arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Maniruzzaman, Munir

    2012-01-01

    As its Council Member I attended the ICC Institute of World Business Law’s 32nd annual meeting onThird-Party Funding in International Arbitration’ held in Paris on 26 November 2012. It was a grand success as it drew many professionals, arbitrators, experts, academic specialists and, above all, representatives from some major third-party funding bodies such as Burford Group Ltd., Calunius Capital LLP, Fulbrook Management LLC and others, and the discussion and debates generated a great deal o...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3505-1 - Liability of third parties paying or providing for wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., A, a surety company, paid a net amount of $158 to B, an employee of the X Construction Company. This... employee. If X Construction Company fails to make timely payment or deposit of $42.00, the amount of tax... under section 3505. Example 2. N, a construction company, maintains a payroll account with the O Bank...

  16. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally

  17. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkmire, John C; Lay, James R; McMahon, Mona C

    2007-04-11

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally.

  18. Disclosure of university research to third parties: A non-market perspective on an Italian university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Venditti; E. Reale; L. Leydesdorff

    2013-01-01

    Nations, universities, and regional governments promote the dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge. They focus on knowledge-based innovations and the university’s economic function in terms of technology transfer, intellectual property, university-industry-government relations etc. Facu

  19. Proceedings - Insurance and third party liability; performance of dangerous activities - Nuclear risk and contamination. 11 November 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Centro Italiano Ricerche and Studi Assicurativi' (CIRSA) has published the proceeding of a round table it organised in 1976 on insurance for nuclear risks. The topics discussed covered the relevant national legislation, in particular, regarding liability and compensation for nuclear damage, the financial security required, the insurance system. The papers and ensuing discussions are reproduced in full, and the Appendix contains for consultation, all the texts of the laws in this field. (NEA)

  20. Study on VMI Inventory Control Mode based on the Third-Party Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haoxiong Yang; Jindan Li

    2014-01-01

    Adding the third party logistics enterprises between the suppliers and the retailers is a kind of the development of VMI mode, in this mode; inventory pressure is transferred to the third party logistics enterprise. In view of this situation, the VMI inventory control model which treats total inventory control costs as the objective function is built based on from four dimensions: the inventory holding costs, the fixed delivery costs, replenishment costs and customer waiting costs. After solv...

  1. Impact of bankruptcy and insolvency on third parties in the petroleum industry: conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Insight Conference has seven articles on the following aspects of the conference theme: I - overview of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act and Companies' Creditor's Arrangement Act; II- the effects of bankruptcy and insolvency on exploration agreements; III - the effects of bankruptcy on CO and O, unit and pooling agreements; IV - impact of bankruptcy and insolvency on marketing and transportation agreements; V - claims of operators, non-operators and third parties arising from oil and gas operations; V I - buying and selling assets from a bankrupt or insolvent party; and VII - environmental liability for receivers, trustees and others in the petroleum industry. Abstracts/descriptors are included for articles II, V, and VII. separately

  2. A Study on the Organization Structure of Third-party Logistics Enterprise Servicing for Manufacturing Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoye Zhou; Xiuyi Xie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces ways and advantages of third-party logistics enterprise servicing manufacturing enterprise, analyses supply-chain of manufacturing enterprise and further studies for the organization structure of third-party logistics enterprise servicing manufacturing enterprise, to seek to the enterprise organization structure which has the best combination in third-party logistics enterprise with manufacturing enterprise.

  3. Persecution by third parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ben; Spijkerboer, Thomas; Zwaan, Karin; Fernhout, Roel

    1998-01-01

    As a large number of the present day asylum claims concern situations of civil war or of a break down of (central) governmental authority the issue of persecution by third parties is of great importance. Although the main characteristics of the different positions are clear, precise information abou

  4. The third-party regulation on food safety in China:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Man; QIAO Hui; WANG Xu; PU Ming-zhe; YU Zhi-jun; ZHENG Feng-tian

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholders in the ifeld of food safety management in China can be classiifed into three categories, government, food producers (farmers and enterprises), and the third-party regulatory bodies. The third-party regulation has experienced rapid development in past twenty years, and recently received considerable attention from consumers and the central government. This paper provides a review about the development, problems and future trend of the third-party regulation on food safety in China. To be speciifc, ifve forms of the third-party regulation are assessed, including media exposure, the third-party certiifcation, regulation by consumer associations, social movements promoted by non-governmental organiza-tions (NGOs), and regulation by industry associations. The study concludes that media and consumer associations are the major players in the third-party regulation and are highly repudiated among customers. The food certiifcation industry has developed rapidly, but is now facing crises of conifdence among consumers because of its lack of self-regulation. NGOs and industry associations stil remain in the early development stages of food safety management, and therefore, are of little importance in current regulatory bodies.

  5. 77 FR 35263 - Political Contributions by Certain Investment Advisers: Ban on Third-Party Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 275 RIN 3235-AK39 Political Contributions by Certain Investment Advisers: Ban on Third...'' or ``SEC'') is extending the date by which advisers must comply with the ban on third-party.... The effective date for the ban on third-party solicitation under rule 206(4)-5 of the...

  6. Act N0 68-1045 of 29 November 1968 amending Act N0 65-956 of 12 November 1965 on the third party liability of operators of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act amends the 1965 Act, in particular by specifying that the maximum amount of liability of the operator of a foreign nuclear ship is that fixed by the legislation of the State concerned, unless otherwise agreed with that State, but may in no case be lower than that set out in the 1965 Act, namely 500 million French francs. (NEA)

  7. Decree 2177/1967 of 22 June approving the Regulations on cover for nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree was made in implementation of Section 45 of the 1964 Act on nuclear energy. It contains provisions on third party liability for nuclear damage, the type of security to cover such liability and State intervention in compensating nuclear damage. The Decree was amended by two Decrees of 28 March 1968 and 7 November 1968 respectively. In particular, the latter Decree implements the provisions of the Paris Convention, ratified by Spain and fixes cover for nuclear risks at 350 million pesetas. (NEA)

  8. Chernobylsk: twenty years later, the international system of nuclear civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International system of nuclear civil liability is based on two international treaties: the Paris convention (24.07.1960) and the Brussels convention (31.01.1963), with a time limit for ratification in each concerned country at 30.10.1968. The Paris convention treats compensation and transfrontier problems, the amount of compensation is limited, the Brussels convention specifies the financial system of compensation. The Vienna system under the IAEA auspices gives minimal norms of financial protection against damages and stood in may 1963 thirty three parties signed it. Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Armenia, czech republic, Estonia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldavia have joined the Vienna convention, then the Russian Federation that had signed the Convention in 1996 became member in august 2005. New elements appear such measures of remedial action or measures of prevention of reduction of nuclear damages are included, the new protocol increases the geographical area by taking into account the maritime areas because of the evolution of the international sea law. The transport needs specific contracts between parties, the only case of exoneration is the armed conflicts, civil war, insurrection. The time of loss of right comes from ten years to thirty years, for deaths and body damages, the others types of damages stay fixed at ten years. The most important revision is about the limit financial amount for the nuclear operator that is increased and the calculation of methods of funding for each contracting party is tackled. In fact it appears that more important funds will be available to make compensation for a more important number of victims. The revised system guarantees that the liability chain will never be broken. (N.C.)

  9. 48 CFR 1427.306 - Licensing background patent rights to third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing background... Government Contracts. 1427.306 Licensing background patent rights to third parties. Any proposed determination to be made to require third party licensing shall be submitted by the HCA through the...

  10. 78 FR 15835 - Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... requirements used by the CPSC since passage of the CPSIA in August 2008. 77 FR at 31087-89. In addition, the... Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 48... 1112 and 1118 Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies AGENCY:...

  11. 48 CFR 27.306 - Licensing background patent rights to third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing background... Government Contracts 27.306 Licensing background patent rights to third parties. (a) A contract with a small... the licensing to third parties of inventions owned by the contractor that are not subject...

  12. 第三人过错不应作为环境污染民事责任的抗辩事由%Fault of the Third Party should not Be the Civil Liability Defenses of Environmental Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭本利

    2012-01-01

    That this article first analyzes the fault of a third person is the defenses of the tort cases of fault liability. Then it comprehensively reviews the evolution of the fault of a third person's position in China's environmental legislation, and for theoretical arguments about whether the fault of a third party is the defenses in civil liability for environmental pollution. It proposed that in any subsequent revision of China "marine environmental protection law" and "water pollution control act," and even the development of specialized environmental tort liability act, we should clearly define the fault of a third person, which are not the defenses in all areas of environmental pollution, while we also need to set up the mechanism of investigating the civil liability for fault of a third party leading to the environmental pollution and set up a social relief mechanism.%本文分析了第三人过错是过错责任侵权案件的抗辩事由,全面梳理了第三人过错在我国环境立法中的地位演变,并就第三人过错是否为环境污染民事责任抗辩事由的理论争议进行了深入的述评。提出在以后修改《海洋环境保护法》及《水污染防治法》,甚至制定专门的环境侵权责任法时,除了明确规定在所有环境污染领域第三人过错都不是抗辩事由外,还需合理地设置第三人过错污染环境民事责任的追究机制和社会化救济机制。

  13. 77 FR 31086 - Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...); 74 FR 45428 (September 2, 2009) (Notice of Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity... Conformity With Part 1508, Part 1509, and/ or Part 1511 of Title 16, Code of Federal Regulations, 73 FR 62965... Conformity Assessment Bodies to Assess Conformity With the Limits on Total Lead in Children's Products, 74...

  14. Dynamic Adjustment of Third Party Logistics Liability Insurance Premium Based NCD Model%基于NCD模型的第三方物流责任保险费率的动态调整

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍艳芳; 付叶; 杨立向

    2013-01-01

    In view of the problems compromising the widespread adoption of the logistics liability insurance in China, such as high premium and unscientific calculation basis, we proposed on the microscopic level the plan of solution, namely introducing the NCD dynamic charging model into the adjustment of the premium of the logistics liability insurance and then in light of the characteristic of the third party logistics industry, comprehensively considering the influence of the number of claims for compensation, the amount claimed, and total coverage, rearranging the rule of transference and improving the original NCD model. At the end, we used a case analysis to demonstrate the validity of the improved NCD model.%针对中国物流责任保险费率过高、计算依据不科学,从而难以推广应用的现状,在微观层面上提出解决方案-将NCD计费动态模型引入物流责任险费率调整中来,并结合第三方物流行业特点,综合考虑索赔次数、索赔额和投保总额的影响,重新确定转移规则,对原NCD模型进行改进.最后通过案例说明改进后的NCD模型能够使计费依据更加合理,求得的保费更能切实反映第三方物流企业所处的风险水平.

  15. Public Auditing and Data Dynamics in Cloud with Performance Assessment on Third Party Auditor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Sawant, Snehal; Deshmukh, Aaradhana A.; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova;

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing allows the user to outsource their computation and storage overhead to a public cloud, managed by cloud service providers. Data stored in the cloud may reside on remotely servers and this raises security issues. This paper addresses the issue of data storage integrity. The scheme...... presented in this paper uses the concept of an external Third Party Auditor (TPA). TPA is an external party who is going to perform integrity verification of the user’s data on behalf of the user. The proposed scheme assures integrity verification with a dynamic data support, to ensure that changes made...

  16. The Effect of Differing Third Party Roles and Behaviors on Conciliatory and Retaliatory Negotiator Behavior Involved in a Simulated Intergroup Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, W. Frank; And Others

    Little experimental research exists concerning third party mediation. Possible dimensions for study are type of control, including outcome control (of the third party over negotiation outcomes) and process control (third party influence on the negotiation process); and type of intervention, i.e., process or issue oriented interventions. To examine…

  17. Nuclear Liability Act of 8 June 1972 as amended by the Act of 15 September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1972 Nuclear Liability Act has been amended by an Act 1989 to bring its provisions in line with those of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention as amended respectively by the 1982 Protocols. The 1989 Act also raises the limit of the nuclear operator's liability from 42 million Finnish marks (approximately 8 million Special Draing Rights - SDRs) to 100 million SDRs

  18. 28 CFR 513.35 - Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures to third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contained in 28 CFR 16.52. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures... and Procedures § 513.35 Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures to third parties....

  19. Chernobylsk: twenty years later, the international system of nuclear civil liability; Tchernobyl: 20 ans apres, le systeme international de responsabilite civile nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahorgue, M.B. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France)

    2006-06-15

    The International system of nuclear civil liability is based on two international treaties: the Paris convention (24.07.1960) and the Brussels convention (31.01.1963), with a time limit for ratification in each concerned country at 30.10.1968. The Paris convention treats compensation and transfrontier problems, the amount of compensation is limited, the Brussels convention specifies the financial system of compensation. The Vienna system under the IAEA auspices gives minimal norms of financial protection against damages and stood in may 1963 thirty three parties signed it. Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Armenia, czech republic, Estonia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldavia have joined the Vienna convention, then the Russian Federation that had signed the Convention in 1996 became member in august 2005. New elements appear such measures of remedial action or measures of prevention of reduction of nuclear damages are included, the new protocol increases the geographical area by taking into account the maritime areas because of the evolution of the international sea law. The transport needs specific contracts between parties, the only case of exoneration is the armed conflicts, civil war, insurrection. The time of loss of right comes from ten years to thirty years, for deaths and body damages, the others types of damages stay fixed at ten years. The most important revision is about the limit financial amount for the nuclear operator that is increased and the calculation of methods of funding for each contracting party is tackled. In fact it appears that more important funds will be available to make compensation for a more important number of victims. The revised system guarantees that the liability chain will never be broken. (N.C.)

  20. A Survey-Based Study on ICT Adoption in the Third-Party Logistics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok Hung Lau; Haibo Huang

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is an important tool to enhance efficiency and responsiveness in modern-day supply chains. Owing to fierce market competition and rapidly changing business environment, organizations are forced to focus on their core competency and outsource their logistics function to third-party logistics (3PL) firms. In order to work hand-in-hand with customers to meet their day-to-day logistics needs, 3PL companies have to make use of ICT for efficient commun...

  1. Experience of Non-Muslim Consumers on Halal as Third Party Certification Mark in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Hasnah Hassan; Haslenna Hamdan

    2013-01-01

    Consumers become more concerned about the products they consume as they become aware of the benefits of third-party certification marks on product packaging and advertisements. Consumers look for food product packaging that includes information such as GMO free, organic, eco-friendly, country of origin or religiously based labels, such as kosher and Halal. This study examined the impact of a Halal certification mark as both an advertisement and a signifier of third-party certification for non...

  2. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was widely accepted that nuclear damage might be extensive and spread to other countries. International civil liability for nuclear damage is embodied by two major instruments: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Paris Convention of 1960 on third party liability (OECD with its amending protocols. Major problem arises because of lack of coherence and for this reason supplementary conventions and protocols has been adopted but sufficient results has not been achieved. International treaties on civil liability for nuclear damage are mostly based upon principles of operator’s exclusive, channeling, strict liability for nuclear damage, mandatory financial coverage, compensation without discrimination. These principles set ground for the appropriate compensation standard thus minimizing the difficulty level of complicated legal cross-actions and identifies certain subjects in individual cases who are liable also allows a concentration of the insurance capacity. Although Conventions sets similar principles, Europe remains in two different liability regimes which cover differences of liability amounts, scope of application, rules of jurisdiction conflicts. Problem of legal coherence at European Union level also arises because Member States are either parties to the Paris Convention or Vienna Convention at different speeds. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of international legal framework development and impetus to create trans-boundary compensation mechanisms thus to foster development of European Union nuclear energy market and to provide higher protection for victims inside and outside the country where the incident has occurred. Purpose – provide comparative analysis of international treaties which regulate civil liability for nuclear damage in the context of European Union nuclear energy market development. Design/methodology - paper is based on document

  3. Third-party Reverse logistics platform and method Based on Bilateral Resource Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hong Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion of reverse logistics resources makes it difficult to create relationships between demanders and providers, thereby the personalized demand for the construction of enterprise reverse logistics cannot be satisfied and the service quality cannot be guaranteed. Aiming at these problems, this paper presents a platform and method of enterprise reverse logistics based on bilateral resource integration (RLBRI. The method creates a third-party reverse logistics platform to accumulate a mass of reverse logistics demanders and providers together. And the platform integrates bilateral resources and acts as an intermediary to establish relationships between two sides. Through the platform, a complete and high-quality business chain for enterprise reverse logistics will be built efficiently. Finally put forward an effective strategy of non-defective reverse logistics depends on the integrity checking service provided by third-party logistics. By using this strategy it can short the distance of non-defective reverse transportation. Computational tests validate the strategy.

  4. First Mid-Session of Third High-Level China-France Forum On Local Government Cooperation Held in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing; Shuhua

    2013-01-01

    <正>Cooperation on environment protection between China and France at the local government level received a further boost from a meeting between Beijing and Paris last December to consider development of environmentally friendly buildings and

  5. 22 CFR 505.10 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... court to be incompetent due to physical, mental or age incapacity, may act for and on behalf of the... the committee or subcommittee. (10) Disclosure to the General Accounting Office (GAO). For...

  6. 第三方支付相关法律问题研究%Study on the Legal Issues Related to Third-party Payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑倩

    2013-01-01

    Third-party payment solved the security of funds and goods and the credit about buyers and sellers in the online shopping process, which restricts development of online shopping. But there are also many problems, such as the nature, the legal status of the third party payment, what kind of legal relations with other parties, deposit funds and its fruits of attribution and preservation issues; laws do not make explicit provision for these issues. Regulation in place restricts the development of third-party payment, so this article provides an analysis on these issues.%  第三方支付解决了网络购物过程中资金和货物的安全以及买卖双方的信任问题,解决了制约网络购物发展的瓶颈问题。但是第三方支付同时也存在很多问题,比如第三方支付的性质如何,处于何种法律地位,与其他当事人存在何种法律关系,沉淀资金及其孳息的归属以及保全的问题,对于这些问题法律都没有做出明确的规定。监管不到位制约了第三方支付的发展,所以本文旨在分析这些问题。

  7. Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…

  8. New Trends in European Nuclear Liability Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses recent developments in nuclear liability legislation in Europe. The first part deals with the planned revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention; the second part focuses on the reforms envisaged in the field in Switzerland and in the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular concerning unlimited liability. Finally, the author concludes that national reform plans and work at international level are not opposed, but supplementary activities. (NEA)

  9. A platform for third-party applications on the web

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    A trend seen on the web today is to create a platform where externally developed applications can run inside some kind of main application. This is often done by providing an API to access data and business logic of your service and a sandbox environment in which third-party applications can run. By providing this, it is made possible for external developers to come up with new ideas based on your service. Some good examples on this are Spotify Apps, Apps on Facebook and SalesForce.com. Ipend...

  10. Nuclear Liability Act of 8 March 1968 (No. 45) as amended by an Act of 10 May 1974 (No. 249) and by an Act of 22 December 1982 (No. 1275)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amendments to this Act fall into two categories. The first category of amendments enabled Sweden to ratify two 1982 Protocols amending the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention respectively. The other amendments raise the nuclear operator's liability from 50 million to 500 million Swedish crowns per incident and introduce a State liability over and above compensation available under the Brussels Convention, thus raising the aggregate amount of compensation to 3,000 million Swedish crowns. (NEA)

  11. The Effect of Third-Party Funding of Plaintiffs on Settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Daughety; Jennifer Reinganum

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use a signaling model to analyze the effect of (endogenously-determined) third-party non-recourse loans to plaintiffs on settlement bargaining when a plaintiff has private information about the value of her suit. We show that an optimal loan (i.e., one that maximizes the joint expected payoff to the litigation funder and the plaintiff) induces full settlement. Furthermore, in contrast with the more standard (no-loan) settlement bargaining models, there is no revelation of inf...

  12. 76 FR 22608 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Revisions to Terms of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1610 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Revisions... are taking this action in response to a request from certain members of the clothing textile industry to reduce unnecessary retesting of clothing textiles that have been tested already and found to be...

  13. 7 CFR 4290.1240 - Funding of RBIC's draw request through sale to third-party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Conditional Commitments to Reserve Leverage for A Rbic § 4290.1240 Funding of RBIC's draw request through sale to third-party. (a... request for a draw of Debenture Leverage, you authorize the Secretary, or any agent or trustee...

  14. 13 CFR 107.570 - Restrictions on third-party debt of issuers of Participating Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Borrowing... company (or, if approved by SBA on a case-by-case basis, from non-regulated lenders including shareholders... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on third-party...

  15. 48 CFR 3027.306 - Licensing background patent rights to third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing background patent rights to third parties. 3027.306 Section 3027.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.306 Licensing...

  16. Civil liability and nuclear coverage: synthesis report; Responsabilite civile et coverture nucleaires. Rapport du Groupe de Travail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The report has been written considering the advanced work which has been done by the Expert Committee, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, having the purpose to examine the modifications issued in course of Vienna Convention as well as the Paris convention and the complementary Brussels Convention, in view to adapt the legislation to the actual context and to answer the populations expectations. The work has been organized in three majors chapters: the first one in concerned to the damage definition, proposition to the to reach the environment, the prevention and charges. the research and military installations are also considered. The second chapter has been dedicated to the civil responsibility, its limits, financing modes, the national and international legal competence besides the litigation charges due to the nuclear accidents born on the occasion. In the third chapter the insurance considering the damage nature, the capacity to assure liability coverage and the damage management are harmonized.

  17. Multinationals' accountability on sustainability: the evolution of third-party assurance of sustainability reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Perego; A. Kolk

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore how multinational corporations (MNCs) adopt assurance practices to develop and sustain organizational accountability for sustainability. Using a panel of Fortune Global 250 firms over a period of 10 years, we document the diffusion patterns of third-party assurance of sust

  18. Conflict or Concert? Extending the Simmelian Triad to Account for Positive Third Party Presence in Face-to-Face Interviews with People Living with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Low

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of sociologists and other researchers have focused on the role of third parties since Simmel’s seminal conceptualization of the social organization of the triad. However, less attention has been given to third party presence in qualitative interviews, despite the fact that third party participation in interviews with people with chronic illness and/or disability occurs frequently. Here too it is assumed that third party presence promotes conflict, ignoring the role of third parties as facilitators who enable informants to articulate their perspectives. Therefore, I focus on Simmel’s concept of the triad, concluding that the role of facilitator must be added to the types he describes.

  19. The impact of payer-specific hospital case mix on hospital costs and revenues for third-party patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keon-Hyung; Roh, M P H Chul-Young

    2007-02-01

    Competition among hospitals and managed care have forced hospital industry to be more efficient. With higher degrees of hospital competition and managed care penetration, hospitals have argued that the rate of increase in hospital cost is greater than the rate of increase in hospital revenue. By developing a payer-specific case mix index (CMI) for third-party patients, this paper examined the effect of hospital case mix on hospital cost and revenue for third-party patients in California using the hospital financial and utilization data covering 1986-1998. This study found that the coefficients for CMIs in the third-party hospital revenue model were greater than those in the hospital cost model until 1995. Since 1995, however, the coefficients for CMIs in the third-party hospital revenue model have been less than those in hospital cost models. Over time, the differences in coefficients for CMIs in hospital revenue and cost models for third-party patients have become smaller and smaller although those differences are statistically insignificant.

  20. Role of Third Party Logistics Providers with Advanced it to Increase Customer Satisfaction in Supply Chain Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaryab Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main area of change in organizational strategy is the extensive use of third party logistics providers who are using advanced information technology tools and integration of supply chain to enhance customer satisfaction. By outsourcing the logistics operations, companies can focus on their core competencies and other important areas of organization which can’t be outsourced. The analysis of this paper is conducted by discussing different concepts of supply chain integration, customer satisfaction, advanced information technology and third party logistics providers, and their impact on customer satisfaction with theoretical framework. An analytical model is also presented.

  1. Developing and testing a framework to impose legal liability on Chinese auditors for misstatements

    OpenAIRE

    LU, Yingfa

    2009-01-01

    This thesis first builds a framework to impose professional liability on Chinese auditors for misstatements and then tests the framework by field work. Auditor liability has been a recurring puzzle. This thesis intends to analyze the complex legal relationships among the players in typical auditing litigations, dissect the arguments from both the auditors and plaintiffs, and develop doctrines and check points that could help the litigation parties to evaluate the merits of thei...

  2. Third party access to LNG terminals. GIIGNL - Commercial Study Group Topic 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been elaborated in the context of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group (CSG) activities, which include as one of its topics the 'Third Party Access to LNG terminals' (Topic 8), led by Enagas. The 2010 edition is the third update to the report presented during the meeting of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group in Tokyo, Japan, in September 2007. - Section 1 includes a review of the regulatory TPA regimes of LNG terminals in operation in Europe. The existing regime in each country, or for each terminal, is reviewed following a number of subsections. Each subsection follows the same structure in order to better understand the different arrangements and facilitate comparisons. - Section 2 shows data on effective usage and TPA access to each LNG terminal since 2000. Three main data are shown where available: number of cargoes delivered, volumes unloaded / sent-out, and the part of these cargoes/volumes that correspond to third parties. - Section 3 includes a tariff comparison for TPA to LNG terminals in Europe, taking into account the terms and conditions in force as of July 2010. - A description of the regulatory situation in the US in Sections 4. Access conditions to the three terminals under regulated TPA have been included for the first time: Lake Charles, Cove Point and Elba Island. An overview of Mexico and Canada is also reported. - An overview of the regulatory situation in Japan is provided in Section 5. The information required for the elaboration of this report has been collected from official web sites (LNG operators, regulatory authorities and industry associations), public reports and industry and statistical data Enagas deems to be reliable. For the adoption of certain hypothesis in Section 3 Enagas has also relied in information directly provided by operators

  3. Measuring Service Individuality in Third Party

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Prockl, Günter

    2013-01-01

    to the subject of third party logistics. Findings - As a major result the paper is providing a conceptual model for the systematic and formal description of modularity and individuality in the configuration of third party logistics services. The model thus serves as a tool to classify and categorize degrees...... offerings and how to replicate or (re)design the new services offered. Depending on the level of complexity of the TPL services, firms need also to consider the implications of the replication and/or (re)design on the configuration of the supply chain, especially downstream. Originality/value - The paper...... crosses disciplinary boundaries and combines relevant research streams to provide a sound foundation for the categorization and classification of TPL services and for new service design/development (NSD) and supply chain configuration....

  4. Determinants of Scale Efficiency in the Brazilian Third-Party Logistics Industry from 2001 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the Brazilian third-party logistics (3PL sector which, increasingly competitive, offers clients a wide variety of services/information technologies in the quest to bolster efficiency. The main research objective is to determine which variables significantly impact 3PLs scale efficiency by applying two-stage DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis. Based on an unbalanced panel model, data from the annual study published by Revista Tecnologística (years 2001–2009 were analyzed. Results corroborate evidence in the literature that coordination mechanisms in the supply chain, supported by the availability of real time information and inventory synchronization, favor a more rational allocation of resources (inputs to client demands (outputs.

  5. Service Class Mapping based on Integer Programming Algorithm in the Third Party Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Mali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for mapping of service classes among multiple Internet providers on an end-to-end (E2E path. The third-party (3P approach is assumed for E2E service negotiation, whereas the foundation for class mapping is laid on the integer programming mathematical model. The algorithm selects service classes in domains on the path so that requirements for E2E quality of service (QoS are fulfilled. This selection is based on multiple constraints, referring to performance fulfillment and at the same time aiming to achieve minimal E2E interconnection cost through definition of a single objective function. Performance evaluation has clearly indicated benefits of the proposed algorithm in terms of QoS achievement and decreasing costs, as well as its suitability for services that require stringent QoS guarantees.

  6. A grey DEMATEL approach to develop third-party logistics provider selection criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Khodaverdi, Roohollah; Vafadarnikjoo, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - Third-party logistics (3PL) plays a main role in supply chain management and, as a result, has experienced remarkable growth. The demand for 3PL providers has become a main approach for companies to offer better customer service, reduce costs, and gain competitive advantage. This paper...... identifies important criteria for 3PL provider selection and evaluation, and the purpose of this paper is to select 3PL providers from the viewpoint of firms which were already outsourcing their logistics services. Design/methodology/approach - This study utilized the grey decision-making trial...... criteria and identified the main criteria for 3PL provider selection. The most important criteria for 3PL provider selection are on time delivery performance, technological capability, financial stability, human resource policies, service quality, and customer service, respectively. Practical implications...

  7. 37 CFR 1.948 - Limitations on submission of prior art by third party requester following the order for inter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prior art by third party requester following the order for inter partes reexamination. 1.948 Section 1... Responses (before the Examiner) in Inter Partes Reexamination § 1.948 Limitations on submission of prior art... partes reexamination order, the third party requester may only cite additional prior art as defined...

  8. Regulating third party assurance engagements on sustainability reports in Sweden – issues and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnerfeldt, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The well-institutionalised notion of audits put forth that information subjected to independent examination by third parties potentially contribute to better quality information for decision making (towards more sustainable companies?). The presence of different assurance providers offering a myriad of services in the name of “sustainability assurance” led to concerns about their quality and comparability and as a consequence a call for standards to regulate these services. This study analyse...

  9. Reuse Intention of Third-Party Online Payments: A Focus on the Sustainable Factors of Alipay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongrok Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous transaction environment and the advantage of virtual property have resulted in trust playing an important role in the rapid growth of online shopping in China. To satisfy this trust issue, Alibaba (China Co., Ltd. (Hangzhou, China invented Alipay, the largest third-party online payment service. Using a structural equation model (SEM, this paper attempts to determine whether Alipay’s service quality factors are truly sustainable. The results indicate that only two of five factors—convenience and security—are significantly mediated by the sustainable performance of customer satisfaction as a mediator. The other three factors—usefulness, responsiveness and economy—were rejected for the role of customer satisfaction, even if they are accepted regarding the direct effect on reuse intention. This result implies that Chinese web companies need to make greater efforts not to ensure initial success, but instead to ensure sustainable performance.

  10. 78 FR 45781 - Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies to Conduct Food Safety Audits and to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...-Party Audits and Certification for Food and Food Facilities III. FSMA Imports Public Meeting and... 1 and 16 Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies to Conduct Food Safety Audits... Food Safety Audits and to Issue Certifications AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  11. Transport and repair of contaminated nuclear components - liabilities and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear park has been constructed fairly recently and has not yet required large-scale maintenance efforts; however account should now be taken of the fact that periodic checks of nuclear power plants will imply systematic transfers of irradiated or contaminated materials outside the plants. In this context, the paper reviews the nuclear third party liability regime under the Paris Convention and the Euratom directives on radiation protection. It then describes the cover offered by insurance pools in several European countries. (NEA)

  12. On the Foundations of the Brussels Operational-Realistic Approach to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-05-01

    The scientific community is becoming more and more interested in the research that applies the mathematical formalism of quantum theory to model human decision-making. In this paper, we provide the theoretical foundations of the quantum approach to cognition that we developed in Brussels. These foundations rest on the results of two decade studies on the axiomatic and operational-realistic approaches to the foundations of quantum physics. The deep analogies between the foundations of physics and cognition lead us to investigate the validity of quantum theory as a general and unitary framework for cognitive processes, and the empirical success of the Hilbert space models derived by such investigation provides a strong theoretical confirmation of this validity. However, two situations in the cognitive realm, `question order effects' and `response replicability', indicate that even the Hilbert space framework could be insufficient to reproduce the collected data. This does not mean that the mentioned operational-realistic approach would be incorrect, but simply that a larger class of measurements would be in force in human cognition, so that an extended quantum formalism may be needed to deal with all of them. As we will explain, the recently derived `extended Bloch representation' of quantum theory (and the associated `general tension-reduction' model) precisely provides such extended formalism, while remaining within the same unitary interpretative framework.

  13. On the Foundations of the Brussels Operational-Realistic Approach to Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community is becoming more and more interested in the research that applies the mathematical formalism of quantum theory to model human decision-making. In this paper, we provide the theoretical foundations of the quantum approach to cognition that we developed in Brussels. These foundations rest on the results of two decade studies on the axiomatic and operational-realistic approaches to the foundations of quantum physics. The deep analogies between the foundations of physics and cognition lead us to investigate the validity of quantum theory as a general and unitary framework for cognitive processes, and the empirical success of the Hilbert space models derived by such investigation provides a strong theoretical confirmation of this validity. However, two situations in the cognitive realm, `question order effects' and `response replicability', indicate that even the Hilbert space framework could be insufficient to reproduce the collected data. This does not mean that the mentioned operational-realistic approach would be incorrect, but simply that a larger class of measurements would be in force in human cognition, so that an extended quantum formalism may be needed to deal with all of them. As we will explain, the recently derived `extended Bloch representation' of quantum theory (and the associated `general tension-reduction' model precisely provides such extended formalism, while remaining within the same unitary interpretative framework.

  14. Third party interference monitoring based on distributed fiber sensor and field trail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yongjun; Tan, Dongjie; Juan, Zheng; Wang, Likun; Chen, Pengchao [PetroChina Pipeline R and D Center (China)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a novel pipeline third party interference (TPI) monitoring system, which detects micro vibration along pipeline, through fiber cable laying in one ditch. A special optical path was designed by redundant optical fiber cores among fiber cable. This new sensor technology detects illegal excavation through detect phase changes. This innovative signal analysis technology avoids the disturbance of light intensity fluctuation and phase fading. Excavator, digging and impact of freely falling body were used to test this pipeline monitoring system. Different type of cable, such as straight buried cable, steel wire armored cable and silicone tube, were all test in order to test sensitivity. Field trail shows that this system can detect, alarm and. locate different third party interference along pipeline. (author)

  15. Reuse Intention of Third-Party Online Payments: A Focus on the Sustainable Factors of Alipay

    OpenAIRE

    Yongrok Choi; Lili Sun

    2016-01-01

    An anonymous transaction environment and the advantage of virtual property have resulted in trust playing an important role in the rapid growth of online shopping in China. To satisfy this trust issue, Alibaba (China) Co., Ltd. (Hangzhou, China) invented Alipay, the largest third-party online payment service. Using a structural equation model (SEM), this paper attempts to determine whether Alipay’s service quality factors are truly sustainable. The results indicate that only two of five facto...

  16. Multinationals' accountability on sustainability: the evolution of third-party assurance of sustainability reports

    OpenAIRE

    Perego, P.; Kolk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore how multinational corporations (MNCs) adopt assurance practices to develop and sustain organizational accountability for sustainability. Using a panel of Fortune Global 250 firms over a period of 10 years, we document the diffusion patterns of third-party assurance of sustainability reports. We specifically investigate how evolving auditing practices, namely diversity of assurance standards and type of assurance providers, shape the quality of sustainability assuran...

  17. Insurance of operators liability: the reality principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author's observations commence with -an overview of the principal amendments proposed in relation to the revision of the Paris Convention, in particular the inclusion of preventive measures, the definition of nuclear damage, the notion of reasonableness in respect of preventive measures and measures of reinstatement, increased liability amounts and extended prescription periods. He examines to what extent the insurance industry of today would be able to cover such risks, and the problems or doubts that it may encounter in doing so. This presentation also raises other questions which as yet remain unanswered, in particular the question of priorities and the role that complementary funding, namely the Brussels Supplementary Convention, will play in compensating victims. The author concludes by commenting on the current state of the insurance market. He suggests that before making irreversible political decisions in this field, Contracting Parties should, inter alia, carry out detailed analyses on the adequacy of the financial guarantees, in order to attain existing objectives and eliminate the obstacles which prevent the nuclear insurance market from being a competitive one. The author suggests that it might be in the interests of European nuclear operators to promote an insurance mechanism along the same lines as their American colleagues. (author)

  18. Moral emotions as determinants of third-party punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M. A. Nelissen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of punishment. Low levels of punishment are observed only when neither emotion is elicited. We discuss the implications of these findings for the functions of altruistic sanctions.

  19. Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佩君

    2005-01-01

    Paris, the capital of France, is located in northern France on both banks of the Seine River, 145km from the river’s mouth on the English Channel. A total of 2, 135, 300 inhabitants live in Paris proper, and almost 11 million persons live in greater Paris, which is one of Europe’s largest metropolitan areas. A city of world importance and the business, historic, intellectual, diplomatic, religious, educational, artistic, and tourist center of France, Paris owes its prosperity in large part to its favorable position on the Seine, which has been a major commercial artery since the Roman period.

  20. Puzzlement of Sexual Love and Marriage --A Discussion About the Theory and Practice of Civil Liability Caused by a Third Party%性爱与婚姻的困惑 --“第三者”民事责任的理论与现实之探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周安平

    2001-01-01

    是否应对第三者课以民事责任成为这次婚姻法修改论争的焦点。笔者认为,追究第三者的法律责任缺乏理论支撑,又缺乏现实基础。目前理论上所提出的配偶权,以及由此生发出来的同居义务、贞操义务均无法诠释第三者的法律责任。从现实上来看,第三者问题广泛而且复杂,第三者概念模糊难以界定,其程序也具有不可操作性。因此,第三者问题由道德调整是较为现实的选择。%One of the points at issue about the amendment to Marriage Law is that whether a civil liability should be imposed upon a third party. The author believes the viewpoint that a third party should be investigated under the law is lacking for theoretical support and realistic base. The theory about consortium and duty of cohabitation and duty of chastity in Marriage Law can hardly find a way to investigate the legal responsibility of a third part. According to the social reality at present, the relevant problems concerning a third party are popular and perplex, the concept of a third party is difficult to be defined. And so, the procedure of enforcement is non-operative. According to the facts above -discussed about, the factum juridicum of a third party is readjusted by morality is a more suitable choice.

  1. Research on the Third-party Platform Responsibility of Online Food Trade%网络食品交易第三方平台责任研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋西桐

    2015-01-01

    The greatest highlight of the new Food Safety Law lies in the fact that the rules related to online food trade enters the legal regulation for the first time. This paper expounds the related regulations in the aspects of food safety management responsibility, security supervision, legal liability and so on of the third-party platform provider in online food trade. Based on the Article 62 and Article 131 in the new Food Safety Law, it analyzes the audit and review obligation of third-party platform provider of food trade to online food business operators in the third-party platform, the issues of safety management responsibilities in online food trade, the rules and regulations for the third-party platform provider, etc. It proposes the views that the third-party platform provider of online food trade has the audit and review obligations to online food business operators, the third-party platform provider plays a supporting role of supervision in the food safety management of online trade, the third-party platform provider of the online food trade takes the joint responsibility when consumer rights are violated, etc. The revision of the law undoubtedly promotes the development of internet e-commerce market, and acts as a bridge for the development of food security in online trade.%新《食品安全法》最大亮点在于网络食品交易相关的规范制度首次进入到法律规制当中.本文阐述了新《食品安全法》中网络食品交易第三方平台提供商的食品安全管理责任、安全监管、法律责任等几个方面的相关规定.分析了新《食品安全法》第六十二条、第一百三十一条中对食品交易第三方平台对入网食品经营者有审核、审查的义务,网络食品交易安全管理责任的问题,以及网络食品交易第三方平台提供者规则制度等问题.提出了网络食品交易第三方平台提供者对入网食品经营者具有的审核、审查义务,第三方平台提供者在网

  2. Third-party funding in international arbitration: a menace or panacea?

    OpenAIRE

    Maniruzzaman, Munir

    2011-01-01

    As its Council Member I attended the ICC Institute of World Business Law’s 32nd annual meeting onThird-Party Funding in International Arbitration’ held in Paris on 26 November 2012. It was a grand success as it drew many professionals, arbitrators, experts, academic specialists and, above all, representatives from some major third-party funding bodies such as Burford Group Ltd., Calunius Capital LLP, Fulbrook Management LLC and others, and the discussion and debates generated a great deal o...

  3. How to catch all those mutations--the report of the third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Auerbach, Arleen D;

    2010-01-01

    The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting "Integration and Implementation" was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10-14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health...... disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium........ The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current...

  4. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties....

  5. Integrity management of Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline to reduce risks due third party damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Monte, Oswaldo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colen, Eustaquio; Cunha, Roberto de Souza; Oliveira, Hudson Regis de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Rogerio de Souza [RSL Consultoria Geoprojetos (Brazil); Schultz Neto, Walter [Milton Braga Assessoria Tecnica (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.600 kilometers from Rio Grande City in Bolivia to Canoas City, in the south of Brazil. The right-of-way crosses a lot of types of topography and areas subjected to various kinds of anthropological actions, like areas in class locations 3, locals under agricultural activities, forests and minerals explorations, and near constructions of highway and railway, industrial constructions, new pipelines in the same right-of -way, channels, dams, that requires special projects to avoid that the gas pipeline could be subject to strengths that were not consider in the original design. The aim of this paper is to present the jobs developed by TBG during seven years of gas pipeline operations, as public awareness program, procedures to design, construct and inspect specials constructions along and near the right-of -way, control of mineral and forest explorations, monitoring and controlling of excavations on the right-of-way to install new pipelines and optical cables, to reduce risks of gas pipeline damage due third party, as a component of TBG' Managing Integrity Gas Pipeline Program. (author)

  6. Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC). Presentations and documents submitted to the 28. meeting, OECD Headquarters, Conference Centre, Paris, France, 9-13 May 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEA's nuclear data evaluation co-operation activities involve the following evaluation projects: ENDF (United States), JENDL (Japan), ROSFOND/BROND (Russia), JEFF (other Data Bank member countries) and CENDL (China) in close co-operation with the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The working party was established to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations, validation, and related topics, and to provide a framework for co-operative activities between the participating projects. The working party assesses nuclear data improvement needs and addresses these needs by initiating joint evaluation and/or measurement efforts. The 28. Meeting of the WPEC was the occasion to review the experimental activities, the evaluation projects and the Status of subgroups. This document brings together the available documents of the meeting: 1 - The Reports on experimental activities: Europe (NEA DB), Japan, USA, China; 2 - Some Brief progress reports from the evaluation projects: ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, BROND/ROSFOND, CENDL, IAEA, TENDL; 3 - The Status of subgroups: Subgroup 37 (Improved fission product yield evaluation methodologies); Subgroup 38 (A modern nuclear database structure beyond the ENDF format); Subgroup 39 (Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files); Subgroup 40 (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organisation (CIELO) Pilot Project); Subgroup 41 (Improving nuclear data accuracy of 241Am and 237Np capture cross-sections); Subgroup 42 (Thermal Scattering Kernel S(a,b): Measurement, Evaluation and Application); Subgroup C (High Priority Request List - HPRL); New Subgroups were proposed and presented: 43 - Code infrastructure to support a general nuclear database structure; WPEC long-term sub-group proposal: International standard for a general nuclear database structure

  7. Role of Third Party Logistics Providers with Advanced it to Increase Customer Satisfaction in Supply Chain Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Zaryab Sheikh; Shafaq Rana

    2012-01-01

    The main area of change in organizational strategy is the extensive use of third party logistics providers who are using advanced information technology tools and integration of supply chain to enhance customer satisfaction. By outsourcing the logistics operations, companies can focus on their core competencies and other important areas of organization which can’t be outsourced. The analysis of this paper is conducted by discussing different concepts of supply chain integration, customer sati...

  8. Third party referrals in the venture capital financing process : do network ties matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Heuven, Joris

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the role of third party referrals in the venture capital funding process. Taking network theory as our theoretical perspective we explore if and how third parties play a role in the funding process. Hereby we focus on both the network ties between new venture teams and third parties and the network ties between VC’s and third parties. To do so we collected in depth information on 25 venture capital investment decisions and studied how third parties played a role in t...

  9. The 1988 Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention. Explanatory Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the International Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material, held in Vienna in July 2003, it was noted that there are a number of liability conventions to which many States are Parties but to which many others are not, and that the provisions of the liability conventions and the relationships between them are not simple to understand. It was suggested, therefore, that an explanatory text for these instruments be prepared to assist in developing a common understanding of the complex legal issues involved and thereby to promote adherence to these instruments. In view of this suggestion, and in order to foster an effective, global nuclear liability regime, the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) was established in September 2003. Since its establishment, INLEX has held several meetings, as a result of which it, inter alia, finalized explanatory texts on the nuclear liability instruments adopted under IAEA auspices in 1997, namely, the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. These explanatory texts have since been published as IAEA International Law Series No. 3. Thereafter, INLEX also developed and finalized the present explanatory text on the 1988 Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention. This publication complements IAEA International Law Series No. 3 and comprises the explanatory text on the Joint Protocol and the text of the Joint Protocol as adopted by the Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, which met at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna in September 1988 under the joint auspices of the IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. It is hoped that this publication will further increase the awareness of nuclear liability as an important aspect of nuclear law.

  10. Financial security for nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In almost every country where nuclear insurance pools operate, except for the United States, national nuclear legislation is either based on the principles of the Paris and Vienna nuclear third party liability conventions or is strongly influenced by them. The most important feature of this legislation is the absolute liabilityy of the operator, which simplifies the insurance process by avoiding duplication of cover and minimising the possibility of complex legal questions arising in case of an incident. The paper describes the arrangements for provision of financial security, the prescription period, insurance requirements, legal costs etc. Also, problems connected with the insurance of two or more installations on the same site are analysed. (NEA)

  11. Liability according to civil law regarding border-crossing nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the liability in border-crossing damage caused by a nuclear-reactor accident is divided into two different areas: the liability according to international law of the state, and liability according to civil right of the licensee of a nuclear power plant. In this study attention is paid to the question of the liability according to civil right: is it possible that an aggrieved obtains compensation for damage? This is investigated on the basis of three standard questions of international private law: which judge is qualified, which law is to be applied, and is acknowledgement and execution of foreign sentences possible? First a historical survey is given of international agreements and national legislations regarding third-party liability. (author). 112 refs

  12. Catastrophic events leading to de facto limits on liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study conducts an overview of large technological systems in society to ascertain prevalence, if any, of situations that can lead to catastrophic effects where the resultant liabilities far exceed the insurances or assets subject to suit in court, thereby imposing de facto limits on liability. Several potential situations are examined: dam rupture, aircraft crash into a sports stadium, chemical plant accident, shipping disaster, and a toxic drug disaster. All of these events are estimated to have probabilities per year similar to or larger than a major nuclear accident and they are found to involve potential liability far exceeding the available resources, such as insurance, corporation assets, or government revenues

  13. The Paris Agreement to Ignore Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L Spash

    2016-01-01

    At the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Paris, France, 30 November to 11 December 2015, an Agreement was reached by the international community including 195 countries. The Agreement has been hailed, by participants and the media, as a major turning point for policy in the struggle to address human induced climate change. The following is a short critical commentary in which I briefly explain why ...

  14. The influence of economic incentives on treatment patterns in a third-party funded dental service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, N

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the response of dental practitioners to administration and remuneration adjustments to the Dental Treatment Services Scheme (DTSS) in the Republic of Ireland. DESIGN: Following the introduction of a series of administration and fee adjustments by a third party payments system in December 1999 the pattern of extractions and restorations are examined to determine whether the adjustments had influenced provider behaviour, in particular whether a substitution effect from extractions to restorations would result from a relative fee increase of 62% for amalgam fillings. DATA AND METHODS: Data on patient and provider characteristics from June 1996 to April 2005, collected by the Health Service Executive (HSE) National Shared Services Primary Care Reimbursement Service to facilitate remuneration to dentists providing services in the DTSS, was used in this analysis. A graphical analysis of the data revealed a structural break in the time-series and an apparent substitution to amalgam fillings following the introduction of the fee increases. To test the statistical significance of this break, the ratio of amalgams to restorations was regressed on the trend, growth and level dummy variables, using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression. The diagnostics of the model were assessed using the Jarque-Bera normality test and the LM to test for serial correlation. RESULTS: The initial results showed no evidence of a structural break. However on further investigation, when a pulse dummy was included to account for the immediate impact of the fee adjustment the results suggest a unit root process with a structural break in December 1999. This implies that the amalgam fee increase of December 1999 influenced the behaviour patterns of providers. CONCLUSIONS: System changes can be used to change the emphasis from a scheme that was principally exodontia\\/emergency based to a scheme that is more conservative and based on restoration\\/prevention.

  15. Hotel Overbooking and Cooperation with Third-Party Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Dong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hotels cooperate with third-party websites to enhance their competitive position and attain sustainable development in the era of e-commerce. Furthermore, hotel managers overbook to hedge against last-minute cancellations and customer no-shows. This paper discusses pricing and overbooking strategies of a hotel in the context of cooperation with multiple third-party websites and analyzes how these strategies influence the cooperation process. The increase in profits resulting from the overbooking strategy is also examined. A model of a Stackelberg game between the hotel and third-party websites and a Nash game among the third-party websites are developed to analyze the process. Results indicate that the compensation coefficient has a slight influence on hotel pricing strategy, but causes a sharp decrease in overbooking level. As the hotel demands to lessen the probability of denying under higher compensation rate, the third-party websites would exert less sales effort to reduce the demand of online customers. Results also show that under a given market demand, hotel effort only serves to redistribute market shares among the hotel and third-party websites, without influencing hotel pricing and overbooking decisions. Specifically, the market shares of the third-party websites decrease in the effort level of the hotel resulting from an increase in the hotel market share. Finally, in the numerical example where one hotel and two websites are analyzed, hotel overbooking strategy improves hotel profit by 4.20%, whereas profit improvements for Websites 1 and 2 are as high as 5.26% and 5.21%, respectively. Managerial implications of the study are also provided.

  16. Dogs Identify Agents in Third-Party Interactions on the Basis of the Observed Degree of Contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauzin, Tibor; Kovács, Krisztina; Topál, József

    2016-08-01

    To investigate whether dogs could recognize contingent reactivity as a marker of agents' interaction, we performed an experiment in which dogs were presented with third-party contingent events. In the perfect-contingency condition, dogs were shown an unfamiliar self-propelled agent (SPA) that performed actions corresponding to audio clips of verbal commands played by a computer. In the high-but-imperfect-contingency condition, the SPA responded to the verbal commands on only two thirds of the trials; in the low-contingency condition, the SPA responded to the commands on only one third of the trials. In the test phase, the SPA approached one of two tennis balls, and then the dog was allowed to choose one of the balls. The proportion of trials on which a dog chose the object indicated by the SPA increased with the degree of contingency: Dogs chose the target object significantly above chance level only in the perfect-contingency condition. This finding suggests that dogs may use the degree of temporal contingency observed in third-party interactions as a cue to identify agents. PMID:27268590

  17. Evolutionary approach to violating group anonymity using third-party data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavrov, Dan; Chertov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    In the era of Big Data, it is almost impossible to completely restrict access to primary non-aggregated statistical data. However, risk of violating privacy of individual respondents and groups of respondents by analyzing primary data has not been reduced. There is a need in developing subtler methods of data protection to come to grips with these challenges. In some cases, individual and group privacy can be easily violated, because the primary data contain attributes that uniquely identify individuals and groups thereof. Removing such attributes from the dataset is a crude solution and does not guarantee complete privacy. In the field of providing individual data anonymity, this problem has been widely recognized, and various methods have been proposed to solve it. In the current work, we demonstrate that it is possible to violate group anonymity as well, even if those attributes that uniquely identify the group are removed. As it turns out, it is possible to use third-party data to build a fuzzy model of a group. Typically, such a model comes in a form of a set of fuzzy rules, which can be used to determine membership grades of respondents in the group with a level of certainty sufficient to violate group anonymity. In the work, we introduce an evolutionary computing based method to build such a model. We also discuss a memetic approach to protecting the data from group anonymity violation in this case. PMID:26844025

  18. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy Conv - 09. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on Convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( Conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

  19. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy conv - 09. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

  20. ECHR rules on liability of ISPs as a restriction of freedom of speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husovec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) in Strasbourg handed down its first case concerning the liability of intermediaries. A ruling of the Estonian Supreme Court that imposed broad liability and a general monitoring obligation upon an internet news portal vis-a-vis third party comments made on

  1. Value-added norms, local litigation, and global enforcement : why the Brussels-philosophy failed in The Hague

    OpenAIRE

    Calliess, Gralf-Peter

    2005-01-01

    In the early Nineties the Hague Conference on International Private Law on initiative of the United States started negotiations on a Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (the "Hague Convention").[1] In October 1999 the Special Commission on duty presented a preliminary text,[2] which was drafted quite closely to the European Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (the "Brussels Conve...

  2. Power, Identity, and Organizational Structure as Reflected in Schools for Minority Groups: A Case Study of Jewish Schools in Paris, Brussels, and Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the linkages between organizational structure, power relations, and group identities within the private schools operated by the francophone Jewish communities of Brussels, Paris, and Geneva. A school's organizational structure and balance of power reflect its identity and its conceptual world. That is, its organizational…

  3. Muziek en natievorming in België: het muziekleven te Brussel 1830-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Buyens

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Koen Buyens, Music and nation building in BelgiumThe article examines the Brussels music scene (1830-1850 in relation to the efforts made at the time with regard to nation building after the Belgian Revolution of 1830. The first part focuses on François-Joseph Fétis, who was appointed director of the Brussels conservatorium in 1832. In this capacity, Fétis intended to model both the Brussels music scene and the national music scene according to his own clear-cut ideas. In the second part it is argued that musical life in Brussels was suffused with a military spirit. The music of military bands was probably the core element of the urban soundscape. The third part concentrates on the obstacles that hampered the country’s musical development. The crushing preponderance of Paris reduced the Belgian capital to a place of servile imitation. From 1840 onwards this provoked heated reactions among the early advocates of the Flemish case, who soon fell under the spell of German music.

  4. Ombuds’ corner: the third party, the institution

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    “The Ombuds shall provide confidential assistance for the informal resolution of interpersonal issues, in the interests of the good functioning of CERN.”*   In any institution, conflicts are inevitable. They can, however, offer an opportunity for a positive resolution. Relationships in a workplace are generally better and stronger between people who have been able to reach a positive resolution of their disagreement, than they are between people who get along moderately well. However, in disputes involving two antagonistic parties, people often forget that there is actually a third party behind the scenes: the institution. It is sometimes surprising to see that even people holding management responsibilities or hierarchical positions in projects fight each other, and completely forget that they are accountable for the good functioning of CERN. Commitment and professionalism are part of the five priority values of CERN, as expressed in its Code of Conduct: “Promot...

  5. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, René A; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Pham, Huyên; Taflin, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the third volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by René Carmona, Ivar Ekeland/Erik Taflin, Arturo Kohatsu-Higa, Pierre-Louis Lions/Jean-Michel Lasry, and Hyuên Pham.

  6. HAZOP implementation on a major North Sea project, the Ninian third party entrants project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.D.J.; Killick, R.C.; Bonner, M.; Gilbert, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    The paper will provide an insight into the role of HAZOP in a complex North Sea project involving three significant new sub-sea developments--Lyell, Staffa and Strathspey--operated by third parties and tied back to two existing Ninian platforms, Central and Southern. Major platform modifications were required involving both new process systems and the revamping of existing facilities, all whilst maintaining existing production. This presented substantial technical, project and safety related challenges of a type not hitherto encountered by North Sea operators. An integral part of the project plan was the comprehensive use of HAZOP as a core activity in ensuring that corporate safety and project operability objectives were met. HAZOP was seen as an important element in Chevron`s Ninian Safety Case as the primary tool for hazard identification. The successful application of HAZOP in this complex brown field development required a range of measures, some often overlooked and some involving innovative HAZOP methodology and these are detailed.

  7. Free-riding on altruistic punishment? An experimental comparison of third-party-punishment in a stand-alone and in an in-group environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewisch Peter; OTTONE, Stefania; PONZANO, Ferruccio

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the subject of third-party punishment. The paper compares, by means of an economic experiment, punishment by a third party (Stand-Alone case) with punishment by third parties (In-Group environment). This deliberate introduction of a second potential punisher is neither subtle nor marginal. Shifting punishment choices into this "enlarged environment" allows us to study, in a systematic way, the complex relationship between the punisher's expectations about her/his peer's ...

  8. Insurance Cover for Revised Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial security to be provided to victims of an incident at a nuclear installation is the main objective of international nuclear liability conventions. As from the introduction of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy in 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Liability for Nuclear Damage in 1963 insurers have been prepared to provide the financial capacity needed to cover the liability under both conventions. They did so in close co-operation with the competent national and international authorities, which has resulted in the insurability of as much of the nuclear liability under the conventions as possible. This tradition of co-operation between authorities and insurers was extended to include the revision negotiations regarding the above conventions, which were concluded in 1997 and 2004 respectively. This has resulted in the insurability of by far the largest part of the convention based liability. However, some heads of damage have been introduced about which insurers had expressed concerns as to their likelihood to attract insurance support. In view of the explicit choice by Convention States to include the uninsurable heads of damage into the revised conventions one would expect that liability for them would fall upon national Governments. This would reflect practice in a number of States, which already assume liability for uninsurable mandatory liabilities for a long time. Nonetheless some other States now seem reluctant to do so, the resulting deadlock having a tendency to manifest itself in a negative perception of the insurance industry. Insurers are therefore appreciative of the forum provided by the CNS to once again explain the areas where problems as regards insurability have arisen and why this is the case. This presentation will show that those areas are few in number and notably relate to a limited number of environmental damages as well as the extension of prescription periods. Furthermore, thoughts will

  9. Regime of liability and compensation for damage arising out of non-retrievable waste disposal (disposal into the sea, under the seabed or in deep geological formations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-retrievable disposal of radioactive waste poses third party liability problems of a special kind, which result from the long-term hazards of waste and from the difficulties of proving causality between damage and the damaging occurrence. Both the Paris and the Vienna Conventions are not quite clear as to whether or not damage caused by non-retrievable disposal of waste is covered. The author favours an interpretation, based on both the wording and the objects of the Conventions, to the effect that the Conventions do cover that type of disposal. However, they are not adequate instruments to solve the special long-range problems of nuclear waste disposal. Instruments other than those supplied by civil liability law have to be created and funds for compensation should be established. (NEA)

  10. 工伤保险赔偿与第三人侵权损害赔偿竞合情形的裁判进路——论部分兼得模式的选择%An Approach to Trial of Concurrence between Insurance Indemnity of Industrial Injury and Third Party Infringement Compensation --On Choosing Partial Compatibility Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田庚

    2011-01-01

    对工伤保险赔偿与第三人侵权损害赔偿案件的裁判,理论界存在选择模式、取代模式、补充模式、兼得模式等争议。我国包括侵权责任法在内的相关法律对此未作出明确规定,实务界对两者关系的法律适用认识不一,案件裁判的尺度也不统一,损害了司法公信和权威。正确处理两者关系,应该准确认识和把握工伤保险赔偿和第三人侵权损害赔偿的性质,厘定主体问利益冲突的合理平衡点,在遵循侵权损害填补规则的基础上,区分两种不同制度的特点和功能,按照两者赔偿项目的不同性质进行分类处理,适用“部分兼得模式”的裁判进路。%As to the judgment of cases with respect to insurance indemnity of industrial injury and third party infringement compensation, there are theoretical controversies over choice mode, replacement mode, supplement mode and compatibility mode. No definite provisions regarding this issue can be found in China' s relevant laws including "Tort Liability Law of the People' s Republic of China" ; the practice circle fails to reach a consensus over legal application of the relation between them; and there is no unified standard for case trial. Public confidence and authority in judicial system is accordingly damaged. To handle the relation between them, it is vital to gain an adequate understanding of the nature of insurance indemnity of industrial injury and third party infringement compensation and to determine the rational equalization point of the interests amid all the parties involved. Besides, the two compensating systems should be differentiated in terms of their characteristics and functions based on the rule of compensating tort damages. The two systems are tackled differently according to the different nature of compensations by adopting partial compatibility mode.

  11. What Motivates Lay Third Parties to Take Sides in a Conflict? Examining the Relationships between the Big Five Personality Traits and Side-taking Motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huadong; Li, Chaoping; Wang, Qing; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn

    2011-01-01

    Taking sides is one of the reactions available to third parties in handling a dispute. From the perspective of individual differences, this study was aimed at identifying lay third parties' motives for side taking and exploring their relations with the Big Five personality traits. We tested our assu

  12. Acorn And The 2008 Presidential Election Campaign: Perspectives On Alleged Third-Party Voter-Registration Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Joyce

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The individual act of registering to vote is a first and exceedingly important step toward the full realization of each citizen’s participation in our democracy. A person registering to vote may elect to do so by mail-in form, contemporaneous to completing an application for a driver’s license, or by interaction with a representative of any number of voter-mobilization organizations active in this country. This Note focuses on the latter method of registration by examining third-party voter mobilization organizations, with specific reference to allegations of fraud perpetrated by one such group, the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN. While acknowledging genuine instances of fraud, the Note seeks equally to address the function of partisanship in animating allegations of fraud and the deleterious impact that politically motivated allegations have on the franchise and our elections.

  13. Cornerstone Third Party Alternative Cost Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The attached cost analyses sheets have been developed for use in planning during the Third Party Alternative study currently underway for the Sandia CREATE project. This cost analysis builds upon the previously submitted base estimate dated June 14, 2013 and includes comparison information collected during a Market Validation exercise conducted in August/September 2013.

  14. The Influence of Economic and Social Factors on the Choice of Search Procedures Used by Third Party Recruiters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije de Goede

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations employ the services of third party recruiters in order to find suitable candidates for their free positions. Yet, we still know little about what drives search agents to use the specific recruitment tools they use. Based on institutional theory, we predicted three economic (costs and time investment, speed and longevity and three social factors (reactions by client organizations and by candidates, diffusion in the field to influence search agents' choice of recruitment procedures. Additionally, institutional theory suggested several moderators such as the contract structure between the search agent and their clients, the likelihood of follow-up work, the availability of suitable candidates and the economic uncertainty in the field. Assumptions were tested via an online-survey distributed to 149 search agents working in the Netherlands. Hierarchical linear modelling generally supported the relevance of the economic and social predictors proposed as well as the working of several, albeit not all, moderators proposed.

  15. 77 FR 37638 - Noncommercial Educational Station Fundraising for Third-Party Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Noncommercial Educational Station Fundraising for Third-Party Non-Profit... activities that interrupt regular programming for the benefit of third-party non-profit organizations. This... stations more flexibility in choosing which non-profit entities to support through on-air...

  16. Professor Gerschenkron goes to Brussels. Russian Catch-up Economics and the Common European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hedlund

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions between Russia and the EU on the formation of a Common European Economic Space bring back to mind Alexander Gerschenkron's classic essay on economic backwardness in historical perspective. This paper argues that the institutions that once produced a specific kind of catch-up economics in Czarist Russia still remain largely the same. Unless negotiations between Moscow and Brussels take into consideration such fundamental institutional incompatibility, attempts at harmonization, expressed by Brussels as an attempt tp spread Western values, will be doomed to fail. A cynical conlusion views potential convergence as adaptation by Brussels to traditional Russian institutional patterns of rule evasion, rather than a Westernization of Russia

  17. 第三方物流企业开发线上供应链金融服务研究%Research on Third -party Logistics Companies to Develop Online Financial Services Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐维莉

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet technology,online supply chain finance has become a new direction for the development of supply chain finance is the focus areas of numerous third -party logistics companies,financial institutions and the electricity supplier of common concern.This article from the perspective of a third -party logistics companies,analyzes the advantages to develop online financial services products supply chain,to build around online supply chain finance platform functionality,describes the contents of the supply chain and financial services operational processes,to third -party logistics companies development of supply chain finance value -added services to provide reference.%伴随着互联网技术的快速发展,线上供应链金融已成为供应链金融发展的新方向,是众多第三方物流企业、金融机构及电商共同关注的焦点领域。文中从第三方物流企业角度,分析了开发线上供应链金融服务产品的优势,围绕线上供应链金融平台功能的搭建,介绍了供应链金融服务项目的内容及运作流程,以期为第三方物流企业开发供应链金融增值服务提供参考。

  18. Hotel Overbooking and Cooperation with Third-Party Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Yufeng Dong; Liuyi Ling

    2015-01-01

    Hotels cooperate with third-party websites to enhance their competitive position and attain sustainable development in the era of e-commerce. Furthermore, hotel managers overbook to hedge against last-minute cancellations and customer no-shows. This paper discusses pricing and overbooking strategies of a hotel in the context of cooperation with multiple third-party websites and analyzes how these strategies influence the cooperation process. The increase in profits resulting from the overbook...

  19. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary L. Burkhardt; Alred E. Crouch

    2005-04-01

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 0.7 mile. Unexpected results were that the electrical impedance from the operating pipelines to the soil was very low and, therefore, the changes in impedance and signal resulting from third-party contact were unexpectedly low. Future work will involve further refinement of the method to resolve the issues with small signal change and additional testing on operating pipelines.

  20. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

    2004-10-01

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results show that simulated contact can be detected. Future work will involve further refinement of the method and testing on operating pipelines.

  1. Signaling Corporate Social Responsibility: Third-Party Certification vs. Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Etilé, Fabrice; Teyssier, SABRINA

    2012-01-01

    For most consumers, Corporate Social Responsibility is a credence attribute of products, which can be signaled either through a label certified by a third party, or through unsubstantiated claims used as part of a brand building strategy. These claims might be, in theory, self-regulated by reputation mechanisms and the awareness of NGOs and activists. We use an experimental posted offer market with sellers and buyers to compare the impact of these signaling strategies on market efficiency. Bo...

  2. Review of legislation on civil liability for nuclear damage; Revision de la legislacion relativa a la responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez-Moran, E.

    2011-07-01

    The entry into force of Law 12/2011 is postponed until the Protocols modifying the Paris and Brussels conventions take effect, since their content complements that of the Conventions. The most significant modifications are the extension of the suppositions of nuclear damage, the geographical scope of application and the time period for claiming personal damages, which is accompanied by higher coverage limits of up to 1,200 million euros. It also includes liability for damages caused by radioactive materials in the custody of the installation owner. (Author)

  3. Research on logistics cost control of third party logistics enterprises%探究第三方物流企业成本的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小妹

    2015-01-01

    The third party logistics is still in the developing stage.In terms of logistics cost,there are some third party lo-gistics enterprises can not provide the service of the logistics products accurate cost control,coupled with the service product re-lated cost information is not clear,which directly leads to the logistics service pricing distortion and logistics cost control failure. On the basis of fully understanding of the structure of the third party logistics enterprises,the logistics enterprises in the process of its cost control problems,for the third party logistics enterprises to reduce logistics costs specific measures to play the core competitive advantage of the third party logistics enterprises,thereby promoting economic and social development.%第三方物流概念在我国仍处于发展阶段。就物流成本而言,有部分第三方物流企业不能对其所提供服务的物流产品进行准确的成本控制,加上对服务产品相关成本信息掌握不清,从而直接导致了物流服务定价失真和物流成本控制失效。在充分了解第三方物流企业成本结构的基础上,认识物流企业在其成本控制过程中存在的问题,为第三方物流企业提出降低物流成本具体的措施,发挥第三方物流企业的核心竞争优势,从而促进经济社会的发展。

  4. The State of Play of the Recast of the Brussels I Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2012-01-01

    Brussels I should also apply to cases where the defendant is domiciled outside Europe. Second, it proposes to abolish exequatur. Third, the Commission proposes to make jurisdiction agreements more efficient in order to avoid ‘Italian Torpedoes’, and fourthly, it also proposes provisions enhancing the...... efficiency of arbitration agreements where a party is trying to avoid arbitration....

  5. 48 CFR 752.228-7 - Insurance-liability to third persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of them purchase an automobile within the Cooperating Country, the Contractor agrees to make certain..., $5,000. The premium costs for such insurance shall not be a reimbursable cost under this...

  6. 19 CFR 163.8 - Third-party recordkeeper summons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... served on the person, or on any officer or employee of the person, with respect to whose liability for... intimidation, bribery, or collusion; or (iii) To flee to avoid prosecution, testifying, or production...

  7. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary L. Burkhardt

    2005-12-31

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring the pipeline and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating (thus resulting in a signal path to ground) changes the signal received at the receiving stations. The IACC method was shown to be a viable method that can be used to continuously monitor pipelines for third-party contact. Electrical connections to the pipeline can be made through existing cathodic protection (CP) test points without the need to dig up the pipe. The instrumentation is relatively simple, consisting of (1) a transmitting station with a frequency-stable oscillator and amplifier and (2) a receiving station with a filter, lock-in amplifier, frequency-stable oscillator, and remote reporting device (e.g. cell phone system). Maximum distances between the transmitting and receiving stations are approximately 1.61 km (1 mile), although the length of pipeline monitored can be twice this using a single transmitter and one receiver on each side (since the signal travels in both directions). Certain conditions such as poor pipeline coatings or strong induced 60-Hz signals on the pipeline can degrade IACC performance, so localized testing should be performed to determine the suitability for an IACC installation at a given

  8. 20 CFR 10.706 - How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL has determined that action against a third party is...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL... Third Party Liability § 10.706 How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL has determined that action... is transferred to SOL, a second notification may be issued....

  9. Nature and finality of liability insurance support to nuclear operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the specific features of the law originated from the Paris Convention of 1960 is described: strict liability channeled on the operator, the both principles being already underlying in the insurance policies delivered to nuclear operators before their introduction in the internal legislation of the countries that ratified the convention. Then the specific services expected from the liability Insurer are reviewed and the method now prevailing for a rating approach of the risks is analyzed. The new rating techniques that could be justified by speeding up the erection program of nuclear plants through the world are surveyed

  10. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy

  11. Both Loved and Feared: Third Party Punishers Are Viewed as Formidable and Likeable, but These Reputational Benefits May Only Be Open to Dominant Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    David S Gordon; Madden, Joah R; Lea, Stephen E. G.

    2014-01-01

    Third party punishment can be evolutionarily stable if there is heterogeneity in the cost of punishment or if punishers receive a reputational benefit from their actions. A dominant position might allow some individuals to punish at a lower cost than others and by doing so access these reputational benefits. Three vignette-based studies measured participants' judgements of a third party punisher in comparison to those exhibiting other aggressive/dominant behaviours (Study 1), when there was v...

  12. European Research Framework Programme. Research on Climate Change. Prepared for the Third World Climate Conference (WCC-3) and the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP-15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication gathers the abstracts of European research projects on climate change and related to climate change which have been completed recently or are ongoing under the sixth and seventh framework programmes for research. This document aims at providing a relevant overview of research activities on climate change funded by the European Community to participants to the third World Climate Conference held in Geneva in August 2009 and to the UNFCCC 15th Conference of the Parties meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009.

  13. Polyclonal Recipient nTregs Are Superior to Donor or Third-Party Tregs in the Induction of Transplantation Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Pilat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Induction of donor-specific tolerance is still considered as the “Holy Grail” in transplantation medicine. The mixed chimerism approach is virtually the only tolerance approach that was successfully translated into the clinical setting. We have previously reported successful induction of chimerism and tolerance using cell therapy with recipient T regulatory cells (Tregs to avoid cytotoxic recipient treatment. Treg therapy is limited by the availability of cells as large-scale expansion is time-consuming and associated with the risk of contamination with effector cells. Using a costimulation-blockade based bone marrow (BM transplantation (BMT model with Treg therapy instead of cytoreductive recipient treatment we aimed to determine the most potent Treg population for clinical translation. Here we show that CD4+CD25+ in vitro activated nTregs are superior to TGFβ induced iTregs in promoting the induction of chimerism and tolerance. Therapy with nTregs (but not iTregs led to multilineage chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in mice receiving as few as 0.5 × 106 cells. Moreover, we show that only recipient Tregs, but not donor or third-party Tregs, had a beneficial effect on BM engraftment at the tested doses. Thus, recipient-type nTregs significantly improve chimerism and tolerance and might be the most potent Treg population for translation into the clinical setting.

  14. The Dark Side of Altruistic Third-Party Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrandt, Andreas; Lopez-Perez, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This article experimentally studies punishment from unaffected third parties in ten different games. The authors show that third-party punishment exhibits several features that are arguably undesirable. First, third parties punish strongly a decider if she chooses a socially efficient or a Pareto efficient allocation and becomes the richest party…

  15. 75 FR 51016 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Requirements for... Flammable Fabrics Act relating to clothing textiles. The Commission is issuing this notice of requirements... Products; Clothing Textiles: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Assessment...

  16. Identity-b(i)ased intervention of third parties: The effects of social categorization during mediation-arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Loschelder, David D.; Silke Bündgens; Roman Trötschel

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates the effects of social categorization on the intervention behavior of third parties who engage in the hybrid dispute resolution procedure of mediation-arbitration (Ross & Conlon, 2000). Specifically, it was predicted that an affiliation to a disputant leads third parties to favor the affiliated ingroup disputant over an unaffiliated outgroup disputant. Two studies support these predictions by demonstrating that unilaterally affiliated third parties engage in i...

  17. To Defer or To Stand Up? How Offender Formidability Affects Third Party Moral Outrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2011-01-01

    , therefore, be sensitive to these cost- benefit trade-offs. To test this argument, participants read scenarios containing exploitative acts (trivial vs. serious) and were presented with head-shot photos of the apparent exploiters (formidable vs. non-formidable). As predicted, results showed that, compared...

  18. 78 FR 23545 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Third Party Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Third Party Conformity... collection regarding a form used to evaluate whether third party conformity assessment bodies meet the requirements to test for compliance to specified children's product safety rules. Third party...

  19. Study on the Third Party's Right of Subrogation and the Insurer's Right of Defense under Liability Insurance%责任保险下第三者请求权与保险人抗辩权的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏同江; 高伟

    2011-01-01

    责任保险是指以被保险人对第三者依法应负的赔偿责任为保险标的的保险。在责任保险中,为了保护第三者的合法权益,我国保险法赋予第三者在特定情况下有权就其应获赔偿部分直接向保险人请求赔偿保险金。但对于保险人能否以他与被保险人之间的抗辩事由来对抗第三者,我国保险法未加明确,有待于进一步完善。%Liability insurance refers to insurance against liability for the third party in order to protect the legitimate interests of third parties under the liability insurance.Chinese insurance law gives the third party right to be entitled to directly exercise

  20. Third Party Payments: Alternative Funding Sources for Drug Abuse Treatment Programs. Trainer's Manual and Trainee's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesman, Ira

    This set of materials is designed to provide helping professionals with sufficient understanding of third-party payment systems so they are able to determine the feasibility of obtaining reimbursement for service, identify potential third-party payers, assess implications of introducing a third-party payments system, and develop a plan for…

  1. Third-party biller compliance guidance emphasizes risk awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, R J

    1999-03-01

    The voluntary compliance guidance for third-party billing companies released by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) in December 1998, like the OIG's previously released guidance directed at hospitals, home health agencies, and clinical laboratories, identifies seven minimum elements for an effective corporate compliance program: written compliance policies, designation of a compliance officer, ongoing training, open lines of communication, guidelines to ensure the enforcement of compliance standards, internal monitoring and auditing of compliance activity, and procedures to respond to and correct errors. Three areas of concern for third-party billing companies are emphasized in the new guidance document: compliance risk, claims documentation, and disclosure of suspected misconduct or fraud.

  2. Evaluating the impact of third-party price reporting and other drivers on residential photovoltaic price estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Policy-makers typically track the rapidly evolving U.S. residential photovoltaic (PV) market by relying on price data reported by PV installers/integrators to incentive programs. Recent years have witnessed a shift toward third-party-owned (TPO) business models, in which the absence of a cash purchase price obscures data interpretation. Appraisals—often based on estimates of the average fair market value across a diverse fleet of systems—are one way TPO prices are reported. Scope: This study investigates residential PV system price drivers to improve the accuracy, consistency, and relevance of PV price-tracking efforts. Our econometric approach evaluates system price drivers using California Solar Initiative data, controlling for system, installer, and geographic variables. Conclusions: We find that reported prices for confirmed appraised systems are $1.13/W higher than non-appraised systems and do not respond to hypothesized price drivers. For non-appraised systems, we find preliminary evidence of market distortions based on the impact of the incentive level, module cost and household income on reported price. Further, unspecified installer heterogeneity—possibly due to differences in products, cost structure or reporting practices—is a substantial price driver. Using estimates, we develop a price model to approximate non-appraised system prices. -- Highlights: •This analysis evaluates residential PV price drivers using an econometric model. •Reported prices for appraised systems are $1.13/W higher than non-appraised. •Reported prices for appraised systems do not respond to expected price drivers. •We find some evidence of market distortions in non-appraised systems. •Installer heterogeneity is a substantial price driver for all systems

  3. Limiting the liability of the nuclear operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the questioning of a fundamental principle of the special nuclear third party liability regime by certain NEA countries: the limitation of the nuclear operator's liability. This regime, set up since the late fifties at European then at worldwide level, had until now been widely adopted in the national legislation of most of the countries with a nuclear power programme. The author analyses the different arguments in favour of restoring unlimited liability for the nuclear operator and attempts to define its implications for the future of the nuclear third party liability regime in NEA countries. (NEA)

  4. Both loved and feared: third party punishers are viewed as formidable and likeable, but these reputational benefits may only be open to dominant individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Gordon

    Full Text Available Third party punishment can be evolutionarily stable if there is heterogeneity in the cost of punishment or if punishers receive a reputational benefit from their actions. A dominant position might allow some individuals to punish at a lower cost than others and by doing so access these reputational benefits. Three vignette-based studies measured participants' judgements of a third party punisher in comparison to those exhibiting other aggressive/dominant behaviours (Study 1, when there was variation in the success of punishment (Study 2, and variation in the status of the punisher and the type of punishment used (Study 3. Third party punishers were judged to be more likeable than (but equally dominant as those who engaged in other types of dominant behaviour (Study 1, were judged to be equally likeable and dominant whether their intervention succeeded or failed (Study 2, and participants believed that only a dominant punisher could intervene successfully (regardless of whether punishment was violent or non-violent and that subordinate punishers would face a higher risk of retaliation (Study 3. The results suggest that dominance can dramatically reduce the cost of punishment, and that while individuals can gain a great deal of reputational benefit from engaging in third party punishment, these benefits are only open to dominant individuals. Taking the status of punishers into account may therefore help explain the evolution of third party punishment.

  5. Both loved and feared: third party punishers are viewed as formidable and likeable, but these reputational benefits may only be open to dominant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David S; Madden, Joah R; Lea, Stephen E G

    2014-01-01

    Third party punishment can be evolutionarily stable if there is heterogeneity in the cost of punishment or if punishers receive a reputational benefit from their actions. A dominant position might allow some individuals to punish at a lower cost than others and by doing so access these reputational benefits. Three vignette-based studies measured participants' judgements of a third party punisher in comparison to those exhibiting other aggressive/dominant behaviours (Study 1), when there was variation in the success of punishment (Study 2), and variation in the status of the punisher and the type of punishment used (Study 3). Third party punishers were judged to be more likeable than (but equally dominant as) those who engaged in other types of dominant behaviour (Study 1), were judged to be equally likeable and dominant whether their intervention succeeded or failed (Study 2), and participants believed that only a dominant punisher could intervene successfully (regardless of whether punishment was violent or non-violent) and that subordinate punishers would face a higher risk of retaliation (Study 3). The results suggest that dominance can dramatically reduce the cost of punishment, and that while individuals can gain a great deal of reputational benefit from engaging in third party punishment, these benefits are only open to dominant individuals. Taking the status of punishers into account may therefore help explain the evolution of third party punishment. PMID:25347781

  6. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation.

  7. The Energy Act 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part II of This Act came into force on 1 September 1983 and is concerned with nuclear installations. Its main purpose is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to give effect to the provisions of two Protocols amending the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention respectively. The principal effect of these modifications is to increase the sums available to meet claims for nuclear damage. The United Kingdom is a Party to both Conventions and the provisions of the 1983 Act will enable it to ratify the Protocols. (NEA)

  8. Identity-b(iased intervention of third parties: The effects of social categorization during mediation-arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D Loschelder

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the effects of social categorization on the intervention behavior of third parties who engage in the hybrid dispute resolution procedure of mediation-arbitration (Ross & Conlon, 2000. Specifically, it was predicted that an affiliation to a disputant leads third parties to favor the affiliated ingroup disputant over an unaffiliated outgroup disputant. Two studies support these predictions by demonstrating that unilaterally affiliated third parties engage in ingroup favoritism during arbitration, whereas non-affiliated third-parties (Study 1 & 2 and third parties affiliated to both disputants (Study 2 imposed balanced settlements. In addition to this, both studies identify third parties’ decision control, inherent to the two phases of mediation-arbitration as a relevant moderating variable for the emergence of this effect.

  9. The nuclear liability conventions as applied to radioactive waste geological repositories: the test of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    waste was addressed by legal and technical experts, particularly within the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. As a result of this study, the technical scope of the Paris Convention was modified in a two-step approach. First, it was agreed that facilities for the disposal of RW during the period before their ultimate closure should be considered as 'nuclear installations' in the meaning of the Convention. Second, on the occasion of the current revision of the Convention, the definition of 'nuclear installations' has been amended so as to include, without the earlier qualification, those intended for the disposal of radioactive waste.5 This welcome clarification does not however answer some legal questions stemming from the fact that the disposal of RW implies the possibility that damage, if any, may not occur before several hundred or thousand years. In other words, one wonders whether a system of third-party liability designed to apply to today's risk of nuclear activities is adequate to cover extremely long-term hazards, for example those associated with RW repositories in deep geological formations. The time-scale involved here is in itself a challenge to the imagination. It also points to the central policy issue of the management of RW, that is the duty to safeguard the rights of future generations to a preserved environment; thereby ensuring the reliability of the liability and compensation schemes. (author)

  10. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  11. Using Third Party Data to Update a Reference Dataset in a Quality Evaluation Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, E. M. A.; Ariza-López, F. J.; Ureña-Cámara, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays it is easy to find many data sources for various regions around the globe. In this 'data overload' scenario there are few, if any, information available about the quality of these data sources. In order to easily provide these data quality information we presented the architecture of a web service for the automation of quality control of spatial datasets running over a Web Processing Service (WPS). For quality procedures that require an external reference dataset, like positional accuracy or completeness, the architecture permits using a reference dataset. However, this reference dataset is not ageless, since it suffers the natural time degradation inherent to geospatial features. In order to mitigate this problem we propose the Time Degradation & Updating Module which intends to apply assessed data as a tool to maintain the reference database updated. The main idea is to utilize datasets sent to the quality evaluation service as a source of 'candidate data elements' for the updating of the reference database. After the evaluation, if some elements of a candidate dataset reach a determined quality level, they can be used as input data to improve the current reference database. In this work we present the first design of the Time Degradation & Updating Module. We believe that the outcomes can be applied in the search of a full-automatic on-line quality evaluation platform.

  12. The Effects of Resource Bundling on Third-party Logistics Providers’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorliza Karia

    2015-03-01

    resource bundling (excluding advanced technology is required to achieve cost leadership. The effects of other resources on performance are mediated mainly by the demand management interface capability and knowledge resources. This is a novel attempt to justify the interaction and mediation effects of resources and capabilities on performance. The research highlights the needs for 3PL managers to focus on developing and bundling their demand management interface capability and knowledge resources in order to achieve cost leadership, and further combine advanced technology into such bundling of resources and capabilities to achieve innovation in customer service. It advances the application of resource-based view (RBV theory in logistics research by identifying resources that play supporting roles and examining the capabilities for enhancing 3PLs’ competitive performance.

  13. Third party internet seals: reviewing the effects on online consumer trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kerkhof; G. van Noort

    2010-01-01

    Buying online is still perceived as risky. A key strategy of online marketers to increase consumer trust in online ordering is to display privacy and security seals on their web sites. Although research indicates that these Internet seals do not necessarily mean better safety for online consumers, f

  14. 75 FR 9142 - Information Reporting for Payments Made in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... (74 FR 61294), announced that a public hearing on proposed regulations relating to information... in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network Transactions; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue... withholding requirements for payment card and third party network transactions. DATES: The public...

  15. 32 CFR 327.8 - Disclosure of personal information to other agencies and third parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... footnote 3 to § 327.5. (2) For the purposes of disclosure and disclosure accounting, the Department of.... (5) DeCA records must be disclosed if their release is required by 32 CFR part 285, which is implemented by DeCA Directive 30-12. 8 32 CFR part 285 requires that records be made available to the...

  16. 32 CFR 505.7 - Disclosure of personal information to other agencies and third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.7... information that is generally not exempt from the FOIA; therefore, it must be released to the public, unless... released if their positions or duties require frequent interaction with the public. (3) Disclosure...

  17. Is Third-Party Observation of the Police The Right Thing to Do?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This May, the Anlu Public Security Bureau in central China’s Hubei Province signed a contract with a private investigation company, hiring the latter’s undercover investigators to observe the conduct of local police, for 80,000 yuan ($11,765) a year.

  18. 论复数侵权责任主体间的法定诉讼担当%On the Application of Statutory Undertaking in Multi-party Tort Liability System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建国; 黄忠顺

    2012-01-01

    The setting up of tort liability pattern is the key to the realization of the Tort Liability Act's multiple functions of filling the victim |oss, preventing harm from happening again, punishing malicious infringers and protecting the freedom of action. Legislators' construction of Multi-party Tort Liability system in Tort Liability Act is digicult to be implemented in judicial practice because of the lag of supporting theories in the research of procedural law. In interpretation, the application of Statutory Undertaking will be able to adhere to a victim-centered basis, taking into account of the concept of one-time dispute resolution and the protection of the minimum procedural justice of the subjects of Multi-party Tort Liability.%侵权责任形态的设置是我国侵权责任法实现填补受害人损失、预防损害再发生、惩罚恶意侵权人以及保障行为自由等多重功能的关键所在。立法者在《侵权责任法》中煞费苦心构建的数人侵权责任形态体系却因程序法配套理论研究滞后而难以在司法实践中得以贯彻执行。在解释论上,法定诉讼担当的运用能够在坚持以被害人为中心的基础,兼顾一次性纠纷解决理念的实现与复数侵权责任主体最低限度程序正义的保障。

  19. The transformation of southern California's residential photovoltaics market through third-party ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third-party photovoltaics (PV) ownership is a rapidly growing market trend, where commercial companies own and operate customer-sited PV systems and lease PV equipment or sell PV electricity to the building occupant. Third-party PV companies can reduce or eliminate up-front adoption costs, reduce technology risk and complexity by monitoring system performance, and can repackage the PV value proposition by showing cost savings in the first month of ownership rather than payback times on the order of a decade. We find that the entrance of third-party business models in southern California residential PV markets has enticed a new demographic to adopt PV systems that is more highly correlated to younger, less affluent, and less educated populations than the demographics correlated to purchasing PV systems. By enticing new demographics to adopt PV, we find that third-party PV products are likely increasing total PV demand rather than gaining market share entirely at the expense of existing customer owned PV demand. We also find that mean population demographics are good predictors of third-party and customer owned PV adoption, and mean voting trends on California carbon policy (Proposition 23) are poor predictors of PV adoption. - Highlights: ► Third-party PV products increased residential PV demand in southern CA. ► Third-party PV products entice new demographic groups to adopt PV. ► Regional demographics are good predictors of PV demand. ► Regional voting trends on carbon policy are poor predictors of PV demand.

  20. The Chernobyl case: its repercussions on the International System on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the discovery of the Nuclear Energy the world has been development her life the present investigation is based in the accident of the one of the most important Nuclear Power Plant in the world, situated in the Union of Socialist Sovietic Republics. The Nuclear Power Plant of Chernobyl. Us found in the investigation what not exist one legislation agree with the needs of development of the actual world in matter of the liability civil in case of the nuclear accidents. Found only the Convention of the Vienna. the Convention of the Brussels the which only cover the transportation the Nuclear substances in ships and others transportation medios. The complementary a the convention of the Paris and actually The Communication in case of the nuclear accidents and radiological accidents. In the present work think what the Community International haven the needs of created one legislation with character international what can help a the many countries what have Nuclear Power Plants, on all for protection of the her habitants. The International Atomic Energy Agency together with the International Justice Court and the United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) aplicated the law in matter of the nuclear accidents derivates of the liability responsibility in the use of the Nuclear Plants for elaboration the Electrical Energy or for Investigation in matter the nuclear energy both with identical responsibility civil in case the nuclear accident. (Author)

  1. A proposal for implementation of the Treeplan on third party companies in the building industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hazin Alencar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The structuring of services providers companies in the civil construction sector is a fact that is highlighting along the years. The concern with the execution of the services planning by the contractors is an important point of those structuring. The significant changes in the civil construction industry are in function of the adoption of quality certification programs, programs of labor qualification, as well as to the knowledge of new processes and new tools. In this way, this work proposes the use of a tool to aid the decision-makers to make decisions referring to the attendance of not planned services.

  2. 基于第三方认证的云服务信任模型%Cloud service trust models based on the third-party certification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文婧; 杜惠英; 吕廷杰

    2012-01-01

    This article constructed two cloud service trust game models with and without third party certification institutions, set up the cloud service trading mechanism and the trust management mechanism based on the third party certification using game theory, and finally compared the cloud service trust evaluation model with electronic commerce trust system. This article further perfected the credit evaluation methods of existing cloud providers, and provided decision-making information with more trust for cloud users. Through the models and mechanism above, we can draw a conclusion: to found third party certification institutions are an effective measures to control the risk of cloud computing environment.%基于云服务的特征,按照存在或不存在第三方认证机构建立两种云服务信任博弈模型,建立基于第三方认证的云服务交易机制与信任管理机制,最后构建云服务信任评价模型,并与电子商务的信任系统做了对比研究,进一步完善现有的云提供商信用水平评价方法,为云用户提供了更完善可信的决策信息.通过上述模型和机制的建立,得出结论:成立第三方认证机构是控制云计算环境下服务信任风险的有效措施.

  3. Integration between manufacturers and third party logistics providers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole; Lemoine, Olga W.

    2008-01-01

    , more segmented markets for the various services and more intense competition, the manufacturers do not expect increased dependence on the TPL providers. Research limitations/implications - Managerial and behavioural components are not part of this study and their effect on integration will require......Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyse the extent of the integration between manufacturers and third party logistics (TPL) providers at present and how the integration is expected to develop in the near future. The focus is on studying what tasks are part of the cooperation, what...... information and communications technology (ICT) tools are used for support, and what types of services are supplied and are expected to be supplied by TPL providers in the future. Design/methodology/approach - A multiple case study of seven manufacturers and TPL providers is conducted. As the basis...

  4. Pactole: a software to design third party damage proof pipelines; Pactole: un outil d'aide a la conception de canalisations resistant aux agressions de tiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, I.; Dezobry, J.; Laurens, F.; Torun, S.; Zarea, M. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    Common experience in Europe shows that third party interference is generally the main cause of incidents leading to a gas leak. Gaz de France performed an important work in order to take into account this incident cause. This work, mainly based upon experimental studies, allowed to characterise pipeline resistance to denting and puncture by excavators. Most of the work was done on behalf of EPRG (European Pipeline Research Group composed of major European pipeline operators and pipe manufacturers), and resulted in simple criteria for dent and puncture resistance covering the whole range of transmission pipelines. The paper presents the main principles of a software called 'PACTOLE' that incorporates the results of this work on third party interference for pipeline design purposes. 'PACTOLE' aims at checking that the pipeline resists to different scenarios of aggression by an excavator. The defect stability criteria used in this context are recalled. The paper presents also 'PACTOLE' 's functionality and interface. A typical case of implementation of this software is also detailed. Finally, perspectives of further development are indicated. (authors)

  5. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  6. Solar PV Project Financing: Regulatory and Legislative Challenges for Third-Party PPA System Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollins, K.; Speer, B.; Cory, K.

    2009-11-01

    Residential and commercial end users of electricity who want to generate electricity using on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenging initial and O&M costs. The third-party ownership power purchase agreement (PPA) finance model addresses these and other challenges. It allows developers to build and own PV systems on customers? properties and sell power back to customers. However, third-party electricity sales commonly face five regulatory challenges. The first three challenges involve legislative or regulatory definitions of electric utilities, power generation equipment, and providers of electric services. These definitions may compel third-party owners of solar PV systems to comply with regulations that may be cost prohibitive. Third-party owners face an additional challenge if they may not net meter, a practice that provides significant financial incentive to owning solar PV systems. Finally, municipalities and cooperatives worry about the regulatory implications of allowing an entity to sell electricity within their service territories. This paper summarizes these challenges, when they occur, and how they have been addressed in five states. This paper also presents alternative to the third-party ownership PPA finance model, including solar leases, contractual intermediaries, standardized contract language, federal investment tax credits, clean renewable energy bonds, and waived monopoly powers.

  7. How to catch all those mutations--the report of the third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Auerbach, Arleen D;

    2010-01-01

    to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access-Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance...

  8. CO-INSURANCE OF THIRD PARTIES AND WAIVER OFF SUBROGATION UNDER HULL INSURANCE OF MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS : The English and Norwegian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the offshore petroleum activity and the likelihood that both the tortfeasor and the claimant of a potential incident participate in the petroleum activity results in one of the most characteristic features of the petroleum contract, namely contractual regulation of liability. The allocation of liability is often based on the knock-for-knock principle which basically means that the parties assume responsibility for any loss or damage incurred to their own property as well as for ...

  9. Costly third-party punishment in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Jordan, Jillian J; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Human adults engage in costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior, but the developmental origins of this behavior are unknown. Here we investigate costly third-party punishment in 5- and 6-year-old children. Participants were asked to accept (enact) or reject (punish) proposed allocations of resources between a pair of absent, anonymous children. In addition, we manipulated whether subjects had to pay a cost to punish proposed allocations. Experiment 1 showed that 6-year-olds (but not 5-year-olds) punished unfair proposals more than fair proposals. However, children punished less when doing so was personally costly. Thus, while sensitive to cost, they were willing to sacrifice resources to intervene against unfairness. Experiment 2 showed that 6-year-olds were less sensitive to unequal allocations when they resulted from selfishness than generosity. These findings show that costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior is present in young children, suggesting that from early in development children show a sophisticated capacity to promote fair behavior.

  10. Study on Customer Satisfaction of Third Party Logistics Services%第三方物流服务的顾客满意度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广敬

    2012-01-01

    分析了第三方物流服务的内容、特征和第三方物流企业应对激烈竞争的策略,进而介绍了顾客满意度理论,探讨了顾客满意的机制,然后提出第三方物流企业员工满意度和顾客满意度的评价指标体系和测算模型,为企业实施顾客满意战略提供了参考;最后提出了第三方物流企业实施顾客满意战略的意义.%In this paper, we analyzed the content and characteristics of third party logistics services as well as the strategy for third party logistics providers to adapt to fierce competition and then introduced the theory and working mechanism of customer satisfaction. Then, we proposed the evaluation index system and measuring model of the employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction of third party logistics providers and at the end, pointed out the significance of the implementation of customer satisfaction strategy for third party logistics service providers.

  11. 浅谈第三方船舶公司管理%Study on the management of the third party ship management companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 马会

    2007-01-01

    探讨第三方船舶管理的概念和发展历程,在准确、深入了解国内外第三方公司现状和发展趋势的基础上,对第三方船舶管理公司的经营范围和管理规律进行系统的研究,提出规范公司管理的一些建议,旨在为专业的船舶管理公司发展和参与公平竞争提供借鉴.%This paper is concerned with the concepts and practices of third-party ship management, its purpose is to give a systematic research on the business scope and management regulations of the third party ship management companies on the basis of a comprehensive, ac curate understanding of the companies' current situation and developmental tendency both at home and abroad. Meanwhile it puts forward some advices on standardizing the companies' management in order to create a fair competition environment and promote a favorable development of professional ship management industry.

  12. Finding third-party components with binary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Väyrynen, A. (Antti)

    2015-01-01

    The increased usage of open-source software (OSS) libraries as building blocks in the software industry has introduced numerous problems and vulnerabilities into many popular software suites. As more libraries are used, the risk of the whole software being exposed to the vulnerabilities inherent in these third-party components increases. Vulnerability management is the process of mitigating the impact of these vulnerabilities in software development. Another matter concerning OSS is license m...

  13. Third-party punishment as a costly signal of trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jillian J; Hoffman, Moshe; Bloom, Paul; Rand, David G

    2016-02-25

    Third-party punishment (TPP), in which unaffected observers punish selfishness, promotes cooperation by deterring defection. But why should individuals choose to bear the costs of punishing? We present a game theoretic model of TPP as a costly signal of trustworthiness. Our model is based on individual differences in the costs and/or benefits of being trustworthy. We argue that individuals for whom trustworthiness is payoff-maximizing will find TPP to be less net costly (for example, because mechanisms that incentivize some individuals to be trustworthy also create benefits for deterring selfishness via TPP). We show that because of this relationship, it can be advantageous for individuals to punish selfishness in order to signal that they are not selfish themselves. We then empirically validate our model using economic game experiments. We show that TPP is indeed a signal of trustworthiness: third-party punishers are trusted more, and actually behave in a more trustworthy way, than non-punishers. Furthermore, as predicted by our model, introducing a more informative signal--the opportunity to help directly--attenuates these signalling effects. When potential punishers have the chance to help, they are less likely to punish, and punishment is perceived as, and actually is, a weaker signal of trustworthiness. Costly helping, in contrast, is a strong and highly used signal even when TPP is also possible. Together, our model and experiments provide a formal reputational account of TPP, and demonstrate how the costs of punishing may be recouped by the long-run benefits of signalling one's trustworthiness.

  14. Third-party punishment as a costly signal of trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jillian J; Hoffman, Moshe; Bloom, Paul; Rand, David G

    2016-02-25

    Third-party punishment (TPP), in which unaffected observers punish selfishness, promotes cooperation by deterring defection. But why should individuals choose to bear the costs of punishing? We present a game theoretic model of TPP as a costly signal of trustworthiness. Our model is based on individual differences in the costs and/or benefits of being trustworthy. We argue that individuals for whom trustworthiness is payoff-maximizing will find TPP to be less net costly (for example, because mechanisms that incentivize some individuals to be trustworthy also create benefits for deterring selfishness via TPP). We show that because of this relationship, it can be advantageous for individuals to punish selfishness in order to signal that they are not selfish themselves. We then empirically validate our model using economic game experiments. We show that TPP is indeed a signal of trustworthiness: third-party punishers are trusted more, and actually behave in a more trustworthy way, than non-punishers. Furthermore, as predicted by our model, introducing a more informative signal--the opportunity to help directly--attenuates these signalling effects. When potential punishers have the chance to help, they are less likely to punish, and punishment is perceived as, and actually is, a weaker signal of trustworthiness. Costly helping, in contrast, is a strong and highly used signal even when TPP is also possible. Together, our model and experiments provide a formal reputational account of TPP, and demonstrate how the costs of punishing may be recouped by the long-run benefits of signalling one's trustworthiness. PMID:26911783

  15. Selfish third parties act as peacemakers by transforming conflicts and promoting cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Halali, Eliran

    2015-06-01

    The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict. Intervention introduces side payments that transform the game disputants are playing; it also introduces risk for the third party by making it vulnerable to disputants' choices. Six experiments revealed three robust effects: (i) The mere possibility of third-party intervention significantly increases cooperation in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts; (ii) reducing the risk to third parties dramatically increases intervention rates, to everyone's benefit; and (iii) disputants' cooperation rates are consistently higher than third parties' intervention rates. These findings explain why, how, and when self-interested third parties facilitate peaceful conflict resolution.

  16. Dogs' Eavesdropping from people's reactions in third party interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Freidin

    Full Text Available Eavesdropping involves the acquisition of information from third-party interactions, and can serve to indirectly attribute reputation to individuals. There is evidence on eavesdropping in dogs, indicating that they can develop a preference for people based on their cooperativeness towards others. In this study, we tested dogs' eavesdropping abilities one step further. In a first experiment, dogs could choose between cooperative demonstrators (the donors who always gave food to an approaching third person (the beggar; here, the only difference between donors was whether they received positive or negative reactions from the beggar (through verbal and gestural means. Results showed that dogs preferentially approached the donor who had received positive reactions from the beggar. By contrast, two different conditions showed that neither the beggar's body gestures nor the verbal component of the interaction on their own were sufficient to affect the dogs' preferences. We also ran two further experiments to test for the possibility of dogs' choices being driven by local enhancement. When the donors switched places before the choice, dogs chose at random. Similarly, in a nonsocial condition in which donors were replaced by platforms, subjects chose at chance levels. We conclude that dogs' nonrandom choices in the present protocol relied on the simultaneous presence of multiple cues, such as the place where donors stood and several features of the beggar's behavior (gestural and verbal reactions, and eating behavior. Nonetheless, we did not find conclusive evidence that dogs discriminated the donors by their physical features, which is a prerequisite of reputation attribution.

  17. Phoenix from the ashes : an analysis of the Paris Agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ; part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Obergassel, Wolfgang; Arens, Christof; Hermwille, Lukas; Kreibich, Nicolas; Mersmann, Florian; Ott, Hermann E.; Wang-Helmreich, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    On 12 December 2015, the Parties to the UNFCCC adopted the "Paris Agreement". With this step, the world community has agreed on a collective and cooperative path to fight human-induced climate change: After 25 years of UN climate diplomacy, the world's governments have for the first time in history negotiated a treaty which envisages climate action by all nations. The Agreement sets the world on a path that might lead to a decarbonised economy in the second half of the century. Researchers fr...

  18. Phoenix from the ashes : an analysis of the Paris Agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ; part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Obergassel, Wolfgang; Arens, Christof; Hermwille, Lukas; Kreibich, Nicolas; Mersmann, Florian; Ott, Hermann E.; Wang-Helmreich, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    On 12 December 2015, the Parties to the UNFCCC adopted the "Paris Agreement". With this step, the world community has agreed on a collective and cooperative path to fight human-induced climate change: After 25 years of UN climate diplomacy, the world's governments have for the first time in history negotiated a treaty which envisages climate action by all nations. The Agreement sets the world on a path that might lead to a decarbonised economy in the second half of the century. Researchers fr...

  19. International law on nuclear liability - a critical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuski, J.Z. [Nicolas Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The author discusses in detail the following topics: Compensation for domestic nuclear damage and for transfrontier nuclear damage - rule of formal equality of parties which belongs to the basic rule of civil law considering the position of domestic and foreign victims of a grave accident-juridical consequences of the preponderant role played by the state in the promotion, development and supervision of the nuclear industry-rationale for applying the concept of global limitation of liability in the law on nuclear liability and compensation - financial consequences of uncompensated nuclear damage, borne by the victims directly affected or spread over the whole community of the affected state? (HP)

  20. The Activity Based Costing method opportunity to assess and master the aircraft maintenance service cost for Third Party: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Rchid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates how to calculate accurate aircraft maintenance costs using Activity Based Costing (ABC. Comparing to traditional cost calculation, the proposed method is useful for aircrafts maintenance activity integrated to Airline Company and who wants to diversify its revenue by selling some available maintenance slots to third party clients for a competitive price. This paper takes base maintenance check process of a Moroccan airline aircrafts maintenance activity as a case study. The actual method used to calculate aircraft maintenance check cost cant not be applied to third party client pricing system. The ABC method shows substantial benefits if it is successfully implemented. Data collection through interviews and questionnaires are the main sources to this study.

  1. ON ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AND THIRD PARTY LOGISTICS%电子商务与第三方物流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平海; 李兆卉

    2001-01-01

    The quickly developed electronic commerce is changing or(will change) pepl e's daily life a nd their working style(In the end, it will be all the people).The Enterprise h as put forward the third party logistics that suits our national condition by analyzing the development situation of the logistics enterprise under the interior and external electronic commerce.%迅猛发展的电子商务正在或将要改 变许多人(最终是所有人)的日常生活和工作模 式。笔者通过分析电子商务下物流业的发展现状,提出适合我国国情的第三方物流模式。

  2. Third party referrals in the venture capital financing process : do network ties matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, Joris

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the role of third party referrals in the venture capital funding process. Taking network theory as our theoretical perspective we explore if and how third parties play a role in the funding process. Hereby we focus on both the network ties between new venture teams and thir

  3. A probability approach to pharmaceutical demand and price setting: Does the identity of the third-party payer matters for prescribing doctors?

    OpenAIRE

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Locatelli, Marilena; Sorisio, Enrico; Strøm, Steinar

    2011-01-01

    TNF-alpha inhibitors represent one of the most important areas of biopharmaceuticals by sales, with three blockbusters accounting for 8 per cent of total pharmaceutical sale in Norway. Novelty of the paper is to examine, with the use of a unique natural policy experiment in Norway, to what extent the price responsiveness of prescription choices is affected when the identity of the third-party payer changes. The three dominating drugs in this market, Enbrel, Remicade, and Humira, are substitut...

  4. How much drinking water can be saved by using rainwater harvesting on a large urban area? application to Paris agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmeziti, Ali; Coutard, Olivier; de Gouvello, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a prospective scenario of development of rainwater harvesting (RWH) on a given large urban area (such as metropolitan area or region). In such a perspective, a new method is proposed to quantify the related potential of potable water savings (PPWS) indicator on this type of area by adapting the reference model usually used on the building level. The method is based on four setting-up principles: gathering (definition of buildings-types and municipalities-types), progressing (use of an intermediate level), increasing (choice of an upper estimation) and prioritizing (ranking the stakes of RWH). Its application to the Paris agglomeration shows that is possible to save up to 11% of the total current potable water through the use of RWH. It also shows that the residential sector offers the most important part because it holds two-thirds of the agglomeration PPWS.

  5. 第三方物流增值服务在供应链运作体系中的应用研究%Study on Third Party Logistics Value- added Services on the Application of Supply Chain Operation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令华; 柳国庆

    2012-01-01

    In the fierce market competition environment, the third party logistics enterprise in the role of the supply chain operation system can not be ignored, and traditional third party logistics services such as transportation, warehousing and storage, etc, already cannot satisfy supply chain operation further expansion and efficiency optimization, and the third party logistics value - added service will be in the next step of the supply chain operation play key role. The third party logistics value - added service is not limited to the traditional cost control, more attention to improve the quality of our service and supply chain system operation whole optimization. This paper first discusses the third party logistics value - added service of the current situation of the application and then on to the third party logistics enterprise to provide value -added services is studied and analyzed, and finally the third party logistics value - added services supply chain operation system is introduced.%在激烈的市场竞争环境下,第三方物流企业在供应链运作体系中的作用不可忽视,而传统的第三方物流服务如运输、仓储等,已不能满足供应链运作的进一步扩展和效率优化,基于此,通过对第三方物流增值服务在供应链运作体系中的应用研究,可以得出这样的结论,第三方物流的增值服务将在下一步的供应链运作中发挥关键性的作用,第三方物流增值服务不限于传统的成本控制,更多地注重服务质量的提高和供应链体系运作的整体优化。

  6. Research on the Third Party Payment Platform Precipitation Funds Utilization%第三方支付平台沉淀资金利用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢婉婷

    2015-01-01

    近些年来,互联网行业的迅速发展,促使了电子商务和互联网金融兴起,为了弥补其中的信用缺失,第三方支付平台应运而生,但随之也产生了大量的沉淀资金.然而这些潜在的金融资本如果没有被合理有效的利用,必将是巨大的资源浪费,同时也会严重阻碍第三方支付平台的正常发展.因此,文章主要就第三方支付平台在沉淀资金的利用上所面临的投资工具缺乏,交易和监管上的问题进行分析探讨,并对如何科学有效地利用沉淀资金进行研究.%In recent years the rapid development of internet industry ,promote the rise of e-commerce and network finance,in order to make up for the lack of credit,the third party payment platform arises at the historic moment,but also produces a large amount of precipitation funds at the same time,however,the potential financial capital if it is not reasonable and effective use,it will be a huge waste of resources,will seriously affect the normal development of the third-party payment platform.Therefore ,this article mainly on the third-party payment platform in the use of precipitation funds facing the lack of investment tools ,trading and regulatory issues are analyzed. For the above three questions put forward the relative countermeasures ,give new ideas for use precipitation funds , and in its use on the concrete means of providing certain reference direction.

  7. On applicability limitation of environment monitoring by third party%论第三方环境监测的适用限制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左平凡

    2012-01-01

    The restricting conditions are discussed of legality of marketization of environmental monitoring service.It is pointed out that the administrative departments of environment protection must strictly implement national laws and regulations concerning environmental information openness,and should not entrust the third-party social test organization without the rights of due access to environmental information to monitor.The applicabilities and limitations of environment monitoring by third party are analyzed one by one,namely,the monitoring of environmental quality,the monitoring of pollution source,the applicability checkout of special-purpose equipment for environmental monitoring,the emergency monitoring of environmental pollution accident,the monitoring of environmental protection check and acceptance of completed construction projects,and the monitoring of ecological safety.On basis of investigating the problems of environment monitoring by third party,legislation suggestions are brought forward to perfect it.%论证环境监测服务市场化合法性的限制条件,指出环境保护管理部门必须严格执行国家关于环境信息公开的法律法规,不应委托无环境知情权的第三方社会检测机构进行监测。逐一分析第三方环境监测在环境质量监测、污染源监测、环境监测专用设备适用性检测、突发环境污染事件应急监测、项目竣工环境保护验收监测以及生态安全监测等方面的适用和限制,在对第三方环境监测存在的问题进行考察的基础上,提出完善第三方环境监测的立法建议。

  8. 29 CFR 1425.6 - Use of third-party mediation assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of third-party mediation assistance. 1425.6 Section 1425.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.6 Use of third-party mediation assistance. If the...

  9. The Effect of Channel Structures on Third-party Collecting Closed-loop Supply Chain%渠道结构对第三方负责回收闭环供应链的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂佳佳

    2012-01-01

    Reverse logistics (e. g. product remanufacturing or recycling) practices can not only reduce the natural resources needed and the waste produced, but also help reduce the environmental burden. It is not unusual to see in practice the used-product collection activity contracted by a manufacturer to a third party, who is engaged only in the collection of the used products from the market. For example, in the automobile industry, used-product collection activities for the original equipment manufacturers are handled by some independent third parties. Recently, in the United States the "big three" auto manufacturers started to invest in joint research and remanufacturing partnerships with dismantling centers to benefit from their experiences and economics of scale. With the independent third parties joining the closed-loop supply chain, it becomes more difficult to study the closed-loop supply chain for of the increasing number supply chain members. In the third-party collecting closed-loop supply chain, there are several channels structures including no strategic alliance, strategic alliance between the retailer and the manufacturer, strategic alliance between the retailer and the third-party and strategic alliance between the manufacturer and the third-party. In this research, the aim is to examine the effect of these channel structures on the performance of members in a third-party collecting closed-loop supply chain. First, this paper adopts the game theory to develop four models of closed-loop supply chain. Second, the optimal retail prices, wholesale prices, return rates and profits of these models are derived. Third, these four models are compared with each other. Fourth, the effect of system parameters on the performance of members is researched with numerical simulation and some new findings are revealed. This study shows five interesting results. First, the retail price is the highest, the demand is the least and return rate is the lowest in the no strategic

  10. Third Party Logistics in E-Commerce Environment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of IT technology, e-commerce plays an increasingly important role nowadays. Since logistics is vital for e-commerce, it becomes the key factor for any corporate in order to survive in the fierce competition. However, logistics industry is not considered as important as other industries in China and few attempts has have been made in this field. The purpose of this paper was to present the current situation of third party logistics under e-commerce and their clo...

  11. 第三方物流服务的顾客满意度研究--基于电子商务情景%Reasearch on Customer Satisfaction to Third-party Logistics Services---In an E-commerce Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩超群

    2014-01-01

    In the context of Chinese e-commerce, based on prior studies of logistic service quality and interviews of logistics customers, this paper developed the model of third-party logistics services customers' satisfaction by focusing on the two aspects of physical distribution and customer services of third-party logistics services and also information systems level and brand image. Structural equation model technology was used for analyzing 423 customers of third-party logistics services. The results indicate that physical distribution and customer services of third-party logistics services are both important aspects of third-party logistics services quality. The third-party logistics services quality has positive influence on customers' satisfaction. Information systems level and brand image not only have direct and positive impacts on third-party logistics services quality , but also have important indirect and positive impacts on customers' satisfaction.%在中国电子商务情景下,基于国内外物流服务质量与顾客满意的相关文献和顾客的访谈,从第三方物流服务的实体配送服务质量和顾客营销服务质量两个方面出发,结合信息系统和营销学领域的信息化水平和品牌形象变量构建了我国电子商务情景下第三方物流的顾客满意度模型。采用结构方程模型对收集的423份国内电子商务第三方物流服务顾客数据进行分析。结果表明,电子商务情景下,除实体配送服务质量外,顾客营销服务质量是第三方物流服务质量的关键维度。研究还发现,第三方物流服务质量显著正向影响顾客对物流服务的满意度;物流信息化水平和品牌形象对第三方物流服务质量存在显著正向影响,且还通过第三方物流服务质量对顾客满意存在重要的间接影响。

  12. 77 FR 31073 - Audit Requirements for Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Conformity with the Limits on Phthalates in Children's Toys and Child Care Articles,''); 76 FR 46598 (August... of ``technical capability'' (see 74 FR at 40785). We explained that the term ``third party conformity... Accrediting Conformity Assessment Bodies'' (74 FR at 40787). The preamble to the proposed rule stated...

  13. A Probe into the Third-party Intervention Mode in Environmental Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨儒石; 李悦; 郗敏; 孔范龙; 吴玉光

    2010-01-01

    In environmental management,the absence and offside of the government,enterprises carry heavy burden,all these phenomena require a third-party to exercise part of the power instead of the government or the enterprises and also take on part of their responsibility.

  14. Balancing platform control and external contribution in third-party development: the boundary resources model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazawneh, Ahmad; Henfridsson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    a theoretical model that centres on two drivers behind boundary resources design and use –resourcing and securing – and how these drivers interact in third-party development. We apply the model to a detailed case study of Apple’s iPhone platform. Our application of the model not only serves as an illustration...

  15. 石化装置大检修第三方HSE管理探讨%Discussion on Third-party HSE Management during the Petrochemical Plants Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绪鹏; 辛平

    2012-01-01

    近年来,为加强装置大检修过程的HSE管理,部分石化企业在装置大检修过程中引入第三方HSE管理,取得了优秀的HSE业绩。总结近年石化装置大检修HSE管理实践经验,阐述了第三方HSE管理的概念及模式,并对第三方HSE管理的优势和实旄的具体做法进行了探讨,以为石化装置大检修的HSE管理提供参考。%In recent years, in order to strengthen HSE management, some petrochemiacal companies introduce the third-party HSE management during the plants maintenance, and have made excellent HSE performance. Summary of experience in the HSE management practice in recent years, this paper introduces the conception and the mode of third-party HSE management during the petrochemical plants maintenance, and discusses the advantages and the implementing method of third-party HSE management to provide reference for HSE management.

  16. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider...

  17. Segmentasi Pasar Penyedia Jasa Logistik (Third Party Logistics di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation is fundamental in marketing strategy and the first step of market-based strategy preparation, to strengthen its marketing efficiency, and creating opportunities for sales growth and profits. This also applies to market segmentation logistics service providers (TPL - Third Party Logistics, the market is highly developed in the last decade, so that the logistics service providers has to develop marketing strategies properly. The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of different industries that exist today and map the needs of the logistics services of TPL customers. Based on exploration research conducted, it can be found in conformities relating to the logistics industry from several companies, ie appropriateness to the complexity of logistics activities of some companies and degree of investment of TPL services company in conducting the activity. Logistics service provider market segmentation can be based on variable complexity of logistics activities, whether it is high, medium or low and variable degrees of investment in the company whether minor, major, or integrated/total. Companies in different industries can have the same logistic service requirements and companies in the same industry can have different logistic service requirements. Client companies for logistics service providers which product handling are classified as semi-complex is the most attractive customer segments for being penetrated. The industries are classified into this segment is automotive, food and beverage, animal food, ceramic, and plantation. 

  18. Sex, attractiveness, and third-party punishment in fairness consideration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    Full Text Available Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual.

  19. The needs and wants of business and leisure guests at Marriott Brussels

    OpenAIRE

    Björn, Anu

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Marriott Brussels. Marriott Brussels is part of a well known Marriott hotel chain. Marriott Brussels is a four star hotel situated in the capital of Belgium, Brussels. Theses focused on clarifying the needs and wants of business and leisure guests at Marriott Brussels. The aim was to figure out what are the things these guests value the most and what are the things that are the least valued. In these theses quantitative research was used and guests we...

  20. Analysis of civil liability for nuclear damage with emphasis on the insurance of liability for the transport of fresh nuclear fuel and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of civil liability for nuclear damage and the mandatory coverage of this liability by insurance or by the other financial means is a topic for experts discussions, particularly due to the existing differences in opinion. The article outlines the major provisions of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (1963) and presents a list of parties to the Convention from among Central and Eastern European countries. In the second part, the paper deals with the various options during the transportation of spent and fresh nuclear fuel from the viewpoint of the regulatory body and with regard to applicable domestic and international legislation. (author)

  1. Multiple Trust Model in Online Transaction by Trusted Third Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Suganya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available the information fortune and the connectivity are provided by the universe of E-commerce over an enormous distance at all time. In an open and distributed environment the buyers or providers will not act in a mutually understood or agreed manner by which the incomplete practices and fraudulent activities happen. So in any online transaction the security and trust are two important factors that are to be considered. In Ecommerce markets the above mentioned problems are criticized as the most important barriers. In order to improve these barriers a trust based third party mechanism is successfully adopted as a self-regulatory system to improve the buyer and seller trust. The online transactions are made very easy now days by E-commerce technologies. Built integrity belief approach (BIB, Support Vector Mechanic approach (SVM and Random Number Generation approach (RNG are the three approaches which are mainly used in this paper for online trust management. The seller and the buyer communication will be handled through the trusted third party. Apart from this a coupon based approach is introduced as an advancement in this paper for providing discount schemes which is helpful in attracting the customer who purchase beyond the threshold level fixed by the seller. Moreover a product review study is integrated in order to reduce the scam reviews in online transactions.

  2. Healthcare.gov shares personal data with third parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. According to the Associated Press, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid's (CMS website, HealthCare.gov, has been sending consumers’ personal data to private companies that specialize in advertising and analyzing Internet data for performance and marketing (1. What information is being disclosed was not immediately clear, but it could include age, income, ZIP code, and smoking status. It could also include a computer’s Internet address, which can identify a person’s name or address when combined with other information collected by sophisticated online marketing or advertising firms. “We deploy tools on the window shopping application that collect basic information to optimize and assess system performance,” said CMS’s Aaron Albright in a statement. “We believe that the use of these tools are common and represent best practices for a typical e-commerce site.” There is no evidence that personal information has been misused. But connections to dozens of third-party tech firms were documented by ...

  3. Paris and Then? Holding States to Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2016-01-01

    So much focus is now given to getting the Paris agreement on climate change “right,” particularly that the intended nationally determined commitments (INDCs) should be ambitious, effective, and fair. But what about the morning after? There is no automatism in international norms, whether legally bin

  4. Outcomes and intentions in children's, adolescents', and adults' second- and third-party punishment behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T

    2014-10-01

    Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment.

  5. Investigation on the mechanism for third-party mediation in medical dispute in some provinces%我国部分地区医疗纠纷第三方调解机制调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雪倩; 高树宽; 王将军; 曹艳林; 靳清汉; 文学斌; 刘方

    2012-01-01

    目的:对我国部分地区医疗纠纷第三方调解机制的现状进行比较分析.方法:采用焦点组访谈和个人深入访谈方法,对医疗纠纷第三方调解机构等相关部门的负责人进行访谈.结果:我国形成了以医疗纠纷人民调解委员会为主的多元化医疗纠纷调解机制,调解作为医疗纠纷的一种解决方式,对化解医患矛盾,维护医患关系起到了重要作用,但第三方调解在资金、人员及社会认知方面存在一些问题.结论:不断完善医疗纠纷第三方调解机制,更好地发挥其在医疗纠纷解决中的作用.%Objectives: To analyze the current status of mechanism for third-party mediation in medical dispute in some provinces. Methods: With focus group discussion and individual depth interview, directors of medical dispute third-party mediation department in some provinces were interviewed. Results: Medical Dispute Peoples Meditation Committee (MDMC) based diverse dispute resolution mechanisms have been established. As a method of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), the third-party mediation holds great promise in resolving medical malpractice and maintaining the harmonious doc tor-patient relationship. However, third-party mediation also faces some challenges, such as finance, staff and social cognition. Conclusions: Third-party mediation in medical dispute is needed to be continuously improved to play better roles on medical dispute solution.

  6. Multi-Party Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with an Almost-Dishonest Third Party using GHZ States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Liang; Hwang, Tzonelih; Gope, Prosanta

    2016-06-01

    This article proposes an innovative quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol for n users using GHZ states, where an almost-dishonest third party (TP) is introduced to assist the participants for comparing their secrets. It is argued that as compared to the existing QPC protocols our proposed scheme has some considerable advantages. First, in the existing QPC protocols, the TP can only to determine whether all participants' secrets are equal or not. Instead of that, in our proposed scheme a TP can even compare the secrets between any subsects of users. Second, since our proposed scheme is based on GHZ state; hence it can ensure higher efficiency as compared to other existing multi-party QPC protocols on d-dimension photons.

  7. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS ON INSOLVENCY AND JOINT LIABILITY ON TAX MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE NICOLAE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Romanian legislation stipulates incident in tax as a way of fighting outstanding tax debts in relation to certain conditionalities, the tax authorities can declare the insolvency of the debtor taxpayer and attracting joint liability of third parties on which transfer tax claims extinguish the obligation owed by the insolvent. According to various editions of the Dictionary of the Romanian Language through insolvency means "a situation in which the debtor whose assets are worth less than all obligations would be satisfied with the goods" [DEX 1998] or "situation of the debtor to be in default of debt outstanding [DEX 2009]. From the perspective of civil law, "insolvency resulting from the inferiority of the assets may be subject by law enforcement, to the total amount of outstanding debt" [Law 287/2009 on the Civil Code, art. 1417]. From the perspective of tax law "is insolvent debtor whose income or assets are worth less than the outstanding tax obligations or who has no income or assets" [GO 92/2003 regarding the Fiscal Procedure Code, art. 176].

  8. 16 CFR 240.13 - Customer's and third party liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... newspaper or other advertising medium that provides for a deferred rebate or other reduction in the price of... advertising plan. The newspaper should not send the retailer two bills, one at the national rate and another... actual net cost or the discount rate. Example 4: An advertising agent buys a large volume of...

  9. Idiosyncratic deals: coworkers as interested third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lei; Rousseau, Denise M; Chang, Klarissa Ting Ting

    2009-03-01

    Idiosyncratic deals (i-deals for short) are personalized employment arrangements negotiated between individual workers and employers and intended to benefit them both (D. M. Rousseau, 2005). Coworkers' acceptance of another's i-deal can ultimately impact its overall effectiveness for the organization. By using a network approach to the study of work group dynamics, this research addresses the contributions coworker relationships with both the i-dealer and their employer make to coworker's willingness to accept a peer's i-deal. In a study of 65 employees in 20 research and development groups, coworker acceptance of i-deals is greater for group members who are their close personal friends than for members who are not. The coworkers' social exchange relationship with their employers is positively related to acceptance, while economic exchange is negatively related. Coworkers' belief in the likelihood of obtaining comparable future opportunity is positively related to their acceptance of another's i-deal. Results suggest that the relationship of both economic and social exchange with acceptance is likely to be mediated by beliefs regarding comparable future opportunity. Implications for both research and practice are discussed. PMID:19271808

  10. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  11. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human

  12. Innovation adoption processes for third party property management companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockman, Chris; Piette, Mary Ann

    2000-07-01

    Innovation adoption studies have never been applied to third party property management companies. These companies manage buildings for a fee as their primary business. Property management companies are influential in the adoption process for new technologies because they act as gatekeepers for technical information. This study analyzes radical and routine adoption process that are found in large, professionally operated property management companies. The process is explicated. The technical managers, and their role as technology gate keepers, are described. The distinction to the technical managers between routine and radical technology is that routine technologies do something in a new way and radical technologies do something new. Observations concerning evaluation and adoption of information technologies are described. The findings suggest methods of successfully tailoring and introducing technologies to this market.

  13. THE CRIMINAL LIABILITY OF CORPORATIONS – OVERVIEW ON RECENT CASE LAW OF THE ROMANIAN COURTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA ROXANA ILIE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the criminal liability of corporations is now consecrated in Romanian for more than five years, there is however some reticence in engaging the liability of such person. Nonetheless, in the past years, it can be noticed an emergence of the files where the problem of the criminal liability of corporations is raised. The purpose of this paper is to present the main issues from the Romanian case law in this field. Several topics are to be mainly discussed, such as the enforcement of criminal sanctions such as the winding-up or the diffusion of the decision, the application of precautionary measures and interim measures against corporations, the possibility to call a corporation in the criminal trial both as accused and as third party called liable for other person’s acts etc. During this analysis, it can be noticed that the most common crimes perpetrated by corporations are related to employment issues, copyright, corruption, illegal drug trafficking etc. Therefore, the objectives pursued by the present study are to provide an approach on the most recent court decisions where criminal charges against corporations were carried out and to see how the relevant legal provisions were applied in these cases.

  14. Third-party grooming in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Yvan I

    2010-01-01

    Social grooming is ubiquitous among the captive chimpanzees at Chester Zoo. Seven individuals were chosen here for a study of third-party social dynamics. The grooming decisions of five adult males were analysed, but only insofar as they directed attention to a mother-daughter pair. Uniquely, the daughter was an unpopular and physically disabled subadult whose congenital motor impairments prevented her from grooming others effectively. The impetus for this study was the observation that some males increased their grooming towards the disabled daughter during days when the mother had a tumescent anogenital swelling (sexually attractive to males) compared to days when the mother was not tumescent (less attractive). Apparently, males were grooming the daughter with no possibility of payback (because the daughter could never "return the favour"). A "grooming rate" (avg. grooming time/hour) was calculated that showed the grooming efforts of all five males towards both mother and daughter. These rates were compared on days when (1) the mother's anogenital swelling was tumescent, and (2) days when the swelling was not tumescent. Each male showed a different pattern of behaviour. Two males groomed the daughter significantly more when the mother was tumescent. Results for all males were graphed against the quality of the social relationship between each male and the mother. Apparently, only males that had a weaker relationship to the mother groomed the daughter more when the mother was tumescent. This pattern did not exist for males with a stronger relationship to the mother. Possibly, the insecure males were using the disabled daughter as a way to curry favour with the attractive mother. If this is confirmed, then this type of triadic situation is a possible setting for indirect reciprocity to occur.

  15. Study on the Evolution Game between the Governments and the Third Party Pollution Treatment companies%政府与第三方治污的演化博弈研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜建国; 赵龙; 陈莉

    2015-01-01

    To find out the evolution law of the interactive process between the third party pollution treatment companies and governments,this paper,using the method of evolution economics,builds a payment matrix of the third party pollution treatment companies and governments,analyses the evolution model of the associations between the third party pollution treatment companies and governments,and shows the parametric diversity of decision -making and the effect of changing initial condition on evolution result by numerical simulation.The research reveals that the evolution system of the third par-ty pollution treatment companies and governments converges on two types of patterns,the converging probabilities change notably with the changing of cost and benefit;the research directs the system to jump out of the locked status,and points out that spontaneous evolution of association pattern between groups of the third party pollution treatment companies and governments is dependent on relative payment of various tactics;the government should enact strict environmental regula-tions;the third party pollution treatment companies should broaden their earnings path.%为研究政府与第三方治污之间交往的规则和制度形成的演化规律,借助演化经济学研究工具,建立政府和第三方治污的支付矩阵,分析政府和第三方治污企业交往过程的演化模型,展示决策参数的不同取值对演化结果的影响。研究发现,政府与第三方治污的交互关系演化系统收敛于两种模式,随着双方成本和收益的改变,收敛于不同模式的概率发生显著变化;为寻求跳出不良“锁定”状态指明了方向,现阶段政府与第三方治污群体的交往模式自发演化依赖于各种策略的相对支付;政府应当制定严厉的排污惩罚制度和环保法规;第三方治污应当扩宽企业的盈利路径。

  16. Judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court of 9 August 1994 - 7 C 44.93: Third party action to set aside a licence issued for modification of the Hanau nuclear fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a party raising objections against a nuclear licence on the grounds that the party was not able to properly assess a possible infringement of the party's rights due to insufficient third party information and participation in the licensing procedure, the party is obliged to file its action already within the time limit for avoiding the licensing decision, in order not to be excluded in compliance with paragraph 7 sub-sec. 1, sentence 2 of the Nuclear Installations Ordinance. The licensing authority may leave it to the supervising authority to provide for continued safety of a fuel fabrication plant continuing operation while licensed modification work is being carried out, if the supervising authority has the competence to do so. The underlying, conceptual nuclear licence and the part-permit issued do not refer to the construction work, which is dealt with in the licensing notice of a part-permit. According to the VwGO (Rules of Procedure of Admin. Courts), the Federal Public Prosecutor is not entitled to file a notice of appeal. (orig.)

  17. Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage which was adopted by a Diplomatic Conference, 8-12 September 1997, and the consolidated text of the 1963 Vienna Convention as amended by the Protocol

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ON POLITICAL PARTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Erhard NICULESCU

    2015-01-01

    Political parties are the engine of social life, without which citizens would not be able to express political will. According to the law of political parties, they fulfill a public mission guaranteed by the Constitution. That is why, considering the subject very current, we considered it important to analyze in this study, in the notion of political pluralism: the concept of political party but also its constitutional dimension. To this end, the study shows the view of the doctrine combined ...

  19. What's in a name? Variations in terminology of third-party reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Diane; Darnovsky, Marcy; Lippman, Abby

    2015-12-01

    The terminology used to discuss third-party reproduction, as with other new biomedical processes, can ease or impede communication and even influence behaviour. In an effort to sensitize analysts and stakeholders to variations in terminology and to facilitate communication on issues arising from international surrogacy arrangements, this paper examines variations in terms used. We introduce some of the issues previously raised by scholars concerned with analysis of discourse related to third-party reproduction. We then survey the terms used in English-language discussions to denote specific actors, including 'surrogates,' 'intended parents,' gamete providers and children, as well as terms used to describe 'surrogacy arrangements.' We conclude with a discussion on navigating and negotiating the use of these various and value-laden terms. PMID:26526414

  20. Thinking of the Sound Development of the Third Party Logistics Based on the Exchange Theory%基于交换理论思考第三方物流的良性发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺林; 陈一芳

    2012-01-01

    Based on tile exchange theory', the article studies the contract curve fiwmed by tile cooperation between the manufacturing and the third party logistics, and puts hwwardthe reason why both sides are reluctant to change. It is the indifference curves behind the Pareto efficient allocation point that causes the effect. And with the help of the tint and secoral theorem of welfare economics, the article analyzes deeply the position in the market of the third party logistics and puts forward the views how the governments provides policies 1o protect the development of the third party logistics, how the governments set the time limit of policies support to encourage the growth of the third patty logistic, and how both the manufaeturing and the third party logistics strengthen their mutual learning curve effect.%利用交换理论,研究了制造业和第三方物流业融合时形成的契约曲线.提出了双方在合作过程中由于帕累托效率配置点背后的无差异曲线原因.造成双方改变动力不足的观点。结合福利经济学第一、第二定理,深入分析了目前第三方物流业在市场上处于的地位和不利局面。依据模型分析,提出了政府应该强化政策扶持、设置政策扶持时问限制.鼓励第三方物流自身壮大,以及强化双方的学习曲线融合效应等对策,

  1. Study on the Supervision Status Quo and Problems of the Legal Risks from the Third-party Payment%第三方支付法律风险的监管现状与问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩莉; 傅巧灵; 张峰

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010,People's Bank of China has issued a series of regulations for the management of the third-party payment, and a regulatory framework with external supervision and industry self-discipline has been formed. With the enactment of these regulations and rules, the legal regulatory gap on the third-party payment has been effec-tively made up for, the legal framework for the development of third-party payment industry has been established, and part of the legal risks have been solved, but there are still some arguments in the nature of third-party payment platform,business scope, utilization and the interest of belonging of precipitation funds. Therefore,China's govern-ment and financial supervision department need to implement the functional regulation, classified and cooperative su-pervision, promulgate high rates of laws about the third-party payment, increase applicable provisions for third-party payment to the existing laws,and get a balance between encouraging innovation and risk control.%自2010年开始,人民银行等部门推出了关于第三方支付的一系列管理办法,已初步形成了“外部监管+行业自律”的监管架构。这一系列法规和部门规章有效地弥补了我国第三方支付法律监管方面的空白,确立了第三方支付行业规范发展的法律框架,解决了部分法律风险,但是在机构属性、业务定位、沉淀资金利用和利息归属等方面仍存在较大的问题与争议。为此,应注重实行功能监管、协同监管和分类监管,出台针对第三方支付的高位阶法律,在原有相关法律中增加关于第三方支付的适用条款,并在鼓励创新和控制风险中取得平衡。

  2. Ownership, Managerial Control and the Governance of Companies Listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines how corporate control is exerted in companies listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange. There are several alternative corporate governance mechanisms which may play a role in disciplining poorly performing management: blockholders (holding companies, industrial companies, families a

  3. 垃圾分类第三方企业化服务模式%Discussion on the Third Party Participation Model for waste sorting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江斯; 熊舟; 熊孟清

    2015-01-01

    探讨垃圾分类第三方企业化服务模式的理念、运行方式、特点,问题与对策。指出垃圾分类第三方企业化服务模式的核心是通过强化低值物的回收利用促进垃圾分类,关键是确保第三方企业化运作,重点是回收、二次分选和督导源头分类“三合一”。%The concept, operation mode, features, problems and countermeasures of waste sorting were discussed, and the the third party participates as an enterprise.It pointed out that the core is strengthening waste sorting by recycling, and the key is to ensure the third party running as an enterprise, and the importance is to integrate recycling, secondary sorting and supervision into one strategy.

  4. 75 FR 61621 - Charges Billed to Third Parties for Prescription Drugs Furnished by VA to a Veteran for a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... may: (1) Have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more or adversely affect in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public...), prior to the effective date of this document, VA billed $51 for each prescription filled (see 70...

  5. 作业成本法在第三方物流企业成本核算中的应用%Application of Activity-Based Costing to the Third Party Logistics Enterprise Cost Accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冰

    2012-01-01

    作业成本法的理论和应用在企业成本核算工作中越来越得到重视,但在第三方物流企业中的具体应用还不够广泛和深入.文章首先简要介绍了作业成本法的理论,分析了当前第三方物流企业成本核算工作中的现状和存在的问题,在此基础上提出了第三方物流企业应用作业成本法开展成本核算的思路,并结合某企业实际开展了具体分析的过程、方法等的研究.文章对第三方物流企业开展成本核算工作有较好的参考和借鉴意义.%The theory and application of Activity-Based Costing in project cost accounting for enterprise is paid more and more attention, but in third party logistics enterprises the concrete application is not wide and deep enough. This paper briefly introduces the activity-based costing theory, analysis of the current third party logistics enterprises in cost accounting of the status quo and existing problems, puts forward the third party logistics enterprise operation cost method used to carry out the train of thought of cost accounting, and combined with a practical enterprise carried out a specific analysis of the process, method and so on. Article on the third party logistics enterprises cost accounting has a good reference.

  6. 信息分享模式对第三方负责回收闭环供应链的影响%The Effect of Information Sharing Modes on the Third-Party Collecting Closed-loop Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂佳佳; 熊中楷

    2011-01-01

    研究了零售商预测信息分享对第三方负责回收闭环供应链的影响.分别建立了集中式闭环供应链下信息分享模型以及四种信息分享模式(无信息分享、信息仅与第三方分享、信息仅与制造商分享和信息与制造商和第三方均分享)的闭环供应链模型.研究发现,零售商分享其私有预测信息对其收益是不利的,但信息分享使得信息仅与第三方分享模式下供应链预期利润增加,通过建立信息分享补偿机制使得零售商有动机分享其需求预测信息.同时发现信息分享对各方的价值以及各方对信息分享模式的偏好取决于回收旧产品价格.%Rapid economic development is creating environmental concerns. Product remannfacturing or recycling is gaining attention for a number of reasons. These reverse logistics practices can not only reduce the natural resources needed and the waste produced,but also help reduce the environmental burden.A closed-loop supply chain consists of forward and reverse logistics. Depending on different collecting parties, a closed-loop supply chain can be collected by retailers, manufacturers and thirty parties.In a third-party collecting closed-loop supply chain, a retailer obtains more information about market demand than other supply chain members such as manufacturers or third-parties because of the retailer's market proximity.The primary goal of this research is to investigate the effect of a retailer's information advantage on the performance of third-party collecting closed-loop supply chains.A retailer has the option to share market demand information with other supply chain members.The research analyzes the decisions of every supply chain member with the asymmetric information game theory. We first develop a centralized collection model in the centralized closed-loop supply chain.We then develop four information sharing models for decentralized closed-loop supply chains: no information sharing

  7. Properly Handling the Third Party Issues in Sino-U.S. Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The relationship between China and the United States is becoming increasingly important in the world; no longer is it limited to bilateral issues, and the third party issue has grown in significance. There are various kinds of third party countries.Some of these, such as Japan, South Korea, Australia and the European countries are U.S. allies. Some, like the central Asian and ASEAN states, are neighbors of China. In the category of major world powers we can also include Russia, India, Japan and the EU, while African and some Latin American countries are relatively marginalized. An important aspect of China's diplomacy in recent years has been to work hard on two fronts:to develop relations with the above mentioned countries, while at the same time taking note of the interests and concerns of the United States. China has achieved a successful balance between the two.

  8. Looking Under the Hood of Third-Party Punishment Reveals Design for Personal Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2016-03-01

    Third-party intervention, such as when a crowd stops a mugger, is common. Yet it seems irrational because it has real costs but may provide no personal benefits. In a laboratory analogue, the third-party-punishment game, third parties ("punishers") will often spend real money to anonymously punish bad behavior directed at other people. A common explanation is that third-party punishment exists to maintain a cooperative society. We tested a different explanation: Third-party punishment results from a deterrence psychology for defending personal interests. Because humans evolved in small-scale, face-to-face social worlds, the mind infers that mistreatment of a third party predicts later mistreatment of oneself. We showed that when punishers do not have information about how they personally will be treated, they infer that mistreatment of other people predicts mistreatment of themselves, and these inferences predict punishment. But when information about personal mistreatment is available, it drives punishment. This suggests that humans' punitive psychology evolved to defend personal interests. PMID:26851057

  9. 论第三方协调性服装供应链之构建%Study on the Third-party Apparel Supply Chain Coordination Build

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代湘荣

    2013-01-01

    Third-party coordination apparel supply chain is emerging in recent years,a form of textile and apparel supply chain,this paper analyzes its characteristics,discusses third-party coordination apparel supply chain build points.%第三方协调性服装供应链是近年新兴的一种纺织服装供应链形式,文中分析了它的特征,探讨了第三方协调性服装供应链的构建要点。

  10. 基于数据仓库的第三方物流企业客户关系管理研究%Implementation of CRM in the Third Party Logistics Based on Data Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志君; 叶怡

    2012-01-01

    Quality customer relationship management is an important factor makes the third party logistics enterprise's core competitiveness. According to the characteristics of the third party logistics enterprise customer relationships,this article discusses using data warehouse on management mode of customer data,and gives a number of specific measures and methods.%高质量的客户关系管理是造就第三方物流企业核心竞争力的重要因素。根据第三方物流企业客户关系的特点,探讨了用数据仓库对客户数据进行管理的模式,并给出了一些具体措施和方法。

  11. 26 CFR 301.7602-2 - Third party contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) purposes only, as an employee of the IRS. For the same reason, however, the appraiser's call to the... liability of one or more other taxpayers, such contact is not for that reason alone a contact “with respect... reading the court divorce file, the IRS employee learns that the divorce was acrimonious and that the...

  12. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Çinlar, Erhan; Ekeland, Ivar; Jouini, Elyes; Scheinkman, José; Touzi, Nizar

    2004-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the second volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. This volume presents the following articles: "Hedging of Defaultable Claims" by T. Bielecki, M. Jeanblanc, and M. Rutkowski; "On the Geometry of Interest Rate Models" by T. Björk; "Heterogeneous Beliefs, Speculation and Trading in Financial Markets" by J.A. Scheinkman, and W. Xiong.

  13. On and Off the Liability Bandwagon: Explaining State Adoptions of Strict Liability in Hazardous Waste Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, David; Alberini, Anna

    1997-01-01

    We analyze factors in states' decisions to switch their approaches to hazardous waste liability policy from negligence standards to policies based on strict liability. Many, but not all, states have switched in recent years. We explain differences in the timing of states' adoption of strict liability into their "mini-superfund" programs using data on states' industrial activities, environmental programs, wealth and education, and political orientation. We test implications of a theoretical mo...

  14. SPECIFIC ACCOUNTING POLICIES ON PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS RELATED TO PROVISIONS, CONTIGENT LIABILITIES AND CONTIGENT ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ţenovici Cristina Otilia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the activity performed by professional accountants should be transparent and the communication process should be an efficient one so that the data transmitted is relevant and reliable. Such characteristics can become achievable only within a quality accounting referential, based on international accounting standards likely to integrate the public field particularities. The need to obtain comparable and transparent information in the public sector has determined the emergence of IPSAS standards, high quality standards with benefice consequences upon the world economy. The purpose of the disclose study is to analyse the development of accountancy in Romania and the level of accounting harmonization and convergence with IPSAS 19 “Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets”. We are also focusing on performing a comparison between the main characteristics of the disclose national and international regulations, with the mention of resemblances and differences on provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets in order to identify the range of convergent and divergent issues.

  15. CONSIDERATIONS ON POLITICAL PARTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard NICULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political parties are the engine of social life, without which citizens would not be able to express political will. According to the law of political parties, they fulfill a public mission guaranteed by the Constitution. That is why, considering the subject very current, we considered it important to analyze in this study, in the notion of political pluralism: the concept of political party but also its constitutional dimension. To this end, the study shows the view of the doctrine combined with the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court.

  16. CONSIDERATIONS ON POLITICAL PARTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard NICULESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Political parties are the engine of social life, without which citizens would not be able to express political will. According to the law of political parties, they fulfill a public mission guaranteed by the Constitution. That is why, considering the subject very current, we considered it important to analyze in this study, in the notion of political pluralism: the concept of political party but also its constitutional dimension. To this end, the study shows the view of the doctrine combined with the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court.

  17. Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S; Raihani, Nichola J

    2014-07-01

    Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators. PMID:25079496

  18. 13 CFR 120.920 - Required participation by the Third Party Lender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Third Party Lender. (a) Amount of Third Party Loans. A Project financing must include one or more... for the acquisition, construction, conversion or expansion of a limited or single purpose asset....

  19. Third- party Blog Marketing Evaluation Based on the SWOT Theory%基于SWOT理论的第三方博客营销评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙济庆; 应璇

    2011-01-01

    Combined with the SWOT analysis, the paper evaluates the behavior using third - party blog marketing objectively and comprehensively in different angles, expounds the advantages and disadvantages of this blog marketing with examples and all of the opportunities and threats that would face in the future. Meanwhile some helpful references are provided to enterprises blog marketing application.%结合SWOT分析法,从不同的角度对利用第三方博客进行营销的行为给予客观全面的评价,结合案例阐述了这种博客营销的优劣势及其所面临的机会和威胁等,为企业的应用博客营销提供有益参考,并为企业如何规避风险提供了一些对策建议.

  20. 基于种群动力系统模型的第三方电子支付平台分析%The Third-party Electronic Payment Based On Population Dynamic System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲文林; 窦霁虹; 卢克英; 李鹏

    2015-01-01

    搜集了大量关于第三方电子支付平台的基本数据并对其进行了整理和分析得出其模型。首先讨论了衡量第三方电子支付平台业务水平的重要指标,并且通过模糊综合评价法对影响第三方电子支付平台业务水平的因素进行了模糊综合评判,得出了影响因素对第三方电子支付平台业务的影响规律;再建立了第三方电子支付平台之间的相互竞争模型,通过Matlab计算出模型中的相关参数;最后通过对应的差分方程,预测出支付宝所占的市场交易份额将会平稳增长,而财付通与汇付天下所占的市场交易份额将会受相互竞争的影响略有下降,快钱所占的市场份额将会继续保持。%This paper collects a lot of basic data on third-party electronic payment platform and then manages and analyzes these data as a result of its model. Firstly,the most important indicators to measure the e-business level of the third-party payment platform are discussed,and we use the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to evaluate the factors which affect the business level of the third-party electronic payment platform. Thus the law of how these factors work is obtained. Then,based on above analysis,we establish a competing model of third-party electronic payment platforms,calculate the correlation coefficient by Matlab,and present differential equations showing the competition among the third-party electronic payment platforms. Finally,we predict that the market share of Alipay will grow steadily via differential equations while the market share of money paid and China PNR will slightly de-crease under the impact of competition and the market share of fast money share will be maintained.

  1. Invalidating stagnation theory for family owned businesses : comparing family-to-family and third party ownership transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heaver, Roger; Ibrahimovic, Alija; Teeffelen, Lex van

    2015-01-01

    Miller, Le Breton-Miller and Scholnick (2008) summarize and discuss two major perspectives constructed from the literature on family owned businesses (FOBs): stewardship and stagnation theory. In this paper the stagnation theory is being put to the test on Dutch small/medium enterprises (SMEs). Acco

  2. Third party access pricing to the network, secondary capacity market and economic optimum: the case of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas deregulation process implies crucial choices concerning access to transportation networks. These choices deal with the nature, the structure and the level of access fees. This paper proposes an evaluation of different systems implemented both in Europe and North America, in relation to normative pricing references. The rules according to which shippers can buy or sell capacity represent another kind of choice that Regulators have to make. This paper proposes a simple model which demonstrates that secondary market prices should not be subject to a cap and emphasizes the need of a 'use-it-or-lose-it' rule on this market. (authors)

  3. Third party access pricing to the network, secondary capacity market and economic optimum: the case of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.; Percebois, J

    2002-09-01

    The gas deregulation process implies crucial choices concerning access to transportation networks. These choices deal with the nature, the structure and the level of access fees. This paper proposes an evaluation of different systems implemented both in Europe and North America, in relation to normative pricing references. The rules according to which shippers can buy or sell capacity represent another kind of choice that Regulators have to make. This paper proposes a simple model which demonstrates that secondary market prices should not be subject to a cap and emphasizes the need of a 'use-it-or-lose-it' rule on this market. (authors)

  4. N. 2874 Report realized for the foreign Affairs commission on the law project n. 2785 authorizing the approbation of international agreements on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain; N. 2874 Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi n. 2785 autorisant l'approbation d'accords internationaux sur la responsabilite civile dans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This report is discussing the approval of two new protocols aiming to modify the OECD convention on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain. After a presentation of the international regime of civil liability in the nuclear domain with the Paris and Vienna conventions, the author analyzes the main improvements offered by the two new protocols. (A.L.B.)

  5. Third party geolocation services in LBS: privacy requirements and research issues

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Damiani

    2011-01-01

    The advances in positioning technologies and the emergence of geolocation standards opens up to the development of innovative location-based services (LBS), e.g., web-based LBS. These services challenge existing privacy protection solutions. For example, the position information is provided by a third party, the location provider, and this party may be not fully trusted. In this paper, we analyze the web-based LBS model. Then we outline the privacy-aware geolocation strategy which minimizes t...

  6. Russia and the OSCE - The Influence of Interested Third and Disinterested Fourth Parties on the Conflicts in Estonia and Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Neukirch

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the influence of external actors on the domestic conditions surrounding the conflicts in Estonia and Moldova. It attempts to answer the question why the Moldovan conflict turned violent while the Estonian conflict remained peaceful.

  7. Structure of the US gas market, regulation and pricing of the third party access to the network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening of the US natural gas market to competition is followed by deep changes in the implemented regulations for an efficient organization and operation of the gas industry. The transformations of the industrial structures and the strategic behavior of the actors characterize the mutations of the gas markets in the USA. The aim of this paper is to transcribe in a synthetic form the characteristics of the gas market in North America and to model the structure of the industry in this sector opened to competition in its back-end. Two main questions are analyzed: the role and position of the former monopoly (utility) in this back-end market (should the local distribution companies continue to sell gas to end users?), and what kind of regulation should be implemented by the authorities in order to avoid the former monopoly to use its market power and make excessive profits. The analysis is made in two steps: the first part explains the hypotheses of the analysis using the characteristics of the North American market. It presents the general framework of the model and explains the two 'regulatory scenarios' retained in the study. The main steps of the resolution of the model are detailed in the second part. (J.S.)

  8. 13 CFR 108.1240 - Funding of NMVC Company's draw request through sale to third-party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Nmvc Company § 108.1240... Leverage, you authorize SBA, or any agent or trustee SBA designates, to enter into any agreements (and...

  9. The Envious Punisher: Understanding Third and Second Party Punishment with Simple Games

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Leibbrandt; Ra�l L�pez-P�rez

    2008-01-01

    We provide a systematic comparison of punishment from unaffected third parties and affected second parties using a within-subject design in ten simple games. We apply the classification analysis by El-Gamal and Grether (1995) and find that a parsimonious model assuming subjects are either envious or selfish best explains the punishment from both third and second parties. Third and second parties punish richer co-players, even if they chose a socially or Pareto-efficient allocation or if they ...

  10. A third-party summary of ARTA views on LDC gas-procurement and its regulatory surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulfillment of FERC's Order 636 requirements will invite consideration of the need to apply the principles of open and workable competition at the retail level. In June 1992, the National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI) invited such consideration by publishing Occasional Paper No. 15, State Regulatory Challenges for the Natural Gas Industry in the 1990s and Beyond, by David B. Hatcher and Arlon R. Tussing. NRRI returned to this subject in its September 1992 Quarterly Bulletin with a research paper entitled open-quotes Pipeline Gas Service Comparability Rule: What Can State Regulators Do Now?close quotes by Daniel J. Duann and David B. Hatcher. These studies bring perspective and controversy to the last stage in connecting the completion fostered by the FERC and others to the ultimate consumers of the natural gas industry. It lists what the authors view as the four critical elements of the natural gas industry today. These elements are: commodity sales are competitive and need not be regulated; most large-volume customers are non-captive and service to them cannot be regulated the same as service to small-volume customers; spot markets for gas are effective and make reliance on supply contracts unnecessarily. Historically, gas contracts have not proven enforceable in extreme conditions (i.e., just when they are most needed); and restricting resale of transportation service is harmful

  11. EPR statistical mixture of correlated states with fractional brownian process induced by third party interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Tamburini, F; Bianchini, A

    1999-01-01

    A time-correlated EPR pairs protocol is analized, based on detection of fractal correlated signals into a statistical mixture of EPR correlated pairs: an approximated alpha-Fractional Brownian Motion (FBM) is induced on the group of EPR pairs (e.g. by sender-third party eavesdropper-like interactions as in Ekert quantum cryptography), to be detected by the receiver using a non - orthogonal wavelet filter, able to characterize the FBM from a noisy enviroment by formalizing a nonlinear optimization problem for the FBM alpha-characteristic parameter extimation.

  12. On Several Issues related to Liability for Guardian%监护人责任若干争议问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保玉

    2012-01-01

    我国《侵权责任法》第32条第1款确立了监护人责任适用无过错责任原则,并设有责任减轻事由;该条第2款不涉及归责原则问题,仅关涉有财产的被监护人与其监护人之间如何支付赔偿费用的内部关系;该条的两款规定,形成了“外部、内部关系区分”的体系构造。在关涉被监护人致入损害的数人侵权中,数个致害人的监护人之间及其监护人与其他责任主体之间形成的责任形态难以统一规定,应区分不同的责任主体并结合侵权类型具体认定。由于我国立法上未承认限制行为能力人和无行为能力人的侵权责任能力,故在被监护人致人损害的情况下,其责任主体是监护人,而非被监护人;在监护人责任纠纷诉讼中,应单列监护人为被告。%The first clause of Article 32 in the Tort Liability Law of P. R. China provides that the imputative principle of liability for guardian is no-fault liability which has a special extenuating circumstance; the second clause of this article merely focuses on the internal relationship the payment for compensation expenditure, which does not involve the imputative principle of liability. Consequently the systematic structure of these two clauses of the above article is to “the distinction between external and internal relationship”. It almost cannot make a unified regulation about the liability form among several guardians and ‘ the guardian and other subject of liability' in the multiple - parties torts and it should make specific decisions in terms of different subjects of lia-bility; the civil defendant in the case of the liability for guardian should be the guardian.

  13. 第三方物流的创新案例研究——以韩国甲物流企业为例%A Case Study on the Process Innovation of the Third Party Logistic Providers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南; 姜泰元; 姜敏求

    2011-01-01

    从第三方物流服务的现实需求出发,通过案例研究.剖析第三方物流企业在制造企业物流方面的创新点.%This paper discusses that the third party logistics provider can contribute significantly to their businesses by reducing their logistics cost, optimizing logistics operation system and achieving soft power. In this study, we report a case study of a logistics company in the Korean to shed a light on this issue and suggest several managerial implications.

  14. The international nuclear liability and compensation regime put to the test of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It appears that nuclear emergency plans place generally more emphasis on the nuclear safety and radiation protection aspects of the management of an accident, both inside the installation concerned and off-site, than on the particular requirements of local residents who would find themselves suddenly in such an emergency situation and of possible victims of nuclear damage. In a similar vein, studies focusing on the international nuclear third party liability regime usually take a global perspective and leave little room for the treatment of individual cases. The albeit welcome dearth of practical experience in Western countries in providing compensation for accidents of nuclear origin has, however, meant that public and local authorities are not always fully conscious of the importance of this question which should be dealt with in as practical a manner as possible. In order to cover all the legal and practical questions that could arise during the management of the consequences of a nuclear accident with regard to third party liability, insurance and compensation, the OECD/NEA held in co-operation with French authorities a workshop in November 2001. It was decided to organize this workshop according to three main stages: the alert phase, the accident phase and the post-accident phase; and to examine during these three stages the various roles played by local and national authorities, the nuclear operator and his insurer, as well as the nature and form of their respective actions. These questions were addressed both from the angle of applicable domestic legislation and of the relevant international conventions. From the analysis of different national experiences and of the information exchanged during the workshop, a striking diversity may be noted of solutions adopted or envisaged to address various aspects of civil liability, insurance and indemnification of damage in a nuclear emergency situation. This lack of uniformity should not necessarily be

  15. 电子商务中第三方支付平台欺诈风险识别研究%Research on the Fraud Risk Identification Model of Third-party Payment Platform on E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵建利; 宋宁; 张滟

    2014-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of electronic commerce , the fraud risk of third-party payment platform on e-commerce presents the increasing trend .This paper constructs a scientific fraud risk identification model by Logistic Regression , and searches and determines the split point fraud transactions and normal transactions by Kolmogorov -Smirnov statistics , in order to estimate the fraud risk quantitatively .The results show that the model is stable and has high forecast accuracy , which can be used to identify the fraud risk of third -party payment .%随着电子商务的飞速发展,第三方支付平台欺诈风险呈现递增趋势。本文采用Logistic回归构建第三方支付的欺诈风险识别模型,并结合Kolmogorov -Smirnov 统计量来查找判断欺诈交易和正常交易的分割点,对欺诈风险进行量化估计。实证研究表明本文所构建模型比较稳定且预测比较准确,可大大提高风险识别能力,对第三方支付机构的风险管理具有重要作用。

  16. Research of Outpatient Financial Settlement in Hospitals Based on Third-party Payment Platform%基于第三方支付平台的医院门诊财务结算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宇飞; 李金; 李海霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the payment of using third-party payment platform to optimize outpatient financial settlement. Methods: Third-party payment platform and debit without pin were introduced to build the way of payment with bank card and the security mechanism, and construct financial system of fund settlement and error handling. Results: Patients can use bank card accounts to pay for treatment in any department in time. Conclusion: Outpatient financial settlement in hospitals based on third-party payment platform had advantages of transfer payments, point-of-sale payments and merchants bank line payments, and also avoided the disadvantages.%目的:探索使用第三方支付平台优化医院门诊财务结算方式。方法:引入第三方支付平台和无密支付技术,建设银行卡支付渠道和安全机制,建设医院资金清算和差错处理财务制度。结果:患者可用银行卡账户资金在费用发生科室实时缴纳就诊费用。结论:基于第三方支付平台的医院门诊财务结算方式,综合了银行卡转账支付、销售终端支付、银行商户专线支付的优势,同时克服了其缺陷。

  17. The Evaluation of the Third-party Logistic Companies Based on the BP Neural Network and AHP%基于BP神经网络和层次分析法的第三方物流企业评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍珍珍; 朱沛

    2013-01-01

    According to the research results of the performance evaluation,combining the current situation of our nation’s third-party logistic companies with the chosen indicators,this paper aims to evaluate and analyze the comprehensive strength of the third-party logistic companies based on the BP neural network and AHP.Then we selected relevant data from several logistic companies and used them to have the evaluation done,which proves that our method is pragmatic and scientific and is able to provide important reference for the selection of the third-party logistic companies.%文中根据绩效评价体系的研究成果,结合我国第三方物流企业的现状,选取了适当的评价指标,并采用基于BP神经网络和层次分析法的评价方法,对第三方物流企业的综合实力进行评价分析。然后,收集了某几家物流企业的相关数据,对具体物流企业的综合实力进行评价,说明文中的评价方法具有实用性和科学性,对第三方物流企业的选择提供重要的参考。

  18. Can green building councils serve as third party governance institutions? An economic and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green Building Councils (GBCs) have been established in many different countries in recent years. This paper discusses the role such organizations can play in the respective construction and real estate industry and under what circumstances a GBC can contribute positively to the development of a “greener” or “more sustainable” stock of buildings. The paper investigates the main informational problem of the industry by looking at the relation between a developer and an investor from an economic point of view. We argue that the investor's uncertainty about the true quality of a building and the corresponding incentive for the developer to cheat may lock them into a prisoners' dilemma trap. The corresponding barriers for a transition toward a “greener” buildings market are analyzed. GBCs are described as institutions of economic governance that can assist the economy in overcoming these problems. They can act as third party institutions in transactions between developers and investors. By certifying the quality of a building, they can reduce the risk for the investor to be cheated by the developer and also increase the incentive to develop good quality buildings for the developer. This task, however, raises some severe management challenges for the GBCs. - Highlights: ► We focus on Green Building Councils and their economic role. ► The paper investigates the informational problem of the sustainable building market. ► Developers and investors are locked in a prisoner's dilemma. ► Can the councils act as third party institutions to certify quality of buildings? ► Credibility and reliability are key features for third party certification.

  19. Financing energy efficiency investments. Third party financing: practical problems and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third Party Financing means the packaging together of both technical aid and the necessary funding for energy cost saving investments by an outside company (outside to the energy user that is), using the energy cost savings themselves to pay for that investment. There are two key factors which differentiate Third Party Financing and conventional approaches to the implementation of energy conservation projects, the first of which is the provision of all the necessary technical services - both initial and detailed energy audits, engineering design and implementation - from one source. The second difference involves viewing the energy cost savings as a ''stream oincome'' which will repay the cost of the investment. This approach has a number of attractions to energy users: the outside company brings both its technical expertise and the necessary up-front capital to fund the energy saving investment. In addition, because the payments to the outside company are contingent, either wholly or in part, upon the level and timing of the energy cost savings the technical and financial risk for the investment is transferred from the energy user to the outside company. However, although simple in concept, third party financing is complex in practice. How does an energy user judge one third party financing proposal against another? If an agreement is made, how are energy savings measured or what happens if there is a dispute between the two parties? These are examples of the practical questions addressed in this paper which must be resolved if third party financing is to be used to assist energy saving. (Author)

  20. The new Law on Environmental Liability. Das neue Gesetz ueber die Umwelthaftung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, A.

    1991-01-30

    The Law on Environmental Liability (UmweltHG) came into force on 1 January 1991. It concerns above all the areas of heat generation and energy, mining, disposal of waste and residual material and also transport of hazardous goods. The pros and cons of a reform of environmental liability under civil law have been discussed exhaustively in literature. Therefore this article restricts itself to relating the basic outlines of the legislative concern and giving a survey of the most important regulations and an outlook on developments in the EC in policy concerning liability law. This includes: liability for endangerment through the operation of certain installations, effect of legalization, normal operation, development risks, force majeure, local customary practice, damages only have to be compensated if an object of legal protection has been injured; questions of proof; several parties liable for compensation. The issue of provision funds is left to a regulation of the Federal Government. At the European level it appears that the domain of the Environmental Liability Law will not be spared amendments. Thus the EC Commission plans among other things a directive on liability for waste under civil law. In 1990 the Directive on Free Access to Information Concerning the Environment was passed. (orig./HSCH).

  1. Legal Reflections on Group Purchase Online of the Third Party%第三方网络团购引发的法律思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蕾

    2012-01-01

    As a new e-commerce mode,group purchase online has become the most popular form of shopping due to its convenience.However,in a time of its rapid growth,such problems have cropped up as false descriptions,consumer fraud,difficulties in right protection,which does harm to the healthy development of the industry.This article describes the development status of China's group purchase online,analyzes the main problems existed in the group purchase of the third party and puts forward some development strategies.%网络团购作为一种新兴的电子商务模式,因方便快捷等优势成为目前最流行的一种购物形式。然而,网络团购在高速发展的同时,虚假描述、消费欺诈、维权困难等问题随之而来,给团购行业的健康发展带来很大危机。本文介绍了我国网络团购的发展现状,着重分析第三方网络团购存在的主要问题,并提出了相应的发展对策。

  2. How the third party logistics enterprise informationization to improve work efficiency and service quality%如何通过信息化提高第三方物流企业工作效率及服务质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学用; 李妮; 冯四龙

    2013-01-01

    the third party logistics product is service, the service is good and bad directly affects the enterprise's reputation,competitiveness, ultimately affect the efficiency of enterprises,so the third party logistics enterprises to improve business efficiency and service quality. In this paper,the third party logistics enterprises in the meaning and characteristics of service quality is defined,and the research and analysis of the satisfaction of customers, and to explore the influencing factors of customer satisfaction, the third party logistics enterprises to improve the satisfaction of customers.%  第三方物流的产品就是服务,其服务的好与差直接影响的是企业的声誉、竞争力,最终影响的是企业的效益,所以第三方物流企业要在提升企业的工作效率以及服务质量上下功夫。本文就第三方的物流企业在服务质量涵义和特点上进行了界定,并研究分析了顾客的满意度特性,探讨影响顾客的满意度因素,提出第三方物流企业提高顾客的满意度方法。

  3. Discussion and practice of HSE management mode based on the third party%基于第三方的项目HSE管理模式探讨与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 辛平

    2012-01-01

    针对工程建设领域项目HSE管理的模式进行了探讨.首先对传统的项目HSE管理模式进行了介绍,简要分析了各种HSE管理模式的特征和意义.在此基础上,对新形势下引入第三方HSE管理的重要意义进行了说明,重点阐述了第三方HSE管理的定义、组织结构、特征等因素.并根据多个项目的实践总结,对引入第三方HSE管理提出了实质性的建议,为第三方模式在工程项目HSE管理的推广理顺思路,指明要点.%The HSE management mode on engineering construction was discussed. Firstly, the traditional HSE management mode on engineering construction was introduced and was discussed the traits and meanings of all sorts of HSE management mode were analyzed. Secondly, the important meaning of bringing the third party to HSE management was illustrated, which focused on the definition of HSE management, organizational structure, attributes and so on. Moreover, some practical suggestions on HSE management based on the third party were put forward according to many projects concerned.

  4. 75 FR 35282 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Walkers: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... section 14(a) of the CPSA in a notice published in the Federal Register on February 9, 2009 (74 FR 6396... December 28, 2009, the Commission published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 68588) revising the... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1216 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Walkers:...

  5. 75 FR 31688 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... section 14(a) of the CPSA in a notice published in the Federal Register on February 9, 2009 (74 FR 6396... December 28, 2009, the Commission published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 68588) revising the... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath...

  6. 船舶物权登记对抗主义中“第三人”界定%Identification of the Third Party in the Doctrine of Registration to Perfect Security Interest about Real Right of Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何易

    2011-01-01

    Maritime Code and Real Right Code of PRC adopt the Doctrine of Registration to Perfect Security Interest when dealing with the alternation of ius in rem of ship,which means un-registered alternation can not act against a third party.In judicial system, the third party is identified generally in the application of relevant law,which leads to the logic confusion and interest unbalance between parties because this identification is not only aside from the Doctrine of Registration to Perfect Security Interest,but also at variance with the nature of Real Right.The Doctrine of Registration to Perfect Security Interest,introduced from abroad,is not on the basis of Chinese legalized model of the alternation of ius in rem,thus,the third party shall be identified restrictively under the Doctrine of Registration to Perfect Security Interest and defined comprehensively by the combination of the legal relationship,content of good faith and burden of proof on the basis of the principle of alternation of ius in rem of ship legalized.%我国《海商法》和《物权法》等就船舶物权变动确立了"登记对抗主义"立法例,即船舶物权变动未经登记不得对抗第三人。在具体适用相关法条时,司法界对第三人予以了泛化认定,既背离了登记对抗主义的本意又动摇了物权的性质,引致法律适用中的逻辑混乱、当事人利益失衡。从国外立法例引入的登记对抗主义并非以我国物权变动的法定公示模式为基础,故对登记对抗主义中第三人的认定必须有所限制,应在坚持船舶物权变动的法定原则基础上,在个案中区分法律关系并结合举证责任等进行界定。

  7. The III German Symposium on nuclear law held in Goettingen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Third German Symposium on Nuclear Law was oranised by the Institute for Public International Law of Goettingen University and the German Federal Ministry of the Interior. The topics dealt with covered legal problems in the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, technical rules and guidelines concerning reactor safety, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and related verification agreements, third party liability for nuclear incidents and finally, financial security and State intervention in the context of the German Bills to ratify the nuclear conventions and the amendments to the German Atomic Energy Act, in particular concerning third party liability for nuclear incidents. (N.E.A.)

  8. 76 FR 46598 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toys: Requirements for Accreditation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... must be provided in the English language. Subject to the limited provisions for acceptance of... products subject to those regulations must have products that are manufactured more than 90 days after the... F 963-07 1 will not be subject to third party testing and therefore we will not be...

  9. 75 FR 42315 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Carpets and Rugs: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... provided in the English language. Subject to the limited provisions for acceptance of ``retrospective... private labeler of products subject to those regulations must have products that are manufactured more... younger as ``youth carpets and rugs.'') Youth carpets and rugs are subject to the third party testing...

  10. Managing water utility financial risks through third-party index insurance contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, Harrison B.; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2013-08-01

    As developing new supply capacity has become increasingly expensive and difficult to permit (i.e., regulatory approval), utilities have become more reliant on temporary demand management programs, such as outdoor water use restrictions, for ensuring reliability during drought. However, a significant fraction of water utility income is often derived from the volumetric sale of water, and such restrictions can lead to substantial revenue losses. Given that many utilities set prices at levels commensurate with recovering costs, these revenue losses can leave them financially vulnerable to budgetary shortfalls. This work explores approaches for mitigating drought-related revenue losses through the use of third-party financial insurance contracts based on streamflow indices. Two different types of contracts are developed, and their efficacy is compared against two more traditional forms of financial hedging used by water utilities: Drought surcharges and contingency funds (i.e., self-insurance). Strategies involving each of these approaches, as well as their use in combination, are applied under conditions facing the water utility serving Durham, North Carolina. A multireservoir model provides information on the scale and timing of droughts, and the financial effects of these events are simulated using detailed data derived from utility billing records. Results suggest that third-party index insurance contracts, either independently or in combination with more traditional hedging tools, can provide an effective means of reducing a utility's financial vulnerability to drought.

  11. Use and Impact of Informal Third-Party Discussions in Interpersonal Conflicts at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkema, Roger J.; Bergmann, Thomas J.; Farquhar, Katherine

    1997-01-01

    States that interpersonal conflicts in the workplace frequently involve conversations with coworkers and outsiders. Examines informal third-party discussions in the workplace, as described by 396 professionals attending graduate business programs and executive seminars. Indicates that conflict intensity and relative power are likely to affect the…

  12. Benchmarking the interactions among barriers in third-party logistics implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diabat, A.; Khreishah, A.; Govindan, Kannan;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction among some of the major barriers that may hinder the implementation of third-party logistics (TPL) in manufacturing industries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses an interpretive structural modeling (ISM) methodology...

  13. 40 CFR 35.6775 - Exclusion of third-party benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6775 Exclusion of third-party benefits. The Cooperative Agreement benefits only the signatories to the Cooperative Agreement....

  14. Multicenter evaluation of single-photon emission computed tomography quantification with third-party reconstruction software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasmaa, Tuija S; Constable, Chris; Hippeläinen, Eero; Sohlberg, Antti O

    2016-09-01

    Reliable and reproducible quantification is essential in many clinical situations. Previously, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has not been considered a quantitative imaging modality, but recent advances in reconstruction algorithm development have made SPECT quantitative. In this study, we investigate the reproducibility of SPECT quantification with phantoms in a multicenter setting using novel third-party reconstruction software. A total of five hospitals and eight scanners (three GE scanners and five Siemens scanners) participated in the study. A Jaszczak phantom without inserts was used to calculate counts to activity concentration conversion factors. The quantitative accuracy was tested using the NEMA-IEC phantom with six spherical inserts (diameters from 10 to 37 mm) filled to an 8 : 1 insert-background concentration ratio. Phantom studies were reconstructed at one central location using HERMES HybridRecon applying corrections for attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter. Spherical volumes of interest with the same diameter as the inserts were drawn on the images and recovery coefficients for the spheres were calculated. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the NEMA-IEC phantom recovery coefficients ranged from ∼19 to 5% depending on the insert diameter so that the lowest CoV was obtained with the largest spheres. The intersite CoV was almost equal to intrasite CoV. In conclusion, quantitative SPECT is reproducible in a multicenter setting with third-party reconstruction software. PMID:27128824

  15. Select the Third-Party Logistics Enterprises Based on DEA and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluationl%基于DEA模型和模糊综合评价的第三方物流企业选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉民

    2012-01-01

    It is very important to evaluate and select the TPL enterprise for more and more companies fi)r the reason that they prefer to outsource the logistics operations to the third-party logistics (TPL, third-party logistics) enterprises, which contributes much to reduce the costs and improve the core competitiveness. This paper uses the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on the DEA model, to evaluate and select the TPL enterprises scientifically and reasonably, and to provide important references for enterprises logistics outsourcing and selecting TPL enterprises.%为降低成本、提高核心竞争力,越来越多的企业选择将物流业务外包给第三方物流企业.因此TPL企业的评价选择是非常重要的。文章提出运用基于DEA模型的模糊综合评价方法,对TPL企业进行科学合理地评价选择,为企业物流外包、选择TPL提供重要参考。

  16. Study on Operation Mode of Third Party Logistics Financing Services Based on Financing Warehouse%基于融通仓的第三方物流金融服务运作模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢娉娉

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we first discussed the basic connotation of third parly logistics financing service and the financing warehouse, then explored the several key points in the operation of the third party financing warehouses, pointed out that for the warehouses to perform their basic functions of integrated service and credit integration and regeneration, we must place great emphasis on the location, layout plan of the financing warehouses, their innoculation with the purchasing supply chain and regional distribution supply chain of client enterprises, etc., and finally studied the operation mode of the third party financing warehouses under principal-agent and uniform credit extension respectively.%首先探讨了第三方物流金融服务及融通仓的基本内涵,接着就第三方物流融通仓运作中的几个关键问题进行了探讨,指出第三方物流融通仓服务要履行一体化服务和信用整合再造的基本功能,就必须在十分注重融通仓的选址布局、与企业采购供应链的融合、与企业区域分销供应链的融合以及采用统一授信额度和担保方式等,最后研究和分析了委托代理和统一授信模式下第三方物流融通仓的运作模式,并给出了对应的解决方案和运行框架机制.

  17. Sino-American seminar on nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sino-American Seminar on Nuclear Liability was held in Beijing, People's Republic of China from April 26-27, 2000, and co-sponsored by Chinese Nuclear Society and U.S. Nuclear Energy Institute. The topics of the meeting were the follows: 1. Current U.S. Nuclear Liability Regime; 2. Current Chinese Nuclear Liability Regime; 3. Comparison of U.S. and Other Nuclear Liability Regime; International Nuclear Liability Conventions; 4. Role of Nuclear Insurance in U.S.; 5. Chinese Nuclear Insurance and Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool; 6. How nuclear Liability Practices Have Been Implemented in U.S.; U.S. Nuclear Claims Experience; 7. Liability for On-Site Nuclear Property Damage

  18. Liability for on-site nuclear property damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typically, liability for on-site property addressed in contracts between operator and its suppliers. Nuclear power plant operators ordinarily protect themselves against risk of nuclear damage to on-site property by insurance. Nuclear liability laws do not specifically address liability for nuclear damage to on-site property. Nuclear plant owners should address risk of damage to on-site property when developing risk management program

  19. Development of in-group favoritism in children's third-party punishment of selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jillian J; McAuliffe, Katherine; Warneken, Felix

    2014-09-01

    When enforcing norms for cooperative behavior, human adults sometimes exhibit in-group bias. For example, third-party observers punish selfish behaviors committed by out-group members more harshly than similar behaviors committed by in-group members. Although evidence suggests that children begin to systematically punish selfish behavior around the age of 6 y, the development of in-group bias in their punishment remains unknown. Do children start off enforcing fairness norms impartially, or is norm enforcement biased from its emergence? How does bias change over development? Here, we created novel social groups in the laboratory and gave 6- and 8-year-olds the opportunity to engage in costly third-party punishment of selfish sharing behavior. We found that by age 6, punishment was already biased: Selfish resource allocations received more punishment when they were proposed by out-group members and when they disadvantaged in-group members. We also found that although costly punishment increased between ages 6 and 8, bias in punishment partially decreased. Although 8-y-olds also punished selfish out-group members more harshly, they were equally likely to punish on behalf of disadvantaged in-group and out-group members, perhaps reflecting efforts to enforce norms impartially. Taken together, our results suggest that norm enforcement is biased from its emergence, but that this bias can be partially overcome through developmental change.

  20. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for nuclear Damage in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With nuclear power generating 43% of its total electricity production, Switzerland is amongst the states, employing the highest percentage of nuclear electricity. Although, the country has not ratified any of the international Nuclear Liability Conventions, its Nuclear Third Party Liability Act reflects all the principles, underlying those Conventions. The statutory liability of the operator of a Swiss nuclear installation itself being unlimited, the total insurance limit of CHF 770 m. provides the highest private insurance protection worldwide. With the support of its foreign Reinsurance Pools, the capacity for this insurance guarantee has, over more than 40 years, been built up by the Swiss Nuclear Insurance Pool. Apart from Third Party Liability cover, the Pool also provides Property insurance to Swiss nuclear installation operators and reinsurance cover to other nuclear insurers worldwide. (author)

  1. Study on Situation and Development Strategies of Third Party Logistics of Agricultural Products%农产品第三方物流的现状及发展对策探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云天

    2015-01-01

    中国是农业大国,在农业生产资料的生产、供给,以及加工、储运、销售农产品等领域拥有的物流市场空间是巨大的。文中首先简单论述农产品第三方物流的发展现状,并以此为基础提出具体的发展对策,希望能为我国发展农产品第三方物流提供参考。%China is a large agricultural country,in the production of agricultural means of production,supply,storage,and processing,with sales of agricultural products in areas such as logistics market space is enormous.This paper first briefly reviews the present development of third party logistics of agricultural products,and based on this proposes the specific development strategy,hoping to provide a reference for Chinese developing third party logistics of agricultural products.

  2. The contribution of micromorphology to study Dark Earth: the example of Brussels (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yannick; Vrydaghs, Luc

    2010-05-01

    For a long time Dark Earth, has been considered as a poorly stratified enigmatic phenomenon of rather ephemeral interest for the archaeological record. Last decades, however, interdisciplinary studies in have demonstrated their huge archaeological potential for studying the medieval urban development (MACPHAIL, 1994; CAMMAS, 2000; DAVID et al., 2000; MACPHAIL, 2003; VERSLYPE & BRULET, 2004; NICOSIA, 2006). Especially micromorphology has proven to be a rather powerful tool to understand the formation processes of these homogeneous units. Besides classical micromorphological analysis and description, the study of the Brussels' Dark Earth involved the development of phytolith analysis of soil thin sections (VRYDAGHS et al., 2007). Such integrated studies contribute significantly to demonstrate that the formation of the Dark Earth results from multiphased processes whereby various human actions interact with natural phenomena. The formation and transformation of Dark Earth can be understood as an ongoing process of accumulation, erosion, decomposition and homogenisation that stops once the Dark Earth gets sealed. Among the identified human activities pasture, agriculture, quarrying, destruction and middening can be cited. Taken into account that the Dark Earth results from such a variable amalgam of activities and natural phenomena, it can be concluded Dark Earth should be investigated on a individual basis. Their systematic study can enhance our knowledge of the diversity of human and natural events that took place in medieval Brussels, and as such contribute to the understanding of its emergence and development. Acknowledgements The authors want to thank the Brussels Capital Region who financed this research. Bibliography CAMMAS, C., 2000. Apports et perspectives de l'analyse micromorphologique des "terres noires". In: Terres Noires - 1. Maison des sciences de la ville, de l'urbanisme et des paysages, Tours, pp. 45-60. (= Documents Sciences de la Ville, 6, 2000

  3. Climate - 30 questions to understand the Paris Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors, who participate in the negotiations on climate, propose an analysis and a description of the various geopolitical, economic and financial challenges which are part of the next conference on climate (Conference of Parties, COP 21) which is to take place in France in December 2015. They notably discuss to which extent France is an example, what Obama can do, why things are changing in China, who are the opponents in the struggle against climate change. While one of the main issue of this conference, and the possible cause of its failure, will be the financial issue, and particularly the promise made in 2009 to mobilise 100 billions dollars every year in favour of developing countries which are the most impacted by global warming, in an interview, one of the author evokes the content of his book: he discusses the general consensus about the human origin of climate change, evokes fossil industries and oil producing countries as opponents to an energy revolution, outlines that energy transition is at the heart of what he calls the Battle of Paris (the conference), outlines the important role France can play despite some weaknesses of its climate policy, the new momentum given by China and the USA. He considers low carbon economy as the main world challenge on the long term

  4. Study on Optimization of Third Party Logistics Transportation Based on Improved Heuristic Algorithm%基于改进的启发式算法的第三方物流运输优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉华; 侯彦波

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we used the improved heuristic algonthm to optimize the third party logistics transportation operations and established the corresponding mathematical model to eliminate constraints in time and space and promote the speedy development of third party logistics.%针对传统物流运作模式的不科学之处进行了研究,利用改进的启发式算法对第三方物流运输进行了优化处理,并建立相应的数学模型,以消除时间和空间等方面的约束,促进第三方物流的迅速发展.

  5. Inter-professional Perinatal Simulation training: A valuable educational model to improve competencies amongst student midwives in Brussels, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Joeri; Beeckman, Katrien; De Clercq, Gerlinde; Vandelannoote, Isabelle; Gucciardo, Léonardo; Laubach, Monika; Swinnen, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Simulation training is a powerful and evidence-based teaching method for students and healthcare professionals. The described educational model of Inter-professional Perinatal Simulation training is the result of a collaborative project with the Erasmus University College Brussels, the Medical School of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and the University Hospital Brussels. This model enhances student midwives to acquire competencies in all fields of midwifery according to national and European legislation and to the International Confederation of Midwives Global Standards for Midwifery Education. In our educational program, simulation training enhanced the achievement of decision-making and inter-professional communication competences.

  6. 浅析模糊综合评价对第三方物流服务商的选择%A Study on the Selection of the Third Party Logistics Service Provider Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景敏

    2011-01-01

    通过分析现代第三方物流的特点,构建全面的评价和选择现代第三方物流供应商的指标体系;采用层次分析法确定各专家组成员以及评价指标体系各级指标的权重;详细阐述集成层次分析法和模糊综合评价方法选择现代第三方物流供应商的步骤;最后,通过算例说明方法的科学性和合理性。%By analyzing the features of the third party logistics, the thesis intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation and an index system of the selection of the third party logistics service provider. The thesis proposes to adopt analytical hierarchy process to determine the members of the expert group and the index proportion of each level in the evaluation index system. The thesis also illustrates in detail the integrated analytical hierarchy process and the steps to select the third party logistics service provider by applying fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The thesis finally demonstrates the scientificity and rationality by examples.

  7. Reflections on the Validity of Gifting of Community Property by One of the Spouse to the Third Party%夫妻一方将共同财产赠与“第三者”行为效力的法律思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海蓉

    2015-01-01

    In the judicial practice there are different disposition concerning the validity of the gifting of commu -nity property by one of the spouse to the third party:in some cases it is decided to be invalid and the gift is confis-cated by the state while in other cases , it is regarded as valid;it can also be regarded as partial valid in some cases and half of the gift is decided to be returned .Cohabitation outside marriage and gifting are two separate legal ac-tions , the reasonableness of conditions for gifting and the percentage of the gifted property in the community proper -ty should be considered in order to decide the validity of the gifting so as to balance the interests of the parties in -volved.%对于夫妻一方将共同财产赠与“第三者”的行为,司法实践中有的判决无效,将赠与财产全部返还或收缴归国家所有;有的判决有效,不必返还;有的判决部分无效,返还一半财产。婚外同居行为与赠与行为是两个独立的行为,应该考察赠与行为所附条件的正当性与否以及赠与财产在夫妻共同财产中所占的比重来决定赠与行为的效力,从而平衡各方当事人的利益。

  8. Analysis on the Development Strategy of the Third Party Logistics in the Supply Chain Environment%供应链环境下的第三方物流发展策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠毅

    2016-01-01

    文中总结了我国第三方物流企业在提升供应链核心企业的管理能力及实施过程中的作用,并针对在供应链管理条件下第三方物流的现状和问题,提出第三方物流在供应链管理条件下的发展建议,从而促进第三方物流在新的环境下的发展。%This paper summarizes the third party logistics enterprises in the supply chain management ability and the implementation process of the role, and in the supply chain management conditions of the three party logistics and the problem, put forward third party logistics in the supply chain management development proposal, so as to promote the development of the third party logistics in the new environment.

  9. 论第三方支付的洗钱路径与防范%On the Prevention of Money-Laundering Channels of the Third-Party Payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成贺

    2011-01-01

    Based on the third-party payment,there are so many channels for money-laundering,such as making the cash into the third-party payment,fictitious sale,screening the fund flow,cross-border supply and so on.In order to implement the safe prevention of money-laundering,firstly,the legal framework should be completed;secondly,the system of customer identify certified should be improved and the bloke trade and suspicious transactions should be reported;thirdly,the supervisory system of anti-money-laundering should be established;lastly,self-discipline of respective trade and international cooperation should be enhanced.To avoid unmanageable transaction and financial flow,banking accounts should be bound and the transaction records should be kept by aid of internet,which can guarantee the reality of deal,and resurrect the source and destination of funds.%利用第三方支付进行洗钱的路径有现金植入第三方支付系统、虚构交易、屏蔽资金流向、跨境支付等。我国应完善反洗钱法律制度,健全客户身份识别制度、大额交易和可疑交易报告制度,建立反洗钱监控系统,加强行业自律与国际合作,更要针对失控的交易与资金流,通过物联网帐户绑定、保存交易记录来保证交易的真实、再现资金的最初来源和最终去向,以实现对第三方支付洗钱的安全防范。

  10. Secure multi-party computation solution to Yao's millionaires' problem based on set-inclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shundong; DAI Yiqi; YOU Qiyou

    2005-01-01

    Secure multi-party computation is a focus of international cryptography in recent years. Protocols for Yao's millionaires' problem have become an important building block of many secure multi-party computation protocols. Their efficiency are crucial to the efficiency of many secure multi-party computation protocols. Unfortunately, known protocols for Yao's millionaires' problem have high computational complexity or communication complexity. In this study, based on the 1-out-of-m oblivious transfer and set-inclusion problem, we propose a new protocol to solve this problem. This new protocol is very efficient in terms of both computational and communication complexities. Its privacy-preserving property is also proved by simulation paradigm which is generally accepted in the study of secure multi-party computation. We also compare the information leakage of our new protocol and the known protocols.

  11. International nuclear liability law. Range of application and principles of liability; Internationales Atomhaftungsrecht. Anwendungsbereich und Haftungsprinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissich, S.

    2004-07-01

    In this book the technical and the geographical range of application of the conventions of nuclear liability as well as the new comprehensively are analyzed for the first time. The author distributes a lot of open questions and offers own proposals of solution. Among other things, the questions cover the subsequent topics: liability for final storage facilities, application at military nuclear plants, validity of the conventions in accidents on high seas, application on nuclear damages in third-party governments, impact of the non-applicability of the convention on the liability of the operator and third persons. In addition, this book also is suitable for a venturing into the international nuclear liability law. The complex and bulky subject is prepared clearly and in an easily readable style.

  12. Statement to International Conference on Access to Civil Nuclear Energy, 8 March 2010, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    consider to ensure that nuclear energy is developed beneficially, responsibly and sustainably. The other is called Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. It systematically defines all the milestones that should guide a country's preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power. These cover the appropriate legal and regulatory framework, engineering, financial and environmental concerns, safety and security, as well as the appropriate safeguards regime. These milestones are designed to help countries make progress, not to put obstacles in their way. Our second key role is as a reviewer. At the request of a Member State, we assemble teams of experts to conduct detailed reviews of, for example, the operational safety of its nuclear facilities, the effectiveness of its regulatory system or its overall progress in preparing for nuclear power. This system of peer review - which involves experts sharing information and experience with other experts - is of immense value. It helps to increase transparency, to the benefit of all. Third, the Agency provides a broad range of training to Member States. For example, we organize highly specialised technical training for nuclear engineers and scientists. In Montpelier, we help to run courses in nuclear law. This training helps countries to build up their own expertise so they can make informed decisions and are well prepared in dealing with vendors, consultants, industry associations and other governments. The IAEA plays an active role in contributing to technological development. A good example is the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Continual innovation in nuclear technology is essential. Fast reactors, for example, make it possible to extend the lifetime of uranium resources from hundreds of years to thousands of years, to lower costs and to reduce nuclear waste. Here, also, success will depend on international coordination. Let me state again that

  13. The road to Paris and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rodney; Green, Fergus; Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Headline issue: Effective international cooperation can help the world develop along a 2°C pathway and adapt to the climatic changes already locked-in as a result of past and ongoing greenhouse gas emissions. It can also help countries seize the many opportunities and benefits associated with the transition to a low-carbon economy. The United Nations climate change conference in Paris at the end of 2015 is an important opportunity to advance toward those objectives. The French Governmen...

  14. A Theory of Generative ConvNet

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jianwen; Lu, Yang; Zhu, Song-Chun; Wu, Ying Nian

    2016-01-01

    We show that a generative random field model, which we call generative ConvNet, can be derived from the commonly used discriminative ConvNet, by assuming a ConvNet for multi-category classification and assuming one of the categories is a base category generated by a reference distribution. If we further assume that the non-linearity in the ConvNet is Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) and the reference distribution is Gaussian white noise, then we obtain a generative ConvNet model that is unique am...

  15. Liability and damages in Japanese nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese legislation relating to nuclear liability is based on two laws which date back to 1961, i.e. the law concerning compensation for nuclear damage and the law concerning financial damage compensation indemnification. In Japan, the legal channelling of liability is in force, a contractual recourse is not possible unless there is intent. The financial security act in Japan consists of a (third-party) liability insurance contract concluded with a private insurer and the cover contract concluded with the state. According to the agreement on financial security concluded between government and operator, the operator has to pay the state a certain sum per year. Basically, the amount covered is DM 50 million per site. This sum will be increased to DM 90 million. The operator is fully liable. The state is not bound by law to fully cover damages but will be - de facto - prepared to do so anyway. For potential damage to personnel, the social insurance law is applicable as it is in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this damage is intended to be subject to nuclear liability, to be effected by an amendmend. (orig./HP)

  16. Not 'Just the two of us' : Third party externalities of social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Iest, Hanne; Dijkstra, J.; Stokman, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    Many real-life social dilemmas contain third parties who cannot make decisions in the dilemma, but are affected by its outcome (receive externalities) nonetheless. Dilemmas with identical payoffs for decision-making actors may greatly vary in their externalities for third parties. If actors value th

  17. 32 CFR 728.35 - Coordination of benefits-third party payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination of benefits-third party payers. 728... MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Retired Members and Dependents of the Uniformed Services § 728.35 Coordination of benefits—third party payers. Title 10...

  18. 75 FR 33683 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Correction In rule document 2010-13080 beginning...

  19. Enacting Third-Party Certification: A Case Study of Science and Politics in Organic Shrimp Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, Jason; Hatanaka, Maki

    2011-01-01

    As third-party certification has become a prominent governance mechanism, conflicting understandings of it have emerged. Proponents advance third-party certification as a technical and objective governance mechanism, while critics argue that politics and relations of power characterize it. We reject this dichotomization both in terms of how TPC is…

  20. STUDY ON INTERNAL CONTROL OF SUPPLIERS AND CUSTOMERS IN A CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN RĂVAŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Control covers debts and liabilities, outstanding liabilities and purchases and expenses in the profit and loss and long-term liabilities, provisions and funding costs. The validation tests applied to cover all, claims liabilities in the financial statements but with less emphasis on testing for registration. It can be done but circularize commercial debt is often not necessary because suppliers provide documentary evidence statements from third parties. Direct circularization of claims is a basic procedure, but it does not provide evidence for all relevant assertions. Other important procedures are: tests of independence; testing for the possibility of recovery.

  1. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmächer, T

    2015-09-01

    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  2. The need to bring the new global regime of civil nuclear liability to life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident raised consciousness around the world about civil liability issues. People in Australia and elsewhere looked at the existing international nuclear liability regime and concluded that it was inadequate. The amount of compensation available under the regime was too low. The regime did not cover environmental damage. Australia decided to take an active role in the proceedings of the Standing Committee on Nuclear liability. Australia has a favourable judgment on the new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for nuclear damages. It provided for a dedicated fund for transboundary damage, the inclusion of environmental damage, the lion's share of the contributions to the international fund established under the Convention to be borne by nuclear power generating states, jurisdiction over actions concerning nuclear damage from a nuclear accident in a Party's territory or Exclusive Economic Zone to lie with the courts of that Party. It reproaches this Convention for compensable damage to be determined by the law of the competent court, and the necessity of emission of ionizing radiations for the Convention to take effect. (N.C.)

  3. “I would have never allowed it”: User Perception of Third-party Tracking and Implications for Display Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Thode, Wiebke; Griesbaum, Joachim; Mandl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the perception on third-party tracking of German Internet users. For that purpose, 20 users without a technical background were interviewed. Results indicate that users are not aware of online tracking. They are often surprised by the magnitude of tracking programs they are exposed to during everyday life online activities like travel planning, job or product research. While the interviewees were willing to concede the theoretical advantages of such data ...

  4. An integrated fuzzy approach for strategic alliance partner selection in third-party logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkayman, Burak; Gundogar, Emin; Yilmaz, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    Outsourcing some of the logistic activities is a useful strategy for companies in recent years. This makes it possible for firms to concentrate on their main issues and processes and presents facility to improve logistics performance, to reduce costs, and to improve quality. Therefore provider selection and evaluation in third-party logistics become important activities for companies. Making a strategic decision like this is significantly hard and crucial. In this study we proposed a fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach to effectively select the most appropriate provider. First we identify the provider selection criteria and build the hierarchical structure of decision model. After building the hierarchical structure we determined the selection criteria weights by using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) technique. Then we applied fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to obtain final rankings for providers. And finally an illustrative example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. PMID:23365520

  5. An Integrated Fuzzy Approach for Strategic Alliance Partner Selection in Third-Party Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Erkayman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing some of the logistic activities is a useful strategy for companies in recent years. This makes it possible for firms to concentrate on their main issues and processes and presents facility to improve logistics performance, to reduce costs, and to improve quality. Therefore provider selection and evaluation in third-party logistics become important activities for companies. Making a strategic decision like this is significantly hard and crucial. In this study we proposed a fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM approach to effectively select the most appropriate provider. First we identify the provider selection criteria and build the hierarchical structure of decision model. After building the hierarchical structure we determined the selection criteria weights by using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP technique. Then we applied fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS to obtain final rankings for providers. And finally an illustrative example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  6. A probabilistic approach for modeling environmental liability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimbey, S.C.S.; Funk, W.A.; Weeks, P.; Wells, J.; Patterson, J.C.M. [Komex International, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A newly developed, cost-effective modelling and statistical method by which to estimate environmental liability (EL) for the oil and gas sector was presented. EL is an obligation to make a future expenditure to abandon and reclaim polluted property according to regulatory standards. Komex International Ltd. had developed an EL evaluation package called Liability Engine{sup TM} (trademark pending). It offers impartiality, defensibility, quantification of uncertainty and decision analysis. The method is based on the Monte Carlo Simulation methods to input values into spreadsheet-based cost estimation routines. The method has been used to evaluate upstream oil and gas assets including single wellsites, major production fields as well as geology and ecology. Komex has applied the method to estimate the EL of more than 10,000 oil and gas assets in North America. Examples include: (1) environmental liability management and reporting, (2) corporate balance sheets, (3) due diligence, (4) asset divestment, (5) property negotiations, (6) single site liability and third party review, (7) take-over and no access to field data, and (8) asset acquisition. The method can be modified to address unique situations and is continually evolving towards providing concise, bounded estimates. 11 refs.

  7. Professional liability insurance with focus on legal professions

    OpenAIRE

    Hubinková, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is about professional liability insurance, focused primarily on legal professions. The first part describes general liability insurance, then the thesis is focused on characteristics and specific features of professional liability insurance. The thesis also analyzes legal requirements for insurance of selected professions and significance of professional associations in professional liability insurance. In conclusion, it examines availability of professional liability insurance pro...

  8. A Market for Justice: A First Empirical Look at Third Party Litigation Funding

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, David; Daniel L. Chen

    2013-01-01

    The alienability of legal claims holds the promise of increasing access to justice and fostering development of the law. While much theoretical work points to this possibility, no empirical work has investigated the claims, largely due to the rarity of trading in legal claims in modern systems of law. In this paper we take the first step toward empirically testing some of these theoretical claims using data from Australia. We find some evidence that third-party funding corresponds to an incre...

  9. 1- and 2-year-olds' expectations about third-party communicative actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorgrimsson, Gudmundur B; Fawcett, Christine; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    Infants expect people to direct actions toward objects, and they respond to actions directed to themselves, but do they have expectations about actions directed to third parties? In two experiments, we used eye tracking to investigate 1- and 2-year-olds' expectations about communicative actions addressed to a third party. Experiment 1 presented infants with videos where an adult (the Emitter) either uttered a sentence or produced non-speech sounds. The Emitter was either face-to-face with another adult (the Recipient) or the two were back-to-back. The Recipient did not respond to any of the sounds. We found that 2-, but not 1-year-olds looked quicker and longer at the Recipient following speech than non-speech, suggesting that they expected her to respond to speech. These effects were specific to the face-to-face context. Experiment 2 presented 1-year-olds with similar face-to-face exchanges but modified to engage infants and minimize task demands. The infants looked quicker to the Recipient following speech than non-speech, suggesting that they expected a response to speech. The study suggests that by 1 year of age infants expect communicative actions to be directed at a third-party listener.

  10. Coherent CVA and FVA with Liability Side Pricing of Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Wujiang

    2015-01-01

    This article presents FVA and CVA of a bilateral derivative in a coherent manner, based on recent developments in fair value accounting and ISDA standards. We argue that a derivative liability, after primary risk factors being hedged, resembles in economics an issued variable funding note, and should be priced at the market rate of the issuer's debt. For the purpose of determining the fair value, the party on the liability side is economically neutral to make a deposit to the other party, whi...

  11. Parsing the Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms of Third-Party Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie, Richard J.; Hoffman, Morris B.; Shen, Francis X.; Simons, Kenneth W.

    2016-01-01

    The evolved capacity for third-party punishment is considered crucial to the emergence and maintenance of elaborate human social organization and is central to the modern provision of fairness and justice within society. Although it is well established that the mental state of the offender and the severity of the harm he caused are the two primary predictors of punishment decisions, the precise cognitive and brain mechanisms by which these distinct components are evaluated and integrated into a punishment decision are poorly understood. Using fMRI, here we implement a novel experimental design to functionally dissociate the mechanisms underlying evaluation, integration, and decision that were conflated in previous studies of third-party punishment. Behaviorally, the punishment decision is primarily defined by a superadditive interaction between harm and mental state, with subjects weighing the interaction factor more than the single factors of harm and mental state. On a neural level, evaluation of harms engaged brain areas associated with affective and somatosensory processing, whereas mental state evaluation primarily recruited circuitry involved in mentalization. Harm and mental state evaluations are integrated in medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate structures, with the amygdala acting as a pivotal hub of the interaction between harm and mental state. This integrated information is used by the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at the time of the decision to assign an appropriate punishment through a distributed coding system. Together, these findings provide a blueprint of the brain mechanisms by which neutral third parties render punishment decisions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Punishment undergirds large-scale cooperation and helps dispense criminal justice. Yet it is currently unknown precisely how people assess the mental states of offenders, evaluate the harms they caused, and integrate those two components into a single punishment decision. Using a

  12. On Contingent Liabilities and the Likelihood of Fiscal Crises*

    OpenAIRE

    Craig Burnside

    2002-01-01

    A contingent liability is a commitment to take on an actual liability that could be realized in the future. International organizations emphasize the dangers of contingent liabilities when providing advice. Why? One reason is that when contingent liabilities are realized they often commit governments to substantial fiscal costs. Another reason is subtler: by taking on a contingent liability the government can increase the probability of the event that would trigger its realization. This...

  13. 促进我国第三方药品物流发展的监管对策研究%Research on the Administrative Measures for Developing Third-party Drug Logistics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪钢

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide administrative measures for developing third-party drug logistics in China.Methods Based on the definition,operation mode,competitive advantage and the current situation of third-party drug logistics in China,the main problems and the corresponding causes were analyzed from the aspects of the customer,provider and administrator.Results and Conclusion The development and growth of the third-party drug logistics can be further promoted by a perfect mechanism,a fair market, sound policies, advanced information technology, unified standard, authoritative industry associations and strengthened professional training.As a result,the drug distribution market will be improved in terms of standard,scale and intensity.%目的:为促进我国第三方药品物流快速发展,探讨监管对策。方法简要介绍我国第三方药品物流的定义、运作模式、竞争优势和发展现状,并分别从医药企业客户、第三方药品物流企业、政府和行业监管等三个物流相关方,对当前第三方药品物流存在的主要问题及其原因进行分析。结果与结论完善监管体制、破除地方保护、健全政策法规、加快标准化和信息化建设、培育权威行业协会、加强专业人才培养,将会进一步促进我国第三方药品物流的发展壮大,提高药品流通市场规范化、规模化、集约化程度。

  14. Ownership, Managerial Control and the Governance of Companies Listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines how corporate control is exerted in companies listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange. There are several alternative corporate governance mechanisms which may play a role in disciplining poorly performing management: blockholders (holding companies, industrial companies, families and institutions), the market for partial control, debt policy, and board composition. Even if there is redundancy of substitute forms of discipline, some mechanisms may dominate. We find that top m...

  15. Benefits, Risks, Selection Criteria and Success Factors for Third-Party Logistics Services

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Selviaridis; Martin Spring; Vassilios Profillidis; George Botzoris

    2008-01-01

    The need to reduce logistics costs is well recognised, often, however, without identification of the factors that could contribute to such a reduction. Third-party logistics (3PL) is an augmenting activity of the transport system, which can strengthen the cooperation of different transport modes. As a new practice, conditions of success are driven from personal or empirical situations, often hiding the real causes. To tackle this problem, a major survey has been conducted among both buyers an...

  16. The role of third party logistics providers in Europe - A combined network and systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jockel, Otto

    2002-01-01

    Third party logistics is a concept that is widely accepted as an alternative to vertical integration. The degree to which it is applied in practice varies considerably. The focus of this research is the role of TPLPs in existing logistics systems, and how they themselves can influence this. This is influenced by the strategic position with which a TPLP is trusted by a shipper, and to some extent by a TPLP's competence and entrepreneurial behaviour towards logistics management. Logistics comp...

  17. Amsterdam Paris Stockholm meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    We are glad to welcome you in Paris at IAP for the third edition of the Amsterdam-Paris-Stockholm workshop, which will be held from December 16th to 18th 2013. Please register in order for us to know how many of you intend to participate.

  18. THIRD PARTY LOGISTIC SERVICE PROVIDER SELECTION USING FUZZY AHP AND TOPSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Kabir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of third party logistic(3PL services providers is increasing globally to accomplish the strategic objectives. In the increasingly competitive environment, logistics strategic management requires systematic and structured approach to have cutting edge over the rival. Logistics service provider selection is a complex multi-criteria decision making process; in which, decision makers have to deals with the optimization of conflicting objectives such as quality, cost, and delivery time. In this paper, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP approach based on technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS method has been proposed for evaluating and selecting an appropriate logistics service provider, where the ratings of each alternative and importance weight of each criterion are expressed in triangular fuzzy numbers.

  19. High strength-of-ties and low mobility enable the evolution of third-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Patrick; Gelfand, Michele; Nau, Dana; Carr, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    As punishment can be essential to cooperation and norm maintenance but costly to the punisher, many evolutionary game-theoretic studies have explored how direct punishment can evolve in populations. Compared to direct punishment, in which an agent acts to punish another for an interaction in which both parties were involved, the evolution of third-party punishment (3PP) is even more puzzling, because the punishing agent itself was not involved in the original interaction. Despite significant empirical studies of 3PP, little is known about the conditions under which it can evolve. We find that punishment reputation is not, by itself, sufficient for the evolution of 3PP. Drawing on research streams in sociology and psychology, we implement a structured population model and show that high strength-of-ties and low mobility are critical for the evolution of responsible 3PP. Only in such settings of high social-structural constraint are punishers able to induce self-interested agents toward cooperation, making responsible 3PP ultimately beneficial to individuals as well as the collective. Our results illuminate the conditions under which 3PP is evolutionarily adaptive in populations. Responsible 3PP can evolve and induce cooperation in cases where other mechanisms alone fail to do so.

  20. High strength-of-ties and low mobility enable the evolution of third-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Patrick; Gelfand, Michele; Nau, Dana; Carr, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    As punishment can be essential to cooperation and norm maintenance but costly to the punisher, many evolutionary game-theoretic studies have explored how direct punishment can evolve in populations. Compared to direct punishment, in which an agent acts to punish another for an interaction in which both parties were involved, the evolution of third-party punishment (3PP) is even more puzzling, because the punishing agent itself was not involved in the original interaction. Despite significant empirical studies of 3PP, little is known about the conditions under which it can evolve. We find that punishment reputation is not, by itself, sufficient for the evolution of 3PP. Drawing on research streams in sociology and psychology, we implement a structured population model and show that high strength-of-ties and low mobility are critical for the evolution of responsible 3PP. Only in such settings of high social-structural constraint are punishers able to induce self-interested agents toward cooperation, making responsible 3PP ultimately beneficial to individuals as well as the collective. Our results illuminate the conditions under which 3PP is evolutionarily adaptive in populations. Responsible 3PP can evolve and induce cooperation in cases where other mechanisms alone fail to do so. PMID:24335985

  1. The role of cities and local authorities following COP21 and the Paris Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Tollin, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the implications for cities, local authorities and non-party stakeholders of the Paris Agreement and the resolve of United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties COP21. The article focuses on the central role that cities will have in the implementation of the Paris Agreement itself, particularly with reference to mitigation, adaptation, capacity building and technology transfer. The Paragraphs finally identifies the key challenges for cities ...

  2. Act No 6453 of 17th October, 1977 on civil liability for nuclear damage and criminal responsibility for acts relating to nuclear activities, and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act was published on 17 October 1977. It is based to a great extent on the provisions of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nucler Damage of 21 May 1963. Under the Act the operator of a nuclear installation is exclusively liable regardless of fault for compensation of nuclear damage due to a nuclear incident. This exclusive liability is limited to an amount equal to 1,500,000 Treasury Bonds and the operator must take out and maintain insurance or other financial security to cover his liability. The Federative Government will guarantee, up to the prescribed limit, payment of compensation for nuclear damage where it is acknowledged that the operator's liability is involved. As regards apportionment of compensation, persons are granted priority over property. This Act is original in that it contains provisions on criminal liability with penalties ranging from two to ten years imprisonment. (NEA)

  3. Does the Identity of the Third-Party Payer Matter for Prescribing Doctors?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    TNF-alpha inhibitors represent one of the most important areas of biopharmaceuticals by sales, with three blockbusters accounting for 8 per cent of total pharmaceutical sale in Norway. Novelty of the paper is to examine, with the use of a unique natural policy experiment in Norway, to what extent the price responsiveness of prescription choices is affected when the identity of the third-party payer changes. The three dominating drugs in this market, Enbrel, Remicade, and Humira, are substitut...

  4. Developing Third-Party Logistics to Promote Wuhan's Manufacturing Industry%发展第三方物流促进武汉制造业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕

    2006-01-01

    振兴武汉制造业,必须重视物流管理.武汉制造业要集中资源提升核心竞争力,必须发展和充分运用第三方物流(Third-Party Logistics,3PL).目前武汉制造业运用3PL的比例较低,要从武汉市政府、制造业和第三方物流业三个方面分析其中的原因,并从不同方面加强武汉市第三方物流建设,即政府部门要优化物流环境,制造业要重组资源,第三方物流企业要提升核心竞争力,要加强物流人才的培养和引进.

  5. Third party geolocation services in LBS: privacy requirements and research issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Damiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The advances in positioning technologies and the emergence of geolocation standards opens up to the development of innovative location-based services (LBS, e.g., web-based LBS. These services challenge existing privacy protection solutions. For example, the position information is provided by a third party, the location provider, and this party may be not fully trusted. In this paper, we analyze the web-based LBS model. Then we outline the privacy-aware geolocation strategy which minimizes the interaction with the untrusted location provider by caching the information that is useful to determine the position in proximity of the private positions, e.g., home, which have been already visited. The deployment of this strategy requires investigating several issues and novel tools. The objective of this paper is to discuss the technical challenges and suggest directions of research towards a comprehensive privacy-preserving framework. To our knowledge, this is the first work on privacy protection against untrusted location providers.

  6. Innovation in an international third party logistics firm: A strategy-as-practice perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianguang Cui

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Logistics firms play an important role in the economy but they have received little attention in strategic management and logistics management literature. This paper intends to fill in this gap by looking a specific strategising process, innovation, at an international third party logistics (TPL firm. Using strategy as a practice perspective, the paper describes and analyses how innovation emerges and evolves over time. Drawing on an in-depth longitudinal case study of an international TPL firm, this study shows that intra-organisational interactions as well as inter-organisational interactions are essential in the innovation process at logistics firms. The innovation process at logistics firms is complicated and includes both top-down and bottom-up processes. It is vertically decoupled and multidirectional. Innovation at logistics firms emerges as a combination of an ad hoc response to a customer request and a purpose-driven interactive process.

  7. Growth, climate and collaboration: towards agreement in Paris 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Headline issue: International agreements are built on shared understanding. So how should a climate change agreement be built at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris in December 2015? The UNFCCC negotiations leading up to Paris have been organised on the basis that each country or region will determine their own contribution to the global climate mitigation effort.This more decentralised approach seems likely to lead ...

  8. 论行政诉讼原告资格标准和第三人资格标准之界分%On the qualification standards' demarcation of the plaintiff and the third party in administrative proceedings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹丛丛

    2012-01-01

    According to Chinag Administrative Procedure Law, the difference between plaintiff qualification and the third party' s qualification is the difference between the interest and the legal interest. It takes great difficulty for the determina- tion of the plaintiff and the third party. Therefore, this article attempts to start from clearing the interest and the legal in- terest, finding out the division rules of the plaintiff and the third party' s qualification standards, so as to clarify the rela- tionship between the two.%根据我国《行政诉讼法》规定,行政诉讼原告资格和第三人资格仅是法律上的利害关系和利害关系的区别,这给行政诉讼原告和第三人的实际确定带来了很大困难。因此本文试图从明晰利害关系和法律上的利害关系之区别人手,找出原告和第三人资格标准之界分规则,从而厘清二者的关系。

  9. Report on state liability for radioactive materials transportation incidents: A survey of laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the liability laws of the Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB's) 16 member states. It begins by briefly reviewing potential sources of liability, immunity from liability, waiver of immunity, and statutes of limitation, followed by liability laws of member states. The report was prepared by reviewing legal literature pertaining to governmental liability, with particular emphasis on nuclear waste transportation, including law review articles, legal treatises, technical reports, state statutes and regulations

  10. An Exploration of Competitive Signalling Equilibria with 'Third Party' Information Production: The Case of Debt Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Anjan V. Thakor

    2004-01-01

    In markets in which sellers know more about product quality than buyers, but cannot convey their superior information either by directly issuing costly signals of the Spence type or by successfully funding the production of information, I suggest another way in which the informational asymmetry problem can be resolved; a third party can produce the necessary information at a cost and use it to price a service consumed by the sellers. Buyers can then observe a seller's choice of service consum...

  11. The Role of Third-Party Logistics (3PL) Providers in Produce

    OpenAIRE

    Hinson, Roger A.

    2005-01-01

    Supply-Chain Management (SCM) reduces time requirements and costs from supply chains to improve profitability and/or competitiveness. These savings are possible through conceptual advances and increasing use of powerful computer hardware and software. The SCM concept is defined, and some considerations of its application in the produce area are discussed. Most applications and benefits have resulted from alliances between large retailers and large packaged-goods vendors. Third-party logistics...

  12. Third-party reproduction in the Internet Age: the new, patient-centered landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Julia T

    2015-09-01

    The rise of the Internet Age has brought a host of sweeping changes to the landscape of third-party reproduction. What began as a dyadic relationship between doctor and patient has evolved into a more complex system in which patients are able to access information online from a variety of external sources. Patients often seek to play a more active role in their third-party reproductive care, and the Internet allows them to do so. Further, demand for both medical and psychosocial information about donors and donor-conceived siblings, available online through patient forums and genetic registries, has altered the perception of gamete donation from a one-time event to an ongoing relationship. The advantages and disadvantages for patients and providers of this freer flow of information between third-party participants are examined. Search motivations of recipients and offspring, as well as types of information sought, are detailed. Recommendations are made regarding strategies fertility programs can use to optimally support their patients and navigate this new landscape. PMID:26070518

  13. Third-party reproduction in the Internet Age: the new, patient-centered landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Julia T

    2015-09-01

    The rise of the Internet Age has brought a host of sweeping changes to the landscape of third-party reproduction. What began as a dyadic relationship between doctor and patient has evolved into a more complex system in which patients are able to access information online from a variety of external sources. Patients often seek to play a more active role in their third-party reproductive care, and the Internet allows them to do so. Further, demand for both medical and psychosocial information about donors and donor-conceived siblings, available online through patient forums and genetic registries, has altered the perception of gamete donation from a one-time event to an ongoing relationship. The advantages and disadvantages for patients and providers of this freer flow of information between third-party participants are examined. Search motivations of recipients and offspring, as well as types of information sought, are detailed. Recommendations are made regarding strategies fertility programs can use to optimally support their patients and navigate this new landscape.

  14. A Study on Strategic Alliance of Third-party Logistics Enterprises of China%我国第三方物流企业战略联盟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓阳

    2012-01-01

    After the 21st,with the acceleration of economic globalization,many modern large-scale enterprises have been or are trying to decentralize the functions of sourcing raw materials,manufacturing and selling in order to strengthen their competitive advantages.Because of the domestic low-cost labor market,many large enterprises made their production in China,local industry of logistics is now booming.But after China's entry into WTO and her opening in service industry,quite a lot of foreign third-party logistics companies came into the market and have made an impact on local Chinese companies.Therefore,the competition has been intensive.Strategic alliance is regarded as the only choice for Chinese third-party logistics companies to be adapted to market competition and promote business development.%随着我国加入WTO后对服务业的开放,国外第三方物流企业的大量涌入,对于我国物流企业形成了巨大的冲击,激烈竞争的格局已经形成。建立战略联盟成为了我国第三方物流企业适应市场竞争,促进企业发展的必然选择。建立第三方物流企业战略联盟需要注意以下问题:树立明确的联盟目标;慎重选择合作伙伴;处理好联盟各方的企业文化差异;加强风险防范和提高联盟管理水平。

  15. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ioos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Ioos1, Vincent Das1, Eric Maury1,2, Jean-Luc Baudel1, Jérôme Guéchot3, Bertrand Guidet1,2, Georges Offenstadt1,21Réanimation Médicale; 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, INSERM, UMR-S 707; 3Unité d’Hormonologie, APHP, Hôpital Saint Antoine, F-75012, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, dietary pills, thyroxin

  16. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2002

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the first volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by P. Bank/H. Föllmer, F. Baudoin, L.C.G. Rogers, and M. Soner/N. Touzi.

  17. Understanding resarchers' openness to external parties influencing academic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. This paper contributes to this debate by progressing beyond the idea that researchers engage with society simply because of direct ben

  18. Understanding researchers' openness to external parties influencing academic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos-Penuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. This paper contributes to this debate by progressing beyond the idea that researchers engage with society simply because of direct ben

  19. 第三方网上支付企业核心竞争力评价%Third-Party Online Payment Core Competence Evaluation Based on BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王拉娣; 史亚伟

    2012-01-01

    Through the online payment industry environment, industry chain and the analysis of major enterprises, built with third-party online payment core competence evaluation index system including with 14 evaluation index. BP neural network model is designed to select a sample of six training companies, three companies to test, and the use of BP neural network model quantitatively identify third-party online payment the strength of the core competence of enterprises. Studies have shown that: compared with the traditional linear model, BP evaluation mode is more dynamic and self-learning nature, the error evaluation of the results of small, high precision, fully reflects real situation of the third-party online payment enterprise's core competence, for third-party online payment to build the core compete-tiveness of enterprises to provide a benchmark, while the third-party online payment company for quantitative evaluation of core competencies has opened up a new way.%通过对网上支付行业环境、产业链和主要企业的分析,构建了具有14个评价指标的第三方网上支付企业核心竞争力评价指标体系.设计了BP神经网络模型,选择了6家样本企业进行训练、3家企业进行测试,并运用BP神经网络模型定量识别第三方网上支付企业核心竞争力强弱.研究表明:BP评价模型与传统的线性评价模型相比,具有更高的动态性和自学习性,评价结果误差小,精度高,能充分反映第三方网上支付企业核心竞争力的真实状况,为第三方网上支付企业核心竞争力的打造提供了基准,同时对第三方网上支付企业核心竞争力进行定量评价开辟了一条新途径.

  20. 电子商务环境下第三方物流运作模式研究%Study on the Operational Mode of Third Party Logistics under the Circumstance of E -Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长彬

    2012-01-01

    随着电子商务的飞速发展,各类先进技术不断应用于物流业,电子商务的环境和特征将影响和改变第三方物流的运作模式。目前,第三方物流有两种基本运作模式,即传统外包型物流运作模式和战略联盟型物流运作模式,这两种模式在电子商务环境下存在着很大的局限性。因而,为适应电子商务对第三方物流运作模式的要求,通过第三方物流纵向功能性整合与横向扩张性整合,保障第三方敏捷物流运作模式的实施。最后,以戴尔公司的物流运作模式为例。戴尔公司与第三方物流企业的合作共建信息平台,完善戴尔公司物流运作系统,实施个性化的定制策略。%With the rapid development of electronic commerce, all types of advance information technology are used in logistics industry, the environment and characteristic of electronic commerce will influence and change the operation mode of third party logistics. Now, third party logistics has two kinds of fundamental operation mode, that is the operation mode of traditional outsourcing logistics and the operation mode of strategic alliances logistics. The two kinds of mode exist serious limitations under the electronic commerce environment. Thus, in order to adopt to the requirement of third party logistics for electronic commerce, by the way of the vertical functional integration and the horizontal expansive integration, it can guarantee the implementation of third party agile logistics operation mode. Finally, as the logistics operational mode of the Dell company for an example, the Dell company collaborates with third party provider and constructs the information platform, and perfects the logistics operation system of the Dell company, and accomplishes the customizing tactics of individuation.

  1. Senate report n. 327 law project authorizing the approbation of international agreements on the civil liability in the domain of the nuclear energy; Senat rapport n. 327 projet de loi autorisant l'approbation d'accords internationaux sur la responsabilite civile dans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this law project is to approve two protocols aiming to modify the OECD convention on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain. After a short presentation of the international regime of civil liability in the nuclear domain with the Paris and Vienna conventions, the author analyzes the main improvements offered by the two protocols of February 2004 facing the french legislation. (A.L.B.)

  2. PARIS to Hektor, A Mission to the Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R. E.; Ensworth, C. B.; McNutt, R. L.; Ostdiek, P. H.; Prockter, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    PARIS (Planetary Access with Radioisotope Ion-drive System) spacecraft enable a new class of missions to the outer solar system. The high power-to-mass ratio of new radioisotope power systems enables New-Frontiers class missions that carry a significant a science payload to new destinations. The PARIS spacecraft take advantage of the high-efficiency of Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs) or new thermoelectric converters to provide the power for an electric propulsion system. These low-thrust missions launched to a high C3 are especially effective for exploring objects in shallow gravity wells. The Jovian Trojan asteroids are very primitive bodies located near the Jovian L4 and L5 Lagrange points and are discussed as targets in the Solar System Decadal Survey. There are estimated to be more than 105 Jovian Trojans greater than 1 km in diameter. We consider a PARIS mission that can reach the asteroids in less than 5 years, orbit 624 Hektor, the largest of the Jovian Trojans, and go on to orbit at least one other nearby object. The candidate payload for this mission includes wide-field and narrow-field cameras, a UV-Vis-IR spectrograph, gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers, and plasma and energetic particle spectrometers. About 900 W of power are required. The launch mass would be slightly less than 1000 kg. The generation power sources with a specific power of > 8W/kg.

  3. Via Lyon: Parcours de romans et mutations éditoriales au XVIe siècle. Partie II. La circulation des textes entre Lyon et Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Burg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La première partie du dossier Via Lyon (Carte Romanze 2/2 [2014] analysait le rôle de carrefour économique et culturel de la ville de Lyon dans la constitution d’une identité éditoriale des romans publiés en France au XVIe siècle. L’étude de ces «parcours de romans» conduit à replacer, en cette seconde partie du dossier, la notion d’«étape lyonnaise» dans la dynamique qui anime les deux principaux centres d’imprimerie français de la Renaissance. L’étude des pérégrinations éditoriales, de Paris à Lyon et de Lyon à Paris, de Lancelot du Lac (G. Burg, de Valentin et Orson (M. Colombo Timelli et de Méliadus chevalier de la Croix (A. Réach-Ngô met ainsi au jour les diverses formes de circulation, d’adaptation et de réappropriation que les ateliers parisiens et lyonnais confèrent aux œuvres romanesques qui passent sous leurs presses tout au long du siècle. The first part of the file Via Lyon (Carte Romanze 2/2 [2014] analyzed the role of economic and cultural crossroad of Lyon city in the constitution of an editorial identity of novels published in France in the sixteenth century. The study of these «novels’ route» leads to situate the concept of «Lyon step» in the dynamics which animates the two major French printing centers of the Renaissance. The editorial peregrinations, from Paris to Lyon and from Lyon to Paris, of three french novels, Lancelot du Lac (G. Burg, Valentin and Orson (M. Colombo Timelli and Méliadus chevalier de la Croix (A. Réach-Ngô, shows the various forms of circulation, adaptation and reappropriation that various Parisian and Lyon workshops give to novels they print throughout the century. 

  4. Third European Influenza Summit: organized by the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhaney, Janet; Osterhaus, Ab

    2013-12-16

    On 2 May 2013, the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) held its third influenza summit at the Institute of European Studies at the Free University of Brussels. ESWI brought together more than 90 representatives of organizations of healthcare providers, senior citizens, at-risk patients and public health authorities for a day of tailored lectures, Q&A sessions and networking. Since recent studies, surveys and reviews have shed new light on some of the most intriguing influenza issues, the Summit faculty translated the newest scientific data into practice. The first part of the Summit programme focused on the current flu status in Europe, paying special attention to the protection of pregnant women and the elderly as well as to the issues of vaccine safety and effectiveness. The programme continued to highlight future challenges and evolutions like novel antiviral drugs against influenza, improved flu vaccines and the prospect of a universal flu vaccine. The annual ESWI flu summits are the pinnacles of ESWI's efforts to bridge the gap between science and society. ESWI's members are convinced that the fight against influenza can only be won when all parties are well informed and ready to work together.

  5. The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan; Alsalam, Jameel; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Creason, Jared; Jeong, Minji; McFarland, Jim; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit L.; Shi, Wenjing; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-11-24

    International negotiators have clearly articulated a goal to limit global warming to 2°C. In preparation for the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015, countries are submitting their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change indicating their emissions reduction commitments through 2025 or 2030. Limiting global warming to 2°C is a challenging goal and will entail a dramatic transformation of the global energy system, largely complete by 2040. The deliberations in Paris will help determine the balance of challenges faced in the near-term and long-term. We use GCAM, a global integrated assessment model, to analyze the energy and economic-cost implications of INDCs. The INDCs imply near-term actions that reduce the level of mitigation needed in the post-2030 period, particularly when compared with an alternative path, in which nations are unable to undertake emissions mitigation until after 2030. We find that the latter case could require up to 2300 GW of premature retirements of fossil fuel power plants and up to 2900 GW of additional low-carbon power capacity installations within a five-year period of 2031 to 2035. INDCs have the effect of reducing premature retirements and new-capacity installations after 2030 by 50% and 34% respectively. However, if presently announced INDCs were strengthened to achieve greater near-term emissions mitigation, the 2031-2035 transformation could be tempered to require 84% fewer premature retirements of power generation capacity and 56% fewer new-capacity additions. Our results suggest that the ensuing COP21 in Paris will be critical in shaping the challenges of limiting global warming to 2°C.

  6. The Impact of Having Children on Party Member Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Party member activism varies in type and intensity, and it is necessary to take this into consideration when explaining the degree of participation. One potential explanation for the level of party member participation is the extent to which there are children in the household. Based on the Danish...... party member survey of 2012, analyses show: First, the cost of having children is more important when explaining more demanding activities than the less demanding activities, and, second, the impact of the cost of having children in the household is larger when including the intensity of participation...... in the dependent variable. Third, the smaller the children, the larger the cost and the larger the negative impact on party activism no matter what type or intensity. Furthermore, there are only limited gender differences in the impact of having children so that children, in particular in the young...

  7. 78 FR 22518 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... party testing. The NOR can be found at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-10/pdf/2011-19678.pdf... COMMISSION Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the... primarily intended for children 12 years old and younger, the lead content must be no greater than 100...

  8. The Russian approach to nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a view of the challenges of nuclear liability in the specific context of the Russian Federation's legal system. Starting from the Chernobyl disaster and the benefits of nuclear energy, a detailed examination of the development of both internal law and international law regulating nuclear liability matters in Russia is given. Special attention is paid to the regimes established by bilateral treaties, the system of government bodies responsible for nuclear energy affairs, and the consequences of the 1963 Vienna Convention's entry into force for Russia. The value of Russian experience in finding the resolution of global nuclear liability issues is discussed. (author)

  9. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Third-Party Software List - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa

    2016-05-01

    The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOT-P) requires several third-party software packages. These are documented below for each of the CCOT-P elements: client, web server, database server, solver, web application and polling application.

  10. Research on Selecting the Third Party Logistics Supplier Based on a Simplified Method of ELECTRE%基于 ELECTRE 的简化法的第三方物流供应商选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘艳明; 林凤

    2015-01-01

    随着经济的发展和市场竞争的加剧,越来越多的企业将注意力和优势资源集中于自己擅长的领域。在这一过程中,物流外包则成为当下众多企业解决物流问题的重要方法,因此第三方物流(3PL)供应商的选择也就成为了企业实现战略性可持续发展的重要一环,对于企业提升市场竞争力和整体价值具有重要意义。文中的创新点是运用ELECTRE 方法的简化法对3PL 供应商的选择问题进行研究,并运用案例证明了这种方法的有效性,为企业进行3PL 供应商的评价和选择提供了一种行之有效的决策方法,同时也简化和丰富了企业选择3PL 供应商的决策思路和方法。%With the development of the economy and the growing competition of the market,more and more companies now concentrate their energy and advantage recourses on fields that they are expert in.Therefore logistics outsourcing becomes very helpful and selecting the third party logistics (3PL)supplier becomes an important part of realizing strategic sustainable development,which is significant to improve the competitive power and the whole value of modern enterprise.The innovationpoint of this paper is that it offers a simplified method of ELECTRE for enterprise to evaluate and select the third party logistics supplier,and gives a calculating example to prove the validity of this method.The conclusions of this paper can enrich enterprises'decision making methods for 3PL supplier selecting.

  11. Physical protection of a nuclear waste interim storage against interference by third parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The nuclear power plant (NPP) Lubmin/Greifswald was shut down in 1990. As there exists no final storage for radioactive waste in Germany it is necessary to store the spent nuclear fuel elements and the radioactive waste of the decommissioning on the NPP site. Therefore the Interim Storage North (ISN) was erected. The spent fuel elements are dry stored in massive iron casks from type CASTOR-440/84. The physical protection of the ISN is determined by the storage of spent nuclear fuel. It must realize the prevention of danger to life and health due to release of a substantial amount of radioactive material and of stealing nuclear fuels in such amounts that critical accumulations can be produced. The concept of physical protection against interference by third parties consists of three barriers. The first is the CASTOR cask itself, the second is the storage building and the third the fence around the storage site. In the paper the systems of physical protection of the Interim Storage North are presented. (author)

  12. From Paris to the End of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Harald Claes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We analyze these issues by first locating oil in the overall energy system, then identifying possibilities and obstacles at various stages of the oil value chain, and finally by contextualizing global oil by discussing whether and how it may be affected by geopolitics and regional conflict. In brief, our argument is that developments in consumption volumes and patterns will be most important. Market forces are vital, but they are influenced by politics and public policy outcomes. Transportation is the most important sector for oil consumption, with changes in transport behavior, modes and technology being vital drivers. The behavior of investors will be a decisive factor in shaping the production side of the oil system. If investments go down as a response to lasting low oil prices and/or because investors decide to turn to green economy options, the supply of oil will logically shrink. On the other hand, the growth and development aspirations of a rapidly growing population in developing countries are likely to stimulate demand and thus increase exploration, production and subsequently the price. Finally, we emphasize the importance of (geopolitics influencing all aspects of the value chain of oil.

  13. 75 FR 52616 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Youth All-Terrain Vehicles: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...+ ATV is intended primarily for children age 12 or younger, which would necessitate the third party... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1420 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Youth All- Terrain Vehicles: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies AGENCY: Consumer Product...

  14. 77 FR 40413 - Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... 101 Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric... 101 Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric... jurisdiction. \\2\\ Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for...

  15. Carrying forward NATO's deterrence review: A report on a workshop in Brussels, 25-26 October 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Yost, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The article of record may be found at:http://www.ndc.nato.int/download/downloads.php?icode=310 On 25-26 October 2011 the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung and the NATO Defense College co-sponsored a workshop in Brussels concerning the issues at stake in NATO's ongoing Deterrence and Defense Posture Review (DDPR). The NATO Allies chartered the DDPR in the November 2010 Lisbon Summit Declaration. They have agreed to present the findings of the DDPR at the May 2012 Chicago Summit.

  16. Proceedings from the second UEMS Conference on CME-CPD in Europe, 28 February 2014, Brussels, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Simper, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Over a year since the implementation of the new UEMS-EACCME® accreditation criteria for Live Educational Events (LEEs), the second Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) Conference on continuing medical education and continuing professional development (CME-CPD) in Europe was a much anticipated event. The conference, which took place 28 February 2014 in Brussels, Belgium, provided an important opportunity for stakeholders to discuss and debate:The role of accreditation in CME-CPD, ...

  17. Choice of Court Clauses and Lis Pendens under Brussels I Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanova

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The principle of party autonomy, known not only in the common law legal system but also in the civil law system, provides parties contracting in civil and commercial matters with the right to establish their own rules, as long as these rules do not contradict mandatory law. This right is presumed to be protected by the force of law. It follows, that when a choice of court clause is included in the contract, disputes are supposed to be solved by the court chosen by the parties. This principle is not compromised by the Brussels I Regulation (or previously, the Brussels Convention. Moreover, it is repeated in its Articles 1 and 23. At the same time, the rule of lis pendens, provided for by its Article 27, aims to preclude subsequent actions in other Member States if a court is already seized and allows the appearance 'on the legal scene' of a court other than the court chosen by the parties. And the lis pendens rule prescribes the latter to stay proceedings until the court not chosen, but first seized, examines and declines its jurisdiction.

  18. Capacity Assessment of the Third Party Logistics Based on AHP%基于层次分析法的第三方物流企业能力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫华

    2011-01-01

    第四方物流是一种整合整个供应链提供综合物流的模式,第三方物流的选择对第四方物流的成功至关重要。利用层次分析法对第三方物流企业的能力进行了深入研究,界定了新的评价指标体系,建立了评价模型。%The 4PL is a model that integrates the whole supply chain and provides integrated logistics. The choice of third-party logistics is vital to the success of the Fourth-party logistics. The Capacity of 3PL supplier is deeply studied by the use of AHP. The new evaluation index system is defined and the model is established.

  19. Olympic Summer Games Villages from Paris 1924 to Rio 2016: facts and figures on the Olympic Villages

    OpenAIRE

    IOC Olympic Studies Centre

    2016-01-01

    The Olympic Village is a central element in the organisation of the Games: it bring together athletes from throughout the world in one place and offers accommodation adapted to their needs. This document retraces the evolution of Olympic Villages since they appeared in Paris in 1924. Dive into the atmosphere of these places thanks to mosaics of images, and learn more about the concept, the services proposed and the technical characteristics of each Village.

  20. The Status Quo of Chinese Agro-products Logistics and the Establishment of the Third-Party Logistics Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of Chinese agro-products logistics is analyzed from the following five aspects:the circulation mode,exchange mode,storage and transportation situation,food security.The following problems in Chinese agro-products logistics are pointed out,including excessive circulation sections,bad time efficiency,single payment,slow circulation,backward information processing,obvious bullwhip effect,low logistics efficiency,low logistics technology,inadequate professional equipments,low standardization degree,organized operation mode and low degree of scale.The third-party logistics mode of agro-products is analyzed and the advantages of the mode are analyzed as well.Firstly,establishing information network through integrating circulation section to accelerate the circulation of agro-products;secondly,making the operation norms by providing professional equipments to secure the quality of agricultural products;thirdly,improving the core competitiveness of the whole logistics chain by intensifying specialized work division in each section of the supply chain;fourthly,through forming scale economy to reduce logistics costs and increase the diversity of products;fifthly,through signing contracts to clarify duties and responsibilities and materialize the profit integration of the supply chain.The measures for establishing the third-party logistics of agro-products are put forward,including establish the awareness and concept of socialized logistics services;intensify the support on the third-party logistics enterprises of agro-products;lay stress on the cultivation of logistics talents of agro-products;and vigorously apply the modern marketing means.

  1. Electricity: taxes on emission liabilities. An examination of the economic effectiveness of Polluter Pays Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Akim M. [Ohio Dept. of Education, Columbus, OH (United States); Edwards, Clive A. [Ohio State Univ., Soil Ecology Lab., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the resolutions of Conference of Parties on Climate Change (COP7), policy practitioners in many countries are currently obligated to react to perceived domestic environmental damages. Like few other sectors, utilities, especially, coal-based electricity generation is often identified as a major source of emission. Since the generating companies and end-users have joint interests in profit maximization but may dichotomize in their activities, the policy practitioners are struggling in designing a unique domestic emission policy. Both law and economic theory suggest that companies should be made to pay the costs of the pollution through assignment and enforcement of full liability - Polluter Pays Principles - and then pass these incurred costs on to end-users by charging higher rates per kWh of electricity usage. Questioning this full liability in designing emission policy with implicit weighting of welfare gains and losses to society as a whole, a three-group (consumers, producers and victims of the emission) supply-demand model is developed, and the net welfare effects are analyzed. With plausible parameter values, our analysis shows that the intermediate liabilities over a full or zero liability are preferable on both economic efficiency and equity grounds. However, the model is quite sensitive to the parameter values. (Author)

  2. Study on the Integrated Supply Chain Management of Agricultural Products Leading by Third-party Logistics%第三方物流主导的农产品集成供应链管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏祥; 查荣

    2011-01-01

    在分析我国农产品物流模式和存在问题基础上,阐述了实施第三方物流主导的农产品集成供应链管理的动因,建立了供应链模型,提出了相应的发展对策.%Based on the analysis of the logistics modes and problems of agricultural products in China, the motives of the integrated supply chain management of agricultural products leading by third-party logistics was discussed, the supply chain model was established, and some corresponding development countermeasures were put forward.

  3. The impact on pension liabilities of Malaysian government pension scheme from remarriage due to removal of pension clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-12-01

    In the event of death of any government employee, their monthly pension will be given to their widow and their child. The government will stop paying that pension when the widow died and when the widow chooses to remarry. However, in 1st January 2002, the remarriage clause has been removed from the regulations. This would allow all widows who remarried to receive pension as usual. In view of this, there are possibilities that those widows who are still young might remarried. If many of the widows choose to remarry, it will be a burden to the government as it would increase the pension liabilities. However, we do not know how many of the widow will remarry. In view of this, the purpose of the study is to assess the impact to pension liabilities of government pension schemes on individual life due to removal clause of the remarriage by determining the pension factor and to assess to what extent the pension liabilities of government pension schemes would be affected.

  4. Third party EPID with IGRT capability retrofitted onto an existing medical linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odero, D O; Shimm, D S

    2009-07-01

    Radiation therapy requires precision to avoid unintended irradiation of normal organs. Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs), can help with precise patient positioning for accurate treatment. EPIDs are now bundled with new linear accelerators, or they can be purchased from the Linac manufacturer for retrofit. Retrofitting a third party EPID to a linear accelerator can pose challenges. The authors describe a relatively inexpensive third party CCD camera-based EPID manufactured by TheraView (Cablon Medical B.V.), installed onto a Siemens Primus linear accelerator, and integrated with a Lantis record and verify system, an Oldelft simulator with Digital Therapy Imaging (DTI) unit, and a Philips ADAC Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS). This system integrates well with existing equipment and its software can process DICOM images from other sources. The system provides a complete imaging system that eliminates the need for separate software for portal image viewing, interpretation, analysis, archiving, image guided radiation therapy and other image management applications. It can also be accessed remotely via safe VPN tunnels. TheraView EPID retrofit therefore presents an example of a less expensive alternative to linear accelerator manufacturers' proprietary EPIDs suitable for implementation in third world countries radiation therapy departments which are often faced with limited financial resources.

  5. 美国第三方债务催收的债务人权益保护分析%Analysis on the Protection of Debtor Rights and Interests of U.S. Third-party Debt Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾繁荣

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the Third-party debt collection industry is increasingly prominent with the increase of China’s banking bad debts and the development of service outsourcing. At present, the practice that banks entrust debt collection companies to collect bad debts is increasingly common, but the debt collection industry development in China is still not standardized so that the debtors’legitimate rights and interests are often violated. The paper introduces the latest development of U.S. third-party debt collec-tion industry (personal), analyzes its practices and characteristics of strengthening the protection of the debtors rights and interests so as to provide reference for China to promote the standardized development of the third-party debt collection industry and the protection of debtor rights and interests.%第三方债务催收业的重要性随着我国银行不良债务增长和服务外包发展而日益凸显。当前我国银行委托债务公司催收不良债务的做法日益普遍,但我国的债务催收业发展不规范,致使债务人的正当权益时常受到侵犯。本文介绍了美国第三方债务催收业(个人)的最新发展情况,分析了美国加强该行业债务人权益保护的做法与特点,以期为促进我国第三方债务催收业规范发展及债务人权益保护提供借鉴。

  6. Regulatory Model Construction of Building Safety Based on Third-Party Assessment Mechanism%基于第三方评估机制的建筑物安全监管模式构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮

    2011-01-01

    There exists deficiency in current building safety supervision mode.Therefore,the third-party assessment institution as a"chain"of building safety management is introduced into,the original divided and intermittent ad-ministration functions can be integrated into an organic network,so the supervision system can evolve into a long-lasting and adaptive management system.This paper mainly researches the construction approach and the operating mechanism of this new regulatory model,clarifies the responsibilities of the parties involved in this model.It is hoped that this model can provide a feasible solution to the public management reform on building safety supervi-sion in China.%现有的建筑物安全监管模式存在若干不足。为此引入第三方评估机构作为建筑安全管理的"链",将分属于各部门的、条块的、间歇式的行政管理职能有机地联接成一个网状的、长效的和自适应的管理系统,从而实现政府行政监督与现场技术监督的分离,有效地利用监管资源。文章探讨了新的监管模式的构建途径、系统运行机制及各相关子系统的职责,期冀该模式能为政府机构改革提供监管模式参考。

  7. Some considerations on disciplinary liability overlapping criminal liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania DUMITRACHE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the various forms of legal liability there are many points of contact reflected in their common goal - the encouragement of active members of society. Starting from the statement - the independent nature of the various forms of legal liability does not mean they are excluded - in what follows, given the legal autonomy of spheres of social relations protected by various laws, we will consider disciplinary overlapping with other forms of legal liability - criminal liability. Of course, this is possible only if the act committed by the employee is both disciplinary and criminal. This form of accumulation are possible without violating the principle of non bis in idem that since each of the envisaged legal rules protect different social relations. In addition of this applying the same principle prohibits two or more same kind sanctions for an unlawful action

  8. Study on Legal Problems in Third Party Payment of Logistics-related Compensation%物流中第三方赔付的法律问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉; 冯艳

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, through analyzing the current status of the TPL-related laws in China, we pointed out the legal issues in the third party payment of logistics-related compensation, and then proposed some effective measures to eliminate these problems.%通过分析我国第三方物流的法律现状,指出了物流中第三方赔付的法律问题,并提出了完善第三方赔付法律问题的有效对策。

  9. Effect of QCC Activities on Patients Satisfaction Survey from Third Parties%刍议品管圈活动对出院患者第三方满意度调查结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲珍; 曹岳蓉; 蔺大明; 包理丽; 徐莲; 肖祥娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the quality control circle activities of discharged patients in the influences of the third party satis-faction survey. Methods In our hospital was set up quality management circle, women's and children's center, and the nine nurs-ing unit satisfaction survey, statistical quality control circle activities before and after the implementation of the third party satisfac-tion survey. Results After the implementation of quality management circle activity, the hospital patients with third party survey overall satisfaction from 95.6% to 95.6%, the measure indicators satisfaction also increased significantly, compared with the prior to the implementation of quality management circle activity, P<0.05, with statistical significance. Conclusion The effective devel-opment of quality management circle activity can significantly out of the hospital patient satisfaction in the third party survey, im-prove the quality of clinical nursing.%目的:探讨品管圈活动对出院患者在第三方满意度调查结果的影响。方法在该院妇幼中心成立“品管圈”,并对9个护理单元在品管圈活动实施前后开展满意度调查。结果实施品管圈活动后,出院患者第三方调查总体满意度由87.5%上升到95.6%,各项考量指标满意度也明显上升,与实施品管圈活动之前相比,P<0.05,有统计学意义。结论品管圈活动的有效开展能够显著提高出院患者在第三方调查中的满意度,促进临床护理质量的提高。

  10. Self-marketing and self-consumption by third parties according to the EEG. Practical and legal problems of marketing and selling of self-produced solar electricity; Eigenvermarktung und Selbstverbrauch durch Dritte nach EEG. Praktische und rechtliche Fragen der Veraeusserung selbsterzeugten Solarstroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Christopher; Naumann, Daniel [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    According to Section 33 No. 2 p. 1 EEG, reimbursement for photovoltaic power generation must be granted also if a third party consumes the generated power in the immediate vicinity in the plant and is able to prove it. The wording of the law is ambiguous as 'third party' and 'self-consumption' do not immediately specify when a right to reimbursement has arisen and when not. The contribution attempts to help with the solution of these interpretation problems and also throws a light on the rights and obligations of a PV plant owner in general. The high practical relevance of the issue is also reflected in the fact that the legal problems discussed here were implemented, and solved to a large extent, in the amendment of the EEG that came into force on 1 January 2012.

  11. Some notes on medical liability in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somville, F J M P; Broos, P L O; Van Hee, R

    2010-01-01

    Already in ancient times did medical liability occupy mankind. Various civilizations did give their own interpretation on the subject and proposed solutions. Original writings are rare and articles concerning ancient medical liability equally are hard to find. The only relatively trustworthy sources are of legal nature and find their origin in Greek philosophy and Roman Law. At a later stage, Arabic philosophers gave a renewed view on the statements of these previous civilizations and added their own way of thinking. All these influences still reflect in our modern western way of medical acting. Some of these ancient customs concerning medical liability will be discussed in this article. PMID:20690537

  12. 基于跨境供应链整合的第三方物流海外仓建设%Third-party Logistics Construction of Oversea Location based on Cross-border Supply Chain Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁旭

    2016-01-01

    Thought the construction subject of oversea locations can be diversified, the strategic value of the third-party logistics’oversea location is increasingly prominent. From the perspective of cross-border supply chain, the service function extension commencing on middle-end warehousing and developing on tail-end distribution will have the qualitative change effect of integration on the whole cross-border supply chain if it continually expands to head-end transportation. However, the cross-border supply chain integration of the third party logistics is easily influenced by forwarder’s thought, expansion competition, oversea cooperation mode and international line’s development so that the inverse trend of integration is also inevitable. Only with the help of normalizing innovations, boosting construction, reducing intervention and adapting to environment, the oversea location ’s construction can develop along the direction of cross-border supply chain integration and thus play its important strategic role in the cross-border e-commerce era.%尽管海外仓的建设主体可以多样化,但是,以第三方物流公司为主体的海外仓建设的战略价值日益凸显。从跨境供应链的角度来看,第三方物流公司开始于中端仓储、发展于尾程配送的服务功能拓展,如果继续向头程运输延伸的话,就能够对整个跨境供应链产生整合质变的效果。然而,第三方物流公司的跨境供应链整合容易受到货代思维、扩张竞争、海外合作方式以及国际专线发展的影响,从而逆整合的发展趋势难以避免。只有规范海外仓创新、助力海外仓建设、减少海外仓干预、适应海外仓环境,第三方物流公司的海外仓建设才能沿着跨境供应链整合的方向发展,从而在跨境电子商务时代发挥其重要的战略作用。

  13. 城镇燃气管道第三方施工损伤风险评价方法研究%Research on risk assessment method of third-party construction damage for urban gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立国; 姚安林; 蒋宏业; 徐涛龙; 骆吉庆

    2015-01-01

    针对第三方施工对城镇燃气管道的不利影响,提出一种半定量风险评价方法。首先,基于“人—机—环境—管理”系统确定失效因素,利用G2赋权法对因素赋权,并引入物元模型分析失效可能性;然后,建立喷射火焰、闪火和蒸气云爆炸的数学模型计算管道泄漏的伤害面积,确定失效后果等级;最后,根据API 581中的风险矩阵得出燃气管道第三方施工破坏风险等级。实例分析表明,该方法兼具定性评价与定量评价的优点,能更加准确有效地进行风险分析,确定风险等级。%A semi-quantitative risk assessment method for urban gas pipeline was proposed in order to reduce the adverse effect of third-party construction damage.Firstly, the failure factors were determined based on the system of"man-machine-environment-management", the factor weights were determined by G2 weighting method, and the matter element model was introduced to analyze the failure probability.Then, the mathematical models of jet flame, flash fire and vapor cloud explosion were established to calculate the damage area and determine the grade of failure consequence.Finally, the risk level of third-party construction damage for urban gas pipeline was obtained accord-ing to the risk matrix in API 581 .Example analysis showed that this method combines the advantages of qualitative evaluation and quantitative evaluation.It can analyze the risk more accurately and effectively to determine the risk level.

  14. Models for measuring and predicting shareholder value: A study of third party software service providers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Viswanadham; Poornima Luthra

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we use the strategic profit model (SPM) and the economic value-added (EVA to measure shareholder value). SPM measures the return on net worth (RONW) which is defined as the return on assets (ROA) multiplied by the financial leverage. EVA is defined as the firm’s net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) minus the capital charge. Both, RONW and EVA provide an indication of how much shareholder value a firm creates for its shareholders, year on year. With the increasing focus on creation of shareholder value and core competencies, many companies are outsourcing their information technology (IT) related activities to third party software companies. Indian software companies have become leaders in providing these services. Companies from several other countries are also competing for the top slot. We use the SPM and EVA models to analyse the four listed players of the software industry using the publicly available published data. We compare the financial data obtained from the models, and use peer average data to provide customized recommendations for each company to improve their shareholder value. Assuming that the companies follow these rules, we also predict future RONW and EVA for the companies for the financial year 2005. Finally, we make several recommendations to software providers for effectively competing in the global arena.

  15. What Role for the Party Group Leader? : a Latent Variable Approach to Leadership Effects on Party Group Cohesion in the European Parliament

    OpenAIRE

    Bailer, Stefanie; Schulz, Tobias; Selb, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has identified several structural and situational factors that affect party cohesion in parliamentary voting behaviour. The potential role of leadership has been neglected so far. The authors apply a latent variable approach to model leadership effects in roll call votes from the European Parliament (EP), 1979-2001. Other things being equal, their findings suggest that a small but significant 7 per cent share of the total variance in party group cohesion is due to the party ...

  16. An Empirical Studyof Third-Party Comments on Impulse Buying Intentionwithinthe Internet Environment%网络环境下第三方评论对冲动购买意愿的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊一阳; 张艳; 李奔

    2016-01-01

    冲动购买在消费者日常购物中是比较普遍的现象,而口碑是影响消费者冲动购买意愿的重要因素,第三方评论作为口碑的独特形式在互联网Web2.0时代日益重要。文中采用问卷调查的方法,构建了以网络第三方评论为研究对象,通过实证分析的方法进一步探究了口碑对消费者冲动购买意愿的影响。实证研究结果表明:评论者资信度、评论的质量、评论的数量、评论的好评度、评论的时效性等对消费者冲动购买意愿具有正向影响,而消费者专业能力对冲动购买意愿具有负向影响作用。%Impulse buying is a common phenomenon in the consumers’daily shopping. Public praise is the important factor that affects consumers’impulse buying intention,and network third-party comment which serves as a unique form of public praise in the era of the Internet web2. 0 is becoming more and more important. This paper used the method of questionnaire to construct a network of third party comments as the research object,and by the empirical analysis,explored the further im-pact on consumers’impulse purchase intention. The empirical results show that:reviewer creditworthiness,the quality of comments,the number of comments,the time of comments on consumers’impulse buying intention have a positive impact, and consumers’professional capacity for impulse buying has a negative influence.

  17. Law no. 6.453 of 17th October, 1977 on civil liability for nuclear damage and criminal responsibility for acts relating to nuclear activities, and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act was published on 17 october 1977. Under the Act the operator of a nuclear installation is exclusively liable regardless of fault for compensation of nuclear damage due to a nuclear incident. This exclusive liability is limited to an amount equal to 1,500,000 Treasury Bonds and the operator must take out the maintain insurance or other financial security to cover his liability. The Federative Government will guarantee, up to the prescribed limit, payment of compensation for nuclear damage where it is acknowledged that the operator's liability is involved. As regards apportionment of compensation, persons are granted priority over property. This Act is original in that it contains provisions on criminal liability with penalties ranging from two to ten years imprisonment

  18. IX. European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences, Paris

    OpenAIRE

    ALPTEKİN, M. Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. International Association of Social Science Research-IASSR organized ninth of its conference series as “European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences” themed on February 3-6, 2016, at Paris. The conference president was Çanakkale On Sekiz Mart University, Prof. Dr. Hasan Arslan. The conference was comprised from 79 sessions and nearly 400 presentations to be made in three days. Average of five presentations were planned to be delivered in each session. Twenty one of presenta...

  19. [Wildlife Inventory Plan : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge- Brussels District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan summarizes wildlife inventory procedures on the Brussels District of Mark Twain NWR. Objectives are: 1) to provide guidelines for conducting inventories...

  20. Information, the decision forum, and third-party effects in water transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Susan Christopher; Ingram, Helen M.

    1988-04-01

    Transfers of water from irrigation to municipal and industrial uses are seen as a low-cost approach to the water supply problems of western cities. Rural areas of origin protest that market transfers ignore indirect economic, political, social, fiscal, and environmental effects of changes in water use. The capacity of five different water transfer institutions: the market, courts, legislature, special purpose districts, and administrative agencies, to develop and weigh information about indirect and nonuser impacts is analyzed and compared. All five forums are found to have biases regarding the type of information used. Markets process information on direct economic costs and benefits well but ignore third-party costs; legislative bodies are sensitive to information about indirect and nonuser impacts but distort information on direct benefits and costs; neither the judiciary nor the water agency is likely to consider community and social impacts of water transfers. Special districts could consider both direct and indirect values but are often controlled by a leadership elite, pursuing narrow goals with minimum membership participation. The appropriate forum for decision making depends upon our priorities among values and on the values that are at stake in particular issues.

  1. The Design and Implementation of Third Party Logistics Transportation Management System Based on MVC%基于 MV C模式的第三方物流运输管理系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建强; 陈严

    2014-01-01

    It is meaningfully to reduce the cost of logistics management for the logistic enterprise in today ’s fierce competi-tion market .In which of the situation ,the combination of modern logistics management techniques and advanced informa-tion technology to lower the cost of logistics management for the logistic enterprise has becoming the focus of academia and industry .On the basis of overseas advanced management method and the design concept on logistics management ,and combined with information system methodology the framework and implementation of the third party logistics transporta-tion management system which based on MVC was presented in this paper .%如何将现代物流管理技术与先进的信息技术相结合降低物流运输成本成为目前学术界和业界关注的焦点。在借鉴国外完善物流管理方法与设计理念的基础上,结合信息系统方法论与先进信息技术,提出基于M VC的第三方物流运输管理系统设计思路与实现方式。

  2. Enactment of third-party punishment by four-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eKenward

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When prompted, preschoolers advocate punishment for moral transgressions against third parties, but little is known about whether and how they might act out such punishment. In this study, adult demonstrators enacted doll stories in which a perpetrator child doll made an unprovoked attack on a victim child doll, after which an adult doll punished either the perpetrator (consistent punishment or victim (inconsistent punishment. When asked to help retell the story, given free choice of their own preferred actions for the adult doll, four-year-olds (N = 32 were influenced by the demonstrated choice of target when selecting a target for punishment or admonishment. This influence was weak following inconsistent punishment, however, because the participants tended to change the story by punishing or admonishing the perpetrator when the demonstrator had punished the victim. Four-year-olds’ tendency to select a moral rule violator as a target for punishment is therefore stronger than their tendency to copy the specific actions of adults, which itself is known to be very strong. The evidence suggests that four-year-olds’ enactment of punishment is at least partially based on a belief that antisocial actions deserve to be punished.

  3. Quantifying Public Response towards Islam on Twitter after Paris Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Magdy, Walid; Darwish, Kareem; Abokhodair, Norah

    2015-01-01

    The Paris terrorist attacks occurred on November 13, 2015 prompted a massive response on social media including Twitter, with millions of posted tweets in the first few hours after the attacks. Most of the tweets were condemning the attacks and showing support to Parisians. One of the trending debates related to the attacks concerned possible association between terrorism and Islam and Muslims in general. This created a global discussion between those attacking and those defending Islam and M...

  4. Context-dependent third-party intervention in agonistic encounters of male Przewalski horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Schneider, Gudrun; Flauger, Birgit; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    One mechanism to resolve conflict among group members is third party intervention, for which several functions, such as kin protection, alliance formation, and the promotion of group cohesion have been proposed. Still, empirical research on the function of intervention behaviour is rare. We studied 40 cases of intervention behaviour in a field study on 13 semi-wild bachelor horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in (a) standard social situations, and (b) when new horses joined the group (i.e. introductions). Only interventions in agonistic encounters were analysed. Eight of 13 animals directed intervention behaviour toward threatening animal in agonistic encounters of group members. One stallion was particularly active. The stallions did not intervene to support former group mates or kin and interventions were not reciprocated. In introduction situations and in standard social situations, the interveners supported animals which were lower in rank, but targeted, threatening animals of comparable social rank. After introductions, stallions received more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and thus appeared to intervene for alliance formation. In standard social situations, interveners did not receive more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and may primarily have intervened to promote group cohesion and to reduce social disruption within the group. PMID:26478251

  5. Evaluation of satellite technology for pipeline route surveillance and the prevention of third party interference damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil [Penspen Integrity, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.palmer-jones@penspen.com; p.hopkins@penspen.com; Fraser, Andy [Integrated Statistical Solutions (United States)]. E-mail: andy@issquared.co.uk; Dezobry, Jerome [Gas de France, Paris (France)]. E-mail: jerome.dezobry@gazdefrance.com; Merrienboer, Hugo Van [Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: H.A.M.van.Merrienboer@gasunie.nl

    2003-07-01

    The damage caused by Third Party Interference (TPI) is one of the major causes of pipeline failures. Consequently, new technologies for identifying activities that may cause damage to our pipelines are constantly being developed. A recently completed project sponsored by a number of pipeline operators has investigated the use of high-resolution satellites for the integrity management of onshore transmission pipelines. The sponsors were BG Technology (on behalf of Transco), Dansk Olie NatureGas, Gasunie, BP, Gaz de France, Distrigas, and the Health and Safety Executive. The project started with a general review of the satellite technologies available and their potential. The study was then focussed on the identification of activities that might result in damage to the pipeline and the potential of high-resolution optical satellites in identifying hazardous activities. A key element of the study was a comparison with existing surveillance systems, which generally involve regular aerial patrols of the pipeline route. To achieve this a survey was carried out to try and evaluate the costs and benefits of existing systems. In addition a simple model for analysing the cost benefit of pipeline surveillance was constructed, and a functional specification for a surveillance system drafted. Finally the performance of the IKONOS 2 high-resolution satellite system was tested in a controlled experiment using targets placed along a pipeline route. The results of this test were compared with a similar test of helicopter-based surveillance carried out by one of the sponsors. (author)

  6. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  7. Pursuing the Emancipatory Purport of Subjectivity from Frankfurt to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mesbahian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s her¬itage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.

  8. Papers Presented to the 7th Session of the EIFAC Working Party on Eel

    OpenAIRE

    Moriarty, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Seventh Session of the Working Party on Eel of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission was held in the Royal Hospital, Killmainham, Dublin. A list of the peer-reviewed papers and abstracts of other presentations to the session are given below. -- I M Domingos: Fluctuation of glass eel migration in the Mondego estuary (Portugal) in 1988 and 1989. -- Daniel Guerault, Raymonde Lecomte-Finiger, Yves Desaunay, Sylvie Biagianti-Risbourg, Pierre Beillois and Patrick Grellier: Glass ee...

  9. 基于第三方可信云的安全协同工作方案%A Secure Collaborative Work Scheme on the Basis of the Third Party Credible Cloud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘定; 陈婷婷

    2014-01-01

    With a variety of private cloud or public cloud universal applications, security issues of cloud computing have become a hot spot. On the basis of other scholars research of cloud security, this paper discusses major security risks in free cloud computing environments nowadays, constructs a secure collaborative work scheme on the basis of the third party credible cloud, and analyzes its detailed structure and principles. The third credible cloud includes three main modules: authentication, key distribution and data transmission, and monitoring management. The scheme conduces to a variety of cloud entities security and is of high feasibility.%随着各种私有云或公有云的普及应用,云计算的安全问题成了热点。在其他学者对于云计算安全研究的基础上,探讨了目前自由云计算环境下的主要安全风险,构建一个基于第三方可信云的安全协调工作方案,并对其结构和原理进行了具体的分析。第三方可信云包括身份认证、密钥发布和数据传输、监控管理三个主要模块,该方案有利于各种云实体安全协同工作且可行性高。

  10. 基于AHP-选择第三方逆向物流公司的分析%Decision-making of the third party reverse logistics based on AHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙飞; 刘承焕; 仇梦一

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses of the necessity of enterprise reverse logistics and the decision factors of the way in which companies have chosen to progress reverse logistics. We use AHP to analyse the weights of the third-party logistics company and the reverse logistic. Then we choose the evaluation model of the third-party reverse logistics activities.%分析了进行企业进行逆向物流的必要性,分析了企业选择何种方式来进行逆向物流活动的决策影响因素,对第三方物流公司对于逆向物流活动影响的权重运用层次分析法进行了单个和复合分析,得出选择第三方进行逆向物流活动的评价模型。

  11. Compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To secure fair and efficient compensation for damage likely to be caused by the utilisation of nuclear energy, a special civil liability regime was set up by several international conventions. Three of these conventions are in force and Spain is a Contracting Party to all three. The principles established in the first instance at European level by the Paris Convention (absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, limitation of such liability, compulsory insurance...) are intended to guarantee that possible victims of a nuclear incident will obtain compensation for damage suffered. The Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention provides for official funds to compensate victims through intervention by the Contracting Parties. Each Contracting Party should implement these Conventions at national level by appropriate legislation, which is what Spain did with its Act on Nuclear Energy of 29th April 1964, as supplemented in 1967 by the Regulations on Cover for Nuclear Hazards. (N.E.A.)

  12. Selecting better attributes in third-party hotel reservation Web sites: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Huertas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet has been viewed by many travel organizations as an innovative and competitive marketing tool in offering travel-related information and online transaction opportunities (Doolin et al., 2002. But, Internet also has proportionate opportunities to appear new intermediaries in the new hotel value chain (Connolly et al., 1998. A substantial portion of online room reservations continues to be accounted by the third-party Web sites (Law and Cheung, 2006. Hotels have been actively involved in multi-channel distribution in order to sell products and services more efficiently using a combination of traditional and electronic channels. It is important for organizations to rely on the channels that best match the organizational goals (O’Connor and Frew, 2004.The methodology for the experiment follows Statistical Design of Experiments (SDE. SDE is a statistical technique useful for developing, improving and optimizing processes and also has important applications in research into customer psychology and behaviour (Rosenbaum 1999. However, SDE is not a new tool in marketing; pioneering works such as those by Holland and Cravens (1973, Chevalier (1975 and more recently those of Starkey, Aughton and Brewin (1997, Almquist y Wyner (2001 have used full factorials and fractional factorial designs. In this work we use a fractional factorial design in four four-size blocks design and we have not find any reference that use this kind of design in Marketing.

  13. Neural signatures of third-party punishment: evidence from penetrating traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Moody, Lara; Grafman, Jordan; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The ability to survive within a cooperative society depends on impartial third-party punishment (TPP) of social norm violations. Two cognitive mechanisms have been postulated as necessary for the successful completion of TPP: evaluation of legal responsibility and selection of a suitable punishment given the magnitude of the crime. Converging neuroimaging research suggests two supporting domain-general networks; a mentalizing network for evaluation of legal responsibility and a central-executive network for determination of punishment. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used in conjunction with a rank-order TPP task to identify brain regions necessary for TPP in a large sample of patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury. Patients who demonstrated atypical TPP had specific lesions in core regions of the mentalizing (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex [PFC], ventromedial PFC) and central-executive (bilateral dorsolateral PFC, right intraparietal sulcus) networks. Altruism and executive functioning (concept formation skills) were significant predictors of TPP: altruism was uniquely associated with TPP in patients with lesions in right dorsolateral PFC and executive functioning was uniquely associated with TPP in individuals with lesions in left PFC. Our findings contribute to the extant literature to support underlying neural networks associated with TPP, with specific brain-behavior causal relationships confirming recent functional neuroimaging research.

  14. Neural signatures of third-party punishment: evidence from penetrating traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Moody, Lara; Grafman, Jordan; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The ability to survive within a cooperative society depends on impartial third-party punishment (TPP) of social norm violations. Two cognitive mechanisms have been postulated as necessary for the successful completion of TPP: evaluation of legal responsibility and selection of a suitable punishment given the magnitude of the crime. Converging neuroimaging research suggests two supporting domain-general networks; a mentalizing network for evaluation of legal responsibility and a central-executive network for determination of punishment. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used in conjunction with a rank-order TPP task to identify brain regions necessary for TPP in a large sample of patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury. Patients who demonstrated atypical TPP had specific lesions in core regions of the mentalizing (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex [PFC], ventromedial PFC) and central-executive (bilateral dorsolateral PFC, right intraparietal sulcus) networks. Altruism and executive functioning (concept formation skills) were significant predictors of TPP: altruism was uniquely associated with TPP in patients with lesions in right dorsolateral PFC and executive functioning was uniquely associated with TPP in individuals with lesions in left PFC. Our findings contribute to the extant literature to support underlying neural networks associated with TPP, with specific brain-behavior causal relationships confirming recent functional neuroimaging research. PMID:26276809

  15. First- and third-party ground truth for key frame extraction from consumer video clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Kathleen; Luo, Jiebo

    2007-02-01

    Extracting key frames (KF) from video is of great interest in many applications, such as video summary, video organization, video compression, and prints from video. KF extraction is not a new problem. However, current literature has been focused mainly on sports or news video. In the consumer video space, the biggest challenges for key frame selection from consumer videos are the unconstrained content and lack of any preimposed structure. In this study, we conduct ground truth collection of key frames from video clips taken by digital cameras (as opposed to camcorders) using both first- and third-party judges. The goals of this study are: (1) to create a reference database of video clips reasonably representative of the consumer video space; (2) to identify associated key frames by which automated algorithms can be compared and judged for effectiveness; and (3) to uncover the criteria used by both first- and thirdparty human judges so these criteria can influence algorithm design. The findings from these ground truths will be discussed.

  16. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Cousin, Areski; Guéant, Olivier; Hobson, David; Jeanblanc, Monique; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Tankov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fourth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding specialists - established or on the rise! The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field. The articles are the result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by Areski Cousin, Monique Jeanblanc and Jean-Paul Laurent, Stéphane Crépey, Olivier Guéant, Jean-Michel Lasry and Pierre-Louis Lions, David Hobson, and Peter Tankov.

  17. 基于第三方物流的特色旅游产品物流解决方案研究%Study on Solution of Specialty Tourist Product Logistics Based on Third Party Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁卉

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduced the bottleneck of specialty tourist product logistics and their causes and, applying the theory of supply chain management, designed the overall solution of specialty tourist product logistics on the basis of the specialization of third party logistics. Then we specified and interpreted the mechanism and links of the solution, analyzed the cooperative mechanism among the third party logistics organizer, special tourist product supplier, consolidator, carrier, relevant e-commerce platform operator and end users and finally developed the nodes and logistics activities of the whole supply chain.%首先陈述了特色旅游产品的物流瓶颈及其产生的原因,接着运用供应链管理知识,基于第三方物流的专业化优势对特色旅游产品的物流解决方案进行了总体设计,继而对该方案进行具体机制和环节方面的细化和解读,对第三方物流组织者、特色旅游产品供应商、集货商、承运人以及相关电子商务平台运营商和最终用户之间的合作机制进行了分析,并对整个供应链物流的节点及其业务活动进行了设计.

  18. I/You: Reciprocity, Gift-giving, and the Third Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Hénaff

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay first examines the issue of intersubjectivity in terms of the paradigmatic relationship between I and You. From a grammaticalstandpoint this relationship seems asymmetrical as well as necessarilyperformative: I implies the speech act of the speaker. You exists only as I's interlocutor. This helps us understand the very different status of what is called the 3rd person--and which would more accurately be called a nonperson, as Benveniste explains. This nonperson marks the position of a Third Party. I propose to show that the same Third Party--whether a living being or a thing--is also involved in the traditional ceremonial gift-exchange relationship discussed by Marcel Mauss. The relationship between the partners in gift-exchange is mediated by the being or the thing given, which isfor the recipient a token and substitute of the giver. What this involves is the reciprocal public recognition of the partners. In modern societies this function is performed by the law and by the institutions of the arbiter-State as they emerged in the formation of the Greek city.

  19. Preferences for Third-Party Help in Workplace Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Chinese and Dutch Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Yang, Huadong

    2009-01-01

    This study examines conflict parties’ preferences for different types of third-party help and how this may be influenced by cultural differences in terms of individualism/ collectivism. We focus our analysis on process-related nonsubstantive help and identify three types of thirdparty help in interp

  20. Interpersonal relationship and lay third parties' side-taking preference : A cross-cultural study among Chinese and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huadong; Van de Vliert, Evert; Shi, Kan

    2007-01-01

    In two comparative studies, both conducted in China and in the Netherlands, we investigated the effect of an asymmetric relationship on lay third parties' side-taking preference in an interpersonal dispute. The first study shows that a perceived close relationship with one of the disputants motivate

  1. Environmental pollution and liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the declared will of the legislative bodies to give effect to the polluter pays principle on all levels those have to pay the costs of removing impairments of environmental media that are responsible for its occurence. Thus environmental pollution becomes a considerable financial risk for the polluter. Against this risk they try to protect themselves by the corresponding precautionary measures, e.g. by insurance. The insurance industry is consequently requested to meet this new demand. The legal bases are followed by the description of the insurance relationship under the aspect of the theory of risks, which follows, based on the basic model of decision theory, the objective of a quantitative representation of the situation of the decision. In the last chapter the author deals with the financial security for the risks of a third party liability insurance of environmental pollution as it is offered today in the Federal Republic of Germany. The elaboration of the existing financial security is then compared with the legal conditions of liability. In doing this the author describes cases not covered by financial security and its definition by comparison with findings of risk theory. As a result it becomes obvious that numerous exclusions of risks could quite good be included in the financial security and that the argument of the impossibility to insure often put forward by the insurers to justify the exclusion of risks can neither theoretically nor practically be uphold. (orig./HSCH)

  2. Interrelationships of risks faced by third party logistics service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2016-01-01

    insights. Results show that arms-length relationship between the customer and the 3PLs has strong influence on other risks and there is a need for collaborative relationships between 3PLs and its customers. Moreover, analysis indicates that the 3PLs need to improve internal processes related to quality...

  3. The Emerging Neuroscience of Third-Party Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Frank; Hoffman, Morris

    2016-08-01

    Although it is far too early to say that cognitive neuroscience will have any direct impact on how we sentence criminals, patterns are nevertheless emerging that suggest a neural framework for punishment that could one day have important legal and social consequences. PMID:27369844

  4. The digital divide among young people in Brussels: Social and cultural influences on ownership and use of digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, S.; d'Haenens, L.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of youth in Brussels (N = 1,005) and their ownership and use of digital technologies, focusing specifically on the social and cultural diversity within this group. Socio-cultural diversity includes differences regarding ethnicity and gender, language and educational

  5. Market opening and third party access in district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possible effects of introducing TPA in district heating networks by identifying and scrutinizing a number of possible scenarios for increased competition. The analysis builds on a theoretical discussion of economic efficiency in district heating operations, and the possible impacts on consumer prices of a market opening. An important conclusion is that regulated TPA may have small positive effects on competition, and at the same time it can have a negative impact on the possibility to run the integrated district heating operations in a cost-effective manner. This conclusion stems in part from the observation that most district heating networks are local in scope. Moreover, district heating operations are highly interdependent in, for instance, that the level of the return temperature of the water will affect the efficiency of combined heat and power plants. For these reasons, the introduction of the so-called single-buyer model or, perhaps even more preferable, an extended and more transparent producer market could represent more efficient market designs. Moreover, in networks with clear natural monopoly characteristics an ex ante price regulation must be considered. - Research Highlights: →The paper analyses the possible effects of TPA in district heating networks. → Four possible scenarios for increased competition are identified and scrutinized. → A conclusion is that regulated TPA have only small positive effects on competition. → District heating operations are highly interdependent and separation can be costly.

  6. 基于顾客满意的第三方物流行业服务质量模型的建立及应用%Establishment of the Third-party Logistics Service Quality Model Based on Customer Satisfaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金燕

    2014-01-01

    首先对顾客满意的涵义及服务、服务质量的相关理论进行了阐述,并且对服务质量差距模型进行了分析。然后,结合上述理论的分析,初步构建了基于顾客满意的第三方物流行业服务质量模型。最后以该模型为依据,指出了第三方物流企业需要缩短的差距,为提高第三方物流企业的顾客满意提供了相应的建议。%The paper first expounds the related theory of customer satisfaction and quality of service,and the service quality gap model isanalyzed,andthen,combinedwiththeanalysisoftheabovetheory, thepaperinitiallyconstructsthemodelofservicequalityof third party logistics industry based on customer satisfaction.finally,on the basis of this model,the third party logistics enterprises need to shorten the gap,provides corresponding suggestions to improve the third party logistics enterprise customer satisfaction.

  7. Professional non-neutrality: criticising the third party in psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Voutilainen, Liisa; PerÀkylÀ, Anssi; Ruusuvuori, Johanna Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Using audio-recorded data from cognitive-constructivist psychotherapy, the article shows a particular institutional context in which successful professional action does not adhere to the pattern of affective neutrality which Parsons saw as an inherent component of medicine and psychotherapy. In our data, the professional’s non-neutrality functions as a tool for achieving institutional goals. The analysis focuses on the psychotherapist’s actions that convey a critical stance towards a thir...

  8. Segmentasi Pasar Penyedia Jasa Logistik (Third Party Logistics di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-10-01

    be found in conformities relating to the logistics industry from several companies, ie appropriateness to the complexity of logistics activities of some companies and degree of investment of TPL services company in conducting the activity. Logistics service provider market segmentation can be based on variable complexity of logistics activities, whether it is high, medium or low and variable degrees of investment in the company whether minor, major, or integrated/total. Companies in different industries can have the same logistic service requirements and companies in the same industry can have different logistic service requirements. Client companies for logistics service providers which product handling are classified as semi-complex is the most attractive customer segments for being penetrated. The industries are classified into this segment is automotive, food and beverage, animal food, ceramic, and plantation.

  9. 浅议国际多式联运中如何更好地分清各方责任%Liability Attribution Among Parties of International Inter-modal Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珉

    2011-01-01

    对国际多式联运的网状责任制原则与多式联运经营人的赔偿责任限制进行了理论综述,指出网状责任制的最大弊端和实践中国际货运市场供求关系决定责任归属的现状.通过尝试从企业实践中另辟蹊径,提出了货运单据和科技创新设备在划分各关系方责任方面的实际作用.%The paper reviews literatures on the principle of liabilities and liability limitation for inter-modal transport operators in inter-national inter-modal transportation, points out the most serious limitation of the net-structured distribution of liabilities among the concerned parties as well as the fact that, in practice, demand-supply relationship of the international freight forwarding market determines liability attribution. Then, in an effort at innovation, the paper studies enterprise practices, investigating the roles of BOL and high-tech equipment in the determination of liabilities of the various parties in the relationship.

  10. Environmental liability on the risk of hazardous meterials. (2). ; Problems and trends in the international companies, especially with regards to the techniques and law of insurances (from the lst international congress on safety science). Kikenbusshitsu risk ni taisuru kankyo sekinin. (2). ; Kokusai hikaku ni okeru mondaiten to keiko, oyobi koreyori shozuru hoken gijutsu to hokenhojo no mondaiten (daiikkai anzen kogaku kokusai kaigi kara shoyaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H. (Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-15

    An environmental liability act was promulgated in the European Community where the regulation on air, water, soils and foods, and the liability provisions are increasingly tightened. This paper introduces the Conditions in Germany'' for the circumstances thereabout as seen from the insurance company point of view, using an extract from the presentations at the lst International Safety Engineerings Conference. In Germany, the consciousness to the problem of Altlasten'' (inadequate disposition areas) has been heightened since about 1983. This has made the problems of soil and ground water contamination handled in more advanced ways, whereas the criterion values are not fixed but incessantly revised downwards, causing a situation embarrassing for insurance companies in how to handle liabilities of unspecified number og parties on the pollutions accumulated over many years. The new environmental act is unified under one common concept from the water quality control act to the gene technologies act. For instance in the gene technologies act enforced in July 1990, all the related operations must follow the intentions of the law makers, and are subject to statutory regulations. Liabilities must be fulfilled on any damage that even operators and scientists were not able to be aware of.

  11. Third-Party Social Interaction and Word Learning from Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Katherine; Troseth, Georgene L.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Goldenberg, Elizabeth; Akhtar, Nameera; Saylor, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, very young children have learned words while "overhearing" a conversation, yet they have had trouble learning words from a person on video. In Study 1, 64 toddlers (mean age = 29.8 months) viewed an object-labeling demonstration in 1 of 4 conditions. In 2, the speaker (present or on video) directly addressed the child, and in…

  12. 论德国法中的第三人缔约过失责任%On the Third Party's Fault Liability of Contract Conclusion in German Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁勇

    2004-01-01

    德国法中长期由判例发展出的由第三人承担缔约过失责任的做法已借助新债法的修订正式纳入民法典中,这一对传统意义上理解的缔约过失责任的突破昭示了该责任信赖保护的宗旨,可以对正确认识缔约过失责任提供启示.

  13. Third-Party Social Interaction and Word Learning from Video

    OpenAIRE

    O’Doherty, Katherine; Troseth, Georgene L.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Goldenberg, Elizabeth; Akhtar, Nameera; Saylor, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, very young children have learned words while “overhearing” a conversation, yet they have had trouble learning words from a person on video. In Study 1, 64 toddlers (mean age = 29.8 months) viewed an object-labeling demonstration in one of four conditions. In two, the speaker (present or on video) directly addressed the child and in two, the speaker addressed another adult who was present or was with her on video. Study 2 involved two follow-up conditions with 32 toddlers ...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6110-4 - Communications from third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., from the Department of Justice with respect to any pending civil or criminal case or investigation, or... agency for assistance involving the expertise of such agency. (c) Action to obtain disclosure of...

  15. Evaluating Third-Party Bad Neighborhood Blacklists for Spam Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane C.M.; Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, Ramin; Pras, Aiko; Seon Hong, C.; Diao, Y.; De Turk, F.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of malicious hosts over the IP address space is far from being uniform. In fact, malicious hosts tend to be concentrate in certain portions of the IP address space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. This phenomenon has been previously exploited to filter Spam by means of Bad

  16. Priming Third-Party Ostracism Increases Affiliative Imitation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-01-01

    Human beings are intensely social creatures and, as such, devote significant time and energy to creating and maintaining affiliative bonds with group members. Nevertheless, social relations sometimes collapse and individuals experience exclusion from the group. Fortunately for adults, they are able to use behavioral strategies such as mimicry to…

  17. 78 FR 44090 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... comment date for a proposed rule published June 10, 2013 at 78 FR 34796. Comments, identified by docket... the Federal Register of June 10, 2013 (78 FR 34796) (FRL-9342-4). EPA is hereby extending the comment... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ44 Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for...

  18. 78 FR 51696 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... established in the Federal Register of July 23, 2013 (78 FR 44090) (FRL-9393-9). EPA is hereby extending the..., 2013, Federal Register document (78 FR 34796) (FRL-9342-4). If you have questions, consult the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ44 Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for...

  19. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPACT COUNCIL OUTSOURCING OF NONCRIMINAL JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS § 906.2 Third party handling... reference a security and management control outsourcing standard approved by the Compact Council after consultation with the United States Attorney General. The security and management control outsourcing...

  20. 78 FR 23918 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the Solubility of the Eight Elements Listed in ASTM F963-11 Correction In notice document 2013-8858 appearing...

  1. Third-Party Development Practices for Mobile Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Shoshah, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) evolution in the recent decades has been able to grow the mobility of the end-user. A contributing factor has impacted and improved the smartphone area. This, in turn, has changed end-users’ expectations and experiences in the recent years in terms of available services, which have made mobile applications (apps) to find their place in daily life. In line with the significant growth of smartphones, as the iPhone and Android phones, is also the development of mobile...

  2. SECURE DATA AUTHENTICATION IN CLOUD USINGTRUSTED THIRD PARTY MODULE

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Now a days Information sharing is not an easy task if the information  is sensitive part of the cloud and if it has the role based access permission required.If particular  document is uploaded by the data owner system module then data owner encrypt that file and give the attribute based security along with that file.This property is especially important to any large scale Information sharing system, as the single and multi user compromise the key then it will be problem to data own...

  3. The Application used RFID in Third Party Logistics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingxiu, Zheng; Chunchang, Fu; Minggen, Yang

    RFID is a non-contact automatic identification technology, which will be the future information storage extraction and processing technology. In recent years the mainstream of the large-scale development has manifested the situation. RFID is the key technology of tripartite logistics information and automation. RFID-based logistics system can enlarge the logistics operation capacity, and improve labor productivity to reduce logistics operations mistakes.

  4. Multiple Trust Model in Online Transaction by Trusted Third Party

    OpenAIRE

    R Suganya; C. Merlin Pauliester

    2016-01-01

    the information fortune and the connectivity are provided by the universe of E-commerce over an enormous distance at all time. In an open and distributed environment the buyers or providers will not act in a mutually understood or agreed manner by which the incomplete practices and fraudulent activities happen. So in any online transaction the security and trust are two important factors that are to be considered. In Ecommerce markets the above mentioned problems are criticized as the most im...

  5. Strategy for Segmentation of Third Party Logistics Market Based on Customer Demand%基于客户需求的第三方物流市场细分及营销策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎斌

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the problems relating to the position and service content of the third party logistics market of China, then accordingly analyzed the customers and demand of the market, and at the end, proposed the path for the segmentation of the market and the strategy to choose the target market.%指出我国第三方物流市场存在定位模糊、服务内容雷同的问题,针对这一问题对第三方物流市场的客户主体和需求内容进行了细致分析,以此为基础提出了第三方物流市场细分的途径和目标市场选择的策略。

  6. Research on Third-Party Collecting Game Model with Competition in Closed-Loop Supply Chain Based on Complex Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied system dynamics characteristics of closed-loop supply chain using repeated game theory and complex system theory. It established decentralized decision-making game model and centralized decision-making game model and then established and analyzed the corresponding continuity system. Drew the region local stability of Nash equilibrium and Stackelberg equilibrium, and a series of chaotic system characteristics, have an detail analysis of the Lyapunov index which is under the condition of different parameter combination. According to the limited rational expectations theory, it established repeated game model based on collection price and marginal profits. Further, this paper analyzed the influence of the parameters by numerical simulations and concluded three conclusions. First, when the collection price is to a critical value, the system will be into chaos state. Second, when the sale price of remanufacturing products is more than a critical value, the system will be in chaos state. Last, the initial value of the collection price is sensitive, small changes may cause fluctuations of market price. These conclusions guide enterprises in making the best decisions in each phase to achieve maximize profits.

  7. The application of strict criminal liabilities to spillage of oil: the practical impact on effective spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provides criminal penalties in oil spills that result from criminal activity, gross negligence or wilful misconduct on the part of the spiller. Nevertheless, the Department of Justice has seen fit to reach into unrelated legislation to potentially apply strict criminal liability to any oil spill regardless of intent. Strict criminalization of accidental oil spills is demonstrably counterproductive to effective protection of the environment from the effect of spills since it poses a serious impediment to cooperation and coordination by and between those charged by law to respond to them. This impediment is particularly dangerous since it threatens the proper functioning of the inherently sensitive ''troika'' Unified Command Structure that has evolved in spill response management in response to OPA-90 management requirements. Introduction of strict criminal liability for accidental spills is also particularly troublesome in that it must enlist unrelated law to influence an area that has been addressed specifically by legislation designed for that purpose; legislation that has worked well in the past 30 years to both regulate the target activities while successfully achieving the objective of protecting and improving environment quality. (author)

  8. Investigating the neural basis of empathy by EEG hyperscanning during a Third Party Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, Laura; Toppi, Jlenia; Casper, Chantal; Freitag, Christine; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed technique of hyperscanning consists of the simultaneous recording of brain activity from multiple subjects involved in social interaction. The multivariate analysis of data coming from different subjects allows to model a system made of multiple brains interacting, and to characterize it in relation with different processes at the basis of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the empathy established between two subjects during a Third Party Punishment paradigm, in terms of the properties of the multiple-brain network obtained from EEG hyperscanning. Preliminary results show that significantly different multiple-brain network structures characterize a social situation operated by a human agent with respect to a computer based condition, and that the different levels of empathy induced by a fair or unfair treatment received by one of the subjects are characterized by denser inter-subjects connectivity and lower divisibility in the two single brain networks.

  9. 77 FR 71012 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Bangkok, Thailand, during March 3 to 15, 2013. Currently, the United States is developing its negotiating... Parties at the meetings. On November 9, 2012, we published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR...

  10. Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage. Final act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the Final Act of the Diplomatic Conference held in Vienna between 8-12 September 1997 which adopted the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  11. The Paris Agreement 2015: turning point for the international climate regime

    OpenAIRE

    Dröge, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    At the Paris climate summit in December 2015 the 196 parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established a new international climate policy regime from 2020 onwards. The Paris Agreement includes how to proceed with protecting the climate (mitigation), how to adapt to climate change (adaptation), and how to handle potential loss and damage, technology transfer and climate finance. The Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are recognised internationall...

  12. On the optimal environmental liability limit for marine oil transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in the US liability regime for oil pollution damage have intensified a policy debate about environmental liability limits. Economic theory suggests that some type of limit may be needed under certain conditions, and that such a limit should be set so that the marginal social benefit and cost are equal. However, it is unclear how a liability limit may be determined specifically for tanker shipping in US waters. We first examine conditions under which corner solutions (no liability or unlimited liability) are desirable. We then formulate a model to determine a socially optimal liability limit for oil pollution damage in US waters when a non-zero, finite liability limit is desirable. The model captures the tradeoff between less expensive energy supply and more stringent protection of the marine environment. Numerical simulations illustrate the properties of the model and major factors affecting the public policy decision regarding a liability limit. (author)

  13. 78 FR 11204 - Accreditation and Reaccreditation Process for Firms Under the Third Party Review Program: Part I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Accreditation and Reaccreditation Process for Firms Under the Third Party Review Program: Part I; Draft Guidance for Industry, Food and Drug Administration Staff, and Third Party Reviewers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  14. A Step Forward in the Harmonization of European Jurisdiction: Regulation Brussels I Recast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brussels regime is a legislative framework that regulates questions of transnational litigation in the European Union. Having been initially shaped upon negotiation of the 1968 Brussels Convention, it has been subsequently superseded and expanded in scope by the Brussels I Regulation on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, alongside other instruments addressing specific areas of law. Recently, the Brussels regime has been amended by the Recast Brussels I Regulation, which entered into force on January 15, 2015, bringing about significant and long-awaited change. Addressing the experience of application of its predecessors, the changes in the Recast Regulation have been introduced to the treatment of choice-of-court agreements and their relationship with the lis pendens doctrine, abolition of exequatur, reaffirmation and clarification of the arbitration exclusion, as well as further minor amendments.

  15. 5th Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Benth, Fred Espen; Guasoni, Paolo; Manolarakis, Konstantinos; Muhle-Karbe, Johannes; Nee, Colm; Protter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The current volume presents four chapters touching on some of the most important and modern areas of research in Mathematical Finance: asset price bubbles (by Philip Protter); energy markets (by Fred Espen Benth); investment under transaction costs (by Paolo Guasoni and Johannes Muhle-Karbe); and numerical methods for solving stochastic equations (by Dan Crisan, K. Manolarakis and C. Nee).The Paris-Princeton Lecture Notes on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fifth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from renowned specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field.

  16. 26 CFR 301.7609-2 - Notification of persons identified in third-party summonses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liability the summons was issued, or any officer or employee of such person. (2) Existence of records. The... investigation by an IRS officer or employee having authority to conduct a criminal investigation and to issue a... through intimidation, bribery, or collusion, or to flee to avoid prosecution, testifying, or production...

  17. 48 CFR 552.270-3 - Parties To Execute Lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parties To Execute Lease... Parties To Execute Lease. As prescribed in 570.602, insert the following provision: Parties To Execute Lease (SEP 1999) (a) If the lease is executed by an attorney, agent, or trustee on behalf of the...

  18. The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action

    OpenAIRE

    OECD Development Co-operation Directorate, DCD-DAC

    2008-01-01

    The Paris Declaration, endorsed on 2 March 2005, is an international agreement to which over one hundred Ministers, Heads of Agencies and other Senior Officials adhered and committed their countries and organisations to continue to increase efforts in harmonisation, alignment and managing aid for results with a set of monitorable actions and indicators. The Accra Agenda for Action (AAA) was drawn up in 2008 and builds on the commitments agreed in the Paris Declaration.

  19. Japan's compensation system for nuclear damage - As related to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, extraordinary efforts were undertaken in Japan to implement a compensation scheme for the proper and efficient indemnification of the affected victims. This publication provides English translations of key Japanese legislative and administrative texts and other implementing guidance, as well as several commentaries by Japanese experts in the field of third party nuclear liability. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has prepared this publication in co-operation with the government of Japan to share Japan's recent experience in implementing its nuclear liability and compensation regime. The material presented in the publication should provide valuable insights for those wishing to better understand the regime applied to compensate the victims of the accident and for those working on potential improvements in national regimes and the international framework for third party nuclear liability

  20. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  1. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  2. Europol’s Cybercrime Centre (EC3), its Agreements with Third Parties and the Growing Role of Law Enforcement on the European Security Scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen

    2015-01-01

    The European Cyber Crime Centre, EC3, established under the umbrella of Europol, started operations on January 1 2013. It is to act as the focal point in the fight against cybercrime in the European Union. Using a “shared, cross-community approach” the EC3 is concluding partnerships with member s......, this not least in view of the EC3’s mandate to conclude strategic agreements with a fairly high degree of autonomy....

  3. Divorce and Childhood Chronic Illness: A Grounded Theory of Trust, Gender, and Third-Party Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Luke T; Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H; Gayer, Debra

    2016-05-01

    Divorced parents face distinct challenges in providing care for chronically ill children. Children's residence in two households necessitates the development of family-specific strategies to ensure coparents' supervision of regimen adherence and the management of children's health care. Utilizing a risk and resilience perspective, a grounded theory study was conducted with 14 divorced parents of children with chronic illnesses. The importance of trust, gender, and relationships with third-party care providers emerged as key themes related to the development of effective coparenting relationships for maintaining children's health. Divorced parents were best able to support the management of their children's chronic conditions when care providers operated as neutral third parties and intermediaries. Collaborative family care may require health care practitioners to avoid being drawn into contentious inter-parental conflicts.

  4. A simulation-based inventory management with genetic algorithm for uncertain demand for third-party logistics provider

    OpenAIRE

    Wuthichai Wongthatsanekorn; Jiraporn Saelim

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study and apply inventory management system for Third party logistics provider. Currently, the company uses economic order quantity to control inventory. The analysis of historical demand data shows that the demand is not deterministic. Hence, assumptions of using economic order quantity are violated. In this research, the simulation-based technique is applied to solve for optimal order quantity and reorder point. Since there are numerous items in the considered warehous...

  5. Choosing among competing blockbusters: Does the identity of the third-party payer matter for prescribing doctors?

    OpenAIRE

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Sorisio, Enrico; Strøm, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    TNF-alpha inhibitors represent one of the most important areas of biopharmaceuticals by sales, with three blockbusters accounting for 8 % of total pharmaceutical sale in Norway. With use of a unique natural policy experiment in Norway, this paper examines to what extent the identity of the third-party payer affects doctors’ choice between the three available drugs. We are able to investigate to what extent the price responsiveness of prescription choices is affected when the identity of the t...

  6. Genetic liability to disability pension in women and men: a prospective population-based twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Narusyte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies of risk factors for disability pension (DP have mainly focused on psychosocial, or environmental, factors, while the relative importance of genetic effects has been less studied. Sex differences in biological mechanisms have not been investigated at all. METHODS: The study sample included 46,454 Swedish twins, consisting of 23,227 complete twin pairs, born 1928-1958, who were followed during 1993-2008. Data on DP, including diagnoses, were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency. Within-pair similarity in liability to DP was assessed by calculating intraclass correlations. Genetic and environmental influences on liability to DP were estimated by applying discrete-time frailty modeling. RESULTS: During follow-up, 7,669 individuals were granted DP (18.8% women and 14.1% men. Intraclass correlations were generally higher in MZ pairs than DZ pairs, while DZ same-sexed pairs were more similar than opposite-sexed pairs. The best-fitting model indicated that genetic factors contributed 49% (95% CI: 39-59 to the variance in DP due to mental diagnoses, 35% (95% CI: 29-41 due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, and 27% (95% CI: 20-33 due to all other diagnoses. In both sexes, genetic effects common to all ages explained one-third, whereas age-specific factors almost two-thirds, of the total variance in liability to DP irrespective of diagnosis. Sex differences in liability to DP were indicated, in that partly different sets of genes were found to operate in women and men, even though the magnitude of genetic variance explained was equal for both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study suggest that genetic effects are important for liability to DP due to different diagnoses. Moreover, genetic contributions to liability to DP tend to differ between women and men, even though the overall relative contribution of genetic influences does not differ by sex. Hence, the pathways leading to DP might differ between women and

  7. 30 CFR 285.528 - May I use a third-party guaranty to meet the financial assurance requirement for lease or grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF... rights owner fails, to comply with any law, term, or regulation, your guarantor must either...

  8. Marketing Strategy Research of The Third Party Group Purchasing Website%第三方团购网站营销策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭哨

    2011-01-01

    Group Purchasing are often used as the consumption patterns, this text, firstly, defines The Third Party Group Purchasing Website, then analyzes the benefits which Group Purchasing Website bring to business and consumer, and the last step, proposes the suggestions on marketing strategy of The Third Party Group Purchasing Website.%网络团购正成为消费者经常采用的消费模式,本文首先定义了第三方团购网站,然后分析了团购网站给消费者和商家带来的好处,最后提出了第三方团购网站的营销策略.

  9. Corrigendum to "What's in a name? Variations in terminology of third-party reproduction" [Reproductive BioMedicine Online 31 (2015) 805-814].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Diane; Darnovsky, Marcy; Lippman, Abby

    2016-04-01

    The authors regret that the reference “Dickenson, 2012” was incomplete in the reference list. Full reference details are given below: Dickenson, D., 2012. Bioethics: All That Matters. Hodder Education, London. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. PMID:27046503

  10. Contingent Liabilities : A Threat to Fiscal Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Polackova, Hana

    1998-01-01

    The economic policy note discusses the issue of serious fiscal instability faced by many governments as a result of their contingent liabilities, which are associated with major hidden fiscal risks. Direct liabilities are predictable obligations that will arise in any event, and are the main subject of conventional fiscal analysis. Conversely, contingent liabilities are obligations trigger...

  11. Transforming Wikipedia into an Ontology-based Information Retrieval Search Engine for Local Experts using a Third-Party Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Grefenstette, Gregory; Rafes, Karima

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia is widely used for finding general information about a wide variety of topics. Its vocation is not to provide local information. For example, it provides plot, cast, and production information about a given movie, but not showing times in your local movie theatre. Here we describe how we can connect local information to Wikipedia, without altering its content. The case study we present involves finding local scientific experts. Using a third-party taxonomy, independent from Wikipedi...

  12. Third party logistics service quality and its impact on customer satisfaction of C2C%3PL服务质量与C2C顾客满意度的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶作亮; 蔡丽; 叶振华; 代丽

    2011-01-01

    物流业务外包后,第三方物流(3PL)公司代替企业与顾客互动,这在电子商务中尤为明显,因此第三方物流公司的服务质量是否影响顾客满意度成为一个重要问题。在C2C网络购物环境中,基于物流服务质量模型,建立了第三方物流服务质量与顾客满意度的测评模型(LSQ—CS)。对LSQ—CS模型的实证研究表明:物流交互和运作质量均影响顾客对第三方物流服务商的满意度;成本质量并不影响顾客对第三方物流服务商的满意度;物流交互质量对运作和成本质量产生影响;此外,第三方物流服务质量也影响着顾客对企业的满意度。这一研究结论表明当前物流%Third Party Logistics(3PL) tends to interact with the customers on behalf of the manufacture companies, when the logistics is outsourced, especially in the market of electronic commerce. Therefore how the service quality of 3PL affects the customer satisfaction becomes a key issue. Based on the logistics - service - quality model, a Logistics - Service - Quality and Customer- Satisfaction( L,SQ- CS) model is built. The empirical analysis shows that the interactive quality and operation quality both affect the customer satisfaction of logistics service provider, furthermore the interactive quality affects the operation quality and cost quality. But the cost quality does not affect the customer satisfaction. And the service quality of 3PL does affect the customer satisfaction of companies. These research findings could contribute to 3PL provider for avoiding the vicious competition from low cost and company should select 3PL provider based on logistics - service - quality instead of only on cost.

  13. 论执行异议之诉中隐名股东资格的确认%On Confirmation of Shareholder Qualification of Third Party Execution Objection Litigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱玉文; 周运宝

    2015-01-01

    我国《民事诉讼法》第227条规定执行异议之诉的立法宗旨要求执行法院查明案外人对执行标的是否享有实体权利,能否请求排除强制执行。公司法具有私法、交易法、团体法特性,究其本质上仍然属于私法,出资属于股东实质特征,公司章程、工商登记、股东名册等属于股东形式特征,当各种类型的股东特征出现在同一诉争中,实质特征与形式特征互相冲突时,可以采取“在个案中之法益衡量”方法,以实现实体法和程序法上的公正。执行异议之诉中隐名股东资格的确认应当遵循实质特征优先的特殊规则,从而决定是否继续对执行标的强制执行。%The 227th text of China′s “Civil Procedure Law” stipulates third party of the litigation of executive objection,the purpose of the legislation required the executive court to found third party to the implementation of the subject which is entitled to substantive rights,whether it can request removal of compulsory execution.Compa-ny law have private law,trade law and group characteristic,but the essence is still belongs to private law,capital contribution belongs to the essential characteristic,the articles of association of the company,business registration, register of the shareholders and other shareholders belong to formal characteristic.When all types of feature of ap-pearing in the same litigation,real quality characteristic and formal characteristic conflicts with each other,we should take the “measure”in the case of the interest of the method to realize the substantive law and the procedural law of justice.The special rules to confirm the qualification of shareholder in dissent action of execution should fol-low the essential characteristic of priority,then we decide whether to continually enforce executive subject.

  14. Third-party Political and Industrial Conduct Appraisal Mode Based on Information Base%基于信息库的第三方政风行风测评模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东

    2014-01-01

    针对政风行风测评中测评单位与服务对象众多且分散的特点,为实现民主测评、高效测评,设计以服务对象信息库为基础,对不同的测评单位根据单位行政审批项目及服务对象所涉及的行业,按一定数量和行业比例从服务对象信息库中抽取单位测评子表,在测评单位和纠风办的监督下,由第三方平台现场通过10000号外呼服务对象,并现场记录测评结果,民主、公平、公正的反应被测评单位情况。解决了传统政风行风测评中群众参与积极性不高、测评结果水分多、且费时费力的问题。%By directing at the characteristics of numerous and scattered appraisal units and service objects in political and industrial conduct appraisal, an appraisal mode based on the service object information base is designed, so as to realize democratic appraisal and efficient appraisal. Such mode will extract unit appraisal sub-lists from service object information base for different appraisal units in a certain amount and industry proportion according to industries involved with items requiring administrative approval and service objects. Under the supervision of appraisal units and State Council Office for Rectifying, the third-party platform will call 10,000 service objects on the spot and record the appraisal results immediately, which can reflect situations of units to be appraised democratically, fairly and justly. This has solved problems of low mass participation enthusiasm, unfair appraisal results, and time and energy consumption in traditional political and industrial conduct appraisal.

  15. 基于第三方的易变质产品库存决策%Deteriorating item inventory decision-making research based on third-party

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计国君; 韩尚清

    2015-01-01

    For the two cases that the demand is influenced by the prices and the price-stocks, considering that vendors allow out of stock during the partial backlogging, under multiple vendors and multiple suppliers, deteriorating item inventory joint decision-making models are researched, and the methods are given to solve the models. The conclusion of comparing the two models shows that the demand depends on the current price-stocks more in line with the actual. There are the optimal ordering cycles and optimal sale price to maximize the interests of the whole supply chain. The whole supply chain profit can not decrease monotonously with the increase of shortage rate.%针对需求受价格影响和需求受价格、库存量共同影响的两种情况,考虑销售商允许缺货且缺货期间出现短缺量部分拖后,研究多个供应商、多个销售商情况下,供应商库存外包于第三方的易变质产品库存联合决策模型。对比分析两模型的结论表明,需求依赖当前销售价格和库存量情况下,考虑易变质产品库存问题更贴近实际,存在最优订货周期、最优销售价格使得供应链整体利益最大化,此时,供应链整体利润并不随着缺货率的增加而单调减小。

  16. What would it take to achieve the Paris temperature targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M.; O'Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit warming to 2 or 1.5°C above preindustrial level, although combined Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) are likely insufficient to achieve these targets. We propose a set of idealized emission pathways consistent with the targets. If countries reduce emissions in line with their INDCs, the 2°C threshold could be avoided only if net zero greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) are achieved by 2085 and late century negative emissions are considerably in excess of those assumed in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 (net -5 Gt CO2/yr, compared with -1.5 Gt CO2/yr in RCP2.6). More aggressive near-term reductions would allow 2°C to be avoided with less end-of-century carbon removal capacity. A 10% cut in GHGEs by 2030 (relative to 2015) could likely achieve 2°C with RCP2.6 level negative emissions. The 1.5°C target requires GHGEs to be reduced by almost a third by 2030 and net zero by 2050, while a 50 year overshoot of 1.5°C allows net zero GHGEs by 2060.

  17. A Research on Third-Party Evaluation and Multi Participatory Mechanism in Vocational Education%职业教育第三方评价多方参与机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兰

    2015-01-01

    职业教育第三方评价多方参与机制研究不仅仅研究多方的参与,更重要的是研究不同主体在职业教育评价体系中的参与机制。在这个过程中多方从不同维度来参与第三方评价,其中包括事前协调、事中控制以及事后反馈。即在事前通过与企业行业的长效合作机制,从专业发展、人才培养方案等引导学校建立与市场需求匹配的专业。在事中学生培养过程中,注重教师主体以及学生主体在教育过程中知识能力的更新。在学生毕业进入工作单位后,从毕业生就业反馈等维度来了解学生各项综合素质与岗位需求的匹配程度,来反馈整体职业教育体系的有效性。%The research in third-party evaluation of vocational education dose not only involve the participation of multi-stakeholders, more importantly, studies the mechanism involved in different subjects in vocational education evaluation system. In this process, multi-dimensions from different aspects participate in third-party evaluation, including exante coordination, in-process control and the subsequent feedback. That is to guide the schools build up a professions matching market demand from professional development view through long-term cooperation mechanism and corporate sectors in advance. In the process of student training, we should pay attention to teachers and students as subjects in their knowledge and ability update in educational process. After graduation and into the work unit, we should notice the feedback from graduates and other dimensions to understand the degree of matching the overall quality of students and job needs to feedback the overall effectiveness of vocational education system.

  18. Report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs on the bill project adopted by the Senate, after initiation of the accelerated procedure, authorizing the approval of the agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto protocol about the twenty first session of the Conference Of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the eleventh session of the Conference Of the Parties acting as a gathering of parties to the Kyoto protocol and organ sessions. National Assembly Nr 2943, 3062, Senate Nr 587, 512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As France is about to host the twenty first Conference of Parties (COP 21), this report presents this conference on climate changes as an historical step. It describes the context by recalling the content of international negotiations on climate since 1992, and by commenting the preparation of the Paris conference. It addresses the various and important organisational aspects: means, non-budgetary means, security aspects. The second part discusses the content of the agreement between the French government and the Secretary of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): provisions related to the material organisation of the conference, provisions related to privileges and immunities, and other arrangements (related to security, financial, responsibility and conflict resolution). The text of the bill project and the discussion of the commission are reported

  19. The effect of third-party reporting on adoption of evidence-based mesalazine regimens in ulcerative colitis: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, W.; Leifeld, L.; Morgenstern, J.; Pfutzer, R.; Reimers, B.; Ceplis-Kastner, S.; Auchter, K.H.; Han, H.; Metz, K.; Gutberlet, H.; Beuthner, D.; Gerhard, B.; Lampe, D.; Look, M.; Scholze, K.; Striemer, R.; Gynz-Rekowski, M.E. von; Wengler, K.; Walff, R.; Schmidt-Heinevetter, G.; Gille, K.; Nordhoff, S.; Schulte-Witte, H.; Behrendt, J.; Hahn, A.; Al-Shamaa, A.; Widjaja, A.; Göbel, U.; Landry, W.; Leib, H.H.; Epping-Stippel, L.; Niedermeyer, H.; Pakravan, F.; Krüger, P.; Shoilewa, A.; Schwarzhoff, R.; Grubitzsch, M.; Weisflog, M.; Koßler-Wiesweg, C.; Röcken, A.; Hermans, M.L.; Jaehn, T.; Kihn, R.; Stern, M.; Fink, R.; Geyer, P.; Herold, C.; Meyer-Hilse, F.; Olejnik, H.; Samel, S.T.; Treml, O.; Bamberger, A.; Bruhn, J.; Holch, P.; Keck, B.; Arnauld, P. von; Aldinger, I.; Schmidt, J.T.; Schwarz, H.; Schmidt, K.; Syamken, S.; Bierbaum, C.; Schulz, J.; Jessen, K.; Stegen, G.; Hohn, H.; Weber, C.; Schwerdtfeger, M.; Theuerkauf, B.; Stölzle, B.; Botzler, R.; Dietz, A.; Sellinger, M.; Uebel, P.; Fiedler, J.; Schink, U.; Will, E.; Gratz, T.; Küppers, F.; Asdonk, D.; Kellner, H.; Konrad, T.; Erren, P.; Horn, J.; Klein, U.; Hebel, M.; Hoesl, M.; Pfäffl, S.; Bartner, J.; Donabauer, B.; Schöniger, F.; Brandt, W.; Grümmer, H.; Klaus, M.; Wiechmann, H.; Schönfeld, G.; Knigge, K.P.; Sehland, D.; Strotmann, H.J.; Frank, B.; Wankmüller, C.; Frey, H.; Kienle, U.; Linde, A.; Hommel, E.; Teubner, K.; Wust, C.; Dewitz, G. von; Andersen, M.; Hackelsberger, A.; Hammann, V.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The optimal mesalazine dosing strategy for ulcerative colitis (UC) continues to evolve. The current study aimed to explore whether documenting drug use could prompt changes in prescribing habits. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective, observational study, outpatients with activ

  20. Party on wheels: mobile party spaces in the Norwegian high school graduation celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjaer, Eivind Grip; Pedersen, Willy; Sandberg, Sveinung

    2016-06-01

    Research on partying and nightlife often emphasizes commercial control while overlooking participants' creativity and agency. Due to their age, appearance and transgressive partying, participants in the Norwegian high school graduation celebration have limited access to bars and pubs in the ordinary night-time economy. To create alternative party spaces under their own control they utilize the spatial opportunities offered by automobility. Groups of students get together many years in advance and buy old buses which they refurbish to become rolling nightclubs that enable them to 'transcend space' through partying while on the move. These mobile party spaces provide a material and symbolic centre of communion and a tight space for physical assembly that enhances the production of intense positive emotions. In a cat-and-mouse game with the police, the buses provide a sense of nomadic autonomy, and enable participants to drink heavily for days on end. The study examines how youth may creatively zone their own party spaces within the context of automobility and how these mobile spaces again shape the partying that goes on within them. While this party practice opens up for autonomy, creativity and social transgressions reminiscent of liminal phases or carnivals, at a deeper level participants clearly reproduce class-based differences and exaggerate conventional practices and symbols. PMID:27121256

  1. On the Foundations of Natural Law of Liability Fixation upon Tort Liability and Default Liability%侵权责任与违约责任归责原则之自然法基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏武

    2012-01-01

    归责原则是民事责任的核心理论,民事责任的类型包括侵权责任和违约责任,就这两种责任的归责原则,在我国民法学界长期争论不休,没有定论,各种学派各持己见。文章以自然法思想为理论基础,探究我国《侵权责任法》与《合同法》关于侵权责任和违约责任归责原则的选择依据,得出的结论是:对于侵权责任而言,其归责原则是以过错责任为原则,以无过错责任为例外;对于违约责任而言,其归责原则是以无过错责任为原则,以过错责任为例外。%Liability fixation is the core theory of civil liability containing tort liability and default liability, the liability fixation upon which gives rise to long-term polemic in the civil law circle of China. On the theoretical basis of natural law thought, this paper explores the reasons of liability fixation upon tort liability and default liability in Tort Liability Law and Contract Law. The findings are as follows: as to tort liability, the principle of liability fixation is fault liability and faultless fixation is exception while, in terms of default, it is the opposite.

  2. 论科宾的第三人合同权利制度%On Corbin's Contractual Rights System of a Third Party

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀梅

    2011-01-01

    美国著名合同法学者科宾(Corbin)的第三人合同权利制度是对合同法理论的重大改革,推进了司法制度的重大进步。与之形成鲜明对比的是,我国《合同法》对第三人权利制度规定得过于简单。对科宾的第三人合同权利制度作初步解读,通过介绍其制度的主要内容,分析其功能,说明在我国引入该制度的必要性,并提出立法建议,希望对我国将来的法律能有借鉴作用。%American famous contract law scholar Corbin's contractual rights system is an important reform for contract law theory, it has been a significant progress in the justice system. However, there are many enterprises that the Chinese contract law about it is very simple. The author make an explanation for Corbin's contractual rights system, describes the necessity of introducing this system to our country from in- troducing its main contact and function, make recommendations for legislative, hope we can to accept this law critically.

  3. Opening Address - European Commission [International Workshop on Justification of Medical Exposure in Diagnostic Imaging, Brussels (Belgium), 2-4 September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    exposures now approaching those of the natural background. In view of these developments, the IAEA initiative to launch this series of workshops on justification of medical exposure in diagnostic imaging was important and timely. The EC is very pleased to host the present workshop here in Brussels and is grateful for this opportunity to involve EU stakeholders more closely, in particular our medical working party of the Article 31 Group of Experts. I also welcome the representation of WHO in this workshop, WHO being obviously a major actor in the development of health policies. This workshop will be an outstanding event which I am sure will look into the fundamental aspects of the principle of justification as well as into specific aspects such as radiological imaging for asymptomatic patients, children and pregnant women, into the further development of tools such as referral guidelines, the clinical audit, into the role of professional societies, etc.; all matters in which the Commission is very active as well, both in my unit, the RP unit of DG TREN, as well as in the research programme of our colleagues in DG RTD. The workshop is also timely with regard to the ongoing revision of international standards. The EC is deeply involved in these in order to ensure full coherence between the international standards and the EURATOM standards, in view of our eventual co-sponsorship of international standards. This workshop is of course only one of many initiatives in the medical area, and it is only one of the areas of cooperation between the EC, the IAEA and WHO. The EC plans the adoption of a communication next year elaborating our long term policy in this area. No doubt this communication will receive fair media attention and raise the awareness of stakeholders. The results of this workshop will of course be reflected in this communication.

  4. TAX LIABILITIES. APPEAL TO FORECLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂDULESCU DRAGOŞ LUCIAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 622 of the Code of Civil Procedure, the obligation established by court order or by another enforceable title is carried out willingly. If the debtor does not carry out his duties willingly, it will be achieved by foreclosure.

  5. The Recast Brussels I Regulation and Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg Wilhelmsen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The revision of the Brussels I Regulation has come to an end. During the revision process the exclusion of arbitration from the scope of the Regulation has been much debated. This debate was not only ignited by the revision of the Regulation, but also by the decision of the European Court...... of Justice (ECJ) in the West Tankers case. The predominant interpretation of the existing exclusion of arbitration from the scope of the Regulation entails that a judgment disregarding or breaching an arbitration agreement will circulate in the European Union according to the rules of the Regulation....... This entails an increased risk of parallel proceedings and conflicting decisions because the parties race to pursue both court litigation and arbitration proceedings. These implications have not been amended by the recast Regulation, which keeps the existing exclusion of arbitration from the scope...

  6. New legislation on civil liability for nuclear facilities; Nueva legislacion sobre responsabilidad civil en instalaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The criteria followed by the new regulation is to both qualitatively and quantitatively broaden the liability of a nuclear power plant operator. This increase, in both senses, goes above and beyond what the traditional insurance market is technically in a position to handle. This has resulted in the need for public funds to cover what the insurance companies cannot. Enforcement of the requirements of the new regulation has been postponed because most of the signatory countries have not ratified the 2004 Protocol to the Paris convention. At this time it is difficult to say when this will take place. (Author)

  7. On a Fast p-ary m-Sequence Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小虎; 范平志

    2004-01-01

    m-Sequences have been used widely in many applications, but the corresponding computation of the correlation-detection is overwhelming N2 operations, where N is the length of the m-sequence, such that it is unpractical. In this paper, a transform from p-ary m-sequence matrices to generalized Hadamard matrices is developed; and then by the fast generalized Hadamard matrices transform, a fast p-ary m-sequence transform is developed. The results show that the computation can be dramatically reduced from N2 to NlogpN operations, so the fast p-ary m-sequence transform could enable a rapid correlation-detection at the receiver.

  8. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  9. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 73 - Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1 F Appendix F to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1 1 An update list of party...

  10. Enhancing Security in Cloud Computing for Third Party Auditor by Self-destruction Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzammil H. Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim study in cloud computing system, large amount of data can be maintained in the cloud storage system and it can be used for application based services for client. The bulk amount of data privacy will not be properly maintained by the cloud service provider. Without knowledge of authorized client, data can be viewed by another user with the permission of Cloud Service Provider (CSP. Many cryptography technique can be used for data privacy in the TPA (Third Party Auditor which is the trusted authority to audit and verify the integrity in cloud. The cloud loaded data can be viewed by authorized user and copy of data can be in tag based data placed in TPA and data privacy can be affected in TPA system. In the proposed system, data privacy can be maintained in the TPA view by using self destruction mechanism to destroy the data after the view point of data for particular time and then the viewed data copy can be destruction in TPA. The cloud service provider can be securely loading the data in cloud via TPA Server. The main advantage of the self destruction mechanism security for the data in cloud via TPA server without the permission of the particular authenticated client other user cannot viewed the individual client data. Then data privacy can be perfectly maintained in the cloud service.

  11. Third International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Dourado, António; Rosa, Agostinho; Filipe, Joaquim; Computational Intelligence

    2013-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the third International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2011), held in Paris, France, from 24 to 26 October 2011. The conference was composed of three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Fuzzy Computation (ICFC), the International Conference on Evolutionary Computation (ICEC), and the International Conference on Neural Computation (ICNC). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 283 submissions, from 59 countries, in all continents. This book includes the revised and extended versions of a strict selection of the best papers presented at the conference.

  12. The Effects of Short-Term Liabilities on Profitability: The Case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Christopher F.; Schäfer, Dorothea; Talavera, Oleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Using data from Germany this paper examines the direct effect of non-financial firms' use of short-term versus long-term liabilities. We develop a structural model of a firm's value maximization problem that predicts that profitability of the firm will change if firms alter their use of short-term versus long-term liabilities. We find that firms that rely more heavily on short-term liabilities are likely to be more profitable.

  13. 3D CFD CONV code: validation and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During some years in IBRAE a set of 3D CFD modules (CONV code) for safety analysis of the operated Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is developing. These modules are based on the developed algorithms with small scheme diffusion, for which the discrete approximations are constructed with use of finite-volume methods and fully staggered grids. For solving of convection problem the regularized nonlinear monotonic operator-splitting scheme is developed. The Richardson iterative method with Chebyshev's set of parameters using FFT solver for Laplace's operator as pre-conditioner is applied for solving pressure equation. Such approach for solving of the elliptical equations with variable coefficients gives multiple acceleration in a comparison with a usual method of conjugate gradients. For modeling of 3D turbulent single-phase flows LES approach (commutative filters) is used. The CONV code is fully parallelized and highly effective at the high performance computers. The developed modules were validated on a series of the well known tests in a wide range of Rayleigh numbers from a range 106-1016 and Reynolds numbers from a range 103-105. The developed software has been applied to the simulation of the experiment on RASPLAV facility and of large-scale RCW test conducted in the frames of MASCA Project. As a result of numerical modeling of aforementioned experiments qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data was obtained including amount of the molten corium and form of the molten pool, distribution of temperature in corium, fluxes and temperatures in a test-wall. The software has been applied also to the analysis results of test L1 and joint analyses on transient molten pool thermal hydraulics in the LIVE facility in the framework of ISTC project. In this paper the examples of use of the developed software for modeling of a fuel assembly, namely, for research of a hydraulic resistance factor of a spacer are demonstrated. The calculations are carried out on a

  14. The Paris Climate Agreement: Is it sufficient to limit climate change?

    OpenAIRE

    Brauers, Hanna; Richter, Philipp M.

    2016-01-01

    "The Paris Agreement is a monumental triumph for people and our planet" (UN News Centre, 2015). Statements, like this one from UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, represent the global excitement shortly after the acceptance of the Paris Agreement and describe the outcome of the COP21 in December 2015 primarily as 'historical'. Twenty years after the UN's first COP (Conference of the Parties), the international community reached "the first universal agreement in the history of climate negotiatio...

  15. Statement to Sixth Review Meeting of Contracting Parties to Convention on Nuclear Safety, 4 April 2014, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Good afternoon, Dear Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen, I am pleased to say a few words to you at the end of the Sixth Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Convention is a very important mechanism which has contributed a lot to strengthening nuclear safety in the countries which are party to it. In the last two weeks, you have addressed some very important issues. During your productive and lively discussions, a number of challenges were identified for consideration by Contracting Parties. These included: how to achieve harmonized emergency plans and response measures; how to make better use of operating and regulatory experience and international peer review services; and how to strengthen regulators' independence, safety culture, transparency and openness. The Agency will continue to work closely with you in addressing all of these issues. The Fifth Review Conference, which took place in 2011 just after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, was the first opportunity for Contracting Parties to address the accident in an international conference. The fact that you devoted a special session to the Fukushima Daiichi accident this time demonstrates the continued resolve of the Contracting Parties to ensure that the right lessons are learned everywhere. The Agency continues to work with all our Member States to implement the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, about which you received a briefing. I know you will agree with me that it is vitally important that all the measures that have been agreed to strengthen global nuclear safety are actually implemented. Work continues on the IAEA report on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, which will be finalised this year. I understand that you decided to submit a proposal to amend the text of the Convention, addressing design and construction objectives for both existing and new nuclear power plants, to a Diplomatic Conference to be convened within one year. I am aware that a clear

  16. 论惩罚性赔偿责任的可保性%On of the Insurability of the Liability for Punitive Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The liability for punitive compensation is praised by many countries around the world since it 's function in pun-ishing the injuring party and protecting the injured party .But on account of the inherent conflicts between the liability for puni-tive compensation and liability insurance , the debate on whether the liability for punitive compensation possessing insurability has never stopped in each state of the Unite States which introducing the liability for punitive compensation to the insurance field ranking the first place.Introducing the theory of the liability for punitive compensation possessing insurability into our countries'insurance law, there is very important significance in improving the honest consciousness of insurance company , pro-tecting the legitimate rights and interests of insurance consumers and promoting sustainable development of the insurance indus -try.%  惩罚性赔偿责任因其在惩戒加害人和保护受害人方面的双重作用而受到世界各国的青睐,但是基于惩罚性赔偿责任和责任保险之间的内在冲突,即使最早在保险领域引入惩罚性赔偿责任的美国,各个州对于惩罚性赔偿是否具有可保性的争议从未停止。将惩罚性赔偿责任的可保性理论引入我国保险法,对于提升保险人的诚信经营意识,保障被保险人的合法利益,促进保险业的健康发展来说具有非常重要的意义。

  17. Muziek en natievorming in België: het muziekleven te Brussel 1830-1850

    OpenAIRE

    K. Buyens

    2006-01-01

    Koen Buyens, Music and nation building in BelgiumThe article examines the Brussels music scene (1830-1850) in relation to the efforts made at the time with regard to nation building after the Belgian Revolution of 1830. The first part focuses on François-Joseph Fétis, who was appointed director of the Brussels conservatorium in 1832. In this capacity, Fétis intended to model both the Brussels music scene and the national music scene according to his own clear-cut ideas. In the second part it ...

  18. Third party logistics coordinating contracts for low value perishable products with loss dependent on logistics effort levels%努力水平影响损耗的低值易逝品TPL协调合同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆; 但斌; 钱宇; 唐小我

    2014-01-01

    对于一类低值易逝品,损耗与物流服务价格是影响这类产品订购与销售价格决策的重要影响因素。主要研究了第3方物流服务提供商的努力水平会影响到客户企业产品的数量和质量损耗情形下的物流外包渠道优化与协调问题。通过建立动态博弈模型,分析了传统交易价格合同下双方的决策行为,结果表明双方的决策冲突会导致产品订购量和销售价格的扭曲,但不存在努力水平的扭曲,进而会导致次优渠道绩效。为了解决这一问题,设计了收入共享与努力成本共担合同,并论证了在一定条件下这一合同可以实现渠道协调、双方共赢。最后,相应的算例表明努力水平影响产品质量和数量损耗的程度会对双方、集中式系统的决策行为和绩效产生重要的影响。%For a low value perishable product,product losses in the logistics process and logistics service prices have important influences on the decisions of both order and selling price. This paper focuses on the op-timization and coordination problems in an outsourcing logistics channel where the quantity and quality losses of a client enterprise’s product depend on the logistics effort levels selected by a Third Party Logistics Service Provider( TPLSP). A dynamic game model is established to analyze the decision conflicts under a traditional unit pricing contract where the TPLSP sets logistics effort levels and service prices,and the client enterprise chooses the product order quantity and selling prices. Results show that the decision conflicts lead to distor-tions of both order quantity and selling price,and further result in suboptimal channel performance,but do not cause effort level distortions. To resolve the problem,a revenue and effort cost sharing contract is designed and the contract terms to achieve perfect channel coordination and a win-win outcome are identified. Finally, computational studies show the

  19. A Re-discussion on the Nature of the Civil Liability for Medical Damages%医疗损害赔偿责任性质的再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the nature of liability for medical damages shall fall in the overlap theory involving the liability for breach of contract and the liability for tort. It also holds that, because of the legal basis that laws always show respect for people’ s dignity and worth as well as consideration for people’ s lives and health, the liability for medical damages should be converted from liability for breach of contract into liability for tort. In addition, due to the fact that compensation to mental damages and punitive compensation to damages are included only in the liability for tort and the fact that the existing contractual law is in lack of provisions for medical contract, a customary practice in which liability for medical damages is treated as liability for tort is adopted in our country. Moreover, this paper argues that the liability for breach of contract has its unique value in some aspects of the liability for medical damages, such as special medical contract, aging of contract, fault of the third party and methods of bearing liabilities, etc.%文章认为医疗损害赔偿责任的性质应为违约责任与侵权责任竞合说,并认为医疗损害赔偿责任之所以由违约责任转化为侵权责任,其法理基础有法律对人的尊严与价值的尊重以及对人的生命健康的关怀,仅在侵权责任中存在的精神损害赔偿及惩罚性损害赔偿,以及合同法没有对医疗合同的规定,这使得在我国产生了医疗损害赔偿按照侵权责任进行处理的传统与习惯。同时文章也认为违约责任在医疗损害赔偿责任中在某些特殊医疗合同、时效期间、第三人过错及责任承担方式方面具有其独特的价值。

  20. Java Applet程序的安全规则与访问第三方WEB服务器%Safety rules and access to third party WEB server Java Applet program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩旭东

    2014-01-01

    随着各项技术的进步,计算机技术广泛的应用于我们的日常生活中,在各软件程序开发的过程中,一种面向对象的编程语言取得了广泛的应用,就是Java语言,在实际的应用中,可以应用Java语言进行不同性质程序的编制,其中一种应用程序就是Applet程序,改程序在实际的运行过程中,不能自行运行,只有通过浏览器及小程序查看器来运行,本文主要对其程序的安全规则进行简单分析,并通过安全策略文件使其能够有效实现第三方WEB服务器的方位。%With theprogress of technology,the computer technology is widely used in our daily life,in the process of the software development,an object-oriented programming language has been widely used,is the Java language,in the actual application,can be written using Java language of the different types of applications,including an application program is Applet program,change the program in the actual operation process,not to run,only through the browser and the applet viewer to run,the main safety rules for its program of simple analysis,and through the security policy file so that it can effectively realize the third party WEB server location.