This new bilingual (English and French) edition of the 1960 Paris Convention and 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention incorporates the provisions of the Protocols which amended each of them on two occasions, in 1964 and 1982. The Expose des motifs to the Paris Convention, as revised in 1982 is also included in this pubication. (NEA)
3 July 1985: Convention signed in Brussels on 31 January 1963, supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and Act approving the Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention
This Act refers to the Brussels Supplementary Convention approved by Belgium in 1966 and ratified on 20 August 1985 and approves ratification of the Protocols of 16 November 1982 to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention respectively. The Protocols are reproduced in French, Dutch and German. (NEA)
The reform of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and of the Brussels Supplementary Convention. An overview of the main features of the modernisation of the two conventions
The arrival of nuclear energy gave rise to the need, almost half a century ago, to devise a regime of liability in keeping with the new risks associated with this technology: risks that were not only catastrophic, but also insidious, because they were incapable of detection by ordinary human beings. The principles underlying this regime have stood the test of time, even if the accusation is now sometimes made that some of them were also designed to protect an industry in its infancy. These principles are as follows: the operator of a nuclear installation is objectively liable, meaning that the victim of nuclear damage does not have to prove fault in order to be compensated; - channelling of the liability onto the operator alone, both to avoid sterile debate between professionals and to allow the insurance sector to mobilise the necessary resources; - financial limitation on the liability of the operator. The international nature of the nuclear industry, the serious risk of transborder damage and the carriage operations in this sector led to international conventions being entered into which, having enshrined the three abovementioned principles, were designed in particular to: avoid jurisdictional conflicts arising between a number of courts belonging to more than one state; - prevent the available coverage from being unwisely used up by excluding from its benefit those assets connected with the operation of installations; - fix uniform periods of limitation; - regulate transport operations in order to guarantee continuity of coverage; unify and limit clauses excluding liability. These were the guiding principles that led to the signing, in succession, of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, a regional instrument within the framework of the OEEC (which became the OECD in 1961) in 1960 (referred to hereinafter by the initials PC), and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, a worldwide instrument under the
There are three existing instruments in the international regime governing liability for nuclear damage. The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) first laid down the principles for third party liability and insurance in 1960 within the framework of the OECD. Later reinforcement of the Paris Convention was provided by the Brussels Supplementary Convention on compensation and both conventions have undergone subsequent amendment. In 1963 the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (Vienna Convention) was established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A Joint Protocol adopted in 1988 resolved problems that had arisen over possible conflicts between the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. The Conventions are based on civil law and share two main factors: the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear installation operator irrespective of negligence and clear limitations on financial liability. Currently a revision of the Vienna convention and work on the elaboration of a supplementary funding convention are being conducted under the auspices of the IAEA. Many states have come to realize the advantages of participation in the Conventions though there are still a number with substantial nuclear programmes who have neither signed nor ratified them. A list is given of participating states. (UK)
Among the different points studied by the Contracting Parties and exposed in this communication is the amount of the operator's liability. Another achievement is that the Paris Convention countries have agreed, in principle, that the revised Convention will contain a provision expressly permitting a Contracting Party Convention country to establish the unlimited liability of its operators. The definition of nuclear damage continues to raise difficulties, especially in the geographical application field. (N.C.)
Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA)
This Agreement intends to facilitate the settlement of disputes, if they are due to an event (caused by the peaceful utilisation of nuclear energy) which occurs on the territory of one State and gives rise to damage on the territory of the other State. Unlike the Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland has neither ratified the Paris Convention of 29th July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy nor the Brussels Supplementary Convention of 31st January 1963. This might result in diverging interpretations by the German and Swiss courts, in particular, regarding the competent courts and the laws applicable if a third party liability problem were to arise between both countries. The Agreement therefore aims to settle these matters directly by treaty between the States before the courts are confronted by an occurrence of damage and have to seek a solution which conforms to international private law. (NEA)
In spite of the active role Switzerland played during the negotiation process of the Paris Convention, it only recently ratified the Convention including all its amending Protocols. The whole Paris regime will become binding for Switzerland only upon entry into force of the Protocols of 2004. Concurrently, the Federal Council will put into force a revised Swiss Nuclear Liability Act and ratify the Joint Protocol. Being a party to the Paris regime and the Joint Protocol, Switzerland will be in treaty relationships with Paris states and with Vienna states which are party to the Joint Protocol. This paper assesses the legal protection of Swiss victims and the liability risks faced by Swiss operators and other potential defendants (such as suppliers and builders) under the new legal regime with a particular view to conflict of laws issues. For the purpose of this assessment the paper examines which courts will be competent to hear claims of Swiss victims and against Swiss defendants in different scenarios, which law these courts should apply, whether or not the principle of legal channelling will apply and what the applicable liability amounts are. The assessment shows an ambiguous picture: Swiss operators, suppliers and builders clearly benefit from a higher degree of legal certainty. While in the absence of treaty relationships Swiss operators could potentially be sued before any foreign court, there will now be only one court with jurisdiction over claims of victims of convention states; Swiss suppliers and builders for their part will be protected by the principle of legal channelling, which basically exempts them from any liability risk. Swiss victims will benefit from treaty-backed entitlement to compensation from foreign operators; also, the judgements rendered in their favour will be enforceable in the whole convention territory; however, the limitation of the operator's liability in many Paris and Vienna states, raises doubts about whether the available funds
Portugal is a Contracting Party of the Paris Convention which establishes a special system of liability for the operator of nuclear installations in Contracting States: absolute liability and its limitation in amount and in time. The Brussels Supplementary Convention, to which Portugal will accede in accordance with this Decree of 24 April 1984, introduces an additional compensation in two further tiers, the first out of public funds from the country where the nuclear incident originates and the second, highest amount, out of public funds from all Contracting States in cases where damage exceeds the sum to be paid by the Contracting Party concerned. (NEA)
A few years after the adoption of a Protocol to amend the world-wide Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a new ''global'' Convention on the Supplementary Compensation of Nuclear Damage (September 1997), the countries which are party to the Western Europe based Paris and Brussels Conventions are working on the revision of these instruments within the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The objective of this exercise is not only to preserve the compatibility of the Paris and Vienna provisions, which is now an imperative deriving from the application of the 1988 Joint Protocol linking these two Conventions, but also to substantially improve certain features of this regime such as its technical and geographical scope of application, the facilitation of the rights of victims to defend their claims and, of course, the level of funds effectively available to compensate the damage. This paper reviews briefly the recent evolution of the international nuclear liability regime and discusses some of the challenges which the nuclear countries are facing in this context. (author)
The work being undertaken by the 14 countries, party to the 1960 Paris Convention in preparing a revised instrument will or so it is to be hoped provide a more comprehensive scope of liability and a larger compensatory fund for the protection of potential victims. Both these developments have serious implications for insurers or other providers of financial security. Equally they are of concern to society itself as it will be necessary to balance the needs of the individual for example, in obtaining redress for injury or damage to personal property with the need to provide for the ''common good''. The author's paper will attempt to explore these avenues, to point to perceived difficulties and, perhaps, to acceptable solutions. (author)
This Ph.D.-research deals with the International Conventions on Third Party Liability for Nuclear Damage. In 1960, the Paris Convention was established with the aim of providing a special uniform nuclear third party liability regime for Western Europe. This Convention was supplemented in 1963 by the Brussels Supplementary Convention. Also in 1963, the Vienna Convention, which aimed to establish a world-wide system based on the same principles as the Paris Convention, was adopted. A further Convention was adopted in 1971 to ensure that nuclear third party liability law and not maritime law would apply to carriage of nuclear materials by sea. In 1988, the Paris and Vienna Conventions have been linked by the adoption of a Joint Protocol. In 1997, the process of amending the 1963 Vienna Convention was successfully concluded and a Convention on Supplementary Compensation was adopted. This Ph.D.-research consists of seven chapters: following an introduction, the second chapter gives a general view of the existing international legal sources. The third chapter describes the international civil nuclear liability law concept and its leading principles. The main element of this work is the question of the technical and geographical scope of the international nuclear liability conventions (chapter IV and V). The conventions are only applicable to nuclear incidents, which occur in a nuclear installation or incidental to the carriage or storage of nuclear material. The nuclear damage must arise out of the radioactive properties of nuclear substances which are also defined by legal terms. In addition, the scope of the conventions is limited by the nature of the installations. The geographical scope of application is established by the provisions on geographical coverage. Only the 1963 Vienna Convention does not contain any specific provision dealing with the territorial scope of its application. The geographical scope determines where the nuclear incident or the nuclear damage
This paper analyses the financial security and cover for third party liability for nuclear damage as provided for by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The relevant Sections of the Act are quoted and explained, as are the nuclear operator's obligation to furnish financial security for his liability. Different possible types of security and cover are described, also with reference to other national legislation. Finally, the author mentions the Paris Convention which provides the basis for Italian nuclear third party liability legislation. (NEA)
The basic principles are outlined of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention. (P.A.)
The legal regime governing civil liability for transboundary nuclear damage is expressly addressed by two instruments adopted in the 1960's: the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage These establish particular rules governing the jurisdiction of national courts and other matters, including channelling of liability to nuclear operators, definitions of nuclear damage, the applicable standard of care, and limitations on liability. Another instrument - the 1968 Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgements in Civil and Commercial Matters (hereinafter referred to as 'the Brussels Convention') - which is not often mentioned in the nuclear context will nevertheless also be applicable in certain cases. It is premised upon different rules as to forum and applicable law, and presents an alternate vision of the appropriate arrangements governing civil liability for nuclear damage. In this paper we consider the relative merits and demerits of the Brussels Convention from the perspective of non-nuclear states which might suffer damage as a result of a nuclear accident in another state. We conclude that in the context of the applicability of the Brussels Convention the dedicated nuclear liability conventions present few attractions to non-nuclear states in Europe. We focus in particular on issues relating to jurisdiction and applicable law, and do so by reference to a hypothetical accident in the United Kingdom which has transboundary effects in Ireland. (author)
Prior to 2004, the map of the European Union seemed to be basically identical to the map of the contracting parties to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 ('the Paris Convention'). The 2004 and 2007 enlargements were mainly composed of the contracting parties to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963 ('the Vienna Convention'). In various discussions, the term 'nuclear liability patchwork' is used to describe this existing situation. One of the problems arising from this 'patchwork' is that, while a uniform legal framework was established for matters of jurisdiction and the enforcement of decisions under the authority given to the European Union ('EU') by the Council Regulation on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgements in civil and commercial matters ('Brussels Regulation'), this overall framework does not apply to particular matters governed by the special conventions to which member states may be contracting parties, see Article 71 of the Brussels Regulation. This paper aims to outline the 'patchwork' of these rules that are applicable to nuclear third party liability cases in the EU and to point out the main consequences arising from this legal framework difficult to comprehend.5 Its scope, however, is limited to the legal issues arising from a nuclear incident occurring in a nuclear installation situated within the territory of the European Union
The legal regime governing civil liability for transboundary nuclear damage is expressly addressed by two instruments adopted in the 1960's: the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy and the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage. This paper begins by summarizing the approach of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. It then analyses the jurisdictional rules applicable to accidents and damage occurring in States which are not party to one of the two dedicated international nuclear regimes, concentrating the attention on the rules applicable in the European context, rules which can be found in the 1968 Brussels Convention. Finally it looks at the solutions given to some of the issues analysed in this article, issues addressed by the Irish courts in a ongoing case. (A.L.B.)
This new Act on nuclear third party liability maintains the two essential principles established by the law in force, namely those of causation and the channelling of liability on to the operator of a nuclear installation. On the other hand, the Act waives the principle of third party liability limited in amount and provides that the person liable must commit himself for an unlimited amount. Such liability is covered as follows: by private insurance up to 300 million francs; by the Confederation up to one thousand million francs over and above the amount covered by private insurance; by all the assets of the person liable. (NEA)
Italy, traditionally a party to the Paris/Brussels system, signed the two new conventions as early as October 1997, in a mere gesture of 'good will' but intended to give concrete expression to its determination to participate in the general effort to create a global regime of nuclear third party liability. Italy regards this as a target to be pursued independently of its own choice as to a nuclear power programme, in that such a regime, if adequate, is beneficial to all countries involved, whether they are producers or potential victims. We therefore attach the utmost importance to the current revision of the Paris Convention, (the other pillar of the whole system and decisive for the desired uniformity of the system) as well as to the revision of the Brussels Supplementary Convention, whenever it might be felt that this revision should be pursued. The achievement of a true global regime is all the more important as a minimum goal, considering that Italy - just as other countries - has always stressed the need for a comprehensive regime of nuclear liability covering also the international liability of States. This kind of liability, in fact, is referred to by a provision in the new Conventions, which is merely intended to leave general public international law unaffected, and therefore meets only in part and indirectly the international liability of States issue in the nuclear sector. (author)
Apart from the considerable increase in the amounts of cover, two basic factors lie behind the Swiss government decision to propose shortly to parliament a draft revised L.R.C.N.(federal act on nuclear third party liability). These are, firstly, that the revised Paris/Brussels system still incorporates the principle of the limited liability of the operator of a nuclear installation but now contains a minimum liability amount (liability threshold) and no longer a maximum amount (liability ceiling), and secondly, that the States parties are allowed to provide in their national legislation for the unlimited liability of operators. One of the aims of ratifying the revised conventions is to enable most victims to obtain fair compensation on an egalitarian basis for damage caused by a nuclear incident, and also to join an international system for compensating nuclear damage based on solidarity between states, most of them nuclear. (N.C.)
Basic principles of nuclear liability legislation are discussed including absolute and limited liability and the role of the Sovereign State in idemnifying the operator for damage in excess of limited liability. European counrties realised the need for unifying the law of nuclear instability and efforts were made accordingly towards producing workable international conventions. The world's first legislation on nuclear liability - the USA Price-Anderson Act - is described in detail and a digest of nuclear liability claims experience is given. Observations of the present status of nuclear third party liability are outlined. (Author)
A special regime for nuclear third party liability is necessary since the ordinary common law is not well suited to deal with the particular problems in the field of nuclear industry. The basic principles of this regime is i) strict liability (other than traditional fault liability), ii) channelling and the exclusive liability of operator, iii) compulsory financial security, iv) limits on liability in amount and in time v) intervention by the state, etc. In Korea, a revision was made to the Nuclear Damage Compensation Act on 16th January, 2001. The revision aimed at the reflection of the spirit of the new Vienna Convention on Nuclear Liability (1997) such as i) limit of liability to an amount of 300mil SDR, ii) increase of the level of financial protection (in the presidential decree, the 'Phasing-In' system would be introduced), iii) Extension of the definition 'nuclear damage', iv) extension of the scope of application to EEZ, v) deletion of 'natural calamity' from the causes of immunity, vi) extension of prescription period for personal injury to a length of 30 year
In terms of liability and compensation issues, the response of the international community to the accident at Chernobyl has been comprehensive, aimed at modernising two outdated international regimes, linking them together and adopting a brand, new global one - all this in the hope of bettering the situation of victims of a nuclear accident, wherever they may be found. That improvement will be brought about in a number of ways once all of the relevant international instruments have entered into force. Much more money will be available to compensate victims of a nuclear accident and that money will be more readily and easily accessible. More victims will be entitled to compensation, both in terms of the type of damage that they have suffered and where those victims were physically located at the time they suffered it; in some cases, such as under the Supplementary Compensation Convention, victims in states other than that of the liable operator will be in a privileged position as regards a portion of the available compensation. In addition, the period in which claims for compensation can be made in respect of personal injury and loss of life has been extended, in recognition of the fact that some such injuries may not manifest themselves for many years after the accident has occurred. Yet despite the lessons learned from Chernobyl, despite the attempts to make these new or amended instruments as attractive as possible to encourage the broadest possible adherence, their acceptance by individual states has not been overwhelming. This is particularly true in the case of the VC Protocol and the CSC where the required liability amounts and financial security limits were intentionally established at levels deemed to be acceptable to the vast majority of potential parties. It is equally discouraging to see that Ukraine has not ratified either the VC Protocol or the CSC, even though it signed both shortly after their adoption in 1997. Similarly, the Russian Federation has
The negotiations to revise the Paris and Brussels Supplementary Conventions aimed to improve the existing international nuclear liability regime, and the texts of the two amending Protocols resulting from those negotiations have been finalized. Their entry into force will provide a higher level of compensation to more victims for a broader range of nuclear damage, should an accident occur. (author)
Decree No. 33/77 of 11 March approving ratification of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, signed in Paris on 29 July 1960 and amended by the Additional Protocol, signed in Paris on 29 January 1964
This Decree, promulgated on 21 February 1977, approves ratification of the Paris Convention and reproduces the full text of the Convention in French, followed by its translation into Portuguese. The Paris Convention provides an exceptional nuclear liability system and its scope is limited to risks of an exceptional character for which common law rules and practice are not suitable. Under the Convention, liability is absolute, channelled onto the nuclear operator and limited in amount. (NEA)
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customer's and third party liability. 240.13... ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.13 Customer's and third party liability. (a) Customer's liability: Sections 2 (d) and (e) apply to sellers and not to customers....
In order to create a perspective for the presentation, it might be useful to recall the general aims and purposes of the existing system for exclusive liability in the international nuclear liability regime. As is well-known, the compensation system is based on two conventions (The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963). The norms in these Conventions define the level at which the compensation system for nuclear accidents is based. The international co-operation which resulted in the conventions was inspired by the aim to construct a system which awards a fair and sufficient compensation for the victims of a nuclear accident. Secondly, the aim was to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The purpose was also to harmonize regulations concerning nuclear energy. The preparatory works for these conventions demand a general goal to balance the interests of the potential victims of a nuclear accident and the interest of society to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. National legislation on nuclear third party liability is based on these conventions. There are four basic principles which guide the normative framework of these conventions. The liability of the operator of a nuclear installation is not based on fault but is strictly based on its nature. Secondly, the liability is restricted to a certain sum per accident. Thirdly, the liability of the operator ought to be covered by insurance or state guarantee. Fourthly, the liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of a nuclear plant, meaning that there are no other persons to be held liable for a possible nuclear accident. Any new orientation on third party liability for nuclear damages should be within the context of existing regulations in the field. Exceptions from established international principles in the area of nuclear liability should be openly discussed and their consequences
The Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 1988 has introduced sweeping changes into the nuclear third party liability regime in the United States. The basis principle that a single, assured source of funds for compensation of those injured by a nuclear incident, regardless of the party actually at fault, has been maintained. The amount of such funding has been increased tenfold, to more than $7 billion, with a commitment that even more will be made available by the Congress, if needed. The scope of compensable injury has been broadened to include precautionary evacuations. With respect to contractors carrying out the defense-related nuclear activities of the Government, the changes have been equally momentous. The ceiling on Government idemnification has risen to keep pace with the maximum amount of licensee liability. Provisions designed to provide greater incentive to adherence to all nuclear safety standards have been added, authorizing the imposition of substantial civil and criminal sanctions for violations
The bill is intented to improve the liability regime for the protection of the population of the two neighbour countries against possible transfrontier effects of nuclear facilities of the two countries. The third-party liability agreement has been signed on 22 October 1986 in Bern/Switzerland to the effect that the Swiss Confederation is regarded as having acceded to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability. The bill in hand is to create the basis for a ratification of the agreement, in accordance with Art. 59, para 2, 1st sentence of the Basic Law. (orig./HP)
The modernisation of international conventions governing third-party liability in the nuclear field is essentially an attempt to resolve certain shortcomings whilst setting out higher compensation sums and extending the cover for nuclear damage for which compensation is payable. The latest convention revisions occurred in 2004 and led to the adoption of protocols amending the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention supplementing the Paris Convention. However, the substance of the current regimes is largely the result of conventions drawn up in the 1960's and, in the eyes of the general public, the changes made in 2004 are mainly concerned with increasing the compensation sums. Despite the proposed increases in the compensation amounts, there is certainly no doubt that the potential costs of a major nuclear accident will not be fully covered by the revised Conventions. In other words, the actual compensation amount in the event of nuclear damage is quite low if we refer back to known events. By way of example, the direct cost of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident is estimated to be above EUR 100 billion according to different sources. The accident virtually bankrupted the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) immediately after this event. The economic costs of the Chernobyl accident, however, are difficult to assess even now. But, according to various sources, the costs also exceed USD 100 billion. The Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl accidents share common characteristics. First, the amount of damage could have been even higher had the accident occurred close to major population centres or if the wind direction at the time of the accident had been different. Second, no compensation was provided by the insurance world. Further, these two accidents did not occur within the framework of the new amended conventions (the latest revision of the Paris Convention has still not taken effect). These
The Chernobyl accident reminded insurers that the potential expenses connected with the handling and settlement of claims following a major nuclear accident can be very significant. These are a direct consequence of the accident and funds must be available to pay for these costs as well as for indemnities to victims. Claims expenses at present have to be borne by the insurers in addition to the sums insured for the compensation of third parties. If governments intend to increase the statutory amounts of liability, this would reduce the insurers' ability to make the maximum possible capacity available for indemnities to victims. Therefore, before increasing further the statutory limits of liability, governments should - in revising the Paris Convention - consider allowing insurers to include claims handling expenses in their total sums insured
The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.)
According to article 4 paragraph 2 of the act of July 8th, 1975 concerning the Convention on Third Party Liability including the Supplementary Conventions dated July 29th, 1960, concerning the Convention the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships and its Additional Protocol dated May 25th, 1962, and concerning the Convention relating to Civil Liability in the field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material it is thus announced that 1) the Convention dated July 29th, 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and its Additional Protocol dated January 28th, 1964 according to its article 19, 2) the Supplementary Convention to the Paris Convention dated July 29th, 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and its Additional Protocol dated January 28th, 1964 according to its article 20 have taken effect for the FRG with reference to 1) on September 30th, 1975, with reference to 2) on January 1st, 1976. (orig.)
Shortly after the USA enacted price-anderson Act in 1957, other countries, such as France, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, Republic of Korea, Ukraine began adopting their own nuclear liability laws. The nuclear liability conventions are introduced: the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in field of nuclear energy; Brussels Convention Supplementary to Paris Convention; Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage; Protocol to amend Vienna Convention and Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, adopted by IAEA. The authors indicated that a more uniform world-wide nuclear liability regime is goal of nuclear industry, most governments and IAEA
Decree No. 519 of 10 May 1975 of the President of the Republic on regulations implementing international instruments in the field of nuclear third party liability ratified and brought into force by Act No. 109 of 12 February 1974 and for co-ordination of the above-instruments with the provisions of laws in force
This Decree was made by the President of the Republic under a delegation of powers conferred by Act No. 109 of 12th February 1974 ratifying the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention on nuclear third party liability. Its purpose is to make provision for implementing these Conventions in domestic law and to amend national legislation accordingly, i.e. Act No. 1860 of 31st December 1962 on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. The provisions so amended are Section 1 (definitions) and Sections 15 to 24 (third party liability following from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy). In particular, the maximum amount of liability of the operator of a nuclear installations is set at 7,500 million lire; beyond this amount the ceiling of compensation which may be granted by the State's financial intervention is 43,750 million lire. In cases where damage exceeds this ceiling it will be compensated up to 75,000 million lire by a contribution from other countries Party to the above-mentioned Conventions. The Decreee came into force on 6th November 1975. (N.E.A.)
Thomas, Anthony; Heffron, Raphael J.
The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term "Supplier" is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...
Thomas, Anthony; Heffron, Raphael J.
The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term “Supplier” is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...
Delk, Kayla L
This article explores general principles of workers' compensation law and the ability to sue third parties for employee injuries by using case law and the treatise Larson's Workers' Compensation Law. This overview provides occupational health nurses with a background on workers' compensation law, who is liable for employee injuries, and how recovery from third parties is distributed between the employer or insurer and the employee. The author then explores interventions that occupational health nurses can implement to reduce employee injury and employer costs for providing workers' compensation. The goal of this article is to stimulate occupational health nurses' critical-thinking and problem-solving skills so they may identify risks and implement cost-effective solutions that will prevent injuries to employees. PMID:22387245
This paper refers to new questions which arise in the international nuclear third party liability regime, including issues related to waste - and its long-term management, environmental impact, the precautionary principle, emergency measures and differences in risks according to whether a nuclear incident takes place at a fixed installation or during the course of transport. The author notes that from industry's point of view, the amendments to the Vienna Convention which were adopted in September 1997 can be divided into three categories: those which are positive and should appear in a revised Paris Convention; those which are sensitive and require careful thought with a view to their improvement before incorporating them into the Paris Convention; and lastly those which may compromise the efficiency of the system. Among those amendments that the author suggests incorporating into the Paris Convention are the increase of liability amounts and the extension of geographic scope. He expresses some reservations in relation to the inclusion of preventive measures in the definition of nuclear accident, and the extension of the prescription period to thirty years for loss of life and personal injury. The author concludes by citing certain proposed modifications which he believes may threaten the existence of the regime. These include the proposal to expressly provide for the possibility of unlimited liability, along with the raising of the existing ceiling to an amount situated between 300 and 600 million SDRs; the extension of existing guarantees; the recent choice of certain States to reject the principle of channelling liability to the operator and the insertion of the notion of environmental damage into the regular mechanisms of third party liability without adaptation to the particular circumstances. The author expresses the opinion that risk cover and victim protection can and should be extended during the revision process, but within reasonable limits in order to
Following a review of the legal principles governing nuclear third party liability which are applied in most countries, this paper discusses certain reforms to this regime which have already been applied or are being studied in certain countries - namely the fixing of an unlimited amount of liability for nuclear damage. (NEA)
The NEA Table on Nuclear Operator Liability Amounts and Financial Security Limits (NEA 'Liability Table'), which covers 71 countries, aims to provide one of the most comprehensive listings of nuclear liability amounts and financial security limits. The current and revised Paris and Brussels Supplementary Conventions ('Paris-Brussels regime'), the original and revised Vienna Conventions ('Vienna regime') and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, newly entered into force in April 2015, provide for the minimum amounts to be transposed in the national legislation of states parties to the conventions, and have served as guidelines for non-convention states. This article examine in more detail increases in the liability amounts provided for under these conventions, as well as examples of non-convention states (China, India and Korea)
After having evoked assessments of the cost of a nuclear accident in France and of that of damages caused by the Fukushima accident, the authors propose an overview of the issue of liability of companies involved in the operation of a nuclear power plant. They outline that this regime is mainly governed by two international conventions: the Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, and the Brussels Convention. The first one bears on the liability of nuclear installation operators, while the second one aims at ensuring an additional compensation of casualties on public funds. They also evoke the Vienna Convention which aims at defining a world regime for nuclear liability. They outline the limited scope of application of the Paris Convention, and the limitation of compensations. They discuss the liability of companies others than those operating nuclear installations
The Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention was adopted by the Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, which met in Vienna, at the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency on 21 September 1988. The Joint Protocol establishes a link between the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963. The Joint Protocol will extend to the States adhering to it the coverage of the two Conventions. It will also resolve potential conflicts of law, which could result from the simultaneous application of the two Conventions to the same nuclear accident. The Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication contains the text of the Final Act of the Conference in the six authentic languages, the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, also in the six authentic languages and an explanatory note, prepared by the IAEA and NEA Secretariats, providing background information on the content of the Joint Protocol
The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined by Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damages, as well as Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper aims at presenting to the audience the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the scope of Law no. 703/2001, as well as the subjects to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania (with special emphasis on the relevant responsibilities of nuclear operators), the Romanian nuclear damages compensation system, statute of limitation for claims, types of insurance and financial guarantees covering against civil liability for nuclear damages, limits of nuclear operators' liability, specific requirements regarding the insurance, responsibilities of control and supervision bodies, assessment of nuclear damage.(author)
A parent company’s liability for their subsidiary’s third-party injury, which arises from its own instruction, is a major issue in the law on corporate groups. The ‘separate legal entity’, ‘limited liability’, and ‘limited liability within limited liability’ principles in a pyramidal corporate group construction are the causal factors of this legal complication. Tanggung jawab induk perusahaan terhadap kerugian pihak ketiga dari anak perusahaan yang menjalankan instruksi induk perusahaan men...
Liability and prevention. Operation according to schedule and comprehensive documentation as protection against third party claims. Haftung und Risikovorsorge. Ordnungsgemaesser Betrieb und lueckenlose Dokumentation als Schutz gegen Ansprueche Dritter
Lattwein, A.; Schmidt, F.P.
The environmental liability act (UmweltHG) came into force on 1. Jan 1991. It is concerned with environmental liability and third party claims. The author shows how the environmental hazard can be reduced during normal operation, and how the liability risk can be minimized. (orig./BBR).
Full Text Available A parent company’s liability for their subsidiary’s third-party injury, which arises from its own instruction, is a major issue in the law on corporate groups. The ‘separate legal entity’, ‘limited liability’, and ‘limited liability within limited liability’ principles in a pyramidal corporate group construction are the causal factors of this legal complication. Tanggung jawab induk perusahaan terhadap kerugian pihak ketiga dari anak perusahaan yang menjalankan instruksi induk perusahaan menjadi permasalahan hukum utama pada perusahaan kelompok. Tiga penyebab permasalahan tanggung jawab hukum dalam perusahan kelompok disebabkan oleh berlakunya prinsip separate legal entity, limited liability, maupun limited liability dalam limited liability pada konstruksi kelompok piramida.
After Chernobyl accident, there has been a continuous world-wide tendency to strengthen the nuclear third party liability system both at international and domestic level, such as adoption of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (the 'CSC'), the amendment of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Convention supplementary thereto, and improvements of domestic nuclear liability laws in various countries. Our Nuclear Liability Act was amended too in 2001. To complete the improvement of our nuclear liability system and to cope with the issue on the protocol for the nuclear liability to be concluded between the KEDO and the DPRK in accordance with the Supply Agreement, it is required for us to adhere to the CSC. In that case, the method to become a party to the CSC, a plan to implement the Conventions in domestic legislation, the person to bear the contribution to the fund of CSC should be studied carefully. In addition to the adherence to the CSC, the adherence of the Viennal Convention should be analysed separately in depth to acquire legal stability for the settlement of transboundary nuclear damage
This paper will first set out in summary form the main provisions of the Paris Convention, the instrument under which issues of third party liability between the majority of NEA member states affected by any such incident would be resolved, and will then set out some of the perceived advantages and disadvantages which would result from an application of the provisions of the Convention to a non-nuclear state such as Ireland. This paper will then consider how Irish victims of a nuclear incident might re.cover compensation for loss and damage caused by such an incident. For reasons set out below, it is the view of the authors that Irish victims of such an incident could first bring their claim in Ireland or in France, that it is likely that Irish law would apply to any such claim and that any judgement, including any interlocutory judgement in such proceedings, could be enforced in the courts of any other European Union state, including France. (authors)
Third party liability of the nuclear power generation industry is discussed. It has several purposes. One is to clarify the distinctive features of nuclear liability as compared with traditional liability in tort. Particular interest is devoted to one such feature, namely the express liability limitation from which the nuclear power generation industry benefits. The causes and implications of this feature are discussed. One important implication of the current order is that the top risk of the nuclear power generation industry is explicitly or implicitly transferred to governments. This risk transfer can be regarded as a subsidy to the nuclear power generation industry. Subsidizations counteract efficiency. Therefore, the possibilities of neutralizing or abolishing the subsidy are explored. (author)
This presentation examines the Austrian approach to the international nuclear third party liability regime, particularly in light of the recent adoption of comprehensive national legislation reviewing the principles which underlie that regime. The author outlines the historical circumstances leading to the turning point in Austrian nuclear policy on 5 November 1978, when the Austrian electorate rejected the nuclear power option by a very slim majority. He notes that the 1964 Law on Nuclear Third Party Liability was adopted at a time when the legislator's prevailing objective was to promote nuclear energy, and that its outmoded concepts were subject to criticism in the 1990's. The author, having set out the reasons behind the adoption of the new legislation in 1999, presents its main features, including in particular those which run counter to certain well established principles set out in the Paris, Brussels and Vienna Conventions. These include the principle of the exclusive liability of the operator and the jurisdiction of the courts of the State in which the nuclear incident occurs. He explains that Austria wished to retract those privileges previously granted to constructors and suppliers, due to their complete exemption from liability in respect of goods delivered and services rendered. The author concludes by highlighting Austria's intention to closely follow and participate in negotiations and developments in the international nuclear third party liability regime, with a view to substantially increasing liability amounts available. He notes that Austria's participation in the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention or the Convention on Supplementary Compensation depends on their eventual entry into force and ratification by nuclear states, while confirming that Austria would be prepared to reconsider its non participation in the Paris and Brussels regime if substantial developments were made during the revision of these Conventions. (author)
One of the most difficult issues facing housing authorities is its potential liability to third parties for what is commonly referred to as the "antisocial behaviour" of its local authority tenants, or those living in accommodation under licence from the local authority. The term is now defined by s.1 of the Housing (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1997 as drug-related activity andlor: . . . any behaviour which causes or is likely to cause any significant or persisten...
Insurers have actively contributed to the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. In the course of these negotiations they have pointed out that some of the proposals for revision may have consequences for insurers and could prove incapable of finding insurance support. This paper aims at explaining the revision related points, which could cause problems in respect of insurability. Furthermore, the writer takes the liberty to expand its scope to more generally include developments, which have the potential to influence the availability of insurance capacity. Therefore, also the insurance implications of terrorist acts combined with share market developments of recent years will be dealt with.(author)
A symposium on Nuclear Third Party Liability and Insurance, organised by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1984 reviewed the fundamental principles of the nuclear third party liability regime and discussed the relationship of the insurance market with the international Conventions in this field. It also examined the concept of nuclear damage and a number of new issues raised by technical developments such as long-term radioactive waste management and decommissioning of nuclear installations. These proceedings reproduce the papers presented, in English or French, as well as the ensuing discussions and panel discussions. (NEA)
Radioactive materials are without any doubt dangerous materials, which may cause very important damages in case of an accident. Although the safety level in the transport of nuclear materials is very high if the corresponding regulations are fulfilled, it is impossible to absolutely exclude personal or material damages in case of an accident. This is why the necessary provisions must be made, to make sure claims for indemnity may be fulfilled. In order to improve the situation of potential victims of damages the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy has been established. This convention is based on two main characteristics: the principle of strict but limited liability and the channelling of liability to the so-called operator of the nuclear installation. Moreover a financial security is required to cover the third party nuclear liability. One cannot, however, talk of a uniform liability situation, as the Paris Convention concedes many exceptions to the signatory countries. This paper will present the situation from the German point of view, and the differences with other signatory countries will be shown. (author)
Full Text Available There are two primary challenges for establishing nuclear third party liability (TPL regimes within multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Asian region. The first challenge is to ensure secure and prompt compensation, especially for transboundary damages, which is also a challenge for a nation-based facility. One possible solution is that in order to share common nuclear TPL principles, all states in the region participate in the same international nuclear TPL convention, such as the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC, with a view to its entry into force in the future. One problem with this approach is that many states in the Asian region need to raise their amount of financial security in order to be able to participate in the CSC. The second challenge lies with the multiple MNA member states and encompasses the question of how decisions are to be made and responsabilities of an installation state are to be shared in case of a nuclear incident. Principally, a host state of the MNA facility takes on this responsibility. However, in certain situations and in agreement with all MNA member states, such responsibilities can be indirectly shared among all MNA member states. This can be done through internal arrangements within the MNA framework, such as reimbursement to a host state based on pre-agreed shares in accordance with investment and/or making deposits on such reimbursements in case of an incident.
Ministerial Decree of 3 March 1978 approving the general conditions of the third party liability insurance policy for operators of nuclear installations and the general conditions of insurance policies for third party liability for transport of nuclear materials
This Decree by the Ministry for Industry, Commerce and Crafts and the Ministry for transport of Italy was made in implementation of Section 2 of the Decree No. 519 by the president of the Republic of 2 May 1975 amending Section 15 to 24 of Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This present Decree approves the general conditions of third party liability insurance policies for operators of nuclear installations and for transport of radioactive materials. (NEA)
Full Text Available In the current context of reinventing the trading company law, at the end of a lengthy and extremely difficult economic crisis, when every participant in the economic life tried to find their own way to adapt and make their activity survive the new social and commercial realities, not few were the cases when some of the Shareholders were excluded and their liability was drawn onto the legal person itself. Nevertheless, there is a type of legal liability of the former Shareholders, excluded from the Company, that still is quite deficiently regulated and, despite the sound argumentation and comprehensive regulation of Law no. 31/1990, it fails to provide a clear and detailed explanation of the consequences, namely, of the consequences the exclusion of a Shareholder has over the Third Parties of good-faith that the legal person (the Company had or continues to have legal relations with. This paper thus aims at analysing one of the main effects of excluding Shareholders from the company, namely the extent of their liability towards the Third Parties, and it is structured in five parts, as follows: 1 Introduction, 2 About the Shareholders’ exclusion, 3 The effects of excluding a Shareholder from the Limited Liability Company, 4 The excluded Shareholder’s liability towards the Third Parties and 5 Conclusions.
This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)
Taking into account the impact of damage owing to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, the argument of review on Japanese nuclear third party liability system is carried out. As the Fukushima Disaster raised serious legal problems on Japanese nuclear third party liability system that the JCO critical accident did not present, fundamental reformation of the system may be carried out. This paper clarified and analyzed legal problems that Fukushima Disaster raised. In addition, in order to alleviate the problems, this paper showed two options to reform the nuclear compensation system. Our conclusions are summarized as follows. (1) The compensation of the Fukushima Disaster raised the following problems. 1. Regardless of whether the operator has the legally liable for the damage, the necessity of quick victim relief and compensation forced the operator to compensate the damage. 2. Because the damage occurred in broad area and in long term, and cause identification and the calculation of damage amount are difficult, private settlements become so hard that the number of civil litigations increased dramatically. (2) The problems mentioned above are due to the following current legal shortcomings. 1. The victims are not relieved enough unless making bear the operator compensation liability, because Japanese nuclear third party liability system is based on ordinary rules of civil tort liability. 2. The procedure for immunity of operator's nuclear third party liability is not stipulated. 3. The authority of the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation is restricted and cannot discourage damage suits. (3) To overcome the problems, this report showed proposal for system reformation as follows. 1. In order to relieve the victims regardless of whether the operator is liable for the nuclear damages, it is necessary to legislate a Nuclear Disaster Relief Act to relief victims from the viewpoint of governmental aid. 2. It is necessary to introduce the
After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)
Responsibilities for the construction and operation of the first nuclear power plant have been transferred from the National Nuclear Energy Commission to Electrobras, a public undertaking set up for this purpose. In view of such transfer of responsibilities and the implementation of further nuclear power projects, liability for nuclear damage has to be regulated in a way consistent with international conventions. A working group associating representatives of national authorities and public utilities was entrusted with the task of drafting rules for co-ordinating their respective activities in relation to the execution of the first nuclear power project; these rules were issued by Ministerial order in 1970. The working group also prepared a draft law on civil liability for nuclear damage, based on the Vienna Convention. This draft law has reached its final stage and, after promulgation, will enable Brazil to ratify the Vienna Convention. (author)
Third party and environment of civil liability damage caused by incidents at military nuclear installations, for instance at decommissioned NPS (nuclear powered submarines), may be divided into three main trends: -) Liability of NPS without high-enriched irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) for its self-submersion (radiation incident); -) Liability of NPS with SNF aboard for its self-submersion (radiation incident); and -) Liability of floating NPS for its SNF discharge (nuclear accident). Without step-by-step transition from the Russian Federation guaranties to insurance and making allowance for liability limits according to the Vienna Convention approach, the sizes of the financial guarantee for the civil liability of the NPS owner (Russian state), in US dollars of 2000, are approximately assessed as the following: -) storing decommissioned NPS or a floating module without SNF - from 12 to 25 thousand dollars per year (per one submarine or module); -) storing decommissioned NPS with SNF inside reactors cores - from 25 to 40 thousand dollars per year; -) assembly-by-assembly removing SNF from reactors' core of decommissioned NPS - up to 1.5 million dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period; -) SNF removing within reactor using the filled in-space reactor's core by liquid-phased hardened or dispersed solid-phase materials from decommissioned NPS - from 30 to 50 thousand dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period. Both rates and sums for NPS with damaged reactors are to be estimated for the each damaged reactor and NPS at all. It is necessary to perform the measures reducing the risk of nuclear accidents of NPS with undamaged SNF and NPS with damaged reactors in possibly short time. It will allow not only to cut risks by ten times and more, but also to accumulate necessary insurance reserves faster. These measures can be partially or completely executed using the preventing measures reserves assigned to all decommissioned Russian NPS and
Full Text Available The article presents research results, indicating, that VAT third party joint and several liability in an efficient antifraud element of the Polish VAT system. As the experimental verification of joint and several responsibility proves, there are situations, in which the VAT fraud is possible when this element of the VAT system is not applied, and is not possible any more when the element is applied, which indicates the efficiency of thereof and proves the hypothesis of the present article.
The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)
O'Reilly, Jane; Aquino, Karl; Skarlicki, Daniel
This research takes a moral perspective to studying third parties' reactions to injustice as a function of their moral identity. Drawing from theories of deontic justice, moral intuition, moral heuristics, and moral identity, we develop and test a model of the moral underpinnings of third parties' reactions to injustice. First, we compare third parties' responses with interpersonal, distributive, and procedural justice violations. We hypothesize that third parties are more likely to intuit that interpersonal justice violations are morally wrong, compared with distributive and procedural justice violations. As a result, third parties are more likely to experience stronger moral anger and punish violators in response to interpersonal transgressions compared with distributive and procedural justice transgressions. Second, we test the proposition that third parties with a strong moral identity will react more strongly to justice violations than third parties with a comparatively weak moral identity. Results from 3 studies support these predictions. PMID:26214088
Two pieces of legislation have been enacted in the United States to provide a framework for the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel: the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Neither of these statutes provide a means for resolving third party liability issues arising out of radioactive waste management. However, the Price Anderson Act (originally enacted in 1957) provides a system of financial protection that can be applied to waste management activities and that can resolve most issues pertaining to liability for nuclear damage that may result from long-term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. (NEA)
In accordance with the 2001 amendment of the Nuclear Liability Act of 1969, the definition of nuclear damage was extended, the amount of liability and compulsory financial security became 300 million SDRs, prescription period for personal injury or loss of life became 30 years. Under the condition that the benefit of becoming a party to a international nuclear liability regime keeps in equilibrium with the cost thereof, we may become a party to the convention
Nuclear power considerably benefited mankind since it was utilized peaceably. The cleanness, safety and high efficiency of nuclear power were gradually known and recognized by the public. However at the same time, nuclear power had produced significant accident and consequently caused severe aftereffects during its utilization. Therefore, effective management of nuclear risk and reducing its accident probability are the social responsibilities of every nuclear nation. From the insurance point of view, this document analyzes the validity and development trends of nuclear third party insurance in nuclear risk management. It also introduces effectual experience in this field from nuclear insurance developed countries. This document discusses the necessity of consummating nuclear third party insurance under the aggressive development situation of nuclear power in our country. (author)
The importance of Canada's natural gas industry to remain competitive on a global level was discussed. Third party processing is a tool that the Canadian gas industry can use to overcome the relative disadvantage of smaller, and therefore more expensive, gas processing plants in Canada, and to maintain, and even improve, its competitive position vis-a-vis its US counterparts. The principal role of a third party processor is to provide midstream services such as raw gas gathering, field compression, gas processing, sales gas transmission, and natural gas liquids fractionation. Some third party processors also provide marketing services. Third party processors add value to the gas producer by reducing risk, reducing cost, improving reliability, and improving netbacks. The many variables involved in determining the economic viability of third party processing, including the quantity and deliverability of the raw resource, facility capacity, capital investment, operating costs, technology, fee structures, operational reliability, and speed, among others, were examined and the significance of each variable was explained
German insurance companies at a very early stage met the challenges resulting from the coverage of nuclear risks. Even before the German Atomic Energy Act entered into force, the German Nuclear Reactor Insurance Pool (Deutsche Kernreaktorversicherungsgemeinschaft) was set up. International cooperation has helped it to meet the growing requirements to this day. It will continue to make its contribution also in the future. A major precondition for this to be achieved is the stabilization of the proven concepts of liability and coverage. (orig.)
This work aimed to create viable test automation for Finland’s Slot Machine Association’s mobile casino software. The work contains a test plan for the software, and an introduction of the selected automation framework. The software is developed by a third party. The results of this thesis indicate that testing third party software differs tremendously from testing in-house developed software. Instead of a multiphased testing process, only a one shot acceptance testing run can be performe...
The adoption of the Joint-Protocol and its signature on 21 September 1988, at the closure of the diplomatic conference jointly convened in Vienna by the IAEA and NEA, was hailed as a landmark in efforts towards the establishment of a comprehensive civil nuclear liability regime. The importance of liability and compensation for transfrontier damage caused by a nuclear incident is indeed one of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident. This article describes the history of the Joint Protocol during the many years it took to develop this link between the two Conventions, provides a comment on its objectives and content, and discusses some important questions related to its application. (NEA)
This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary
This paper contains same basic data about the legal norms relating to the third party liability system for nuclear damage that are in force in Croatia. It also describes the provisions of the new Croatian Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage, giving emphasis on those implementing substantial changes compared to the old Act. Finally, it contains some remarks relating to the possible adoption of Vienna Protocol and Convention on Supplementary Compensation of 1997 or Pariz/Brussels conventions as an alternative and at the end about the practice on the insurance of nuclear risks in the last twenty years by the Croatian Pool. (author)
The Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was held in Geneva from 27 August to 21 September 1985, with a view to assuring that the purposes and provisions of the Treaty were being realized. The Conference ended with the adoption by consensus of a Final Declaration, by which the States parties, among other things, solemnly declared their conviction that the Treaty was essential to international peace and security and expressed their support for its objectives. This Fact Sheet provides information on the preparations for the Conference, developments at the Conference and the main features of the Final Declaration. Te text of the Treaty is reproduced in Disarmament Fact Sheet No. 33, and its historical background is contained in Fact Sheet No. 41
This article in three parts analyses cover for damage to third parties by fixed nuclear installations, cover for damage to third parties during transport of nuclear substances and finally, cover for damage to nuclear installations. Part I reviews the principles of nuclear third party liability and describes nuclear insurance pools, the coverage and contracts provided. Part II describes inter alia the role of pools in transport operations as well as the type of contracts available, while Part III discusses material damage, the pools' capacities and the vast sums involved in indemnifying such damage. (NEA)
The adoption of the Joint Protocol and its signature on 21 September 1988, at the closure of the diplomatic conference jointly convened in Vienna by the IAEA and the NEA, was hailed as landmark in efforts towards the establishment of a comprehensive civil nuclear liability regime. The importance of liability and compensation for transfrontier damage caused by a nuclear incident is indeed one of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident. The present article attempts to describe the history of the Joint Protocol during the many years it took to develop this link between the two conventions, to provide comment on its objectives and content, and to discuss some important questions related to its application
This paper considers the application of the IAEA-sponsored 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage to the maritime transport of radioactive materials. The paper refers also to the regime for civil liability created by other Conventions, including the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, concluded under the auspices of the OECD and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, also an IAEA sponsored Convention. The paper will primarily focus on the Vienna Convention. (author)
As its Council Member I attended the ICC Institute of World Business Law’s 32nd annual meeting on ‘Third-Party Funding in International Arbitration’ held in Paris on 26 November 2012. It was a grand success as it drew many professionals, arbitrators, experts, academic specialists and, above all, representatives from some major third-party funding bodies such as Burford Group Ltd., Calunius Capital LLP, Fulbrook Management LLC and others, and the discussion and debates generated a great deal o...
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally
对第三方物流经营人的含义、法律地位与责任形式进行了界定，讨论了《合同法》中关于第三方物流经营人对委托方法律责任的认定及其异同，最后对第三方物流经营人对实际物流经营人的追偿问题进行了讨论。%In this paper, we defined the connotation, legal status and liability form of the third party logistics operator, discussed the recognition of the liability against it in favor of the clients in the Contract Law, and at the end, studied the issues in the damage recovery of the third party logistics operator against the logistics activity providers.
... employer, M makes monthly vacation payments (of a sum equal to a certain percentage of the remuneration... writing with the district director, service center director, or compliance center director to extend...
Mitchell, Marie S; Vogel, Ryan M; Folger, Robert
This research examines 3rd parties' reactions to the abusive supervision of a coworker. Reactions were theorized to depend on 3rd parties' beliefs about the targeted coworker and, specifically, whether the target of abuse was considered deserving of mistreatment. We predicted that 3rd parties would experience anger when targets of abuse were considered undeserving of mistreatment; angered 3rd parties would then be motivated to harm the abusive supervisor and support the targeted coworker. Conversely, we predicted that 3rd parties would experience contentment when targets of abuse were considered deserving of mistreatment; contented 3rd parties would then be motivated to exclude the targeted coworker. Additionally, we predicted that 3rd parties' moral identity would moderate the effects of 3rd parties' experienced emotions on their behavioral reactions, such that a strong moral identity would strengthen ethical behavior (i.e., coworker support) and weaken harmful behavior (i.e., supervisor-directed deviance, coworker exclusion). Moderated mediation results supported the predictions. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25243999
M. Venditti; E. Reale; L. Leydesdorff
Nations, universities, and regional governments promote the dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge. They focus on knowledge-based innovations and the university’s economic function in terms of technology transfer, intellectual property, university-industry-government relations etc. Facu
Haoxiong Yang; Jindan Li
Adding the third party logistics enterprises between the suppliers and the retailers is a kind of the development of VMI mode, in this mode; inventory pressure is transferred to the third party logistics enterprise. In view of this situation, the VMI inventory control model which treats total inventory control costs as the objective function is built based on from four dimensions: the inventory holding costs, the fixed delivery costs, replenishment costs and customer waiting costs. After solv...
Most recently, several Contracting Parties to the Vienna Convention announced their plans to play an important role in the process of “nuclear renaissance” in Europe. However, this process cannot be limited to a mere multiplication of nuclear facilities, but must be accompanied by strengthening of the legal and regulatory framework. Taking the potential magnitude of a nuclear incident into regard, strengthening of the existing legal framework for the nuclear third party liability must play an eminent role in this legislation. This paper deals with the current liability frameworks in both countries, analyzing the implementation of theirs commitments arising from the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963. Further, it points out major challenges for the future development in this field, in particular taking the provisions of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1997 into regard. (author)
The Insight Conference has seven articles on the following aspects of the conference theme: I - overview of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act and Companies' Creditor's Arrangement Act; II- the effects of bankruptcy and insolvency on exploration agreements; III - the effects of bankruptcy on CO and O, unit and pooling agreements; IV - impact of bankruptcy and insolvency on marketing and transportation agreements; V - claims of operators, non-operators and third parties arising from oil and gas operations; V I - buying and selling assets from a bankrupt or insolvent party; and VII - environmental liability for receivers, trustees and others in the petroleum industry. Abstracts/descriptors are included for articles II, V, and VII. separately
This paper provides an analysis of the possible complications and consequences with respect to nuclear liability and insurance protection applicable in respect of transport activities resulting in damage suffered and/or accidents occurring in EU States that are not party to the Paris Convention. It looks at the different legal aspects (jurisdiction, applicable law, liability amounts, reciprocity) should the revised Vienna and Paris Convention become applicable in comparison with the unrevised Conventions. Within Europe, a large number of States are party to the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention, providing liability and insurance protection, in general, up to a limit of 300 million SDRs (or even higher). In principle, such protection is confined to nuclear incidents occurring and nuclear damage suffered in the territory of Contracting Parties, including, as recommended, the high seas, unless the legislation of the Installation State determines otherwise (Article 2). The geographical scope of application of the Paris Convention would thus vary according to the law of the Installation State. However, some EU States never became party to the Paris Convention, and are not bound by its the liability principles (notably, channelling of liability), such as Austria, Luxembourg and Ireland. Transport accidents involving these countries might therefore result in liability claims outside the treaty liability regime against operators, suppliers, carriers or persons involved and for types of damages different from those currently covered by the Paris Convention (e.g., environmental damage). It is uncertain to what extent liability insurance of the installation operators would provide adequate protection and whether related damage claims can be enforceable. In addition, a number of newly entered EU States are party to the Vienna Convention, which, although bound by liability principles basically similar to those of the Paris Convention, will
The Contracting parties recognize the importance of the measures provided in the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third party liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy as well as in national legislation on compensation for nuclear damage consistent with the principles of these conventions. The Contracting parties desire to establish a worldwide liability regime to supplement and enhance these measures with a view to increasing the amount of compensation for nuclear damage and encourage regional and global co-operation to promote a higher level of nuclear safety in accordance with the principle of international partnership and solidarity
The 'Centro Italiano Ricerche and Studi Assicurativi' (CIRSA) has published the proceeding of a round table it organised in 1976 on insurance for nuclear risks. The topics discussed covered the relevant national legislation, in particular, regarding liability and compensation for nuclear damage, the financial security required, the insurance system. The papers and ensuing discussions are reproduced in full, and the Appendix contains for consultation, all the texts of the laws in this field. (NEA)
Xiaoye Zhou; Xiuyi Xie
This paper introduces ways and advantages of third-party logistics enterprise servicing manufacturing enterprise, analyses supply-chain of manufacturing enterprise and further studies for the organization structure of third-party logistics enterprise servicing manufacturing enterprise, to seek to the enterprise organization structure which has the best combination in third-party logistics enterprise with manufacturing enterprise.
This fifth part is relative to liability and cover it includes: the modernization of the international nuclear third party liability regime, diplomatic conference convened to adopt a protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage and to adopt a Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage, the legislative mechanism for compensation of nuclear damage in Ukraine, international nuclear liability developments from the Usa perspective, nuclear liability law in Russia, the third party liability system for nuclear damage in the Republic of Korea. (N.C.)
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance-Liability to... INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1452.228-7 Insurance—Liability to Third Persons. (a) As prescribed in 1428.311-2, the clause at FAR...
... Restructuring Commitment available during normal business hours to the public at a place described in paragraph... ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.500 Required notices...
ZHANG Man; QIAO Hui; WANG Xu; PU Ming-zhe; YU Zhi-jun; ZHENG Feng-tian
Stakeholders in the ifeld of food safety management in China can be classiifed into three categories, government, food producers (farmers and enterprises), and the third-party regulatory bodies. The third-party regulation has experienced rapid development in past twenty years, and recently received considerable attention from consumers and the central government. This paper provides a review about the development, problems and future trend of the third-party regulation on food safety in China. To be speciifc, ifve forms of the third-party regulation are assessed, including media exposure, the third-party certiifcation, regulation by consumer associations, social movements promoted by non-governmental organiza-tions (NGOs), and regulation by industry associations. The study concludes that media and consumer associations are the major players in the third-party regulation and are highly repudiated among customers. The food certiifcation industry has developed rapidly, but is now facing crises of conifdence among consumers because of its lack of self-regulation. NGOs and industry associations stil remain in the early development stages of food safety management, and therefore, are of little importance in current regulatory bodies.
... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 275 RIN 3235-AK39 Political Contributions by Certain Investment Advisers: Ban on Third...'' or ``SEC'') is extending the date by which advisers must comply with the ban on third-party.... The effective date for the ban on third-party solicitation under rule 206(4)-5 of the...
Bubphapant, Jitpisut; Thammasaro, Ramrada
Title: The effects of online third-party opinions toward Consumer Purchasing Decision on cosmetics products in Thai market Seminar date: June 4th , 2012 Course: Master thesis in International marketing, 15 credits Purpose: The overall purpose of this research is to explain the understanding of the effects of online third-party opinions toward consumer purchasing decision process on cosmetics products in Thai market. This includes the investigation of effective used of online third-party opi...
... January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3646). \\4\\ The Produce Safety proposed rule was published in the Federal Register... Guidance on Third-Party Certification for Food and Feed In the Federal Register of July 10, 2008 (73 FR... 1 and 16 Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies to Conduct Food Safety...
This Act amends the 1965 Act, in particular by specifying that the maximum amount of liability of the operator of a foreign nuclear ship is that fixed by the legislation of the State concerned, unless otherwise agreed with that State, but may in no case be lower than that set out in the 1965 Act, namely 500 million French francs. (NEA)
... Reserve Leverage for A Rbic § 4290.1240 Funding of RBIC's draw request through sale to third-party. (a... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding of RBIC's draw request through sale to third-party. 4290.1240 Section 4290.1240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...
The report has been written considering the advanced work which has been done by the Expert Committee, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, having the purpose to examine the modifications issued in course of Vienna Convention as well as the Paris convention and the complementary Brussels Convention, in view to adapt the legislation to the actual context and to answer the populations expectations. The work has been organized in three majors chapters: the first one in concerned to the damage definition, proposition to the to reach the environment, the prevention and charges. the research and military installations are also considered. The second chapter has been dedicated to the civil responsibility, its limits, financing modes, the national and international legal competence besides the litigation charges due to the nuclear accidents born on the occasion. In the third chapter the insurance considering the damage nature, the capacity to assure liability coverage and the damage management are harmonized
This Decree was made in implementation of Section 45 of the 1964 Act on nuclear energy. It contains provisions on third party liability for nuclear damage, the type of security to cover such liability and State intervention in compensating nuclear damage. The Decree was amended by two Decrees of 28 March 1968 and 7 November 1968 respectively. In particular, the latter Decree implements the provisions of the Paris Convention, ratified by Spain and fixes cover for nuclear risks at 350 million pesetas. (NEA)
The International system of nuclear civil liability is based on two international treaties: the Paris convention (24.07.1960) and the Brussels convention (31.01.1963), with a time limit for ratification in each concerned country at 30.10.1968. The Paris convention treats compensation and transfrontier problems, the amount of compensation is limited, the Brussels convention specifies the financial system of compensation. The Vienna system under the IAEA auspices gives minimal norms of financial protection against damages and stood in may 1963 thirty three parties signed it. Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Armenia, czech republic, Estonia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldavia have joined the Vienna convention, then the Russian Federation that had signed the Convention in 1996 became member in august 2005. New elements appear such measures of remedial action or measures of prevention of reduction of nuclear damages are included, the new protocol increases the geographical area by taking into account the maritime areas because of the evolution of the international sea law. The transport needs specific contracts between parties, the only case of exoneration is the armed conflicts, civil war, insurrection. The time of loss of right comes from ten years to thirty years, for deaths and body damages, the others types of damages stay fixed at ten years. The most important revision is about the limit financial amount for the nuclear operator that is increased and the calculation of methods of funding for each contracting party is tackled. In fact it appears that more important funds will be available to make compensation for a more important number of victims. The revised system guarantees that the liability chain will never be broken. (N.C.)
That this article first analyzes the fault of a third person is the defenses of the tort cases of fault liability. Then it comprehensively reviews the evolution of the fault of a third person＇s position in China＇s environmental legislation, and for theoretical arguments about whether the fault of a third party is the defenses in civil liability for environmental pollution. It proposed that in any subsequent revision of China ＂marine environmental protection law＂ and ＂water pollution control act,＂ and even the development of specialized environmental tort liability act, we should clearly define the fault of a third person, which are not the defenses in all areas of environmental pollution, while we also need to set up the mechanism of investigating the civil liability for fault of a third party leading to the environmental pollution and set up a social relief mechanism.%本文分析了第三人过错是过错责任侵权案件的抗辩事由，全面梳理了第三人过错在我国环境立法中的地位演变，并就第三人过错是否为环境污染民事责任抗辩事由的理论争议进行了深入的述评。提出在以后修改《海洋环境保护法》及《水污染防治法》，甚至制定专门的环境侵权责任法时，除了明确规定在所有环境污染领域第三人过错都不是抗辩事由外，还需合理地设置第三人过错污染环境民事责任的追究机制和社会化救济机制。
霍艳芳; 付叶; 杨立向
In view of the problems compromising the widespread adoption of the logistics liability insurance in China, such as high premium and unscientific calculation basis, we proposed on the microscopic level the plan of solution, namely introducing the NCD dynamic charging model into the adjustment of the premium of the logistics liability insurance and then in light of the characteristic of the third party logistics industry, comprehensively considering the influence of the number of claims for compensation, the amount claimed, and total coverage, rearranging the rule of transference and improving the original NCD model. At the end, we used a case analysis to demonstrate the validity of the improved NCD model.%针对中国物流责任保险费率过高、计算依据不科学,从而难以推广应用的现状,在微观层面上提出解决方案-将NCD计费动态模型引入物流责任险费率调整中来,并结合第三方物流行业特点,综合考虑索赔次数、索赔额和投保总额的影响,重新确定转移规则,对原NCD模型进行改进.最后通过案例说明改进后的NCD模型能够使计费依据更加合理,求得的保费更能切实反映第三方物流企业所处的风险水平.
... contained in 28 CFR 16.52. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures... and Procedures § 513.35 Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures to third parties....
Arbitration is consensual by nature. Therefore, arbitration agreement is usually binding on the parties privy to the contract containing the arbitration clause. Nevertheless, general principles of contract law allow for extension of an arbitration clause to third parties only if free, knowing and complete consent of such party to arbitrate is established. It is difficult to tailor this rule to the situation when a bill of lading issued under a charterparty contains a reference clause, which b...
Kwok Hung Lau; Haibo Huang
Information and communication technology (ICT) is an important tool to enhance efficiency and responsiveness in modern-day supply chains. Owing to fierce market competition and rapidly changing business environment, organizations are forced to focus on their core competency and outsource their logistics function to third-party logistics (3PL) firms. In order to work hand-in-hand with customers to meet their day-to-day logistics needs, 3PL companies have to make use of ICT for efficient commun...
Siti Hasnah Hassan; Haslenna Hamdan
Consumers become more concerned about the products they consume as they become aware of the benefits of third-party certification marks on product packaging and advertisements. Consumers look for food product packaging that includes information such as GMO free, organic, eco-friendly, country of origin or religiously based labels, such as kosher and Halal. This study examined the impact of a Halal certification mark as both an advertisement and a signifier of third-party certification for non...
Zheng Hong Zhen
Full Text Available Dispersion of reverse logistics resources makes it difficult to create relationships between demanders and providers, thereby the personalized demand for the construction of enterprise reverse logistics cannot be satisfied and the service quality cannot be guaranteed. Aiming at these problems, this paper presents a platform and method of enterprise reverse logistics based on bilateral resource integration (RLBRI. The method creates a third-party reverse logistics platform to accumulate a mass of reverse logistics demanders and providers together. And the platform integrates bilateral resources and acts as an intermediary to establish relationships between two sides. Through the platform, a complete and high-quality business chain for enterprise reverse logistics will be built efficiently. Finally put forward an effective strategy of non-defective reverse logistics depends on the integrity checking service provided by third-party logistics. By using this strategy it can short the distance of non-defective reverse transportation. Computational tests validate the strategy.
Siti Hasnah Hassan
Full Text Available Consumers become more concerned about the products they consume as they become aware of the benefits of third-party certification marks on product packaging and advertisements. Consumers look for food product packaging that includes information such as GMO free, organic, eco-friendly, country of origin or religiously based labels, such as kosher and Halal. This study examined the impact of a Halal certification mark as both an advertisement and a signifier of third-party certification for non-Muslims in Malaysia. The results show that non-Muslims do not think that advertisement with Halal certification mark is offensive. Structural equation modeling (SEM analysis shows that sensitivity toward advertisement is positively related to attitudes toward advertisements, and that attitudes toward advertisements have a significant and positive relationship with behavioral outcomes. These findings enhance understanding of the effect of advertisement with Halal certification mark on non-Muslim consumers in Malaysia.
Over the last decade or so, a number of significant improvements have been made to the international nuclear liability regimes. The first major advancement was the adoption, in September 1997, of the Protocol to amend the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (VC Protocol) and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC). This was followed, in February 2004, by the adoption of Protocols to amend both the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (PC Protocol) and the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention (BSC Protocol). The principle goal of these new instruments is to provide more compensation to more victims in respect of more types of nuclear damage suffered than ever before. A second objective, at least for the VC and PC Protocols, is to maintain compatibility between the Paris and Vienna Conventions, thereby ensuring the smooth functioning of the 1988 Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention (VC) and the Paris Convention (PC). In addition, both Vienna and Paris Convention States wish to ensure that the newly revised Conventions will not prevent them from joining the global liability and compensation regime established by the CSC, should they so wish. However, one wonders to what extent these new instruments will attract a sufficient number of adherents to make them truly effective. While the VC Protocol is already in force, it has drawn surprisingly little support from the 1963 Vienna Convention States and even less from those countries with important nuclear generating capacity but which have not yet joined any of the international nuclear liability and compensation instruments. For its part, and notwithstanding its adoption almost 10 years ago, the CSC has not yet entered into force and only the future will tell whether it ever will, particularly given its strict requirements in this regard. As for the PC and BSC
This paper reviews the historical background and progress of establishment of the Nuclear Damage Compensation Act in our country, and describes the general theory relevant to the nuclear liability system. The major subjects of the general theory of this system consist of the following principles in general : a. strict liability for the part of nuclear utility ; b. channelling of liability which means the whole liability is concentrated on the utility ; c. limit of the recourse right ; d. limit of immunity ; e. enforcement of financial protection ; f. governmental indemnification. With the Chernobyl nuclear accident as a turning-point, the international society is making a new attempt at the nuclear liability system. In relation to the domestic issue on the liability of nuclear power plant's supplier, we checked lawsuit of third party and correspondent options
The 1972 Nuclear Liability Act has been amended by an Act 1989 to bring its provisions in line with those of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention as amended respectively by the 1982 Protocols. The 1989 Act also raises the limit of the nuclear operator's liability from 42 million Finnish marks (approximately 8 million Special Draing Rights - SDRs) to 100 million SDRs
... court to be incompetent due to physical, mental or age incapacity, may act for and on behalf of the... the committee or subcommittee. (10) Disclosure to the General Accounting Office (GAO). For...
Third-party payment solved the security of funds and goods and the credit about buyers and sellers in the online shopping process, which restricts development of online shopping. But there are also many problems, such as the nature, the legal status of the third party payment, what kind of legal relations with other parties, deposit funds and its fruits of attribution and preservation issues; laws do not make explicit provision for these issues. Regulation in place restricts the development of third-party payment, so this article provides an analysis on these issues.% 第三方支付解决了网络购物过程中资金和货物的安全以及买卖双方的信任问题，解决了制约网络购物发展的瓶颈问题。但是第三方支付同时也存在很多问题，比如第三方支付的性质如何，处于何种法律地位，与其他当事人存在何种法律关系，沉淀资金及其孳息的归属以及保全的问题，对于这些问题法律都没有做出明确的规定。监管不到位制约了第三方支付的发展，所以本文旨在分析这些问题。
The codes CONV45 and CONV56 convert data files from ENDF/B-4 to ENDF/B-5 and from ENDF/B-5 to ENDF/B-6 format respectively. The codes which were received from US National Nuclear Data Center were implemented at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section for use on personal computers. (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs
Full Text Available It was widely accepted that nuclear damage might be extensive and spread to other countries. International civil liability for nuclear damage is embodied by two major instruments: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Paris Convention of 1960 on third party liability (OECD with its amending protocols. Major problem arises because of lack of coherence and for this reason supplementary conventions and protocols has been adopted but sufficient results has not been achieved. International treaties on civil liability for nuclear damage are mostly based upon principles of operator’s exclusive, channeling, strict liability for nuclear damage, mandatory financial coverage, compensation without discrimination. These principles set ground for the appropriate compensation standard thus minimizing the difficulty level of complicated legal cross-actions and identifies certain subjects in individual cases who are liable also allows a concentration of the insurance capacity. Although Conventions sets similar principles, Europe remains in two different liability regimes which cover differences of liability amounts, scope of application, rules of jurisdiction conflicts. Problem of legal coherence at European Union level also arises because Member States are either parties to the Paris Convention or Vienna Convention at different speeds. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of international legal framework development and impetus to create trans-boundary compensation mechanisms thus to foster development of European Union nuclear energy market and to provide higher protection for victims inside and outside the country where the incident has occurred. Purpose – provide comparative analysis of international treaties which regulate civil liability for nuclear damage in the context of European Union nuclear energy market development. Design/methodology - paper is based on document
Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo
Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…
A trend seen on the web today is to create a platform where externally developed applications can run inside some kind of main application. This is often done by providing an API to access data and business logic of your service and a sandbox environment in which third-party applications can run. By providing this, it is made possible for external developers to come up with new ideas based on your service. Some good examples on this are Spotify Apps, Apps on Facebook and SalesForce.com. Ipend...
<正>Cooperation on environment protection between China and France at the local government level received a further boost from a meeting between Beijing and Paris last December to consider development of environmentally friendly buildings and
At its meeting held on 17 and 18 November 2009, the OECD NEA's Nuclear Law Committee (NLC) discussed the issue of obtaining financial security to cover liability for environmental damage. The experts from the insurance industry observed that the liability for environmental damage under the '2004 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy' (2004 Paris Convention)2 may differ from the liability established under the 'Directive 2004/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage' (referred to as 'directive'). This discussion put into focus the question whether the term 'liability' of the operator under the 2004 Paris Convention and under the directive covers identical concepts of 'compensation'. It is true that the directive, according to its Article 4, excludes nuclear risks or environmental damage or the imminent threat of such damage originating from defined nuclear activities from its scope of application. However, it reserves the right to amend that exclusion by 2014 [Article 18(2) and (3)]. Irrespective of this legal situation, there exists an understandable interest of the insurance industry and of other stakeholders as well to get clarification on which type of obligation the operator has to meet under both instruments, or in other words: which liability and coverage consequences does damage to the environment entail for the operator?
Markert, K. [Bundeskartellamt, Berlin (Germany). 8. Beschlussabteilung
Access of third parties to power transmission systems which up to now is governed in Germany by ownership rights will not run smoothly in future, although the general policy decision ended the dispute about the if, however leaving open aspects of the how. The problems arising in designing the how are currently displayed to the public by the disputes about conditions and model solutions reported from the telecommunications area, where deregulation is ahead of the developments in the energy sector. Obviously, the contention point is not technical feasibility of third party access, but the economic aspects and the conditions offered to competing suppliers depending on access to a transmission network. Hence it can be expected that there will be conflicts of interest that will have to be decided. The legal basis for conflict management is outlined in the recent amendment to the EnWG (German energy industry act), and jurisdiction will primarily rely on paragraph 6 of the act, referring to antitrust review. The contribution here gives an outline of the legal framework conditions governing enforcement of third party access to transmission systems in the future deregulated energy market. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Oeffnung bisher geschlossener Netze fuer Drittwettbewerber verlaeuft auch dann, wenn ueber das `Ob` kein Streit mehr besteht, nicht konfliktfrei. Dies wird zur Zeit dem deutschen Publikum im Bereich der Telekommunikation mit fast taeglich neuen Varianten vorgefuehrt. Es geht dabei offensichtlich nicht um die technische Machbarkeit der Drittnutzung, sondern um die wirtschaftlichen Konditionen fuer Konkurrenten, die fuer ihr Leistungsangebot auf den Zugang zum Netz angewiesen sind. Konflikte ueber die Bedingungen dieses Zugangs sind daher vorprogrammiert, und es stellt sich die Frage, nach welchen Regeln und durch welche Gremien oder Institutionen solche Konflikte entschieden werden sollen. Der Beitrag umreisst die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen, die im neuen En
Andrew Daughety; Jennifer Reinganum
In this paper we use a signaling model to analyze the effect of (endogenously-determined) third-party non-recourse loans to plaintiffs on settlement bargaining when a plaintiff has private information about the value of her suit. We show that an optimal loan (i.e., one that maximizes the joint expected payoff to the litigation funder and the plaintiff) induces full settlement. Furthermore, in contrast with the more standard (no-loan) settlement bargaining models, there is no revelation of inf...
The entry into force of Law 12/2011 is postponed until the Protocols modifying the Paris and Brussels conventions take effect, since their content complements that of the Conventions. The most significant modifications are the extension of the suppositions of nuclear damage, the geographical scope of application and the time period for claiming personal damages, which is accompanied by higher coverage limits of up to 1,200 million euros. It also includes liability for damages caused by radioactive materials in the custody of the installation owner. (Author)
At the beginning of the development of nuclear power, the Chinese government focused on safety and nuclear safety supervision and administration, therefore establishing a large quantity of regulation, national standards and professional standards related to safety, such regulations on the Safety Regulation for Civilian Nuclear Installations of the People's Republic of China, Regulation on Nuclear Materials Control, Emergency Management Regulation for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants etc; to ensure the safe and healthy development of nuclear power. In respect of nuclear liability, a chinese delegation took part in the sessions of the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage to follow the amendment of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the negotiations leading to the adoption of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The 'Official Reply', administrative regulation, is the legal basis on how to deal with nuclear third party liability issues. The main points of it are as follow: the Principle of Absolute and exclusive liability, the Principle of Limited Liability, the government support, the rights of recourse, exonerations, competent cost. (N.C.)
... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Borrowing... company (or, if approved by SBA on a case-by-case basis, from non-regulated lenders including shareholders... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on third-party...
This paper analyses recent developments in nuclear liability legislation in Europe. The first part deals with the planned revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention; the second part focuses on the reforms envisaged in the field in Switzerland and in the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular concerning unlimited liability. Finally, the author concludes that national reform plans and work at international level are not opposed, but supplementary activities. (NEA)
The international legal framework applicable to the liability and compensation of damage caused by a nuclear incident has been considerably modified by the adoption, in 1997, of a Protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention and, in parallel, the adoption of a Convention on the Supplementary Compensation of Nuclear Damage. In 2003, the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention [were revised] with a view to substantially upgrading the protection of potential victims of nuclear damage. Although the main objective of this exercise of modernisation was to better cope with the consequences of serious nuclear incidents in land-based installations, it also had the effect of making significant changes to the liability regime applicable to the carriage of nuclear material, both domestic and international. Such changes concern in particular the right to indemnification of victims located in non-Contracting States, the limits of liability of the nuclear operator, including that for transport operations, the insurance arrangements for such operations and the determination of the competent courts, notably those of coastal states affected by an incident during maritime transport. (author)
Chao Rujikietkumjorn; Dr. Ferry Jie; Dr Henny Hendarty
This research explores the results of selecting a third party logistics service provider to carry out deliveries for online retailers in Thailand. A reliable third party logistics service provider have consistently been shown to increase the potential of online retailers, however if the chosen third party logistics service provider cannot perform the give tasks correctly, then it will damage the reputation of the retailers. Online retailers are often inexperienced in performing worldwide deli...
The amendments to this Act fall into two categories. The first category of amendments enabled Sweden to ratify two 1982 Protocols amending the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention respectively. The other amendments raise the nuclear operator's liability from 50 million to 500 million Swedish crowns per incident and introduce a State liability over and above compensation available under the Brussels Convention, thus raising the aggregate amount of compensation to 3,000 million Swedish crowns. (NEA)
Full Text Available A number of sociologists and other researchers have focused on the role of third parties since Simmel’s seminal conceptualization of the social organization of the triad. However, less attention has been given to third party presence in qualitative interviews, despite the fact that third party participation in interviews with people with chronic illness and/or disability occurs frequently. Here too it is assumed that third party presence promotes conflict, ignoring the role of third parties as facilitators who enable informants to articulate their perspectives. Therefore, I focus on Simmel’s concept of the triad, concluding that the role of facilitator must be added to the types he describes.
Full Text Available The main area of change in organizational strategy is the extensive use of third party logistics providers who are using advanced information technology tools and integration of supply chain to enhance customer satisfaction. By outsourcing the logistics operations, companies can focus on their core competencies and other important areas of organization which can’t be outsourced. The analysis of this paper is conducted by discussing different concepts of supply chain integration, customer satisfaction, advanced information technology and third party logistics providers, and their impact on customer satisfaction with theoretical framework. An analytical model is also presented.
This report has been elaborated in the context of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group (CSG) activities, which include as one of its topics the 'Third Party Access to LNG terminals' (Topic 8), led by Enagas. The 2010 edition is the third update to the report presented during the meeting of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group in Tokyo, Japan, in September 2007. - Section 1 includes a review of the regulatory TPA regimes of LNG terminals in operation in Europe. The existing regime in each country, or for each terminal, is reviewed following a number of subsections. Each subsection follows the same structure in order to better understand the different arrangements and facilitate comparisons. - Section 2 shows data on effective usage and TPA access to each LNG terminal since 2000. Three main data are shown where available: number of cargoes delivered, volumes unloaded / sent-out, and the part of these cargoes/volumes that correspond to third parties. - Section 3 includes a tariff comparison for TPA to LNG terminals in Europe, taking into account the terms and conditions in force as of July 2010. - A description of the regulatory situation in the US in Sections 4. Access conditions to the three terminals under regulated TPA have been included for the first time: Lake Charles, Cove Point and Elba Island. An overview of Mexico and Canada is also reported. - An overview of the regulatory situation in Japan is provided in Section 5. The information required for the elaboration of this report has been collected from official web sites (LNG operators, regulatory authorities and industry associations), public reports and industry and statistical data Enagas deems to be reliable. For the adoption of certain hypothesis in Section 3 Enagas has also relied in information directly provided by operators
Contracts on Research Reactors are normally entered into by the owner and - very often - later user and the supplier of such plants. They are not concluded by the fuel supplier, except fuel supplier and plant supplier are identical. Thus, the fuel supplier mostly has no direct influence into the contract negotiations and the clauses which are eventually agreed upon between the parties. So has any other subcontractor for any other system or component. Any such subsupplier can and will negotiate a subsidiary supply contract (subcontract) with the supplier of the plant. The supplier drafts the related clauses so as to pass on to the subsupplier as many risks out of his contracts as possible. The subsupplier, on the other hand, tries to protect himself, tries to limit the risks he takes over, e.g. to the worth of his subcontract maximum. A critical issue in such negotiations is those concerning the risks the supplier had to accept and the subsupplier, although he may be responsible later for the risk changing to reality; i.e. the occurrence of a loss, cannot be hold liable for in full because the subcontract limits his liability, e.g. to the subcontract value or a certain delay penalty. A typical example for this conflict are delays of the entire project caused by one subsupplier. A very specific case in this context is the so-called nuclear liability. Nuclear liability means being hold responsible for the consequences or damages originating from a nuclear event in the plant. Those consequences or damages may be suffered by third parties, which are neither the owner/operator nor the supplier and result in a liability to such party (third party liability). Several of the aspects below may be related to the nuclear liability issue: The supplier often has its registered office not in the country where the plant is; The supplier may have far bigger assets than the owner/operator. The legal system of the supplier's country may be more favourable for enforcing claims of
The report has been written considering the advanced work which has been done by the Expert Committee, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, having the purpose to examine the modifications issued in course of Vienna Convention as well as the Paris convention and the complementary Brussels Convention, in view to adapt the legislation to the actual context and to answer the populations expectations. The work has been organized in three majors chapters: the first one in concerned to the damage definition, proposition to the to reach the environment, the prevention and charges. the research and military installations are also considered. The second chapter has been dedicated to the civil responsibility, its limits, financing modes, the national and international legal competence besides the litigation charges due to the nuclear accidents born on the occasion. In the third chapter the insurance considering the damage nature, the capacity to assure liability coverage and the damage management are harmonized.
Hsuan, Juliana; Prockl, Günter
Purpose - 3PL services are more or less individually designed bundles of logistics operations that are provided on the basis of a long term relationship between logistics service providers and their clients mostly in industry and retail. The appropriate degree of the individuality is however...... the more common elements is seen as a major success factor for the design of the service propositions. Design/methodology/approach - The explorative paper is combining major elements and frameworks from different interdisciplinary research streams, such as modularity and service design and adapts them...... to the subject of third party logistics. Findings - As a major result the paper is providing a conceptual model for the systematic and formal description of modularity and individuality in the configuration of third party logistics services. The model thus serves as a tool to classify and categorize...
B. J. Mali
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for mapping of service classes among multiple Internet providers on an end-to-end (E2E path. The third-party (3P approach is assumed for E2E service negotiation, whereas the foundation for class mapping is laid on the integer programming mathematical model. The algorithm selects service classes in domains on the path so that requirements for E2E quality of service (QoS are fulfilled. This selection is based on multiple constraints, referring to performance fulfillment and at the same time aiming to achieve minimal E2E interconnection cost through definition of a single objective function. Performance evaluation has clearly indicated benefits of the proposed algorithm in terms of QoS achievement and decreasing costs, as well as its suitability for services that require stringent QoS guarantees.
... Funding of NMVC Company's draw request through sale to third-party. (a) NMVC Company's authorization of... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding of NMVC Company's draw request through sale to third-party. 108.1240 Section 108.1240 Business Credit and Assistance...
Govindan, Kannan; Khodaverdi, Roohollah; Vafadarnikjoo, Amin
Purpose - Third-party logistics (3PL) plays a main role in supply chain management and, as a result, has experienced remarkable growth. The demand for 3PL providers has become a main approach for companies to offer better customer service, reduce costs, and gain competitive advantage. This paper...... criteria and identified the main criteria for 3PL provider selection. The most important criteria for 3PL provider selection are on time delivery performance, technological capability, financial stability, human resource policies, service quality, and customer service, respectively. Practical implications...... - The paper's results help managers of automotive industries, particularly in developing countries, to outsource logistics activities to 3PL providers effectively and to create a significant competitive advantage. Originality/value - The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, this paper...
Peter F. Wanke
Full Text Available This article investigates the Brazilian third-party logistics (3PL sector which, increasingly competitive, offers clients a wide variety of services/information technologies in the quest to bolster efficiency. The main research objective is to determine which variables significantly impact 3PLs scale efficiency by applying two-stage DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis. Based on an unbalanced panel model, data from the annual study published by Revista Tecnologística (years 2001–2009 were analyzed. Results corroborate evidence in the literature that coordination mechanisms in the supply chain, supported by the availability of real time information and inventory synchronization, favor a more rational allocation of resources (inputs to client demands (outputs.
... prior art by third party requester following the order for inter partes reexamination. 1.948 Section 1... Responses (before the Examiner) in Inter Partes Reexamination § 1.948 Limitations on submission of prior art... partes reexamination order, the third party requester may only cite additional prior art as defined...
The well-institutionalised notion of audits put forth that information subjected to independent examination by third parties potentially contribute to better quality information for decision making (towards more sustainable companies?). The presence of different assurance providers offering a myriad of services in the name of “sustainability assurance” led to concerns about their quality and comparability and as a consequence a call for standards to regulate these services. This study analyse...
Full Text Available An anonymous transaction environment and the advantage of virtual property have resulted in trust playing an important role in the rapid growth of online shopping in China. To satisfy this trust issue, Alibaba (China Co., Ltd. (Hangzhou, China invented Alipay, the largest third-party online payment service. Using a structural equation model (SEM, this paper attempts to determine whether Alipay’s service quality factors are truly sustainable. The results indicate that only two of five factors—convenience and security—are significantly mediated by the sustainable performance of customer satisfaction as a mediator. The other three factors—usefulness, responsiveness and economy—were rejected for the role of customer satisfaction, even if they are accepted regarding the direct effect on reuse intention. This result implies that Chinese web companies need to make greater efforts not to ensure initial success, but instead to ensure sustainable performance.
Yongrok Choi; Lili Sun
An anonymous transaction environment and the advantage of virtual property have resulted in trust playing an important role in the rapid growth of online shopping in China. To satisfy this trust issue, Alibaba (China) Co., Ltd. (Hangzhou, China) invented Alipay, the largest third-party online payment service. Using a structural equation model (SEM), this paper attempts to determine whether Alipay’s service quality factors are truly sustainable. The results indicate that only two of five facto...
Aerts, Diederik; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano; Sozzo, Sandro
The scientific community is becoming more and more interested in the research that applies the mathematical formalism of quantum theory to model human decision-making. In this paper, we provide the theoretical foundations of the quantum approach to cognition that we developed in Brussels. These foundations rest on the results of two decade studies on the axiomatic and operational-realistic approaches to the foundations of quantum physics. The deep analogies between the foundations of physics and cognition lead us to investigate the validity of quantum theory as a general and unitary framework for cognitive processes, and the empirical success of the Hilbert space models derived by such investigation provides a strong theoretical confirmation of this validity. However, two situations in the cognitive realm, `question order effects' and `response replicability', indicate that even the Hilbert space framework could be insufficient to reproduce the collected data. This does not mean that the mentioned operational-realistic approach would be incorrect, but simply that a larger class of measurements would be in force in human cognition, so that an extended quantum formalism may be needed to deal with all of them. As we will explain, the recently derived `extended Bloch representation' of quantum theory (and the associated `general tension-reduction' model) precisely provides such extended formalism, while remaining within the same unitary interpretative framework.
Perego, P.; Kolk, A.
In this article we explore how multinational corporations (MNCs) adopt assurance practices to develop and sustain organizational accountability for sustainability. Using a panel of Fortune Global 250 firms over a period of 10 years, we document the diffusion patterns of third-party assurance of sustainability reports. We specifically investigate how evolving auditing practices, namely diversity of assurance standards and type of assurance providers, shape the quality of sustainability assuran...
This thesis first builds a framework to impose professional liability on Chinese auditors for misstatements and then tests the framework by field work. Auditor liability has been a recurring puzzle. This thesis intends to analyze the complex legal relationships among the players in typical auditing litigations, dissect the arguments from both the auditors and plaintiffs, and develop doctrines and check points that could help the litigation parties to evaluate the merits of thei...
Rob M. A. Nelissen
Full Text Available Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of punishment. Low levels of punishment are observed only when neither emotion is elicited. We discuss the implications of these findings for the functions of altruistic sanctions.
He, Guang Ping
Recently, Lin et al. proposed a quantum protocol (Quantum Inf Process 13:239, 2014), which can compare the secret data of Alice and Bob without the help from a third party. Here it will be shown that the protocol is insecure. Both Alice and Bob can learn the secret of the other party without being detected.
POPEANGĂ VASILE NICOLAE
Romanian legislation stipulates incident in tax as a way of fighting outstanding tax debts in relation to certain conditionalities, the tax authorities can declare the insolvency of the debtor taxpayer and attracting joint liability of third parties on which transfer tax claims extinguish the obligation owed by the insolvent. According to various editions of the Dictionary of the Romanian Language through insolvency means "a situation in which the debtor whose assets are worth les...
The nuclear park has been constructed fairly recently and has not yet required large-scale maintenance efforts; however account should now be taken of the fact that periodic checks of nuclear power plants will imply systematic transfers of irradiated or contaminated materials outside the plants. In this context, the paper reviews the nuclear third party liability regime under the Paris Convention and the Euratom directives on radiation protection. It then describes the cover offered by insurance pools in several European countries. (NEA)
The decision of 1 November 1989 (8 A 2902/88) of the Superior Court of Administration of the Land Hessen in the F.R.G. deals in particular with the legal questions arising from a personal change in the top management (operator) of a nuclear installation, with the retroactive effect of nuclear licences in case of a change of activities in a licenced installation, preliminary approvals, the duties of a public authority in the process of developing a preliminary general statement, and the rights of third parties entitled to participate in the licensing procedure. (RST)
As its Council Member I attended the ICC Institute of World Business Law’s 32nd annual meeting on ‘Third-Party Funding in International Arbitration’ held in Paris on 26 November 2012. It was a grand success as it drew many professionals, arbitrators, experts, academic specialists and, above all, representatives from some major third-party funding bodies such as Burford Group Ltd., Calunius Capital LLP, Fulbrook Management LLC and others, and the discussion and debates generated a great deal o...
The author's observations commence with -an overview of the principal amendments proposed in relation to the revision of the Paris Convention, in particular the inclusion of preventive measures, the definition of nuclear damage, the notion of reasonableness in respect of preventive measures and measures of reinstatement, increased liability amounts and extended prescription periods. He examines to what extent the insurance industry of today would be able to cover such risks, and the problems or doubts that it may encounter in doing so. This presentation also raises other questions which as yet remain unanswered, in particular the question of priorities and the role that complementary funding, namely the Brussels Supplementary Convention, will play in compensating victims. The author concludes by commenting on the current state of the insurance market. He suggests that before making irreversible political decisions in this field, Contracting Parties should, inter alia, carry out detailed analyses on the adequacy of the financial guarantees, in order to attain existing objectives and eliminate the obstacles which prevent the nuclear insurance market from being a competitive one. The author suggests that it might be in the interests of European nuclear operators to promote an insurance mechanism along the same lines as their American colleagues. (author)
Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Monte, Oswaldo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colen, Eustaquio; Cunha, Roberto de Souza; Oliveira, Hudson Regis de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Rogerio de Souza [RSL Consultoria Geoprojetos (Brazil); Schultz Neto, Walter [Milton Braga Assessoria Tecnica (Brazil)
The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.600 kilometers from Rio Grande City in Bolivia to Canoas City, in the south of Brazil. The right-of-way crosses a lot of types of topography and areas subjected to various kinds of anthropological actions, like areas in class locations 3, locals under agricultural activities, forests and minerals explorations, and near constructions of highway and railway, industrial constructions, new pipelines in the same right-of -way, channels, dams, that requires special projects to avoid that the gas pipeline could be subject to strengths that were not consider in the original design. The aim of this paper is to present the jobs developed by TBG during seven years of gas pipeline operations, as public awareness program, procedures to design, construct and inspect specials constructions along and near the right-of -way, control of mineral and forest explorations, monitoring and controlling of excavations on the right-of-way to install new pipelines and optical cables, to reduce risks of gas pipeline damage due third party, as a component of TBG' Managing Integrity Gas Pipeline Program. (author)
Paper Company A was sued in a third party action suit initiated by a local utility who was a potential responsible party (PRP) to a contaminated site regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) program. In addition to Paper Company A, other parties to the third party suit included Paper Company B and Contractor C, a demolition contractor/waste hauler. Other PRPs included land owners where the contaminated debris was dumped, Mr. and Mrs. D. Based on background information, Paper Company A dumped coal ash, off quality feed stock, wood and trash north of the D-property. Paper Company B admitted dumping material north of the D-property. Samples of industrial sludges on the D-property had properties characteristic of the Paper Company B's sludges. Paper Company B dumped ash, chromium contaminated gypsum sludge and other waste. The utility company dumped ash on the D-property. Contractor C hauled demolition debris to the D property. A third PRP, Company E was the original owner of the buildings that were demolished. This PRP settled with the EPA as part of a bankruptcy settlement. The hazardous substances encountered at the site included PCBs, chromium and lead in the coal ash, demolition debris and industrial sludges. Disposal of material containing hazardous substances resulted in PCB contaminated debris and sediment, and chromium and lead contamination in the sediment, soil and groundwater
Skurray, James H.; Pannell, David J.
Groundwater extraction can have varied and diffuse effects. Negative external effects may include costs imposed on other groundwater users and on surrounding ecosystems. Environmental damages are commonly not reflected in market transactions. Groundwater transfers have the potential to cause spatial redistribution, concentration, and qualitative transformation of the impacts from pumping. An economically and environmentally sound groundwater transfer scheme would ensure that marginal costs from trades do not exceed marginal benefits, accounting for all third-party impacts, including those of a non-monetary nature as well as delayed effects. This paper proposes a menu of possible management strategies that would help preclude unacceptable impacts by restricting transfers with certain attributes, ideally ensuring that permitted transfers are at least welfare-neutral. Management tools would require that transfers limit or reduce environmental impacts, and provide for the compensation of financial impacts. Three management tools are described. While these tools can limit impacts from a given level of extraction, they cannot substitute for sustainable overall withdrawal limits. Careful implementation of transfer limits and exchange rates, and the strategic use of management area boundaries, may enable a transfer system to restrict negative externalities mainly to monetary costs. Provision for compensation of these costs could be built into the system.
是否应对第三者课以民事责任成为这次婚姻法修改论争的焦点。笔者认为，追究第三者的法律责任缺乏理论支撑，又缺乏现实基础。目前理论上所提出的配偶权，以及由此生发出来的同居义务、贞操义务均无法诠释第三者的法律责任。从现实上来看，第三者问题广泛而且复杂，第三者概念模糊难以界定，其程序也具有不可操作性。因此，第三者问题由道德调整是较为现实的选择。%One of the points at issue about the amendment to Marriage Law is that whether a civil liability should be imposed upon a third party. The author believes the viewpoint that a third party should be investigated under the law is lacking for theoretical support and realistic base. The theory about consortium and duty of cohabitation and duty of chastity in Marriage Law can hardly find a way to investigate the legal responsibility of a third part. According to the social reality at present, the relevant problems concerning a third party are popular and perplex, the concept of a third party is difficult to be defined. And so, the procedure of enforcement is non-operative. According to the facts above -discussed about, the factum juridicum of a third party is readjusted by morality is a more suitable choice.
Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC). Presentations and documents submitted to the 28. meeting, OECD Headquarters, Conference Centre, Paris, France, 9-13 May 2016
The NEA's nuclear data evaluation co-operation activities involve the following evaluation projects: ENDF (United States), JENDL (Japan), ROSFOND/BROND (Russia), JEFF (other Data Bank member countries) and CENDL (China) in close co-operation with the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The working party was established to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations, validation, and related topics, and to provide a framework for co-operative activities between the participating projects. The working party assesses nuclear data improvement needs and addresses these needs by initiating joint evaluation and/or measurement efforts. The 28. Meeting of the WPEC was the occasion to review the experimental activities, the evaluation projects and the Status of subgroups. This document brings together the available documents of the meeting: 1 - The Reports on experimental activities: Europe (NEA DB), Japan, USA, China; 2 - Some Brief progress reports from the evaluation projects: ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, BROND/ROSFOND, CENDL, IAEA, TENDL; 3 - The Status of subgroups: Subgroup 37 (Improved fission product yield evaluation methodologies); Subgroup 38 (A modern nuclear database structure beyond the ENDF format); Subgroup 39 (Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files); Subgroup 40 (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organisation (CIELO) Pilot Project); Subgroup 41 (Improving nuclear data accuracy of 241Am and 237Np capture cross-sections); Subgroup 42 (Thermal Scattering Kernel S(a,b): Measurement, Evaluation and Application); Subgroup C (High Priority Request List - HPRL); New Subgroups were proposed and presented: 43 - Code infrastructure to support a general nuclear database structure; WPEC long-term sub-group proposal: International standard for a general nuclear database structure
Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Auerbach, Arleen D;
The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting "Integration and Implementation" was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10-14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The...... framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access-Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to...... Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access-Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance...
Zaryab Sheikh; Shafaq Rana
The main area of change in organizational strategy is the extensive use of third party logistics providers who are using advanced information technology tools and integration of supply chain to enhance customer satisfaction. By outsourcing the logistics operations, companies can focus on their core competencies and other important areas of organization which can’t be outsourced. The analysis of this paper is conducted by discussing different concepts of supply chain integration, customer sati...
The objective of this paper is to present and examine the various legal interpretations which have been formulated in relation to the question whether the channelling of liability to nuclear operators applies equally to contractual and extra-contractual liability, or simply to the latter. The response to this question determines whether the operator of a nuclear installation can invoke the general liability of one of his suppliers in the event of nuclear damage to onsite property caused by that supplier's negligence. The author points out the uncertainty that exists for suppliers in relation to their scope of liability and the possibility of potential court cases, and expresses the conviction that this question calls for a definitive answer in the future. The author describes the two main postulates advanced in connection with this debate. The first theory denies the operator's right to invoke the general liability (responsabilite de droit commun) of one of his suppliers. Certain supporters of this theory believe however that this possibility may be provided for contractually. This theory is based on the premise that (i) the text of the conventions makes no distinction between contractual and third party liability; (ii) the Paris Convention provides that the operator can have a right of recourse if this has been expressly provided for by contract, which would appear to indicate that the founders of the Convention had given the question of contractual liability due consideration; and (iii) the founders of the Convention wanted to set up a practicable system of insurance of nuclear risk by channelling the risk to the operator and providing for limited liability. The second theory claims that the nuclear operator can invoke the general liability of a supplier even without a contractual clause to this effect. This particular interpretation is based on the supposition that Article 6 of the Paris Convention only concerns third party liability and rights of recourse in
In taking the initiative to organize this Symposium, the objectives of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency were threefold. First to evaluate the work which concluded in 1997 with the amendment of the Vienna Convention and the adoption of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, at the outset of the current negotiations on the revision of the Paris Convention; furthermore to examine the evolution of national legislation on third party liability in Eastern Europe and in various other countries which have not yet adhered to the international conventions; and finally to serve as a forum to bring together governmental experts, representatives of the nuclear industry, insurers and academics, with a view to comparing their opinions. (author)
In this paper we focus on the role of third party referrals in the venture capital funding process. Taking network theory as our theoretical perspective we explore if and how third parties play a role in the funding process. Hereby we focus on both the network ties between new venture teams and third parties and the network ties between VC’s and third parties. To do so we collected in depth information on 25 venture capital investment decisions and studied how third parties played a role in t...
Full Text Available This research explores the results of selecting a third party logistics service provider to carry out deliveries for online retailers in Thailand. A reliable third party logistics service provider have consistently been shown to increase the potential of online retailers, however if the chosen third party logistics service provider cannot perform the give tasks correctly, then it will damage the reputation of the retailers. Online retailers are often inexperienced in performing worldwide delivery, thus the success of their operations lies upon the selected third party logistics service provider. The finding of this research suggests that the use of third party logistics service providers can affectE-retailers in both positive and negative ways. The finding indicates that reliable third party logistics service providers can enhance international delivery for online retailers. However this researchexamines only one retailer in Thailand, and thus does not represent all possible scenarios. To draw strict conclusions, the results of this finding will require further research, with more samples anddifferent regions.
... requirements used by the CPSC since passage of the CPSIA in August 2008. 77 FR at 31087-89. In addition, the... language in proposed Sec. 1112.27 states: ``A third party conformity assessment body, as a condition of its... conformity assessment body for purposes of an investigation under this part.'' (emphasis added). The...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the response of dental practitioners to administration and remuneration adjustments to the Dental Treatment Services Scheme (DTSS) in the Republic of Ireland. DESIGN: Following the introduction of a series of administration and fee adjustments by a third party payments system in December 1999 the pattern of extractions and restorations are examined to determine whether the adjustments had influenced provider behaviour, in particular whether a substitution effect from extractions to restorations would result from a relative fee increase of 62% for amalgam fillings. DATA AND METHODS: Data on patient and provider characteristics from June 1996 to April 2005, collected by the Health Service Executive (HSE) National Shared Services Primary Care Reimbursement Service to facilitate remuneration to dentists providing services in the DTSS, was used in this analysis. A graphical analysis of the data revealed a structural break in the time-series and an apparent substitution to amalgam fillings following the introduction of the fee increases. To test the statistical significance of this break, the ratio of amalgams to restorations was regressed on the trend, growth and level dummy variables, using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression. The diagnostics of the model were assessed using the Jarque-Bera normality test and the LM to test for serial correlation. RESULTS: The initial results showed no evidence of a structural break. However on further investigation, when a pulse dummy was included to account for the immediate impact of the fee adjustment the results suggest a unit root process with a structural break in December 1999. This implies that the amalgam fee increase of December 1999 influenced the behaviour patterns of providers. CONCLUSIONS: System changes can be used to change the emphasis from a scheme that was principally exodontia\\/emergency based to a scheme that is more conservative and based on restoration\\/prevention.
The energy utilities are dependent on the reliable functioning of the information and process control systems installed in the industrial plants. The contribution here discusses conceivable accident scenarios resulting from faulty timestamps in the computerized systems, including safety systems, and analyses the current situation with respect to third party liability of utilities as well as insurance aspects. (CB)
The 1992 Symposium on Nuclear Accidents - Liabilities and guarantees, organized by the OECD NUCLEAR Energy Agency in collaboration with the international Atomic Energy Agency, discussed the nuclear third party liability regime established by the Paris and Vienna Conventions, its advantages and shortcomings, and assessed the teachings of the Chernobyl accident in the context of that regime. The topics included the geographical scope of the Conventions, the definition of nuclear damage, in particular environmental damage, insurance cover and capacity, supplementary compensation by means of a collective contribution from the nuclear industry or governments, and finally, the international liability of States in case of a nuclear accident. This proceeding contains 26 papers which have been selected
Tauzin, Tibor; Kovács, Krisztina; Topál, József
To investigate whether dogs could recognize contingent reactivity as a marker of agents' interaction, we performed an experiment in which dogs were presented with third-party contingent events. In the perfect-contingency condition, dogs were shown an unfamiliar self-propelled agent (SPA) that performed actions corresponding to audio clips of verbal commands played by a computer. In the high-but-imperfect-contingency condition, the SPA responded to the verbal commands on only two thirds of the trials; in the low-contingency condition, the SPA responded to the commands on only one third of the trials. In the test phase, the SPA approached one of two tennis balls, and then the dog was allowed to choose one of the balls. The proportion of trials on which a dog chose the object indicated by the SPA increased with the degree of contingency: Dogs chose the target object significantly above chance level only in the perfect-contingency condition. This finding suggests that dogs may use the degree of temporal contingency observed in third-party interactions as a cue to identify agents. PMID:27268590
Full Text Available Hotels cooperate with third-party websites to enhance their competitive position and attain sustainable development in the era of e-commerce. Furthermore, hotel managers overbook to hedge against last-minute cancellations and customer no-shows. This paper discusses pricing and overbooking strategies of a hotel in the context of cooperation with multiple third-party websites and analyzes how these strategies influence the cooperation process. The increase in profits resulting from the overbooking strategy is also examined. A model of a Stackelberg game between the hotel and third-party websites and a Nash game among the third-party websites are developed to analyze the process. Results indicate that the compensation coefficient has a slight influence on hotel pricing strategy, but causes a sharp decrease in overbooking level. As the hotel demands to lessen the probability of denying under higher compensation rate, the third-party websites would exert less sales effort to reduce the demand of online customers. Results also show that under a given market demand, hotel effort only serves to redistribute market shares among the hotel and third-party websites, without influencing hotel pricing and overbooking decisions. Specifically, the market shares of the third-party websites decrease in the effort level of the hotel resulting from an increase in the hotel market share. Finally, in the numerical example where one hotel and two websites are analyzed, hotel overbooking strategy improves hotel profit by 4.20%, whereas profit improvements for Websites 1 and 2 are as high as 5.26% and 5.21%, respectively. Managerial implications of the study are also provided.
At the International Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material, held in Vienna in July 2003, it was noted that there are a number of liability conventions to which many States are Parties but to which many others are not, and that the provisions of the liability conventions and the relationships between them are not simple to understand. It was suggested, therefore, that an explanatory text for these instruments be prepared to assist in developing a common understanding of the complex legal issues involved and thereby to promote adherence to these instruments. In view of this suggestion, and in order to foster an effective, global nuclear liability regime, the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) was established in September 2003. Since its establishment, INLEX has held several meetings, as a result of which it, inter alia, finalized explanatory texts on the nuclear liability instruments adopted under IAEA auspices in 1997, namely, the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. These explanatory texts have since been published as IAEA International Law Series No. 3. Thereafter, INLEX also developed and finalized the present explanatory text on the 1988 Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention. This publication complements IAEA International Law Series No. 3 and comprises the explanatory text on the Joint Protocol and the text of the Joint Protocol as adopted by the Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, which met at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna in September 1988 under the joint auspices of the IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. It is hoped that this publication will further increase the awareness of nuclear liability as an important aspect of nuclear law.
In almost every country where nuclear insurance pools operate, except for the United States, national nuclear legislation is either based on the principles of the Paris and Vienna nuclear third party liability conventions or is strongly influenced by them. The most important feature of this legislation is the absolute liabilityy of the operator, which simplifies the insurance process by avoiding duplication of cover and minimising the possibility of complex legal questions arising in case of an incident. The paper describes the arrangements for provision of financial security, the prescription period, insurance requirements, legal costs etc. Also, problems connected with the insurance of two or more installations on the same site are analysed. (NEA)
Clive L Spash
At the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Paris, France, 30 November to 11 December 2015, an Agreement was reached by the international community including 195 countries. The Agreement has been hailed, by participants and the media, as a major turning point for policy in the struggle to address human induced climate change. The following is a short critical commentary in which I briefly explain why ...
The problem of the liability in border-crossing damage caused by a nuclear-reactor accident is divided into two different areas: the liability according to international law of the state, and liability according to civil right of the licensee of a nuclear power plant. In this study attention is paid to the question of the liability according to civil right: is it possible that an aggrieved obtains compensation for damage? This is investigated on the basis of three standard questions of international private law: which judge is qualified, which law is to be applied, and is acknowledgement and execution of foreign sentences possible? First a historical survey is given of international agreements and national legislations regarding third-party liability. (author). 112 refs
This article examines the United Kingdom (UK) Nuclear Industries claims record for third party insurance and its public liability. Legislative standards and environmental constraints are being tightened. The UK is cited as a country where changes in public administration and legal procedures have created a more favourable climate for claimants and for the bringing forward of claims. Access to advice by claimants and the coordination of their claims are covered. The issue of public or private funding for litigation is also addressed. Group action procedures are discussed as is the role of common interest groups. (UK)
The Ninian Field, operated by Chevron on behalf of the Ninian Field Group, is a mature North Sea producer. Rationalization of the topside facilities and declining production rates had left spare equipment and capacity in the Platform production systems. This spare capacity coupled with Ninian's strategic location in the Northern North Sea made it an ideal candidate for tie-in of subsea fields. Staffa, Lyell and Strathspey, operated by Lasmo, Conoco and Texaco respectively, are three such third party subsea developments using Ninian topside facilities. The Ninian Third Party Project is unique since it is the first offshore development where three third party operated subsea fields are processed by another operator and developed within the same timescale. In addition, major topside modifications were performed while Ninian continued to operate. Through sharing the lessons learned by Chevron as operator and manager of the Third Party Project, others will benefit in improved efficiency, planning and organization for similar future endeavors. The impacts of managing a major project (over 3 million offshore construction manhours) with an existing operations infrastructure, interfaces with Third Party Entrants, safety, productivity and efficiency results are among the issues which will be addressed
This study conducts an overview of large technological systems in society to ascertain prevalence, if any, of situations that can lead to catastrophic effects where the resultant liabilities far exceed the insurances or assets subject to suit in court, thereby imposing de facto limits on liability. Several potential situations are examined: dam rupture, aircraft crash into a sports stadium, chemical plant accident, shipping disaster, and a toxic drug disaster. All of these events are estimated to have probabilities per year similar to or larger than a major nuclear accident and they are found to involve potential liability far exceeding the available resources, such as insurance, corporation assets, or government revenues
Tavrov, Dan; Chertov, Oleg
In the era of Big Data, it is almost impossible to completely restrict access to primary non-aggregated statistical data. However, risk of violating privacy of individual respondents and groups of respondents by analyzing primary data has not been reduced. There is a need in developing subtler methods of data protection to come to grips with these challenges. In some cases, individual and group privacy can be easily violated, because the primary data contain attributes that uniquely identify individuals and groups thereof. Removing such attributes from the dataset is a crude solution and does not guarantee complete privacy. In the field of providing individual data anonymity, this problem has been widely recognized, and various methods have been proposed to solve it. In the current work, we demonstrate that it is possible to violate group anonymity as well, even if those attributes that uniquely identify the group are removed. As it turns out, it is possible to use third-party data to build a fuzzy model of a group. Typically, such a model comes in a form of a set of fuzzy rules, which can be used to determine membership grades of respondents in the group with a level of certainty sufficient to violate group anonymity. In the work, we introduce an evolutionary computing based method to build such a model. We also discuss a memetic approach to protecting the data from group anonymity violation in this case. PMID:26844025
Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik
Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties....
“The Ombuds shall provide confidential assistance for the informal resolution of interpersonal issues, in the interests of the good functioning of CERN.”* In any institution, conflicts are inevitable. They can, however, offer an opportunity for a positive resolution. Relationships in a workplace are generally better and stronger between people who have been able to reach a positive resolution of their disagreement, than they are between people who get along moderately well. However, in disputes involving two antagonistic parties, people often forget that there is actually a third party behind the scenes: the institution. It is sometimes surprising to see that even people holding management responsibilities or hierarchical positions in projects fight each other, and completely forget that they are accountable for the good functioning of CERN. Commitment and professionalism are part of the five priority values of CERN, as expressed in its Code of Conduct: “Promot...
This article compares the linkages between organizational structure, power relations, and group identities within the private schools operated by the francophone Jewish communities of Brussels, Paris, and Geneva. A school's organizational structure and balance of power reflect its identity and its conceptual world. That is, its organizational…
In the early Nineties the Hague Conference on International Private Law on initiative of the United States started negotiations on a Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (the "Hague Convention"). In October 1999 the Special Commission on duty presented a preliminary text, which was drafted quite closely to the European Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (the "Brussels Conve...
Full Text Available Koen Buyens, Music and nation building in BelgiumThe article examines the Brussels music scene (1830-1850 in relation to the efforts made at the time with regard to nation building after the Belgian Revolution of 1830. The first part focuses on François-Joseph Fétis, who was appointed director of the Brussels conservatorium in 1832. In this capacity, Fétis intended to model both the Brussels music scene and the national music scene according to his own clear-cut ideas. In the second part it is argued that musical life in Brussels was suffused with a military spirit. The music of military bands was probably the core element of the urban soundscape. The third part concentrates on the obstacles that hampered the country’s musical development. The crushing preponderance of Paris reduced the Belgian capital to a place of servile imitation. From 1840 onwards this provoked heated reactions among the early advocates of the Flemish case, who soon fell under the spell of German music.
Carmona, René A; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Pham, Huyên; Taflin, Erik
The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the third volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by René Carmona, Ivar Ekeland/Erik Taflin, Arturo Kohatsu-Higa, Pierre-Louis Lions/Jean-Michel Lasry, and Hyuên Pham.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) in Strasbourg handed down its first case concerning the liability of intermediaries. A ruling of the Estonian Supreme Court that imposed broad liability and a general monitoring obligation upon an internet news portal vis-a-vis third party comments made on
This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on Convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( Conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer
This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer
Full Text Available The lawsuit brought by Viacom and other copyright owners against YouTube underscores the uncertainties of the law of secondary liability for third-party copyright infringement. Particularly, it shows the strengths and weaknesses of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, on which most Web 2.0 service providers heavily rely for protection from liability for their users’ infringements. This article explores the relationships between the protection granted by the DMCA safe harbors and the standards of secondary liability developed at common law, with special reference to that of inducement adopted by the U.S. Supreme Court in the Grokster case.
Lee, T D; McGibbon, A
A reductive approach was used to examine the potentiation of IgE responses by nematode infection. Ascaris homogenized extract, Ascaris pseudocoelomic (body) fluid (ABF) and purified Ascaris allergen (ABA) were tested for their ability to act as protein carriers and as mediators of potentiated IgE responses to third-party (ovalbumin; OVA) responses. All three nematode products were excellent protein carriers for the hapten dinitrophenol and showed significantly better activity in this respect than OVA. Neither ABF nor ABA enhanced the level of the IgE response to the third-party antigen but both prolonged the response markedly. ABF, but not ABA, induced high levels of total circulating IgE when given at the same time as OVA with alum. The data suggest that the enhancement and prolongation of IgE responses by nematodes may be two separate but related activities. PMID:8400897
Full Text Available The individual act of registering to vote is a first and exceedingly important step toward the full realization of each citizen’s participation in our democracy. A person registering to vote may elect to do so by mail-in form, contemporaneous to completing an application for a driver’s license, or by interaction with a representative of any number of voter-mobilization organizations active in this country. This Note focuses on the latter method of registration by examining third-party voter mobilization organizations, with specific reference to allegations of fraud perpetrated by one such group, the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN. While acknowledging genuine instances of fraud, the Note seeks equally to address the function of partisanship in animating allegations of fraud and the deleterious impact that politically motivated allegations have on the franchise and our elections.
Yang, Huadong; Li, Chaoping; Wang, Qing; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn
Taking sides is one of the reactions available to third parties in handling a dispute. From the perspective of individual differences, this study was aimed at identifying lay third parties' motives for side taking and exploring their relations with the Big Five personality traits. We tested our assu
So as the Chernobyl accident showed, the effects of nuclear accidents can not be confined within the national boundaries but rather reach many countries and as such the protection of victims which the civil liability regime can afford should be shared fairly among the affected countries. These arguments backed nuclear industry and 'inspired' world's states in regulating the present juridical regimes. Besides, the international nuclear materials transport was likewise taken into consideration. The current international agreements as well as the national legislation of many countries are still inadequate and as such they create an impediment on the way of developing the international market of nuclear materials and equipment. There are two basic international juridical regulations regarding the civil liability: the Arrangement concerning the civil liability on third parties in the nuclear field (Paris Convention) agreed upon in Paris on July 29, 1960 under Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the IAEA Vienna Convention that came into force on May 21, 1962. This work presents an analysis of the main differences between the current international agreements and the main anxieties the suppliers are experiencing. A number of suggestions to solve the current problems of international nuclear legislation are discussed
Marije de Goede
Full Text Available Many organizations employ the services of third party recruiters in order to find suitable candidates for their free positions. Yet, we still know little about what drives search agents to use the specific recruitment tools they use. Based on institutional theory, we predicted three economic (costs and time investment, speed and longevity and three social factors (reactions by client organizations and by candidates, diffusion in the field to influence search agents' choice of recruitment procedures. Additionally, institutional theory suggested several moderators such as the contract structure between the search agent and their clients, the likelihood of follow-up work, the availability of suitable candidates and the economic uncertainty in the field. Assumptions were tested via an online-survey distributed to 149 search agents working in the Netherlands. Hierarchical linear modelling generally supported the relevance of the economic and social predictors proposed as well as the working of several, albeit not all, moderators proposed.
Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
The attached cost analyses sheets have been developed for use in planning during the Third Party Alternative study currently underway for the Sandia CREATE project. This cost analysis builds upon the previously submitted base estimate dated June 14, 2013 and includes comparison information collected during a Market Validation exercise conducted in August/September 2013.
... Billing Agents AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... authority to sanction third-party billing agents by invoking the administrative remedy of exclusion or... on the part of third-party billing agents that prepare or submit claims presented to TRICARE...
Howe, Laura L S; McCaffrey, Robert J
A clash between neuropsychology and the law may exist when a demand is made for third party observation during forensic neuropsychological evaluation. Third party observation includes any person or observational process present during a neuropsychological evaluation aside from the psychologist and the examinee, including electronic devices (e.g., video and audio recordings). The goal of this paper includes succinctly providing to practitioners the scientific, ethical, and pragmatic (i.e., test security and coaching) reasons to not allow third party observation. Practitioners at the individual level need to be aware of the reasoning and be willing and able to advocate protecting the boundaries of neuropsychological practice and test security. We present practitioners with options when confronted with a request, provide a list of resources to educate the legal system and submit with motions, provide responses for some of the more common myths/reasoning used to support a request for a TPO, and encourage more global solutions such as state-by-state legislation. PMID:20373223
Greenfeld, Dorothy A
Third-party reproduction has introduced a host of changing family constellations. Research has shown that children conceived through third-party reproduction are doing well psychologically and developmentally, but what about their parents? How have they coped with the transition to third-party reproduction? Has the experience impacted their marital stability or the quality of their parenting? This review will address parents of children conceived through oocyte donation, parents of children conceived through gestational surrogacy, and gay male parents of children conceived through oocyte donation and gestational surrogacy. PMID:26232745
The financial security to be provided to victims of an incident at a nuclear installation is the main objective of international nuclear liability conventions. As from the introduction of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy in 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Liability for Nuclear Damage in 1963 insurers have been prepared to provide the financial capacity needed to cover the liability under both conventions. They did so in close co-operation with the competent national and international authorities, which has resulted in the insurability of as much of the nuclear liability under the conventions as possible. This tradition of co-operation between authorities and insurers was extended to include the revision negotiations regarding the above conventions, which were concluded in 1997 and 2004 respectively. This has resulted in the insurability of by far the largest part of the convention based liability. However, some heads of damage have been introduced about which insurers had expressed concerns as to their likelihood to attract insurance support. In view of the explicit choice by Convention States to include the uninsurable heads of damage into the revised conventions one would expect that liability for them would fall upon national Governments. This would reflect practice in a number of States, which already assume liability for uninsurable mandatory liabilities for a long time. Nonetheless some other States now seem reluctant to do so, the resulting deadlock having a tendency to manifest itself in a negative perception of the insurance industry. Insurers are therefore appreciative of the forum provided by the CNS to once again explain the areas where problems as regards insurability have arisen and why this is the case. This presentation will show that those areas are few in number and notably relate to a limited number of environmental damages as well as the extension of prescription periods. Furthermore, thoughts will
Romero, Teresa; de Waal, Frans B M
Consolation, that is, postconflict affiliative contact by a bystander toward a recipient of aggression, has acquired an important role in the debate about empathy in great apes because it has been proposed that the reassuring behavior aimed at distressed parties reflects empathetic arousal. However, the function of this behavior is not fully understood. The present study tests specific predictions about the identity of bystanders on the basis of a database of 1102 agonistic interactions and their corresponding postconflict periods in two outdoor-housed groups of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We found that recipients of aggression were more likely to be contacted by their own "friends" than by "friends" of the aggressor and that frequent targets of aggression were not more likely to offer consolation than were nontargets of aggression. These findings support the stress reduction hypothesis rather than two proposed alternatives, that is, the opponent relationship repair hypothesis and the self-protection hypothesis. Our results provide further support for relationship quality as a fundamental underlying factor explaining variation in the occurrence of consolation. PMID:20695659
Full Text Available Ongoing discussions between Russia and the EU on the formation of a Common European Economic Space bring back to mind Alexander Gerschenkron's classic essay on economic backwardness in historical perspective. This paper argues that the institutions that once produced a specific kind of catch-up economics in Czarist Russia still remain largely the same. Unless negotiations between Moscow and Brussels take into consideration such fundamental institutional incompatibility, attempts at harmonization, expressed by Brussels as an attempt tp spread Western values, will be doomed to fail. A cynical conlusion views potential convergence as adaptation by Brussels to traditional Russian institutional patterns of rule evasion, rather than a Westernization of Russia
The behaviour of the effective interaction in the (sd)-shell through third order for mass-18 has been studied with the meson-theoretical Paris potential. All JT states were considered. The results are compared with those obtained with the G-matrix of Kuo and Brown, based on the phenomenological Hamada-Johnston potential. The excitation spectra obtained with both these potentials are rather similar. The Paris potential gives, however, a better fit through third order, whereas it produces more binding for low-lying states through second order. Still, evidence for non-convergent behavior is found in T=0 states for the Paris potential
The objective of this paper is three-fold: (i) to provide information on the Canadian regime for third party nuclear liability; (ii) to provide an overview of current efforts to revise and update Canadian legislation in this area; and (iii) to present Canada's perspective on international nuclear liability and the prospect of joining one of the international conventions in the area. (author)
With the rapid development of Internet technology,online supply chain finance has become a new direction for the development of supply chain finance is the focus areas of numerous third -party logistics companies,financial institutions and the electricity supplier of common concern.This article from the perspective of a third -party logistics companies,analyzes the advantages to develop online financial services products supply chain,to build around online supply chain finance platform functionality,describes the contents of the supply chain and financial services operational processes,to third -party logistics companies development of supply chain finance value -added services to provide reference.%伴随着互联网技术的快速发展，线上供应链金融已成为供应链金融发展的新方向，是众多第三方物流企业、金融机构及电商共同关注的焦点领域。文中从第三方物流企业角度，分析了开发线上供应链金融服务产品的优势，围绕线上供应链金融平台功能的搭建，介绍了供应链金融服务项目的内容及运作流程，以期为第三方物流企业开发供应链金融增值服务提供参考。
This paper describes the nuclear third party liability system within the Brazilian legal framework. Following some considerations regarding the development of nuclear energy it then focuses on the relationship between accident prevention and third party liability and on the political administrative framework related to the nuclar industry in Brazil. (NEA)
The non-retrievable disposal of radioactive waste poses third party liability problems of a special kind, which result from the long-term hazards of waste and from the difficulties of proving causality between damage and the damaging occurrence. Both the Paris and the Vienna Conventions are not quite clear as to whether or not damage caused by non-retrievable disposal of waste is covered. The author favours an interpretation, based on both the wording and the objects of the Conventions, to the effect that the Conventions do cover that type of disposal. However, they are not adequate instruments to solve the special long-range problems of nuclear waste disposal. Instruments other than those supplied by civil liability law have to be created and funds for compensation should be established. (NEA)
Yufeng Dong; Liuyi Ling
Hotels cooperate with third-party websites to enhance their competitive position and attain sustainable development in the era of e-commerce. Furthermore, hotel managers overbook to hedge against last-minute cancellations and customer no-shows. This paper discusses pricing and overbooking strategies of a hotel in the context of cooperation with multiple third-party websites and analyzes how these strategies influence the cooperation process. The increase in profits resulting from the overbook...
The growing importance of logistics as well as the increasing dynamic complexity of markets, technologies, and customer needs has brought great challenges to logistics. In order to focus on their core competency in such a competitive environment, more and more companies have outsourced a part or the entirety of the logistics process to third party logistics (3PL) service providers. 3PL has played a crucial role in managing logistics processes within supply chain management. Logistics processe...
Gary L. Burkhardt; Alred E. Crouch
Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 0.7 mile. Unexpected results were that the electrical impedance from the operating pipelines to the soil was very low and, therefore, the changes in impedance and signal resulting from third-party contact were unexpectedly low. Future work will involve further refinement of the method to resolve the issues with small signal change and additional testing on operating pipelines.
Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch
Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results show that simulated contact can be detected. Future work will involve further refinement of the method and testing on operating pipelines.
... quality management system of the laboratory. Laboratories accredited to ISO/IEC 17025:2005 must implement a quality management system, appoint a staff member as quality manager, and continually improve the..., e.g., 73 FR 54564 (September 22, 2008) (Notice of Requirements for Accreditation of Third...
This paper strives to address the issue of distribution costs budgeting, encountered by commercial banks whose business plans presume the sale of saving accounts using third-party distribution networks. A rather intricate problem arises, jointly requiring the design of a commercially viable commission schedule and estimating its impacts on the bank’s financial results, where traditional methods fail. An annotated case study illustrates an expedient and practical solution using statistical sim...
Etilé, Fabrice; Teyssier, SABRINA
For most consumers, Corporate Social Responsibility is a credence attribute of products, which can be signaled either through a label certified by a third party, or through unsubstantiated claims used as part of a brand building strategy. These claims might be, in theory, self-regulated by reputation mechanisms and the awareness of NGOs and activists. We use an experimental posted offer market with sellers and buyers to compare the impact of these signaling strategies on market efficiency. Bo...
The third party logistics is still in the developing stage.In terms of logistics cost,there are some third party lo-gistics enterprises can not provide the service of the logistics products accurate cost control,coupled with the service product re-lated cost information is not clear,which directly leads to the logistics service pricing distortion and logistics cost control failure. On the basis of fully understanding of the structure of the third party logistics enterprises,the logistics enterprises in the process of its cost control problems,for the third party logistics enterprises to reduce logistics costs specific measures to play the core competitive advantage of the third party logistics enterprises,thereby promoting economic and social development.%第三方物流概念在我国仍处于发展阶段。就物流成本而言，有部分第三方物流企业不能对其所提供服务的物流产品进行准确的成本控制，加上对服务产品相关成本信息掌握不清，从而直接导致了物流服务定价失真和物流成本控制失效。在充分了解第三方物流企业成本结构的基础上，认识物流企业在其成本控制过程中存在的问题，为第三方物流企业提出降低物流成本具体的措施，发挥第三方物流企业的核心竞争优势，从而促进经济社会的发展。
Velicer, Clayton; Glantz, Stanton A.
Background In 1996 Massachusetts proposed regulations that would require tobacco companies to disclose information about the ingredients in their products on a by-brand basis. This paper examines the strategies employed by Philip Morris to stop these regulations from being implemented. Methods and Finding We used previously secret tobacco industry documents and published literature to examine the activities of the tobacco companies after the regulations were proposed. Philip Morris hired a public relations firm to establish a coalition that was instructed to oppose the regulations by linking them to other industrial sectors (the slippery slope) and stating they would damage the state's economy. Philip Morris also retained a polling firm to test the popularity of specific arguments against ingredient disclosure and developed a strategic plan for opposing similar regulations in Vermont. Conclusion Tobacco companies have historically used third parties to form coalitions to oppose ingredient disclosure regulations. These coalitions have had success preventing regulations from being implemented after they are initially proposed by creating the appearance of local opposition. With countries around the world currently implementing ingredient disclosure regulations in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco, governments and regulatory agencies should be aware of the political strategies that the tobacco companies have used to create the impression of popular opposition to these measures. PMID:26717245
Alfonso Rincón Pérez; Helber Enrique Balaguera-López; Pedro José Almanza-Merchán
In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.); mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, tre...
Nielsen, Peter Arnt
Brussels I should also apply to cases where the defendant is domiciled outside Europe. Second, it proposes to abolish exequatur. Third, the Commission proposes to make jurisdiction agreements more efficient in order to avoid ‘Italian Torpedoes’, and fourthly, it also proposes provisions enhancing the...... efficiency of arbitration agreements where a party is trying to avoid arbitration....
As civil liability for nuclear is a matter of discussion and initiatives at the European and international levels, the author proposes an overview of the legal framework of the French regime of civil liability for nuclear which is a combination of two international treaties (Paris and Brussels conventions) and a national arrangement (a 1968 law). He presents and comments the main characteristics of this regime (geographical scope of application, concerned activities, excluded events, covered damages, principles regarding operator's liability) and the improvements brought by Paris and Brussels convention review protocols
This publication gathers the abstracts of European research projects on climate change and related to climate change which have been completed recently or are ongoing under the sixth and seventh framework programmes for research. This document aims at providing a relevant overview of research activities on climate change funded by the European Community to participants to the third World Climate Conference held in Geneva in August 2009 and to the UNFCCC 15th Conference of the Parties meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009.
Full Text Available Induction of donor-specific tolerance is still considered as the “Holy Grail” in transplantation medicine. The mixed chimerism approach is virtually the only tolerance approach that was successfully translated into the clinical setting. We have previously reported successful induction of chimerism and tolerance using cell therapy with recipient T regulatory cells (Tregs to avoid cytotoxic recipient treatment. Treg therapy is limited by the availability of cells as large-scale expansion is time-consuming and associated with the risk of contamination with effector cells. Using a costimulation-blockade based bone marrow (BM transplantation (BMT model with Treg therapy instead of cytoreductive recipient treatment we aimed to determine the most potent Treg population for clinical translation. Here we show that CD4+CD25+ in vitro activated nTregs are superior to TGFβ induced iTregs in promoting the induction of chimerism and tolerance. Therapy with nTregs (but not iTregs led to multilineage chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in mice receiving as few as 0.5 × 106 cells. Moreover, we show that only recipient Tregs, but not donor or third-party Tregs, had a beneficial effect on BM engraftment at the tested doses. Thus, recipient-type nTregs significantly improve chimerism and tolerance and might be the most potent Treg population for translation into the clinical setting.
Krueger, Frank; Hoffman, Morris; Walter, Henrik; Grafman, Jordan
The relationship between belief in free will (BFW) and third-party punishment (TPP) of criminal norm violations has been the subject of great debate among philosophers, criminologists and neuroscientists. We combined a TPP task with functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how lay people's BFW might affect their punishment of hypothetical criminal offenses varying in affective content. Our results revealed that people with strong BFW punished more harshly than people with weak BFW, but only in low affective cases, likely driven by a more robust commitment to moral responsibility. This effect was mirrored by a stronger activation in the right temporo-parietal junction, a region presumably involved in attentional selection to salient stimuli and attribution of temporary intentions and beliefs of others. But, for high affective cases, the BFW-based behavioral and neural differences disappeared. Both groups similarly punished high affective cases and showed higher activation in the right insula. The right insula is typically activated during aversive interoceptive-emotional processing for extreme norm violations. Our results demonstrated that the impact of BFW on TPP is context-dependent; perhaps explaining in part why the philosophical debate between free will and determinism is so stubbornly persistent. PMID:23887810
... BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Fees § 120.972 Third Party Lender participation fee... when the Third Party Lender occupies a senior credit position to SBA in the Project. (b) CDC fee....
Despite the high level of safety and technical improvements achieved in nuclear industry over more than thirty years of operation, the original reasons for which this industry enjoys a special liability regime are still valid. ''The possibility remains that incidents capable of causing considerable damage should occur'' and Common law is still not well adapted to deal with the specific problems in this field. Consequently, whatever the conclusions of the Paris Convention revision exercise in progress at the NEA of the OECD may be, it is likely that the future specific liability regime will still need limits both in amount and in time for insurance purposes at least. While, at present, insurers can cope with a 10-year prescription period in their Nuclear Third Party Liability policies, the possible extension of this period to thirty years for personal injuries would not be acceptable without clear provisions in the Protocol and in National legislation. (author)
Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang
, therefore, be sensitive to these cost- benefit trade-offs. To test this argument, participants read scenarios containing exploitative acts (trivial vs. serious) and were presented with head-shot photos of the apparent exploiters (formidable vs. non-formidable). As predicted, results showed that, compared...
... of them purchase an automobile within the Cooperating Country, the Contractor agrees to make certain..., $5,000. The premium costs for such insurance shall not be a reimbursable cost under this...
Loschelder, David D.; Silke Bündgens; Roman Trötschel
The present research investigates the effects of social categorization on the intervention behavior of third parties who engage in the hybrid dispute resolution procedure of mediation-arbitration (Ross & Conlon, 2000). Specifically, it was predicted that an affiliation to a disputant leads third parties to favor the affiliated ingroup disputant over an unaffiliated outgroup disputant. Two studies support these predictions by demonstrating that unilaterally affiliated third parties engage in i...
This set of materials is designed to provide helping professionals with sufficient understanding of third-party payment systems so they are able to determine the feasibility of obtaining reimbursement for service, identify potential third-party payers, assess implications of introducing a third-party payments system, and develop a plan for…
Aim: Policy-makers typically track the rapidly evolving U.S. residential photovoltaic (PV) market by relying on price data reported by PV installers/integrators to incentive programs. Recent years have witnessed a shift toward third-party-owned (TPO) business models, in which the absence of a cash purchase price obscures data interpretation. Appraisals—often based on estimates of the average fair market value across a diverse fleet of systems—are one way TPO prices are reported. Scope: This study investigates residential PV system price drivers to improve the accuracy, consistency, and relevance of PV price-tracking efforts. Our econometric approach evaluates system price drivers using California Solar Initiative data, controlling for system, installer, and geographic variables. Conclusions: We find that reported prices for confirmed appraised systems are $1.13/W higher than non-appraised systems and do not respond to hypothesized price drivers. For non-appraised systems, we find preliminary evidence of market distortions based on the impact of the incentive level, module cost and household income on reported price. Further, unspecified installer heterogeneity—possibly due to differences in products, cost structure or reporting practices—is a substantial price driver. Using estimates, we develop a price model to approximate non-appraised system prices. -- Highlights: •This analysis evaluates residential PV price drivers using an econometric model. •Reported prices for appraised systems are $1.13/W higher than non-appraised. •Reported prices for appraised systems do not respond to expected price drivers. •We find some evidence of market distortions in non-appraised systems. •Installer heterogeneity is a substantial price driver for all systems
This paper stresses the need for adoption in Russia of legislation on civil liability in the nuclear field, particularly in the light of current misgivings on the safety of presently-operating, Chernobyl-type nuclear power plants. The authors refer to the Paris and Vienna Conventions, when revised and improved, as a model. They then analyze the provisions they consider suitable for inclusion in nuclear civil liability law, recommending that a reasonable balance be maintained between the interest of victims and that of operators and delimiting the scope of application of this special legislation, account being taken of the provisions of the ordinary law on offenses. 5 refs
Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan
Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy
The national nuclear legislation is concerned with specific issues related to nuclear safety radiation protection clean-up activities, liability and financial guarantees for nuclear damages; it may be noted that Romania adhered to the nuclear third party liability Vienna Convention and Joint Protocol on December 29, 1992. The Romanian National Nuclear Program, which includes not only the nuclear fuel cycle but also nuclear research facilities and other peaceful applications of radioactivity implies that Romania government is aware for its own facilities, by the settlement of the insurance and pooling system for its own nuclear facilities, as well as for the regional aspects for the liability system for nuclear damage. It must be point out the opportunity and the priority to cooperate with the developed country having in mind the necessity for nuclear insurance coverage of the financial capital invested in Romania's power sector, as well as in the eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. (Author)
First the specific features of the law originated from the Paris Convention of 1960 is described: strict liability channeled on the operator, the both principles being already underlying in the insurance policies delivered to nuclear operators before their introduction in the internal legislation of the countries that ratified the convention. Then the specific services expected from the liability Insurer are reviewed and the method now prevailing for a rating approach of the risks is analyzed. The new rating techniques that could be justified by speeding up the erection program of nuclear plants through the world are surveyed
To keep in line with the world-wide tendency to strengthen the nuclear third party liability system both at international and domestic level, the Nuclear Liability Act and the Act on Indemnity Agreement for Nuclear Liability have been amended in 2001. The pending issues are the completion of the improvement of the national nuclear liability system and protocol between the KEDO and the DPRK for the nuclear liability and indemnification thereof. Since adherence to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage(CSC) is required to strike out the pending issues, the method to become a party to the CSC, necessary implementation enactment, the person to bear the contribution to the fund of CSC should be studied carefully this year. The government is now carrying out a political study, to lay a bill of ratification for the adherence to the CSC before the National Assembly in a regular session this year
责任保险是指以被保险人对第三者依法应负的赔偿责任为保险标的的保险。在责任保险中,为了保护第三者的合法权益,我国保险法赋予第三者在特定情况下有权就其应获赔偿部分直接向保险人请求赔偿保险金。但对于保险人能否以他与被保险人之间的抗辩事由来对抗第三者,我国保险法未加明确,有待于进一步完善。%Liability insurance refers to insurance against liability for the third party in order to protect the legitimate interests of third parties under the liability insurance.Chinese insurance law gives the third party right to be entitled to directly exercise
Govindan, Kannan; Chaudhuri, Atanu
This paper analyses the interrelationships between risks faced by third party logistics service providers (3PLs) in relation to one of its customers using DEMATEL. Novel analysis of both within and between risk categories and generation of threshold value to prioritize risks generate useful...... management, flexibility of its operations and also geographical coverage of their services....
Richmond, Douglas R.
Examines higher education institutional liability in the following areas: (1) in tort, based on negligence, for physical harm to students; (2) in tort, for defamation flowing from student media; and (3) in contract, arising out of student organizations' business relationships with third parties. (222 references) (MLF)
Xavier, E. M. A.; Ariza-López, F. J.; Ureña-Cámara, M. A.
Nowadays it is easy to find many data sources for various regions around the globe. In this 'data overload' scenario there are few, if any, information available about the quality of these data sources. In order to easily provide these data quality information we presented the architecture of a web service for the automation of quality control of spatial datasets running over a Web Processing Service (WPS). For quality procedures that require an external reference dataset, like positional accuracy or completeness, the architecture permits using a reference dataset. However, this reference dataset is not ageless, since it suffers the natural time degradation inherent to geospatial features. In order to mitigate this problem we propose the Time Degradation & Updating Module which intends to apply assessed data as a tool to maintain the reference database updated. The main idea is to utilize datasets sent to the quality evaluation service as a source of 'candidate data elements' for the updating of the reference database. After the evaluation, if some elements of a candidate dataset reach a determined quality level, they can be used as input data to improve the current reference database. In this work we present the first design of the Time Degradation & Updating Module. We believe that the outcomes can be applied in the search of a full-automatic on-line quality evaluation platform.
David D Loschelder
Full Text Available The present research investigates the effects of social categorization on the intervention behavior of third parties who engage in the hybrid dispute resolution procedure of mediation-arbitration (Ross & Conlon, 2000. Specifically, it was predicted that an affiliation to a disputant leads third parties to favor the affiliated ingroup disputant over an unaffiliated outgroup disputant. Two studies support these predictions by demonstrating that unilaterally affiliated third parties engage in ingroup favoritism during arbitration, whereas non-affiliated third-parties (Study 1 & 2 and third parties affiliated to both disputants (Study 2 imposed balanced settlements. In addition to this, both studies identify third parties’ decision control, inherent to the two phases of mediation-arbitration as a relevant moderating variable for the emergence of this effect.
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image of Paris was acquired on July 23, 2000 and covers an area of 23 by 20 km. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known. The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine, while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank. The image is located at 48.8 degrees north latitude and 2.3 degrees east longitude. In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. In the UPPER LEFT, the Eiffel Tower and its shadow are seen. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 m (1054 ft), compared to its actual height of 303 m (985 ft). In the UPPER RIGHT, the Arc de Triomphe is at the center of the Place de L'etoile, from which radiate 12 major boulevards. In the LOWER LEFT is the Tuileries Garden and the Louvre Museum art its eastern end. In the LOWER RIGHT is the Invalides, the burial place and monument of Napoleon Bonaparte. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
resource bundling (excluding advanced technology is required to achieve cost leadership. The effects of other resources on performance are mediated mainly by the demand management interface capability and knowledge resources. This is a novel attempt to justify the interaction and mediation effects of resources and capabilities on performance. The research highlights the needs for 3PL managers to focus on developing and bundling their demand management interface capability and knowledge resources in order to achieve cost leadership, and further combine advanced technology into such bundling of resources and capabilities to achieve innovation in customer service. It advances the application of resource-based view (RBV theory in logistics research by identifying resources that play supporting roles and examining the capabilities for enhancing 3PLs’ competitive performance.
P. Kerkhof; G. van Noort
Buying online is still perceived as risky. A key strategy of online marketers to increase consumer trust in online ordering is to display privacy and security seals on their web sites. Although research indicates that these Internet seals do not necessarily mean better safety for online consumers, f
P. Sawant, Snehal; Deshmukh, Aaradhana A.; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova;
Cloud computing allows the user to outsource their computation and storage overhead to a public cloud, managed by cloud service providers. Data stored in the cloud may reside on remotely servers and this raises security issues. This paper addresses the issue of data storage integrity. The scheme...
In the ongoing trend of restructuring the electricity market worldwide, ancillary services are introduced for operating entities to realize the market function and maintain system security. As generation has been unbundled from the vertically integrated structure, the generation companies (GENCOs) willing to join the power market would be interested in how the direct service between suppliers and customers be effectively realized at lower operating costs, while maintaining the operating service at the satisfactory level. This paper presents a method to estimate specific customer's power deficiency that is used for GENCOs to provide the bilateral ancillary service. Results showing the proposed method in the simulated condition were performing as desired. An adaptive frequency bias setting is utilized to develop a bias logic based gain-scheduling controller. Simulation results showed that the proposed controller is feasible for GENCOs to enhance bilateral regulation performance. (author)
... footnote 3 to § 327.5. (2) For the purposes of disclosure and disclosure accounting, the Department of.... (5) DeCA records must be disclosed if their release is required by 32 CFR part 285, which is implemented by DeCA Directive 30-12. 8 32 CFR part 285 requires that records be made available to the...
...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.7... information that is generally not exempt from the FOIA; therefore, it must be released to the public, unless... released if their positions or duties require frequent interaction with the public. (3) Disclosure...
This May, the Anlu Public Security Bureau in central China’s Hubei Province signed a contract with a private investigation company, hiring the latter’s undercover investigators to observe the conduct of local police, for 80,000 yuan ($11,765) a year.
Full text: For reasons (diversity of supply, evolution of the costs of alternative energies, new uses of electricity) that are valid in practically all the countries where they operate nuclear power plants, the major European electricity producers have expressed the will to keep the nuclear option open, that is to be able to build new Gen 3 LWR nuclear power plants when their economic interest or necessity requests it. Producing a common specification, the European Utility Requirement (EUR) document, that sets out harmonized design targets, has been one of the basic tasks towards this objective. On this base the main vendors have developed standard Gen 3 LWR designs that may be built without major design changes. In 2007-2009, the European Utility Requirements (EUR) works have been focused on the EUR volume 3 (evaluation of the available Gen 3 designs) and volume 4 (conventional island generic requirements). On the EUR volume 3, the assessment works on the AP1000 and AES92 projects have been concluded and the corresponding subsets of the EUR volume 3 have been published. On the EPR, since the previous assessment released in 1999 was felt a bit obsolete (both the project and the requirements had been modified since that time) the works on the EPR assessment have resumed in 2007. Representatives from ten EUR utilities and Areva have been involved in an in-depth revision of the analysis of compliance. Meetings of the specific EUR coordination group in charge of this task have been organized every 4-5 weeks throughout 2008. The revision B of the EPR subset of the EUR volume 3 has been released in July 2009. The revision C of the EUR volume 4 has been made available after a thorough review has been performed within the EUR organization to make it consistent with the revision C of the EUR volume 2 published in 2001. Meanwhile a lot of preparatory material for a possible revision D of the EUR volumes 1 and 2 has been produced since 2002. Since important contributions are
Issues that may happen during the construction of civil works of a nuclear power plant are numerous: concrete, reinforcement bars positioning, welding of the liner... On top of the above, quality and nuclear safety assurance is increasingly required by nuclear authorities to keep the current nuclear renaissance steady regarding public opinion. The speaker will present the benefits of using a third party during these civil works phases and about the value created for the circle of actors through a risk based inspection program. Going through the main stages of design and construction of civil works of a nuclear power plant, the main actors involved, their positioning and the role of a voluntary independent third party inspection body, the speaker demonstrates that an independent third party, voluntarily chosen by a Utility and nuclear power plant engineering company, may give confidence to each party. (authors)
... (74 FR 61294), announced that a public hearing on proposed regulations relating to information... in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network Transactions; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue... withholding requirements for payment card and third party network transactions. DATES: The public...
Part II of This Act came into force on 1 September 1983 and is concerned with nuclear installations. Its main purpose is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to give effect to the provisions of two Protocols amending the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention respectively. The principal effect of these modifications is to increase the sums available to meet claims for nuclear damage. The United Kingdom is a Party to both Conventions and the provisions of the 1983 Act will enable it to ratify the Protocols. (NEA)
Price-Anderson Act authority to extend nuclear hazards liability coverage to new nuclear power plants and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contracts, including those related to nuclear waste activities, expired on August 1, 1987. While the U.S. House of Representatives passed Price-Anderson extension legislation by an overwhelming vote of 396 to 17 last July, the U.S. Senate adjourned for the year last month without doing so. Delay in agreement between the Senate Energy and Environment Committees on what to use as a floor vehicle, coupled with filibuster threats as Congress rushed to complete its business before Christmas, resulted in further action being deferred until 1988. This year's Congress fortunately does not have to begin over
This article discusses the questioning of a fundamental principle of the special nuclear third party liability regime by certain NEA countries: the limitation of the nuclear operator's liability. This regime, set up since the late fifties at European then at worldwide level, had until now been widely adopted in the national legislation of most of the countries with a nuclear power programme. The author analyses the different arguments in favour of restoring unlimited liability for the nuclear operator and attempts to define its implications for the future of the nuclear third party liability regime in NEA countries. (NEA)
Third-party photovoltaics (PV) ownership is a rapidly growing market trend, where commercial companies own and operate customer-sited PV systems and lease PV equipment or sell PV electricity to the building occupant. Third-party PV companies can reduce or eliminate up-front adoption costs, reduce technology risk and complexity by monitoring system performance, and can repackage the PV value proposition by showing cost savings in the first month of ownership rather than payback times on the order of a decade. We find that the entrance of third-party business models in southern California residential PV markets has enticed a new demographic to adopt PV systems that is more highly correlated to younger, less affluent, and less educated populations than the demographics correlated to purchasing PV systems. By enticing new demographics to adopt PV, we find that third-party PV products are likely increasing total PV demand rather than gaining market share entirely at the expense of existing customer owned PV demand. We also find that mean population demographics are good predictors of third-party and customer owned PV adoption, and mean voting trends on California carbon policy (Proposition 23) are poor predictors of PV adoption. - Highlights: ► Third-party PV products increased residential PV demand in southern CA. ► Third-party PV products entice new demographic groups to adopt PV. ► Regional demographics are good predictors of PV demand. ► Regional voting trends on carbon policy are poor predictors of PV demand.
Hu, Yang; Scheele, Dirk; Becker, Benjamin; Voos, Georg; David, Bastian; Hurlemann, René; Weber, Bernd
Humans display an intriguing propensity to help the victim of social norm violations or punish the violators which require theory-of-mind (ToM)/mentalizing abilities. The hypothalamic peptide oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in modulating various pro-social behaviors/perception including trust, cooperation, and empathy. However, it is still elusive whether OXT also influences neural responses during third-party altruistic decisions, especially in ToM-related brain regions such as the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). To address this question, we conducted a pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with healthy male participants in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. After the intranasal administration synthetic OXT (OXT(IN)) or placebo (PLC), participants could transfer money from their own endowment to either punish a norm violator or help the victim. In some trials, participants observed the decisions made by a computer. Behaviorally, participants under OXT(IN) showed a trend to accelerate altruistic decisions. At the neural level, we observed a strong three-way interaction between drug treatment (OXT/PLC), agency (self/computer), and decision (help/punish), such that OXT(IN) selectively enhanced activity in the left TPJ during observations of others being helped by the computer. Collectively, our findings indicate that OXT enhances prosocial-relevant perception by increasing ToM-related neural activations. PMID:26832991
Hu, Yang; Scheele, Dirk; Becker, Benjamin; Voos, Georg; David, Bastian; Hurlemann, René; Weber, Bernd
Humans display an intriguing propensity to help the victim of social norm violations or punish the violators which require theory-of-mind (ToM)/mentalizing abilities. The hypothalamic peptide oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in modulating various pro-social behaviors/perception including trust, cooperation, and empathy. However, it is still elusive whether OXT also influences neural responses during third-party altruistic decisions, especially in ToM-related brain regions such as the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). To address this question, we conducted a pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with healthy male participants in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. After the intranasal administration synthetic OXT (OXTIN) or placebo (PLC), participants could transfer money from their own endowment to either punish a norm violator or help the victim. In some trials, participants observed the decisions made by a computer. Behaviorally, participants under OXTIN showed a trend to accelerate altruistic decisions. At the neural level, we observed a strong three-way interaction between drug treatment (OXT/PLC), agency (self/computer), and decision (help/punish), such that OXTIN selectively enhanced activity in the left TPJ during observations of others being helped by the computer. Collectively, our findings indicate that OXT enhances prosocial-relevant perception by increasing ToM-related neural activations. PMID:26832991
Mortensen, Ole; Lemoine, Olga W.
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyse the extent of the integration between manufacturers and third party logistics (TPL) providers at present and how the integration is expected to develop in the near future. The focus is on studying what tasks are part of the cooperation, what...... information and communications technology (ICT) tools are used for support, and what types of services are supplied and are expected to be supplied by TPL providers in the future. Design/methodology/approach - A multiple case study of seven manufacturers and TPL providers is conducted. As the basis for the...... the eight business processes studied. Further integration in the same processes is expected, based on ICT tools and with a focus on cost. ICT competences are primarily seen as a qualifier not a differentiator. Because the future TPL industry is expected to be characterised by more standardised...
Building construction permits just like plant construction permits under the Federal Emission Control Act or the Atomic Energy Act are typical cases representing the administrative order with a dual effect, or an effect on third parties: decisions supporting the interests of the project owner always affect third parties. Third party protection therefore is a major topic of public construction law or the environmental protection law to be applied to industrial installations. Although actions brought by third parties have become something ordinary for the administrative courts, substantive third party protection continues to pose specific problems. The book in hand develops and explains a way out of the dilemma created by third party protection. The solutions presented are founded on a sound dogmatic basis and take into account the Federal Constitutional Court's rulings in matters of civil rights. The starting point adopted by the authors is the third party rights warranting protection, with the objective protection provided for by the law in general gaining effect as subjective rights as far as the protection is based on the civil rights of the constitution. The scope of protection affordable depends on the individual case and the reconciliation of terests of all parties concerned. The problem solutions set forth very extensively rely on the jurisdiction in matters of third party protection and on approaches published in the relevant literature, so that the book also may serve as a guide to current practice and a helpful source of reference for readers looking for information about the issue of third party protection. (orig./HP)
The setting up of tort liability pattern is the key to the realization of the Tort Liability Act＇s multiple functions of filling the victim ｜oss, preventing harm from happening again, punishing malicious infringers and protecting the freedom of action. Legislators＇ construction of Multi-party Tort Liability system in Tort Liability Act is digicult to be implemented in judicial practice because of the lag of supporting theories in the research of procedural law. In interpretation, the application of Statutory Undertaking will be able to adhere to a victim-centered basis, taking into account of the concept of one-time dispute resolution and the protection of the minimum procedural justice of the subjects of Multi-party Tort Liability.%侵权责任形态的设置是我国侵权责任法实现填补受害人损失、预防损害再发生、惩罚恶意侵权人以及保障行为自由等多重功能的关键所在。立法者在《侵权责任法》中煞费苦心构建的数人侵权责任形态体系却因程序法配套理论研究滞后而难以在司法实践中得以贯彻执行。在解释论上,法定诉讼担当的运用能够在坚持以被害人为中心的基础,兼顾一次性纠纷解决理念的实现与复数侵权责任主体最低限度程序正义的保障。
waste was addressed by legal and technical experts, particularly within the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. As a result of this study, the technical scope of the Paris Convention was modified in a two-step approach. First, it was agreed that facilities for the disposal of RW during the period before their ultimate closure should be considered as 'nuclear installations' in the meaning of the Convention. Second, on the occasion of the current revision of the Convention, the definition of 'nuclear installations' has been amended so as to include, without the earlier qualification, those intended for the disposal of radioactive waste.5 This welcome clarification does not however answer some legal questions stemming from the fact that the disposal of RW implies the possibility that damage, if any, may not occur before several hundred or thousand years. In other words, one wonders whether a system of third-party liability designed to apply to today's risk of nuclear activities is adequate to cover extremely long-term hazards, for example those associated with RW repositories in deep geological formations. The time-scale involved here is in itself a challenge to the imagination. It also points to the central policy issue of the management of RW, that is the duty to safeguard the rights of future generations to a preserved environment; thereby ensuring the reliability of the liability and compensation schemes. (author)
After Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, almost all of the countries which owned nuclear reactors soon reviewed the security of all their nuclear power plants(NPP) in operation and those under construction, and committed to pursue higher standards of nuclear power plant safety and performance of nuclear power plant. However, many countries still remain their nuclear development policies unchanged. In East Asian countries, China has 11 nuclear reactors in operation and another 24 units under construction. Korea has 21 nuclear reactors in operation, which represents approximately 31.1% of the whole country’s power output and the number of units will be 34 before 2024. In Japan, it also possesses 50 operating nuclear units. And Taiwan now has three nuclear power plants (NPP) including 6 operating units and 2 units still under construction. There will be more than 100 units of NPP in these 4 East Asia countries. Therefore nuclear safety is a matter of the utmost importance to the East Asia countries. This article is going to discuss nuclear safety and third party liability in the 4 East Asia countries, including China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. In order to enhance the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in East Asia, we will focus on the following issues: A- An effective independence of the national regulatory authorities. B- How to enhance transparency on nuclear safety matters. C- From the viewpoint of the Precautionary Principle and Transparency to reinforce the monitoring and exchange of experiences. D- In nuclear liability regime, all 4 countries, China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan are not members of any nuclear liability regime (neither Paris Convention nor Vienna Convention and nor CSC regime). How to solve the nuclear damage problems? E- Is it necessary to establish an East Asian nuclear safety and liability regime? (author)
Kollins, K.; Speer, B.; Cory, K.
Residential and commercial end users of electricity who want to generate electricity using on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenging initial and O&M costs. The third-party ownership power purchase agreement (PPA) finance model addresses these and other challenges. It allows developers to build and own PV systems on customers? properties and sell power back to customers. However, third-party electricity sales commonly face five regulatory challenges. The first three challenges involve legislative or regulatory definitions of electric utilities, power generation equipment, and providers of electric services. These definitions may compel third-party owners of solar PV systems to comply with regulations that may be cost prohibitive. Third-party owners face an additional challenge if they may not net meter, a practice that provides significant financial incentive to owning solar PV systems. Finally, municipalities and cooperatives worry about the regulatory implications of allowing an entity to sell electricity within their service territories. This paper summarizes these challenges, when they occur, and how they have been addressed in five states. This paper also presents alternative to the third-party ownership PPA finance model, including solar leases, contractual intermediaries, standardized contract language, federal investment tax credits, clean renewable energy bonds, and waived monopoly powers.
探讨第三方船舶管理的概念和发展历程,在准确、深入了解国内外第三方公司现状和发展趋势的基础上,对第三方船舶管理公司的经营范围和管理规律进行系统的研究,提出规范公司管理的一些建议,旨在为专业的船舶管理公司发展和参与公平竞争提供借鉴.%This paper is concerned with the concepts and practices of third-party ship management, its purpose is to give a systematic research on the business scope and management regulations of the third party ship management companies on the basis of a comprehensive, ac curate understanding of the companies' current situation and developmental tendency both at home and abroad. Meanwhile it puts forward some advices on standardizing the companies' management in order to create a fair competition environment and promote a favorable development of professional ship management industry.
Väyrynen, A. (Antti)
The increased usage of open-source software (OSS) libraries as building blocks in the software industry has introduced numerous problems and vulnerabilities into many popular software suites. As more libraries are used, the risk of the whole software being exposed to the vulnerabilities inherent in these third-party components increases. Vulnerability management is the process of mitigating the impact of these vulnerabilities in software development. Another matter concerning OSS is license m...
... U.S.C. 7609(a)(3)(C) generally includes any person who issues a credit card. It does not include a... credit cards. An object is a “similar device” to a credit card under 26 U.S.C. 7609(a)(3)(C) only if it... person. Similarly, a credit card issuer is not a third-party recordkeeper (by reason of being a...
Jordan, Jillian J; Hoffman, Moshe; Bloom, Paul; Rand, David G
Third-party punishment (TPP), in which unaffected observers punish selfishness, promotes cooperation by deterring defection. But why should individuals choose to bear the costs of punishing? We present a game theoretic model of TPP as a costly signal of trustworthiness. Our model is based on individual differences in the costs and/or benefits of being trustworthy. We argue that individuals for whom trustworthiness is payoff-maximizing will find TPP to be less net costly (for example, because mechanisms that incentivize some individuals to be trustworthy also create benefits for deterring selfishness via TPP). We show that because of this relationship, it can be advantageous for individuals to punish selfishness in order to signal that they are not selfish themselves. We then empirically validate our model using economic game experiments. We show that TPP is indeed a signal of trustworthiness: third-party punishers are trusted more, and actually behave in a more trustworthy way, than non-punishers. Furthermore, as predicted by our model, introducing a more informative signal--the opportunity to help directly--attenuates these signalling effects. When potential punishers have the chance to help, they are less likely to punish, and punishment is perceived as, and actually is, a weaker signal of trustworthiness. Costly helping, in contrast, is a strong and highly used signal even when TPP is also possible. Together, our model and experiments provide a formal reputational account of TPP, and demonstrate how the costs of punishing may be recouped by the long-run benefits of signalling one's trustworthiness. PMID:26911783
CSA N285.0 and CSA B51 require that components containing pressure exceeding 15 psig must have a valid Canadian Registration Number (CRN). However, many manufacturers of small pressure-retaining components refuse or are unable to obtain valid CRNs for their equipment. This creates a problem for users who require these components and are thus unable to meet Code requirements. It's often possible for an accredited third party like Nuclear Logistics to obtain a CRN for such components. In this case the third party must assume all product liability, and must verify all aspects of the component that are pertinent to the design and pressure-boundary materials of construction. This paper will discuss the process by which NLI conducts such work to meet client and jurisdictional requirements, by highlighting case studies from real projects, and the key considerations that must be taken into account. This paper is not a discussion of jurisdictional requirements, but rather a description of NLI's approach to solving this problem. (author)
With the discovery of the Nuclear Energy the world has been development her life the present investigation is based in the accident of the one of the most important Nuclear Power Plant in the world, situated in the Union of Socialist Sovietic Republics. The Nuclear Power Plant of Chernobyl. Us found in the investigation what not exist one legislation agree with the needs of development of the actual world in matter of the liability civil in case of the nuclear accidents. Found only the Convention of the Vienna. the Convention of the Brussels the which only cover the transportation the Nuclear substances in ships and others transportation medios. The complementary a the convention of the Paris and actually The Communication in case of the nuclear accidents and radiological accidents. In the present work think what the Community International haven the needs of created one legislation with character international what can help a the many countries what have Nuclear Power Plants, on all for protection of the her habitants. The International Atomic Energy Agency together with the International Justice Court and the United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) aplicated the law in matter of the nuclear accidents derivates of the liability responsibility in the use of the Nuclear Plants for elaboration the Electrical Energy or for Investigation in matter the nuclear energy both with identical responsibility civil in case the nuclear accident. (Author)
Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Auerbach, Arleen D;
HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current...
Full Text Available Eavesdropping involves the acquisition of information from third-party interactions, and can serve to indirectly attribute reputation to individuals. There is evidence on eavesdropping in dogs, indicating that they can develop a preference for people based on their cooperativeness towards others. In this study, we tested dogs' eavesdropping abilities one step further. In a first experiment, dogs could choose between cooperative demonstrators (the donors who always gave food to an approaching third person (the beggar; here, the only difference between donors was whether they received positive or negative reactions from the beggar (through verbal and gestural means. Results showed that dogs preferentially approached the donor who had received positive reactions from the beggar. By contrast, two different conditions showed that neither the beggar's body gestures nor the verbal component of the interaction on their own were sufficient to affect the dogs' preferences. We also ran two further experiments to test for the possibility of dogs' choices being driven by local enhancement. When the donors switched places before the choice, dogs chose at random. Similarly, in a nonsocial condition in which donors were replaced by platforms, subjects chose at chance levels. We conclude that dogs' nonrandom choices in the present protocol relied on the simultaneous presence of multiple cues, such as the place where donors stood and several features of the beggar's behavior (gestural and verbal reactions, and eating behavior. Nonetheless, we did not find conclusive evidence that dogs discriminated the donors by their physical features, which is a prerequisite of reputation attribution.
Halevy, Nir; Halali, Eliran
The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict. Intervention introduces side payments that transform the game disputants are playing; it also introduces risk for the third party by making it vulnerable to disputants' choices. Six experiments revealed three robust effects: (i) The mere possibility of third-party intervention significantly increases cooperation in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts; (ii) reducing the risk to third parties dramatically increases intervention rates, to everyone's benefit; and (iii) disputants' cooperation rates are consistently higher than third parties' intervention rates. These findings explain why, how, and when self-interested third parties facilitate peaceful conflict resolution. PMID:26038546
The nature of the offshore petroleum activity and the likelihood that both the tortfeasor and the claimant of a potential incident participate in the petroleum activity results in one of the most characteristic features of the petroleum contract, namely contractual regulation of liability. The allocation of liability is often based on the knock-for-knock principle which basically means that the parties assume responsibility for any loss or damage incurred to their own property as well as for ...
Constantinou, Marios; Ashendorf, Lee; McCaffrey, Robert J
The presence of third parties during neuropsychological evaluations is an issue of concern for contemporary neuropsychologists. Previous studies have reported that the presence of an observer during neuropsychological testing alters the performance of individuals under evaluation. The present study sought to investigate whether audio-recording affects the neuropsychological test performance of individuals in the same way that third party observation does. In the presence of an audio-recorder the performance of the participants on memory tests declined. Performance on motor tests, on the other hand, was not affected by the presence of an audio-recorder. The implications of these findings in forensic neuropsychological evaluations are discussed. PMID:12607152
Full Text Available This work illustrates how to calculate accurate aircraft maintenance costs using Activity Based Costing (ABC. Comparing to traditional cost calculation, the proposed method is useful for aircrafts maintenance activity integrated to Airline Company and who wants to diversify its revenue by selling some available maintenance slots to third party clients for a competitive price. This paper takes base maintenance check process of a Moroccan airline aircrafts maintenance activity as a case study. The actual method used to calculate aircraft maintenance check cost cant not be applied to third party client pricing system. The ABC method shows substantial benefits if it is successfully implemented. Data collection through interviews and questionnaires are the main sources to this study.
The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs
In this paper we focus on the role of third party referrals in the venture capital funding process. Taking network theory as our theoretical perspective we explore if and how third parties play a role in the funding process. Hereby we focus on both the network ties between new venture teams and thir
Obergassel, Wolfgang; Arens, Christof; Hermwille, Lukas; Kreibich, Nicolas; Mersmann, Florian; Ott, Hermann E.; Wang-Helmreich, Hanna
On 12 December 2015, the Parties to the UNFCCC adopted the "Paris Agreement". With this step, the world community has agreed on a collective and cooperative path to fight human-induced climate change: After 25 years of UN climate diplomacy, the world's governments have for the first time in history negotiated a treaty which envisages climate action by all nations. The Agreement sets the world on a path that might lead to a decarbonised economy in the second half of the century. Researchers fr...
Obergassel, Wolfgang; Arens, Christof; Hermwille, Lukas; Kreibich, Nicolas; Mersmann, Florian; Ott, Hermann E.; Wang-Helmreich, Hanna
On 12 December 2015, the Parties to the UNFCCC adopted the "Paris Agreement". With this step, the world community has agreed on a collective and cooperative path to fight human-induced climate change: After 25 years of UN climate diplomacy, the world's governments have for the first time in history negotiated a treaty which envisages climate action by all nations. The Agreement sets the world on a path that might lead to a decarbonised economy in the second half of the century. Researchers fr...
Dalen, Dag Morten; Locatelli, Marilena; Sorisio, Enrico; Strøm, Steinar
TNF-alpha inhibitors represent one of the most important areas of biopharmaceuticals by sales, with three blockbusters accounting for 8 per cent of total pharmaceutical sale in Norway. Novelty of the paper is to examine, with the use of a unique natural policy experiment in Norway, to what extent the price responsiveness of prescription choices is affected when the identity of the third-party payer changes. The three dominating drugs in this market, Enbrel, Remicade, and Humira, are substitut...
... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on reduction in income tax liability... § 1.934-1 Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands. (a) General... amount of the reduction in S's mirror code tax liability that may result from claiming this...
近些年来,互联网行业的迅速发展,促使了电子商务和互联网金融兴起,为了弥补其中的信用缺失,第三方支付平台应运而生,但随之也产生了大量的沉淀资金.然而这些潜在的金融资本如果没有被合理有效的利用,必将是巨大的资源浪费,同时也会严重阻碍第三方支付平台的正常发展.因此,文章主要就第三方支付平台在沉淀资金的利用上所面临的投资工具缺乏,交易和监管上的问题进行分析探讨,并对如何科学有效地利用沉淀资金进行研究.%In recent years the rapid development of internet industry ,promote the rise of e-commerce and network finance,in order to make up for the lack of credit,the third party payment platform arises at the historic moment,but also produces a large amount of precipitation funds at the same time,however,the potential financial capital if it is not reasonable and effective use,it will be a huge waste of resources,will seriously affect the normal development of the third-party payment platform.Therefore ,this article mainly on the third-party payment platform in the use of precipitation funds facing the lack of investment tools ,trading and regulatory issues are analyzed. For the above three questions put forward the relative countermeasures ,give new ideas for use precipitation funds , and in its use on the concrete means of providing certain reference direction.
The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the study of the nuclear glasses composition influence on their liability to deterioration. The methodology of the experimental research used has lead to define between the thirty oxides which form the reference glass light water, six oxides of interest. For each of these oxides, a composition variation area has been defined. A matrix of twenty glass compositions has then been defined. The preparation of materials of these compositions has sometimes lead to materials weakly heterogeneous which have been characterized before deterioration. This study has been completed by those of three glasses in a composition variation area narrower of the light water nuclear glass : the R7T7 and two glasses at limits having respectively an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees Celsius theoretically maximum and minimum. Some deterioration parameters in pure water have been experimentally measured on the twenty three glasses : 1) an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees (Vo100) Celsius and another one at 90 degrees Celsius (Vo90) 2) a dissolution velocity in conditions near the saturation at 90 degrees Celsius 3) an apparent solubility of glass based on the ortho silicic acid activity 4) the evolution of the dissolution kinetics at 90 degrees Celsius in sub-saturated medium towards saturated medium 5) the alteration films nature developed at the glasses surface during these last alteration tests. Some thermodynamic and structural models have been studied in order to predict Vo90 and Vo100. The dissolution kinetic law developed from reference glass dissolution results has been studied with the calculation code LIXIVER. It has not been able to be used for most of the glasses compositions studied. As a consequence, the glasses dissolution control by a surface reaction which are itself controlled by the only dissolved silica is an hypothesis which is not verified for the greater part of the glasses. (O.L.). refs., figs., tabs
Japan is not a contracting party of any international convention in the field of nuclear civil liability, and neither are other east Asian countries who have or will soon have nuclear plants. Therefore, the ordinary rules on private international law will play an important role in dealing with transfrontier nuclear civil liability. Above all, the problems on judicial jurisdiction and governing law are crucial points. With regard to the relations between the above countries and the countries whose legal systems are within the framework of Paris or Vienna Conventions, geographical scopes of these conventions are to be considered. There are two different parts in the international civil liability conventions: uniform civil liability law and mutual funds. As to the first, it is important that, even without the conventions, the basic structure of the nuclear civil liability laws in non-member countries are almost the same with those of members. In any event, considering that the establishment of a single international regime to cover all countries will be hardly possible, legal consequences under the private international law will be explored. (author)
The rapid expansion of the MunaEggsPress business has caused the need for a presence online and a booking system to facilitate the management of the logistics behind the delivery of goods and to provide sales points in advance as available options to customers. As a result, this thesis aim to provide a part of the solution to the booking system for the sales point locations, a login alternative, and messaging modules using third-party APIs approach. Previously, the business essentially u...
In describing the mechanism of the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conferences, the author stresses the necessity of the dialog between parties and non-parties to the Treaty which could allow the participants of the dialog to be better informed about the Treaty itself and on how to make it a more effective instrument, not only for prohibiting the proliferation of nuclear weapons, but for promoting peaceful cooperation in the field of nuclear energy as well
The European Commission presented another strategic document intended to be a solution to energy problems. The document complains about Europe's excessive dependency on energy supplies from third countries, mainly Russia. The strategy also aims to meet the set objectives, i.e. decrease CO2 emissions by 20%, increase the share of renewable energy sources by the same percentage and increase energy efficiency by 20% by 2020. At the same time it warns that that is not sufficient in order to increase the energy security of the EU. According to the European Commission a higher level of solidarity between member states is required and therefore it proposed a new EU action plan focusing on an increase of energy security and solidarity. In this plan Brussels pushes for investments in priority infrastructure projects, improvement in the creation of emergency gas and oil reserves, improvement of cooperation between EU member states and better utilization of EU energy sources. (author)
Reverse logistics (e. g. product remanufacturing or recycling) practices can not only reduce the natural resources needed and the waste produced, but also help reduce the environmental burden. It is not unusual to see in practice the used-product collection activity contracted by a manufacturer to a third party, who is engaged only in the collection of the used products from the market. For example, in the automobile industry, used-product collection activities for the original equipment manufacturers are handled by some independent third parties. Recently, in the United States the "big three" auto manufacturers started to invest in joint research and remanufacturing partnerships with dismantling centers to benefit from their experiences and economics of scale. With the independent third parties joining the closed-loop supply chain, it becomes more difficult to study the closed-loop supply chain for of the increasing number supply chain members. In the third-party collecting closed-loop supply chain, there are several channels structures including no strategic alliance, strategic alliance between the retailer and the manufacturer, strategic alliance between the retailer and the third-party and strategic alliance between the manufacturer and the third-party. In this research, the aim is to examine the effect of these channel structures on the performance of members in a third-party collecting closed-loop supply chain. First, this paper adopts the game theory to develop four models of closed-loop supply chain. Second, the optimal retail prices, wholesale prices, return rates and profits of these models are derived. Third, these four models are compared with each other. Fourth, the effect of system parameters on the performance of members is researched with numerical simulation and some new findings are revealed. This study shows five interesting results. First, the retail price is the highest, the demand is the least and return rate is the lowest in the no strategic
In the context of Chinese e-commerce, based on prior studies of logistic service quality and interviews of logistics customers, this paper developed the model of third-party logistics services customers' satisfaction by focusing on the two aspects of physical distribution and customer services of third-party logistics services and also information systems level and brand image. Structural equation model technology was used for analyzing 423 customers of third-party logistics services. The results indicate that physical distribution and customer services of third-party logistics services are both important aspects of third-party logistics services quality. The third-party logistics services quality has positive influence on customers' satisfaction. Information systems level and brand image not only have direct and positive impacts on third-party logistics services quality , but also have important indirect and positive impacts on customers' satisfaction.%在中国电子商务情景下，基于国内外物流服务质量与顾客满意的相关文献和顾客的访谈，从第三方物流服务的实体配送服务质量和顾客营销服务质量两个方面出发，结合信息系统和营销学领域的信息化水平和品牌形象变量构建了我国电子商务情景下第三方物流的顾客满意度模型。采用结构方程模型对收集的423份国内电子商务第三方物流服务顾客数据进行分析。结果表明，电子商务情景下，除实体配送服务质量外，顾客营销服务质量是第三方物流服务质量的关键维度。研究还发现，第三方物流服务质量显著正向影响顾客对物流服务的满意度；物流信息化水平和品牌形象对第三方物流服务质量存在显著正向影响，且还通过第三方物流服务质量对顾客满意存在重要的间接影响。
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of third-party mediation assistance. 1425.6 Section 1425.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.6 Use of third-party mediation assistance. If the...
With the rapid development of IT technology, e-commerce plays an increasingly important role nowadays. Since logistics is vital for e-commerce, it becomes the key factor for any corporate in order to survive in the fierce competition. However, logistics industry is not considered as important as other industries in China and few attempts has have been made in this field. The purpose of this paper was to present the current situation of third party logistics under e-commerce and their clo...
杨儒石; 李悦; 郗敏; 孔范龙; 吴玉光
In environmental management,the absence and offside of the government,enterprises carry heavy burden,all these phenomena require a third-party to exercise part of the power instead of the government or the enterprises and also take on part of their responsibility.
Ghazawneh, Ahmad; Henfridsson, Ola
theoretical model that centres on two drivers behind boundary resources design and use –resourcing and securing – and how these drivers interact in third-party development. We apply the model to a detailed case study of Apple’s iPhone platform. Our application of the model not only serves as an illustration...
Full Text Available Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual.
Full Text Available the information fortune and the connectivity are provided by the universe of E-commerce over an enormous distance at all time. In an open and distributed environment the buyers or providers will not act in a mutually understood or agreed manner by which the incomplete practices and fraudulent activities happen. So in any online transaction the security and trust are two important factors that are to be considered. In Ecommerce markets the above mentioned problems are criticized as the most important barriers. In order to improve these barriers a trust based third party mechanism is successfully adopted as a self-regulatory system to improve the buyer and seller trust. The online transactions are made very easy now days by E-commerce technologies. Built integrity belief approach (BIB, Support Vector Mechanic approach (SVM and Random Number Generation approach (RNG are the three approaches which are mainly used in this paper for online trust management. The seller and the buyer communication will be handled through the trusted third party. Apart from this a coupon based approach is introduced as an advancement in this paper for providing discount schemes which is helpful in attracting the customer who purchase beyond the threshold level fixed by the seller. Moreover a product review study is integrated in order to reduce the scam reviews in online transactions.
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. According to the Associated Press, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid's (CMS website, HealthCare.gov, has been sending consumers’ personal data to private companies that specialize in advertising and analyzing Internet data for performance and marketing (1. What information is being disclosed was not immediately clear, but it could include age, income, ZIP code, and smoking status. It could also include a computer’s Internet address, which can identify a person’s name or address when combined with other information collected by sophisticated online marketing or advertising firms. “We deploy tools on the window shopping application that collect basic information to optimize and assess system performance,” said CMS’s Aaron Albright in a statement. “We believe that the use of these tools are common and represent best practices for a typical e-commerce site.” There is no evidence that personal information has been misused. But connections to dozens of third-party tech firms were documented by ...
This thesis was commissioned by Marriott Brussels. Marriott Brussels is part of a well known Marriott hotel chain. Marriott Brussels is a four star hotel situated in the capital of Belgium, Brussels. Theses focused on clarifying the needs and wants of business and leisure guests at Marriott Brussels. The aim was to figure out what are the things these guests value the most and what are the things that are the least valued. In these theses quantitative research was used and guests we...
Tangwa, Godfrey B
The central importance of reproduction in all human cultures has given rise to many methods and techniques of assisting reproduction or overcoming infertility. Such methods and techniques have achieved spectacular successes in the Western world, where processes like in vitro fertilization (IVF) constitute a remarkable breakthrough. In this paper, the author attempts to reflect critically on assisted reproduction technologies (ART) from the background and perspective of African culture, a culture within which human reproduction is given the highest priority but which also exhibits a highly ambivalent attitude to modern technology-assisted methods of reproduction. The author considers the ethical crux of reproductive technologies to be linked to the issue of the moral status of the human embryo and argues that a morally significant line of demarcation cannot be drawn between embryos and other categories of humans. PMID:19067233
I. Status of conventions in the field of nuclear energy as of December 2012: Non-proliferation and nuclear security (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty); Nuclear safety and emergency response (Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management); Liability and compensation for nuclear damage (Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Brussels Supplementary Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Protocol to Amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage). II. Status of conventions in the field of environmental protection/assessment which affect nuclear energy use as of December 2012: Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention), Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention), Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kiev Protocol), Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR). III. OECD member country participation in the nuclear energy treaties/conventions and in the
Huang, Sheng-Liang; Hwang, Tzonelih; Gope, Prosanta
This article proposes an innovative quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol for n users using GHZ states, where an almost-dishonest third party (TP) is introduced to assist the participants for comparing their secrets. It is argued that as compared to the existing QPC protocols our proposed scheme has some considerable advantages. First, in the existing QPC protocols, the TP can only to determine whether all participants' secrets are equal or not. Instead of that, in our proposed scheme a TP can even compare the secrets between any subsects of users. Second, since our proposed scheme is based on GHZ state; hence it can ensure higher efficiency as compared to other existing multi-party QPC protocols on d-dimension photons.
So much focus is now given to getting the Paris agreement on climate change “right,” particularly that the intended nationally determined commitments (INDCs) should be ambitious, effective, and fair. But what about the morning after? There is no automatism in international norms, whether legally bin
Political parties are the engine of social life, without which citizens would not be able to express political will. According to the law of political parties, they fulfill a public mission guaranteed by the Constitution. That is why, considering the subject very current, we considered it important to analyze in this study, in the notion of political pluralism: the concept of political party but also its constitutional dimension. To this end, the study shows the view of the doctrine combined ...
Alfonso Rincón Pérez
Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.
Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal
India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human
Shockman, Chris; Piette, Mary Ann
Innovation adoption studies have never been applied to third party property management companies. These companies manage buildings for a fee as their primary business. Property management companies are influential in the adoption process for new technologies because they act as gatekeepers for technical information. This study analyzes radical and routine adoption process that are found in large, professionally operated property management companies. The process is explicated. The technical managers, and their role as technology gate keepers, are described. The distinction to the technical managers between routine and radical technology is that routine technologies do something in a new way and radical technologies do something new. Observations concerning evaluation and adoption of information technologies are described. The findings suggest methods of successfully tailoring and introducing technologies to this market.
Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco
Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider the...
The issue of civil liability for nuclear damage and the mandatory coverage of this liability by insurance or by the other financial means is a topic for experts discussions, particularly due to the existing differences in opinion. The article outlines the major provisions of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (1963) and presents a list of parties to the Convention from among Central and Eastern European countries. In the second part, the paper deals with the various options during the transportation of spent and fresh nuclear fuel from the viewpoint of the regulatory body and with regard to applicable domestic and international legislation. (author)
Since 1. January 1991 the Environment Liability Law is in force. It aims at compensating and avoiding environmental damages. This booklet presents terminology and liability preconditions; liability exclusions and limitations; causality proof; extent of compensation obligations; financial security provisions; insurability problems. The political legislative intent is correct, however, a collective concept replacing liability will be necessary: In those case where the state cannot guarantee environmental protection, and legislation cannot take care of indemnification, another basis for realizable titles to compensation have to be created. Also dealt with are the particularities for nuclear risks - liability for installations pursuant to the Paris Convention; other liability; financial security in connection with nuclear liability risk. (HSCH)
Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xingtong; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chaojing
Recently, Lin et al. proposed a novel quantum private comparison protocol without a third party (Quantum Inf. Process. 13:239-247, 2014). This paper points out two security loopholes in Lin et al.'s protocol, in which one dishonest party can disclose the other's private information without being detected and the comparison result can be manipulated completely by either party. In addition, improvements are proposed to avoid these loopholes.
If a party raising objections against a nuclear licence on the grounds that the party was not able to properly assess a possible infringement of the party's rights due to insufficient third party information and participation in the licensing procedure, the party is obliged to file its action already within the time limit for avoiding the licensing decision, in order not to be excluded in compliance with paragraph 7 sub-sec. 1, sentence 2 of the Nuclear Installations Ordinance. The licensing authority may leave it to the supervising authority to provide for continued safety of a fuel fabrication plant continuing operation while licensed modification work is being carried out, if the supervising authority has the competence to do so. The underlying, conceptual nuclear licence and the part-permit issued do not refer to the construction work, which is dealt with in the licensing notice of a part-permit. According to the VwGO (Rules of Procedure of Admin. Courts), the Federal Public Prosecutor is not entitled to file a notice of appeal. (orig.)
Beeson, Diane; Darnovsky, Marcy; Lippman, Abby
The terminology used to discuss third-party reproduction, as with other new biomedical processes, can ease or impede communication and even influence behaviour. In an effort to sensitize analysts and stakeholders to variations in terminology and to facilitate communication on issues arising from international surrogacy arrangements, this paper examines variations in terms used. We introduce some of the issues previously raised by scholars concerned with analysis of discourse related to third-party reproduction. We then survey the terms used in English-language discussions to denote specific actors, including 'surrogates,' 'intended parents,' gamete providers and children, as well as terms used to describe 'surrogacy arrangements.' We conclude with a discussion on navigating and negotiating the use of these various and value-laden terms. PMID:26526414
... services. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a single recipient or joint venture whose proposed budget includes the use of third party in-kind contribution of research as cost share, and no costs shall...
The author of this report discusses the problems raised by application of the special third party liability system to damage which may result from embedding radioactive waste in the sub-seabed. The matter of general liability of the State for nuclear damage caused to the environment is also dealt with in this paper. (NEA)
This paper contains a basic data about the legislation referring to third party liability for nuclear damage in Croatia. It also, gives some drafting provisions in the Croatian Nuclear Liability Act, but only those which implements a substantial changes compared to the Act currently in force. (author)
The no-fault liability principle of nuclear liability regime, its compensation schemes, sociological and legal grounds of its construction as well as liberation grounds are analysed. The simple existence of causation of damage and nuclear accident without necessity of proving negligence or any other type of fault on the part of the operator as an adequate basis for the operator’s strict liability is highlighted thus simplifying the litigation process eliminating potential obstacles, especially such as might exist with the burden of proof. The question of weighing the interests of society in the development of nuclear industry, the necessary extent of protection of victims of nuclear accidents and the interests of operators of nuclear facilities as main determinants of the strict nature of nuclear liability is also described. (orig.)
This paper examines how corporate control is exerted in companies listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange. There are several alternative corporate governance mechanisms which may play a role in disciplining poorly performing management: blockholders (holding companies, industrial companies, families a
... may: (1) Have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more or adversely affect in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public...), prior to the effective date of this document, VA billed $51 for each prescription filled (see 70...
Aziz, Romana; Hillegersberg, van, Jos; Kumar, Kuldeep
Supplier relationship management is an important challenge for shippers in logistics outsourcing. This paper attempts to understand the factors which affect inter organizational relationships performance in third party logistics and proposes a conceptual framework specifically for inter organizational relationship performance in third party logistics. We also draw a set of propositions from published research and exploratory inter-views with practitioners to explain inter organizational relat...
POPEANGĂ VASILE NICOLAE
Full Text Available Romanian legislation stipulates incident in tax as a way of fighting outstanding tax debts in relation to certain conditionalities, the tax authorities can declare the insolvency of the debtor taxpayer and attracting joint liability of third parties on which transfer tax claims extinguish the obligation owed by the insolvent. According to various editions of the Dictionary of the Romanian Language through insolvency means "a situation in which the debtor whose assets are worth less than all obligations would be satisfied with the goods" [DEX 1998] or "situation of the debtor to be in default of debt outstanding [DEX 2009]. From the perspective of civil law, "insolvency resulting from the inferiority of the assets may be subject by law enforcement, to the total amount of outstanding debt" [Law 287/2009 on the Civil Code, art. 1417]. From the perspective of tax law "is insolvent debtor whose income or assets are worth less than the outstanding tax obligations or who has no income or assets" [GO 92/2003 regarding the Fiscal Procedure Code, art. 176].
研究了零售商预测信息分享对第三方负责回收闭环供应链的影响.分别建立了集中式闭环供应链下信息分享模型以及四种信息分享模式(无信息分享、信息仅与第三方分享、信息仅与制造商分享和信息与制造商和第三方均分享)的闭环供应链模型.研究发现,零售商分享其私有预测信息对其收益是不利的,但信息分享使得信息仅与第三方分享模式下供应链预期利润增加,通过建立信息分享补偿机制使得零售商有动机分享其需求预测信息.同时发现信息分享对各方的价值以及各方对信息分享模式的偏好取决于回收旧产品价格.%Rapid economic development is creating environmental concerns. Product remannfacturing or recycling is gaining attention for a number of reasons. These reverse logistics practices can not only reduce the natural resources needed and the waste produced,but also help reduce the environmental burden.A closed-loop supply chain consists of forward and reverse logistics. Depending on different collecting parties, a closed-loop supply chain can be collected by retailers, manufacturers and thirty parties.In a third-party collecting closed-loop supply chain, a retailer obtains more information about market demand than other supply chain members such as manufacturers or third-parties because of the retailer's market proximity.The primary goal of this research is to investigate the effect of a retailer's information advantage on the performance of third-party collecting closed-loop supply chains.A retailer has the option to share market demand information with other supply chain members.The research analyzes the decisions of every supply chain member with the asymmetric information game theory. We first develop a centralized collection model in the centralized closed-loop supply chain.We then develop four information sharing models for decentralized closed-loop supply chains: no information sharing
Third-party coordination apparel supply chain is emerging in recent years,a form of textile and apparel supply chain,this paper analyzes its characteristics,discusses third-party coordination apparel supply chain build points.%第三方协调性服装供应链是近年新兴的一种纺织服装供应链形式，文中分析了它的特征，探讨了第三方协调性服装供应链的构建要点。
Rosston, Gregory L.
While Internet usage blossomed during the entire 1995 – 2001 time period, there was a large change in the nature of the high-speed Internet access business. Initially, connection, routing and content were three separate parts of high-speed Internet service. Cable companies initially teamed with affiliated third-party providers to create their highspeed access combination of connection and routing whereas telephone companies resisted working with third-party providers for their high-speed acce...
Jones, Nicholas A [ORNL; Fahey, Mark R [ORNL
At the ORNL NCCS, the structure and policy surrounding how we install third-party applications. This change is most notable for its effect on our quad-core Cray XT4 (Jaguar) computer. Of particular interest is the addition of many scripts to automate installing and testing system software, as well as the addition of automated reporting mechanisms. We will present an overview of the design and implementation, and also present our experiences to date
Quality customer relationship management is an important factor makes the third party logistics enterprise＇s core competitiveness. According to the characteristics of the third party logistics enterprise customer relationships,this article discusses using data warehouse on management mode of customer data,and gives a number of specific measures and methods.%高质量的客户关系管理是造就第三方物流企业核心竞争力的重要因素。根据第三方物流企业客户关系的特点,探讨了用数据仓库对客户数据进行管理的模式,并给出了一些具体措施和方法。
@@ The relationship between China and the United States is becoming increasingly important in the world; no longer is it limited to bilateral issues, and the third party issue has grown in significance. There are various kinds of third party countries.Some of these, such as Japan, South Korea, Australia and the European countries are U.S. allies. Some, like the central Asian and ASEAN states, are neighbors of China. In the category of major world powers we can also include Russia, India, Japan and the EU, while African and some Latin American countries are relatively marginalized. An important aspect of China's diplomacy in recent years has been to work hard on two fronts:to develop relations with the above mentioned countries, while at the same time taking note of the interests and concerns of the United States. China has achieved a successful balance between the two.
Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John
Third-party intervention, such as when a crowd stops a mugger, is common. Yet it seems irrational because it has real costs but may provide no personal benefits. In a laboratory analogue, the third-party-punishment game, third parties ("punishers") will often spend real money to anonymously punish bad behavior directed at other people. A common explanation is that third-party punishment exists to maintain a cooperative society. We tested a different explanation: Third-party punishment results from a deterrence psychology for defending personal interests. Because humans evolved in small-scale, face-to-face social worlds, the mind infers that mistreatment of a third party predicts later mistreatment of oneself. We showed that when punishers do not have information about how they personally will be treated, they infer that mistreatment of other people predicts mistreatment of themselves, and these inferences predict punishment. But when information about personal mistreatment is available, it drives punishment. This suggests that humans' punitive psychology evolved to defend personal interests. PMID:26851057
Full Text Available Political parties are the engine of social life, without which citizens would not be able to express political will. According to the law of political parties, they fulfill a public mission guaranteed by the Constitution. That is why, considering the subject very current, we considered it important to analyze in this study, in the notion of political pluralism: the concept of political party but also its constitutional dimension. To this end, the study shows the view of the doctrine combined with the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court.
Full Text Available Political parties are the engine of social life, without which citizens would not be able to express political will. According to the law of political parties, they fulfill a public mission guaranteed by the Constitution. That is why, considering the subject very current, we considered it important to analyze in this study, in the notion of political pluralism: the concept of political party but also its constitutional dimension. To this end, the study shows the view of the doctrine combined with the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court.
ANDRA ROXANA ILIE
Full Text Available Although the criminal liability of corporations is now consecrated in Romanian for more than five years, there is however some reticence in engaging the liability of such person. Nonetheless, in the past years, it can be noticed an emergence of the files where the problem of the criminal liability of corporations is raised. The purpose of this paper is to present the main issues from the Romanian case law in this field. Several topics are to be mainly discussed, such as the enforcement of criminal sanctions such as the winding-up or the diffusion of the decision, the application of precautionary measures and interim measures against corporations, the possibility to call a corporation in the criminal trial both as accused and as third party called liable for other person’s acts etc. During this analysis, it can be noticed that the most common crimes perpetrated by corporations are related to employment issues, copyright, corruption, illegal drug trafficking etc. Therefore, the objectives pursued by the present study are to provide an approach on the most recent court decisions where criminal charges against corporations were carried out and to see how the relevant legal provisions were applied in these cases.
There has come a resurgence in the number of companies involved in the oil and gas industry seeking protection from their creditors because of the recent weakness in commodity prices. Because most operations in this industry are conducted jointly, a single insolvency can lead to a toppling of other participants in the joint venture and beyond. The problem is to minimize one's losses if other members of the joint venture become insolvent. An examination is included of some remedies which may be available to operators, non-operators and third parties when faced with an insolvent oil and gas participant. The remedies which may be available to the non-operator that is owed moneys by its operator are discussed. The remedies that the operator has against its non-operators, with an emphasis on the nature of the operator's lien and the right of set-off, are described. A brief review is included of some of the remedies that might be available to a third party as against the operators and non-operators. Some s uggestions are included for directors, bankers, third parties, non-operators and operators
The document reproduces the text of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage which was adopted by a Diplomatic Conference, 8-12 September 1997, and the consolidated text of the 1963 Vienna Convention as amended by the Protocol
Çinlar, Erhan; Ekeland, Ivar; Jouini, Elyes; Scheinkman, José; Touzi, Nizar
The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the second volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. This volume presents the following articles: "Hedging of Defaultable Claims" by T. Bielecki, M. Jeanblanc, and M. Rutkowski; "On the Geometry of Interest Rate Models" by T. Björk; "Heterogeneous Beliefs, Speculation and Trading in Financial Markets" by J.A. Scheinkman, and W. Xiong.
Combined with the SWOT analysis, the paper evaluates the behavior using third - party blog marketing objectively and comprehensively in different angles, expounds the advantages and disadvantages of this blog marketing with examples and all of the opportunities and threats that would face in the future. Meanwhile some helpful references are provided to enterprises blog marketing application.%结合SWOT分析法,从不同的角度对利用第三方博客进行营销的行为给予客观全面的评价,结合案例阐述了这种博客营销的优劣势及其所面临的机会和威胁等,为企业的应用博客营销提供有益参考,并为企业如何规避风险提供了一些对策建议.
Romero, Teresa; de Waal, Frans B M
Postconflict management strategies have been defined as any postconflict interaction that mitigates the negative consequences of the preceding agonistic conflict. Although most studies have investigated postconflict interactions between former opponents or between victims and uninvolved bystanders, interactions between aggressors and bystanders have received much less attention. In this study, we examined a database of 1,102 agonistic interactions and their corresponding postconflict periods in two outdoor-housed groups of captive chimpanzees in order to test the occurrence of postconflict third-party affiliation of aggressors. Our results confirmed the occurrence of appeasement, i.e. postconflict affiliation by a bystander toward an aggressor, but failed to detect the occurrence of postconflict affiliation directed from aggressors toward bystanders. Appeasement rates did not differ according to the sex of the involved individuals. In addition, appeasement occurred more often in the absence of reconciliation than after its occurrence suggesting that appeasement may act as an alternative to reconciliation when the latter fails to occur. Both study groups showed behavioral specificity for appeasement, i.e. context-specific use of certain behaviors, supporting the view that chimpanzees exhibit highly visible explicit postconflict affiliation. PMID:21328598
A convention on the complementary repair of nuclear damages comes and superposes on the Convention of Paris and the Convention of Vienna or national autonomous conventions of nuclear civil liability. In case of accident, a fund would be created to compete the first level of indemnification beyond the contribution of the government. (N.C.)
Booij, R.; Kreuzer, A.D.H.; Smit, A.L.; Werf, van der, F.
In field experiments with Brussels sprouts (cv. Kundry) and leeks (cv. Arcona) on a sandy soil, DM production and N uptake during crop growth were studied at different N application rates. N fertilizer application rate affected DM production, leaf area expansion and N uptake more strongly in Brussels sprouts than in leeks. When all N was applied before transplanting, Brussels sprouts showed a higher recovery of N fertilizer than leeks. This was explained by a higher rate of DM production in B...
The gas deregulation process implies crucial choices concerning access to transportation networks. These choices deal with the nature, the structure and the level of access fees. This paper proposes an evaluation of different systems implemented both in Europe and North America, in relation to normative pricing references. The rules according to which shippers can buy or sell capacity represent another kind of choice that Regulators have to make. This paper proposes a simple model which demonstrates that secondary market prices should not be subject to a cap and emphasizes the need of a 'use-it-or-lose-it' rule on this market. (authors)
David, L.; Percebois, J
The gas deregulation process implies crucial choices concerning access to transportation networks. These choices deal with the nature, the structure and the level of access fees. This paper proposes an evaluation of different systems implemented both in Europe and North America, in relation to normative pricing references. The rules according to which shippers can buy or sell capacity represent another kind of choice that Regulators have to make. This paper proposes a simple model which demonstrates that secondary market prices should not be subject to a cap and emphasizes the need of a 'use-it-or-lose-it' rule on this market. (authors)
Puglisi, Silvia; Rebollo-Monedero, David; Forné, Jordi
On today's Web, users trade access to their private data for content and services. Advertising sustains the business model of many websites and applications. Efficient and successful advertising relies on predicting users' actions and tastes to suggest a range of products to buy. It follows that, while surfing the Web users leave traces regarding their identity in the form of activity patterns and unstructured data. We analyse how advertising networks build user footprints and how the suggest...
The Paris Convention provides that liability for a nuclear incident is channelled onto the operator of the nuclear installation concerned. However, the author analyses in which cases and by what mechanisms, the operator can have a right of recourse against a supplier of that installation. He illustrates, by several scenarios of nuclear incident with transfrontier effects how a supplier may be held liable, and describes the relevant rules of law applicable, based on private international law and tort law principles (NEA)
Venditti, Michelina; Reale, Emanuela; Leydesdorff, Loet
Nations, universities, and regional governments commit resources to promote the dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge. One focuses on knowledge-based innovations and the economic function of the university in terms of technology transfer, intellectual property, university-industry-government relations, etc. Faculties other than engineering or applied sciences, however, may not be able to recognize opportunities in this "linear model" of technology transfer. We elaborate a non-ma...
Maria Luisa Damiani
The advances in positioning technologies and the emergence of geolocation standards opens up to the development of innovative location-based services (LBS), e.g., web-based LBS. These services challenge existing privacy protection solutions. For example, the position information is provided by a third party, the location provider, and this party may be not fully trusted. In this paper, we analyze the web-based LBS model. Then we outline the privacy-aware geolocation strategy which minimizes t...
Fulfillment of FERC's Order 636 requirements will invite consideration of the need to apply the principles of open and workable competition at the retail level. In June 1992, the National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI) invited such consideration by publishing Occasional Paper No. 15, State Regulatory Challenges for the Natural Gas Industry in the 1990s and Beyond, by David B. Hatcher and Arlon R. Tussing. NRRI returned to this subject in its September 1992 Quarterly Bulletin with a research paper entitled open-quotes Pipeline Gas Service Comparability Rule: What Can State Regulators Do Now?close quotes by Daniel J. Duann and David B. Hatcher. These studies bring perspective and controversy to the last stage in connecting the completion fostered by the FERC and others to the ultimate consumers of the natural gas industry. It lists what the authors view as the four critical elements of the natural gas industry today. These elements are: commodity sales are competitive and need not be regulated; most large-volume customers are non-captive and service to them cannot be regulated the same as service to small-volume customers; spot markets for gas are effective and make reliance on supply contracts unnecessarily. Historically, gas contracts have not proven enforceable in extreme conditions (i.e., just when they are most needed); and restricting resale of transportation service is harmful
The opening of the US natural gas market to competition is followed by deep changes in the implemented regulations for an efficient organization and operation of the gas industry. The transformations of the industrial structures and the strategic behavior of the actors characterize the mutations of the gas markets in the USA. The aim of this paper is to transcribe in a synthetic form the characteristics of the gas market in North America and to model the structure of the industry in this sector opened to competition in its back-end. Two main questions are analyzed: the role and position of the former monopoly (utility) in this back-end market (should the local distribution companies continue to sell gas to end users?), and what kind of regulation should be implemented by the authorities in order to avoid the former monopoly to use its market power and make excessive profits. The analysis is made in two steps: the first part explains the hypotheses of the analysis using the characteristics of the North American market. It presents the general framework of the model and explains the two 'regulatory scenarios' retained in the study. The main steps of the resolution of the model are detailed in the second part. (J.S.)
... America Invents Act, 77 FR 448, 449 and 451 (Jan. 5, 2012). After reviewing the public comments received... Provision of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 451. While this final rule amends some aspects of 37... Provision of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 454. Protests pursuant to 37 CFR 1.291 are...
Nuclear liability insurance, which exists in some countries, is provided by pools, which are groups of insurance companies that have voluntarily combined to share the insurance risk. Currently, 28 insurance pools operate worldwide. National pools are members of the international pool system. The pools cover both third party liability and material damage. Entities insured by pools include not only nuclear power plants but also fuel fabrication plants, research reactors, nuclear waste treatment plants, spent fuel reprocessing plants, facilities for protecting nuclear wastes before disposal, as well as nuclear fuel and facility carriers and suppliers. (J.B.)
Ţenovici Cristina Otilia
Full Text Available Nowadays, the activity performed by professional accountants should be transparent and the communication process should be an efficient one so that the data transmitted is relevant and reliable. Such characteristics can become achievable only within a quality accounting referential, based on international accounting standards likely to integrate the public field particularities. The need to obtain comparable and transparent information in the public sector has determined the emergence of IPSAS standards, high quality standards with benefice consequences upon the world economy. The purpose of the disclose study is to analyse the development of accountancy in Romania and the level of accounting harmonization and convergence with IPSAS 19 “Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets”. We are also focusing on performing a comparison between the main characteristics of the disclose national and international regulations, with the mention of resemblances and differences on provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets in order to identify the range of convergent and divergent issues.
Austin, David; Alberini, Anna
We analyze factors in states' decisions to switch their approaches to hazardous waste liability policy from negligence standards to policies based on strict liability. Many, but not all, states have switched in recent years. We explain differences in the timing of states' adoption of strict liability into their "mini-superfund" programs using data on states' industrial activities, environmental programs, wealth and education, and political orientation. We test implications of a theoretical mo...
As the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant accident brought a renewed focus to the discussion of international nuclear liability regimes, and notably the administration of a liability system to compensate damages resulting from a nuclear accident, this article recalls the background on existing international nuclear liability conventions (original and revised Paris and Vienna conventions), briefly indicates the common principles reflected in the international nuclear liability conventions. The author outlines the challenges in achieving a global nuclear liability regime, reports and comments the Japanese experience in handling compensation issues in the wake of the Fukushima accident. He gives an overview of recent developments: IAEA action plan on nuclear safety, action of the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX), CSC or Convention on Supplementary Compensation
刘南; 姜泰元; 姜敏求
从第三方物流服务的现实需求出发,通过案例研究.剖析第三方物流企业在制造企业物流方面的创新点.%This paper discusses that the third party logistics provider can contribute significantly to their businesses by reducing their logistics cost, optimizing logistics operation system and achieving soft power. In this study, we report a case study of a logistics company in the Korean to shed a light on this issue and suggest several managerial implications.
After noticing that the Chernobyl accident had emphasized the importance of transfrontier damages risk, two points of views are exposed: the territoriality principle that expresses that the compensation regime of the Convention (Vienna Convention on civil liability in 1963) should be profitable to national from states having accepted the rights and the obligations of the Convention. The other principle is the universality principle that advocates that states at the origin of nuclear risks have to take in charge the compensation of eventual victims whatever they are or no national from countries being Parties of the Convention. (N.C.)
Gordon, Daniel A
On 17 October 1961 a peaceful protest of Algerians in Paris, against a night-time curfew which applied only to them, was organised by the Féderation de France of the Front de Libération National (FLN), near the end of its guerrilla war against the French authorities in Algeria (1954-1962). The march was brutally repressed by the police, with somewhere in the region of 200 fatalities. Long a taboo subject in France, these events have recently been the subject of public controversy, notably dur...
任宇飞; 李金; 李海霞
Objective: To explore the payment of using third-party payment platform to optimize outpatient financial settlement. Methods: Third-party payment platform and debit without pin were introduced to build the way of payment with bank card and the security mechanism, and construct financial system of fund settlement and error handling. Results: Patients can use bank card accounts to pay for treatment in any department in time. Conclusion: Outpatient financial settlement in hospitals based on third-party payment platform had advantages of transfer payments, point-of-sale payments and merchants bank line payments, and also avoided the disadvantages.%目的：探索使用第三方支付平台优化医院门诊财务结算方式。方法：引入第三方支付平台和无密支付技术，建设银行卡支付渠道和安全机制，建设医院资金清算和差错处理财务制度。结果：患者可用银行卡账户资金在费用发生科室实时缴纳就诊费用。结论：基于第三方支付平台的医院门诊财务结算方式，综合了银行卡转账支付、销售终端支付、银行商户专线支付的优势，同时克服了其缺陷。
Guillén, Pablo; Hing, Alexander
We test the effect of advice on the well known top trading cycles (TTC) matching algorithm in a school choice frame work. We compare three treatments involving third party advice [right advice (R), wrong advice (W), and both right and wrong advice (RW)] to a no-advice baseline (B). In line with previous literature the truth telling rate is higher than 80% in the baseline, but it becomes as low as 35% in the W treatment. Truth telling rates are also significantly lower in R than in B, and much...
Green Building Councils (GBCs) have been established in many different countries in recent years. This paper discusses the role such organizations can play in the respective construction and real estate industry and under what circumstances a GBC can contribute positively to the development of a “greener” or “more sustainable” stock of buildings. The paper investigates the main informational problem of the industry by looking at the relation between a developer and an investor from an economic point of view. We argue that the investor's uncertainty about the true quality of a building and the corresponding incentive for the developer to cheat may lock them into a prisoners' dilemma trap. The corresponding barriers for a transition toward a “greener” buildings market are analyzed. GBCs are described as institutions of economic governance that can assist the economy in overcoming these problems. They can act as third party institutions in transactions between developers and investors. By certifying the quality of a building, they can reduce the risk for the investor to be cheated by the developer and also increase the incentive to develop good quality buildings for the developer. This task, however, raises some severe management challenges for the GBCs. - Highlights: ► We focus on Green Building Councils and their economic role. ► The paper investigates the informational problem of the sustainable building market. ► Developers and investors are locked in a prisoner's dilemma. ► Can the councils act as third party institutions to certify quality of buildings? ► Credibility and reliability are key features for third party certification.
Third Party Financing means the packaging together of both technical aid and the necessary funding for energy cost saving investments by an outside company (outside to the energy user that is), using the energy cost savings themselves to pay for that investment. There are two key factors which differentiate Third Party Financing and conventional approaches to the implementation of energy conservation projects, the first of which is the provision of all the necessary technical services - both initial and detailed energy audits, engineering design and implementation - from one source. The second difference involves viewing the energy cost savings as a ''stream oincome'' which will repay the cost of the investment. This approach has a number of attractions to energy users: the outside company brings both its technical expertise and the necessary up-front capital to fund the energy saving investment. In addition, because the payments to the outside company are contingent, either wholly or in part, upon the level and timing of the energy cost savings the technical and financial risk for the investment is transferred from the energy user to the outside company. However, although simple in concept, third party financing is complex in practice. How does an energy user judge one third party financing proposal against another? If an agreement is made, how are energy savings measured or what happens if there is a dispute between the two parties? These are examples of the practical questions addressed in this paper which must be resolved if third party financing is to be used to assist energy saving. (Author)
N. 2874 Report realized for the foreign Affairs commission on the law project n. 2785 authorizing the approbation of international agreements on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain; N. 2874 Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi n. 2785 autorisant l'approbation d'accords internationaux sur la responsabilite civile dans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire
This report is discussing the approval of two new protocols aiming to modify the OECD convention on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain. After a presentation of the international regime of civil liability in the nuclear domain with the Paris and Vienna conventions, the author analyzes the main improvements offered by the two new protocols. (A.L.B.)
... partnership, joint venture, or syndicate, the indemnity agreement must: (i) Bind each partner or party who has... under your third-party guarantee, each partner is jointly and severally liable for compliance with...
... section 14(a) of the CPSA in a notice published in the Federal Register on February 9, 2009 (74 FR 6396... December 28, 2009, the Commission published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 68588) revising the... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1611 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Vinyl Plastic...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the Solubility of the Eight Elements Listed in ASTM F963-11 Correction In notice document 2013-8858 appearing on pages 22518-22520 in the issue...
According to common law and also the Paris and Vienna Conventions on nuclear liability, the rights of victims for compensation are extinguished after a period calculated from the moment of the casual event. This report points out difficulties of checking the moment of the incident (breaking of cargo containers) after loss or jettison of nuclear substances into deep sea water and any other abandonment. The legal 20 year period starting from loss or jettison would be the more convenient ''buffer'' for third party actions. Operators' insurers will continue to subordinate their coverage to effective nuclear incident independently of its date of occurrence, but within a ten year period of subsequent cover after termination of the policy. (author)
... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1217 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toddler Beds: Requirements... regulation relating to toddler beds. The Commission is issuing this notice of requirements pursuant to... pursuant to the safety standard for toddler beds, which appears elsewhere in this issue of the...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedures for third-party summonses. 70.25 Section 70.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... relevant to the examination, to prevent the communication of information from other persons...
Brett, Tobias, E-mail: email@example.com; Galla, Tobias, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)
We present a heuristic derivation of Gaussian approximations for stochastic chemical reaction systems with distributed delay. In particular, we derive the corresponding chemical Langevin equation. Due to the non-Markovian character of the underlying dynamics, these equations are integro-differential equations, and the noise in the Gaussian approximation is coloured. Following on from the chemical Langevin equation, a further reduction leads to the linear-noise approximation. We apply the formalism to a delay variant of the celebrated Brusselator model, and show how it can be used to characterise noise-driven quasi-cycles, as well as noise-triggered spiking. We find surprisingly intricate dependence of the typical frequency of quasi-cycles on the delay period.
We present a heuristic derivation of Gaussian approximations for stochastic chemical reaction systems with distributed delay. In particular, we derive the corresponding chemical Langevin equation. Due to the non-Markovian character of the underlying dynamics, these equations are integro-differential equations, and the noise in the Gaussian approximation is coloured. Following on from the chemical Langevin equation, a further reduction leads to the linear-noise approximation. We apply the formalism to a delay variant of the celebrated Brusselator model, and show how it can be used to characterise noise-driven quasi-cycles, as well as noise-triggered spiking. We find surprisingly intricate dependence of the typical frequency of quasi-cycles on the delay period
Zeff, Harrison B.; Characklis, Gregory W.
As developing new supply capacity has become increasingly expensive and difficult to permit (i.e., regulatory approval), utilities have become more reliant on temporary demand management programs, such as outdoor water use restrictions, for ensuring reliability during drought. However, a significant fraction of water utility income is often derived from the volumetric sale of water, and such restrictions can lead to substantial revenue losses. Given that many utilities set prices at levels commensurate with recovering costs, these revenue losses can leave them financially vulnerable to budgetary shortfalls. This work explores approaches for mitigating drought-related revenue losses through the use of third-party financial insurance contracts based on streamflow indices. Two different types of contracts are developed, and their efficacy is compared against two more traditional forms of financial hedging used by water utilities: Drought surcharges and contingency funds (i.e., self-insurance). Strategies involving each of these approaches, as well as their use in combination, are applied under conditions facing the water utility serving Durham, North Carolina. A multireservoir model provides information on the scale and timing of droughts, and the financial effects of these events are simulated using detailed data derived from utility billing records. Results suggest that third-party index insurance contracts, either independently or in combination with more traditional hedging tools, can provide an effective means of reducing a utility's financial vulnerability to drought.
Kangasmaa, Tuija S; Constable, Chris; Hippeläinen, Eero; Sohlberg, Antti O
Reliable and reproducible quantification is essential in many clinical situations. Previously, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has not been considered a quantitative imaging modality, but recent advances in reconstruction algorithm development have made SPECT quantitative. In this study, we investigate the reproducibility of SPECT quantification with phantoms in a multicenter setting using novel third-party reconstruction software. A total of five hospitals and eight scanners (three GE scanners and five Siemens scanners) participated in the study. A Jaszczak phantom without inserts was used to calculate counts to activity concentration conversion factors. The quantitative accuracy was tested using the NEMA-IEC phantom with six spherical inserts (diameters from 10 to 37 mm) filled to an 8 : 1 insert-background concentration ratio. Phantom studies were reconstructed at one central location using HERMES HybridRecon applying corrections for attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter. Spherical volumes of interest with the same diameter as the inserts were drawn on the images and recovery coefficients for the spheres were calculated. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the NEMA-IEC phantom recovery coefficients ranged from ∼19 to 5% depending on the insert diameter so that the lowest CoV was obtained with the largest spheres. The intersite CoV was almost equal to intrasite CoV. In conclusion, quantitative SPECT is reproducible in a multicenter setting with third-party reconstruction software. PMID:27128824
Full text: It appears that nuclear emergency plans place generally more emphasis on the nuclear safety and radiation protection aspects of the management of an accident, both inside the installation concerned and off-site, than on the particular requirements of local residents who would find themselves suddenly in such an emergency situation and of possible victims of nuclear damage. In a similar vein, studies focusing on the international nuclear third party liability regime usually take a global perspective and leave little room for the treatment of individual cases. The albeit welcome dearth of practical experience in Western countries in providing compensation for accidents of nuclear origin has, however, meant that public and local authorities are not always fully conscious of the importance of this question which should be dealt with in as practical a manner as possible. In order to cover all the legal and practical questions that could arise during the management of the consequences of a nuclear accident with regard to third party liability, insurance and compensation, the OECD/NEA held in co-operation with French authorities a workshop in November 2001. It was decided to organize this workshop according to three main stages: the alert phase, the accident phase and the post-accident phase; and to examine during these three stages the various roles played by local and national authorities, the nuclear operator and his insurer, as well as the nature and form of their respective actions. These questions were addressed both from the angle of applicable domestic legislation and of the relevant international conventions. From the analysis of different national experiences and of the information exchanged during the workshop, a striking diversity may be noted of solutions adopted or envisaged to address various aspects of civil liability, insurance and indemnification of damage in a nuclear emergency situation. This lack of uniformity should not necessarily be
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interactions. One attractive model system is the interaction between Arabidopsis and Phytophthora brassicae. Under laboratory conditions, Arabidopsis can be easily infected with mycelial plugs as inoculum. In the disease cycle, however, sporangia or zoospores are the infectious propagules. Since the current P. brassicae zoospore isolation methods are generally regarded as inefficient, we aimed at developing an alternative method for obtaining high concentrations of P. brassicae zoospores. Results P. brassicae isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Brussels sprout plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Microscopic examination of leaves, stems and roots infected with a GFP-tagged transformant of P. brassicae clearly demonstrated the susceptibility of the various tissues. Leaf discs were cut from infected Brussels sprout leaves, transferred to microwell plates and submerged in small amounts of water. In the leaf discs the hyphae proliferated and abundant formation of zoosporangia was observed. Upon maturation the zoosporangia released zoospores in high amounts and zoospore production continued during a period of at least four weeks. The zoospores were shown to be infectious on Brussels sprouts and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The in vitro leaf disc method established from P. brassicae infected Brussels sprout leaves facilitates convenient and high-throughput production of infectious zoospores and is thus suitable to drive small and large scale inoculation experiments. The system has the advantage that zoospores are produced continuously over a period of at least one month.
... Parties at the meetings. On November 9, 2012, we published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 67390... Fish and Wildlife Service Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in..., as a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and...
The Third German Symposium on Nuclear Law was oranised by the Institute for Public International Law of Goettingen University and the German Federal Ministry of the Interior. The topics dealt with covered legal problems in the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, technical rules and guidelines concerning reactor safety, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and related verification agreements, third party liability for nuclear incidents and finally, financial security and State intervention in the context of the German Bills to ratify the nuclear conventions and the amendments to the German Atomic Energy Act, in particular concerning third party liability for nuclear incidents. (N.E.A.)
LI Shundong; DAI Yiqi; YOU Qiyou
Secure multi-party computation is a focus of international cryptography in recent years. Protocols for Yao's millionaires' problem have become an important building block of many secure multi-party computation protocols. Their efficiency are crucial to the efficiency of many secure multi-party computation protocols. Unfortunately, known protocols for Yao's millionaires' problem have high computational complexity or communication complexity. In this study, based on the 1-out-of-m oblivious transfer and set-inclusion problem, we propose a new protocol to solve this problem. This new protocol is very efficient in terms of both computational and communication complexities. Its privacy-preserving property is also proved by simulation paradigm which is generally accepted in the study of secure multi-party computation. We also compare the information leakage of our new protocol and the known protocols.
In the judicial practice there are different disposition concerning the validity of the gifting of commu -nity property by one of the spouse to the third party:in some cases it is decided to be invalid and the gift is confis-cated by the state while in other cases , it is regarded as valid;it can also be regarded as partial valid in some cases and half of the gift is decided to be returned .Cohabitation outside marriage and gifting are two separate legal ac-tions , the reasonableness of conditions for gifting and the percentage of the gifted property in the community proper -ty should be considered in order to decide the validity of the gifting so as to balance the interests of the parties in -volved.%对于夫妻一方将共同财产赠与“第三者”的行为，司法实践中有的判决无效，将赠与财产全部返还或收缴归国家所有；有的判决有效，不必返还；有的判决部分无效，返还一半财产。婚外同居行为与赠与行为是两个独立的行为，应该考察赠与行为所附条件的正当性与否以及赠与财产在夫妻共同财产中所占的比重来决定赠与行为的效力，从而平衡各方当事人的利益。
文中总结了我国第三方物流企业在提升供应链核心企业的管理能力及实施过程中的作用，并针对在供应链管理条件下第三方物流的现状和问题，提出第三方物流在供应链管理条件下的发展建议，从而促进第三方物流在新的环境下的发展。%This paper summarizes the third party logistics enterprises in the supply chain management ability and the implementation process of the role, and in the supply chain management conditions of the three party logistics and the problem, put forward third party logistics in the supply chain management development proposal, so as to promote the development of the third party logistics in the new environment.
Power has an important, but elusive, factor in mediation and conflict resolution. This is clear from a foregoing discussion of relations between parties of different status and of the participation of major powers as mediators. This paper discusses the two situations that are most relevant for the problem of nuclear war: the relations between major powers themselves, and the relations between major powers and regional conflicts with a potential of escalation. These situations differ in ways that affect the possibilities and usefulness of third-party activities. some conclusions on mediation can be drawn for each specific category and for more general ones
Based on the third-party payment,there are so many channels for money-laundering,such as making the cash into the third-party payment,fictitious sale,screening the fund flow,cross-border supply and so on.In order to implement the safe prevention of money-laundering,firstly,the legal framework should be completed;secondly,the system of customer identify certified should be improved and the bloke trade and suspicious transactions should be reported;thirdly,the supervisory system of anti-money-laundering should be established;lastly,self-discipline of respective trade and international cooperation should be enhanced.To avoid unmanageable transaction and financial flow,banking accounts should be bound and the transaction records should be kept by aid of internet,which can guarantee the reality of deal,and resurrect the source and destination of funds.%利用第三方支付进行洗钱的路径有现金植入第三方支付系统、虚构交易、屏蔽资金流向、跨境支付等。我国应完善反洗钱法律制度,健全客户身份识别制度、大额交易和可疑交易报告制度,建立反洗钱监控系统,加强行业自律与国际合作,更要针对失控的交易与资金流,通过物联网帐户绑定、保存交易记录来保证交易的真实、再现资金的最初来源和最终去向,以实现对第三方支付洗钱的安全防范。
Vermeulen, Joeri; Beeckman, Katrien; De Clercq, Gerlinde; Vandelannoote, Isabelle; Gucciardo, Léonardo; Laubach, Monika; Swinnen, Eva
Simulation training is a powerful and evidence-based teaching method for students and healthcare professionals. The described educational model of Inter-professional Perinatal Simulation training is the result of a collaborative project with the Erasmus University College Brussels, the Medical School of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and the University Hospital Brussels. This model enhances student midwives to acquire competencies in all fields of midwifery according to national and European legislation and to the International Confederation of Midwives Global Standards for Midwifery Education. In our educational program, simulation training enhanced the achievement of decision-making and inter-professional communication competences. PMID:26719196
Since Chernobyl in 1986, there have also been intensive activities in the insurance business in reviewing the legal framework conditions in terms of there consequences for a possible settlement of claims and in dealing with the question whether the old organizational rulings can still be considered sufficient in the light of the aforementioned disaster that has occured. This leads to the deliberations on a legal canalization of liability, on third party liability, financial security, indemnification by the state, damages through precautionary measures (evacuation) and organisation of the settlement of claims. (orig./HSCH)
The authors, who participate in the negotiations on climate, propose an analysis and a description of the various geopolitical, economic and financial challenges which are part of the next conference on climate (Conference of Parties, COP 21) which is to take place in France in December 2015. They notably discuss to which extent France is an example, what Obama can do, why things are changing in China, who are the opponents in the struggle against climate change. While one of the main issue of this conference, and the possible cause of its failure, will be the financial issue, and particularly the promise made in 2009 to mobilise 100 billions dollars every year in favour of developing countries which are the most impacted by global warming, in an interview, one of the author evokes the content of his book: he discusses the general consensus about the human origin of climate change, evokes fossil industries and oil producing countries as opponents to an energy revolution, outlines that energy transition is at the heart of what he calls the Battle of Paris (the conference), outlines the important role France can play despite some weaknesses of its climate policy, the new momentum given by China and the USA. He considers low carbon economy as the main world challenge on the long term
... party testing. The NOR can be found at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-10/pdf/2011-19678.pdf... COMMISSION Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the... element (lead or certain other elements) or chemical (six prohibited phthalates), such that third...
The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position. PMID:26076865
When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials
The Second Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety was held in the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna from 15-26 April 2002, under the chairmanship of the President, Mr Miroslav Gregoric, Director of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Authority. The Convention on Nuclear Safety entered into force in October 1996, has been signed by sixty-five States and ratified by fifty-four, bringing within its scope 428 of the 448 nuclear reactors worldwide. The Convention aims to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide, through inter alia enhancement of national measures and international co-operation. Obligations on Contracting Parties in accordance with the Convention include: the establishment and maintenance of a legislative and regulatory framework to govern the safety of land-based civil nuclear installations; the allocation of adequate financial and human resources to support the safety objectives; ensuring that all reasonably practicable improvements to safety are made as a matter of urgency. Adherence to this Convention entails two basic commitments by each Contracting Party: to prepare and make available a national report for review; and to subject its national report to a peer review by the other Contracting Parties. Thus, being a Contracting Party to this Convention involves: including in the national report a self-assessment of steps and measures already taken and in progress to implement the Convention obligations; taking an active part in an open and transparent review of its national report and the Reports of other Contracting Parties; and a commitment to a continuous learning and improving process, something which is a key element of a strong safety culture. The peer review of national reports takes place every three years, the first having been held in 1999. The Second Review Meeting was attended by delegates from 46 contracting parties. During the review certain issues were
The Sino-American Seminar on Nuclear Liability was held in Beijing, People's Republic of China from April 26-27, 2000, and co-sponsored by Chinese Nuclear Society and U.S. Nuclear Energy Institute. The topics of the meeting were the follows: 1. Current U.S. Nuclear Liability Regime; 2. Current Chinese Nuclear Liability Regime; 3. Comparison of U.S. and Other Nuclear Liability Regime; International Nuclear Liability Conventions; 4. Role of Nuclear Insurance in U.S.; 5. Chinese Nuclear Insurance and Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool; 6. How nuclear Liability Practices Have Been Implemented in U.S.; U.S. Nuclear Claims Experience; 7. Liability for On-Site Nuclear Property Damage
consider to ensure that nuclear energy is developed beneficially, responsibly and sustainably. The other is called Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. It systematically defines all the milestones that should guide a country's preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power. These cover the appropriate legal and regulatory framework, engineering, financial and environmental concerns, safety and security, as well as the appropriate safeguards regime. These milestones are designed to help countries make progress, not to put obstacles in their way. Our second key role is as a reviewer. At the request of a Member State, we assemble teams of experts to conduct detailed reviews of, for example, the operational safety of its nuclear facilities, the effectiveness of its regulatory system or its overall progress in preparing for nuclear power. This system of peer review - which involves experts sharing information and experience with other experts - is of immense value. It helps to increase transparency, to the benefit of all. Third, the Agency provides a broad range of training to Member States. For example, we organize highly specialised technical training for nuclear engineers and scientists. In Montpelier, we help to run courses in nuclear law. This training helps countries to build up their own expertise so they can make informed decisions and are well prepared in dealing with vendors, consultants, industry associations and other governments. The IAEA plays an active role in contributing to technological development. A good example is the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Continual innovation in nuclear technology is essential. Fast reactors, for example, make it possible to extend the lifetime of uranium resources from hundreds of years to thousands of years, to lower costs and to reduce nuclear waste. Here, also, success will depend on international coordination. Let me state again that
Thode, Wiebke; Griesbaum, Joachim; Mandl, Thomas
This study examines the perception on third-party tracking of German Internet users. For that purpose, 20 users without a technical background were interviewed. Results indicate that users are not aware of online tracking. They are often surprised by the magnitude of tracking programs they are exposed to during everyday life online activities like travel planning, job or product research. While the interviewees were willing to concede the theoretical advantages of such data ...
The non-proliferation activities and instruments are listed in a table. The two main instruments are the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the IAEA Safeguards, which are supplemented by treaties of regional restricted effects, such as the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the EURATOM treaty. The two-tier structure of the treaties, i.e. to provide for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and at the same time foster the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, has proven to have a particularly stabilizing effect, which was confirmed by the last Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation. The conference members were particularly satisfied with the results of the IAEA Safeguards. Future developments towards improving international safeguards will concentrate on operator-friendly and financially reasonable safeguards measures, such as safeguards effectiveness evaluations and near-real-time accountancy. The results of the CAS discussions on the definition of principles and goals of co-operation for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are of importance also to the PUNE conference. The PUNE conference will be held in 1987 and is expected to yield points of orientation for further embedding the non-proliferation principle in the international co-operative activities and the nuclear business in the 1980s. (orig./HP)
Erkayman, Burak; Gundogar, Emin; Yilmaz, Aysegul
Outsourcing some of the logistic activities is a useful strategy for companies in recent years. This makes it possible for firms to concentrate on their main issues and processes and presents facility to improve logistics performance, to reduce costs, and to improve quality. Therefore provider selection and evaluation in third-party logistics become important activities for companies. Making a strategic decision like this is significantly hard and crucial. In this study we proposed a fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach to effectively select the most appropriate provider. First we identify the provider selection criteria and build the hierarchical structure of decision model. After building the hierarchical structure we determined the selection criteria weights by using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) technique. Then we applied fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to obtain final rankings for providers. And finally an illustrative example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. PMID:23365520
With nuclear power generating 43% of its total electricity production, Switzerland is amongst the states, employing the highest percentage of nuclear electricity. Although, the country has not ratified any of the international Nuclear Liability Conventions, its Nuclear Third Party Liability Act reflects all the principles, underlying those Conventions. The statutory liability of the operator of a Swiss nuclear installation itself being unlimited, the total insurance limit of CHF 770 m. provides the highest private insurance protection worldwide. With the support of its foreign Reinsurance Pools, the capacity for this insurance guarantee has, over more than 40 years, been built up by the Swiss Nuclear Insurance Pool. Apart from Third Party Liability cover, the Pool also provides Property insurance to Swiss nuclear installation operators and reinsurance cover to other nuclear insurers worldwide. (author)
Typically, liability for on-site property addressed in contracts between operator and its suppliers. Nuclear power plant operators ordinarily protect themselves against risk of nuclear damage to on-site property by insurance. Nuclear liability laws do not specifically address liability for nuclear damage to on-site property. Nuclear plant owners should address risk of damage to on-site property when developing risk management program
This thesis studies the role of third parties in tempering informational issues at stake with regard to corporate social responsibility (CSR). Firms growingly claim to be adopting responsible practices, and it may be so because some socially conscious stakeholders (e.g. consumers, investors) are ready to reward such behaviors. Nevertheless, truthfulness of firms' virtue claims is often impossible or at least difficult to ascertain, which creates an incentive for firms to manipulate their comm...
Official report and motion on the Committee for Internal Affairs of the Bundestag (4. Committee), concerning the proposed third bill amending the Atomic Energy Act framed by the Federal Government. Bulletins 7/2183, 7/2538
The new bill is to adapt the national atomic energy legislation to the conventions which are to be ratified in conformity with the bill to be drafted after the Paris and Brussels Atomic Liability Conventions. It will also prevent a change for the worse in the national atomic liability legislation after the ratification and serve to improve national liability in the interest of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. These aims will be accomplished by 1) amendment and supplementation of those provisions of the Atomic Energy Law that are affected by the new conventions to be ratified, 2) full use, as far as possible, of the reservations made by the Federal Republic at the time of signature of the conventions, with a view to improving the protection of victims, 3) an upward adjustment of the present maximum amount of liability from DM 500 million to DM 1,000 million, 4) an upward adjustment of the financial security required from the present DM 120 million to DM 500 million, 5) a shift of the present indemnification by the Bund from the present range between DM 120 to DM 500 million to the range between DM 500 to DM 1,000 million with the Laender participating in such indemnification, 6) a regime of compensation for persons residing in the Federal Republic who suffer damage caused by foreign reactors with a view to ensure equal treatment of all persons suffering damage in Germany regardless of whether the nuclear incident occurred in Germany or abroad. (orig./AK)
Abrams, David; Daniel L. Chen
The alienability of legal claims holds the promise of increasing access to justice and fostering development of the law. While much theoretical work points to this possibility, no empirical work has investigated the claims, largely due to the rarity of trading in legal claims in modern systems of law. In this paper we take the first step toward empirically testing some of these theoretical claims using data from Australia. We find some evidence that third-party funding corresponds to an incre...
Li, Junguo; Chen, Xiangping; Huang, Gang; HONG, MEI; Chauvel, Franck
To build highly available or reliable applications out of unreliable third-party components, some software-implemented fault-tolerant mechanisms are introduced to gracefully deal with failures in the components. In this paper, we address an important issue in the approach: how to select the most suitable fault-tolerant mechanisms for a given application in a specific context. To alleviate the difficulty in the selection, these mechanisms are abstracted as Fault-tolerant styles (FTSs) at first...
Hiatt, Shon Russell; Park, Sangchan
Little is known about the factors that influence regulatory-agency decision making. We posit that regulatory agencies are influenced by the firms they regulate, but not exclusively via dyadic exchanges as is traditionally argued in the regulatory capture and business-government literatures. Instead, regulatory decisions are indirectly shaped via third-party actors who shield agencies from legitimacy threats. Focusing empirically on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's approval of genetically ...
Sweeney, Edward; Evangelista, Pietro; Huge-Brodin, Maria; Isaksson, Karin
The increasing importance of environmental sustainability has sharpened the focus on the need for innovative approaches to the purchasing of transport and logistics services. This article points out some of the challenges that purchasers of transport and logistics services, as well as their suppliers in the third party logistics (3PL) industry, are facing. These include the need for closer collaboration between 3PLs and their customers, as well as developing systems for the robust assessment ...
This paper examines how corporate control is exerted in companies listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange. There are several alternative corporate governance mechanisms which may play a role in disciplining poorly performing management: blockholders (holding companies, industrial companies, families and institutions), the market for partial control, debt policy, and board composition. Even if there is redundancy of substitute forms of discipline, some mechanisms may dominate. We find that top m...
Diabat, A.; Khreishah, A.; Govindan, Kannan;
analyze the interactions among the barriers. Findings: It is beneficial for the management of any firm to be aware of significant barriers and to diagnose those that could be integral to the organization's future survival. Many works have focused on identifying barriers for TPL implementation, but a model...... identified separately. Originality/value: In this research, eight barriers are considered. Interactions between the barriers are evaluated with the help of the ISM matrix. Of the eight barriers, three barriers, including the lack of application and knowledge of advanced information technology, congested......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction among some of the major barriers that may hinder the implementation of third-party logistics (TPL) in manufacturing industries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses an interpretive structural modeling (ISM) methodology to...
Full Text Available We investigated 14-month-old infants’ expectations toward a third party addressee of communicative gestures and an instrumental action. Infants’ eye-movements were tracked as they observed a person (the Gesturer point, direct a palm-up request gesture, or reach toward an object, and another person (the Addressee respond by grasping it. Infants’ looking patterns indicate that when the Gesturer pointed or used the palm-up request, infants anticipated that the Addressee would give the object to the Gesturer, suggesting that they ascribed a motive of request to the gestures. In contrast, when the Gesturer reached for the object, and in a control condition where no action took place, the infants did not anticipate the Addressee’s response. The results demonstrate that infants’ recognition of communicative gestures extends to others’ interactions, and that infants can anticipate how third-party addressees will respond to others’ gestures.
Third party logistics is a concept that is widely accepted as an alternative to vertical integration. The degree to which it is applied in practice varies considerably. The focus of this research is the role of TPLPs in existing logistics systems, and how they themselves can influence this. This is influenced by the strategic position with which a TPLP is trusted by a shipper, and to some extent by a TPLP's competence and entrepreneurial behaviour towards logistics management. Logistics comp...
The present document surveys the issues related to transparency and third party participation in investor-state dispute settlement procedures. Section I examines the way in which the current rules apply to these issues. Section II describes the steps taken to improve the transparency of the system at the governmental level, by the arbitral Tribunals and the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Section III examines the perceived advantages as well as the chal...
Full Text Available The use of third party logistic(3PL services providers is increasing globally to accomplish the strategic objectives. In the increasingly competitive environment, logistics strategic management requires systematic and structured approach to have cutting edge over the rival. Logistics service provider selection is a complex multi-criteria decision making process; in which, decision makers have to deals with the optimization of conflicting objectives such as quality, cost, and delivery time. In this paper, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP approach based on technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS method has been proposed for evaluating and selecting an appropriate logistics service provider, where the ratings of each alternative and importance weight of each criterion are expressed in triangular fuzzy numbers.
Boyd, Rodney; Green, Fergus; Stern, Nicholas
Headline issue: Effective international cooperation can help the world develop along a 2°C pathway and adapt to the climatic changes already locked-in as a result of past and ongoing greenhouse gas emissions. It can also help countries seize the many opportunities and benefits associated with the transition to a low-carbon economy. The United Nations climate change conference in Paris at the end of 2015 is an important opportunity to advance toward those objectives. The French Governmen...
Full Text Available In this article we reviewed the two-way crossed classification credibility model. This model is an extension of the hierarchical models of Jewell and Taylor. When the risk factors are not nested then 3 hierarchical model is not applicable. In the crossed classification credibility models, the risk factors are modelled without restrictions of a hierarchical structure and that makes them of great practical interest. In the two-way crossed classification credibility model the risks in a portfolio are classified based on two risk factors. In this model the credibility premium for a certain contract is equal to the overall mean for the portfolio plus adjustments for the risk experience within the contract itself and the risk experience within the class of the risk factors to which it belongs. The objective of this article is to show alternatives of an application of crossed classification credibility models in third-party auto insurance in Slovak Republic.
TNF-alpha inhibitors represent one of the most important areas of biopharmaceuticals by sales, with three blockbusters accounting for 8 per cent of total pharmaceutical sale in Norway. Novelty of the paper is to examine, with the use of a unique natural policy experiment in Norway, to what extent the price responsiveness of prescription choices is affected when the identity of the third-party payer changes. The three dominating drugs in this market, Enbrel, Remicade, and Humira, are substitut...
Morten Dalen Dag; Locatelli Marilena; Sorisio Enrico; Strom Steinar
TNF-alpha inhibitors represent one of the most important areas of biopharmaceuticals by sales, with three blockbusters accounting for 8 per cent of total pharmaceutical sale in Norway. Novelty of the paper is to examine, with the use of a unique natural policy experiment in Norway, to what extent the price responsiveness of prescription choices is affected when the identity of the third-party payer changes. The three dominating drugs in this market, Enbrel, Remicade, and Humira, are substitut...
Dalen, Dag Morten; Locatelli, Marilena; Sorisio, Enrico; Strøm, Steinar
TNF-alpha inhibitors represent one of the most important areas of biopharmaceuticals by sales, with threeblockbusters accounting for 8 per cent of total pharmaceutical sale in Norway. Novelty of the paper is to examine, with the use of a unique natural policy experiment in Norway, to what extent the price responsiveness of prescription choices is affected when the identity of the third-party payer changes. The three dominating drugs in this market, Enbrel, Remicade, and Humira, are substitute...
Maria Luisa Damiani
Full Text Available The advances in positioning technologies and the emergence of geolocation standards opens up to the development of innovative location-based services (LBS, e.g., web-based LBS. These services challenge existing privacy protection solutions. For example, the position information is provided by a third party, the location provider, and this party may be not fully trusted. In this paper, we analyze the web-based LBS model. Then we outline the privacy-aware geolocation strategy which minimizes the interaction with the untrusted location provider by caching the information that is useful to determine the position in proximity of the private positions, e.g., home, which have been already visited. The deployment of this strategy requires investigating several issues and novel tools. The objective of this paper is to discuss the technical challenges and suggest directions of research towards a comprehensive privacy-preserving framework. To our knowledge, this is the first work on privacy protection against untrusted location providers.
Full Text Available Logistics firms play an important role in the economy but they have received little attention in strategic management and logistics management literature. This paper intends to fill in this gap by looking a specific strategising process, innovation, at an international third party logistics (TPL firm. Using strategy as a practice perspective, the paper describes and analyses how innovation emerges and evolves over time. Drawing on an in-depth longitudinal case study of an international TPL firm, this study shows that intra-organisational interactions as well as inter-organisational interactions are essential in the innovation process at logistics firms. The innovation process at logistics firms is complicated and includes both top-down and bottom-up processes. It is vertically decoupled and multidirectional. Innovation at logistics firms emerges as a combination of an ad hoc response to a customer request and a purpose-driven interactive process.
Anjan V. Thakor
In markets in which sellers know more about product quality than buyers, but cannot convey their superior information either by directly issuing costly signals of the Spence type or by successfully funding the production of information, I suggest another way in which the informational asymmetry problem can be resolved; a third party can produce the necessary information at a cost and use it to price a service consumed by the sellers. Buyers can then observe a seller's choice of service consum...
Santi Pratiwi; Agung Wibowo; Lukas Giessen
The existence of third-party forest and timber certification schemes in Indonesia has created benefits and challenges, mainly for forest industries. In the end, the interests and objectives of those industries will determine whether they decide to get certified and if so, what certification schemes they will use. This study analyses the stakeholder recognition of the competing forest legality and sustainability certification systems and describes the preferences for particular schemes b...
Hinson, Roger A.
Supply-Chain Management (SCM) reduces time requirements and costs from supply chains to improve profitability and/or competitiveness. These savings are possible through conceptual advances and increasing use of powerful computer hardware and software. The SCM concept is defined, and some considerations of its application in the produce area are discussed. Most applications and benefits have resulted from alliances between large retailers and large packaged-goods vendors. Third-party logistics...
The legal regime in force before entry into force of the 1971 Brussels Convention relating to civil liability for the maritime carriage of nuclear material created serious difficulties for maritime carriers, regarding both the financial risks entailed and restrictions on enjoyment of the rights granted by civil liability conventions. The 1971 Convention exonerates from liability any person likely to be held liable for nuclear damage under maritime law, provided another person is liable under the nuclear conventions or an equivalent national law. A problem remaining is that of compensation of nuclear damage to the means of transport for countries not having opted for re-inclusion of such damage in the nuclear law regime; this does not apply however to countries having ratified the Convention to date. A feature of the latter is that it establishes as extensively as possible the priority of nuclear law over maritime law. Furthermore the new regime continues to preserve efficiently the interests of victims of nuclear incidents. It is therefore to be hoped that insurers will no longer hesitate to cover international maritime carriage of nuclear material
Gürtin, Zeynep B
In March 2010, Turkey became the first country to legislate against the cross-border travel of its citizens seeking third-party reproductive assistance. Although the use of donor eggs, donor spermatozoa and surrogacy had been illegal in Turkey since the introduction of a regulatory framework for assisted reproductive treatment in 1987, men and women were free to access these treatments in other jurisdictions. In some cases, such travel for cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) was even facilitated by sophisticated arrangements between IVF clinics in Turkey and in other countries, particularly in Cyprus. However, new amendments to Turkey's assisted reproduction legislation specifically forbid travel for the purposes of third-party assisted reproduction. This article outlines the cultural context of assisted reproductive treatment in Turkey; details the Turkish assisted reproduction legislation, particularly as it pertains to third-party reproductive assistance; explores Turkish attitudes towards donor gametes and surrogacy; assesses the existence and extent of CBRC prior to March 2010; and discusses some of the legal, ethical and practical implications of the new legislation. As CBRC becomes an increasingly pertinent issue, eliciting debate and discussion at both national and international levels, it is important to carefully consider the particular circumstances and potential consequences of this unique example. PMID:21962527
When most people are confronted with the question, ''What do you think about the low-level radioactive waste disposal issue facing your state,'' the first reaction is one of concern and fear for public health and environmental safety. This reaction, though very common, is but a small part of a complex scenario of social and technical issues that face those who generate and those who are responsible for the disposal of hazardous and toxic waste in America. This paper discusses: 1) ten lessons that the PIER (Public Involvement and Education on Radiation) Program at Penn State has experienced since its inception back in November of 1983; 2) the role of a university as a third party in controversial issues; 3) understanding the public and influential people - what they think and their differences; 4) the importance of interacting with the news media; and 5) the bottom line summary of the important parts of continuing education programs to the public
Baumann, Florian; Friehe, Tim; Rasch, Alexander
This paper explores the impact of product liability on vertical product differentiation when product safety is perfectly observable. In a two-stage competition, duopolistic firms are subject to strict liability and segment the market such that a low-safety product is marketed at a low price to consumers with relatively small harm levels whereas the safer product is sold at a high price to consumers with high levels of harm. Firms’ expected liability payments are critically influenced by how t...
Full Text Available Control covers debts and liabilities, outstanding liabilities and purchases and expenses in the profit and loss and long-term liabilities, provisions and funding costs. The validation tests applied to cover all, claims liabilities in the financial statements but with less emphasis on testing for registration. It can be done but circularize commercial debt is often not necessary because suppliers provide documentary evidence statements from third parties. Direct circularization of claims is a basic procedure, but it does not provide evidence for all relevant assertions. Other important procedures are: tests of independence; testing for the possibility of recovery.
The document reproduces the text of the Optional Protocol Concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 21 May 1963 by the International Conference held in Vienna from 29 April to 19 May 1963. It came into force on 13 May 1999
The article highlights the implications for cities, local authorities and non-party stakeholders of the Paris Agreement and the resolve of United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties COP21. The article focuses on the central role that cities will have in the implementation of the Paris Agreement itself, particularly with reference to mitigation, adaptation, capacity building and technology transfer. The Paragraphs finally identifies the key challenges for cities ...
The Japanese legislation relating to nuclear liability is based on two laws which date back to 1961, i.e. the law concerning compensation for nuclear damage and the law concerning financial damage compensation indemnification. In Japan, the legal channelling of liability is in force, a contractual recourse is not possible unless there is intent. The financial security act in Japan consists of a (third-party) liability insurance contract concluded with a private insurer and the cover contract concluded with the state. According to the agreement on financial security concluded between government and operator, the operator has to pay the state a certain sum per year. Basically, the amount covered is DM 50 million per site. This sum will be increased to DM 90 million. The operator is fully liable. The state is not bound by law to fully cover damages but will be - de facto - prepared to do so anyway. For potential damage to personnel, the social insurance law is applicable as it is in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this damage is intended to be subject to nuclear liability, to be effected by an amendmend. (orig./HP)
Party member activism varies in type and intensity, and it is necessary to take this into consideration when explaining the degree of participation. One potential explanation for the level of party member participation is the extent to which there are children in the household. Based on the Danish...... party member survey of 2012, analyses show: First, the cost of having children is more important when explaining more demanding activities than the less demanding activities, and, second, the impact of the cost of having children in the household is larger when including the intensity of participation...... in the dependent variable. Third, the smaller the children, the larger the cost and the larger the negative impact on party activism no matter what type or intensity. Furthermore, there are only limited gender differences in the impact of having children so that children, in particular in the young...
Headline issue: International agreements are built on shared understanding. So how should a climate change agreement be built at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris in December 2015? The UNFCCC negotiations leading up to Paris have been organised on the basis that each country or region will determine their own contribution to the global climate mitigation effort.This more decentralised approach seems likely to lead ...
The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the first volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by P. Bank/H. Föllmer, F. Baudoin, L.C.G. Rogers, and M. Soner/N. Touzi.
Full Text Available Vincent Ioos1, Vincent Das1, Eric Maury1,2, Jean-Luc Baudel1, Jérôme Guéchot3, Bertrand Guidet1,2, Georges Offenstadt1,21Réanimation Médicale; 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, INSERM, UMR-S 707; 3Unité d’Hormonologie, APHP, Hôpital Saint Antoine, F-75012, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, dietary pills, thyroxin
The Chernobyl accident raised consciousness around the world about civil liability issues. People in Australia and elsewhere looked at the existing international nuclear liability regime and concluded that it was inadequate. The amount of compensation available under the regime was too low. The regime did not cover environmental damage. Australia decided to take an active role in the proceedings of the Standing Committee on Nuclear liability. Australia has a favourable judgment on the new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for nuclear damages. It provided for a dedicated fund for transboundary damage, the inclusion of environmental damage, the lion's share of the contributions to the international fund established under the Convention to be borne by nuclear power generating states, jurisdiction over actions concerning nuclear damage from a nuclear accident in a Party's territory or Exclusive Economic Zone to lie with the courts of that Party. It reproaches this Convention for compensable damage to be determined by the law of the competent court, and the necessity of emission of ionizing radiations for the Convention to take effect. (N.C.)
随着经济的发展和市场竞争的加剧，越来越多的企业将注意力和优势资源集中于自己擅长的领域。在这一过程中，物流外包则成为当下众多企业解决物流问题的重要方法，因此第三方物流（3PL）供应商的选择也就成为了企业实现战略性可持续发展的重要一环，对于企业提升市场竞争力和整体价值具有重要意义。文中的创新点是运用ELECTRE 方法的简化法对3PL 供应商的选择问题进行研究，并运用案例证明了这种方法的有效性，为企业进行3PL 供应商的评价和选择提供了一种行之有效的决策方法，同时也简化和丰富了企业选择3PL 供应商的决策思路和方法。%With the development of the economy and the growing competition of the market,more and more companies now concentrate their energy and advantage recourses on fields that they are expert in.Therefore logistics outsourcing becomes very helpful and selecting the third party logistics (3PL)supplier becomes an important part of realizing strategic sustainable development,which is significant to improve the competitive power and the whole value of modern enterprise.The innovationpoint of this paper is that it offers a simplified method of ELECTRE for enterprise to evaluate and select the third party logistics supplier,and gives a calculating example to prove the validity of this method.The conclusions of this paper can enrich enterprises'decision making methods for 3PL supplier selecting.
Xie, Jianwen; Lu, Yang; Zhu, Song-Chun; Wu, Ying Nian
We show that a generative random field model, which we call generative ConvNet, can be derived from the commonly used discriminative ConvNet, by assuming a ConvNet for multi-category classification and assuming one of the categories is a base category generated by a reference distribution. If we further assume that the non-linearity in the ConvNet is Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) and the reference distribution is Gaussian white noise, then we obtain a generative ConvNet model that is unique am...
This article presents FVA and CVA of a bilateral derivative in a coherent manner, based on recent developments in fair value accounting and ISDA standards. We argue that a derivative liability, after primary risk factors being hedged, resembles in economics an issued variable funding note, and should be priced at the market rate of the issuer's debt. For the purpose of determining the fair value, the party on the liability side is economically neutral to make a deposit to the other party, whi...
Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa
The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOT-P) requires several third-party software packages. These are documented below for each of the CCOT-P elements: client, web server, database server, solver, web application and polling application.
The thesis is about professional liability insurance, focused primarily on legal professions. The first part describes general liability insurance, then the thesis is focused on characteristics and specific features of professional liability insurance. The thesis also analyzes legal requirements for insurance of selected professions and significance of professional associations in professional liability insurance. In conclusion, it examines availability of professional liability insurance pro...
The common features of the Paris and Vienna Conventions on nuclear liability are highlighted. Although the Joint Protocol has formed a link between the two Conventions, the Vienna Convention had to be reviewed and the feasibility of creating a system of additional financing through governmental participation or through third countries discussed. The Vienna Convention amendments should concern the following items: geographical scope, facilities employed for non-peaceful purposes, definition of nuclear damage, acquittal of charge, financial liability limitation, time limits for making claims, settlement of claims, and national responsibility. With respect to additional financing, it is recognized that the operator's financial liability under the Vienna and Paris Conventions is insufficient to cover nuclear damage resulting from serious accidents. Two ways of solving this problem are discussed, viz. the Levy Draft and the Pool Draft. Another, new draft proposes that a sufficiently high compensating sum from states would be introduced into the Vienna Convention to serve as a threshold for the additional financing scheme. A proposal was put forth limiting the application scope to transboundary damage solely. A list of countries that have acceded to the Joint Protocol and the Vienna Convention is given. (J.B.). 2 tabs
Full Text Available La première partie du dossier Via Lyon (Carte Romanze 2/2  analysait le rôle de carrefour économique et culturel de la ville de Lyon dans la constitution d’une identité éditoriale des romans publiés en France au XVIe siècle. L’étude de ces «parcours de romans» conduit à replacer, en cette seconde partie du dossier, la notion d’«étape lyonnaise» dans la dynamique qui anime les deux principaux centres d’imprimerie français de la Renaissance. L’étude des pérégrinations éditoriales, de Paris à Lyon et de Lyon à Paris, de Lancelot du Lac (G. Burg, de Valentin et Orson (M. Colombo Timelli et de Méliadus chevalier de la Croix (A. Réach-Ngô met ainsi au jour les diverses formes de circulation, d’adaptation et de réappropriation que les ateliers parisiens et lyonnais confèrent aux œuvres romanesques qui passent sous leurs presses tout au long du siècle. The first part of the file Via Lyon (Carte Romanze 2/2  analyzed the role of economic and cultural crossroad of Lyon city in the constitution of an editorial identity of novels published in France in the sixteenth century. The study of these «novels’ route» leads to situate the concept of «Lyon step» in the dynamics which animates the two major French printing centers of the Renaissance. The editorial peregrinations, from Paris to Lyon and from Lyon to Paris, of three french novels, Lancelot du Lac (G. Burg, Valentin and Orson (M. Colombo Timelli and Méliadus chevalier de la Croix (A. Réach-Ngô, shows the various forms of circulation, adaptation and reappropriation that various Parisian and Lyon workshops give to novels they print throughout the century.
Full text: The nuclear power plant (NPP) Lubmin/Greifswald was shut down in 1990. As there exists no final storage for radioactive waste in Germany it is necessary to store the spent nuclear fuel elements and the radioactive waste of the decommissioning on the NPP site. Therefore the Interim Storage North (ISN) was erected. The spent fuel elements are dry stored in massive iron casks from type CASTOR-440/84. The physical protection of the ISN is determined by the storage of spent nuclear fuel. It must realize the prevention of danger to life and health due to release of a substantial amount of radioactive material and of stealing nuclear fuels in such amounts that critical accumulations can be produced. The concept of physical protection against interference by third parties consists of three barriers. The first is the CASTOR cask itself, the second is the storage building and the third the fence around the storage site. In the paper the systems of physical protection of the Interim Storage North are presented. (author)
Over a year since the implementation of the new UEMS-EACCME® accreditation criteria for Live Educational Events (LEEs), the second Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) Conference on continuing medical education and continuing professional development (CME-CPD) in Europe was a much anticipated event. The conference, which took place 28 February 2014 in Brussels, Belgium, provided an important opportunity for stakeholders to discuss and debate:The role of accreditation in CME-CPD, ...
Yost, David S.
The article of record may be found at:http://www.ndc.nato.int/download/downloads.php?icode=310 On 25-26 October 2011 the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung and the NATO Defense College co-sponsored a workshop in Brussels concerning the issues at stake in NATO's ongoing Deterrence and Defense Posture Review (DDPR). The NATO Allies chartered the DDPR in the November 2010 Lisbon Summit Declaration. They have agreed to present the findings of the DDPR at the May 2012 Chicago Summit.
A contingent liability is a commitment to take on an actual liability that could be realized in the future. International organizations emphasize the dangers of contingent liabilities when providing advice. Why? One reason is that when contingent liabilities are realized they often commit governments to substantial fiscal costs. Another reason is subtler: by taking on a contingent liability the government can increase the probability of the event that would trigger its realization. This...
This Act was published on 17 October 1977. It is based to a great extent on the provisions of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nucler Damage of 21 May 1963. Under the Act the operator of a nuclear installation is exclusively liable regardless of fault for compensation of nuclear damage due to a nuclear incident. This exclusive liability is limited to an amount equal to 1,500,000 Treasury Bonds and the operator must take out and maintain insurance or other financial security to cover his liability. The Federative Government will guarantee, up to the prescribed limit, payment of compensation for nuclear damage where it is acknowledged that the operator's liability is involved. As regards apportionment of compensation, persons are granted priority over property. This Act is original in that it contains provisions on criminal liability with penalties ranging from two to ten years imprisonment. (NEA)
Full Text Available For decades, tourism has experienced steady growth and has strengthened its role in the economy, turning into a real industry that generates annual revenues exceeding 1.3 billion $ and created more than 260 million employments. With such performance, there is a pressing need to turn our attention to all the advantages and disadvantages that such development brings. Specifically, we must consider the impact of the tourism industry upon the socio-cultural, economic and environmental levels, in order to generate solutions that will ensure a healthy and responsible growth, ensuring the future of touristic destinations. To find a balance between the needs of tourists, host communities and the environment, reducing conflict and acknowledging mutual dependence, it takes a special approach in the management of destinations. This study aims to bring light to the need for sustainable development which appeared in today's society and continues the practice of a proper management of destinations, based on a comparison of documented scientific research methods between the two counties, Brussels and Brasov.
... 101 Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric... 101 Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric... jurisdiction. \\2\\ Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for...
Jørgensen, Sten Inge
It will prove difficult for Norway’s red-green coalition to win a historical third term, argues Sten Inge Jørgensen. Following its sister-party in Sweden, the Norwegian Conservative Party is now successfully portraying itself as a new Labour Party in an attempt to chip away votes from the governing coalition.
GuangLie, Chen; WeiShi, Gao; GaiLing, Hou; Jianping, Cao
We evaluated the effect of Paris saponin on inhibition of cervical cancer in mice and on immune regulation in tumor-bearing mice. MTT assay was used to examine the effect of Paris saponin on U14 cell proliferatiosn in vitro; the ascites tumor model of U14 cervical cancer was established to observe the effect of Paris saponin on inhibition of the tumor and on survival time of mice; and serum IL-4 and IFN-γ levels in tumor-bearing mice were detected. The Paris saponin showed significant inhibit...
New Jersey State Dept. of Labor, Trenton.
This guide provides employers with information on insurance coverage, child labor laws, and recommended steps for reducing potential liabilities that may occur by having students at the employer's site. The guide first covers employer liability issues and school Certificates of Insurance. The next part is organized to address employer concerns…
The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the liability laws of the Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB's) 16 member states. It begins by briefly reviewing potential sources of liability, immunity from liability, waiver of immunity, and statutes of limitation, followed by liability laws of member states. The report was prepared by reviewing legal literature pertaining to governmental liability, with particular emphasis on nuclear waste transportation, including law review articles, legal treatises, technical reports, state statutes and regulations
Full Text Available The principle of party autonomy, known not only in the common law legal system but also in the civil law system, provides parties contracting in civil and commercial matters with the right to establish their own rules, as long as these rules do not contradict mandatory law. This right is presumed to be protected by the force of law. It follows, that when a choice of court clause is included in the contract, disputes are supposed to be solved by the court chosen by the parties. This principle is not compromised by the Brussels I Regulation (or previously, the Brussels Convention. Moreover, it is repeated in its Articles 1 and 23. At the same time, the rule of lis pendens, provided for by its Article 27, aims to preclude subsequent actions in other Member States if a court is already seized and allows the appearance 'on the legal scene' of a court other than the court chosen by the parties. And the lis pendens rule prescribes the latter to stay proceedings until the court not chosen, but first seized, examines and declines its jurisdiction.
Iyer, Gokul C.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan; Alsalam, Jameel; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Creason, Jared; Jeong, Minji; McFarland, Jim; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit L.; Shi, Wenjing; McJeon, Haewon C.
International negotiators have clearly articulated a goal to limit global warming to 2°C. In preparation for the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015, countries are submitting their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change indicating their emissions reduction commitments through 2025 or 2030. Limiting global warming to 2°C is a challenging goal and will entail a dramatic transformation of the global energy system, largely complete by 2040. The deliberations in Paris will help determine the balance of challenges faced in the near-term and long-term. We use GCAM, a global integrated assessment model, to analyze the energy and economic-cost implications of INDCs. The INDCs imply near-term actions that reduce the level of mitigation needed in the post-2030 period, particularly when compared with an alternative path, in which nations are unable to undertake emissions mitigation until after 2030. We find that the latter case could require up to 2300 GW of premature retirements of fossil fuel power plants and up to 2900 GW of additional low-carbon power capacity installations within a five-year period of 2031 to 2035. INDCs have the effect of reducing premature retirements and new-capacity installations after 2030 by 50% and 34% respectively. However, if presently announced INDCs were strengthened to achieve greater near-term emissions mitigation, the 2031-2035 transformation could be tempered to require 84% fewer premature retirements of power generation capacity and 56% fewer new-capacity additions. Our results suggest that the ensuing COP21 in Paris will be critical in shaping the challenges of limiting global warming to 2°C.
The status quo of Chinese agro-products logistics is analyzed from the following five aspects:the circulation mode,exchange mode,storage and transportation situation,food security.The following problems in Chinese agro-products logistics are pointed out,including excessive circulation sections,bad time efficiency,single payment,slow circulation,backward information processing,obvious bullwhip effect,low logistics efficiency,low logistics technology,inadequate professional equipments,low standardization degree,organized operation mode and low degree of scale.The third-party logistics mode of agro-products is analyzed and the advantages of the mode are analyzed as well.Firstly,establishing information network through integrating circulation section to accelerate the circulation of agro-products;secondly,making the operation norms by providing professional equipments to secure the quality of agricultural products;thirdly,improving the core competitiveness of the whole logistics chain by intensifying specialized work division in each section of the supply chain;fourthly,through forming scale economy to reduce logistics costs and increase the diversity of products;fifthly,through signing contracts to clarify duties and responsibilities and materialize the profit integration of the supply chain.The measures for establishing the third-party logistics of agro-products are put forward,including establish the awareness and concept of socialized logistics services;intensify the support on the third-party logistics enterprises of agro-products;lay stress on the cultivation of logistics talents of agro-products;and vigorously apply the modern marketing means.
在分析我国农产品物流模式和存在问题基础上,阐述了实施第三方物流主导的农产品集成供应链管理的动因,建立了供应链模型,提出了相应的发展对策.%Based on the analysis of the logistics modes and problems of agricultural products in China, the motives of the integrated supply chain management of agricultural products leading by third-party logistics was discussed, the supply chain model was established, and some corresponding development countermeasures were put forward.
The importance of the Third-party debt collection industry is increasingly prominent with the increase of China’s banking bad debts and the development of service outsourcing. At present, the practice that banks entrust debt collection companies to collect bad debts is increasingly common, but the debt collection industry development in China is still not standardized so that the debtors’legitimate rights and interests are often violated. The paper introduces the latest development of U.S. third-party debt collec-tion industry (personal), analyzes its practices and characteristics of strengthening the protection of the debtors rights and interests so as to provide reference for China to promote the standardized development of the third-party debt collection industry and the protection of debtor rights and interests.%第三方债务催收业的重要性随着我国银行不良债务增长和服务外包发展而日益凸显。当前我国银行委托债务公司催收不良债务的做法日益普遍，但我国的债务催收业发展不规范，致使债务人的正当权益时常受到侵犯。本文介绍了美国第三方债务催收业(个人)的最新发展情况，分析了美国加强该行业债务人权益保护的做法与特点，以期为促进我国第三方债务催收业规范发展及债务人权益保护提供借鉴。
Bailer, Stefanie; Schulz, Tobias; Selb, Peter
Previous research has identified several structural and situational factors that affect party cohesion in parliamentary voting behaviour. The potential role of leadership has been neglected so far. The authors apply a latent variable approach to model leadership effects in roll call votes from the European Parliament (EP), 1979-2001. Other things being equal, their findings suggest that a small but significant 7 per cent share of the total variance in party group cohesion is due to the party ...
IOC Olympic Studies Centre
The Olympic Village is a central element in the organisation of the Games: it bring together athletes from throughout the world in one place and offers accommodation adapted to their needs. This document retraces the evolution of Olympic Villages since they appeared in Paris in 1924. Dive into the atmosphere of these places thanks to mosaics of images, and learn more about the concept, the services proposed and the technical characteristics of each Village.
In this paper, through analyzing the current status of the TPL-related laws in China, we pointed out the legal issues in the third party payment of logistics-related compensation, and then proposed some effective measures to eliminate these problems.%通过分析我国第三方物流的法律现状，指出了物流中第三方赔付的法律问题，并提出了完善第三方赔付法律问题的有效对策。
Mohd Khairudin Kasiran
Full Text Available The concept of trusted services forms a key issue for any kind of electronic services. Third Party Certification (TPC endorsement has been used as one of the methods to instill consumers’ trust. Creating initial trust through implementation of TPC is very important because the consumer has a tendency to trust brand names.. This paper looked closely at the implementation of the TPC in Malaysia which reveals that there are many problems related to the implementation of these seals. Problems like the awareness of merchants on the important of third party seals to their business, unverifiable endorsement, misleading link, unauthorized use of logos and no endorsement at all are still there in Malaysian environment. Based on this fact, the paper will focus on how far the implementation of third TPC is complied with X.509 certification standard. The output of this study can give an important background on the current implementation of TPC and be used as a basis of initial evaluation for business opportunity as a service provider for this kind of certification in Malaysia
Senate report n. 327 law project authorizing the approbation of international agreements on the civil liability in the domain of the nuclear energy; Senat rapport n. 327 projet de loi autorisant l'approbation d'accords internationaux sur la responsabilite civile dans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire
The objective of this law project is to approve two protocols aiming to modify the OECD convention on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain. After a short presentation of the international regime of civil liability in the nuclear domain with the Paris and Vienna conventions, the author analyzes the main improvements offered by the two protocols of February 2004 facing the french legislation. (A.L.B.)
TRACHTE, Sophie; EVRARD, Arnaud; Galan, Arancha; ATHANASSIADIS, Aristide; PLEA2014 - SUSTAINABLE HABITAT FOR DEVELOPING SOCIETIES
In the framework of the research project “B³RetroTool”, a typology of existing dwellings, built before 1945, has been made, based on a literature review of main steps of the urban and building development of Brussels area. This old part of the Brussels dwellings stock has been chosen because it represents 60% of the dwelling stock but moreover, it gives to Brussels its identity, its architectural and its historical legacy. This contribution presents the methodology to identify typology, to st...
The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to analyse and clarify in detail the issue of liability for damage in Labour law with focus on liability for damage of employer. At first the thesis defines conception of liability and liability in Labour law in general. The thesis also deals with characteristic features, functions and prevention of liability for damage in Labour law as well. The main part is devoted to liability for damage of employer with regards to judicial decision. It explains gener...
Self-marketing and self-consumption by third parties according to the EEG. Practical and legal problems of marketing and selling of self-produced solar electricity; Eigenvermarktung und Selbstverbrauch durch Dritte nach EEG. Praktische und rechtliche Fragen der Veraeusserung selbsterzeugten Solarstroms
Hahn, Christopher; Naumann, Daniel [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig (Germany)
According to Section 33 No. 2 p. 1 EEG, reimbursement for photovoltaic power generation must be granted also if a third party consumes the generated power in the immediate vicinity in the plant and is able to prove it. The wording of the law is ambiguous as 'third party' and 'self-consumption' do not immediately specify when a right to reimbursement has arisen and when not. The contribution attempts to help with the solution of these interpretation problems and also throws a light on the rights and obligations of a PV plant owner in general. The high practical relevance of the issue is also reflected in the fact that the legal problems discussed here were implemented, and solved to a large extent, in the amendment of the EEG that came into force on 1 January 2012.
The Seventh Session of the Working Party on Eel of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission was held in the Royal Hospital, Killmainham, Dublin. A list of the peer-reviewed papers and abstracts of other presentations to the session are given below. -- I M Domingos: Fluctuation of glass eel migration in the Mondego estuary (Portugal) in 1988 and 1989. -- Daniel Guerault, Raymonde Lecomte-Finiger, Yves Desaunay, Sylvie Biagianti-Risbourg, Pierre Beillois and Patrick Grellier: Glass ee...
N Viswanadham; Poornima Luthra
In this study, we use the strategic proﬁt model (SPM) and the economic value-added (EVA to measure shareholder value). SPM measures the return on net worth (RONW) which is deﬁned as the return on assets (ROA) multiplied by the ﬁnancial leverage. EVA is deﬁned as the ﬁrm’s net operating proﬁt after taxes (NOPAT) minus the capital charge. Both, RONW and EVA provide an indication of how much shareholder value a ﬁrm creates for its shareholders, year on year. With the increasing focus on creation of shareholder value and core competencies, many companies are outsourcing their information technology (IT) related activities to third party software companies. Indian software companies have become leaders in providing these services. Companies from several other countries are also competing for the top slot. We use the SPM and EVA models to analyse the four listed players of the software industry using the publicly available published data. We compare the ﬁnancial data obtained from the models, and use peer average data to provide customized recommendations for each company to improve their shareholder value. Assuming that the companies follow these rules, we also predict future RONW and EVA for the companies for the ﬁnancial year 2005. Finally, we make several recommendations to software providers for effectively competing in the global arena.
Braverman, Andrea Mechanick
The role of mental health professionals (MHPs) in third-party reproduction has grown and evolved in service to patient care and the needs of medical infertility practices. The need for mental health evaluation and psychoeducation has increased as the psychosocial considerations for the stakeholders and families created through gamete donation and surrogacy are increasingly understood and considered. The conflicting definitions of these roles of evaluation and psychoeducation often leave MHPs in the role of de facto ethical gatekeepers in third-party reproduction. Both the medical team and the MHP need to clarify their role effectively, for themselves, as well as any intended parent. PMID:26171997
Full Text Available When prompted, preschoolers advocate punishment for moral transgressions against third parties, but little is known about whether and how they might act out such punishment. In this study, adult demonstrators enacted doll stories in which a perpetrator child doll made an unprovoked attack on a victim child doll, after which an adult doll punished either the perpetrator (consistent punishment or victim (inconsistent punishment. When asked to help retell the story, given free choice of their own preferred actions for the adult doll, four-year-olds (N = 32 were influenced by the demonstrated choice of target when selecting a target for punishment or admonishment. This influence was weak following inconsistent punishment, however, because the participants tended to change the story by punishing or admonishing the perpetrator when the demonstrator had punished the victim. Four-year-olds’ tendency to select a moral rule violator as a target for punishment is therefore stronger than their tendency to copy the specific actions of adults, which itself is known to be very strong. The evidence suggests that four-year-olds’ enactment of punishment is at least partially based on a belief that antisocial actions deserve to be punished.
Krueger, Konstanze; Schneider, Gudrun; Flauger, Birgit; Heinze, Jürgen
One mechanism to resolve conflict among group members is third party intervention, for which several functions, such as kin protection, alliance formation, and the promotion of group cohesion have been proposed. Still, empirical research on the function of intervention behaviour is rare. We studied 40 cases of intervention behaviour in a field study on 13 semi-wild bachelor horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in (a) standard social situations, and (b) when new horses joined the group (i.e. introductions). Only interventions in agonistic encounters were analysed. Eight of 13 animals directed intervention behaviour toward threatening animal in agonistic encounters of group members. One stallion was particularly active. The stallions did not intervene to support former group mates or kin and interventions were not reciprocated. In introduction situations and in standard social situations, the interveners supported animals which were lower in rank, but targeted, threatening animals of comparable social rank. After introductions, stallions received more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and thus appeared to intervene for alliance formation. In standard social situations, interveners did not receive more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and may primarily have intervened to promote group cohesion and to reduce social disruption within the group. PMID:26478251
... Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage...-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage... services. \\6\\ Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for...
This paper gives a view of the challenges of nuclear liability in the specific context of the Russian Federation's legal system. Starting from the Chernobyl disaster and the benefits of nuclear energy, a detailed examination of the development of both internal law and international law regulating nuclear liability matters in Russia is given. Special attention is paid to the regimes established by bilateral treaties, the system of government bodies responsible for nuclear energy affairs, and the consequences of the 1963 Vienna Convention's entry into force for Russia. The value of Russian experience in finding the resolution of global nuclear liability issues is discussed. (author)
Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil [Penspen Integrity, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; Fraser, Andy [Integrated Statistical Solutions (United States)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Dezobry, Jerome [Gas de France, Paris (France)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Merrienboer, Hugo Van [Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: H.A.M.van.Merrienboer@gasunie.nl
The damage caused by Third Party Interference (TPI) is one of the major causes of pipeline failures. Consequently, new technologies for identifying activities that may cause damage to our pipelines are constantly being developed. A recently completed project sponsored by a number of pipeline operators has investigated the use of high-resolution satellites for the integrity management of onshore transmission pipelines. The sponsors were BG Technology (on behalf of Transco), Dansk Olie NatureGas, Gasunie, BP, Gaz de France, Distrigas, and the Health and Safety Executive. The project started with a general review of the satellite technologies available and their potential. The study was then focussed on the identification of activities that might result in damage to the pipeline and the potential of high-resolution optical satellites in identifying hazardous activities. A key element of the study was a comparison with existing surveillance systems, which generally involve regular aerial patrols of the pipeline route. To achieve this a survey was carried out to try and evaluate the costs and benefits of existing systems. In addition a simple model for analysing the cost benefit of pipeline surveillance was constructed, and a functional specification for a surveillance system drafted. Finally the performance of the IKONOS 2 high-resolution satellite system was tested in a controlled experiment using targets placed along a pipeline route. The results of this test were compared with a similar test of helicopter-based surveillance carried out by one of the sponsors. (author)
ALPTEKİN, M. Yavuz
Abstract. International Association of Social Science Research-IASSR organized ninth of its conference series as “European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences” themed on February 3-6, 2016, at Paris. The conference president was Çanakkale On Sekiz Mart University, Prof. Dr. Hasan Arslan. The conference was comprised from 79 sessions and nearly 400 presentations to be made in three days. Average of five presentations were planned to be delivered in each session. Twenty one of presenta...
Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo
Social evaluation during third-party interactions emerges early in human ontogeny, and it has been shown in adult capuchin monkeys who witness violations of reciprocity in object exchanges: Monkeys were less inclined to accept food from humans who refused to reciprocate with another human. A recent study reporting similar evidence in marmoset monkeys raised the possibility that such evaluations might be based on species' inherent cooperativeness. We tested a species not renowned for cooperativeness-squirrel monkeys-using the procedure used with marmosets and found a similar result. This finding rules out any crucial role for cooperative tendencies in monkeys' responses to unfair exchanges. We then tested squirrel monkeys using procedures more similar to those used in the original study with capuchins. Squirrel monkeys again accepted food less frequently from non-reciprocators, but unlike capuchins, they also strongly preferred reciprocators. We conclude that neither squirrel monkeys nor marmoset monkeys engaged in emotional bookkeeping of the type that probably underlies social evaluation in capuchin monkeys; instead, they employed one or more simple behavioral rules. Further comparative studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying social evaluation processes across species. PMID:27021433
Glass, Leila; Moody, Lara; Grafman, Jordan; Krueger, Frank
The ability to survive within a cooperative society depends on impartial third-party punishment (TPP) of social norm violations. Two cognitive mechanisms have been postulated as necessary for the successful completion of TPP: evaluation of legal responsibility and selection of a suitable punishment given the magnitude of the crime. Converging neuroimaging research suggests two supporting domain-general networks; a mentalizing network for evaluation of legal responsibility and a central-executive network for determination of punishment. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used in conjunction with a rank-order TPP task to identify brain regions necessary for TPP in a large sample of patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury. Patients who demonstrated atypical TPP had specific lesions in core regions of the mentalizing (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex [PFC], ventromedial PFC) and central-executive (bilateral dorsolateral PFC, right intraparietal sulcus) networks. Altruism and executive functioning (concept formation skills) were significant predictors of TPP: altruism was uniquely associated with TPP in patients with lesions in right dorsolateral PFC and executive functioning was uniquely associated with TPP in individuals with lesions in left PFC. Our findings contribute to the extant literature to support underlying neural networks associated with TPP, with specific brain-behavior causal relationships confirming recent functional neuroimaging research. PMID:26276809
Full Text Available Internet has been viewed by many travel organizations as an innovative and competitive marketing tool in offering travel-related information and online transaction opportunities (Doolin et al., 2002. But, Internet also has proportionate opportunities to appear new intermediaries in the new hotel value chain (Connolly et al., 1998. A substantial portion of online room reservations continues to be accounted by the third-party Web sites (Law and Cheung, 2006. Hotels have been actively involved in multi-channel distribution in order to sell products and services more efficiently using a combination of traditional and electronic channels. It is important for organizations to rely on the channels that best match the organizational goals (O’Connor and Frew, 2004.The methodology for the experiment follows Statistical Design of Experiments (SDE. SDE is a statistical technique useful for developing, improving and optimizing processes and also has important applications in research into customer psychology and behaviour (Rosenbaum 1999. However, SDE is not a new tool in marketing; pioneering works such as those by Holland and Cravens (1973, Chevalier (1975 and more recently those of Starkey, Aughton and Brewin (1997, Almquist y Wyner (2001 have used full factorials and fractional factorial designs. In this work we use a fractional factorial design in four four-size blocks design and we have not find any reference that use this kind of design in Marketing.
In spite of the resolutions of Conference of Parties on Climate Change (COP7), policy practitioners in many countries are currently obligated to react to perceived domestic environmental damages. Like few other sectors, utilities, especially, coal-based electricity generation is often identified as a major source of emission. Since the generating companies and end-users have joint interests in profit maximization but may dichotomize in their activities, the policy practitioners are struggling in designing a unique domestic emission policy. Both law and economic theory suggest that companies should be made to pay the costs of the pollution through assignment and enforcement of full liability--Polluter Pays Principles--and then pass these incurred costs on to end-users by charging higher rates per kWh of electricity usage. Questioning this full liability in designing emission policy with implicit weighting of welfare gains and losses to society as a whole, a three-group (consumers, producers and victims of the emission) supply-demand model is developed, and the net welfare effects are analyzed. With plausible parameter values, our analysis shows that the intermediate liabilities over a full or zero liability are preferable on both economic efficiency and equity grounds. However, the model is quite sensitive to the parameter values
Rahman, Akim M. [Ohio Dept. of Education, Columbus, OH (United States); Edwards, Clive A. [Ohio State Univ., Soil Ecology Lab., Columbus, OH (United States)
In spite of the resolutions of Conference of Parties on Climate Change (COP7), policy practitioners in many countries are currently obligated to react to perceived domestic environmental damages. Like few other sectors, utilities, especially, coal-based electricity generation is often identified as a major source of emission. Since the generating companies and end-users have joint interests in profit maximization but may dichotomize in their activities, the policy practitioners are struggling in designing a unique domestic emission policy. Both law and economic theory suggest that companies should be made to pay the costs of the pollution through assignment and enforcement of full liability - Polluter Pays Principles - and then pass these incurred costs on to end-users by charging higher rates per kWh of electricity usage. Questioning this full liability in designing emission policy with implicit weighting of welfare gains and losses to society as a whole, a three-group (consumers, producers and victims of the emission) supply-demand model is developed, and the net welfare effects are analyzed. With plausible parameter values, our analysis shows that the intermediate liabilities over a full or zero liability are preferable on both economic efficiency and equity grounds. However, the model is quite sensitive to the parameter values. (Author)
Magdy, Walid; Darwish, Kareem; Abokhodair, Norah
The Paris terrorist attacks occurred on November 13, 2015 prompted a massive response on social media including Twitter, with millions of posted tweets in the first few hours after the attacks. Most of the tweets were condemning the attacks and showing support to Parisians. One of the trending debates related to the attacks concerned possible association between terrorism and Islam and Muslims in general. This created a global discussion between those attacking and those defending Islam and M...
Full Text Available This essay first examines the issue of intersubjectivity in terms of the paradigmatic relationship between I and You. From a grammaticalstandpoint this relationship seems asymmetrical as well as necessarilyperformative: I implies the speech act of the speaker. You exists only as I's interlocutor. This helps us understand the very different status of what is called the 3rd person--and which would more accurately be called a nonperson, as Benveniste explains. This nonperson marks the position of a Third Party. I propose to show that the same Third Party--whether a living being or a thing--is also involved in the traditional ceremonial gift-exchange relationship discussed by Marcel Mauss. The relationship between the partners in gift-exchange is mediated by the being or the thing given, which isfor the recipient a token and substitute of the giver. What this involves is the reciprocal public recognition of the partners. In modern societies this function is performed by the law and by the institutions of the arbiter-State as they emerged in the formation of the Greek city.
LEURENT, Fabien; Breteau, Vincent
The paper analyzes the sensitivity of the marginal congestion cost on a roadway network to the level of aggregation in space, from utmost disaggregate to utmost aggregate. Simulation and aggregation are based on a static network assignment model.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...
Delaney, Conor; Gaughan, Paul; Smyth, Damian
The global marine sector generates and consumes vast quantities of operational and forecast data on a daily basis. One of the key challenges facing the sector relates to the management and transformation of that data into knowledge. The Irish Marine Institute (MI) generates oceanographic and environmental data on a regular and frequent basis. This data comes from operational ocean models run on the MI's high performance computer (HPC) and various environmental observation sensors systems. Some of the data published by the Marine Institute is brokered by the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP) data broker, which is a broker technology that uses technology based on OPeNDAP and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The broker provides a consistent web service interface to the data services of the Marine Institute; these services include wave, tide and weather sensors and numerical model output. An ERDDAP server publishes data in a number of standard and developer friendly ways, including some OGC formats. The data on the MI ERDDAP (http://erddap.marine.ie) server is published as OpenData. The marine work package of the FP7 funded ENVIROFI project (http://www.envirofi.eu/) has used the ERDDAP data broker as a core resource in the development of its Marine Asset management decision Support Tool (MAST) portal and phone App. Communication between MAST and ERDDAP is via a Uniform Resource Identifier (Linked Data). A key objective of the MAST prototype is to demonstrate the potential of next-generation dynamic web-based products and services and how they can be harnessed to facilitate growth of both the marine and IT sectors. The use case driving the project is the management of ocean energy assets in the marine environment. In particular the provision of information that aid in the decision making process surrounding maintenance at sea. This question is common to any offshore industry and solution proposed here is applicable to other users
Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan
In the event of death of any government employee, their monthly pension will be given to their widow and their child. The government will stop paying that pension when the widow died and when the widow chooses to remarry. However, in 1st January 2002, the remarriage clause has been removed from the regulations. This would allow all widows who remarried to receive pension as usual. In view of this, there are possibilities that those widows who are still young might remarried. If many of the widows choose to remarry, it will be a burden to the government as it would increase the pension liabilities. However, we do not know how many of the widow will remarry. In view of this, the purpose of the study is to assess the impact to pension liabilities of government pension schemes on individual life due to removal clause of the remarriage by determining the pension factor and to assess to what extent the pension liabilities of government pension schemes would be affected.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possible effects of introducing TPA in district heating networks by identifying and scrutinizing a number of possible scenarios for increased competition. The analysis builds on a theoretical discussion of economic efficiency in district heating operations, and the possible impacts on consumer prices of a market opening. An important conclusion is that regulated TPA may have small positive effects on competition, and at the same time it can have a negative impact on the possibility to run the integrated district heating operations in a cost-effective manner. This conclusion stems in part from the observation that most district heating networks are local in scope. Moreover, district heating operations are highly interdependent in, for instance, that the level of the return temperature of the water will affect the efficiency of combined heat and power plants. For these reasons, the introduction of the so-called single-buyer model or, perhaps even more preferable, an extended and more transparent producer market could represent more efficient market designs. Moreover, in networks with clear natural monopoly characteristics an ex ante price regulation must be considered. - Research Highlights: →The paper analyses the possible effects of TPA in district heating networks. → Four possible scenarios for increased competition are identified and scrutinized. → A conclusion is that regulated TPA have only small positive effects on competition. → District heating operations are highly interdependent and separation can be costly.
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s her¬itage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possible effects of introducing TPA in district heating networks by identifying and scrutinizing a number of possible scenarios for increased competition. The analysis builds on a theoretical discussion of economic efficiency in district heating operations, and the possible impacts on consumer prices of a market opening. An important conclusion is that regulated TPA may have small positive effects on competition, and at the same time it can have a negative impact on the possibility to run the integrated district heating operations in a cost-effective manner. This conclusion stems in part from the observation that most district heating networks are local in scope. Moreover, district heating operations are highly interdependent in, for instance, that the level of the return temperature of the water will affect the efficiency of combined heat and power plants. For these reasons, the introduction of the so-called single-buyer model or, perhaps even more preferable, an extended and more transparent producer market could represent more efficient market designs. Moreover, in networks with clear natural monopoly characteristics an ex ante price regulation must be considered. (author)
Voutilainen, Liisa; PerÃ€kylÃ€, Anssi; Ruusuvuori, Johanna Elisabeth
Using audio-recorded data from cognitive-constructivist psychotherapy, the article shows a particular institutional context in which successful professional action does not adhere to the pattern of affective neutrality which Parsons saw as an inherent component of medicine and psychotherapy. In our data, the professionalâs non-neutrality functions as a tool for achieving institutional goals. The analysis focuses on the psychotherapistâs actions that convey a critical stance towards a thir...
Cousin, Areski; Guéant, Olivier; Hobson, David; Jeanblanc, Monique; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Tankov, Peter
The Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fourth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding specialists - established or on the rise! The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field. The articles are the result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by Areski Cousin, Monique Jeanblanc and Jean-Paul Laurent, Stéphane Crépey, Olivier Guéant, Jean-Michel Lasry and Pierre-Louis Lions, David Hobson, and Peter Tankov.
Full Text Available Among the various forms of legal liability there are many points of contact reflected in their common goal - the encouragement of active members of society. Starting from the statement - the independent nature of the various forms of legal liability does not mean they are excluded - in what follows, given the legal autonomy of spheres of social relations protected by various laws, we will consider disciplinary overlapping with other forms of legal liability - criminal liability. Of course, this is possible only if the act committed by the employee is both disciplinary and criminal. This form of accumulation are possible without violating the principle of non bis in idem that since each of the envisaged legal rules protect different social relations. In addition of this applying the same principle prohibits two or more same kind sanctions for an unlawful action
be found in conformities relating to the logistics industry from several companies, ie appropriateness to the complexity of logistics activities of some companies and degree of investment of TPL services company in conducting the activity. Logistics service provider market segmentation can be based on variable complexity of logistics activities, whether it is high, medium or low and variable degrees of investment in the company whether minor, major, or integrated/total. Companies in different industries can have the same logistic service requirements and companies in the same industry can have different logistic service requirements. Client companies for logistics service providers which product handling are classified as semi-complex is the most attractive customer segments for being penetrated. The industries are classified into this segment is automotive, food and beverage, animal food, ceramic, and plantation.
Somville, F J M P; Broos, P L O; Van Hee, R
Already in ancient times did medical liability occupy mankind. Various civilizations did give their own interpretation on the subject and proposed solutions. Original writings are rare and articles concerning ancient medical liability equally are hard to find. The only relatively trustworthy sources are of legal nature and find their origin in Greek philosophy and Roman Law. At a later stage, Arabic philosophers gave a renewed view on the statements of these previous civilizations and added their own way of thinking. All these influences still reflect in our modern western way of medical acting. Some of these ancient customs concerning medical liability will be discussed in this article. PMID:20690537
The speaker proposes to give a summarized recall on the ordinary rules of liability and damage, by referring to the recent works by the NEA-IAEA as presented during the Helsinki meeting. Then he would compare them to that of nuclear liability and damages, as they currently stand, after the changes they went through, since such rules first appeared. Such comparison will allow the emphasis on differences which lead to question the relevance of these changes. (author)
The German EnWG (energy industry law) for deregulation of the energy sector and implementation of the Internal Energy Market Directive of the EU contains an obligation to contract and make rules for establishing a legally binding system for access to and use of third parties of transmission and distribution networks in the competitive electricity market. The design of such contracts under private law as well as the grid code for network operation primarily being a matter of the contracting parties, the legal basis and opportunities for governmental supervisory functions are embodied in various laws. The legal analysis of this contribution examines the current situation and asks whether the existing provisions of the German BGB (Civil Code), antitrust law and the EnWG offer practicable means in case of need for governmental supervisory action in order to ensure evolution and adherence to a legal framework that will ensure the objectives of the politically willed deregulation of the energy sector and foster development of an open market serving the public welfare. (CB)
O'Doherty, Katherine; Troseth, Georgene L.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Goldenberg, Elizabeth; Akhtar, Nameera; Saylor, Megan M.
In previous studies, very young children have learned words while "overhearing" a conversation, yet they have had trouble learning words from a person on video. In Study 1, 64 toddlers (mean age = 29.8 months) viewed an object-labeling demonstration in 1 of 4 conditions. In 2, the speaker (present or on video) directly addressed the child, and in…
O’Doherty, Katherine; Troseth, Georgene L.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Goldenberg, Elizabeth; Akhtar, Nameera; Saylor, Megan M.
In previous studies, very young children have learned words while “overhearing” a conversation, yet they have had trouble learning words from a person on video. In Study 1, 64 toddlers (mean age = 29.8 months) viewed an object-labeling demonstration in one of four conditions. In two, the speaker (present or on video) directly addressed the child and in two, the speaker addressed another adult who was present or was with her on video. Study 2 involved two follow-up conditions with 32 toddlers ...
This Act was published on 17 october 1977. Under the Act the operator of a nuclear installation is exclusively liable regardless of fault for compensation of nuclear damage due to a nuclear incident. This exclusive liability is limited to an amount equal to 1,500,000 Treasury Bonds and the operator must take out the maintain insurance or other financial security to cover his liability. The Federative Government will guarantee, up to the prescribed limit, payment of compensation for nuclear damage where it is acknowledged that the operator's liability is involved. As regards apportionment of compensation, persons are granted priority over property. This Act is original in that it contains provisions on criminal liability with penalties ranging from two to ten years imprisonment
To secure fair and efficient compensation for damage likely to be caused by the utilisation of nuclear energy, a special civil liability regime was set up by several international conventions. Three of these conventions are in force and Spain is a Contracting Party to all three. The principles established in the first instance at European level by the Paris Convention (absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, limitation of such liability, compulsory insurance...) are intended to guarantee that possible victims of a nuclear incident will obtain compensation for damage suffered. The Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention provides for official funds to compensate victims through intervention by the Contracting Parties. Each Contracting Party should implement these Conventions at national level by appropriate legislation, which is what Spain did with its Act on Nuclear Energy of 29th April 1964, as supplemented in 1967 by the Regulations on Cover for Nuclear Hazards. (N.E.A.)
The third review meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS), held in April 2005, demonstrated collective progress on ensuring worldwide nuclear safety. The Contracting Parties highlighted areas of focus to be brought back to the fourth review meeting and also committed to a continuity process to revitalize the review processes under the CNS. Specific progress has been achieved in the first year since the conclusion of the third review meeting, but further commitment to progress is required, by the Contracting Parties and the Secretariat of the IAEA, over the next year, especially if changes to the review processes are to be achieved for the fourth review meeting in 2008. (author)
... section 7603(b)(2)(C). (iii) Debit cards. A debit card is not a credit card or similar device because a debit card is not tendered to obtain an extension of credit. (4) Enrolled agent. A person is an enrolled... pursuant to Circular 230, 31 CFR Part 10. (5) Owner or developer of certain computer code and data....
Moreira Moura, Giovane C.M.; Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, Ramin; Pras, Aiko; Seon Hong, C.; Diao, Y.; De Turk, F.
The distribution of malicious hosts over the IP address space is far from being uniform. In fact, malicious hosts tend to be concentrate in certain portions of the IP address space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. This phenomenon has been previously exploited to filter Spam by means of Bad
Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda
Human beings are intensely social creatures and, as such, devote significant time and energy to creating and maintaining affiliative bonds with group members. Nevertheless, social relations sometimes collapse and individuals experience exclusion from the group. Fortunately for adults, they are able to use behavioral strategies such as mimicry to…
Information Technology (IT) evolution in the recent decades has been able to grow the mobility of the end-user. A contributing factor has impacted and improved the smartphone area. This, in turn, has changed end-users’ expectations and experiences in the recent years in terms of available services, which have made mobile applications (apps) to find their place in daily life. In line with the significant growth of smartphones, as the iPhone and Android phones, is also the development of mobile...
Now a days Information sharing is not an easy task if the information is sensitive part of the cloud and if it has the role based access permission required.If particular document is uploaded by the data owner system module then data owner encrypt that file and give the attribute based security along with that file.This property is especially important to any large scale Information sharing system, as the single and multi user compromise the key then it will be problem to data own...
A year ago, only a handful of K-12 schools and universities had integrated tablets into their curricula. Today, not one week passes with out another iPad rollout announcement. The reasons that schools use tablets are as varied as the schools themselves. Hawaii Preparatory Academy uses iPads to encourage budding physicists, linguists, and…
R Suganya; C. Merlin Pauliester
the information fortune and the connectivity are provided by the universe of E-commerce over an enormous distance at all time. In an open and distributed environment the buyers or providers will not act in a mutually understood or agreed manner by which the incomplete practices and fraudulent activities happen. So in any online transaction the security and trust are two important factors that are to be considered. In Ecommerce markets the above mentioned problems are criticized as the most im...
... comment date for a proposed rule published June 10, 2013 at 78 FR 34796. Comments, identified by docket... the Federal Register of June 10, 2013 (78 FR 34796) (FRL-9342-4). EPA is hereby extending the comment... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ44 Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for...