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Sample records for brussels conv-suppl to paris conv on third party liability

  1. Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This new bilingual (English and French) edition of the 1960 Paris Convention and 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention incorporates the provisions of the Protocols which amended each of them on two occasions, in 1964 and 1982. The Expose des motifs to the Paris Convention, as revised in 1982 is also included in this pubication. (NEA) [fr

  2. Act No. 160 of 17 March 1979 containing regulations approving the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and its Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 as well as the Brussels Convention of 31 January 1963 supplementary to the Paris Convention and its Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    By this Act the Netherlands approved the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, as well as the Brussels Convention of 1963 Supplementary to that Convention. This Act came into force on 28 December 1979 thus bringing into force on that date the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the Netherlands. (NEA) [fr

  3. Ministerial Decree of 20 March 1979 excluding certain categories of nuclear substances from the scope of the Paris and Brussels Conventions on Nuclear Third Party Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this Decree is to exclude certain categories of nuclear substances from the scope of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. Its publication enables implementation at the internal level of the corresponding Decision taken by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Steering Committee on 27 October 1977. (NEA) [fr

  4. 3 July 1985: Convention signed in Brussels on 31 January 1963, supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and Act approving the Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Act refers to the Brussels Supplementary Convention approved by Belgium in 1966 and ratified on 20 August 1985 and approves ratification of the Protocols of 16 November 1982 to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention respectively. The Protocols are reproduced in French, Dutch and German. (NEA) [fr

  5. New Swiss legislation on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1981-10-01

    Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA) [fr

  6. Third party liability insurance for international transport of nuclear substances in countries party to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, F.

    1977-01-01

    The number of international transports of radioactive materials has been increasing at an accelerating rate for several years. These transports are subject to specific safety rules which must be complied with in order to obtain nuclear third party liability cover. In general nuclear transports are insured under a policy which differs from that for installations. Transport policy criteria have been harmonized to some extent, in particular, in the frame of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Certificates established by the competent national authorities testifying to the existence of insurance must in principle be approved by the countries crossed which are parties to the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  7. 1986 Agreement on third party liability in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Agreement intends to facilitate the settlement of disputes, if they are due to an event (caused by the peaceful utilisation of nuclear energy) which occurs on the territory of one State and gives rise to damage on the territory of the other State. Unlike the Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland has neither ratified the Paris Convention of 29th July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy nor the Brussels Supplementary Convention of 31st January 1963. This might result in diverging interpretations by the German and Swiss courts, in particular, regarding the competent courts and the laws applicable if a third party liability problem were to arise between both countries. The Agreement therefore aims to settle these matters directly by treaty between the States before the courts are confronted by an occurrence of damage and have to seek a solution which conforms to international private law. (NEA) [fr

  8. Revision of the Paris and Brussels Conventions of Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Contracting Parties to the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and to the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, have concluded this Spring four years of negotiation on the revision of these instruments. This exercise was itself started as a logical consequence of the adoption in 1997 of a revised Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The Contracting Parties have concluded that the existing regime established by these Conventions remains viable and sound but that it also warrants improvements to ensure that greater financial security will be available to compensate a potentially larger number of victims in respect of a broader range of nuclear damage. A number of more technical amendments have also been agreed, in particular to ensure compatibility with other existing Conventions in this field. When the revised Paris and Brussels Conventions come into force, the total amount of funds available for compensation, provided by the liable nuclear operator and by the States concerned, will be 1.5 billion euros. (author)

  9. Conflict of law issues related to Switzerland's participation in the Paris Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the active role Switzerland played during the negotiation process of the Paris Convention, it only recently ratified the Convention including all its amending Protocols. The whole Paris regime will become binding for Switzerland only upon entry into force of the Protocols of 2004. Concurrently, the Federal Council will put into force a revised Swiss Nuclear Liability Act and ratify the Joint Protocol. Being a party to the Paris regime and the Joint Protocol, Switzerland will be in treaty relationships with Paris states and with Vienna states which are party to the Joint Protocol. This paper assesses the legal protection of Swiss victims and the liability risks faced by Swiss operators and other potential defendants (such as suppliers and builders) under the new legal regime with a particular view to conflict of laws issues. For the purpose of this assessment the paper examines which courts will be competent to hear claims of Swiss victims and against Swiss defendants in different scenarios, which law these courts should apply, whether or not the principle of legal channelling will apply and what the applicable liability amounts are. The assessment shows an ambiguous picture: Swiss operators, suppliers and builders clearly benefit from a higher degree of legal certainty. While in the absence of treaty relationships Swiss operators could potentially be sued before any foreign court, there will now be only one court with jurisdiction over claims of victims of convention states; Swiss suppliers and builders for their part will be protected by the principle of legal channelling, which basically exempts them from any liability risk. Swiss victims will benefit from treaty-backed entitlement to compensation from foreign operators; also, the judgements rendered in their favour will be enforceable in the whole convention territory; however, the limitation of the operator's liability in many Paris and Vienna states, raises doubts about whether the available funds

  10. Government Decree No 24/84 approving accession to the Convention of 31 January 1963 Supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Portugal is a Contracting Party of the Paris Convention which establishes a special system of liability for the operator of nuclear installations in Contracting States: absolute liability and its limitation in amount and in time. The Brussels Supplementary Convention, to which Portugal will accede in accordance with this Decree of 24 April 1984, introduces an additional compensation in two further tiers, the first out of public funds from the country where the nuclear incident originates and the second, highest amount, out of public funds from all Contracting States in cases where damage exceeds the sum to be paid by the Contracting Party concerned. (NEA) [fr

  11. Act of 18 July 1966 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, establishing certain measures regarding implementation of the Paris Convention and its additional protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This Act on nuclear third party liability lays down that certain Articles (definitions, liability, scope and amounts of liability, insurance) of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (Paris Convention) are immediately applicable in Belgium. It stipulates that a nuclear operator is recognised as such by the King when he furnishes proof that he has taken out insurance or other financial security to cover his liability under this Act, without prejudice to implementation of legal and regulatory provisions on protection of the population against the hazards of ionizing radiations. Finally, the operator of a nuclear installation must take out and maintain, for each installation, insurance approved by the appropriate authorities; if the State itself operates a nuclear installation, it has no obligation to take out insurance or other financial security. (NEA) [fr

  12. Act No. 225 of 17 March 1979 containing regulations on third party liability for damage caused by nuclear incidents; Nuclear Incidents (Third Party Liability) Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Act on nuclear third party liability provides that the maximum amount of liability of the operator of a nuclear installation in the Netherlands is set at 100 million guilders in accordance with the Paris Convention; it also implements the Brussels Supplementary Convention's additional compensation mechanism. The new Act further provides that if damage is suffered on the Netherlands' territory as a result of a nuclear incident for which compensation is payable pursuant to the Brussels Convention or to the Act, and that the funds available for this purpose are insufficient to secure compensation of such damage to an amount of one thousand million guilders, the State shall make available the public funds needed to compensate such damage up to that amount. (NEA) [fr

  13. Trends in nuclear third party liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avossa, G.

    1992-01-01

    For some ten years now, nuclear third-party liability has been changing at an ever-faster pace, further accelerated by the Chernobyl catastrophe. Some of these changes are discussed in this article. A joint protocol drawn up by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) mutually extends the benefit of the special third-party liability system regarding nuclear damage instituted by virtue of previous Conventions and settles the conflicts of law likely to result from the simultaneous application of the two international instruments. Within the framework of the IAEA, a review procedure of the Convention of Vienna has been underway since 1989, in which the NEA has taken an integral part. At the outcome of the process underway, not only will the Convention of Vienna be revised, but so, indirectly but very rapidly, will the Conventions of Paris and Brussels. Ultimately, the entire field of nuclear third-party liability will be recast for decades to come. The texts under discussion are as yet nowhere near their final stage but two areas of consideration have already emerged, which will be discussed. Substantial modifications are made in nuclear third-party liability law. Secondly, the indemnification process for nuclear damage will be vastly modified, due to the subsidiary nature of government intervention and new obligations on operators to become members of a Nuclear Operator Pool. (author)

  14. Ordinance on nuclear third party liability (ORCN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The Ordinance exempts from the application of the 1983 Act on Nuclear Third Party Liability some substances with low radiation effects. It determines the amount of private insurance cover and defines the risks that insurers may exclude from cover. It establishes a special fund for nuclear damage made up of contributions from the nuclear operators. Specifications are given on the amount of the contributions and their conditions, as well as on administration of the fund. The Ordinance repeals the Ordinance of 13 June 1960 on funds for delayed atomic damage, the Order of 19 December 1960 on contributions to the fund for delayed atomic damage and the Ordinance of 30 November 1981 on cover for third party liability resulting from nuclear power plant operation [fr

  15. Developments in international convention on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2000-01-01

    A few years after the adoption of a Protocol to amend the world-wide Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a new ''global'' Convention on the Supplementary Compensation of Nuclear Damage (September 1997), the countries which are party to the Western Europe based Paris and Brussels Conventions are working on the revision of these instruments within the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The objective of this exercise is not only to preserve the compatibility of the Paris and Vienna provisions, which is now an imperative deriving from the application of the 1988 Joint Protocol linking these two Conventions, but also to substantially improve certain features of this regime such as its technical and geographical scope of application, the facilitation of the rights of victims to defend their claims and, of course, the level of funds effectively available to compensate the damage. This paper reviews briefly the recent evolution of the international nuclear liability regime and discusses some of the challenges which the nuclear countries are facing in this context. (author)

  16. Protocol to amend the convention of 31st January 1963 supplementary to the Paris convention of 29th July 1960 on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, as amended by the additional protocol of 28th January 1964, Paris, 16 November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Protocol further amends the Convention of 31 January 1963 supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, concluded between the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland, within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (U.K.)

  17. motor vehicle lessors' liability for damages to third parties: acomment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    of defining the scope of application of the Ethiopian law on liability for damages ... Federal Supreme Court in a recent case has rendered a decision that allows. ♧ .... 3.1 Whether Third Party Practice Exonerates Joint and Several. Liability.

  18. Protocol to amend the convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy of 29th July 1960, as amended by the additional protocol of 28th January 1964, Paris, 16 November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Protocol further amends the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, concluded between the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (U.K.)

  19. Insurance considerations arising from the revision of the Paris and Brussels conventions on nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, G. C.

    2000-01-01

    The work being undertaken by the 14 countries, party to the 1960 Paris Convention in preparing a revised instrument will or so it is to be hoped provide a more comprehensive scope of liability and a larger compensatory fund for the protection of potential victims. Both these developments have serious implications for insurers or other providers of financial security. Equally they are of concern to society itself as it will be necessary to balance the needs of the individual for example, in obtaining redress for injury or damage to personal property with the need to provide for the ''common good''. The author's paper will attempt to explore these avenues, to point to perceived difficulties and, perhaps, to acceptable solutions. (author)

  20. The protection against nuclear risks under the international nuclear liability law: the geographical and technical scope of the international conventions on third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissich, S.J.

    2001-10-01

    This Ph.D.-research deals with the International Conventions on Third Party Liability for Nuclear Damage. In 1960, the Paris Convention was established with the aim of providing a special uniform nuclear third party liability regime for Western Europe. This Convention was supplemented in 1963 by the Brussels Supplementary Convention. Also in 1963, the Vienna Convention, which aimed to establish a world-wide system based on the same principles as the Paris Convention, was adopted. A further Convention was adopted in 1971 to ensure that nuclear third party liability law and not maritime law would apply to carriage of nuclear materials by sea. In 1988, the Paris and Vienna Conventions have been linked by the adoption of a Joint Protocol. In 1997, the process of amending the 1963 Vienna Convention was successfully concluded and a Convention on Supplementary Compensation was adopted. This Ph.D.-research consists of seven chapters: following an introduction, the second chapter gives a general view of the existing international legal sources. The third chapter describes the international civil nuclear liability law concept and its leading principles. The main element of this work is the question of the technical and geographical scope of the international nuclear liability conventions (chapter IV and V). The conventions are only applicable to nuclear incidents, which occur in a nuclear installation or incidental to the carriage or storage of nuclear material. The nuclear damage must arise out of the radioactive properties of nuclear substances which are also defined by legal terms. In addition, the scope of the conventions is limited by the nature of the installations. The geographical scope of application is established by the provisions on geographical coverage. Only the 1963 Vienna Convention does not contain any specific provision dealing with the territorial scope of its application. The geographical scope determines where the nuclear incident or the nuclear damage

  1. Decision and Recommendation Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy to Nuclear Installations for the Disposal of Certain Types of Low-level Radioactive Waste (This Decision and Recommendation was adopted at the 133. Session of the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held on 3-4 November 2016.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The steering committee, having regard to the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964, by the Protocol of 16 November 1982 and by the Protocol of 12 February 2004, and in particular Article 1(b) thereof; Considering that, by virtue of that Article, the Steering Committee may, if in its view the small extent of the risks involved so warrants, exclude any nuclear installation, nuclear fuel or nuclear substances from the application of the Paris Convention; having regard to Article 8(b) and Article 10(b) of the Statute of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; considering that nuclear installations for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste are covered by the provisions of the Paris Convention; considering that it should be made possible for Contracting Parties to cease the application of the Paris Convention to a nuclear installation for the disposal of certain types of low-level radioactive waste where the risks involved are so limited; noting the attached Explanatory Note; decides that any Contracting Party may cease to apply the Paris Convention to a nuclear installation for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, provided that the provisions set out in the Appendix to this Decision and Recommendation and any additional conditions which the Contracting Party may judge appropriate to establish are met; recommends that the Contracting Parties which make use of this option notify the other Contracting Parties, as well as the Nuclear Energy Agency; and recommends that the Nuclear Energy Agency, as appropriate, analyses periodically the experience gained by the Contracting Parties which use this option and reports back to all the Contracting Parties. (authors)

  2. Third party liability cover for nuclear damage and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Ferdinando; Gambardella, Elio.

    1974-06-01

    This paper analyses the financial security and cover for third party liability for nuclear damage as provided for by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The relevant Sections of the Act are quoted and explained, as are the nuclear operator's obligation to furnish financial security for his liability. Different possible types of security and cover are described, also with reference to other national legislation. Finally, the author mentions the Paris Convention which provides the basis for Italian nuclear third party liability legislation. (NEA) [fr

  3. The 1968 Brussels convention and liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, Ph.; Galizzi, P.

    2000-01-01

    The legal regime governing civil liability for transboundary nuclear damage is expressly addressed by two instruments adopted in the 1960's: the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage These establish particular rules governing the jurisdiction of national courts and other matters, including channelling of liability to nuclear operators, definitions of nuclear damage, the applicable standard of care, and limitations on liability. Another instrument - the 1968 Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgements in Civil and Commercial Matters (hereinafter referred to as 'the Brussels Convention') - which is not often mentioned in the nuclear context will nevertheless also be applicable in certain cases. It is premised upon different rules as to forum and applicable law, and presents an alternate vision of the appropriate arrangements governing civil liability for nuclear damage. In this paper we consider the relative merits and demerits of the Brussels Convention from the perspective of non-nuclear states which might suffer damage as a result of a nuclear accident in another state. We conclude that in the context of the applicability of the Brussels Convention the dedicated nuclear liability conventions present few attractions to non-nuclear states in Europe. We focus in particular on issues relating to jurisdiction and applicable law, and do so by reference to a hypothetical accident in the United Kingdom which has transboundary effects in Ireland. (author)

  4. Nuclear third party liability in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The German system of nuclear third party liability has always been, and arguably still is, the object of considerable interest in the international nuclear law community. This may seem surprising since Germany adheres to the Paris Convention and is therefore a party to a community of 15 states all following the same principles enshrined in this Convention. In fact, when implementing the PC, Germany chose the approach ensuring the most literal adherence to the PC's principles: it adopted the PC in its entirety, thus directly transposing the PC text into binding German law, instead of enacting a national law derived from, but not literally translating, the PC. At the same time, perhaps no other nation has made use of the options, choices and margins offered or abandoned by the PC to the national legislators, or kept in store by way of a reservation at signature of the Convention, in such an extended manner, testing - and as has even been contended in the past: stressing - the boundaries of the PC system. Unlimited liability introduced in 1985, the highest financial security of any PC state (EUR 2.5 billion), unlimited territorial scope combined with the principle of reciprocity and liability of German operators even in the force majeure cases of Article 9 of the PC are probably the most interesting decisions made by Germany in this context, established in the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz). These choices betray a certain tendency of the German government to give the greatest possible benefit to victims, and in parallel to achieve a 'normalisation' of the nuclear liability regime, without stifling the industry. Within the compromise underlying the international nuclear liability regime - enabling the nuclear industry to create and sustain an energy sector highly relevant for national electricity production on the one hand and protecting potential victims on the other - Germany has more and more shifted the balance, as far as practically possible, to the

  5. The Brussels I Regulation and Liability for Nuclear Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, J.

    2010-01-01

    Prior to 2004, the map of the European Union seemed to be basically identical to the map of the contracting parties to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 ('the Paris Convention'). The 2004 and 2007 enlargements were mainly composed of the contracting parties to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963 ('the Vienna Convention'). In various discussions, the term 'nuclear liability patchwork' is used to describe this existing situation. One of the problems arising from this 'patchwork' is that, while a uniform legal framework was established for matters of jurisdiction and the enforcement of decisions under the authority given to the European Union ('EU') by the Council Regulation on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgements in civil and commercial matters ('Brussels Regulation'), this overall framework does not apply to particular matters governed by the special conventions to which member states may be contracting parties, see Article 71 of the Brussels Regulation. This paper aims to outline the 'patchwork' of these rules that are applicable to nuclear third party liability cases in the EU and to point out the main consequences arising from this legal framework difficult to comprehend.5 Its scope, however, is limited to the legal issues arising from a nuclear incident occurring in a nuclear installation situated within the territory of the European Union

  6. Liability for nuclear damage and compensation therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazkova, D.

    1996-01-01

    The basic principles are outlined of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention. (P.A.)

  7. Nuclear third party liability under Polish law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewaszkiewic-Petrykowska, B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the system governing liability for nuclear incidents in Poland. The Atomic Energy Act of 10 April 1986, which entered into force on 1 July 1986, covers all aspects of nuclear activities, including third party liability. Such liability is channelled onto the nuclear operator who must take out insurance to cover his liability up to an amount fixed in the contract. The Act provides that questions not settled by its provisions are governed by the Civil Code; therefore, if personal injuries exceed that amount victims may claim the difference from the State under that Code (NEA) [fr

  8. Act of 18 March 1983 on Nuclear Third Party Liability (LRCN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This new Act on nuclear third party liability maintains the two essential principles established by the law in force, namely those of causation and the channelling of liability on to the operator of a nuclear installation. On the other hand, the Act waives the principle of third party liability limited in amount and provides that the person liable must commit himself for an unlimited amount. Such liability is covered as follows: by private insurance up to 300 million francs; by the Confederation up to one thousand million francs over and above the amount covered by private insurance; by all the assets of the person liable. (NEA) [fr

  9. Protocols to Amend the Paris, Vienna and Brussels Supplementary Conventions and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage: Status of their Implementation into National Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade, a number of very significant developments have taken place in modernising the existing international nuclear liability regimes. The first major advancement was the adoption, in September 1997, of the Protocol to amend the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (VC Protocol) and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC). This was followed, in February 2004, by the adoption of Protocols to amend both the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (PC Protocol) and the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention (BSC Protocol). The principle goal of all these new instruments is to provide a greater amount of compensation to a larger number of victims in respect of a broader scope of nuclear damage suffered as a result of a nuclear accident. The second, but still very important objective is the maintenance of compatibility between the revised Paris and Vienna Conventions to ensure the smooth functioning of the 1988 Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention (VC) and the Paris Convention (PC). In addition, the PC States wish to ensure that their newly revised Convention will not prevent a Contracting Party from joining the more global regime established by the CSC. However, it remains to be seen to what extent these new instruments will attract a sufficient number of adherents to make them truly effective. While the VC Protocol is already in force, it has not drawn wide support from the 1963 VC States or from countries with important nuclear generating capacity which have not yet joined that latter any Convention. In addition, notwithstanding its adoption almost 10 years ago, the CSC has not yet entered into force and it remains questionable whether it will ever attract the necessary number of adherents for that purpose, especially in light of its strict requirements in this regard. As for the PC and BSC Protocols to

  10. Third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crancher, D.W.

    1976-12-01

    Basic principles of nuclear liability legislation are discussed including absolute and limited liability and the role of the Sovereign State in idemnifying the operator for damage in excess of limited liability. European counrties realised the need for unifying the law of nuclear instability and efforts were made accordingly towards producing workable international conventions. The world's first legislation on nuclear liability - the USA Price-Anderson Act - is described in detail and a digest of nuclear liability claims experience is given. Observations of the present status of nuclear third party liability are outlined. (Author)

  11. Third Party Liability governing Dangerous and Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Martino, Vittorio.

    1979-01-01

    The introductory chapters of this book analyse the concept of fault as a basis for third party liability and the evolution of jurisprudence and doctrine towards the concept of absolute liability. The following part covers the Italian system of liability for hazardous activities. The nuclear third party liability system is then analysed according to existing international conventions and nuclear legislation in several countries. The Appendix contains various legislative and regulatory texts on nuclear third party liability in Italy and in other countries which provide for special legislation in this field. (NEA) [fr

  12. Transposition into swiss law of the Paris convention and the Brussels supplementary convention, as amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.; Daina, S.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from the considerable increase in the amounts of cover, two basic factors lie behind the Swiss government decision to propose shortly to parliament a draft revised L.R.C.N.(federal act on nuclear third party liability). These are, firstly, that the revised Paris/Brussels system still incorporates the principle of the limited liability of the operator of a nuclear installation but now contains a minimum liability amount (liability threshold) and no longer a maximum amount (liability ceiling), and secondly, that the States parties are allowed to provide in their national legislation for the unlimited liability of operators. One of the aims of ratifying the revised conventions is to enable most victims to obtain fair compensation on an egalitarian basis for damage caused by a nuclear incident, and also to join an international system for compensating nuclear damage based on solidarity between states, most of them nuclear. (N.C.)

  13. Improvement of nuclear third party liability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Oh, B. J.; Yoo, S. O.; Kang, S. C.; Lee, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    A special regime for nuclear third party liability is necessary since the ordinary common law is not well suited to deal with the particular problems in the field of nuclear industry. The basic principles of this regime is i) strict liability (other than traditional fault liability), ii) channelling and the exclusive liability of operator, iii) compulsory financial security, iv) limits on liability in amount and in time v) intervention by the state, etc. In Korea, a revision was made to the Nuclear Damage Compensation Act on 16th January, 2001. The revision aimed at the reflection of the spirit of the new Vienna Convention on Nuclear Liability (1997) such as i) limit of liability to an amount of 300mil SDR, ii) increase of the level of financial protection (in the presidential decree, the 'Phasing-In' system would be introduced), iii) Extension of the definition 'nuclear damage', iv) extension of the scope of application to EEZ, v) deletion of 'natural calamity' from the causes of immunity, vi) extension of prescription period for personal injury to a length of 30 year

  14. International nuclear third party liability law: The response to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In terms of liability and compensation issues, the response of the international community to the accident at Chernobyl has been comprehensive, aimed at modernising two outdated international regimes, linking them together and adopting a brand, new global one - all this in the hope of bettering the situation of victims of a nuclear accident, wherever they may be found. That improvement will be brought about in a number of ways once all of the relevant international instruments have entered into force. Much more money will be available to compensate victims of a nuclear accident and that money will be more readily and easily accessible. More victims will be entitled to compensation, both in terms of the type of damage that they have suffered and where those victims were physically located at the time they suffered it; in some cases, such as under the Supplementary Compensation Convention, victims in states other than that of the liable operator will be in a privileged position as regards a portion of the available compensation. In addition, the period in which claims for compensation can be made in respect of personal injury and loss of life has been extended, in recognition of the fact that some such injuries may not manifest themselves for many years after the accident has occurred. Yet despite the lessons learned from Chernobyl, despite the attempts to make these new or amended instruments as attractive as possible to encourage the broadest possible adherence, their acceptance by individual states has not been overwhelming. This is particularly true in the case of the VC Protocol and the CSC where the required liability amounts and financial security limits were intentionally established at levels deemed to be acceptable to the vast majority of potential parties. It is equally discouraging to see that Ukraine has not ratified either the VC Protocol or the CSC, even though it signed both shortly after their adoption in 1997. Similarly, the Russian Federation has

  15. Decree No. 33/77 of 11 March approving ratification of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, signed in Paris on 29 July 1960 and amended by the Additional Protocol, signed in Paris on 29 January 1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Decree, promulgated on 21 February 1977, approves ratification of the Paris Convention and reproduces the full text of the Convention in French, followed by its translation into Portuguese. The Paris Convention provides an exceptional nuclear liability system and its scope is limited to risks of an exceptional character for which common law rules and practice are not suitable. Under the Convention, liability is absolute, channelled onto the nuclear operator and limited in amount. (NEA) [fr

  16. The modernization of the international nuclear third party liability regime - does exclusive liability still make sense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolehmainen, H.

    2000-01-01

    In order to create a perspective for the presentation, it might be useful to recall the general aims and purposes of the existing system for exclusive liability in the international nuclear liability regime. As is well-known, the compensation system is based on two conventions (The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963). The norms in these Conventions define the level at which the compensation system for nuclear accidents is based. The international co-operation which resulted in the conventions was inspired by the aim to construct a system which awards a fair and sufficient compensation for the victims of a nuclear accident. Secondly, the aim was to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The purpose was also to harmonize regulations concerning nuclear energy. The preparatory works for these conventions demand a general goal to balance the interests of the potential victims of a nuclear accident and the interest of society to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. National legislation on nuclear third party liability is based on these conventions. There are four basic principles which guide the normative framework of these conventions. The liability of the operator of a nuclear installation is not based on fault but is strictly based on its nature. Secondly, the liability is restricted to a certain sum per accident. Thirdly, the liability of the operator ought to be covered by insurance or state guarantee. Fourthly, the liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of a nuclear plant, meaning that there are no other persons to be held liable for a possible nuclear accident. Any new orientation on third party liability for nuclear damages should be within the context of existing regulations in the field. Exceptions from established international principles in the area of nuclear liability should be openly discussed and their consequences

  17. Order on nuclear third party liability (ORCN) Amendment of 2 December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    According to the 1983 Act on Nuclear Third Party Liability the Federal Council must increase the minimum amount of three hundred million francs covered by private insurance when the insurance market offers a higher coverage at acceptable conditions. The Swiss insurers being in a position to cover the sum of four hundred million francs as from January 1986, the Government accordingly amended the Ordinance of 5th December 1983 on Nuclear Third Party Liability (ORCN). The Confederation continues to act as an insurer for the difference between this amount and one thousand million francs; contributions due in this respect will be reduced to take account of the greater sum to be covered by private insurance. The New Ordinance entered into force on 1st January 1986. (NEA) [fr

  18. Protocol to amend the convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy of 29 July 1960, as amended by the additional protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the protocol of 16 November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Donald; )

    2004-01-01

    The governments of Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey; considering that it is desirable to amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, concluded at Paris on 29 July 1960 within the framework of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation, now the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, as amended by the Additional Protocol signed at Paris on 28 January 1964 and by the Protocol signed at Paris on 16 November 1982; have agreed that the Convention shall be amended again. This document presents the modifications given to the text in 6 different languages

  19. 1988 changes to United States law regarding nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, G.H.

    1989-09-01

    The Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 1988 has introduced sweeping changes into the nuclear third party liability regime in the United States. The basis principle that a single, assured source of funds for compensation of those injured by a nuclear incident, regardless of the party actually at fault, has been maintained. The amount of such funding has been increased tenfold, to more than $7 billion, with a commitment that even more will be made available by the Congress, if needed. The scope of compensable injury has been broadened to include precautionary evacuations. With respect to contractors carrying out the defense-related nuclear activities of the Government, the changes have been equally momentous. The ceiling on Government idemnification has risen to keep pace with the maximum amount of licensee liability. Provisions designed to provide greater incentive to adherence to all nuclear safety standards have been added, authorizing the imposition of substantial civil and criminal sanctions for violations

  20. Practical problems of third party liability connected with nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, F.

    1975-01-01

    A special regime of liability for nuclear damage was established by the Paris Convention, 1960, and the Vienna Convention, 1963. The same basic principles are embodied in both Conventions. Some discrepancies, however, still exist between them despite the adoption of an additional protocol to the Paris Convention in 1964 for harmonization purposes. Practical problems facing insurers and suggestions for suitable solutions are presented. International transport of nuclear material raises, in particular, complex issues. With regard to civil liability arising out of the carriage of nuclear material by sea, a possible conflict between maritime transport conventions and nuclear liability conventions was resolved by the Brussels' Convention, 1971. Wider ratification of the nuclear conventions appears to be the only way for coping with some remaining difficulties, in particular with respect to nuclear material in transit

  1. Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The modernisation of international conventions governing third-party liability in the nuclear field is essentially an attempt to resolve certain shortcomings whilst setting out higher compensation sums and extending the cover for nuclear damage for which compensation is payable. The latest convention revisions occurred in 2004 and led to the adoption of protocols amending the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention supplementing the Paris Convention. However, the substance of the current regimes is largely the result of conventions drawn up in the 1960's and, in the eyes of the general public, the changes made in 2004 are mainly concerned with increasing the compensation sums. Despite the proposed increases in the compensation amounts, there is certainly no doubt that the potential costs of a major nuclear accident will not be fully covered by the revised Conventions. In other words, the actual compensation amount in the event of nuclear damage is quite low if we refer back to known events. By way of example, the direct cost of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident is estimated to be above EUR 100 billion according to different sources. The accident virtually bankrupted the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) immediately after this event. The economic costs of the Chernobyl accident, however, are difficult to assess even now. But, according to various sources, the costs also exceed USD 100 billion. The Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl accidents share common characteristics. First, the amount of damage could have been even higher had the accident occurred close to major population centres or if the wind direction at the time of the accident had been different. Second, no compensation was provided by the insurance world. Further, these two accidents did not occur within the framework of the new amended conventions (the latest revision of the Paris Convention has still not taken effect). These

  2. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, Otto von.

    1977-01-01

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.) [fr

  3. Third Party Nuclear Liability: The Case of a Supplier in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, A.; Heffron, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term “Supplier” is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...

  4. International conventions on civil liability for nuclear damage. Revised 1976 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This revised edition contains the texts of the following multilateral conventions and instruments concerning civil liability for nuclear damage: The Vienna Convention of 21 May 1963 on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage; The Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (incorporating the provisions of the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964); The Brussels Convention of 31 January 1963; Supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 (and incorporating the provisions of the Additional Protocol signed in Paris on 28 January 1964); and the Brussels Convention of 25 May 1962 on the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships. Final Act and Resolutions of the International Conference on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, held in Vienna from 29 April to 19 May 1963; Final Act of the International Legal Conference on Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Substances, held in Brussels from 29 November to 2 December 1971; and Convention Relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material, adopted at Brussels on 17 December 1971

  5. Claims expenses and limits of liability in third party liability insurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmann, J.

    1992-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, more than 300,000 individual claims totalling DM 440 million were settled in Germany, even though the level of radiation was relatively low. This has alerted insurers to the potential level of expenses connected with the handling and settlement of claims following a major nuclear accident which, it is estimated, could amount to DM 50 million per 100,000 claims. The Paris Convention (PC) states the principle of congruence between liability and coverage for nuclear installations. The minimum amounts of liability and coverage must be exclusively reserved for the compensation of accident victims. This paper will show that in PC countries, the majority of claims expenses - both internal and external -are borne by the insurers in addition to the sums insured for the compensation of third parties, with limited extensions of coverage in some cases. The situation is different in non-PC countries, and particularly in the United States of America, where expenses are included in the total sum insured together with compensation payments to third parties. This situation would not pose a problem if the minimum amounts of liability and coverage as stated in the PC were still applicable. In practice, most countries have since increased these amounts substantially, thus reducing the insurers' ability to make the maximum possible capacity available for indemnities to victims. Thus, before further increasing the statutory limits of liability, governments should, when conducting the Nuclear Energy Agency revision of the PC, consider allowing insurers to include claims handling expenses in their total sums insured; with a finite amount of risk, insurers would then be able to commit their full capacity instead of withholding a safety buffer for an open-ended commitment. (author)

  6. 16 CFR 240.13 - Customer's and third party liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customer's and third party liability. 240.13 Section 240.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.13 Customer's and third party...

  7. Occupational health nursing interventions to reduce third-party liability in workplace injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delk, Kayla L

    2012-03-01

    This article explores general principles of workers' compensation law and the ability to sue third parties for employee injuries by using case law and the treatise Larson's Workers' Compensation Law. This overview provides occupational health nurses with a background on workers' compensation law, who is liable for employee injuries, and how recovery from third parties is distributed between the employer or insurer and the employee. The author then explores interventions that occupational health nurses can implement to reduce employee injury and employer costs for providing workers' compensation. The goal of this article is to stimulate occupational health nurses' critical-thinking and problem-solving skills so they may identify risks and implement cost-effective solutions that will prevent injuries to employees. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Nuclear insurance and third-party liability. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nahrul Khair

    1986-04-01

    As for any other insurance policy, nuclear insurance involves two parties, the insurer and the insured. The coverage provided for can be against any misfortune or peril; material or physical losses, financial losses, third party liability or even the insured himself as in the case of life or personal insurance. In property and liability insurance, the element of certainty does not exist. Accidents cannot be predicted, the insured will only be able to financially recover the present worth of the property insured as evaluated at the time of the accident and to the extent of the damage arising from the event insured against, which in most cases will be lower than the full value of the property.

  9. Crime on Campus: Institutional Tort Liability for the Criminal Acts of Third Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddatz, Anita

    To aid colleges and universities in protecting students and other potential victims of crime, a general analysis of the pertinent case law concerning institutional tort liability for campus crime is provided. The analysis of case law explains that lawsuits are usually based on the theory of negligence. Negligence consists of four elements: duty;…

  10. Concepts of nuclear liability revisited: a post-Chernobyl assessment of the Paris and the Vienna Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, Norbert

    1988-01-01

    The accident at Chernobyl caused evident damage to third parties. Nuclear third party liability law was applicable. It is thus timely to reassess the concept of the international civil nuclear liability regulations, with special reference to the accident and the proceedings which resulted from it. The first section deals with the basis of liability - the origin and development of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, various aspects of liability and international implementation of the Convention. The second part considers the limitations on the liability and the third part looks at recent developments and future prospects which include the draft of a joint protocol. (U.K.)

  11. Act N0 65-956 of 12 November 1965 on the third party liability of operators of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Act determines the liability of operators of nuclear ships according to the general principles of the Paris Convention. In particular, such operators are solely liable for nuclear damage caused by a nuclear incident up to a limit of 500 millions French francs. With regard to French nuclear ships and insofar as the security provided by the operator is insufficient to meet claims for which he is liable up to the above-mentioned limit, the State intervenes to that amount. (NEA) [fr

  12. Reviewing the justification and adequacy of existing legal principles governing nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnam, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Following a review of the legal principles governing nuclear third party liability which are applied in most countries, this paper discusses certain reforms to this regime which have already been applied or are being studied in certain countries - namely the fixing of an unlimited amount of liability for nuclear damage. (NEA) [fr

  13. Nuclear liability amounts on the rise for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena; Schwartz, Julia; Kuzeyli, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    The NEA Table on Nuclear Operator Liability Amounts and Financial Security Limits (NEA 'Liability Table'), which covers 71 countries, aims to provide one of the most comprehensive listings of nuclear liability amounts and financial security limits. The current and revised Paris and Brussels Supplementary Conventions ('Paris-Brussels regime'), the original and revised Vienna Conventions ('Vienna regime') and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, newly entered into force in April 2015, provide for the minimum amounts to be transposed in the national legislation of states parties to the conventions, and have served as guidelines for non-convention states. This article examine in more detail increases in the liability amounts provided for under these conventions, as well as examples of non-convention states (China, India and Korea)

  14. A review on liability in case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallage-Alwis, Sylvie; Faron, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    After having evoked assessments of the cost of a nuclear accident in France and of that of damages caused by the Fukushima accident, the authors propose an overview of the issue of liability of companies involved in the operation of a nuclear power plant. They outline that this regime is mainly governed by two international conventions: the Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, and the Brussels Convention. The first one bears on the liability of nuclear installation operators, while the second one aims at ensuring an additional compensation of casualties on public funds. They also evoke the Vienna Convention which aims at defining a world regime for nuclear liability. They outline the limited scope of application of the Paris Convention, and the limitation of compensations. They discuss the liability of companies others than those operating nuclear installations

  15. 20 December Act No 103 amending Act No 28 of 12 May 1972 on Nuclear Energy Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Act amended the 1972 Act to take account of the ratification by Norway of the Protocols of 1982 to amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Supplementary Convention respectively. The amendments bring the third party liability provisions of the Act in line with the Conventions as amended by the Protocols. The modifications concern, inter alia, certain definitions, conversion of the unit of account into the Special Drawing Right (SDR) of the International Monetary Fund and increases in the amount of liability assigned at State level by a factor of approximately 2.5. (NEA) [fr

  16. Study evaluating the status quo and the legal implications of third party liability for the European Security Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergkamp, L.; Faure, M.G.; Hinteregger, M.; Philipsen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Third party liability has been identified as an issue that could adversely impact the European security industry. Limitless third party liability for security product and services is believed to have the potential to reduce investments in innovation. In the US, the Safety Act (discussed in this

  17. Third party nuclear liability regime in the Romanian legislation - current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Chiripus, V.

    2004-01-01

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined by Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damages, as well as Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper aims at presenting to the audience the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the scope of Law no. 703/2001, as well as the subjects to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania (with special emphasis on the relevant responsibilities of nuclear operators), the Romanian nuclear damages compensation system, statute of limitation for claims, types of insurance and financial guarantees covering against civil liability for nuclear damages, limits of nuclear operators' liability, specific requirements regarding the insurance, responsibilities of control and supervision bodies, assessment of nuclear damage.(author)

  18. Nuclear liability: Joint protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention was adopted by the Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, which met in Vienna, at the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency on 21 September 1988. The Joint Protocol establishes a link between the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963. The Joint Protocol will extend to the States adhering to it the coverage of the two Conventions. It will also resolve potential conflicts of law, which could result from the simultaneous application of the two Conventions to the same nuclear accident. The Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication contains the text of the Final Act of the Conference in the six authentic languages, the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, also in the six authentic languages and an explanatory note, prepared by the IAEA and NEA Secretariats, providing background information on the content of the Joint Protocol

  19. The Concentration on the Motor third Party Liability Insurance Market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paper proposes an analysis of the Romanian car insurance validity market. The topic is relevant at national and European level, and our analysis will be based on indicators such as gross written premiums, motor claims paid for bodily injuries, motor claims paid for property damage, market share on Motor Insurance market. We will also determine the degree of concentration on this market using Gini Struck Concentration Index.

  20. MOTOR THIRD PARTY LIABILITY INSURANCE – POLISH MARKET IN CONNECTIONS TO EUROPEAN TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kwiecień

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor insurance, despite continuous product development, are still in most European countries, the predominant group of products sold by non-life Insurers. In the countries of Central and Eastern Europe is about 2/3 of the insurance written premiums. In the article authors analyze the areas and factors affecting the development of this class of insurance and current market changes in Poland in comparison to the European trends. The main attention has been devoted to number of accidents and road safety, frequency and amount of claims, other macroeconomics and legal factors. Also the financial issues, such as premium and profitability, were discussed.

  1. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  2. Act of 19 June 1974 on Compensation for Nuclear Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Act which came into force on 18 September 1974 replaces the nuclear third party liability provisions of the 1962 Act on nuclear installations. Its adoption enabled the Danish Government to ratify the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention. In accordance with the principles prescribed by these Conventions, the Act establishes an absolute and limited third party liability system (75 million Danish Krone) and compulsory insurance for the operator of a nuclear installation situated in Denmark. In certain conditions, the State may have to intervene to ensure compensation of nuclear damage exceeding the financial security provided by the operator liable. (NEA) [fr

  3. Third party liability in the field of nuclear law an irish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Higgins, P.; McGrath, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will first set out in summary form the main provisions of the Paris Convention, the instrument under which issues of third party liability between the majority of NEA member states affected by any such incident would be resolved, and will then set out some of the perceived advantages and disadvantages which would result from an application of the provisions of the Convention to a non-nuclear state such as Ireland. This paper will then consider how Irish victims of a nuclear incident might re.cover compensation for loss and damage caused by such an incident. For reasons set out below, it is the view of the authors that Irish victims of such an incident could first bring their claim in Ireland or in France, that it is likely that Irish law would apply to any such claim and that any judgement, including any interlocutory judgement in such proceedings, could be enforced in the courts of any other European Union state, including France. (authors)

  4. Limitation of third party nuclear liability. Causes, implications and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetzki, M.

    1999-01-01

    Third party liability of the nuclear power generation industry is discussed. It has several purposes. One is to clarify the distinctive features of nuclear liability as compared with traditional liability in tort. Particular interest is devoted to one such feature, namely the express liability limitation from which the nuclear power generation industry benefits. The causes and implications of this feature are discussed. One important implication of the current order is that the top risk of the nuclear power generation industry is explicitly or implicitly transferred to governments. This risk transfer can be regarded as a subsidy to the nuclear power generation industry. Subsidizations counteract efficiency. Therefore, the possibilities of neutralizing or abolishing the subsidy are explored. (author)

  5. Acts of terrorism in Paris and Brussels: common and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the common and distinctive features of the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016. The attacks have confirmed the weakness of European security system in the context of the protection of its citizens from the threat № 1 in the world. The high level of democracy and liberalism are not allowed to use power instruments effectively in the fight against terrorism, which was the result of the fact that the terrorists were able to freely access to the place of their acts and to implement them. It was determined that the common features are the following: in Paris and in Brussels, the attacks were carried out by terrorist militaristic group «The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant» (ISIL; the places of commission of terrorist acts; guns of terrorists; military units of France and Belgium are parties of the armed conflict in Syria on the side of the Syrian opposition and struggle against ISIL; there were a few terrorist attacks. It is proved that the differences are as follows: in Paris, in addition to explosives, packed with nails, also were used automatic weapons and grenades, but only explosives in Brussels; France is more active in the fight against terrorism in the international arena and in every way opposed to violence against humanity, so there is a terrorist attack can be seen as a blow to the democratic and humanitarian values; Belgium is a «political heart» of the European Union that’s why the terrorist attack on it can be seen as a blow to the political system of the EU; in Paris, the attack was supposed to apply except for the population and for high officials in the name of F. Hollande and F. Steinmeier, and in Brussels – only civilians.conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers, investors, influential foreign

  6. Nuclear operators' third party liability amounts and financial security limits (Last updated: December 2017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    This table aims to gather information on the amounts available to compensate potential victims of a nuclear incident in countries and economies having nuclear power plants and/or having ratified at least one of the international conventions on nuclear third party liability. In the table: Public funds correspond to the amounts provided from public funds beyond the Operator's Liability Amount to be made available by the States parties to the BSC or CSC according to such conventions, or by any public authority pursuant to applicable laws and regulations. International funds correspond to public funds contributed jointly by all the States parties to the BSC or CSC according to a pre-determined formula provided in the respective conventions. The amount provided in the table corresponds to the total amount of the international funds calculated the day the table was updated. For the CSC international fund, an on-line calculator is available at https://ola.iaea.org/ola/CSCND/index.html Under Article V, subparagraph 1 of the Vienna Convention, 'The liability of the operator may be limited by the Installation State to not less than US $5 million for any one nuclear incident'. Subparagraph 3 of the same article further provides that 'The United States dollar referred to in this Convention is a unit of account equivalent to the value of the United States dollar in terms of gold on 29 April 1963, that is to say US $35 per one troy ounce of fine gold'. Therefore, in this table (1963: USD 5 million) means that a country applies the Operator's Liability Amount as provided under the Vienna Convention. With regard to the BSC, in 1992 the OECD Council issued a recommendation [C(92)166/FINAL] that the contracting parties to the BSC shall not invoke Article 3 (b)(i) of the BSC in cases where the amount of the insurance or other financial security of the operator is higher than SDR 175 million per incident (i.e. public funds tier) of the BSC. As a

  7. Decision on the Exclusion of Small Quantities of Nuclear Substances outside a Nuclear Installation from the Application of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (This Decision was adopted at the 133. Session of the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held on 3-4 November 2016.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The steering committee, having regard to the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964, by the Protocol of 16 November 1982 and by the Protocol of 12 February 2004, and, in particular, Article 1(b) thereof; considering that, by virtue of that Article, the Steering Committee may, if in its view the small extent of the risks involved so warrants, exclude any nuclear installation, nuclear fuel or nuclear substances from the application of the Paris Convention; considering that nuclear substances in transport or use outside a nuclear installation, within defined limits and under specifically prescribed conditions during transport, should, in view of the small extent of the risks involved, be excluded from the application of the Paris Convention; having regard to its Decision of 18 October 2007 on the Exclusion of Small Quantities of Nuclear Substances outside a Nuclear Installation from the Application of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960 as amended; considering that the 2005 Edition of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material of the International Atomic Energy Agency referred to in the Annex to the above-mentioned Decision, has been replaced by revised editions, the most recent of which is the 2012 Edition, which is used as the basis for corresponding national and international regulations in this field; considering the need for a decision the annex of which is in line with the 2012 Edition of those Regulations; decides: 1. Nuclear substances which are consigned by an operator to a recipient for use shall be excluded from the application of the Paris Convention for the period during which they are outside a nuclear installation provided that the consignment, when leaving a nuclear installation, complies with the provisions set forth in the Annex to this Decision and with other relevant

  8. Nuclear third party liability and insurance - Status and prospects. Proceedings of the Munich symposium, 10th-14th September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A symposium on Nuclear Third Party Liability and Insurance, organised by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1984 reviewed the fundamental principles of the nuclear third party liability regime and discussed the relationship of the insurance market with the international Conventions in this field. It also examined the concept of nuclear damage and a number of new issues raised by technical developments such as long-term radioactive waste management and decommissioning of nuclear installations. These proceedings reproduce the papers presented, in English or French, as well as the ensuing discussions and panel discussions. (NEA) [fr

  9. Paris and Vienna nuclear liability conventions: challenges for insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2004-01-01

    Insurers have actively contributed to the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. In the course of these negotiations they have pointed out that some of the proposals for revision may have consequences for insurers and could prove incapable of finding insurance support. This paper aims at explaining the revision related points, which could cause problems in respect of insurability. Furthermore, the writer takes the liberty to expand its scope to more generally include developments, which have the potential to influence the availability of insurance capacity. Therefore, also the insurance implications of terrorist acts combined with share market developments of recent years will be dealt with.(author)

  10. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd

    2015-01-01

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  11. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  12. Aspects of an amendment of the regime of third party liability and financial security under atomic energy law in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1991-01-01

    The existing regime of third party liability and financial security applicable in the FRG basically is an up-to-date and risk-adequate system of compensation for nuclear damage. This is particularly true since unrestricted financial liability has been introduced. The legal provisions offer adequate protection of interests of possible victions of a nuclear accident without inflicting unreasonable hardship on liable persons. The expert opinion discusses the limits, purposes and subjects of a possible amendment of the nuclear liability law, referring to items such as: principles of liability, financial security, commitment of the Federal Government; the concept of definition of damage, time limit to claims. Points of main interest for a future improvement are stated to be the yet unsolved strict liability problem, the organizational scheme of settlement of claims, and an international nuclear liability regime, the so-called system of risk pooling. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Revision of the Paris Convention from the German point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlmann, Wilfried.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the revision of the Paris Convention from the German point of view and states how this country has used the possibilities for exceptions provided under the Convention so that German nuclear third party liability legislation differs somewhat from the standards laid down in the Convention. This is explained by a desire to provide increased financial security for the population concerned. After describing various proposed procedures for increasing liability amounts in the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention the author concludes that his country would welcome a revision of the Conventions which would provide increased financial security for the public. (NEA) [fr

  14. A Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime of a Multilateral Nuclear Approaches Framework in the Asian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two primary challenges for establishing nuclear third party liability (TPL regimes within multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Asian region. The first challenge is to ensure secure and prompt compensation, especially for transboundary damages, which is also a challenge for a nation-based facility. One possible solution is that in order to share common nuclear TPL principles, all states in the region participate in the same international nuclear TPL convention, such as the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC, with a view to its entry into force in the future. One problem with this approach is that many states in the Asian region need to raise their amount of financial security in order to be able to participate in the CSC. The second challenge lies with the multiple MNA member states and encompasses the question of how decisions are to be made and responsabilities of an installation state are to be shared in case of a nuclear incident. Principally, a host state of the MNA facility takes on this responsibility. However, in certain situations and in agreement with all MNA member states, such responsibilities can be indirectly shared among all MNA member states. This can be done through internal arrangements within the MNA framework, such as reimbursement to a host state based on pre-agreed shares in accordance with investment and/or making deposits on such reimbursements in case of an incident.

  15. Act No 1860 of 31 December 1962 of the President of the Republic on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy as amended at 10 May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This English and French translation of Act No 1860 on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy incorporates and indicates the successive amendments made since the Act was published in 1962. Act No 1860 is a Basic Act covering all nuclear activities in Italy (regime for ores and nuclear materials, construction and operation of nuclear installations, third party liability, patents, penal provisions...). Given its general character it has been the subject of numerous implementing regulations. The most important, and most recent amendment, is emboided in a Decree of the President of the Republic dated 10th May 1975 which covers the provisions of the third party liability of operators of nuclear installations; its purpose is to embody in Italian domestic law the principles of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention on nuclear third party liability whose ratification was approved by Parliament in 1974 [fr

  16. Motor Third Party Liability Insurance in Russia: Gaining Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Rogozin, Konstantin

    2006-01-01

    The report identifies which factors of service-based offerings are of utmost importance for customers, considers the areas of MTPL insurance that may contain a potential sources for differentiation, and stresses importance of knowing customer needs and requirements. This report should assist the insurance company to categorise and systematise relevant information so as to develop a product position, which may give a competitive advantage.

  17. Ministerial Decree of 3 March 1978 approving the general conditions of the third party liability insurance policy for operators of nuclear installations and the general conditions of insurance policies for third party liability for transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Decree by the Ministry for Industry, Commerce and Crafts and the Ministry for transport of Italy was made in implementation of Section 2 of the Decree No. 519 by the president of the Republic of 2 May 1975 amending Section 15 to 24 of Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This present Decree approves the general conditions of third party liability insurance policies for operators of nuclear installations and for transport of radioactive materials. (NEA) [fr

  18. Aspects concerning the lengths of the excluded shareholder’s liability towards third parties in the case of limited liability companies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Stoican

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of reinventing the trading company law, at the end of a lengthy and extremely difficult economic crisis, when every participant in the economic life tried to find their own way to adapt and make their activity survive the new social and commercial realities, not few were the cases when some of the Shareholders were excluded and their liability was drawn onto the legal person itself. Nevertheless, there is a type of legal liability of the former Shareholders, excluded from the Company, that still is quite deficiently regulated and, despite the sound argumentation and comprehensive regulation of Law no. 31/1990, it fails to provide a clear and detailed explanation of the consequences, namely, of the consequences the exclusion of a Shareholder has over the Third Parties of good-faith that the legal person (the Company had or continues to have legal relations with. This paper thus aims at analysing one of the main effects of excluding Shareholders from the company, namely the extent of their liability towards the Third Parties, and it is structured in five parts, as follows: 1 Introduction, 2 About the Shareholders’ exclusion, 3 The effects of excluding a Shareholder from the Limited Liability Company, 4 The excluded Shareholder’s liability towards the Third Parties and 5 Conclusions.

  19. Decree of 28 December 1965, Stb. 647, in implementation of Section 2 of the Act of 27 October 1965, Stb 546, on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Decree excludes from the scope of application of the Nuclear Incidents (Third Party Liability) Act, small quantities of nuclear substances during transport in view of the small extent of the risk involved. (NEA) [fr

  20. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  1. The role of express submission to jurisdiction under the Brussels I Regulation, Brussels I (Recast) and the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    LL.M. (International Commercial Law) This essay seeks to look at the role of express submission to jurisdictjon under the Brussels I Regulation,lthe Brussels I (recast) Regulation2 and the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements.3 The express submission to jurisdiction under the three instruments mentioned in the previous sentence refers to the situation in which parties to an international commercial contract include in their contract a court of their choice to govern any disputes ...

  2. Notes on third party liability for nuclear damage in connection with the construction of the first nuclear power plant in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1975-01-01

    Responsibilities for the construction and operation of the first nuclear power plant have been transferred from the National Nuclear Energy Commission to Electrobras, a public undertaking set up for this purpose. In view of such transfer of responsibilities and the implementation of further nuclear power projects, liability for nuclear damage has to be regulated in a way consistent with international conventions. A working group associating representatives of national authorities and public utilities was entrusted with the task of drafting rules for co-ordinating their respective activities in relation to the execution of the first nuclear power project; these rules were issued by Ministerial order in 1970. The working group also prepared a draft law on civil liability for nuclear damage, based on the Vienna Convention. This draft law has reached its final stage and, after promulgation, will enable Brazil to ratify the Vienna Convention. (author)

  3. Decree No. 79-623 of 13 July 1979 publishing the Decision on the exclusion of certain categories of nuclear substances from the scope of the Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Decision (with an annex) on the exclusion of small quantities of nuclear substances from the scope of the Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, adopted on 27 October 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This decree lays down that certain specified quantities and categories of nuclear substances are excluded from the nuclear operator's liability. This implements in France two Decisions taken by the NEA Steering Committee under the Paris Convention which enables the Committee to exclude from the operator's liability, nuclear installations, fuel or substances if the small extent of the risks involved so warrants. Both Decisions are reproduced in the Decree. (NEA) [fr

  4. Third party liability of nuclear installation decommissioning with Russian nuclear submarines as an example: insurance versus technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.D. [PREKSAT Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation); Derevyankin, A.A. [Reseaarch and Development Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khamyanov, L.P. [All-Russian Research Institute on NPP Operation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, V.N. [Ministry for Nuclear Energy Of Russian, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kovalivich, O.M. [Research and Technological Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Supervisory, Nuclear Energy State Commitee of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation); Smirnov, P.L. [Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Third party and environment of civil liability damage caused by incidents at military nuclear installations, for instance at decommissioned NPS (nuclear powered submarines), may be divided into three main trends: -) Liability of NPS without high-enriched irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) for its self-submersion (radiation incident); -) Liability of NPS with SNF aboard for its self-submersion (radiation incident); and -) Liability of floating NPS for its SNF discharge (nuclear accident). Without step-by-step transition from the Russian Federation guaranties to insurance and making allowance for liability limits according to the Vienna Convention approach, the sizes of the financial guarantee for the civil liability of the NPS owner (Russian state), in US dollars of 2000, are approximately assessed as the following: -) storing decommissioned NPS or a floating module without SNF - from 12 to 25 thousand dollars per year (per one submarine or module); -) storing decommissioned NPS with SNF inside reactors cores - from 25 to 40 thousand dollars per year; -) assembly-by-assembly removing SNF from reactors' core of decommissioned NPS - up to 1.5 million dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period; -) SNF removing within reactor using the filled in-space reactor's core by liquid-phased hardened or dispersed solid-phase materials from decommissioned NPS - from 30 to 50 thousand dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period. Both rates and sums for NPS with damaged reactors are to be estimated for the each damaged reactor and NPS at all. It is necessary to perform the measures reducing the risk of nuclear accidents of NPS with undamaged SNF and NPS with damaged reactors in possibly short time. It will allow not only to cut risks by ten times and more, but also to accumulate necessary insurance reserves faster. These measures can be partially or completely executed using the preventing measures reserves assigned to all decommissioned Russian NPS

  5. Third party liability of nuclear installation decommissioning with Russian nuclear submarines as an example: insurance versus technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S.D.; Derevyankin, A.A.; Khamyanov, L.P.; Kovalenko, V.N.; Kovalivich, O.M.; Smirnov, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    Third party and environment of civil liability damage caused by incidents at military nuclear installations, for instance at decommissioned NPS (nuclear powered submarines), may be divided into three main trends: -) Liability of NPS without high-enriched irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) for its self-submersion (radiation incident); -) Liability of NPS with SNF aboard for its self-submersion (radiation incident); and -) Liability of floating NPS for its SNF discharge (nuclear accident). Without step-by-step transition from the Russian Federation guaranties to insurance and making allowance for liability limits according to the Vienna Convention approach, the sizes of the financial guarantee for the civil liability of the NPS owner (Russian state), in US dollars of 2000, are approximately assessed as the following: -) storing decommissioned NPS or a floating module without SNF - from 12 to 25 thousand dollars per year (per one submarine or module); -) storing decommissioned NPS with SNF inside reactors cores - from 25 to 40 thousand dollars per year; -) assembly-by-assembly removing SNF from reactors' core of decommissioned NPS - up to 1.5 million dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period; -) SNF removing within reactor using the filled in-space reactor's core by liquid-phased hardened or dispersed solid-phase materials from decommissioned NPS - from 30 to 50 thousand dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period. Both rates and sums for NPS with damaged reactors are to be estimated for the each damaged reactor and NPS at all. It is necessary to perform the measures reducing the risk of nuclear accidents of NPS with undamaged SNF and NPS with damaged reactors in possibly short time. It will allow not only to cut risks by ten times and more, but also to accumulate necessary insurance reserves faster. These measures can be partially or completely executed using the preventing measures reserves assigned to all decommissioned Russian NPS and

  6. Review of nuclear liability compensation systems applicable to reactors outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, C.

    1985-01-01

    The review, which summarizes the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention, as well as the laws of Canada, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, notes that the Price-Anderson program has a number of common points with the laws of Western Europe. The points of similarly are the goal of ensuring simple and equitable compensation for victims without burdening the nuclear industry with an uneconomic load. Price-Anderson differs in the higher amounts fixed for nuclear operators' liability, although the limits are now closer together. The purpose of the comparisons is to help those concerned with US programs of third-party liability and indemnification with a broader perspective

  7. Act No. 732 of December 7, 1988. Act to amend the Act on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Act amends Act No. 332 of June 19, 1974 on civil liability for nuclear damage, enabling Denmark to ratify the 1982 Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention as well as the 1988 Joint Protocol relating to the application of the Vienna and the Paris Convention. The 1988 Act raises the nuclear operator's liability from 75 million DKr to 60 million SDRs while cover involving State funds is raised from 120 million units of account to 300 million SDRs. The Act entered into force on July 1, 1989 except for the provision on State funds which becomes effective when the 1982 Protocol amending the Brussels Convention comes into force. (NEA) [fr

  8. Introduction of unlimited liability into the atomic law with special regard to the international nuclear liability conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper was read at the international symposium on nuclear liability held in Munich in September 1984 by OECD/NEA and IAEA. It outlines the basic principles of the Paris liability convention and the international development. The author pleads in favour of unlimited liability for hazards on grounds of history, legal policy, legal dogmatics and practice. Moreover he thinks it useful and appropriate because it also improves the protection of the citizens. The same as the federal government the author holds that unlimited liability for hazards is compatible with the maximum damages and the congruity regulations of the Paris and Brussels liability convention. An amendment to the liability convention, though not necessary, would be desirable to make clear that both options - limited and unlimited liability - are open. (HSCH) [de

  9. A U.S. Perspective on Nuclear Liability: A Continuing Impediment to International Trade and Public Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O. F.

    2008-01-01

    More than two decades after the 1986 events at Chernobyl demonstrated nuclear power plant accidents can have cross-border consequences, there still is not a unified international legal regime for liability associated with nuclear accidents. This continues to present an impediment to international nuclear trade and protection of the public. Liability potentially associated with international nuclear commerce remains a labyrinth of statutes and treaties not yet interpreted by the courts. Countries with a majority of the world's 439 operating nuclear power plants are not yet parties to any nuclear liability convention in force. The global Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage now covers only about 73 operating nuclear power plants; the regional Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy now covers about 126; and, the Joint Protocol that links those two Conventions covers only about 68. The best solution would be for more countries to join the United States (with 104 operating nuclear power plants) in ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1997. As soon as the CSC enters into force, it will cover more nuclear power plants than either the Vienna or Paris Convention. This presentation also provides an update on insurance coverage in the United States for acts of terrorism.(author)

  10. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2004-01-01

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  11. Improvement of nuclear liability system and pros and cons for becoming a party to conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Jang, K. H.; Oh, B. J.; Yoo, S. O.; Kang, S. C.; Lee, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the 2001 amendment of the Nuclear Liability Act of 1969, the definition of nuclear damage was extended, the amount of liability and compulsory financial security became 300 million SDRs, prescription period for personal injury or loss of life became 30 years. Under the condition that the benefit of becoming a party to a international nuclear liability regime keeps in equilibrium with the cost thereof, we may become a party to the convention

  12. Long-term management of radioactive waste - will the Price-Anderson system work for third party liability issues arising from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznick, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Two pieces of legislation have been enacted in the United States to provide a framework for the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel: the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Neither of these statutes provide a means for resolving third party liability issues arising out of radioactive waste management. However, the Price Anderson Act (originally enacted in 1957) provides a system of financial protection that can be applied to waste management activities and that can resolve most issues pertaining to liability for nuclear damage that may result from long-term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. (NEA) [fr

  13. A victim-centered approach to justice? Victim satisfaction effects on third-party punishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M

    2012-10-01

    Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The effectiveness and development trend of nuclear third party liability insurance in the nuclear risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pei

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power considerably benefited mankind since it was utilized peaceably. The cleanness, safety and high efficiency of nuclear power were gradually known and recognized by the public. However at the same time, nuclear power had produced significant accident and consequently caused severe aftereffects during its utilization. Therefore, effective management of nuclear risk and reducing its accident probability are the social responsibilities of every nuclear nation. From the insurance point of view, this document analyzes the validity and development trends of nuclear third party insurance in nuclear risk management. It also introduces effectual experience in this field from nuclear insurance developed countries. This document discusses the necessity of consummating nuclear third party insurance under the aggressive development situation of nuclear power in our country. (author)

  15. Third party processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of Canada's natural gas industry to remain competitive on a global level was discussed. Third party processing is a tool that the Canadian gas industry can use to overcome the relative disadvantage of smaller, and therefore more expensive, gas processing plants in Canada, and to maintain, and even improve, its competitive position vis-a-vis its US counterparts. The principal role of a third party processor is to provide midstream services such as raw gas gathering, field compression, gas processing, sales gas transmission, and natural gas liquids fractionation. Some third party processors also provide marketing services. Third party processors add value to the gas producer by reducing risk, reducing cost, improving reliability, and improving netbacks. The many variables involved in determining the economic viability of third party processing, including the quantity and deliverability of the raw resource, facility capacity, capital investment, operating costs, technology, fee structures, operational reliability, and speed, among others, were examined and the significance of each variable was explained

  16. Relevance of terrorism for Italian students not directly exposed to it: The affective impact of the 2015 Paris and the 2016 Brussels attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccanello, Daniela; Burro, Roberto; Brondino, Margherita; Pasini, Margherita

    2018-04-01

    Notwithstanding the dramatically increasing frequency of acts of terrorism in Europe and the extent of their media coverage, there is lack of knowledge on people's affective reactions and associated emotion regulation strategies. We explored the affective impact on two cohorts of Italian students (n = 193) possibly exposed vicariously through the mass media to the 2015 Paris or the 2016 Brussels terrorist attacks, respectively. We accessed data from three online questionnaires: one on emotion regulation administered before each attack; one on daily affect administered just before and after each attack; and one on causes of weekly affect and life satisfaction administered at the end of the week in which each attack occurred. The attacks were perceived as relevant for influencing negative affect for 22% of the students. For them, suppression-less frequently used than reappraisal-was associated with an improvement of affect after each attack but negatively related to life satisfaction concerning the week in which the attacks occurred. Our data showed that the recent terrorist attacks occurring in Europe had an affective impact on people at some distance who were vicariously exposed and point to the protective role of emotion regulation as a key resource for individuals' well-being. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The liability according to paragraph 26 of the German Atomic Energy Act. A wallflower?; Die Haftung nach paragraph 26 AtG. Ein Mauerbluemchen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    According to German law, liability for damage caused by radioactivity can arise from several regulations. In most cases, liability under the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, which applies in the field of nuclear power, is at the forefront of discussion. According to paragraph 26 of the German Atomic Energy Act, liability is somewhat in the shadow of the Paris Convention. It applies to the handling of radioactivity in medicine, research and industry (e.g. for test emitters) as well as activities involving natural and depleted uranium and nuclear fusion. The article outlines the basic elements of liability under Section 26 of the German Atomic Energy Act, which may become increasingly important in future due to recent developments such as the phasing out of nuclear power in Germany.

  18. Issues in third party attacks on SMCRA permits. [USA - Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, G.D. Jr. (Ice Miller Donadio Ryan, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Legal issues which have occurred in third party attacks on SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act) permit, mainly in Indiana, are discussed. Problems that can occur with the interrelationship of common law nuisance/injunction actions, the permit process, enforcement proceedings and collateral estoppel from administrative agency action, as well as finality issues in the permit process as related to other provisions of SMCRA. 37 refs.

  19. The Brussels Nuclear Ship Convention and its impact on the German Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.

    1976-01-01

    Although the Brussels Nuclear Ship Liability Convention of 1962, whose incorporation into German law was agreed upon by the German Federal Parliament (the Bundestag) in 1975, will have only minor international significance once it has entered into force, it will yet provide a new legal basis for the nuclear liability of the German vessel N.S. 'Otto Hahn' for the periods of her stay within the Federal Republic of Germany. However, there is no smooth concurrence of the Brussels Convention and the German Atomic Energy Act adapted to the Paris Liability Convention in 1975. This means that a number of questions still need to be resolved with respect to the protection of victims and the liability of shipowners. (orig.) [de

  20. A bridge between two conventions on civil liability for nuclear damage: The Joint Protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, Otto von

    2006-01-01

    The adoption of the Joint Protocol and its signature on 21 September 1988, at the closure of the diplomatic conference jointly convened in Vienna by the IAEA and the NEA, was hailed as landmark in efforts towards the establishment of a comprehensive civil nuclear liability regime. The importance of liability and compensation for transfrontier damage caused by a nuclear incident is indeed one of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident. The present article attempts to describe the history of the Joint Protocol during the many years it took to develop this link between the two conventions, to provide comment on its objectives and content, and to discuss some important questions related to its application

  1. Nuclear liability legislation in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladonja, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains same basic data about the legal norms relating to the third party liability system for nuclear damage that are in force in Croatia. It also describes the provisions of the new Croatian Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage, giving emphasis on those implementing substantial changes compared to the old Act. Finally, it contains some remarks relating to the possible adoption of Vienna Protocol and Convention on Supplementary Compensation of 1997 or Pariz/Brussels conventions as an alternative and at the end about the practice on the insurance of nuclear risks in the last twenty years by the Croatian Pool. (author)

  2. A bridge between two Conventions on civil liability for nuclear damage: the Joint protocol Relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, O. von.

    1989-01-01

    The adoption of the Joint-Protocol and its signature on 21 September 1988, at the closure of the diplomatic conference jointly convened in Vienna by the IAEA and NEA, was hailed as a landmark in efforts towards the establishment of a comprehensive civil nuclear liability regime. The importance of liability and compensation for transfrontier damage caused by a nuclear incident is indeed one of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident. This article describes the history of the Joint Protocol during the many years it took to develop this link between the two Conventions, provides a comment on its objectives and content, and discusses some important questions related to its application. (NEA) [fr

  3. The third review conference of the parties to the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was held in Geneva from 27 August to 21 September 1985, with a view to assuring that the purposes and provisions of the Treaty were being realized. The Conference ended with the adoption by consensus of a Final Declaration, by which the States parties, among other things, solemnly declared their conviction that the Treaty was essential to international peace and security and expressed their support for its objectives. This Fact Sheet provides information on the preparations for the Conference, developments at the Conference and the main features of the Final Declaration. Te text of the Treaty is reproduced in Disarmament Fact Sheet No. 33, and its historical background is contained in Fact Sheet No. 41

  4. Orienting to Third-Party Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sussmann, Carmen; Akhtar, Nameera; Diesendruck, Gil; Markson, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Children as young as two years of age are able to learn novel object labels through overhearing, even when distracted by an attractive toy (Akhtar, 2005). The present studies varied the information provided about novel objects and examined which elements (i.e. novel versus neutral information and labels versus facts) toddlers chose to monitor, and…

  5. International Co-operation in providing insurance cover for nuclear damage to third parties and for damage to nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprimoz, Jacques

    1983-01-01

    This article in three parts analyses cover for damage to third parties by fixed nuclear installations, cover for damage to third parties during transport of nuclear substances and finally, cover for damage to nuclear installations. Part I reviews the principles of nuclear third party liability and describes nuclear insurance pools, the coverage and contracts provided. Part II describes inter alia the role of pools in transport operations as well as the type of contracts available, while Part III discusses material damage, the pools' capacities and the vast sums involved in indemnifying such damage. (NEA) [fr

  6. 26 CFR 31.3505-1 - Liability of third parties paying or providing for wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employer, M makes monthly vacation payments (of a sum equal to a certain percentage of the remuneration... writing with the district director, service center director, or compliance center director to extend the...

  7. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  8. THE APPLICATION OF BŰHLMANN-STRAUB MODEL TO THE ESTIMATION OF NET PREMIUM RATES DEPENDING ON THE AGE OF THE INSURED IN THE MOTOR THIRD LIABILITY INSURANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Szymańska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    One of the basic variables used in the process of tariff calculation of premiums in motor liability insurance is the age of the insured. In this type of insurance offered by insurers operating on the Polish market, this variable is taken into account in the ratemaking by discounts and increases in assigned premium, known as the net premiums rates. The aim of this work is to propose a method of rate estimation of net premiums in the groups of the motor third liability insurance portfolio of in...

  9. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, John C. [Tourgee and Associates Inc., 11459 Cronhill Drive, Suite A, Owings Mills, MD 21117 (United States)]. E-mail: jbirkmire@taiengineering.com; Lay, James R. [5644 High Tor Hill, Columbia, MD 21045 (United States)]. E-mail: jim.lay21045@gmail.com; McMahon, Mona C. [General Physics Corporation, 6095 Marshalee Drive, Suite 300, Elkridge, MD 21075 (United States)]. E-mail: mmcmahon@gpworldwide.com

    2007-04-11

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally.

  10. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkmire, John C.; Lay, James R.; McMahon, Mona C.

    2007-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally

  11. BINDING EFFECT OF ARBITRATION CLAUSE TO THIRD PARTIES: PRIVITY OF CONTRACT DOCTRINE Vs. PIERCING THE CORPORATE VEIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Sogar Simamora

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The arbitration agreement is the legal basis for the arbitration forum to examine and adjudicate the dispute which arose from a private relationship where the parties agree to settle the dispute in arbitration forum. As an agreement, the arbitration agreement still applies the principles of contract, including the principle of privity of contract. In the doctrine of privity of contract, an agreement is only binding and have legal effect only to the parties, the agreement in principle, cannot provide profit or loss to a third party. In the arbitration agreement, only the parties are bound by the arbitration agreement that can become parties to the case investigation. However, in the development of arbitration practice also shows that a third party, not a signatory to the arbitration agreement can be held accountable through an examination of the arbitration case. Such a situation is possible if the third party is resident as a holding company or shareholder of a limited liability company, in which the limited liability company is bound by an arbitration agreement, and the holding company or shareholder proven to perform actions through a subsidiary or a limited liability resulting harm the other party.

  12. Corporate and supply chain network governance of third party logistics service providers: Effects on buyers’ intention to continue the relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Börteçine Avci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the impact of corporate governance, supply chain network governance and competencies such as sales and logistics competence on buyers’ intention to relationship continuity. A total number of 258 questionnaires were distributed to Turkish manufacturing firms, selected using cross-sectional sampling method from the Istanbul and Edirne Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Turkey. The data of survey was analysed using PLS-SEM model with WARP PLS 5.0 software. Our findings indicate that corporate governance and supply chain network governance seem to have a positive effect on sales competence and logistics competence, and together, they influence buyers’ intention to relationship continuity. In this respect, the outcomes of this study may provide valuable insights for the third-party logistics (3PL literature in terms of buyers’ intention to relationship continuity.

  13. 77 FR 31086 - Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... 22030 (April 20, 2011). Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toys: Requirements for... Bodies to Assess Conformity With the Limits on Phthalates in Children's Toys and Child Care Articles, 76... initiatives, including program development for third party testing of children's products. The commenter...

  14. 17 CFR 248.10 - Limits on disclosure of nonpublic personal information to nonaffiliated third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal Information Limits on Disclosures... customer opens an on-line account with you and agrees to receive the notices required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section electronically, and you allow the customer to opt out by any reasonable means within...

  15. Disclosure of university research to third parties: A non-market perspective on an Italian university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venditti, M.; Reale, E.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2013-01-01

    Nations, universities, and regional governments promote the dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge. They focus on knowledge-based innovations and the university’s economic function in terms of technology transfer, intellectual property, university-industry-government relations etc.

  16. Impact of bankruptcy and insolvency on third parties in the petroleum industry: conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Insight Conference has seven articles on the following aspects of the conference theme: I - overview of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act and Companies' Creditor's Arrangement Act; II- the effects of bankruptcy and insolvency on exploration agreements; III - the effects of bankruptcy on CO and O, unit and pooling agreements; IV - impact of bankruptcy and insolvency on marketing and transportation agreements; V - claims of operators, non-operators and third parties arising from oil and gas operations; V I - buying and selling assets from a bankrupt or insolvent party; and VII - environmental liability for receivers, trustees and others in the petroleum industry. Abstracts/descriptors are included for articles II, V, and VII. separately

  17. Public Auditing and Data Dynamics in Cloud with Performance Assessment on Third Party Auditor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Sawant, Snehal; Deshmukh, Aaradhana A.; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova

    2016-01-01

    presented in this paper uses the concept of an external Third Party Auditor (TPA). TPA is an external party who is going to perform integrity verification of the user’s data on behalf of the user. The proposed scheme assures integrity verification with a dynamic data support, to ensure that changes made...

  18. Nuclear Liability and Insurance Protection for Nuclear Transport Accidents Involving Non-Contracting EU States: An assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbach, N. L. J. T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the possible complications and consequences with respect to nuclear liability and insurance protection applicable in respect of transport activities resulting in damage suffered and/or accidents occurring in EU States that are not party to the Paris Convention. It looks at the different legal aspects (jurisdiction, applicable law, liability amounts, reciprocity) should the revised Vienna and Paris Convention become applicable in comparison with the unrevised Conventions. Within Europe, a large number of States are party to the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention, providing liability and insurance protection, in general, up to a limit of 300 million SDRs (or even higher). In principle, such protection is confined to nuclear incidents occurring and nuclear damage suffered in the territory of Contracting Parties, including, as recommended, the high seas, unless the legislation of the Installation State determines otherwise (Article 2). The geographical scope of application of the Paris Convention would thus vary according to the law of the Installation State. However, some EU States never became party to the Paris Convention, and are not bound by its the liability principles (notably, channelling of liability), such as Austria, Luxembourg and Ireland. Transport accidents involving these countries might therefore result in liability claims outside the treaty liability regime against operators, suppliers, carriers or persons involved and for types of damages different from those currently covered by the Paris Convention (e.g., environmental damage). It is uncertain to what extent liability insurance of the installation operators would provide adequate protection and whether related damage claims can be enforceable. In addition, a number of newly entered EU States are party to the Vienna Convention, which, although bound by liability principles basically similar to those of the Paris Convention, will

  19. Report by the Nuclear Liability Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Liability Commission set up by the Ministry of Trade and Industry was to find out whether the basic principles of Finland's current nuclear liability system are appropriate and well functioning and what changes should be made to the present system, taking into account Finland's position in the European convention system (Paris and Brussels Conventions). No proposal in the form of a bill was expected of the Commission. The Finnish nuclear liability system would be further developed as part of the international convention system so that the negotiated amendments to the conventions would be enforced in Finland as soon as possible after the final adoption of the convention texts. The Nuclear Liability Act would be amended so that the principle of unlimited liability of the nuclear installation operator would be adopted instead of the principle of limited liability. The unlimited liability should be covered by an insurance limited in amount so that the installation operator must take out an insurance of at least euro 700 million to cover the injured parties. The liability of the host State would be extended to cover damages exceeding the amount subject to the liability to take out an insurance referred to above by euro 500 million. The international compensation community would cover damages exceeding euro 1.2 billion by no more than euro 300 million. In this case a total of euro 1.5 billion should be compensated from the liability insurance of the installation operator and on the basis of the liability obligation of the host State and compensation community. Later, within the limits of the insurance capacity available, the liability to take out an insurance could be increased to euro 1.2 billion by gradually raising the limit so as to finally also cover fully the share of euro 500 million of the host State referred to above. As for appeal times, the Nuclear Liability Act would be amended so that the appeal time of personal damages would be prolonged. The

  20. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IDAE.

    1994-01-01

    IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects

  1. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Society, Beijing; U.S. Nuclear Energy Institute

    2000-01-01

    The Contracting parties recognize the importance of the measures provided in the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third party liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy as well as in national legislation on compensation for nuclear damage consistent with the principles of these conventions. The Contracting parties desire to establish a worldwide liability regime to supplement and enhance these measures with a view to increasing the amount of compensation for nuclear damage and encourage regional and global co-operation to promote a higher level of nuclear safety in accordance with the principle of international partnership and solidarity

  2. Rules common to nuclear incidents occurring in installations or during transport of nuclear substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagorce, M.

    1976-01-01

    As concerns the peaceful applications of nuclear power, the traditional third party liability regulations were found to be inadequate to cover the specific aspects of the nuclear risk, and this was likely to hinder the progress of this new activity. This was why the countries involved opted for the elaboration of a special liability regime by adopting the Paris Convention of 29th July 1960, the Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention of the 31st January 1963 and the Vienna Convention of 21st May 1963. The Paris and Vienna Conventions set up a regime characterized by the nuclear operator's absolute and exclusive liability, the limitation of such liability in amount and in time the uniquity of jurisdictional competence, the obligation to provide financial security for compensation of damage. The purpose of the Brussels Supplementary Convention is to increase the amount of compensation for damage by additional funds supplied partly by the State involved and partly by a collective contribution from the various countries Parties to the Convention, thus setting up a mechanism of international solidarity. (NEA) [fr

  3. Questions raised by the concept of nuclear damage in the ambit of the nuclear Conventions with particular regard to the German viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkemper, H.

    1985-01-01

    An important consequence of the amendment of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention by the Protocols of 16 November 1982 is the replacement of the European Monetary Agreement unit of account by the International Monetary Fund's Special Drawing Right. The increase by a factor of 2.5 of the maximum amounts under the Brussels Convention is also an essential aspect of the revision. The question of damage covered by the nuclear third party liability regime was not affected by the 1982 amendments. This is why the author considers it appropriate to examine in further detail a number of important questions in this field. The paper deals with the following aspects: the scope and limits of the concept of nuclear damage; the right to be indemnified for disamenities and costs arising from evacuation and prevention measures; and the problem of the nuclear link of causality for damage likely to be attributed also to non-nuclear causes. (NEA) [fr

  4. Act N0 68-1045 of 29 November 1968 amending Act N0 65-956 of 12 November 1965 on the third party liability of operators of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    This Act amends the 1965 Act, in particular by specifying that the maximum amount of liability of the operator of a foreign nuclear ship is that fixed by the legislation of the State concerned, unless otherwise agreed with that State, but may in no case be lower than that set out in the 1965 Act, namely 500 million French francs. (NEA) [fr

  5. Proposed Amendments to the Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Memorandum issued by the Swedish Ministry of Justice contains proposed amendments to the 1968 Nuclear Liability Act which can be divided into two categories. Those in the first category are required to enable Sweden to ratify the draft Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention. The second category of amendments propose that the nuclear operator's liability be raised from the present sum of 50 million Kroner to 500 million Kroner, to be covered by insurance; it is also proposed that a State liability be introduced over and above the compensation available, the aggregate amount being limited to 300 million Kroner. State indemnification would apply to the Nordic countries. The Annexes to the Memorandum contain the English and French texts of the draft Protocols to amend both above-mentioned Conventions (NEA) [fr

  6. Comments on establishing a causal link between an ''occurrence or succession of occurrences having the same origin'' and ''damage'', required for implementing the Convention on Third Party Liability in the field on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers the problems of proving the causal link between a nuclear incident and bodily injury when the latter is a non-stochastic effect or a stochastic effect of ionizing radiation and the author suggests that a solution should be sought in presumption. In the absence of such a solution, inconsistencies with the present tendency to raise coverage amounts might be misunderstood by public opinion if an incident were to occur. To conclude, the author suggests that proof of the causal link should act as a trigger for transfers of financial charges between the different categories of persons. (NEA) [fr

  7. Study on IAEA international emergency response exercise convEx-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuya

    2007-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carried out a large-scale international emergency response exercise in 2005 under the designated name of ConvEx-3(2005), at Romania. This review report summarizes a study about ConvEx-3(2005) based on several related open literature. The ConvEx-3 was conducted in accordance with Agency's safety standard series and requirements in the field of Emergency Preparedness and Response. The study on the preparation, conduct and evaluation of ConvEx-3(2005) exercise is expected to provide very useful knowledge for development of drills and educational programs conducted by Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT). Especially, study on the exercise evaluations is instrumental in improving evaluations of drills planned by the national government and local governments. As international cooperation among Asian countries in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness and response is going to realize, it is very useful to survey and consider scheme and methodology about international emergency preparedness, response and exercise referring the knowledge of this ConvEx-3 study. The lessons learned from this study of ConvEx-3(2005) are summarized in four chapters; methodology of exercises and educational programs, exercise evaluation process, amendments/verification of the emergency response plan of NEAT, and technical issues of systems for emergency response and assistance of NEAT relevant to interface for international emergency communication. (author)

  8. 28 CFR 513.35 - Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures to third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures... and Procedures § 513.35 Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures to third parties. Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures to third parties shall be made in accordance with Department of Justice regulations...

  9. The OECD/NEA workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage in the event of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagstaff, F.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1993, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) has run the International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) Program. The program serves to discuss an effective accident management approach on the basis of a simulated nuclear accident situation together with the states involved and their institutions, and also elaborate measures for its further improvement. At the present time, the INEX Program has reached Phase 3 in which, for the first time, also aspects of liability for the consequences of accidents were included. These aspects were made the subject of a workshop held after an emergency exercise. The scenario covered was based on an INES level-4 accident in the French Gravelines Nuclear Power Station situated close to the French-Belgian border. The workshop dealt with these topics, among others: the application of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability, the Brussels Supplementary Convention, and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage as well as the Supplementary Compensation Convention of 1997. It was seen that there was a clear need for further discussion, especially to shed more light on the interrelationship of these treaties. (orig.) [de

  10. 76 FR 22608 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Revisions to Terms of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Product Certifications Based on Third Party Conformity Assessment Body Testing Prior to Commission's... the product. The Commission also emphasizes that, irrespective of certification, the product in... lifting the stay of enforcement with regard to testing and certification of children's products under 16...

  11. Recent tendency of Nuclear Third Party Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohara, Fumiaki

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear accidents in Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have a great influence on Nuclear Third Party Legislation of many countries. Nuclear Third Party Law of Japan is due to expire as at 31st, December, 1989, under the recent circumstances in which threre exist pros and cons to nuclear installations among people. This report describes the outline of Japanese Nuclear Law compared with foreign ones and the prospect of its revision. (author)

  12. Third-party online payment solutions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this paper is third-party online payment solutions in China and the main purpose of this paper is to figure out the research question: What are the impacts of third-party online payment solutions on China? Generally speaking, the third-party online payment solutions, including mobile payments, usually used by customer who purchase online and usually used in transaction platform. However, in China, people can use third-party payment solutions in different platfor...

  13. Civil liability and nuclear coverage: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report has been written considering the advanced work which has been done by the Expert Committee, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, having the purpose to examine the modifications issued in course of Vienna Convention as well as the Paris convention and the complementary Brussels Convention, in view to adapt the legislation to the actual context and to answer the populations expectations. The work has been organized in three majors chapters: the first one in concerned to the damage definition, proposition to the to reach the environment, the prevention and charges. the research and military installations are also considered. The second chapter has been dedicated to the civil responsibility, its limits, financing modes, the national and international legal competence besides the litigation charges due to the nuclear accidents born on the occasion. In the third chapter the insurance considering the damage nature, the capacity to assure liability coverage and the damage management are harmonized

  14. International nuclear liability conventions: status and possible changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, Patrick.

    1978-01-01

    The table of ratifications and accessions annexed to this paper shows that despite the considerable progress achieved these past years and the entry into force of the Vienna Convention, the number of Contracting Parties to the Nuclear Civil Liability Conventions remains insufficient. The adaptation of the first of these Conventions - the Paris Convention - as well as its Brussels Supplementary Convention to the technical and economic developments which have taken place since their adoption should provide the means for encouraging their implementation at international level. The main amendments which are envisaged are replacement of the present unit of account by the Special Drawing Right, the increase of the amounts of liability and compensation and finally, the technical scope of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  15. When can we trust a third party?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Sidorova, N.; Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Koutny, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Yakovlev, A.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations often do not want to reveal the way a product is created or a service is delivered. As a consequence, if two organizations want to cooperate, they contact a trusted third party. Each specifies how it wants to communicate with the other party. The trusted third party then needs to

  16. 78 FR 45781 - Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies to Conduct Food Safety Audits and to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1 and 16 Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies to... Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies to Conduct Food Safety Audits and to Issue... Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to provide for accreditation of third-party auditors...

  17. 78 FR 69603 - Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies To Conduct Food Safety Audits and To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... No. FDA-2011-N-0146] RIN 0910-AG66 Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies To... entitled ``Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies to Conduct Food Safety Audits and to... proposed rule entitled ``Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies to Conduct Food Safety...

  18. Influential third party on water right conflict: A Game Theory approach to achieve the desired equilibrium (case study: Ilam dam, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjanian, Hossein; Abdolabadi, Hamid; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Sarang, Amin

    2018-05-15

    Allocating water to organizational stakeholders poses a vital challenge to water managers. Organizations which benefit from water as the primary factor input attempt to achieve their objectives using cost-effective and quick-return strategies, such as increasing the water rights. In such circumstances, lack of water probably results in the conflict. Recognizing the management approaches, organizational priorities, and the stakeholders' influence power can play a dominant role in analyzing the future of such conflicts. In this paper, we analyzed the conflict of water allocation in Ilam dam among organizational stakeholders. We defined the strategies based on the background of the game and organizational objectives. The influence power of stakeholders and the numerical weights of strategies were quantified based on the expert judgment method. The relative priorities of strategies were then calculated for each state of the conflict. We used the GMCR + model to study the actions of stakeholders. Results suggest that the Jihad Agriculture Organization and the Water and Wastewater Company withdraw more water; hence, there exists no water to meet the environmental water right. In this case, the participation of the third party, such as the Governorship and the Justice can change the future of the conflict, and result in moving to the optimal state. However, results from Inverse GMCR analysis demonstrate that Justice is the most influential third party that can move the conflict towards a desired equilibrium (optimal case). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of awareness on the usage of motor third party insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a case study of Kampala district. ... informants (insurers, insurance regulators as well as enforcers – traffic police officers); and carried out desk review of motor third party insurance ... enormous negative economic impact on individuals, fam-.

  20. Third-party Reverse logistics platform and method Based on Bilateral Resource Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hong Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion of reverse logistics resources makes it difficult to create relationships between demanders and providers, thereby the personalized demand for the construction of enterprise reverse logistics cannot be satisfied and the service quality cannot be guaranteed. Aiming at these problems, this paper presents a platform and method of enterprise reverse logistics based on bilateral resource integration (RLBRI. The method creates a third-party reverse logistics platform to accumulate a mass of reverse logistics demanders and providers together. And the platform integrates bilateral resources and acts as an intermediary to establish relationships between two sides. Through the platform, a complete and high-quality business chain for enterprise reverse logistics will be built efficiently. Finally put forward an effective strategy of non-defective reverse logistics depends on the integrity checking service provided by third-party logistics. By using this strategy it can short the distance of non-defective reverse transportation. Computational tests validate the strategy.

  1. Study on quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage for natural gas pipelines based on fuzzy comprehensive assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zeyang; Liang, Wei; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    As an important part of national energy supply system, transmission pipelines for natural gas are possible to cause serious environmental pollution, life and property loss in case of accident. The third party damage is one of the most significant causes for natural gas pipeline system accidents, and it is very important to establish an effective quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage for reducing the number of gas pipelines operation accidents. Against the third party damage accident has the characteristics such as diversity, complexity and uncertainty, this paper establishes a quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). Firstly, risk sources of third party damage should be identified exactly, and the weight of factors could be determined via improved AHP, finally the importance of each factor is calculated by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model. The results show that the quantitative risk assessment model is suitable for the third party damage of natural gas pipelines and improvement measures could be put forward to avoid accidents based on the importance of each factor. (paper)

  2. Contract law: relationship between dermatologists and third-party payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanas, A V

    1993-04-01

    The relationship between third-party payers and dermatologists is generally governed by a written contract. That relationship can be more beneficial to the dermatologist, and chances of liability may be decreased, both for breach of contract and for malpractice, if the dermatologist pays close attention to the language in the contract. All contracts are generally negotiable; detrimental language in the contract often may be removed or changed. This article presents information to help prepare dermatologists to review and negotiate contracts.

  3. From Berlin to Brussels

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuma Charles Soludo

    2012-01-01

    The paper evaluates the economic partnership agreement (EPA) which the European Union is forging with African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and concludes that it is a raw deal for these developing countries. Particularly for Africa, the author likens the EPA to the Berlin conference of 1884–1885 that divided Africa among the European powers. EPA as the second scramble for Africa would merely turn Africa into a dumping ground for European goods and severely undermine its nascent dev...

  4. Codes CONV45 and CONV56 for a PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.F.

    1988-03-01

    The codes CONV45 and CONV56 convert data files from ENDF/B-4 to ENDF/B-5 and from ENDF/B-5 to ENDF/B-6 format respectively. The codes which were received from US National Nuclear Data Center were implemented at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section for use on personal computers. (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

  5. The New International Nuclear Liability Conventions: Status of their Implementation into National Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade or so, a number of significant improvements have been made to the international nuclear liability regimes. The first major advancement was the adoption, in September 1997, of the Protocol to amend the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (VC Protocol) and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC). This was followed, in February 2004, by the adoption of Protocols to amend both the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (PC Protocol) and the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention (BSC Protocol). The principle goal of these new instruments is to provide more compensation to more victims in respect of more types of nuclear damage suffered than ever before. A second objective, at least for the VC and PC Protocols, is to maintain compatibility between the Paris and Vienna Conventions, thereby ensuring the smooth functioning of the 1988 Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention (VC) and the Paris Convention (PC). In addition, both Vienna and Paris Convention States wish to ensure that the newly revised Conventions will not prevent them from joining the global liability and compensation regime established by the CSC, should they so wish. However, one wonders to what extent these new instruments will attract a sufficient number of adherents to make them truly effective. While the VC Protocol is already in force, it has drawn surprisingly little support from the 1963 Vienna Convention States and even less from those countries with important nuclear generating capacity but which have not yet joined any of the international nuclear liability and compensation instruments. For its part, and notwithstanding its adoption almost 10 years ago, the CSC has not yet entered into force and only the future will tell whether it ever will, particularly given its strict requirements in this regard. As for the PC and BSC

  6. Third party objection and action against enforcement: Request for exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a right of a third party to prevent enforcement on the basis of a claim and evidence that rights or assets seized in enforcement proceeding belong to him (third party and not to the enforcement debtor. In most of jurisdictions that were subject of analysis of this paper, this right of a third party is exercised by filing an objection to the court conducting enforcement proceedings. The claim of the third party is directed towards the enforcement creditor as well as against the enforcement debtor. In the event the claim of the third party is being contested, the court instructs the third party to initiate litigation proceedings for determining whether the third party is entitled to exclusion of such rights or assets from enforcement, especially if such third party holds property rights or some other rights over the assets that are being subject to enforcement proceedings. In majority of analyzed jurisdictions, enforcement proceedings are being suspended provided the third party, in the objection being filed makes prima facie likely, on the basis of credible evidence, that his assets were seized in the enforcement proceedings. However, according to the law of the Republic of Serbia, a credible objection of a third party does not result in suspension of enforcement proceedings, something that is being criticized in this paper. As a result of this provision of the law, a bona fide third party is forced to endure the enforcement although his claim has been made likely and subsequently confirmed in the litigation proceedings. The author, in particular, points to the legal consequences of mala fide enforcement creditor that knew that the assets that are being subject of the enforcement proceedings do not belong to the enforcement debtor. The author is of the opinion that, in such cases, the enforcement creditor should be obliged to pay to the third party damages that such party suffered as a result of enforcement proceedings being

  7. Third Party Services for Enabling Business-to-Business Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Santosh

    Business-to-business (B2B) interactions concerned with the fulfilment of a given business function (e.g., order processing) requires business partners to exchange electronic business documents and to act on them. This activity can be viewed as the business partners taking part in the execution of a shared business process, where each partner is responsible for performing their part in the process. Naturally, business process executions at each partner must be coordinated at run-time to ensure that the partners are performing mutually consistent actions (e.g., the seller is not hipping a product when the corresponding order has been cancelled by the buyer). A number of factors combine to make the task of business process coordination surprisingly hard:

  8. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Institut of Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) hosted the third party on financing Renewable Energy Sources in Spain. The main aspects were : 1) Experiences in renewable energy. 2) Financing of small hydro-power projects. 3) Third party financing of biomass projects. 4) Financing of wind energy projects

  9. 22 CFR 505.10 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... If a person requests another person's file, he or she must present a signed statement from the person... to the National Archives. For the preservation of records of historical value, according to 44 U.S.C... the committee or subcommittee. (10) Disclosure to the General Accounting Office (GAO). For matters...

  10. Third Party Collection Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1993-01-01

    United States Code, title 10, sec. 1095, allows DoD to collect from health insurance plans reasonable inpatient hospital costs incurred on behalf of insured military retirees and military dependants...

  11. Here to Help: Third Party Deterrence Against Insurgent Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    that the new threat “of delinquent states and shadowy terrorist groups” was beyond the effects of deterrence.8 However, for those seeking an alternative...foreignpolicy.com/2014/05/08/portrait-of-the-army-as-a-work-in-progress. 28 Statistically , there is reason to favor joint training programs, with the aim

  12. 17 CFR 146.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... control of the United States for a civil or criminal law enforcement activity if the activity is... political subdivision thereof acting within the scope of its jurisdiction as permitted by section 8(e) of... information may be furnished to a department or agency of any state or political subdivision thereof upon...

  13. Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…

  14. Enforcement of mandatory third party access based on antitrust law; Zwangsdurchleitung mittels Kartellrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markert, K. [Bundeskartellamt, Berlin (Germany). 8. Beschlussabteilung

    1998-04-01

    Access of third parties to power transmission systems which up to now is governed in Germany by ownership rights will not run smoothly in future, although the general policy decision ended the dispute about the if, however leaving open aspects of the how. The problems arising in designing the how are currently displayed to the public by the disputes about conditions and model solutions reported from the telecommunications area, where deregulation is ahead of the developments in the energy sector. Obviously, the contention point is not technical feasibility of third party access, but the economic aspects and the conditions offered to competing suppliers depending on access to a transmission network. Hence it can be expected that there will be conflicts of interest that will have to be decided. The legal basis for conflict management is outlined in the recent amendment to the EnWG (German energy industry act), and jurisdiction will primarily rely on paragraph 6 of the act, referring to antitrust review. The contribution here gives an outline of the legal framework conditions governing enforcement of third party access to transmission systems in the future deregulated energy market. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Oeffnung bisher geschlossener Netze fuer Drittwettbewerber verlaeuft auch dann, wenn ueber das `Ob` kein Streit mehr besteht, nicht konfliktfrei. Dies wird zur Zeit dem deutschen Publikum im Bereich der Telekommunikation mit fast taeglich neuen Varianten vorgefuehrt. Es geht dabei offensichtlich nicht um die technische Machbarkeit der Drittnutzung, sondern um die wirtschaftlichen Konditionen fuer Konkurrenten, die fuer ihr Leistungsangebot auf den Zugang zum Netz angewiesen sind. Konflikte ueber die Bedingungen dieses Zugangs sind daher vorprogrammiert, und es stellt sich die Frage, nach welchen Regeln und durch welche Gremien oder Institutionen solche Konflikte entschieden werden sollen. Der Beitrag umreisst die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen, die im neuen En

  15. A Third-Party E-Payment Protocol Based on Quantum Group Blind Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Shu-Cui

    2017-09-01

    A third-party E-payment protocol based on quantum group blind signature is proposed in this paper. Our E-payment protocol could protect user's anonymity as the traditional E-payment systems do, and also have unconditional security which the classical E-payment systems can not provide. To achieve that, quantum key distribution, one-time pad and quantum group blind signature are adopted in our scheme. Furthermore, if there were a dispute, the manager Trent can identify who tells a lie.

  16. Performance evaluation on air pollution reducing facilities and mechanism research on the third-party governance on environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang; Geng, Wang; Jianhua, Chen; Shuo, Yang; Huiting, Guo

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on developing the operational efficiency of air pollution reducing facilities and the treatment effect of the third-party governance on environmental pollution. Comprehensive analysis method and influence factor analysis are employed to build an evaluation index system by means of discussing major pollution control factors derived from the performance of pollution control equipment operation, environmental protection, technological economy, recourse consumption and manufacturing management. Based on the pattern of environmental pollution control offered by the third-party company, the static games model is further established between the government and the pollution emission firm by considering the whole process of the pollution abatement including investment, construction and operation of the treatment project, which focuses on establishing the policy condition and consequence by discussing the cost and benefit in a short and a long time, respectively. The research results can improve the market access requests of the pollution control equipment and normalize the environmental protection service offered by the third-party company. Moreover, the establishment of the evaluation index system for pollution control equipment and the evaluation mechanism for the third-party governance on environmental pollution has guiding significance on leading environmental protection industry and promoting market-oriented development

  17. Dual Liability for Nuclear Damage in Conventions and Finnish Legislation in the Field of Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, J.

    1986-01-01

    The exception made in the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy to the otherwise absolute channelling of liability in order to avoid conflicts with the then existing international agreements in the field of transport is briefly described. The dual liability created by this provision is studied, as well as the question whether and when the victim might prefer to base his claim on a transport agreement instead of the Paris Convention. The so-called nuclear clauses in the new agreements in the transport field are analysed. The problems caused by the absence of a nuclear clause in the Guatemala City and Montreal Protocols, amending the Warsaw Convention relating to international air carriage are noted. Finally the relationship between nuclear liability legislation and transport legislation in Finland, as well as the cases where a dual liability existed at the time of the ratification of the Paris Convention and the changes which have taken place since then are described. (NEA) [fr

  18. Multinationals' accountability on sustainability: the evolution of third-party assurance of sustainability reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, P.; Kolk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore how multinational corporations (MNCs) adopt assurance practices to develop and sustain organizational accountability for sustainability. Using a panel of Fortune Global 250 firms over a period of 10 years, we document the diffusion patterns of third-party assurance of

  19. Deliberations on Compensation and Remediation of Nuclear Damage to the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    2010-01-01

    At its meeting held on 17 and 18 November 2009, the OECD NEA's Nuclear Law Committee (NLC) discussed the issue of obtaining financial security to cover liability for environmental damage. The experts from the insurance industry observed that the liability for environmental damage under the '2004 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy' (2004 Paris Convention)2 may differ from the liability established under the 'Directive 2004/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage' (referred to as 'directive'). This discussion put into focus the question whether the term 'liability' of the operator under the 2004 Paris Convention and under the directive covers identical concepts of 'compensation'. It is true that the directive, according to its Article 4, excludes nuclear risks or environmental damage or the imminent threat of such damage originating from defined nuclear activities from its scope of application. However, it reserves the right to amend that exclusion by 2014 [Article 18(2) and (3)]. Irrespective of this legal situation, there exists an understandable interest of the insurance industry and of other stakeholders as well to get clarification on which type of obligation the operator has to meet under both instruments, or in other words: which liability and coverage consequences does damage to the environment entail for the operator?

  20. New Trends in European Nuclear Liability Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getz, H.; Steinkemper, M.H.

    1981-10-01

    This paper analyses recent developments in nuclear liability legislation in Europe. The first part deals with the planned revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention; the second part focuses on the reforms envisaged in the field in Switzerland and in the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular concerning unlimited liability. Finally, the author concludes that national reform plans and work at international level are not opposed, but supplementary activities. (NEA) [fr

  1. Third party access to LNG terminals. GIIGNL - Commercial Study Group Topic 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    This report has been elaborated in the context of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group (CSG) activities, which include as one of its topics the 'Third Party Access to LNG terminals' (Topic 8), led by Enagas. The 2010 edition is the third update to the report presented during the meeting of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group in Tokyo, Japan, in September 2007. - Section 1 includes a review of the regulatory TPA regimes of LNG terminals in operation in Europe. The existing regime in each country, or for each terminal, is reviewed following a number of subsections. Each subsection follows the same structure in order to better understand the different arrangements and facilitate comparisons. - Section 2 shows data on effective usage and TPA access to each LNG terminal since 2000. Three main data are shown where available: number of cargoes delivered, volumes unloaded / sent-out, and the part of these cargoes/volumes that correspond to third parties. - Section 3 includes a tariff comparison for TPA to LNG terminals in Europe, taking into account the terms and conditions in force as of July 2010. - A description of the regulatory situation in the US in Sections 4. Access conditions to the three terminals under regulated TPA have been included for the first time: Lake Charles, Cove Point and Elba Island. An overview of Mexico and Canada is also reported. - An overview of the regulatory situation in Japan is provided in Section 5. The information required for the elaboration of this report has been collected from official web sites (LNG operators, regulatory authorities and industry associations), public reports and industry and statistical data Enagas deems to be reliable. For the adoption of certain hypothesis in Section 3 Enagas has also relied in information directly provided by operators

  2. Nuclear Liability Act of 8 March 1968 (No. 45) as amended by an Act of 10 May 1974 (No. 249) and by an Act of 22 December 1982 (No. 1275)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    The amendments to this Act fall into two categories. The first category of amendments enabled Sweden to ratify two 1982 Protocols amending the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention respectively. The other amendments raise the nuclear operator's liability from 50 million to 500 million Swedish crowns per incident and introduce a State liability over and above compensation available under the Brussels Convention, thus raising the aggregate amount of compensation to 3,000 million Swedish crowns. (NEA) [fr

  3. Nuclear liability and research reactor fuel. A plant supplier's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.-J.; Hetzmann, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contracts on Research Reactors are normally entered into by the owner and - very often - later user and the supplier of such plants. They are not concluded by the fuel supplier, except fuel supplier and plant supplier are identical. Thus, the fuel supplier mostly has no direct influence into the contract negotiations and the clauses which are eventually agreed upon between the parties. So has any other subcontractor for any other system or component. Any such subsupplier can and will negotiate a subsidiary supply contract (subcontract) with the supplier of the plant. The supplier drafts the related clauses so as to pass on to the subsupplier as many risks out of his contracts as possible. The subsupplier, on the other hand, tries to protect himself, tries to limit the risks he takes over, e.g. to the worth of his subcontract maximum. A critical issue in such negotiations is those concerning the risks the supplier had to accept and the subsupplier, although he may be responsible later for the risk changing to reality; i.e. the occurrence of a loss, cannot be hold liable for in full because the subcontract limits his liability, e.g. to the subcontract value or a certain delay penalty. A typical example for this conflict are delays of the entire project caused by one subsupplier. A very specific case in this context is the so-called nuclear liability. Nuclear liability means being hold responsible for the consequences or damages originating from a nuclear event in the plant. Those consequences or damages may be suffered by third parties, which are neither the owner/operator nor the supplier and result in a liability to such party (third party liability). Several of the aspects below may be related to the nuclear liability issue: The supplier often has its registered office not in the country where the plant is; The supplier may have far bigger assets than the owner/operator. The legal system of the supplier's country may be more favourable for enforcing claims of

  4. Strong Federations: An Interoperable Blockchain Solution to Centralized Third-Party Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Dilley, Johnny; Poelstra, Andrew; Wilkins, Jonathan; Piekarska, Marta; Gorlick, Ben; Friedenbach, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Bitcoin, the first peer-to-peer electronic cash system, opened the door to permissionless, private, and trustless transactions. Attempts to repurpose Bitcoin's underlying blockchain technology have run up against fundamental limitations to privacy, faithful execution, and transaction finality. We introduce \\emph{Strong Federations}: publicly verifiable, Byzantine-robust transaction networks that facilitate movement of any asset between disparate markets, without requiring third-party trust. \\...

  5. Regulating third party assurance engagements on sustainability reports in Sweden – issues and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnerfeldt, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The well-institutionalised notion of audits put forth that information subjected to independent examination by third parties potentially contribute to better quality information for decision making (towards more sustainable companies?). The presence of different assurance providers offering a myriad of services in the name of “sustainability assurance” led to concerns about their quality and comparability and as a consequence a call for standards to regulate these services. This study analyse...

  6. Report on the observation of IAEA international emergency response exercise ConvEx-3(2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuya; Sumiya, Akihiro

    2009-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA carried out a large-scale international emergency response exercise under the designated name of ConvEx-3(2008), accompanying the national exercise of Mexico in July 2008. This review report summarizes two simultaneous observations of the exercises in Mexico and the IAEA headquarter during ConvEx-3(2008). Mexico has established a very steady nuclear emergency response system based on that of US, while only two BWR nuclear power units have been operated yet. The Mexican nuclear emergency response system and the emergency response activities of the Incident and Emergency Centre of the IAEA headquarter impressed important knowledge on observers that is helpful for enhancement of Japanese nuclear emergency response system in the future, e.g. establishment of Emergency Action Level and of implementation of long time exercise and enhancement of prompt protective actions. Japan had established the Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and has developed the nuclear disaster prevention system since the JCO Criticality Accident in Tokai-mura. Now is the new stage to enhance the system on the view point of prevention of a nuclear disaster affecting the neighboring countries' or prevention of a nuclear disaster which arise from the neighboring countries'. The ConvEx-3(2008) suggested key issues about nuclear disaster prevention related to the neighboring countries, e.g. establishment of much wider environmental monitoring and of international assistance system against a foreign nuclear disaster. The observations of the IAEA ConvEx-3(2008) exercise described in this review report were funded by the MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). (author)

  7. Reuse Intention of Third-Party Online Payments: A Focus on the Sustainable Factors of Alipay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongrok Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous transaction environment and the advantage of virtual property have resulted in trust playing an important role in the rapid growth of online shopping in China. To satisfy this trust issue, Alibaba (China Co., Ltd. (Hangzhou, China invented Alipay, the largest third-party online payment service. Using a structural equation model (SEM, this paper attempts to determine whether Alipay’s service quality factors are truly sustainable. The results indicate that only two of five factors—convenience and security—are significantly mediated by the sustainable performance of customer satisfaction as a mediator. The other three factors—usefulness, responsiveness and economy—were rejected for the role of customer satisfaction, even if they are accepted regarding the direct effect on reuse intention. This result implies that Chinese web companies need to make greater efforts not to ensure initial success, but instead to ensure sustainable performance.

  8. Third party interference monitoring based on distributed fiber sensor and field trail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yongjun; Tan, Dongjie; Juan, Zheng; Wang, Likun; Chen, Pengchao [PetroChina Pipeline R and D Center (China)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a novel pipeline third party interference (TPI) monitoring system, which detects micro vibration along pipeline, through fiber cable laying in one ditch. A special optical path was designed by redundant optical fiber cores among fiber cable. This new sensor technology detects illegal excavation through detect phase changes. This innovative signal analysis technology avoids the disturbance of light intensity fluctuation and phase fading. Excavator, digging and impact of freely falling body were used to test this pipeline monitoring system. Different type of cable, such as straight buried cable, steel wire armored cable and silicone tube, were all test in order to test sensitivity. Field trail shows that this system can detect, alarm and. locate different third party interference along pipeline. (author)

  9. Reuse Intention of Third-Party Online Payments: A Focus on the Sustainable Factors of Alipay

    OpenAIRE

    Yongrok Choi; Lili Sun

    2016-01-01

    An anonymous transaction environment and the advantage of virtual property have resulted in trust playing an important role in the rapid growth of online shopping in China. To satisfy this trust issue, Alibaba (China) Co., Ltd. (Hangzhou, China) invented Alipay, the largest third-party online payment service. Using a structural equation model (SEM), this paper attempts to determine whether Alipay’s service quality factors are truly sustainable. The results indicate that only two of five facto...

  10. Revised Paris and Vienna Nuclear Liability Conventions - Challenges for Nuclear Insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M.

    2006-01-01

    The revisions recently implemented to both the Vienna and Paris nuclear liability Conventions are intended to widen significantly the amount and scope of compensation payable in the event of a nuclear accident. Whilst this is a laudable objective, the final extent of the revisions leaves nuclear site operators and their insurers with greater uncertainty as a result of the wider and unquantifiable nature of some aspects of the revised nuclear damage definition, in particular where reference is made to environmental reinstatement and extended prescription periods. Incorporating broader definitions in the Convention revisions will therefore leave gaps in the insurance cover where insurers are unable to insure the new, wider scope of cover. If no insurance is available, then the liability for the revised scope of cover must fall upon either the operator or the national Government. This presentation will give an overview of where and why the major gaps in nuclear liability insurance cover will occur in the revised Conventions; it will also examine the problems in defining the revised scope of cover and will look at where these unquantifiable risks should now reside, to ensure there is equity between the liabilities imposed on the nuclear industry and those imposed on other industrial sectors. (author)

  11. Consumer use and response to online third-party raw DNA interpretation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Cahill, Tiernan J; Parlato, Andrew; Wertz, Blake; Zhong, Qiankun; Cunningham, Tricia Norkunas; Cummings, James J

    2018-01-01

    With the availability of raw DNA generated from direct-to-consumer (DTC) testing companies, there has been a proliferation of third-party online services that are available to interpret the raw data for both genealogy and/or health purposes. This study examines the current landscape and downstream clinical implications of consumer use of third-party services. Study participants were recruited online from social media platforms. A total of 321 survey respondents reported using third-party services for raw DNA interpretation. Participants were highly motivated to explore raw DNA for ancestral information (67%), individual health implications (62%), or both (40%). Participants primarily used one of seven companies to interpret raw DNA; 73% used more than one. Company choice was driven by the type of results offered (51%), price (45%), and online reviews (31%). Approximately 30% of participants shared results with a medical provider and 21% shared with more than one. Outcomes of sharing ranged from disinterest/discounting of the information to diagnosis of genetic conditions. Participants were highly satisfied with their decision to analyze raw DNA (M = 4.54/5), yet challenges in understanding interpretation results were reported irrespective of satisfaction ratings. Consumers face challenges in understanding the results and may seek out clinical assistance in interpreting their raw DNA results. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Multinationals' accountability on sustainability: the evolution of third-party assurance of sustainability reports

    OpenAIRE

    Perego, P.; Kolk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore how multinational corporations (MNCs) adopt assurance practices to develop and sustain organizational accountability for sustainability. Using a panel of Fortune Global 250 firms over a period of 10 years, we document the diffusion patterns of third-party assurance of sustainability reports. We specifically investigate how evolving auditing practices, namely diversity of assurance standards and type of assurance providers, shape the quality of sustainability assuran...

  13. 77 FR 448 - Changes To Implement the Preissuance Submissions by Third Parties Provision of the Leahy-Smith...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce... provision of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. This provision provides a mechanism for third parties to... provision of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act is effective on September 16, 2012, and applies to any...

  14. Third party bargaining and contract terms: a link over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John M; Doucette, William R; Sorofman, Bernard A

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate whether prior pharmacy bargaining process strategies and pharmacy dependence on third parties affect the bargaining power of pharmacies in price negotiations with third parties. One-time survey. Random sample of 900 independent and small chain pharmacies in nine states: Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Kentucky, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. Two hundred sixteen of the returned surveys contained sufficient responses for this analysis. Survey data on pharmacy bargaining power and prior pharmacy bargaining strategies, pharmacy dependence, and market characteristics were analyzed using multiple regression in a previously developed and modified provider/third party bargaining model. Pharmacy bargaining power. Pharmacy bargaining power varied across our sample. Pharmacy bargaining power was positively related to whether a pharmacy previously bargained with the third parties, negatively related to prior requests for contract changes, and negatively related to the pharmacy's dependence on third parties in total. Pharmacy bargaining power is related to the bargaining strategies employed by pharmacies during the previous year and the dependence of pharmacies on third party payers in total. With the prevalence of "take-it-or-leave-it" contracts from third parties, prior pharmacy bargaining behavior may affect the initial terms of the contracts that pharmacies are offered.

  15. Research on evaluation of third-party governance operation services for environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingsheng; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang

    2017-11-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of third-party governance operation services for environmental pollution, and determines the evaluation indicator system composed of 5 primary indicators as the basic competence of enterprise, operation of equipment, technique economics, environmental benefit and management level, and 26 secondary indicators via policies and regulations, standards, literature research and expert consultation in combination with the composition elements, service value judgment factors and full-life cycle of the work, providing theoretical support for the effect evaluation of third-governance over the environmental pollution in China. Then, the hierarchical analytic matrix is formed by analyzing the environmental pollution governance evaluation indicator system via analytic hierarchy process and scoring the importance of various indicators by experts by applying the Delphi method. The feature vector of the matrix is then calculated to obtain the weight of each indicator and verify the effectiveness of the Delphi method and obtain the comprehensive weight by judging the consistency of the matrix, so as to finally determine the overall ordering level of the importance of secondary indicators.

  16. Moral emotions as determinants of third-party punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M. A. Nelissen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of punishment. Low levels of punishment are observed only when neither emotion is elicited. We discuss the implications of these findings for the functions of altruistic sanctions.

  17. Effect of regionalization on the allocation of third-party peace operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Zakopalová

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Effect of regionalization on the allocation of third-party peace operations” aims to discuss and then empirically test on large-N data what is the effect of the joint activity of the United Nations, regional organizations and ad hoc coalitions of states on the allocation of peace operations in the world. It is argued that after the end of the Cold War, all the actors have become much more active in organizing peace operations in intrastate armed conflicts, but it remains rather unclear to what extent they actually share the burden of peace operations at the macro level and especially whether the United Nations focuses on the regions that are rather overlooked by the other actors. The analysis shows that there are remarkable differences among various regions as regards the involvement of international actors and in fact, regional organizations as well as the ad hoc coalitions of states tend to follow similar patterns in allocation of peace operations as the United Nations.

  18. Recasting of the Brussels I regulation and its impact upon third countries, in particular Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanivuković Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recasting of the Brussels I regulation has been announced by the European Commission in December 2010. The author argues that its impact will be felt in third countries, too. If the Commission proposal is adopted, defendants domiciled in non-EU countries will be amenable to suit in the courts of the Union in civil and commercial matters under the heads of special jurisdiction defined in the EU Regulation. National rules of jurisdiction will no more be applicable. Two new heads of general jurisdiction applicable in case there is no jurisdiction under the Regulation (i.e. when the defendant is domiciled outside the EU and there is no ground of special jurisdiction for EU courts will be the forum of property and the forum necessitates. A court within the EU will have discretion to stay the proceedings in case of lis pendens before the court of a third country. Judgments from third countries will continue to be recognized pursuant to national rules, including the national rules on indirect jurisdiction. Finally, forum selection clauses in favor of third country courts will most likely be unenforceable in the EU unless the court within the EU would anyway lack jurisdiction (even without the forum selection clause. These rules are only a proposal and they may still be changed. The Commission could make a significant improvement by small interventions in the proposed text, e.g. by giving the rules on exclusive jurisdiction reflexive effect and introducing a specific provision affording effect to prorogation clauses in favor of third country courts.

  19. Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC). Presentations and documents submitted to the 28. meeting, OECD Headquarters, Conference Centre, Paris, France, 9-13 May 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    The NEA's nuclear data evaluation co-operation activities involve the following evaluation projects: ENDF (United States), JENDL (Japan), ROSFOND/BROND (Russia), JEFF (other Data Bank member countries) and CENDL (China) in close co-operation with the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The working party was established to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations, validation, and related topics, and to provide a framework for co-operative activities between the participating projects. The working party assesses nuclear data improvement needs and addresses these needs by initiating joint evaluation and/or measurement efforts. The 28. Meeting of the WPEC was the occasion to review the experimental activities, the evaluation projects and the Status of subgroups. This document brings together the available documents of the meeting: 1 - The Reports on experimental activities: Europe (NEA DB), Japan, USA, China; 2 - Some Brief progress reports from the evaluation projects: ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, BROND/ROSFOND, CENDL, IAEA, TENDL; 3 - The Status of subgroups: Subgroup 37 (Improved fission product yield evaluation methodologies); Subgroup 38 (A modern nuclear database structure beyond the ENDF format); Subgroup 39 (Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files); Subgroup 40 (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organisation (CIELO) Pilot Project); Subgroup 41 (Improving nuclear data accuracy of 241 Am and 237 Np capture cross-sections); Subgroup 42 (Thermal Scattering Kernel S(a,b): Measurement, Evaluation and Application); Subgroup C (High Priority Request List - HPRL); New Subgroups were proposed and presented: 43 - Code infrastructure to support a general nuclear database structure; WPEC long-term sub-group proposal: International standard for a general nuclear database structure

  20. Integrity management of Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline to reduce risks due third party damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Monte, Oswaldo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colen, Eustaquio; Cunha, Roberto de Souza; Oliveira, Hudson Regis de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Rogerio de Souza [RSL Consultoria Geoprojetos (Brazil); Schultz Neto, Walter [Milton Braga Assessoria Tecnica (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.600 kilometers from Rio Grande City in Bolivia to Canoas City, in the south of Brazil. The right-of-way crosses a lot of types of topography and areas subjected to various kinds of anthropological actions, like areas in class locations 3, locals under agricultural activities, forests and minerals explorations, and near constructions of highway and railway, industrial constructions, new pipelines in the same right-of -way, channels, dams, that requires special projects to avoid that the gas pipeline could be subject to strengths that were not consider in the original design. The aim of this paper is to present the jobs developed by TBG during seven years of gas pipeline operations, as public awareness program, procedures to design, construct and inspect specials constructions along and near the right-of -way, control of mineral and forest explorations, monitoring and controlling of excavations on the right-of-way to install new pipelines and optical cables, to reduce risks of gas pipeline damage due third party, as a component of TBG' Managing Integrity Gas Pipeline Program. (author)

  1. Insurance of operators liability: the reality principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, J.

    2000-01-01

    The author's observations commence with -an overview of the principal amendments proposed in relation to the revision of the Paris Convention, in particular the inclusion of preventive measures, the definition of nuclear damage, the notion of reasonableness in respect of preventive measures and measures of reinstatement, increased liability amounts and extended prescription periods. He examines to what extent the insurance industry of today would be able to cover such risks, and the problems or doubts that it may encounter in doing so. This presentation also raises other questions which as yet remain unanswered, in particular the question of priorities and the role that complementary funding, namely the Brussels Supplementary Convention, will play in compensating victims. The author concludes by commenting on the current state of the insurance market. He suggests that before making irreversible political decisions in this field, Contracting Parties should, inter alia, carry out detailed analyses on the adequacy of the financial guarantees, in order to attain existing objectives and eliminate the obstacles which prevent the nuclear insurance market from being a competitive one. The author suggests that it might be in the interests of European nuclear operators to promote an insurance mechanism along the same lines as their American colleagues. (author)

  2. Third party Superfund lawsuit defense influenced by the choice of remediation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, B.I.; Parish, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    Paper Company A was sued in a third party action suit initiated by a local utility who was a potential responsible party (PRP) to a contaminated site regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) program. In addition to Paper Company A, other parties to the third party suit included Paper Company B and Contractor C, a demolition contractor/waste hauler. Other PRPs included land owners where the contaminated debris was dumped, Mr. and Mrs. D. Based on background information, Paper Company A dumped coal ash, off quality feed stock, wood and trash north of the D-property. Paper Company B admitted dumping material north of the D-property. Samples of industrial sludges on the D-property had properties characteristic of the Paper Company B's sludges. Paper Company B dumped ash, chromium contaminated gypsum sludge and other waste. The utility company dumped ash on the D-property. Contractor C hauled demolition debris to the D property. A third PRP, Company E was the original owner of the buildings that were demolished. This PRP settled with the EPA as part of a bankruptcy settlement. The hazardous substances encountered at the site included PCBs, chromium and lead in the coal ash, demolition debris and industrial sludges. Disposal of material containing hazardous substances resulted in PCB contaminated debris and sediment, and chromium and lead contamination in the sediment, soil and groundwater

  3. Dual processing and organizational justice: the role of rational versus experiential processing in third-party reactions to workplace mistreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlicki, Daniel P; Rupp, Deborah E

    2010-09-01

    The moral perspective of justice proposes that when confronted by another person's mistreatment, third parties can experience a deontic response, that is, an evolutionary-based emotional reaction that motivates them to engage in retribution toward the transgressor. In this article, we tested whether the third party's deontic reaction is less strong when a rational (vs. experiential) processing frame is primed. Further, we tested whether third parties high (vs. low) in moral identity are more resistant to the effects of processing frames. Results from a sample of 185 French managers revealed that following an injustice, managers primed to use rational processing reported lower retribution tendencies compared with managers primed to use experiential processing. Third parties high in moral identity, however, were less affected by the framing; they reported a high retribution response regardless of processing frame. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Third-Party Retaliation and the Psychology of Deterrence: Mapping the Psychological Mechanisms that Regulate Retaliation on Behalf of Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-03

    variously that its function is, for example, to re-build threatened self - esteem , to obtain enjoyment or satisfaction, or to balance a moral ledger...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0334 Third-Party Retaliation and the psychology of deterrence: Mapping the psychological mechanisms that regulateretaliation...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 05/01/2012-04/30/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Third-Party Retaliation and the psychology of deterrence: mapping the

  5. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-05-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of Third Party Logistics Providers with Advanced it to Increase Customer Satisfaction in Supply Chain Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Zaryab Sheikh; Shafaq Rana

    2012-01-01

    The main area of change in organizational strategy is the extensive use of third party logistics providers who are using advanced information technology tools and integration of supply chain to enhance customer satisfaction. By outsourcing the logistics operations, companies can focus on their core competencies and other important areas of organization which can’t be outsourced. The analysis of this paper is conducted by discussing different concepts of supply chain integration, customer sati...

  7. The influence of economic incentives on treatment patterns in a third-party funded dental service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, N

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the response of dental practitioners to administration and remuneration adjustments to the Dental Treatment Services Scheme (DTSS) in the Republic of Ireland. DESIGN: Following the introduction of a series of administration and fee adjustments by a third party payments system in December 1999 the pattern of extractions and restorations are examined to determine whether the adjustments had influenced provider behaviour, in particular whether a substitution effect from extractions to restorations would result from a relative fee increase of 62% for amalgam fillings. DATA AND METHODS: Data on patient and provider characteristics from June 1996 to April 2005, collected by the Health Service Executive (HSE) National Shared Services Primary Care Reimbursement Service to facilitate remuneration to dentists providing services in the DTSS, was used in this analysis. A graphical analysis of the data revealed a structural break in the time-series and an apparent substitution to amalgam fillings following the introduction of the fee increases. To test the statistical significance of this break, the ratio of amalgams to restorations was regressed on the trend, growth and level dummy variables, using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression. The diagnostics of the model were assessed using the Jarque-Bera normality test and the LM to test for serial correlation. RESULTS: The initial results showed no evidence of a structural break. However on further investigation, when a pulse dummy was included to account for the immediate impact of the fee adjustment the results suggest a unit root process with a structural break in December 1999. This implies that the amalgam fee increase of December 1999 influenced the behaviour patterns of providers. CONCLUSIONS: System changes can be used to change the emphasis from a scheme that was principally exodontia\\/emergency based to a scheme that is more conservative and based on restoration\\/prevention.

  8. Standard rules for liability and cover for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuber, J.K.; Kuckuck, B.

    1980-01-01

    To afford full protection for possible victims, the authors of this article are in favour of doing away with the limitation of liability of nuclear operators presently provided under the German Atomic Energy Act, the principle of which is based on the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention. In support of this argument reference is made to the recent accident at Three Mile Island, trends in other national legislation towards unlimited liability as well as high safety standards in German nuclear plants. Finally, possible ways of providing unlimited liability are proposed, in particular increased insurance cover and the constitution of an interest-bearing fund in addition to State intervention in case of a major nuclear incident. (NEA) [fr

  9. 27 CFR 13.62 - Third-party comment on certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING PROCEEDINGS Miscellaneous § 13.62 Third-party comment... agency, an industry association, a competitor of a certificate holder, a consumer or consumer group, or..., certificate of exemption from label approval, or distinctive liquor bottle approval, such comments should be...

  10. Catastrophic events leading to de facto limits on liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, K.A.; Okrent, D.

    1977-05-01

    This study conducts an overview of large technological systems in society to ascertain prevalence, if any, of situations that can lead to catastrophic effects where the resultant liabilities far exceed the insurances or assets subject to suit in court, thereby imposing de facto limits on liability. Several potential situations are examined: dam rupture, aircraft crash into a sports stadium, chemical plant accident, shipping disaster, and a toxic drug disaster. All of these events are estimated to have probabilities per year similar to or larger than a major nuclear accident and they are found to involve potential liability far exceeding the available resources, such as insurance, corporation assets, or government revenues

  11. Third national inventory of nuclear liabilities - main findings, lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantarella, Jacques; Roger, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The safe management of a country's radioactive substances in both the short and the long term implies a cost to its present society and necessitates financial resources to cover these costs. Once they are needed, these financial resources may prove to be insufficient or even completely lacking, leading to a nuclear liability. By virtue of article 9 of the Belgian law of 12 December 1997, the Belgian Government wishes to avoid the occurrence of such nuclear liabilities. This law charges ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials with the mission to draw up a register of the localisation and the state of all nuclear sites and all sites containing radioactive substances, to estimate the costs of their decommissioning and remediation, to evaluate the existence and adequacy of the provisions for financing these future or current operations and to update the resulting inventory of nuclear liabilities on a five-yearly basis. This paper outlines the methodology put in place by ONDRAF/NIRAS to accomplish this assignment and highlights some of the results of this third inventory. It then focuses on the main recommendations ONDRAF/NIRAS made to the Belgian Government on the field of avoiding potential nuclear liabilities. (authors)

  12. From Penrith to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Elizabeth Clay

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Clay has written her first graphic novel, 'From Penrith to Paris', based on experiences of her first semester in France. It deals with the issues of student life, the loss of cultural identity through language and what it means to come from the cultural wasteland of Sydney to the cultural capital of the world - Paris. Through these funny and often life changing experiences, she realises the value of her hometown and that culture, no matter how it is perceived, plays an enormous role in the shaping of individuals.

  13. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Obłój Jan; Abramczuk Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when ...

  14. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obłój Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

  15. Liability according to civil law regarding border-crossing nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Caroline

    1987-12-01

    The problem of the liability in border-crossing damage caused by a nuclear-reactor accident is divided into two different areas: the liability according to international law of the state, and liability according to civil right of the licensee of a nuclear power plant. In this study attention is paid to the question of the liability according to civil right: is it possible that an aggrieved obtains compensation for damage? This is investigated on the basis of three standard questions of international private law: which judge is qualified, which law is to be applied, and is acknowledgement and execution of foreign sentences possible? First a historical survey is given of international agreements and national legislations regarding third-party liability. (author). 112 refs

  16. Hotel Overbooking and Cooperation with Third-Party Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Dong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hotels cooperate with third-party websites to enhance their competitive position and attain sustainable development in the era of e-commerce. Furthermore, hotel managers overbook to hedge against last-minute cancellations and customer no-shows. This paper discusses pricing and overbooking strategies of a hotel in the context of cooperation with multiple third-party websites and analyzes how these strategies influence the cooperation process. The increase in profits resulting from the overbooking strategy is also examined. A model of a Stackelberg game between the hotel and third-party websites and a Nash game among the third-party websites are developed to analyze the process. Results indicate that the compensation coefficient has a slight influence on hotel pricing strategy, but causes a sharp decrease in overbooking level. As the hotel demands to lessen the probability of denying under higher compensation rate, the third-party websites would exert less sales effort to reduce the demand of online customers. Results also show that under a given market demand, hotel effort only serves to redistribute market shares among the hotel and third-party websites, without influencing hotel pricing and overbooking decisions. Specifically, the market shares of the third-party websites decrease in the effort level of the hotel resulting from an increase in the hotel market share. Finally, in the numerical example where one hotel and two websites are analyzed, hotel overbooking strategy improves hotel profit by 4.20%, whereas profit improvements for Websites 1 and 2 are as high as 5.26% and 5.21%, respectively. Managerial implications of the study are also provided.

  17. 13 CFR 120.920 - Required participation by the Third Party Lender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Third Party Loan collateral. Third Party Loans usually are collateralized by a first lien on the Project... BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Third Party Loans § 120.920 Required participation by the Third Party Lender. (a) Amount of Third Party Loans. A Project financing must include one or more...

  18. Legal aspects and liabilities of storage in transit of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mees, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper considers the question of storage in transit of nuclear materials under the Paris Convention. It specifies the concepts of storage in transit of nuclear materials and then sets out the basic principles of nuclear third party liability. The paper concludes with an analysis of the practical situation in this field and the extent of State liability. (NEA) [fr

  19. 48 CFR 352.228-7 - Insurance-liability to third persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... not caused by the negligence of the Contractor or the Contractor's agents, servants, or employees, and... represents in its offer that it is partially immune from tort liability as a State agency, the Contracting... tort liability as a State agency, the Contracting Officer shall substitute the following paragraphs (a...

  20. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  1. Brussels I bis in Relation to Other Instruments on the Global Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazic, V.; Stuij, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will discuss the relationship between the Brussels Ibis Regulation and other international conventions which regulate the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments or arbitral awards in civil and commercial matters. Since a number of such conventions are in force, a possible

  2. Nuclear Liability Act of 8 June 1972 as amended by the Act of 15 September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The 1972 Nuclear Liability Act has been amended by an Act 1989 to bring its provisions in line with those of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention as amended respectively by the 1982 Protocols. The 1989 Act also raises the limit of the nuclear operator's liability from 42 million Finnish marks (approximately 8 million Special Draing Rights - SDRs) to 100 million SDRs [fr

  3. Nuclear Installations Act 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to bring it into full compliance with the international conventions on nuclear third party liability to which the United Kingdom is a Signatory, namely, the Paris Convention, the Brussels Supplementary Convention and the Vienna Convention. (NEA) [fr

  4. How Belfius Bank's response to the terrorist attacks in Brussels helped embed business continuity in the company culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappens, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, major terrorist incidents in Belgium were considered a 'black swan'. However, the suicide attacks in Paris on 13th November, 2015 provided a wake-up call. Investigations revealed that the raid was prepared in Belgium by jihadists who grew up in Brussels and was coordinated by Belgian ISIS fighters in Syria. In an instant, it became clear that terror had been embedded in Belgian society and could erupt at any moment. At Belfius Bank Belgium, the subsequent months were a rollercoaster ride of terrorist-related events. Business activities were strongly affected, as the company's head office is located in the centre of Brussels. This paper focuses on the way Belfius responded to the events and how the lessons learned have helped to improve its business continuity and crisis management capability.

  5. Decree 2177/1967 of 22 June approving the Regulations on cover for nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    This Decree was made in implementation of Section 45 of the 1964 Act on nuclear energy. It contains provisions on third party liability for nuclear damage, the type of security to cover such liability and State intervention in compensating nuclear damage. The Decree was amended by two Decrees of 28 March 1968 and 7 November 1968 respectively. In particular, the latter Decree implements the provisions of the Paris Convention, ratified by Spain and fixes cover for nuclear risks at 350 million pesetas. (NEA) [fr

  6. Ombuds’ corner: the third party, the institution

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    “The Ombuds shall provide confidential assistance for the informal resolution of interpersonal issues, in the interests of the good functioning of CERN.”*   In any institution, conflicts are inevitable. They can, however, offer an opportunity for a positive resolution. Relationships in a workplace are generally better and stronger between people who have been able to reach a positive resolution of their disagreement, than they are between people who get along moderately well. However, in disputes involving two antagonistic parties, people often forget that there is actually a third party behind the scenes: the institution. It is sometimes surprising to see that even people holding management responsibilities or hierarchical positions in projects fight each other, and completely forget that they are accountable for the good functioning of CERN. Commitment and professionalism are part of the five priority values of CERN, as expressed in its Code of Conduct: “Promot...

  7. The Paris Agreement to Ignore Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    2016-01-01

    At the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Paris, France, 30 November to 11 December 2015, an Agreement was reached by the international community including 195 countries. The Agreement has been hailed, by participants and the media, as a major turning point for policy in the struggle to address human induced climate change. The following is a short critical commentary in which I briefly explain why ...

  8. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy Conv - 09. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on Convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( Conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

  9. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy conv - 09. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

  10. 76 FR 69595 - Application of Third Party Testing Requirements; Reducing Third Party Testing Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... material change in the product's design or manufacturing process, including the sourcing of component parts...)) defines a ``children's product,'' in relevant part, as a consumer product designed or intended primarily... testing by a third party) be designed to show the similarity between the products? Also, sampling...

  11. ECHR rules on liability of ISPs as a restriction of freedom of speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husovec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) in Strasbourg handed down its first case concerning the liability of intermediaries. A ruling of the Estonian Supreme Court that imposed broad liability and a general monitoring obligation upon an internet news portal vis-a-vis third party comments made on

  12. Beyond reciprocity: A conservation of resources view on the effects of psychological contract violation on third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong; Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline; Yang, Qian

    2018-05-01

    Building on conservation of resources theory, we cast resource depletion as a novel explanatory mechanism to explain why employees' experience of psychological contract violation results in harm to third parties outside the employee-organization exchange dyad. This resource-based perspective extends and complements the dominant social exchange perspective which views employee reactions to psychological contract violation as targeting the source of the violation-the organization. The present article reports on 3 studies. Study 1 conducted an experiment with 109 participants and established the main effect of psychological contract violation on resource depletion. Study 2, using survey data from 315 medical employees and their immediate supervisors, found that after controlling for the social exchange mechanism (i.e., revenge cognitions toward the organization), resource depletion mediated the indirect effects of psychological contract violation on supervisory reports of employees' interpersonal harming toward coworkers and decision-making vigilance for clients. Further, we found that organizational and professional identification played opposing moderating roles in the effects of violation on resource depletion and consequently behavioral outcomes, such that these mediated relationships were stronger when organizational identification was high, and weaker when professional identification was high. Study 3 replicated all the results obtained in Studies 1 and 2 with time-lagged data from 229 medical employees across 3 measurement points. The findings confirm that resource depletion is a more effective explanation of the consequences of violation on third parties than revenge cognitions, although both are useful in predicting organization-directed outcomes (i.e., civic virtue and organizational rule compliance). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. How to Catch All Those Mutations—The Report of the Third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R.J.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Auerbach, Arleen D.; Axton, Myles; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Bernstein, Inge; Béroud, Christophe; Burn, John; Cunningham, Fiona; Cutting, Garry R.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Greenblatt, Marc S.; Kaput, Jim; Katz, Michael; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Maglott, Donna; Möslein, Gabriela; Povey, Sue; Ramesar, Raj; Richards, Sue; Seminara, Daniela; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Tavtigian, Sean; Taylor, Graham; Vihinen, Mauno; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G.H.

    2011-01-01

    The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting “Integration and Implementation” was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10–14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access—Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access—Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium. PMID:20960468

  14. How to catch all those mutations--the report of the third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Auerbach, Arleen D; Axton, Myles; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Bernstein, Inge; Béroud, Christophe; Burn, John; Cunningham, Fiona; Cutting, Garry R; den Dunnen, Johan T; Greenblatt, Marc S; Kaput, Jim; Katz, Michael; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Maglott, Donna; Möslein, Gabriela; Povey, Sue; Ramesar, Raj; Richards, Sue; Seminara, Daniela; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Tavtigian, Sean; Taylor, Graham; Vihinen, Mauno; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G H

    2010-12-01

    The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting "Integration and Implementation" was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10-14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access-Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access-Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Survey of Third-Party Parenting Options Associated With Fertility Preservation Available to Patients With Cancer Around the Globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra S. Rashedi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the accompanying article, “Analysis of Fertility Preservation Options Available to Patients With Cancer Around the Globe,” we showed that specific fertility preservation services may not be offered at various sites around the world because of cultural and legal barriers. We assessed global and regional experiences as well as the legal status of third-party reproduction and adoption to serve as a comprehensive international data set and resource for groups that wish to begin oncofertility interventions. Methods: We provide data on the legalities of third-party assisted reproductive technologies and other family-building options in the 28 oncofertility-practicing countries surveyed. Results: We found regional and country differences that will be important in the development of tailored resources for physicians and for patient brochures that are sensitive to these local restrictions and cultural norms. Conclusion: Because many patients first consult Web-based materials, the formal assessment of the availability of these options provides members of the global oncofertility community with data to which they might otherwise not have ready access to better serve their patients.

  16. Draft Federal Act of the Russian Federation 'The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and its Financial Security'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    norms of international nuclear law, in particular the relevant provisions of the Vienna Convention, the Brussels Convention on the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships of 1962 and the Brussels Convention relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Materials of 1971. In addition, international experience has been analysed, both in the field of civil law and the special legislation on nuclear insurance and for compensation for nuclear damage, in particular: the US Price-Anderson Act (part of the US Atomic Energy Act of 1954), the Swiss Act on Nuclear Third Party Liability of 18 March 1983, the Japanese Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (No. 147, 17 June 1961, as amended) and the Canadian Nuclear Liability Act of 1970. The bill establishes the basic principles of civil liability for the operator of a nuclear installation to third parties for nuclear damage, defines a mechanism for its financing and describes special court proceedings for claims for compensation for nuclear damage. It also aims to provide financial guarantees for the protection of the rights and legitimate interests of natural persons and legal entities, as well as the environmental effects of radiation exposure. The elaboration and adoption of such an act in Russia was necessary for a number of reasons, namely: the inability to provide compensation for such damages from the federal budget, the limitation of an operator's own funds to provide for the full recovery of possible harm and the condition of the domestic insurance market, wherein private insurers cannot provide funds in the absence of legislation in this sphere. Although the Civil Code of the Russian Federation provides general rules relating to insurance, it does not contain provisions regarding nuclear damage or nuclear security. Further, while the Federal Act 'Use of Nuclear Energy' contains provisions about nuclear damage, it does not contain any special rules for compensation for nuclear damage or nuclear

  17. Romanian Nuclear Liability Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined especially by the Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damage, as well as the Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper is proposing to present the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the principles content in the international acts on civil liability for nuclear damages, the subject to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania and provisions regarding the terrorist acts.(author)

  18. 77 FR 42149 - Changes To Implement the Preissuance Submissions by Third Parties Provision of the Leahy-Smith...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Provision of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 137... Implement the Preissuance Submissions by Third Parties Provision of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act... preissuance submissions by third parties provision of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA). This...

  19. Muziek en natievorming in België: het muziekleven te Brussel 1830-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Buyens

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Koen Buyens, Music and nation building in BelgiumThe article examines the Brussels music scene (1830-1850 in relation to the efforts made at the time with regard to nation building after the Belgian Revolution of 1830. The first part focuses on François-Joseph Fétis, who was appointed director of the Brussels conservatorium in 1832. In this capacity, Fétis intended to model both the Brussels music scene and the national music scene according to his own clear-cut ideas. In the second part it is argued that musical life in Brussels was suffused with a military spirit. The music of military bands was probably the core element of the urban soundscape. The third part concentrates on the obstacles that hampered the country’s musical development. The crushing preponderance of Paris reduced the Belgian capital to a place of servile imitation. From 1840 onwards this provoked heated reactions among the early advocates of the Flemish case, who soon fell under the spell of German music.

  20. [Biological risk in health. Risk to third parties: medical-legal focus. Responsible behavior of the competent physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The responsibility of the occupational physician (OP) is discussed within the particular topic of biological risk generated by health care workers (HCW) versus third parties in health care settings. The present contribution offers keys of interpretation regarding current Italian legislation and passed sentences, taking into account principles of occupational medicine, the ICOH code of ethics for occupational health professionals, as well as duties and tasks of OP, employers and employees. Most of the responsibilities stand on employers, but OP has a primary duty of information and to judge fitness for work. It is underlined the difficult interpretation of the current legislation and indications. Behaviour of the OP could be censored in case of particular fitness for work or in case of inadequate information, as well as if the comprehension of information is not verified or when indication to minimize the risk are not controlled.

  1. Helping or punishing strangers: neural correlates of altruistic decisions as third-party and of its relation to empathic concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Strang, Sabrina; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Social norms are a cornerstone of human society. When social norms are violated (e.g., fairness) people can either help the victim or punish the violator in order to restore justice. Recent research has shown that empathic concern influences this decision to help or punish. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we investigated the neural underpinnings of third-party help and punishment and the involvement of empathic concern. Participants saw a person violating a social norm, i.e., proposing unfair offers in a dictator game, at the expense of another person. The participants could then decide to either punish the violator or help the victim. Our results revealed that both third-party helping as well as third-party punishing activated the bilateral striatum, a region strongly related with reward processing, indicating that both altruistic decisions share a common neuronal basis. In addition, also different networks were involved in the two processes compared with control conditions; bilateral striatum and the right lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) during helping and bilateral striatum as well as left lPFC and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during punishment. Further we found that individual differences in empathic concern influenced whether people prefer to help or to punish. People with high empathic concern helped more frequently, were faster in their decision and showed higher activation in frontoparietal regions during helping compared with punishing. Our findings provide insights into the neuronal basis of human altruistic behavior and social norm enforcement mechanism.

  2. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, René A; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Pham, Huyên; Taflin, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the third volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by René Carmona, Ivar Ekeland/Erik Taflin, Arturo Kohatsu-Higa, Pierre-Louis Lions/Jean-Michel Lasry, and Hyuên Pham.

  3. What Motivates Lay Third Parties to Take Sides in a Conflict? Examining the Relationships between the Big Five Personality Traits and Side-taking Motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huadong; Li, Chaoping; Wang, Qing; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn

    2011-01-01

    Taking sides is one of the reactions available to third parties in handling a dispute. From the perspective of individual differences, this study was aimed at identifying lay third parties' motives for side taking and exploring their relations with the Big Five personality traits. We tested our

  4. Insurance Cover for Revised Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2008-01-01

    The financial security to be provided to victims of an incident at a nuclear installation is the main objective of international nuclear liability conventions. As from the introduction of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy in 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Liability for Nuclear Damage in 1963 insurers have been prepared to provide the financial capacity needed to cover the liability under both conventions. They did so in close co-operation with the competent national and international authorities, which has resulted in the insurability of as much of the nuclear liability under the conventions as possible. This tradition of co-operation between authorities and insurers was extended to include the revision negotiations regarding the above conventions, which were concluded in 1997 and 2004 respectively. This has resulted in the insurability of by far the largest part of the convention based liability. However, some heads of damage have been introduced about which insurers had expressed concerns as to their likelihood to attract insurance support. In view of the explicit choice by Convention States to include the uninsurable heads of damage into the revised conventions one would expect that liability for them would fall upon national Governments. This would reflect practice in a number of States, which already assume liability for uninsurable mandatory liabilities for a long time. Nonetheless some other States now seem reluctant to do so, the resulting deadlock having a tendency to manifest itself in a negative perception of the insurance industry. Insurers are therefore appreciative of the forum provided by the CNS to once again explain the areas where problems as regards insurability have arisen and why this is the case. This presentation will show that those areas are few in number and notably relate to a limited number of environmental damages as well as the extension of prescription periods. Furthermore, thoughts will

  5. Effects and outcomes of third-party reproduction: parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfeld, Dorothy A

    2015-09-01

    Third-party reproduction has introduced a host of changing family constellations. Research has shown that children conceived through third-party reproduction are doing well psychologically and developmentally, but what about their parents? How have they coped with the transition to third-party reproduction? Has the experience impacted their marital stability or the quality of their parenting? This review will address parents of children conceived through oocyte donation, parents of children conceived through gestational surrogacy, and gay male parents of children conceived through oocyte donation and gestational surrogacy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 25 CFR 141.57 - Procedures to cancel liability on bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures to cancel liability on bond. 141.57 Section 141.57 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS... Procedures to cancel liability on bond. (a) Any surety who wishes to be relieved from liability arising on a...

  7. Professor Gerschenkron goes to Brussels. Russian Catch-up Economics and the Common European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hedlund

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions between Russia and the EU on the formation of a Common European Economic Space bring back to mind Alexander Gerschenkron's classic essay on economic backwardness in historical perspective. This paper argues that the institutions that once produced a specific kind of catch-up economics in Czarist Russia still remain largely the same. Unless negotiations between Moscow and Brussels take into consideration such fundamental institutional incompatibility, attempts at harmonization, expressed by Brussels as an attempt tp spread Western values, will be doomed to fail. A cynical conlusion views potential convergence as adaptation by Brussels to traditional Russian institutional patterns of rule evasion, rather than a Westernization of Russia

  8. Young children remedy second- and third-party ownership violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2015-09-01

    When responding to ownership violations, children can focus on the victim's needs, the perpetrator's punishment, or both. Recent studies show that 3- and 5-year-olds are equally likely to respond to second- and third-party violations, and 3-year-olds return objects to their rightful owners. Children's interventions are consistent with justice for victims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rules specific to nuclear incidence occurring in installations or during transport of nuclear substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocamora, P.

    1976-01-01

    International nuclear third party liability conventions deal in depth with the liability system governing the transport of nuclear substances. Without appropriate legislation, international transport would be likely to meet very serious legal difficulties. The rule of nuclear conventions apply the same system to transport as to nuclear installations and mainly enable a determination of the operator liable. They also allow the person responsible for transport to assume liability therefor in place of the operator who whould normally have been liable. These nuclear conventions do not affect application of international transport conventions and this provision has been the cause of serious difficulties regarding maritime transport. This resulted in the adoption in 1971 in Brussels of a convention relating to civil liability in the field of maritime carriage of nuclear material. The purpose of this convention is to establish in the field of maritime transport, the priority of the system of absolute, exclusive and limited liability in the nuclear conventions. (NEA) [fr

  10. Knowledge Integrated Business Process Management for Third Party Logistics Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    The growing importance of logistics as well as the increasing dynamic complexity of markets, technologies, and customer needs has brought great challenges to logistics. In order to focus on their core competency in such a competitive environment, more and more companies have outsourced a part or the entirety of the logistics process to third party logistics (3PL) service providers. 3PL has played a crucial role in managing logistics processes within supply chain management. Logistics processe...

  11. New national legislation on compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Machado de Faria, N.

    1981-10-01

    This paper describes the nuclear third party liability system within the Brazilian legal framework. Following some considerations regarding the development of nuclear energy it then focuses on the relationship between accident prevention and third party liability and on the political administrative framework related to the nuclar industry in Brazil. (NEA) [fr

  12. Reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkin, Daniel A; Rothmund, Tobias; Twardawski, Mathias; Thalla, Natasha; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-11-01

    Humans show a rare tendency to punish norm-violators who have not harmed them directly-a behavior known as third-party punishment. Research has found that third-party punishment is subject to intergroup bias, whereby people punish members of the out-group more severely than the in-group. Although the prevalence of this behavior is well-documented, the psychological processes underlying it remain largely unexplored. Some work suggests that it stems from people's inherent predisposition to form alliances with in-group members and aggress against out-group members. This implies that people will show reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment, favoring in-group over out-group members especially when their capacity for deliberation is impaired. Here we test this hypothesis directly, examining whether intergroup bias in third-party punishment emerges from reflexive, as opposed to deliberative, components of moral cognition. In 3 experiments, utilizing a simulated economic game, we varied participants' group relationship to a transgressor, measured or manipulated the extent to which they relied on reflexive or deliberative judgment, and observed people's punishment decisions. Across group-membership manipulations (American football teams, nationalities, and baseball teams) and 2 assessments of reflexive judgment (response time and cognitive load), reflexive judgment heightened intergroup bias, suggesting that such bias in punishment is inherent to human moral cognition. We discuss the implications of these studies for theories of punishment, cooperation, social behavior, and legal practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. 48 CFR 752.228-7 - Insurance-liability to third persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alternate I is not used) or (i) (if FAR 52.228-7 Alternate I is used): () Insurance on private automobiles... equivalent in the currency of the Cooperating Country: injury to persons, $10,000/$20,000; property damage...

  14. Cabinet decision concerning the application of certain regulations provided in Nuclear Third Party Legislation of 21 June 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Order was made in implementation of the Act of 8th June 1972 on Nuclear Liability. Its purpose is to implement in Finland, the exclusion of certain small quantities of nuclear substances in course of transport from the liability of the nuclear operator in accordance with the corresponding Decision of the NEA Steering Committee concerning the Paris Convention. This Decision is based on the low hazard entailed by such substances. Furthermore, the Order stipulates that the Minister of Commerce and Industry is the competent authority to decide, under the Act of 1972, that the carrier shall be liable for nuclear damage in place of the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr

  15. The French regime of civil liability for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, Marc

    2013-01-01

    As civil liability for nuclear is a matter of discussion and initiatives at the European and international levels, the author proposes an overview of the legal framework of the French regime of civil liability for nuclear which is a combination of two international treaties (Paris and Brussels conventions) and a national arrangement (a 1968 law). He presents and comments the main characteristics of this regime (geographical scope of application, concerned activities, excluded events, covered damages, principles regarding operator's liability) and the improvements brought by Paris and Brussels convention review protocols

  16. Online trust building through third party trust transfer and third party protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandoko, Wanda; Saleh Abbas, Bahtiar; Budiastuti, Dyah; Kosala, Raymond

    2017-03-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an online trust building mechanism for SME (Small Medium Enterprise). Trust is very important in e-commerce. The nature of online shopping has a greater uncertainty than offline shopping. Seeing as there is an uncertainty that can produce risks, a prospective buyer’s trust is needed. A lot of people’s unwillingness to shop online is caused by their lack of trust toward e-commerce. E-commerce is said to be one of the ways for SME to compete with bigger companies. However, building trust requires immense time and cost. SME with limited resources may experience difficulties in building trust just with their own resources. Base on literature research that needs to be validated in next research, we found that trust can be built through trust transfer from the reputable and well-known trust-mark issuer, and third party protection such as escrow account service and credit card issuer.

  17. European Research Framework Programme. Research on Climate Change. Prepared for the Third World Climate Conference (WCC-3) and the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP-15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication gathers the abstracts of European research projects on climate change and related to climate change which have been completed recently or are ongoing under the sixth and seventh framework programmes for research. This document aims at providing a relevant overview of research activities on climate change funded by the European Community to participants to the third World Climate Conference held in Geneva in August 2009 and to the UNFCCC 15th Conference of the Parties meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009.

  18. Review of legislation on civil liability for nuclear damage; Revision de la legislacion relativa a la responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez-Moran, E.

    2011-07-01

    The entry into force of Law 12/2011 is postponed until the Protocols modifying the Paris and Brussels conventions take effect, since their content complements that of the Conventions. The most significant modifications are the extension of the suppositions of nuclear damage, the geographical scope of application and the time period for claiming personal damages, which is accompanied by higher coverage limits of up to 1,200 million euros. It also includes liability for damages caused by radioactive materials in the custody of the installation owner. (Author)

  19. Polyclonal Recipient nTregs Are Superior to Donor or Third-Party Tregs in the Induction of Transplantation Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Pilat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Induction of donor-specific tolerance is still considered as the “Holy Grail” in transplantation medicine. The mixed chimerism approach is virtually the only tolerance approach that was successfully translated into the clinical setting. We have previously reported successful induction of chimerism and tolerance using cell therapy with recipient T regulatory cells (Tregs to avoid cytotoxic recipient treatment. Treg therapy is limited by the availability of cells as large-scale expansion is time-consuming and associated with the risk of contamination with effector cells. Using a costimulation-blockade based bone marrow (BM transplantation (BMT model with Treg therapy instead of cytoreductive recipient treatment we aimed to determine the most potent Treg population for clinical translation. Here we show that CD4+CD25+ in vitro activated nTregs are superior to TGFβ induced iTregs in promoting the induction of chimerism and tolerance. Therapy with nTregs (but not iTregs led to multilineage chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in mice receiving as few as 0.5 × 106 cells. Moreover, we show that only recipient Tregs, but not donor or third-party Tregs, had a beneficial effect on BM engraftment at the tested doses. Thus, recipient-type nTregs significantly improve chimerism and tolerance and might be the most potent Treg population for translation into the clinical setting.

  20. The Dark Side of Altruistic Third-Party Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrandt, Andreas; Lopez-Perez, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This article experimentally studies punishment from unaffected third parties in ten different games. The authors show that third-party punishment exhibits several features that are arguably undesirable. First, third parties punish strongly a decider if she chooses a socially efficient or a Pareto efficient allocation and becomes the richest party…

  1. To Defer or To Stand Up? How Offender Formidability Affects Third Party Moral Outrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2011-01-01

    . Deciding whether to defer to or stand up against a formidable exploiter is a complicated decision as there is both much to lose (formidable individuals are able and prone to retaliate) and much to gain (formidable individuals pose a great future threat). An optimally designed outrage system should...

  2. The United States nuclear liability regime under the Price-Anderson Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O. F.

    2011-01-01

    The 1958 U. S. Price-Anderson Act created the worlds first national nuclear liability regime. It now provides US $12,6 Billion of nuclear liability coverage for the 104 nuclear power plants in the United States, by far the highest monetary coverage of any nuclear liability regime in the world. Each power plant operator provides nuclear hazards coverage for anyone liable through a combination of private insurance from the American nuclear insurance pool (now US$ 375 million) and a retrospective assessment (now US$111,9 million per power plant per incident plus 5 percent for claims and costs). The United States in 2008 ratified the International Atomic Energy Agency's Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC). and is promoting it as the basis for a more global nuclear liability regime uniting States that are party to the Vienna Convention or the Paris Convention, or have a domestic law consistent with the CSC Annex. The CSC Annex was written to grad father the Price-Anderson Acts economic channeling of liability to the installation operator. The omnibus feature of Price-Anderson is similar to the legal channeling of all liability to the installation operator under the international nuclear liability conventions and domestic laws of many other countries. The Price-Anderson system (like the Vienna and Paris Conventions) does not provide liability coverage for nuclear damage to or loss of use of on-site property. (Author)

  3. Some legal-liability considerations on the Romanian concerns in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Sandru, P.; Vatamanu, M.

    1995-01-01

    The national nuclear legislation is concerned with specific issues related to nuclear safety radiation protection clean-up activities, liability and financial guarantees for nuclear damages; it may be noted that Romania adhered to the nuclear third party liability Vienna Convention and Joint Protocol on December 29, 1992. The Romanian National Nuclear Program, which includes not only the nuclear fuel cycle but also nuclear research facilities and other peaceful applications of radioactivity implies that Romania government is aware for its own facilities, by the settlement of the insurance and pooling system for its own nuclear facilities, as well as for the regional aspects for the liability system for nuclear damage. It must be point out the opportunity and the priority to cooperate with the developed country having in mind the necessity for nuclear insurance coverage of the financial capital invested in Romania's power sector, as well as in the eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. (Author)

  4. Transport and repair of contaminated nuclear components - liabilities and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunego, C.; Deprimoz, J.; Engelhard, M.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear park has been constructed fairly recently and has not yet required large-scale maintenance efforts; however account should now be taken of the fact that periodic checks of nuclear power plants will imply systematic transfers of irradiated or contaminated materials outside the plants. In this context, the paper reviews the nuclear third party liability regime under the Paris Convention and the Euratom directives on radiation protection. It then describes the cover offered by insurance pools in several European countries. (NEA) [fr

  5. Integration between manufacturers and third party logistics providers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole; Lemoine, Olga W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyse the extent of the integration between manufacturers and third party logistics (TPL) providers at present and how the integration is expected to develop in the near future. The focus is on studying what tasks are part of the cooperation, what...... of the eight business processes studied. Further integration in the same processes is expected, based on ICT tools and with a focus on cost. ICT competences are primarily seen as a qualifier not a differentiator. Because the future TPL industry is expected to be characterised by more standardised services...

  6. Third-Party Incentive Strategies and Conflict Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nikolas Emmanuel's examines the use of an incentives approach in managing intrastate conflict in Africa because in many cases, risks and costs make applications of hard power alone unfeasible. Furthermore, simply ignoring episodes of civil conflict in the hope that they will "burn themselves...... out"� does not appear to be a viable alternative. That said, both noncoercive and coercive incentive strategies exist and have been deployed by third parties in a variety of conflict situations. Such incentives seek to manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. The clear intention...... parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available incentive strategies, classifying them along noncoercive and coercive lines. Thus, the article outlines the possibilities offered by an incentives approach, focusing on examples drawn from recent African cases....

  7. Liability in nuclear establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockli, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper gives a history of safety legislation in nuclear plants. A change has been suggested to the present law which would put total liability for damage or injury on the owner of the plant. This new legislation is being introduced in Switzerland. It covers even natural disasters as well as acts of war, but excludes injuries caused through negligence or irresponsibility of employee, however, third party injured as a consequence is to be compensated. The liability stretches over 30 years after the event. (G.R.S.)

  8. Nature and finality of liability insurance support to nuclear operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprimoz, J.

    1975-01-01

    First the specific features of the law originated from the Paris Convention of 1960 is described: strict liability channeled on the operator, the both principles being already underlying in the insurance policies delivered to nuclear operators before their introduction in the internal legislation of the countries that ratified the convention. Then the specific services expected from the liability Insurer are reviewed and the method now prevailing for a rating approach of the risks is analyzed. The new rating techniques that could be justified by speeding up the erection program of nuclear plants through the world are surveyed [fr

  9. THE THIRD PARTY CERTIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Roxana MUNTEANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an increasing organic trade worldwide, the organic standards and the certification of the organic practices are ever more important and relevant for both business and consumers. The certification by third parties of the organic operators is meant to ensure the application of an organic standard. However, the documented fraud cases are proof that the current system can undergo further improvement. The current paper gives an overview of the mechanisms of certification and inspection worldwide and discusses the issues raised by third party certification of the organic operators in the European context. Moreover, the paper reviews the major arguments for the effectiveness of the third party certification and also points to the improvement possibilities of the systems.

  10. Interrelationships of risks faced by third party logistics service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2016-01-01

    insights. Results show that arms-length relationship between the customer and the 3PLs has strong influence on other risks and there is a need for collaborative relationships between 3PLs and its customers. Moreover, analysis indicates that the 3PLs need to improve internal processes related to quality......This paper analyses the interrelationships between risks faced by third party logistics service providers (3PLs) in relation to one of its customers using DEMATEL. Novel analysis of both within and between risk categories and generation of threshold value to prioritize risks generate useful...... management, flexibility of its operations and also geographical coverage of their services....

  11. The Principles Of Liability On Telemedicine Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Anwar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at analyzing and finding the principle of liability in telemedicine medical practice proportionally.This research is a legal research with the approach of statute approach, conceptual approach and comparative approach, as well as the approach to the case approach. According to Article 24 paragraph (1 of the 1945 Constitution and Article 5 (1 of Act No. 48 of 2009 on Judicial Authority, determine that the judge shall explore, and understand the legal values and sense of justice in society. Thus Article 1367 paragraph (3 BW and Article 46 of Act No. 44 of 2009 on Hospitals in the application must be in the context of the intended. The principle of liability risk in medical practice telemedicine in proportion refers to professional liability among medical practitioners telemedicine. The theoretical legitimacy is based on professional relationships in the delegation of medical action based on the code of ethics, professional standards, and service standards, and standard operating procedures. Consequences on liability does not necessarily have to be based on errors primary physician (primary care physician / PCP or primary nurse as subordinate as mean vicarious liability doctrine. Nomenclature "proportional" in a significant liability risk as the distribution of rights and obligations of professionals in proportion to each party's fault based on the values of equality (equitability, feasibility and appropriateness (fair and reasionableness. Accountability based on the viewpoint of interactive justice according to the values of professional skill, prudence or accuracy, responsibility, and colleague and the desire to do good for the sake of healing patients (doing good.

  12. 78 FR 23545 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Third Party Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request: Third Party Conformity Assessment Body Registration Form AGENCY... evaluate whether third party conformity assessment bodies meet the requirements to test for compliance to specified children's product safety rules. Third party conformity assessment bodies found to meet the...

  13. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy

  14. Prescription period in the revised Paris convention and its consequences for insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the high level of safety and technical improvements achieved in nuclear industry over more than thirty years of operation, the original reasons for which this industry enjoys a special liability regime are still valid. ''The possibility remains that incidents capable of causing considerable damage should occur'' and Common law is still not well adapted to deal with the specific problems in this field. Consequently, whatever the conclusions of the Paris Convention revision exercise in progress at the NEA of the OECD may be, it is likely that the future specific liability regime will still need limits both in amount and in time for insurance purposes at least. While, at present, insurers can cope with a 10-year prescription period in their Nuclear Third Party Liability policies, the possible extension of this period to thirty years for personal injuries would not be acceptable without clear provisions in the Protocol and in National legislation. (author)

  15. CREATIVE ACCOUNTING TECHNIQUES ON EQUITY AND LIABILITIES TO TOURISM ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita PAIUSAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our research is topical in the context in which accounting takes an increasingly important role in the social life of each individual and implicitly of the society it belongs to and aims to present the alternative accounting concepts and practices of creative accounting on equity and liabilities to tourism entities. In determining the arguments to justify the real need for knowledge in this area we must delineate the research field Creative Accounting. In this sense, the research envisaged a systematization and reconsideration as well a synthesis and antithesis of the concepts presented on this topic in the specialized literature, in the regulations of various professional bodies and authorities. The knowledge of the patrimonial system, of its capacity to generate profits at a time is insured with both accounting and an accurate and effective control.

  16. 32 CFR 505.7 - Disclosure of personal information to other agencies and third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (E) Duty status, at any given time; (F) Separation or retirement dates; (G) Military occupational... to federally funded state programs to locate parents who have defaulted on child support payments...

  17. Third-party social evaluations of humans by monkeys and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Chijiiwa, Hitomi; Kuroshima, Hika; Takimoto, Ayaka; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-11-01

    Developmental psychologists are increasingly interested in young children's evaluations of individuals based on third-party interactions. Studies have shown that infants react negatively to agents who display harmful intentions toward others, and to those who behave unfairly. We describe experimental studies of capuchin monkeys' and pet dogs' differential reactions to people who are helpful or unhelpful in third-party contexts, and monkeys' responses to people who behave unfairly in exchanges of objects with a third party. We also present evidence that capuchin monkeys monitor the context of failures to help and violations of reciprocity, and that intentionality is one factor underlying their social evaluations of individuals whom they see interacting with others. We conclude by proposing some questions for studies of nonhuman species' third party-based social evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ministerial Decree of 16 February 1976 relating to approval of the model certificate of financial security for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This Decree by the Minister of Industry, Commerce and Crafts, in consultation with the Minister of Transport, approves the model certificate of financial security for the transport of nuclear materials. This type of certificate issued by nuclear insurers is intended to provide detailed information on the nature of the financial security for damage likely to be caused by the materials in the course of transport; it is required to supply the certificate according to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, ratified by Italy in 1975. The standardised presentation of this certificate enables it to be used in international transport between countries parties to the Paris Convention as proof of the existence of the financial security. (N.E.A.)

  19. The Effects of Resource Bundling on Third-party Logistics Providers’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorliza Karia

    2015-03-01

    resource bundling (excluding advanced technology is required to achieve cost leadership. The effects of other resources on performance are mediated mainly by the demand management interface capability and knowledge resources. This is a novel attempt to justify the interaction and mediation effects of resources and capabilities on performance. The research highlights the needs for 3PL managers to focus on developing and bundling their demand management interface capability and knowledge resources in order to achieve cost leadership, and further combine advanced technology into such bundling of resources and capabilities to achieve innovation in customer service. It advances the application of resource-based view (RBV theory in logistics research by identifying resources that play supporting roles and examining the capabilities for enhancing 3PLs’ competitive performance.

  20. A {mu}-analysis power deficiency for GENCOs to perform third-party supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, R.B. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, IIE, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Cinvestav, P.O. Box 31-438, Plaza La Luna, Guadalajara, Jal. 44550 (Mexico); Messina, A.R. [Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Cinvestav, P.O. Box 31-438, Plaza La Luna, Guadalajara, Jal. 44550 (Mexico); Sarmiento, H.U. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, IIE, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62580 (Mexico)

    2008-02-15

    A general approach based on structured singular value (SSV) theory is proposed for the analysis of robust stability of large power systems with parameter variations. SSV theory is utilized to find a structured-based parametric uncertainty description of the system that explicitly address and treat the effect of multiple, interrelated uncertain parameters on system dynamic behavior. Techniques to handle parametric uncertainties are given and methods to generate linear fractional transformation based uncertainty descriptions for the model and its associated uncertainty are discussed. Attention is focused on the study of uncertainties in the nominal system representation arising from two different sources, namely variations in the system operating conditions and uncertainties in the structure of the power system. The performance robustness of the proposed method is verified through simulation studies on a 6-area, 377-machine practical system. In particular, the developed technique is used to estimate the combined effect of variations in the level of power transfer across a critical system interconnection, and variations in the interconnecting tie-line reactance on the stability of critical inter-area modes. Several case studies are presented in which both conventional eigenanalysis techniques and SSV-theory are used to determine robust stability margins. (author)

  1. Third party internet seals: reviewing the effects on online consumer trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.; van Noort, G.; Lee, I.

    2010-01-01

    Buying online is still perceived as risky. A key strategy of online marketers to increase consumer trust in online ordering is to display privacy and security seals on their web sites. Although research indicates that these Internet seals do not necessarily mean better safety for online consumers,

  2. Institutional Liability for Student Activities and Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Douglas R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines higher education institutional liability in the following areas: (1) in tort, based on negligence, for physical harm to students; (2) in tort, for defamation flowing from student media; and (3) in contract, arising out of student organizations' business relationships with third parties. (222 references) (MLF)

  3. A Timely Idea: Third Party Billing for Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaller, Kathy Dye; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1994-01-01

    Federal allocations for special education programs are below 10% whereas the federal contribution to state medicaid programs ranges from 50-80%. Third-party billing provides a more equitable distribution of the costs among federal, state, and local governments, in addition to including private-sector contributions. (MLF)

  4. Billing third party payers for pharmaceutical care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, S; Buffington, D E; Memoli, G A

    1999-01-01

    To describe the steps pharmacists must complete when seeking compensation from third party payers for pharmaceutical care services. Government publications; professional publications, including manuals and newsletters; authors' personal experience. Pharmacists in increasing numbers are meeting with success in getting reimbursed by third party payers for patient care activities. However, many pharmacists remain reluctant to seek compensation because they do not understand the steps involved. Preparatory steps include obtaining a provider/supplier number, procuring appropriate claim forms, developing data collection and documentation systems, establishing professional fees, creating a marketing plan, and developing an accounting system. To bill for specific patient care services, pharmacists need to collect the patient's insurance information, obtain a statement of medical necessity from the patient's physician, complete the appropriate claim form accurately, and submit the claim with supporting documentation to the insurer. Although many claims from pharmacists are rejected initially, pharmacists who work with third party payers to understand the reasons for denial of payment often receive compensation when claims are resubmitted. Pharmacists who follow these guidelines for billing third party payers for pharmaceutical care services should notice an increase in the number of paid claims.

  5. Improving iSC performance through outsourcing - Considerations for using third-party service providers to increase innovation, capacity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Martin; Forster, Gary; Beale, John

    2017-04-19

    Development partners and donors have encouraged and incentivized governments in developing countries to explore ways of working with third-party service suppliers to reduce costs and increase service delivery capacity. The distribution of vaccines and medicines has for a long time shown demand for outsourcing but public health systems have struggled to develop the expertise and capital assets necessary to manage such ventures. Existing transport and logistics capacity within public health systems, in particular, is well documented as being insufficient to support existing, let alone future immunization needs. Today, a number of countries are contracting party logistics providers (3PLs) to supplement the in-house distribution operations of public health systems. This commentary reflects on recent, leading examples of outsourcing initiatives to address critical gaps in transport and logistics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. 27 CFR 8.23 - Third party arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Prohibited Practices § 8.23 Third party arrangements. Industry member requirements, by agreement or otherwise, with non-retailers which result in a retailer being required to purchase the industry member's products are within the exclusive outlet provisions...

  7. Third-Party Software's Trust Quagmire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, J; Hurlburt, G

    2015-12-01

    Current software development has trended toward the idea of integrating independent software sub-functions to create more complete software systems. Software sub-functions are often not homegrown - instead they are developed by unknown 3 rd party organizations and reside in software marketplaces owned or controlled by others. Such software sub-functions carry plausible concern in terms of quality, origins, functionality, security, interoperability, to name a few. This article surveys key technical difficulties in confidently building systems from acquired software sub-functions by calling out the principle software supply chain actors.

  8. 10 CFR 1304.110 - Disclosure of records to third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... research or reporting record and that the record is to be transferred in a form that is not individually... such value. (7) To another agency or to an instrumentality of any governmental jurisdiction within or... is authorized by law, and if the head of the agency or instrumentality has made a written request to...

  9. 4 CFR 200.10 - Disclosure of records to third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as a statistical research or reporting record and that the record is to be transferred in a form that... determine whether the record has such value. (7) To another agency or to an instrumentality of any... enforcement activity, if the activity is authorized by law, and if the head of the agency or instrumentality...

  10. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation.

  11. Preverbal Infants Infer Third-Party Social Relationships Based on Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L.; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2017-01-01

    Language provides rich social information about its speakers. For instance, adults and children make inferences about a speaker's social identity, geographic origins, and group membership based on her language and accent. Although infants prefer speakers of familiar languages (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007), little is known about the…

  12. Formulating customer's power deficiency for GENCOs to perform third-party supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Chien, Le-Ren; Chu, I-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    In the ongoing trend of restructuring the electricity market worldwide, ancillary services are introduced for operating entities to realize the market function and maintain system security. As generation has been unbundled from the vertically integrated structure, the generation companies (GENCOs) willing to join the power market would be interested in how the direct service between suppliers and customers be effectively realized at lower operating costs, while maintaining the operating service at the satisfactory level. This paper presents a method to estimate specific customer's power deficiency that is used for GENCOs to provide the bilateral ancillary service. Results showing the proposed method in the simulated condition were performing as desired. An adaptive frequency bias setting is utilized to develop a bias logic based gain-scheduling controller. Simulation results showed that the proposed controller is feasible for GENCOs to enhance bilateral regulation performance. (author)

  13. A grey DEMATEL approach to develop third-party logistics provider selection criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Khodaverdi, Roohollah; Vafadarnikjoo, Amin

    2016-01-01

    - The paper's results help managers of automotive industries, particularly in developing countries, to outsource logistics activities to 3PL providers effectively and to create a significant competitive advantage. Originality/value - The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, this paper proposes...... an integrated grey DEMATEL method to consider interdependent relationships among the 3PL provider selection criteria. Second, this study is one of the first studies to consider 3PL provider selection in a developing country like Iran....... identifies important criteria for 3PL provider selection and evaluation, and the purpose of this paper is to select 3PL providers from the viewpoint of firms which were already outsourcing their logistics services. Design/methodology/approach - This study utilized the grey decision-making trial...

  14. 22 CFR 1101.8 - Disclosure of records to third-parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under 5 U.S.C. 552a(b) (1) through (11) which provides as follows: (i) To those officers and employees... of a corrected or amended record or notation of a disagreement statement (5 U.S.C. 552a(c)(4)); (ii...

  15. Mitigating Risk to DOD Information Networks by Improving Network Security in Third-Party Information Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Requirements .............................................................................................19 Table 4. Verizon Data Breach Investigations...Commerce, Science, and Transportation, A “Kill Chain” Analysis of the 2013 Target Data Breach , 113th Cong., 1, (2014). 2 Ibid., 4. 3 Ibid. 4...A “Kill Chain” Analysis of the 2013 Target Data Breach , i. 10 Sean M. Kerner, “Home Depot Breach Expands, Privilege Escalation Flaw to Blame,” EWeek

  16. Influence of awareness on the usage of motor third party insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    second in road fatality rates after Ethiopia; and Uganda. Police statistics ... associated health care costs. They are ... ist; and logistic regression analysis to determine factors .... strategies are: incorporating MTPI into the National cur- riculum ...

  17. Altruism as a courtship display: some effects of third-party generosity on audience perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Pat

    2010-02-01

    Public generosity may be a means to convincingly advertise one's good character. This hypothesis suggests that altruistic individuals will be desirable as romantic partners. Few studies have tested this prediction, and these showed mixed results. Some studies have found that altruism is not particularly attractive; other studies showed that altruism is attractive by contrasting descriptions of 'nice guys' with 'jerks'. The present study sought to resolve this debate by having participants read a series of experimentally manipulated vignettes of persons with corresponding photographs, such that altruistic vignettes were compared with control descriptions that differed only in the presence or absence of small hints of altruistic tendencies. Altruists were more desirable for long-term relationships than neutral individuals. Women also preferred altruists for single dates whereas men had no such preference. These results are discussed with regard to the idea that people (males in particular) signal their good character via generosity.

  18. Limiting the liability of the nuclear operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses the questioning of a fundamental principle of the special nuclear third party liability regime by certain NEA countries: the limitation of the nuclear operator's liability. This regime, set up since the late fifties at European then at worldwide level, had until now been widely adopted in the national legislation of most of the countries with a nuclear power programme. The author analyses the different arguments in favour of restoring unlimited liability for the nuclear operator and attempts to define its implications for the future of the nuclear third party liability regime in NEA countries. (NEA) [fr

  19. Liability and Insurance for Suborbital Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.

  20. 75 FR 72944 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Mattresses, Mattress Pads, and/or Mattress...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...: Revisions to Terms of Acceptance of Children's Product Certifications Based on Third Party Conformity... under which it will accept certifications for children's products based on third party conformity..., requires that certification be based on testing of sufficient samples of the product, or samples that are...

  1. Manipulating Morality: Third-Party Intentions Alter Moral Judgments by Changing Causal Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Shaw, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The present studies investigate how the intentions of third parties influence judgments of moral responsibility for other agents who commit immoral acts. Using cases in which an agent acts under some situational constraint brought about by a third party, we ask whether the agent is blamed less for the immoral act when the third party intended for that act to occur. Study 1 demonstrates that third-party intentions do influence judgments of blame. Study 2 finds that third-party intentions only influence moral judgments when the agent's actions precisely match the third party's intention. Study 3 shows that this effect arises from changes in participants' causal perception that the third party was controlling the agent. Studies 4 and 5, respectively, show that the effect cannot be explained by changes in the distribution of blame or perceived differences in situational constraint faced by the agent. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Financial security for nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    In almost every country where nuclear insurance pools operate, except for the United States, national nuclear legislation is either based on the principles of the Paris and Vienna nuclear third party liability conventions or is strongly influenced by them. The most important feature of this legislation is the absolute liabilityy of the operator, which simplifies the insurance process by avoiding duplication of cover and minimising the possibility of complex legal questions arising in case of an incident. The paper describes the arrangements for provision of financial security, the prescription period, insurance requirements, legal costs etc. Also, problems connected with the insurance of two or more installations on the same site are analysed. (NEA) [fr

  3. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  4. Italy's green party: on the road to success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, A.

    1988-01-01

    Italy's Green Party (Lista Verde) does not consider itself a political party but it is changing the environmental consciousness of the nation. There are new eight popular television shows covering environmental problems and a national weekly newspaper devotes a regular column to ecology. Environmental associations, including the Environmental League, have been started in the 1980s. The Greens have also succeeded in halting Italy's nuclear power programme. In a national referendum held in 1987 almost 80% of the voters agreed with the Greens' views. No fewer than 14 more popular referenda are planned throughout Italy on environmental issues. (UK)

  5. Using a third party for nuclear plant civil works, one of a solution for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandeze, A.

    2010-01-01

    Issues that may happen during the construction of civil works of a nuclear power plant are numerous: concrete, reinforcement bars positioning, welding of the liner... On top of the above, quality and nuclear safety assurance is increasingly required by nuclear authorities to keep the current nuclear renaissance steady regarding public opinion. The speaker will present the benefits of using a third party during these civil works phases and about the value created for the circle of actors through a risk based inspection program. Going through the main stages of design and construction of civil works of a nuclear power plant, the main actors involved, their positioning and the role of a voluntary independent third party inspection body, the speaker demonstrates that an independent third party, voluntarily chosen by a Utility and nuclear power plant engineering company, may give confidence to each party. (authors)

  6. Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image of Paris was acquired on July 23, 2000 and covers an area of 23 by 20 km. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known. The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine, while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank. The image is located at 48.8 degrees north latitude and 2.3 degrees east longitude. In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. In the UPPER LEFT, the Eiffel Tower and its shadow are seen. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 m (1054 ft), compared to its actual height of 303 m (985 ft). In the UPPER RIGHT, the Arc de Triomphe is at the center of the Place de L'etoile, from which radiate 12 major boulevards. In the LOWER LEFT is the Tuileries Garden and the Louvre Museum art its eastern end. In the LOWER RIGHT is the Invalides, the burial place and monument of Napoleon Bonaparte. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. 29 CFR 1425.6 - Use of third-party mediation assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of third-party mediation assistance. 1425.6 Section 1425.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.6 Use of third-party mediation assistance. If the parties...

  8. South African nuclear liability laws - recent changes and challenges for insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the past South African Regulators did not stipulate the levels of insurance required by nuclear operators but required only that they carry adequate security. Over the last few years the South African legislators have given serious consideration to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, but decided against being signatories to such conventions. Instead, the conventions were used as a guideline as to specific requirements for local operators. Regulations have been drafted setting out specific limits of cover dependant on the type of licence held by local operators. Due to the fact that local liabilities will arise in local currencies the required limits of Insurance were converted from equivalent foreign amounts into Rands. Due to some extreme currency fluctuations this has resulted in the setting of very high Rand limits, placing both the operators and insurers in an uncertain and very difficult position with regards to accumulation adequate capacity. This paper aims at explaining the revisions that are being considered which if implemented will address insurers and operators concerns regarding available capacity the impossibility of compliance with current limits.(author)

  9. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittar, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  10. Coping with third parties in a nursery pollination mutualism: Hadena bicruris avoids oviposition on pathogen-infected, less rewarding Silene latifolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biere, A.; Honders, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    In nursery pollination systems, pollinator offspring usually feed on pollinated fruits or seeds. Costs and benefits of the interaction for plant and pollinator, and hence its local outcome (antagonismmutualism), can be affected by the presence of 'third-party' species. Infection of Silene latifolia

  11. The transformation of southern California's residential photovoltaics market through third-party ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, Easan; Miller, Mackay; Macal, Charles M.; Graziano, Diane J.; Heimiller, Donna; Ozik, Jonathan; Perry IV, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Third-party photovoltaics (PV) ownership is a rapidly growing market trend, where commercial companies own and operate customer-sited PV systems and lease PV equipment or sell PV electricity to the building occupant. Third-party PV companies can reduce or eliminate up-front adoption costs, reduce technology risk and complexity by monitoring system performance, and can repackage the PV value proposition by showing cost savings in the first month of ownership rather than payback times on the order of a decade. We find that the entrance of third-party business models in southern California residential PV markets has enticed a new demographic to adopt PV systems that is more highly correlated to younger, less affluent, and less educated populations than the demographics correlated to purchasing PV systems. By enticing new demographics to adopt PV, we find that third-party PV products are likely increasing total PV demand rather than gaining market share entirely at the expense of existing customer owned PV demand. We also find that mean population demographics are good predictors of third-party and customer owned PV adoption, and mean voting trends on California carbon policy (Proposition 23) are poor predictors of PV adoption. - Highlights: ► Third-party PV products increased residential PV demand in southern CA. ► Third-party PV products entice new demographic groups to adopt PV. ► Regional demographics are good predictors of PV demand. ► Regional voting trends on carbon policy are poor predictors of PV demand.

  12. Analysis of third-party certification approaches using an occupational health and safety conformity-assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redinger, C F; Levine, S P

    1998-11-01

    The occupational health and safety conformity-assessment model presented in this article was developed (1) to analyze 22 public and private programs to determine the extent to which these programs use third parties in conformity-assessment determinations, and (2) to establish a framework to guide future policy developments related to the use of third parties in occupational health and safety conformity-assessment activities. The units of analysis for this study included select Occupational Safety and Health Administration programs and standards, International Organization for Standardization-based standards and guidelines, and standards and guidelines developed by nongovernmental bodies. The model is based on a 15-cell matrix that categorizes first-, second-, and third-party activities in terms of assessment, accreditation, and accreditation-recognition activities. The third-party component of the model has three categories: industrial hygiene/safety testing and sampling; product, equipment, and laboratory certification; and, occupational health and safety management system registration/certification. Using the model, 16 of the 22 programs were found to have a third-party component in their conformity-assessment structure. The analysis revealed that (1) the model provides a useful means to describe and analyze various third-party approaches, (2) the model needs modification to capture aspects of traditional governmental conformity-assessment/enforcement activities, and (3) several existing third-party conformity-assessment systems offer robust models that can guide future third-party policy formulation and implementation activities.

  13. Segmentasi Pasar Penyedia Jasa Logistik (Third Party Logistics) di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-01-01

    Market segmentation is fundamental in marketing strategy and the first step of market-based strategy preparation, to strengthen its marketing efficiency, and creating opportunities for sales growth and profits. This also applies to market segmentation logistics service providers (TPL - Third Party Logistics), the market is highly developed in the last decade, so that the logistics service providers has to develop marketing strategies properly. The purpose of this research is to gain a better ...

  14. Group Membership Modulates the Neural Circuitry Underlying Third Party Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morese, Rosalba; Rabellino, Daniela; Sambataro, Fabio; Perussia, Felice; Valentini, Maria Consuelo; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore the neural correlates involved in altruistic punishment, parochial altruism and anti-social punishment, using the Third-Party Punishment (TPP) game. In particular, this study considered these punishment behaviors in in-group vs. out-group game settings, to compare how people behave with members of their own national group and with members of another national group. The results showed that participants act altruistically to protect in-group members. This study indicates that norm violation in in-group (but not in out-group) settings results in increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction, brain regions involved in the mentalizing network, as the third-party attempts to understand or justify in-group members' behavior. Finally, exploratory analysis during anti-social punishment behavior showed brain activation recruitment of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area associated with altered regulation of emotions.

  15. The Chernobyl case: its repercussions on the International System on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Guadarrama, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    With the discovery of the Nuclear Energy the world has been development her life the present investigation is based in the accident of the one of the most important Nuclear Power Plant in the world, situated in the Union of Socialist Sovietic Republics. The Nuclear Power Plant of Chernobyl. Us found in the investigation what not exist one legislation agree with the needs of development of the actual world in matter of the liability civil in case of the nuclear accidents. Found only the Convention of the Vienna. the Convention of the Brussels the which only cover the transportation the Nuclear substances in ships and others transportation medios. The complementary a the convention of the Paris and actually The Communication in case of the nuclear accidents and radiological accidents. In the present work think what the Community International haven the needs of created one legislation with character international what can help a the many countries what have Nuclear Power Plants, on all for protection of the her habitants. The International Atomic Energy Agency together with the International Justice Court and the United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) aplicated the law in matter of the nuclear accidents derivates of the liability responsibility in the use of the Nuclear Plants for elaboration the Electrical Energy or for Investigation in matter the nuclear energy both with identical responsibility civil in case the nuclear accident. (Author)

  16. Costly third-party punishment in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Jordan, Jillian J; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Human adults engage in costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior, but the developmental origins of this behavior are unknown. Here we investigate costly third-party punishment in 5- and 6-year-old children. Participants were asked to accept (enact) or reject (punish) proposed allocations of resources between a pair of absent, anonymous children. In addition, we manipulated whether subjects had to pay a cost to punish proposed allocations. Experiment 1 showed that 6-year-olds (but not 5-year-olds) punished unfair proposals more than fair proposals. However, children punished less when doing so was personally costly. Thus, while sensitive to cost, they were willing to sacrifice resources to intervene against unfairness. Experiment 2 showed that 6-year-olds were less sensitive to unequal allocations when they resulted from selfishness than generosity. These findings show that costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior is present in young children, suggesting that from early in development children show a sophisticated capacity to promote fair behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 26 CFR 1.934-1 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1.934-1 Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands. (a) General... Islands will be computed as follows: (A) Add to the income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands... income from such sources. (ii) Limitation. Tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands attributable to...

  18. Influence of nuclear glasses composition on their liability to deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovena, I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the study of the nuclear glasses composition influence on their liability to deterioration. The methodology of the experimental research used has lead to define between the thirty oxides which form the reference glass light water, six oxides of interest. For each of these oxides, a composition variation area has been defined. A matrix of twenty glass compositions has then been defined. The preparation of materials of these compositions has sometimes lead to materials weakly heterogeneous which have been characterized before deterioration. This study has been completed by those of three glasses in a composition variation area narrower of the light water nuclear glass : the R7T7 and two glasses at limits having respectively an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees Celsius theoretically maximum and minimum. Some deterioration parameters in pure water have been experimentally measured on the twenty three glasses : 1) an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees (Vo 1 00) Celsius and another one at 90 degrees Celsius (Vo 9 0) 2) a dissolution velocity in conditions near the saturation at 90 degrees Celsius 3) an apparent solubility of glass based on the ortho silicic acid activity 4) the evolution of the dissolution kinetics at 90 degrees Celsius in sub-saturated medium towards saturated medium 5) the alteration films nature developed at the glasses surface during these last alteration tests. Some thermodynamic and structural models have been studied in order to predict Vo 9 0 and Vo 1 00. The dissolution kinetic law developed from reference glass dissolution results has been studied with the calculation code LIXIVER. It has not been able to be used for most of the glasses compositions studied. As a consequence, the glasses dissolution control by a surface reaction which are itself controlled by the only dissolved silica is an hypothesis which is not verified for the greater part of the glasses. (O.L.). refs., figs

  19. Protection of third parties. The protection of third parties affected by building or plant construction permits under the public construction law, the emission control law, or the atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.

    1993-01-01

    Building construction permits just like plant construction permits under the Federal Emission Control Act or the Atomic Energy Act are typical cases representing the administrative order with a dual effect, or an effect on third parties: decisions supporting the interests of the project owner always affect third parties. Third party protection therefore is a major topic of public construction law or the environmental protection law to be applied to industrial installations. Although actions brought by third parties have become something ordinary for the administrative courts, substantive third party protection continues to pose specific problems. The book in hand develops and explains a way out of the dilemma created by third party protection. The solutions presented are founded on a sound dogmatic basis and take into account the Federal Constitutional Court's rulings in matters of civil rights. The starting point adopted by the authors is the third party rights warranting protection, with the objective protection provided for by the law in general gaining effect as subjective rights as far as the protection is based on the civil rights of the constitution. The scope of protection affordable depends on the individual case and the reconciliation of terests of all parties concerned. The problem solutions set forth very extensively rely on the jurisdiction in matters of third party protection and on approaches published in the relevant literature, so that the book also may serve as a guide to current practice and a helpful source of reference for readers looking for information about the issue of third party protection. (orig./HP) [de

  20. The Energy Act 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Part II of This Act came into force on 1 September 1983 and is concerned with nuclear installations. Its main purpose is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to give effect to the provisions of two Protocols amending the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention respectively. The principal effect of these modifications is to increase the sums available to meet claims for nuclear damage. The United Kingdom is a Party to both Conventions and the provisions of the 1983 Act will enable it to ratify the Protocols. (NEA) [fr

  1. DSHEA's third-party literature exemption; mail order sales, direct marketing, and Internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubicheck, C J

    1999-01-01

    This article examines ways in which marketers of dietary supplements can make use of the "third-party literature" section of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). This provision permits persons or entities, other than manufacturers or distributors, to distribute to consumers certain publications in connection with the sale of particular supplements. These publications may include statements about the therapeutic benefits of such products without subjecting the products to regulation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as unapproved new drugs. Specifically, this article addresses the following: Can a dietary supplement manufacturer or distributor send third-party literature about a dietary supplement to a customer in a mail order sales transaction? Can third-party literature be disseminated by mail with dietary supplement catalogues only? Can third-party literature be disseminated by sales representatives engaged in direct marketing of dietary supplements? Can third-party literature appear on the Internet? The answer appears to be affirmative in each of these situations.

  2. Conference report on Media and Learning Conference, Brussels, March 9th & 10th, 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zac Woolfitt

    2016-01-01

    On March 9th and 10th Zac Woolfitt attended the Media and Learning Conference in Brussels. The programme of this annual conference examines ‘developments, services and uses of media in education and training to […] identify policies and initiatives that promote digital and media competence at all

  3. Failure to adapt infrastructure: is legal liability lurking for infrastructure stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherbaz, S.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Very little attention has been paid to potential legal liability for failing to adapt infrastructure to climate change-related risk. Amendments to laws, building codes and standards to take into account the potential impact of climate change on infrastructure assets are still at least some time away. Notwithstanding that amendments are still some time away, there is a real risk to infrastructure stakeholders for failing to adapt. The legal framework in Canada currently permits a court, in the right circumstances, to find certain infrastructure stakeholders legally liable for personal injury and property damage suffered by third parties as a result of climate change effects. This presentation will focus on legal liability of owners (governmental and private sector), engineers, architects and contractors for failing to adapt infrastructure assets to climate change risk. It will answer commonly asked questions such as: Can I avoid liability by complying with existing laws, codes and standards? Do engineers and architects have a duty to warn owners that existing laws, codes and standards do not, in certain circumstances, adequately take into account the impact of climate change-related risks on an infrastructure asset? And do professional liability insurance policies commonly maintained by architects, engineers and other design professionals provide coverage for a design professional's failure to take into account climate change-related risks?. (author)

  4. Selfish third parties act as peacemakers by transforming conflicts and promoting cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Halali, Eliran

    2015-06-02

    The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict. Intervention introduces side payments that transform the game disputants are playing; it also introduces risk for the third party by making it vulnerable to disputants' choices. Six experiments revealed three robust effects: (i) The mere possibility of third-party intervention significantly increases cooperation in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts; (ii) reducing the risk to third parties dramatically increases intervention rates, to everyone's benefit; and (iii) disputants' cooperation rates are consistently higher than third parties' intervention rates. These findings explain why, how, and when self-interested third parties facilitate peaceful conflict resolution.

  5. Publishing E-RDF linked data for many agents by single third-party server

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yongyuan; Wang, Zhengjun

    2017-01-01

    do not have the ability or do not want to make an additional effort to publish linked data. Thus, for agents who are willing to open part of their data but do not want to make an effort, the task can be undertaken by a professional third-party server (together with professional experts......) that publishes linked data for these agents. Consequently, when a single third-party server is on behalf of multiple agents, it is also responsible to organize these multiple-source URIs (data) in a systematic way to make them referable, satisfying the 4-star data principles, as well as protect the confidential...... data. For validation, we implement a prototype system as a third-party server that publishes linked data for a number of agents. It demonstrates well-organized 5-star linked data plus E-RDF and shows the additional advantages of data integration and interlinking among agents....

  6. [The advantages of a third party in the “work organization” of head nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Pierre-Philippe; Valette, Annick; Reverdy, Thomas; François, Patrice

    The organisation of production of care is a task that requires three different levels of competence: operational, structural and learning skills. The organisational requirements (OR) of the Head Nurse (HN) are often centered on the operational level, to the detriment of the other two levels. This difficulty is due to the organisation which presents limited political, cognitive and pragmatic levels of rationality.The aim of this study was to identify the impact of a third party in relation to the organisation and its effect on the HN's OR. An educational device places HN students in the position of a third party to allow them to work on an organisational problem delegated by a HN. The research-intervention followed 17 projects over a period of one year.Intervention by a third party legitimised the problem by recognizing the difficulties in nursing and reconfiguring relations between healthcare professionals in a political dimension. The methods employed by the third party reassured the HN and completed their knowledge, placing particular focus on the importance of methodology and managerial posture. In practice, the third party supported the HN's power to act and coordinate the various members of the team. The third party contributes to the development of the HN's OR and completes certain limits of the HN's rationality. Nevertheless, difficulties still remain in the development of practices outside the medical team, limiting the extension to other services.A unit managerial support, a collective schedule and open spaces of discussion are recommended to bring structure and support to the OR.

  7. How to catch all those mutations--the report of the third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Auerbach, Arleen D

    2010-01-01

    . The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current...

  8. Transfrontier nuclear civil liability without international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan is not a contracting party of any international convention in the field of nuclear civil liability, and neither are other east Asian countries who have or will soon have nuclear plants. Therefore, the ordinary rules on private international law will play an important role in dealing with transfrontier nuclear civil liability. Above all, the problems on judicial jurisdiction and governing law are crucial points. With regard to the relations between the above countries and the countries whose legal systems are within the framework of Paris or Vienna Conventions, geographical scopes of these conventions are to be considered. There are two different parts in the international civil liability conventions: uniform civil liability law and mutual funds. As to the first, it is important that, even without the conventions, the basic structure of the nuclear civil liability laws in non-member countries are almost the same with those of members. In any event, considering that the establishment of a single international regime to cover all countries will be hardly possible, legal consequences under the private international law will be explored. (author)

  9. Third Party Referrals in the Venture Capital Financing Process: Do Network Ties Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, J.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the role of third party referrals in the venture capital funding process. Taking network theory as our theoretical perspective we explore if and how third parties play a role in the funding process. Hereby we focus on both the network ties between new venture teams and

  10. Third party financing of renewable energy sources. Tercera reunion sobre la financiacion de energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Institut of Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) hosted the third party on financing Renewable Energy Sources in Spain. The main aspects were : 1) Experiences in renewable energy. 2) Financing of small hydro-power projects. 3) Third party financing of biomass projects. 4) Financing of wind energy projects.

  11. Imitative Learning from a Third-Party Interaction: Relations with Self-Recognition and Perspective Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Katherine H.; Akhtar, Nameera

    2008-01-01

    Young children's ability to learn something new from a third-party interaction may be related to the ability to imagine themselves in the third-party interaction. This imaginative ability presupposes an understanding of self-other equivalence, which is manifested in an objective understanding of the self and an understanding of others' subjective…

  12. 78 FR 19713 - Possible Role of Independent Third Parties in Industry-Sponsored Tobacco Product Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... tobacco product research could be subject to third-party governance? For example, could it be applied to... governance? For example, should both the design and conduct of research studies be subject to third-party... more key functions, including the design and conduct of research, the oversight of specific studies...

  13. 27 CFR 6.42 - Indirect inducement through third party arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements... other thing of value by an industry member to a third party, where the benefits resulting from such... value was furnished to a retailer by the third party without the knowledge or intent of the industry...

  14. The Effect of Channel Structures on Third-party Collecting Closed-loop Supply Chain%渠道结构对第三方负责回收闭环供应链的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂佳佳

    2012-01-01

    Reverse logistics (e. g. product remanufacturing or recycling) practices can not only reduce the natural resources needed and the waste produced, but also help reduce the environmental burden. It is not unusual to see in practice the used-product collection activity contracted by a manufacturer to a third party, who is engaged only in the collection of the used products from the market. For example, in the automobile industry, used-product collection activities for the original equipment manufacturers are handled by some independent third parties. Recently, in the United States the "big three" auto manufacturers started to invest in joint research and remanufacturing partnerships with dismantling centers to benefit from their experiences and economics of scale. With the independent third parties joining the closed-loop supply chain, it becomes more difficult to study the closed-loop supply chain for of the increasing number supply chain members. In the third-party collecting closed-loop supply chain, there are several channels structures including no strategic alliance, strategic alliance between the retailer and the manufacturer, strategic alliance between the retailer and the third-party and strategic alliance between the manufacturer and the third-party. In this research, the aim is to examine the effect of these channel structures on the performance of members in a third-party collecting closed-loop supply chain. First, this paper adopts the game theory to develop four models of closed-loop supply chain. Second, the optimal retail prices, wholesale prices, return rates and profits of these models are derived. Third, these four models are compared with each other. Fourth, the effect of system parameters on the performance of members is researched with numerical simulation and some new findings are revealed. This study shows five interesting results. First, the retail price is the highest, the demand is the least and return rate is the lowest in the no strategic

  15. Montenegro on the Path to Paris MoU Accession: Towards Achieving a Sustainable Shipping Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Nikcevic

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the sustainability of the shipping industry and marine ecosystem of Montenegro, it is necessary that Montenegro becomes a full member of the Paris Memorandum of Understanding (Paris MoU on Port State Control. The reasons for doing so are numerous: the full adoption of standards stipulated by the Memorandum in relation to ship control; continuously keeping pace with, and development of, new standards in compliance with turbulent changes in the maritime industry and operation (including the increasing scope of maritime transport; the decrease in the number of detained ships which meet the requirements stipulated in international Conventions and the elimination of substandard ships in perspective; and the prevention of environmental pollution, and sea and port incidents. This justified endeavour is supported by the fact that Montenegro is one of two countries in Europe that are not full members of the Paris MoU. Additionally, in this context it is necessary to emphasise the fact that the marine ecosystem of Montenegro is an integral part of the world ocean. Accordingly, the improvement of the quality of national legislation which is compliant with international requirements is an imperative which has positive implications on regional and global sustainability.

  16. Segmentasi Pasar Penyedia Jasa Logistik (Third Party Logistics di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation is fundamental in marketing strategy and the first step of market-based strategy preparation, to strengthen its marketing efficiency, and creating opportunities for sales growth and profits. This also applies to market segmentation logistics service providers (TPL - Third Party Logistics, the market is highly developed in the last decade, so that the logistics service providers has to develop marketing strategies properly. The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of different industries that exist today and map the needs of the logistics services of TPL customers. Based on exploration research conducted, it can be found in conformities relating to the logistics industry from several companies, ie appropriateness to the complexity of logistics activities of some companies and degree of investment of TPL services company in conducting the activity. Logistics service provider market segmentation can be based on variable complexity of logistics activities, whether it is high, medium or low and variable degrees of investment in the company whether minor, major, or integrated/total. Companies in different industries can have the same logistic service requirements and companies in the same industry can have different logistic service requirements. Client companies for logistics service providers which product handling are classified as semi-complex is the most attractive customer segments for being penetrated. The industries are classified into this segment is automotive, food and beverage, animal food, ceramic, and plantation. 

  17. Reassessing the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havinh Phuong

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear liability regime was thoroughly reviewed by nuclear plant operators, officials of regulatory authorities, and legal and insurance experts at the Symposium on Nuclear Third Party Liability and Insurance, held in September 1984 in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany. The symposium highlighted specific areas where adjustments or improvements would be needed in order to cope with practical problems encountered or emerging issues. By focusing on questions of legitimate concern to the public, it also sought to promote confidence in a compensation system for public protection that is in many ways unique. Topics addressed included the following: greater harmonization of the compensation amounts for nuclear damage established in different countries and in territorial scope; the concept of unlimited liability; the time limitation for compensation claims; the problem of proving causation; the concept of nuclear damage; and insurance coverage

  18. Measuring Service Individuality in Third Party

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Prockl, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - 3PL services are more or less individually designed bundles of logistics operations that are provided on the basis of a long term relationship between logistics service providers and their clients mostly in industry and retail. The appropriate degree of the individuality is however...... offerings and how to replicate or (re)design the new services offered. Depending on the level of complexity of the TPL services, firms need also to consider the implications of the replication and/or (re)design on the configuration of the supply chain, especially downstream. Originality/value - The paper...... crosses disciplinary boundaries and combines relevant research streams to provide a sound foundation for the categorization and classification of TPL services and for new service design/development (NSD) and supply chain configuration....

  19. Ordinance of 30 November 1981 on cover for civil liability resulting from nuclear power plant operation - RS 732.44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Until the end of 1981, the amount of insurance for third party liability resulting from operating a nuclear electricity generating plant was limited to 200 million Swiss francs. This ordinance provides that, as from 1 january 1982, this amount is raised to 300 million Swiss francs. (NEA) [fr

  20. Sex, Attractiveness, and Third-Party Punishment in Fairness Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual. PMID:24709987

  1. Sex, attractiveness, and third-party punishment in fairness consideration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    Full Text Available Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual.

  2. Communicating facts through third-party partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    Every day in the United States people are making decisions about the future of nuclear energy, while it continues to be one of our most controversial issues. How these decisions turn out and whether they are based on fact and need or fear and misconceptions will depend in large part on how active a role knowledgeable people choose to play in the public arena. The participation of scientists and engineers, industry employees, and operators is particularly important because of the respect the public has for their knowledge of the issues. There are a number of very successful programs in which individuals participate through meaningful partnerships with larger national public information efforts. This paper reviews two such partnership programs and makes generalized conclusions about their success and their importance

  3. N. 2874 Report realized for the foreign Affairs commission on the law project n. 2785 authorizing the approbation of international agreements on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report is discussing the approval of two new protocols aiming to modify the OECD convention on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain. After a presentation of the international regime of civil liability in the nuclear domain with the Paris and Vienna conventions, the author analyzes the main improvements offered by the two new protocols. (A.L.B.)

  4. Healthcare.gov shares personal data with third parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. According to the Associated Press, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid's (CMS website, HealthCare.gov, has been sending consumers’ personal data to private companies that specialize in advertising and analyzing Internet data for performance and marketing (1. What information is being disclosed was not immediately clear, but it could include age, income, ZIP code, and smoking status. It could also include a computer’s Internet address, which can identify a person’s name or address when combined with other information collected by sophisticated online marketing or advertising firms. “We deploy tools on the window shopping application that collect basic information to optimize and assess system performance,” said CMS’s Aaron Albright in a statement. “We believe that the use of these tools are common and represent best practices for a typical e-commerce site.” There is no evidence that personal information has been misused. But connections to dozens of third-party tech firms were documented by ...

  5. Strict liability as a legal mechanism protecting the aggrieved parties' interests within the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The no-fault liability principle of nuclear liability regime, its compensation schemes, sociological and legal grounds of its construction as well as liberation grounds are analysed. The simple existence of causation of damage and nuclear accident without necessity of proving negligence or any other type of fault on the part of the operator as an adequate basis for the operator’s strict liability is highlighted thus simplifying the litigation process eliminating potential obstacles, especially such as might exist with the burden of proof. The question of weighing the interests of society in the development of nuclear industry, the necessary extent of protection of victims of nuclear accidents and the interests of operators of nuclear facilities as main determinants of the strict nature of nuclear liability is also described. (orig.)

  6. Security Implications of Third-Party Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    than intended. Kleptography [4], [21], allows texts to be encrypted in such a way that a secret big-brother key can decrypt them. At system scope, a...symmetric encryption against mass surveillance,” Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2014/438, 2014. [5] R. Callan, A. Zaji, and M. Prvulovic, “A practical...cryptographic modules,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2001. [11] P. Kocher, “Timing attacks on implementations of Diffie-Hellman, RSA , DSS, and

  7. The Third Party Logistics Partner Selection of B2C E-Commerce Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid development of Internet, e-commerce enterprises in China is at an alarming rate of sustainable development, the B2C e-commerce in the online shopping market accounted for a large proportion, with the rapid change of the market and customer needs to establish a flexible distribution service is one of the many e-commerce companies need to solve. Using self logistics capital occupancy bigger; the logistics alliance, with the risk of internal information disclosure; and on the third party logistics, not only capital and manpower can be effectively used, helps enterprises to strengthen the core business. Therefore, it is very important to choose the appropriate third party logistics providers to reduce operating costs and improve the market influence. This paper analyses the existing problems in the third party logistics, the establishment of a more complete index system, according to the actual situation of the suppliers, using the improved AHP method and the entropy coefficient method to get the comprehensive weight, finally get the approximation method to meet the business requirements of the logistics service providers use the ideal, for commercial enterprises to third party logistics service provider selection and puts forward some available models.

  8. Third Party Involvement in International Terrorist Extortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    wide audience to view the event . Because publicity is considered to be among the primary purposes of terrorism, a scale for measuring publicity was...with Palestineans, rank among the top four groups in total publicity generated. Their activities not only shocked their world-wide audience , but also...907 McKee-Tesca Company Saf rar-Peugeot Pepsi -Cola 902 903 904 908 909 9-*-0 Mercedes Benz Motor Company 911 912 913 914 Northwest Airlines Braniff

  9. Risk Management for Third Party Payment Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, W; Hernandez Ganan, C.; Lobbezoo, M; van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The payment industry has been characterized by a small number of players that operate the schemes for the facilitation of credit and debit card payments. Over the years, various initiatives have been taken in order to increase competition and hence cost efficiency within the industry. One of the

  10. Understanding the adoption of third-party online payment : An empirical study of user acceptance of Alipay in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Rui; Xie, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    With the development of online shopping, the number of third-party online payment systems increases. Alipay is a commonly used third-party online payment system among Chinese consumers. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that affect the users’ acceptance of Alipay among Chinese B2C customers. This study adopts a deductive, theory testing approach. Based on the model of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), a research model and hypotheses were proposed. ...

  11. Inadequacies in the civil nuclear liability regime evident after the Chernobyl accident: the response in the joint protocol of 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Joint Protocol of 21 September 1988 Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, by bridging both Conventions and by broadening thus the area where internationally harmonized nuclear liability law is applicable to nuclear incidents, contributes to doing away with inadequacies in the system of compensation for nuclear damage. On the other hand the Protocol has negative repercussions on the existing liability Conventions. Due to the enlargement of the territorial scope of application the compensation amounts available will be exhausted earlier. In order to avoid an aggravation of the legal position of the victims in the territories of the original Contracting Parties to the Vienna and the Paris Conventions the joint Protocol has to be responded to by a considerable increase of the compensation amounts

  12. Paris Agreement on Climate Change: A Booster to Enable Sustainable Global Development and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2016-11-14

    The global warming and its adverse effects on the atmosphere, the biosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere are obvious. Based on this fact, the international community is fully convinced that we need to fix the problem urgently for our survival, good health, and wellbeing. The aim of this article is to promote the awareness about the United Nations (UN) historic 'Paris Agreement on Climate Change (PACC)' which entered into-force on 4 November 2016. The expected impact of PACC on the global average temperature rise by 2100 as well as its role in enabling accomplishment of global sustainable development goals (SDGs) for the people and planet is also highlighted.

  13. Outcomes and intentions in children's, adolescents', and adults' second- and third-party punishment behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T

    2014-10-01

    Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantifying the Twitter Influence of Third Party Commercial Entities versus Healthcare Providers in Thirteen Medical Conferences from 2011 - 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Desai

    Full Text Available Twitter channels are increasingly popular at medical conferences. Many groups, including healthcare providers and third party entities (e.g., pharmaceutical or medical device companies use these channels to communicate with one another. These channels are unregulated and can allow third party commercial entities to exert an equal or greater amount of Twitter influence than healthcare providers. Third parties can use this influence to promote their products or services instead of sharing unbiased, evidence-based information. In this investigation we quantified the Twitter influence that third party commercial entities had in 13 major medical conferences.We analyzed tweets contained in the official Twitter hashtags of thirteen medical conferences from 2011 to 2013. We placed tweet authors into one of four categories based on their account profile: healthcare provider, third party commercial entity, none of the above and unknown. We measured Twitter activity by the number of tweet authors per category and the tweet-to-author ratio by category. We measured Twitter influence by the PageRank of tweet authors by category.We analyzed 51159 tweets authored by 8778 Twitter account holders in 13 conferences that were sponsored by 5 medical societies. A quarter of all authors identified themselves as healthcare providers, while only 18% could be identified as third party commercial entities. Healthcare providers had a greater tweet-to-author ratio than their third party commercial entity counterparts (8.98 versus 6.93 tweets. Despite having less authors and composing less tweets, third party commercial entities had a statistically similar PageRank as healthcare providers (0.761 versus 0.797.The Twitter influence of third party commercial entities (PageRank is similar to that of healthcare providers. This finding is interesting because the number of tweets and third party commercial entity authors required to achieve this PageRank is far fewer than that

  15. Quantifying the Twitter Influence of Third Party Commercial Entities versus Healthcare Providers in Thirteen Medical Conferences from 2011 – 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Vibhu; Shariff, Afreen; Shariff, Aabid; Lerma, Edgar; Singla, Parteek; Kachare, Swapnil; Syed, Zoheb; Minhas, Deeba; Madanick, Ryan; Fang, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Twitter channels are increasingly popular at medical conferences. Many groups, including healthcare providers and third party entities (e.g., pharmaceutical or medical device companies) use these channels to communicate with one another. These channels are unregulated and can allow third party commercial entities to exert an equal or greater amount of Twitter influence than healthcare providers. Third parties can use this influence to promote their products or services instead of sharing unbiased, evidence-based information. In this investigation we quantified the Twitter influence that third party commercial entities had in 13 major medical conferences. Methods We analyzed tweets contained in the official Twitter hashtags of thirteen medical conferences from 2011 to 2013. We placed tweet authors into one of four categories based on their account profile: healthcare provider, third party commercial entity, none of the above and unknown. We measured Twitter activity by the number of tweet authors per category and the tweet-to-author ratio by category. We measured Twitter influence by the PageRank of tweet authors by category. Results We analyzed 51159 tweets authored by 8778 Twitter account holders in 13 conferences that were sponsored by 5 medical societies. A quarter of all authors identified themselves as healthcare providers, while only 18% could be identified as third party commercial entities. Healthcare providers had a greater tweet-to-author ratio than their third party commercial entity counterparts (8.98 versus 6.93 tweets). Despite having less authors and composing less tweets, third party commercial entities had a statistically similar PageRank as healthcare providers (0.761 versus 0.797). Conclusion The Twitter influence of third party commercial entities (PageRank) is similar to that of healthcare providers. This finding is interesting because the number of tweets and third party commercial entity authors required to achieve this Page

  16. Quantifying the Twitter Influence of Third Party Commercial Entities versus Healthcare Providers in Thirteen Medical Conferences from 2011 - 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Dhingra, Vibhu; Shariff, Afreen; Shariff, Aabid; Lerma, Edgar; Singla, Parteek; Kachare, Swapnil; Syed, Zoheb; Minhas, Deeba; Madanick, Ryan; Fang, Xiangming

    Twitter channels are increasingly popular at medical conferences. Many groups, including healthcare providers and third party entities (e.g., pharmaceutical or medical device companies) use these channels to communicate with one another. These channels are unregulated and can allow third party commercial entities to exert an equal or greater amount of Twitter influence than healthcare providers. Third parties can use this influence to promote their products or services instead of sharing unbiased, evidence-based information. In this investigation we quantified the Twitter influence that third party commercial entities had in 13 major medical conferences. We analyzed tweets contained in the official Twitter hashtags of thirteen medical conferences from 2011 to 2013. We placed tweet authors into one of four categories based on their account profile: healthcare provider, third party commercial entity, none of the above and unknown. We measured Twitter activity by the number of tweet authors per category and the tweet-to-author ratio by category. We measured Twitter influence by the PageRank of tweet authors by category. We analyzed 51159 tweets authored by 8778 Twitter account holders in 13 conferences that were sponsored by 5 medical societies. A quarter of all authors identified themselves as healthcare providers, while only 18% could be identified as third party commercial entities. Healthcare providers had a greater tweet-to-author ratio than their third party commercial entity counterparts (8.98 versus 6.93 tweets). Despite having less authors and composing less tweets, third party commercial entities had a statistically similar PageRank as healthcare providers (0.761 versus 0.797). The Twitter influence of third party commercial entities (PageRank) is similar to that of healthcare providers. This finding is interesting because the number of tweets and third party commercial entity authors required to achieve this PageRank is far fewer than that needed by

  17. Main features of the convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage - an over view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanenkov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident prompted widespread awareness of the need for improved protection of the public from the consequences of nuclear accidents. It was generally recognised that urgent efforts should be undertaken to strengthen the international nuclear liability regime based on two civil law conventions, namely the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. The work initiated by the Agency - it was assigned to the Standing Committee established in 1990 - followed a two-track approach: to improve the existing civil liability regime, including revision of the Vienna Convention for which the IAEA is depositary; and, to develop a comprehensive international liability regime. The issue of compensation additional to that available under the two basic conventions received full attention in the negotiations. In the latter context, this work resulted in the adoption by a diplomatic conference convened by the IAEA in September 1997 of a new instrument, i.e. the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (the CSC). The CSC is a product of many years of multilateral negotiations and represents a balance of various legal, economic and political considerations. While not all concerns may have been fully met, it represents a significant improvement in the protection of the public from the consequences of nuclear accidents. (author)

  18. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS ON INSOLVENCY AND JOINT LIABILITY ON TAX MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE NICOLAE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Romanian legislation stipulates incident in tax as a way of fighting outstanding tax debts in relation to certain conditionalities, the tax authorities can declare the insolvency of the debtor taxpayer and attracting joint liability of third parties on which transfer tax claims extinguish the obligation owed by the insolvent. According to various editions of the Dictionary of the Romanian Language through insolvency means "a situation in which the debtor whose assets are worth less than all obligations would be satisfied with the goods" [DEX 1998] or "situation of the debtor to be in default of debt outstanding [DEX 2009]. From the perspective of civil law, "insolvency resulting from the inferiority of the assets may be subject by law enforcement, to the total amount of outstanding debt" [Law 287/2009 on the Civil Code, art. 1417]. From the perspective of tax law "is insolvent debtor whose income or assets are worth less than the outstanding tax obligations or who has no income or assets" [GO 92/2003 regarding the Fiscal Procedure Code, art. 176].

  19. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  20. Negotiating with third party payers: one community pharmacy's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridy, Kimberly; DeHart, Renee M; Monk-Tutor, Mary R

    2002-01-01

    attempts at contract negotiation between one pharmacy and nine third party payers. The difficulty of achieving successful results and the necessity of carefully considering the time and cost of contract negotiations underscore how important it is for independent pharmacists to concentrate their efforts on contracts and terms they have an opportunity to change.

  1. Third-party grooming in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Yvan I

    2010-01-01

    Social grooming is ubiquitous among the captive chimpanzees at Chester Zoo. Seven individuals were chosen here for a study of third-party social dynamics. The grooming decisions of five adult males were analysed, but only insofar as they directed attention to a mother-daughter pair. Uniquely, the daughter was an unpopular and physically disabled subadult whose congenital motor impairments prevented her from grooming others effectively. The impetus for this study was the observation that some males increased their grooming towards the disabled daughter during days when the mother had a tumescent anogenital swelling (sexually attractive to males) compared to days when the mother was not tumescent (less attractive). Apparently, males were grooming the daughter with no possibility of payback (because the daughter could never "return the favour"). A "grooming rate" (avg. grooming time/hour) was calculated that showed the grooming efforts of all five males towards both mother and daughter. These rates were compared on days when (1) the mother's anogenital swelling was tumescent, and (2) days when the swelling was not tumescent. Each male showed a different pattern of behaviour. Two males groomed the daughter significantly more when the mother was tumescent. Results for all males were graphed against the quality of the social relationship between each male and the mother. Apparently, only males that had a weaker relationship to the mother groomed the daughter more when the mother was tumescent. This pattern did not exist for males with a stronger relationship to the mother. Possibly, the insecure males were using the disabled daughter as a way to curry favour with the attractive mother. If this is confirmed, then this type of triadic situation is a possible setting for indirect reciprocity to occur.

  2. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human

  3. Nuclear Liability Legislation in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladonja, B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a basic data about the legislation referring to third party liability for nuclear damage in Croatia. It also, gives some drafting provisions in the Croatian Nuclear Liability Act, but only those which implements a substantial changes compared to the Act currently in force. (author)

  4. Sub-seabed burial of radioactive waste and liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, Patrick.

    1982-10-01

    The author of this report discusses the problems raised by application of the special third party liability system to damage which may result from embedding radioactive waste in the sub-seabed. The matter of general liability of the State for nuclear damage caused to the environment is also dealt with in this paper. (NEA) [fr

  5. Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage which was adopted by a Diplomatic Conference, 8-12 September 1997, and the consolidated text of the 1963 Vienna Convention as amended by the Protocol

  6. Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-22

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage which was adopted by a Diplomatic Conference, 8-12 September 1997, and the consolidated text of the 1963 Vienna Convention as amended by the Protocol

  7. THE CRIMINAL LIABILITY OF CORPORATIONS – OVERVIEW ON RECENT CASE LAW OF THE ROMANIAN COURTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA ROXANA ILIE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the criminal liability of corporations is now consecrated in Romanian for more than five years, there is however some reticence in engaging the liability of such person. Nonetheless, in the past years, it can be noticed an emergence of the files where the problem of the criminal liability of corporations is raised. The purpose of this paper is to present the main issues from the Romanian case law in this field. Several topics are to be mainly discussed, such as the enforcement of criminal sanctions such as the winding-up or the diffusion of the decision, the application of precautionary measures and interim measures against corporations, the possibility to call a corporation in the criminal trial both as accused and as third party called liable for other person’s acts etc. During this analysis, it can be noticed that the most common crimes perpetrated by corporations are related to employment issues, copyright, corruption, illegal drug trafficking etc. Therefore, the objectives pursued by the present study are to provide an approach on the most recent court decisions where criminal charges against corporations were carried out and to see how the relevant legal provisions were applied in these cases.

  8. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    I. Status of conventions in the field of nuclear energy as of December 2012: Non-proliferation and nuclear security (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty); Nuclear safety and emergency response (Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management); Liability and compensation for nuclear damage (Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Brussels Supplementary Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Protocol to Amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage). II. Status of conventions in the field of environmental protection/assessment which affect nuclear energy use as of December 2012: Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention), Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention), Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kiev Protocol), Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR). III. OECD member country participation in the nuclear energy treaties/conventions and in the

  9. Tiering Effects in Third-party Logistics: A First-tier Buyer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vainionpää, Mikael M.

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation takes a buy side perspective to third-party logistics (3PL) providers’ service tiering by applying a linear serial dyadic view to transactions. It takes its point of departure not only from the unalterable focus on the dyad levels as units of analysis and how to manage them, but also the characteristics both creating and determining purposeful conditions for a longer duration. A conceptual framework is proposed and evaluated on its ability to capture logistics se...

  10. 26 CFR 301.7602-2 - Third party contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) purposes only, as an employee of the IRS. For the same reason, however, the appraiser's call to the... liability of one or more other taxpayers, such contact is not for that reason alone a contact “with respect... reading the court divorce file, the IRS employee learns that the divorce was acrimonious and that the ex...

  11. Certain Legal Aspects of the Himalaya Clause in the Contract of International Carriage of Goods by Sea A critical perspective on legal challenges raised by the clause under international uniform law and general contract law principles

    OpenAIRE

    Blaskovic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Description of the Himalaya clause and its benefits; considerations on benefits for third parties over international uniform law; observations on construction of the clause under the model of the contract for the benefit of a third party; remarks on circular indemnity clauses; application of rules of exclusion of liability to Himalaya clause; conclusion.

  12. Website Blocking: Evolution or Revolution? 10 Years of Copyright Enforcement by Private Third Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Marja Wesselingh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Copyright enforcement by private third parties – does it work uniformly across the EU? Since the inception of Napster, home copying of digital files has taken flight. The first providers of software or infrastructure for the illegal exchange of files were held contributory or vicariously liable for copyright infringement. In response, they quickly diluted the chain of liability to such an extent that neither the software producers, nor the service providers could be held liable. Moving further down the communication chain, the rights holders are now requiring Internet Service Providers (ISPs that provide access to end customers to help them with the enforcement of their rights. This article discusses case law regarding the enforcement of copyright by Internet Access Providers throughout Europe. At first glance, copyright enforcement has been harmonised by means of a number of directives, and article 8(3 of the Copyright Directive (2001/29/EC regulates that EU Member States must ensure the position of rights holders with regard to injunctions against ISPs. Problem solved? Case law from Denmark, Ireland, Belgium, Norway, England, The Netherlands, Austria and the Court of Justice of the EU was studied. In addition, the legal practice in Germany was examined. The period of time covered by case law is from 2003 to 2013; the case law gives insight into the differences that still exist after implementation of the directive.

  13. Inter Organizational Relationships Performance in Third Party Logistics: conceptual framework and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Romana; Aziz, R.; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kersten, W.; Blecker, T.; Luthje, C.

    2010-01-01

    Supplier relationship management is an important challenge for shippers in logistics outsourcing. This paper attempts to understand the factors which affect inter organizational relationships performance in third party logistics and proposes a conceptual framework specifically for inter

  14. Ownership, Managerial Control and the Governance of Companies Listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines how corporate control is exerted in companies listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange. There are several alternative corporate governance mechanisms which may play a role in disciplining poorly performing management: blockholders (holding companies, industrial companies, families

  15. Religious affiliation and indirect third-party conflict intervention: a hypothesis from the lebanese civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Shishmanian, Haig Philip

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 148-154. Ethnically and religiously-identified groups are frequently involved in conflict. Such conflicts attract forms of third-party intervention which often favor one ethno-religious group over another by means other than direct military intervention on the part of the affiliated third-party ...

  16. Liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Gijn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Paris and Vienna Conventions do not affect the application of any international transport agreement already in force. However, in certain circumstances both the nuclear operator and the carrier may be held liable for nuclear damage which arises during international transports of nuclear materials. The ensuing cumulation of liabilities under the Nuclear and Transport Conventions may cause serious problems in obtaining adequate insurance cover for such transports. The 1971 Brussels Convention seeks to solve this problem by exonerating any person who might be held liable for nuclear damage under an international maritime convention or national law. Similar difficulties are encountered in the case of transports of nuclear materials between states which have and states which have not ratified the Paris and Vienna Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  17. Paris Agreement on Climate Change: A Booster to Enable Sustainable Global Development and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Janardhan Bhore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The global warming and its adverse effects on the atmosphere, the biosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere are obvious. Based on this fact, the international community is fully convinced that we need to fix the problem urgently for our survival, good health, and wellbeing. The aim of this article is to promote the awareness about the United Nations (UN historic ‘Paris Agreement on Climate Change (PACC’ which entered into-force on 4 November 2016. The expected impact of PACC on the global average temperature rise by 2100 as well as its role in enabling accomplishment of global sustainable development goals (SDGs for the people and planet is also highlighted.

  18. System dynamics research of remanufacturing closed-loop supply chain dominated by the third party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shidi; Wang, Tengfei; Chen, Deyun

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid development of the electronic information industry in recent years, electronic products are being updated faster and faster, and e-waste recycling has become a common problem around the world. Firstly, this article contrasts recycling at home and abroad using the predicament of Midea Corp. Based on a closed-loop supply chain with the system dynamics method, a model is constructed and simulated. In this model, the collection point coverage rate is introduced to adjust the e-waste recycling rate dynamically. Aiming at a recycling mode dominated by the third party of the closed-loop supply chain, the article mainly discusses the impact on the sales rate and market share of the recycling model by third-party enterprises and compares the total revenue of all supply chains. Simulation results show that the model is more effective and optimal than the traditional recycling model.

  19. Looking Under the Hood of Third-Party Punishment Reveals Design for Personal Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2016-03-01

    Third-party intervention, such as when a crowd stops a mugger, is common. Yet it seems irrational because it has real costs but may provide no personal benefits. In a laboratory analogue, the third-party-punishment game, third parties ("punishers") will often spend real money to anonymously punish bad behavior directed at other people. A common explanation is that third-party punishment exists to maintain a cooperative society. We tested a different explanation: Third-party punishment results from a deterrence psychology for defending personal interests. Because humans evolved in small-scale, face-to-face social worlds, the mind infers that mistreatment of a third party predicts later mistreatment of oneself. We showed that when punishers do not have information about how they personally will be treated, they infer that mistreatment of other people predicts mistreatment of themselves, and these inferences predict punishment. But when information about personal mistreatment is available, it drives punishment. This suggests that humans' punitive psychology evolved to defend personal interests. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Senate report n. 327 law project authorizing the approbation of international agreements on the civil liability in the domain of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this law project is to approve two protocols aiming to modify the OECD convention on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain. After a short presentation of the international regime of civil liability in the nuclear domain with the Paris and Vienna conventions, the author analyzes the main improvements offered by the two protocols of February 2004 facing the french legislation. (A.L.B.)

  1. Evaluating the effect of a third-party implementation of resolution recovery on the quality of SPECT bone scan imaging using visual grading regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Peter D; Smith, Julie; O'Connor, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits to SPECT bone scan image quality when applying resolution recovery (RR) during image reconstruction using software provided by a third-party supplier. Bone SPECT data from 90 clinical studies were reconstructed retrospectively using software supplied independent of the gamma camera manufacturer. The current clinical datasets contain 120×10 s projections and are reconstructed using an iterative method with a Butterworth postfilter. Five further reconstructions were created with the following characteristics: 10 s projections with a Butterworth postfilter (to assess intraobserver variation); 10 s projections with a Gaussian postfilter with and without RR; and 5 s projections with a Gaussian postfilter with and without RR. Two expert observers were asked to rate image quality on a five-point scale relative to our current clinical reconstruction. Datasets were anonymized and presented in random order. The benefits of RR on image scores were evaluated using ordinal logistic regression (visual grading regression). The application of RR during reconstruction increased the probability of both observers of scoring image quality as better than the current clinical reconstruction even where the dataset contained half the normal counts. Type of reconstruction and observer were both statistically significant variables in the ordinal logistic regression model. Visual grading regression was found to be a useful method for validating the local introduction of technological developments in nuclear medicine imaging. RR, as implemented by the independent software supplier, improved bone SPECT image quality when applied during image reconstruction. In the majority of clinical cases, acquisition times for bone SPECT intended for the purposes of localization can safely be halved (from 10 s projections to 5 s) when RR is applied.

  2. Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S; Raihani, Nichola J

    2014-07-01

    Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators.

  3. Claims of operators, non-operators and third parties arising from oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, R.W.; Semadeni, T.

    1999-01-01

    There has come a resurgence in the number of companies involved in the oil and gas industry seeking protection from their creditors because of the recent weakness in commodity prices. Because most operations in this industry are conducted jointly, a single insolvency can lead to a toppling of other participants in the joint venture and beyond. The problem is to minimize one's losses if other members of the joint venture become insolvent. An examination is included of some remedies which may be available to operators, non-operators and third parties when faced with an insolvent oil and gas participant. The remedies which may be available to the non-operator that is owed moneys by its operator are discussed. The remedies that the operator has against its non-operators, with an emphasis on the nature of the operator's lien and the right of set-off, are described. A brief review is included of some of the remedies that might be available to a third party as against the operators and non-operators. Some s uggestions are included for directors, bankers, third parties, non-operators and operators

  4. Healthy food trends - Brussels sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... belong to the cabbage family, which also includes kale, broccoli, collard greens, and cauliflower. In fact, Brussels ... Brussels sprouts rank high in antioxidants, just after kale and spinach. Antioxidants are substances that can help ...

  5. Multicenter study of banked third-party virus-specific T cells to treat severe viral infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, Ann M; Bollard, Catherine M; Mendizabal, Adam M; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Szabolcs, Paul; Antin, Joseph H; Kapoor, Neena; Pai, Sung-Yun; Rowley, Scott D; Kebriaei, Partow; Dey, Bimalangshu R; Grilley, Bambi J; Gee, Adrian P; Brenner, Malcolm K; Rooney, Cliona M; Heslop, Helen E

    2013-06-27

    Virus-specific T cell (VST) lines could provide useful antiviral prophylaxis and treatment of immune-deficient patients if it were possible to avoid the necessity of generating a separate line for each patient, often on an emergency basis. We prepared a bank of 32 virus-specific lines from individuals with common HLA polymorphisms who were immune to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus, or adenovirus. A total of 18 lines were administered to 50 patients with severe, refractory illness because of infection with one of these viruses after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The cumulative rates of complete or partial responses at 6 weeks postinfusion were 74.0% (95% CI, 58.5%-89.5%) for the entire group (n = 50), 73.9% (95% CI, 51.2% -96.6%) for cytomegalovirus (n = 23), 77.8% for adenovirus (n = 18), and 66.7% (95% CI, 36.9%-96.5%) for EBV (n = 9). Only 4 responders had a recurrence or progression. There were no immediate infusion-related adverse events, and de novo graft-versus-host disease developed in only 2 patients. Despite the disparity between the lines and their recipients, the mean frequency of VSTs increased significantly postinfusion, coincident with striking decreases in viral DNA and resolution of clinical symptoms. The use of banked third-party VSTs is a feasible and safe approach to rapidly treat severe or intractable viral infections after stem cell transplantation. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00711035.

  6. SPECIFIC ACCOUNTING POLICIES ON PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS RELATED TO PROVISIONS, CONTIGENT LIABILITIES AND CONTIGENT ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ţenovici Cristina Otilia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the activity performed by professional accountants should be transparent and the communication process should be an efficient one so that the data transmitted is relevant and reliable. Such characteristics can become achievable only within a quality accounting referential, based on international accounting standards likely to integrate the public field particularities. The need to obtain comparable and transparent information in the public sector has determined the emergence of IPSAS standards, high quality standards with benefice consequences upon the world economy. The purpose of the disclose study is to analyse the development of accountancy in Romania and the level of accounting harmonization and convergence with IPSAS 19 “Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets”. We are also focusing on performing a comparison between the main characteristics of the disclose national and international regulations, with the mention of resemblances and differences on provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets in order to identify the range of convergent and divergent issues.

  7. Limited liability company according to the new Act on commercial corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Daniela Růžičková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Act No. 90/2012 Coll., on commercial corporations, is one of the legal norms which arose in connection to the re-codification of the Private law. Along with the new Civil Code and Act on International private law, it brings about fundamental changes in the field of the regulation of commercial companies. It is an act which partially replaced the current Act No. 513/1991 Coll., Commercial Code. Its content predominantly consists of the regulation of commercial companies and cooperatives, while other relations regarding commercial relations will be covered by the new Civil code. The Chamber of Deputies approved the bill on 16th December and the Act should take effect on 1st January 2014.Since the new legislative norm brings as well many changes in the field of regulations of the limited liability company, which is currently the most used company form, the purpose of this article is to provide complete information about prepared changes in this field, while focusing on risks related to these changes for the limited liability company. According to a hypothesis determined by Pearson chi-quadrate, it should prove to the readers whether or not the changes in the field of the limited liability company will have, as a consequence, the transformation of the legal form used by persons conducting business based on the Trade Act. Further, it will be researched whether these changes will have an impact on the current form for business conduct.

  8. Invalidating stagnation theory for family owned businesses : comparing family-to-family and third party ownership transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alija Ibrahimovic; Lex van Teeffelen; Roger Heaver

    2015-01-01

    Miller, Le Breton-Miller and Scholnick (2008) summarize and discuss two major perspectives constructed from the literature on family owned businesses (FOBs): stewardship and stagnation theory. In this paper the stagnation theory is being put to the test on Dutch small/medium enterprises (SMEs).

  9. On Web User Tracking: How Third-Party Http Requests Track Users' Browsing Patterns for Personalised Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Puglisi, Silvia; Rebollo-Monedero, David; Forné, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    On today's Web, users trade access to their private data for content and services. Advertising sustains the business model of many websites and applications. Efficient and successful advertising relies on predicting users' actions and tastes to suggest a range of products to buy. It follows that, while surfing the Web users leave traces regarding their identity in the form of activity patterns and unstructured data. We analyse how advertising networks build user footprints and how the sugg...

  10. Privacy rights in mental health counseling: Constitutional confusion and the voicelessness of third parties in criminal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Wendy J

    2011-01-01

    The past 20 years of criminal law and practice have produced much heat but little light on the issue of when, if ever, the accused in a criminal case can legitimately seek disclosure of a victim's privileged files that exist exclusively in the custody of a private third party. In many jurisdictions, forced disclosure is routine, and victims must choose between justice and privacy, resulting in either the dismissal or underprosecution of serious violence or the victim's opting to forego necessary treatment. This dilemma is disproportionately imposed on women and child victims of sexual violence, and it threatens to prevent healing for a significant percentage of victimized persons. This article outlines the legal and policy interests of third parties in this debate and offers a model set of procedures to protect against needless harm to third parties, while respecting the important rights of the criminally accused.

  11. Brussels will land on its feet like a cat’: motivations for memefying #Brusselslockdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Minna; Neumayer, Christina; Rossi, Luca

    2018-01-01

    attacks. We use a social network analysis to identify three user groups: content producers, content sharers, and conversationalists. On the basis of interviews with users from these three groups, we argue that the motivations for sharing and creating memes range from personal involvement in the crisis......This article explores user motivations for sharing and creating internet memes in a crisis situation. For this purpose, we investigate the kitten memes in #Brusselslockdown on Twitter, following the Brussels security lockdown in November 2015 that resulted from information about potential terrorist...

  12. Liability of suppliers to nuclear power plants in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Paris Convention provides that liability for a nuclear incident is channelled onto the operator of the nuclear installation concerned. However, the author analyses in which cases and by what mechanisms, the operator can have a right of recourse against a supplier of that installation. He illustrates, by several scenarios of nuclear incident with transfrontier effects how a supplier may be held liable, and describes the relevant rules of law applicable, based on private international law and tort law principles (NEA) [fr

  13. Third party access pricing to the network, secondary capacity market and economic optimum: the case of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.; Percebois, J

    2002-09-01

    The gas deregulation process implies crucial choices concerning access to transportation networks. These choices deal with the nature, the structure and the level of access fees. This paper proposes an evaluation of different systems implemented both in Europe and North America, in relation to normative pricing references. The rules according to which shippers can buy or sell capacity represent another kind of choice that Regulators have to make. This paper proposes a simple model which demonstrates that secondary market prices should not be subject to a cap and emphasizes the need of a 'use-it-or-lose-it' rule on this market. (authors)

  14. Third party access pricing to the network, secondary capacity market and economic optimum: the case of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Percebois, J.

    2002-09-01

    The gas deregulation process implies crucial choices concerning access to transportation networks. These choices deal with the nature, the structure and the level of access fees. This paper proposes an evaluation of different systems implemented both in Europe and North America, in relation to normative pricing references. The rules according to which shippers can buy or sell capacity represent another kind of choice that Regulators have to make. This paper proposes a simple model which demonstrates that secondary market prices should not be subject to a cap and emphasizes the need of a 'use-it-or-lose-it' rule on this market. (authors)

  15. Effects of a Brussels sprouts extract on oxidative DNA damage and metabolising enzymes in rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, B.R.; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2001-01-01

    and catalase activity was also assessed in the kidneys. In order to examine a possible effect of the Brussels sprouts related to oxidative stress, we measured oxidative DNA damage in terms of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation...... on MDA levels were found. The present results support the data obtained in several studies that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is capable of inducing various phase II enzyme systems. However, the observed increase in oxidative DNA damage raises the question of whether greatly increased ingestion...

  16. 78 FR 34795 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products... Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products AGENCY: Environmental... certification, auditing and reporting of third-party certifiers, recordkeeping, enforcement, laminated products...

  17. Evaluation of a third party enzymatic ammonia method for use on the Roche Cobas 6000 (c501) automated platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiden-Long, Isolde; Schnabl, Kareena; Skoropadyk, Wendy; Lennon, Nola; McKeage, Arlayne

    2014-08-01

    Adaptation of the Randox Enzymatic Manual UV Ammonia method to be used on the Roche Cobas 6000 (c501) automated analyzer platform. The Randox ammonia reagent was evaluated for precision, linearity, accuracy and interference from hemolysis, icterus and lipemia on the Roche c501 analyzer. Comparison studies were conducted for the Randox reagent between Roche c501, Siemens Vista, Ortho Vitros 250, and Beckman DxC methods. The Randox reagent demonstrates acceptable within-run (L1=65 μmol/L, CV 3.4% L2=168 μmol/L, CV 1.9%) and between-run precision (L1=29 μmol/L, CV 7.3% L2=102 μmol/L, CV 3.0%), Analytical Measurement Range (7-940 μmol/L), and accuracy. The method interference profile is superior for the Randox method (hemolysis index up to 600, icteric index up to 60, lipemic index up to 100) as compared to the Roche method (hemolysis index up to 200, icteric index up to 10, lipemic index up to 50). Comparison was very good between the Randox reagent and two other wet chemistry platforms. The Randox Enzymatic Manual UV Ammonia reagent is an available alternative to the Roche Cobas c501 reagent. The method is more robust to endogenous interferences and less prone to instrument error flags, thus allowing the majority of clinical specimens to be reported without additional sample handling at our institution. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The invitation of third parties to attend a procedure as provided for by the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In a dispute over the legality of a licence under the Atomic Energy Law, the interests (under public or private law) of the general contractor who received the order to build the power station may be sufficiently affected in a way that meets the requirements of Sect. 65 para. 1 of the Rules of Administrative Courts. The court deciding appeals decides on his invitation at its (full) discretion. Muenster Supreme Administrative Court, Decision of Oct. 31, 1980 - 7 B 1366/80. (orig.) [de

  19. Secure Server Login by Using Third Party and Chaotic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulatif, Firas A.; zuhiar, Maan

    2018-05-01

    Server is popular among all companies and it used by most of them but due to the security threat on the server make this companies are concerned when using it so that in this paper we will design a secure system based on one time password and third parity authentication (smart phone). The proposed system make security to the login process of server by using one time password to authenticate person how have permission to login and third parity device (smart phone) as other level of security.

  20. Third-Party Intervention in Asymmetric Conflict Resolution Pasar Raya Padang Post-Earthquake in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putra Ikhsan Muharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After earthquake 30 September 2009 Raya Market Padang began to be disturbed. Padang City Government responded quickly with construction of an emergency store, but has Opposed by some traders because decreased profits and low visitors. This condition triggered a long conflict and has been going on for five years (2009-2014. Many efforts have been made by stakeholders to find a conflict resolution, so it is important to further elaborate who actor has become a third party facilitating asymmetric conflict resolution. Based on the findings, the parties who really are in the position of a third party is the DPRD of Padang City and KOMNASHAM RI. The DPRD of Padang is structurally in the position of the government, but its function is as a representative of the people in the government. This position makes the slices between the DPRD and the traders as the people (constituents and slices with Padang City Government as executive of the city government. The intervention undertaken by the DPRD was Hearing to Raya Market traders, and involving their representatives at the hearing, the DPRD working meeting discussing the issues related in 2nd Commission. Other interventions are controlling the rehabilitation and reconstruction process, and the realization of budgeting in APBD based on the needs of traders.

  1. 78 FR 44090 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products..., concerning a third-party certification framework for the formaldehyde standards for composite wood products... Environmental protection, Composite wood products, Formaldehyde, Reporting and recordkeeping, Third-party...

  2. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Çinlar, Erhan; Ekeland, Ivar; Jouini, Elyes; Scheinkman, José; Touzi, Nizar

    2004-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the second volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. This volume presents the following articles: "Hedging of Defaultable Claims" by T. Bielecki, M. Jeanblanc, and M. Rutkowski; "On the Geometry of Interest Rate Models" by T. Björk; "Heterogeneous Beliefs, Speculation and Trading in Financial Markets" by J.A. Scheinkman, and W. Xiong.

  3. Does dishonesty really invite third-party punishment? Results of a more stringent test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Naoki; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments have demonstrated that people are willing to incur cost to punish norm violators even when they are not directly harmed by the violation. Such altruistic third-party punishment is often considered an evolutionary underpinning of large-scale human cooperation. However, some scholars argue that previously demonstrated altruistic third-party punishment against fairness-norm violations may be an experimental artefact. For example, envy-driven retaliatory behaviour (i.e. spite) towards better-off unfair game players may be misidentified as altruistic punishment. Indeed, a recent experiment demonstrated that participants ceased to inflict third-party punishment against an unfair player once a series of key methodological problems were systematically controlled for. Noticing that a previous finding regarding apparently altruistic third-party punishment against honesty-norm violations may have been subject to methodological issues, we used a different and what we consider to be a more sound design to evaluate these findings. Third-party punishment against dishonest players withstood this more stringent test. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure of the US gas market, regulation and pricing of the third party access to the network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Mirabel, F.

    2000-06-01

    The opening of the US natural gas market to competition is followed by deep changes in the implemented regulations for an efficient organization and operation of the gas industry. The transformations of the industrial structures and the strategic behavior of the actors characterize the mutations of the gas markets in the USA. The aim of this paper is to transcribe in a synthetic form the characteristics of the gas market in North America and to model the structure of the industry in this sector opened to competition in its back-end. Two main questions are analyzed: the role and position of the former monopoly (utility) in this back-end market (should the local distribution companies continue to sell gas to end users?), and what kind of regulation should be implemented by the authorities in order to avoid the former monopoly to use its market power and make excessive profits. The analysis is made in two steps: the first part explains the hypotheses of the analysis using the characteristics of the North American market. It presents the general framework of the model and explains the two 'regulatory scenarios' retained in the study. The main steps of the resolution of the model are detailed in the second part. (J.S.)

  5. Understanding the Paris agreement: analysing the reporting requirements under the enhanced transparency framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Sharma, Sudhir

    At the Paris climate conference (COP-21) in December 2015, the Conference of the Parties decided to adopt the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This was the first time that 195 Parties had agreed on a universal, legally binding climate instrument......th October 2016, 74 Par¬ties had ratified the Agreement, accounting for 58.82% of global GHG emissions.1 The Paris Agreement will thus enter into force on 4th November 2016....

  6. The jurisprudence of product liability in Nigeria: a need to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bearing in mind that a principal rationale of tort law is to ensure that prejudiced parties are compensated for losses suffered, this article explains why it is necessary to assess and review applicable principle of liability in Nigeria to ensure that it is in line with the demands of justice, which should be in conformity with the ...

  7. Balancing platform control and external contribution in third-party development: the boundary resources model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazawneh, Ahmad; Henfridsson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Prior research documents the significance of using platform boundary resources (e.g. application programming interfaces) for cultivating platform ecosystems through third-party development. However, there are few, if any, theoretical accounts of this relationship. To this end, this paper proposes......-party development: self-resourcing, regulation-based securing, diversity resourcing and sovereignty securing. Our research extends and complements existing platform literature and contributes new knowledge about an alternative form of system development...

  8. Terrorism, memory and dealing with a trauma. Spontaneous memorialization of the 2016 Brussels attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Milosevic, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Whilst the interest of memory scholars in political violence and more specifically in terrorism is not novel, after the terrorist attacks in Paris (2015) and Brussels (2016) there appears to be a certain urgency to reflect upon these nascent memories in collective, European immaginarium. This article traces the development of a “bottom-up” memorialization process in the immediate aftermath of terrorist attacks in Brussels (March - July 2016) questioning how these acts of terrorisms will settl...

  9. The rights of avoidance of third parties and 'protection laws'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, E.

    1981-01-01

    After having given an account of the rights of avoidance of third parties and their foundation in the law the author cites an atypical example of a right of avoidance, i.e. the corporation suit in the environmental protection law in the German Laender Bremen and Hesse. The corporations can only denounce the violation of the environmental protection law. These regulations constitute the protection law, namely in favour of the interests of nature protection, i.e. public interests. It is natural that the corporation has only be concerned an independent right of conducting a case. The (altruistic) corporation suit is therefore a complaint suit aiming at administration control and not a means of an individual legal protection. (HSCH) [de

  10. Impact of liability and site closure and long-term care issues on future siting efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.; Hana, S.L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Washington's research in the area of financial responsibility for liability and cleanup for radioactive materials licensees and low-level radioactive waste permittees is offered to assist unsited states and regions in their planning and development of new low-level waste disposal capacity. The state considered the need for third party bodily injury and property damage financial responsibility and determined that the USDOT requirements comprehensively cover transport of wastes. In regard to licensees' facilities, it is the state's opinion that an adequate technical basis for third party requirements has not yet been developed. Also considered was the need for financial assurance for cleanup, which is covered for transportation, but generally not available for facilities. Three options are examined to provide such coverage, and the economic impact on licensees assessed. Finally, the current low-level waste disposal site operator's insurance coverage is analyzed and deficiencies are identified. Washington is also conducting research into site closure and perpetual care and maintenance requirements for the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located on the Hanford reservation near Richland, Washington. This research includes a site assessment and identification and formulation of site-specific design elements for closure and long-term care

  11. Liability for damage to the global commons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, K.

    1993-01-01

    The 'global commons' discussed in this paper are the areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Responsibility to prevent environmental damage to these areas is clearly recognized in customary international law. On the other hand, although liability for such damage undoubtedly has a useful role to play in protecting these areas, the precise nature of liability for such damage is unclear. Some issues, such as whether liability for such damage is strict or tied to breaching a standard of care and the definition of environmental damage, equally arise in relation to damage to the environment of States. Others, such as who could take action to enforce the liability and the nature of the remedy, raise special problems in the case of damage to the global commons. The work under way in the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage provides an opportunity for clarifying these issues in relation to nuclear damage to the global commons. Treaties dealing with particular types of damage which have recently been adopted or are currently being developed in other fields provide a starting point in dealing with this matter. More work, however, needs to be done

  12. Financing energy efficiency investments. Third party financing: practical problems and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, A.

    1992-01-01

    Third Party Financing means the packaging together of both technical aid and the necessary funding for energy cost saving investments by an outside company (outside to the energy user that is), using the energy cost savings themselves to pay for that investment. There are two key factors which differentiate Third Party Financing and conventional approaches to the implementation of energy conservation projects, the first of which is the provision of all the necessary technical services - both initial and detailed energy audits, engineering design and implementation - from one source. The second difference involves viewing the energy cost savings as a ''stream oincome'' which will repay the cost of the investment. This approach has a number of attractions to energy users: the outside company brings both its technical expertise and the necessary up-front capital to fund the energy saving investment. In addition, because the payments to the outside company are contingent, either wholly or in part, upon the level and timing of the energy cost savings the technical and financial risk for the investment is transferred from the energy user to the outside company. However, although simple in concept, third party financing is complex in practice. How does an energy user judge one third party financing proposal against another? If an agreement is made, how are energy savings measured or what happens if there is a dispute between the two parties? These are examples of the practical questions addressed in this paper which must be resolved if third party financing is to be used to assist energy saving. (Author)

  13. Can green building councils serve as third party governance institutions? An economic and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, Sabine; Maier, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    Green Building Councils (GBCs) have been established in many different countries in recent years. This paper discusses the role such organizations can play in the respective construction and real estate industry and under what circumstances a GBC can contribute positively to the development of a “greener” or “more sustainable” stock of buildings. The paper investigates the main informational problem of the industry by looking at the relation between a developer and an investor from an economic point of view. We argue that the investor's uncertainty about the true quality of a building and the corresponding incentive for the developer to cheat may lock them into a prisoners' dilemma trap. The corresponding barriers for a transition toward a “greener” buildings market are analyzed. GBCs are described as institutions of economic governance that can assist the economy in overcoming these problems. They can act as third party institutions in transactions between developers and investors. By certifying the quality of a building, they can reduce the risk for the investor to be cheated by the developer and also increase the incentive to develop good quality buildings for the developer. This task, however, raises some severe management challenges for the GBCs. - Highlights: ► We focus on Green Building Councils and their economic role. ► The paper investigates the informational problem of the sustainable building market. ► Developers and investors are locked in a prisoner's dilemma. ► Can the councils act as third party institutions to certify quality of buildings? ► Credibility and reliability are key features for third party certification.

  14. Studying third-parties and environments: New Zealand sun-safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Ryan; Leung, William; Stanley, James; Reeder, Anthony; Mackay, Christina; Chambers, Tim; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Signal, Louise

    2017-12-15

    Wearable cameras have been used to study health behaviours, but their utility in assessing third-party behaviours and the built environment is uncertain. This paper reports on the feasibility of using wearable cameras for this purpose in a study of sun-protective behaviours and shade availability during school lunch-breaks. The Kids'Cam study provided 168 children (aged 11-13 years), recruited from 16 randomly selected schools in the Wellington region of New Zealand, with wearable cameras. The devices automatically captured images every 7 s from the child's perspective. Images captured during school lunch-breaks by a random sample of 15 children who took part during terms 4 and 1 (October 2014-April 2015) were selected and assessed for usability. The feasibility of studying third-party sun-protective behaviours and school shade availability was assessed for a subset of 320 images. Of the 3492 eligible lunch-break images, 96.4% were useable; the remainders were excluded due to obstruction, blurriness or unsuitable camera position. Overall, 1278 children and 108 shade structures were observed in the sample images. The use of shade, hats, sleeves, collars and sunglasses could be determined for 97.0%, 77.2%, 74.4%, 47.6% and 54.9% of children, respectively. All shade structures could be classified according to type, and canopy composition could be assessed for 95.4% of structures. Wearable cameras are a feasible tool for assessing sun-safety, particularly shade availability, hat wearing and shade use. This methodology could be used to objectively study other third-party health-related behaviours, and other features of the built environment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. 78 FR 23918 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC 2011-0081] Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the Solubility of the Eight Elements Listed in ASTM F963-11 Correction In notice document 2013-8858 appearing on pages 22518-22520 in the issue...

  16. The international nuclear liability and compensation regime put to the test of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.; Tetley, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: It appears that nuclear emergency plans place generally more emphasis on the nuclear safety and radiation protection aspects of the management of an accident, both inside the installation concerned and off-site, than on the particular requirements of local residents who would find themselves suddenly in such an emergency situation and of possible victims of nuclear damage. In a similar vein, studies focusing on the international nuclear third party liability regime usually take a global perspective and leave little room for the treatment of individual cases. The albeit welcome dearth of practical experience in Western countries in providing compensation for accidents of nuclear origin has, however, meant that public and local authorities are not always fully conscious of the importance of this question which should be dealt with in as practical a manner as possible. In order to cover all the legal and practical questions that could arise during the management of the consequences of a nuclear accident with regard to third party liability, insurance and compensation, the OECD/NEA held in co-operation with French authorities a workshop in November 2001. It was decided to organize this workshop according to three main stages: the alert phase, the accident phase and the post-accident phase; and to examine during these three stages the various roles played by local and national authorities, the nuclear operator and his insurer, as well as the nature and form of their respective actions. These questions were addressed both from the angle of applicable domestic legislation and of the relevant international conventions. From the analysis of different national experiences and of the information exchanged during the workshop, a striking diversity may be noted of solutions adopted or envisaged to address various aspects of civil liability, insurance and indemnification of damage in a nuclear emergency situation. This lack of uniformity should not necessarily be

  17. The Spies We Trust: Third Party Service Providers and Law Enforcement Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soghoian, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Telecommunications carriers and service providers now play an essential role in facilitating modern surveillance by law enforcement agencies. The police merely select the individuals to be monitored, while the actual surveillance is performed by third parties: often the same email providers, search engines and telephone companies to whom consumers…

  18. The Scope of the Arbitral Award Binding Effect (Interests of «Third Parties» in International Arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Bocharova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern business international transactions are multiparty and complicated. Such contracts are usually composed of several contracts which can contain bilateral dispute resolution arrangements. According to the principle of parties autonomy dispute arising between two persons bound by an arbitration agreement in connection with a multiparty project will be resolved by arbitration exclusively between these two parties. Other parties cannot participate in the resolution of the dispute through arbitration, even if they have played an active role in the actual project. Notwithstanding any legitimate interest, they might have the outcome of the dispute; these parties will remain alien both to the arbitration proceedings and an arbitral award. Their interests are not taken into consideration and left unprotected. Arbitration proceedings, unlike litigation, usually do not bear any intervention or joinder of parties, which is explained by the contractual nature of arbitration.Thus, the binding power of an arbitral award extends only over parties of an arbitration agreement. Meanwhile, an arbitral award can affect interests of third parties. How can these parties defend their interests in arbitration proceedings and during recognition and enforcement proceedings in national courts? There are two ways of resolving such problem in state court litigation. The first one is the compulsory participation of any third party with any legitimate interest in litigation through intervention, joinder of parties, and consolidation of cases. A court ex officio has to gather all parties that can have any legitimate interest in resolving the dispute. If judgment affects any interest of a party that was not involved in the proceedings judgment should be reversed in appellate court. The second way is also the solution against parallel proceedings. This way is to harmonize the outcome of parallel proceedings by the principle of lis pendens and res judicata.The paper examines

  19. BRITE/EURAM: Third Technological Days for the Basic Research in Industrial Technologies in Europe/European Research in Advanced Materials 1990, Held in Brussels, Belgium on May 21-22, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-29

    to control Five tasks being executed are: keyhole striking. Further research will design the system 5 for feeding back laser power to the level...Components ..................... 5 Development of a Reactive Ion-Plating Barrel System ................. 5 Laser Sheet Metal W elding...Automation Components ................................ 7 Closing Plenary Session ................................... 8 L. Beckmann, Deputy Director, R&D

  20. 40 CFR 267.147 - Liability requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration of the guarantee. If the guarantor is a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the... PERMIT Financial Requirements § 267.147 Liability requirements. (a) Coverage for sudden accidental... facilities, must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property damage to third parties...

  1. Managing water utility financial risks through third-party index insurance contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, Harrison B.; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2013-08-01

    As developing new supply capacity has become increasingly expensive and difficult to permit (i.e., regulatory approval), utilities have become more reliant on temporary demand management programs, such as outdoor water use restrictions, for ensuring reliability during drought. However, a significant fraction of water utility income is often derived from the volumetric sale of water, and such restrictions can lead to substantial revenue losses. Given that many utilities set prices at levels commensurate with recovering costs, these revenue losses can leave them financially vulnerable to budgetary shortfalls. This work explores approaches for mitigating drought-related revenue losses through the use of third-party financial insurance contracts based on streamflow indices. Two different types of contracts are developed, and their efficacy is compared against two more traditional forms of financial hedging used by water utilities: Drought surcharges and contingency funds (i.e., self-insurance). Strategies involving each of these approaches, as well as their use in combination, are applied under conditions facing the water utility serving Durham, North Carolina. A multireservoir model provides information on the scale and timing of droughts, and the financial effects of these events are simulated using detailed data derived from utility billing records. Results suggest that third-party index insurance contracts, either independently or in combination with more traditional hedging tools, can provide an effective means of reducing a utility's financial vulnerability to drought.

  2. 76 FR 22030 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toddler Beds: Requirements for Accreditation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... and content of the ILAC-MRA approach and of the requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025:2005 laboratory... to ISO Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ``General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and.... The product \\1\\ was tested by a third party conformity assessment body that was ISO/IEC 17025...

  3. 75 FR 31688 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025:2005 laboratory accreditation standard is provided in the CPSC staff briefing....html . The accreditation must be to ISO Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ``General Requirements for the... tested by a third party conformity assessment body that was ISO/IEC 17025 accredited by an ILAC-MRA...

  4. 75 FR 35282 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Walkers: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025:2005 laboratory accreditation standard is provided in the CPSC staff briefing... to ISO Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ``General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and... tested by a third party conformity assessment body that was ISO/IEC 17025 accredited by an ILAC-MRA...

  5. 76 FR 49286 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Notice of Requirements for Accreditation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... history and content of the ILAC-MRA approach and of the requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025:2005 laboratory... be to ISO Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ``General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and..., the product was tested by a third party conformity assessment body that was ISO/IEC 17025 accredited...

  6. Numerical Cognition Explains Age-Related Changes in Third-Party Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyak, Nadia; Sandham, Beth; Harris, Paul L.; Cordes, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Young children share fairly and expect others to do the same. Yet little is known about the underlying cognitive mechanisms that support fairness. We investigated whether children's numerical competencies are linked with their sharing behavior. Preschoolers (aged 2.5-5.5) participated in third-party resource allocation tasks in which they split a…

  7. 77 FR 31073 - Audit Requirements for Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... 1112 and 1118 Audit Requirements for Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies and Requirements... PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1112 [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2009-0061] Audit Requirements for Third... rule establishing requirements for the periodic audit of third party conformity assessment bodies as a...

  8. Liability for on-site nuclear property damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neems, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Typically, liability for on-site property addressed in contracts between operator and its suppliers. Nuclear power plant operators ordinarily protect themselves against risk of nuclear damage to on-site property by insurance. Nuclear liability laws do not specifically address liability for nuclear damage to on-site property. Nuclear plant owners should address risk of damage to on-site property when developing risk management program

  9. The New Brussels I Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnt Nielsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The most important amendments to the Brussels I Regulation adopted on 12 December 2012 are presented and discussed. The amendments concern: 1) arbitration, 2) external situations, 3) choice-of-court agreements, and 4) abolition of exequatur. Compared to the Commission's ambitions, only modest...

  10. Gaussian approximations for stochastic systems with delay: Chemical Langevin equation and application to a Brusselator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, Tobias; Galla, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    We present a heuristic derivation of Gaussian approximations for stochastic chemical reaction systems with distributed delay. In particular, we derive the corresponding chemical Langevin equation. Due to the non-Markovian character of the underlying dynamics, these equations are integro-differential equations, and the noise in the Gaussian approximation is coloured. Following on from the chemical Langevin equation, a further reduction leads to the linear-noise approximation. We apply the formalism to a delay variant of the celebrated Brusselator model, and show how it can be used to characterise noise-driven quasi-cycles, as well as noise-triggered spiking. We find surprisingly intricate dependence of the typical frequency of quasi-cycles on the delay period

  11. Gaussian approximations for stochastic systems with delay: chemical Langevin equation and application to a Brusselator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Tobias; Galla, Tobias

    2014-03-28

    We present a heuristic derivation of Gaussian approximations for stochastic chemical reaction systems with distributed delay. In particular, we derive the corresponding chemical Langevin equation. Due to the non-Markovian character of the underlying dynamics, these equations are integro-differential equations, and the noise in the Gaussian approximation is coloured. Following on from the chemical Langevin equation, a further reduction leads to the linear-noise approximation. We apply the formalism to a delay variant of the celebrated Brusselator model, and show how it can be used to characterise noise-driven quasi-cycles, as well as noise-triggered spiking. We find surprisingly intricate dependence of the typical frequency of quasi-cycles on the delay period.

  12. Competitive and Cooperative Degree in Supply Chain: Supplier Selection between Competitors and Third-Party Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Bo; Wang, Xianjia; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Part 5: Modelling and Simulation; International audience; This work explores the firm’s supplier selection question that the competitor firm and the third-party supplier can supply the substitutable component. We consider a supply chain with two competing original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and two third-party suppliers. The two OEMs produce the competing products which are comprised by two main components. Each OEM only can produce one component in-house and each third-party supplier onl...

  13. A novel method for efficient and abundant production of Phytophthora brassicae zoospores on Brussels sprout leaf discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govers Francine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interactions. One attractive model system is the interaction between Arabidopsis and Phytophthora brassicae. Under laboratory conditions, Arabidopsis can be easily infected with mycelial plugs as inoculum. In the disease cycle, however, sporangia or zoospores are the infectious propagules. Since the current P. brassicae zoospore isolation methods are generally regarded as inefficient, we aimed at developing an alternative method for obtaining high concentrations of P. brassicae zoospores. Results P. brassicae isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Brussels sprout plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Microscopic examination of leaves, stems and roots infected with a GFP-tagged transformant of P. brassicae clearly demonstrated the susceptibility of the various tissues. Leaf discs were cut from infected Brussels sprout leaves, transferred to microwell plates and submerged in small amounts of water. In the leaf discs the hyphae proliferated and abundant formation of zoosporangia was observed. Upon maturation the zoosporangia released zoospores in high amounts and zoospore production continued during a period of at least four weeks. The zoospores were shown to be infectious on Brussels sprouts and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The in vitro leaf disc method established from P. brassicae infected Brussels sprout leaves facilitates convenient and high-throughput production of infectious zoospores and is thus suitable to drive small and large scale inoculation experiments. The system has the advantage that zoospores are produced continuously over a period of at least one month.

  14. EUROPEAN UNION IN GLOBAL CLIMATE GOVERNANCE: TO PARIS AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savorskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the European Union is aspiring global leadership in the area of climate change, which is refl ected in its active participation in the negotiations on the international climate change regime. However, those ambitions have not always turned out to be appropriate or justifi ed. Despite the fact that the European Union was able to achieve certain results during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and even more signifi cant results in the process of its ratifi cation, for the most part EU negotiation strategy based on normative considerations, had not been successful, it was especially evident during the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. Partly the disappointing results of EU performance during the Copenhagen negotiations are to be blamed on some of the key features of EU functioning logic, for example, the overall tendency to rely on scientifi c evidence in policy-making, which did not allow the EU to assess other parties’ interests adequately. As the results of the negotiations of parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 in Paris have shown, the European Union did manage to work out its previous mistakes and build a broad informal international coalition. Contrary to the pessimistic expectations, the agreement was adopted and it took into account quite a few of the EU proposals. However, the Paris Treaty has a number of fl aws and inaccuracies, so the ability to eliminate them in a timely manner by the international community and the EU in particular, will determine the future of the new international climate change regime.

  15. Basic Study on Term of Warranty Liability for Miscellaneous Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junmo; Seo, Deokseok

    2017-10-01

    In Korea, defect lawsuits for apartment buildings, the most common housing style, are becoming a social issue. Among various issues in defect lawsuits, warranty of liability is very important. This is because the business entities are responsible for assuring the maintenance of the defects during this period, and at the same time, the residents can request fair compensation for the defects. However, provisions on the term of warranty of liability provided in the current Housing Act were made 40 years ago when the social basis were weak. Thus, it does not have any rational foundation. In order to improve these problems, basic research on the warranty of liability by major types of apartments is needed. In this study, the defect cases for miscellaneous works of apartments were examined and analyzed. Miscellaneous work consists of ondol work, kitchenware work, indoor and outdoor equipment work, and metallic work. Among them, kitchenware work and metallic work showed a lot of defects. On the other hand, warranty of liability covers up to 10 years in total. The defect occurrence for the entire miscellaneous work showed a tendency to concentrate in the first and the second year. It is the third year that the total defects reach 95%, and the fourth year that exceeds 99%. The ondol work, indoor and outdoor equipment work and metallic work had this tendency. On the other hand, for kitchenware work, it is the third year that the defect occurrence reaches 99%, and it implies that the defect tends to occur more quickly than in other detailed works.

  16. Amendment of liability and financial security under atomic energy law. Position of the insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetius, J.

    1991-01-01

    Since Chernobyl in 1986, there have also been intensive activities in the insurance business in reviewing the legal framework conditions in terms of there consequences for a possible settlement of claims and in dealing with the question whether the old organizational rulings can still be considered sufficient in the light of the aforementioned disaster that has occured. This leads to the deliberations on a legal canalization of liability, on third party liability, financial security, indemnification by the state, damages through precautionary measures (evacuation) and organisation of the settlement of claims. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Is there a role for third parties in the prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallensteen, P.

    1991-01-01

    Power has an important, but elusive, factor in mediation and conflict resolution. This is clear from a foregoing discussion of relations between parties of different status and of the participation of major powers as mediators. This paper discusses the two situations that are most relevant for the problem of nuclear war: the relations between major powers themselves, and the relations between major powers and regional conflicts with a potential of escalation. These situations differ in ways that affect the possibilities and usefulness of third-party activities. some conclusions on mediation can be drawn for each specific category and for more general ones

  18. Particular aspects and limits of absolute nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhard, M.; Brunengo, C.

    1981-10-01

    Ambiguities subsist concerning the application limits of conventional non-nuclear liability and nuclear liability. Based on three examples where the system of channelling liability onto the operator of a nuclear installation is not applied: holder of low-risk nuclear products or materials; nuclear/supplier contractual relations; and nuclear operator/third party relations, this paper outlines some practical solutions to the problems met. The solutions considered concern: suppression of nuclear risk exclusions in policies underwritten by persons who do not take part in the nuclear activity and generalizing and strengthening of the channelling of the nuclear risk onto the operator as well as creation of ''bridges'' between the existing Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  19. Authentication method for authenticating a first party to a second party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    An authentication system and method is presented for authenticating a first party to a second party, where an operation is performed on condition that the authentication succeeds. The authentication method verifies whether the first party is authenticated. If the first party is not authenticated,

  20. Second review meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The Second Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety was held in the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna from 15-26 April 2002, under the chairmanship of the President, Mr Miroslav Gregoric, Director of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Authority. The Convention on Nuclear Safety entered into force in October 1996, has been signed by sixty-five States and ratified by fifty-four, bringing within its scope 428 of the 448 nuclear reactors worldwide. The Convention aims to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide, through inter alia enhancement of national measures and international co-operation. Obligations on Contracting Parties in accordance with the Convention include: the establishment and maintenance of a legislative and regulatory framework to govern the safety of land-based civil nuclear installations; the allocation of adequate financial and human resources to support the safety objectives; ensuring that all reasonably practicable improvements to safety are made as a matter of urgency. Adherence to this Convention entails two basic commitments by each Contracting Party: to prepare and make available a national report for review; and to subject its national report to a peer review by the other Contracting Parties. Thus, being a Contracting Party to this Convention involves: including in the national report a self-assessment of steps and measures already taken and in progress to implement the Convention obligations; taking an active part in an open and transparent review of its national report and the Reports of other Contracting Parties; and a commitment to a continuous learning and improving process, something which is a key element of a strong safety culture. The peer review of national reports takes place every three years, the first having been held in 1999. The Second Review Meeting was attended by delegates from 46 contracting parties. During the review certain issues were

  1. Optional Protocol concerning the compulsory settlement of disputes to the Vienna Convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Optional Protocol Concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 21 May 1963 by the International Conference held in Vienna from 29 April to 19 May 1963. It came into force on 13 May 1999

  2. Relative efficacy of drugs: an emerging issue between regulatory agencies and third-party payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Abadie, Eric; Barnett, David; König, Franz; Pearson, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Drug regulatory agencies have traditionally assessed the quality, safety and efficacy of drugs, and the current paradigm dictates that a new drug should be licensed when the benefits outweigh the risks. By contrast, third-party payers base their reimbursement decisions predominantly on the health benefits of the drug relative to existing treatment options (termed relative efficacy; RE). Over the past decade, the role of payers has become more prominent, and time-to-market no longer means time-to-licensing but time-to-reimbursement. Companies now have to satisfy the sometimes divergent needs of both regulators and payers, and to address RE during the pre-marketing stages. This article describes the current political background to the RE debate and presents the scientific and methodological challenges as they relate to RE assessment. In addition, we explain the impact of RE on drug development, and speculate on future developments and actions that are likely to be required from key players.

  3. The third review conference of the parties of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and recent developments concerning international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, M.J.; Richter, B.; Schlupp, C.; Stein, G.

    1986-11-01

    The non-proliferation activities and instruments are listed in a table. The two main instruments are the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the IAEA Safeguards, which are supplemented by treaties of regional restricted effects, such as the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the EURATOM treaty. The two-tier structure of the treaties, i.e. to provide for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and at the same time foster the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, has proven to have a particularly stabilizing effect, which was confirmed by the last Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation. The conference members were particularly satisfied with the results of the IAEA Safeguards. Future developments towards improving international safeguards will concentrate on operator-friendly and financially reasonable safeguards measures, such as safeguards effectiveness evaluations and near-real-time accountancy. The results of the CAS discussions on the definition of principles and goals of co-operation for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are of importance also to the PUNE conference. The PUNE conference will be held in 1987 and is expected to yield points of orientation for further embedding the non-proliferation principle in the international co-operative activities and the nuclear business in the 1980s. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Economic tools to promote transparency and comparability in the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldy, Joseph; Pizer, William; Tavoni, Massimo; Reis, Lara Aleluia; Akimoto, Keigo; Blanford, Geoffrey; Carraro, Carlo; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James; Iyer, Gokul C.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Richels, Richard; Rose, Steven; Sano, Fuminori

    2016-11-01

    The Paris Agreement culminates a six-year transition towards an international climate policy architecture based on parties submitting national pledges every five years. An important policy task will be to assess and compare these contributions. We use four integrated assessment models to produce metrics of Paris Agreement pledges, and show differentiated effort across countries: wealthier countries pledge to undertake greater emission reductions with higher costs. The pledges fall in the lower end of the distributions of the social cost of carbon and the cost-minimizing path to limiting warming to 2 °C, suggesting insufficient global ambition in light of leaders’ climate goals. Countries’ marginal abatement costs vary by two orders of magnitude, illustrating that large efficiency gains are available through joint mitigation efforts and/or carbon price coordination. Marginal costs rise almost proportionally with income, but full policy costs reveal more complex regional patterns due to terms of trade effects.

  5. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for nuclear Damage in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    With nuclear power generating 43% of its total electricity production, Switzerland is amongst the states, employing the highest percentage of nuclear electricity. Although, the country has not ratified any of the international Nuclear Liability Conventions, its Nuclear Third Party Liability Act reflects all the principles, underlying those Conventions. The statutory liability of the operator of a Swiss nuclear installation itself being unlimited, the total insurance limit of CHF 770 m. provides the highest private insurance protection worldwide. With the support of its foreign Reinsurance Pools, the capacity for this insurance guarantee has, over more than 40 years, been built up by the Swiss Nuclear Insurance Pool. Apart from Third Party Liability cover, the Pool also provides Property insurance to Swiss nuclear installation operators and reinsurance cover to other nuclear insurers worldwide. (author)

  6. 37 CFR 1.99 - Third-party submission in published application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Third-party submission in published application. 1.99 Section 1.99 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions Information Disclosure Statement § 1.99 Third-party submission in published application. (a) A...

  7. Enacting Third-Party Certification: A Case Study of Science and Politics in Organic Shrimp Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, Jason; Hatanaka, Maki

    2011-01-01

    As third-party certification has become a prominent governance mechanism, conflicting understandings of it have emerged. Proponents advance third-party certification as a technical and objective governance mechanism, while critics argue that politics and relations of power characterize it. We reject this dichotomization both in terms of how TPC is…

  8. 78 FR 51696 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products..., concerning a third-party certification framework for the formaldehyde standards for composite wood products... INFORMATION CONTACT. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 770 Environmental protection, Composite wood products...

  9. Not 'Just the two of us' : Third party externalities of social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Iest, Hanne; Dijkstra, J.; Stokman, F.N.

    Many real-life social dilemmas contain third parties who cannot make decisions in the dilemma, but are affected by its outcome (receive externalities) nonetheless. Dilemmas with identical payoffs for decision-making actors may greatly vary in their externalities for third parties. If actors value

  10. The party effect: prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2017-01-01

    To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. A sample of 705 respondents who never had a whole drink of alcohol at baseline (mean age 16.9 years, 53.3% female) and a sample of 1036 who never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion (mean age 17.4 years, 55.8% female). Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all advertisements as 'party' or 'non-party' advertisements. Socio-demographics, sensation-seeking, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, approximately half (median = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were 'party' advertisements. If both types of exposures ('party' and 'non-party') were included in the regression model, only 'party' exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 19.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.72-98.79] and binge drinking onset (AOR = 3.87; 95% CI = 1.07-13.99) after covariate control. Adolescents and young adults in the United States appear to have higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset if they have higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme, independently of the amount of exposure to alcohol advertisements with non-party

  11. Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NEA Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy adopted the Decision and Recommendation Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned on 30 October 2014. The purpose of this Decision and Recommendation is to provide updated technical exclusion criteria, replacing the 1990 criteria that were in force. The criteria are relatively conservative, and some nuclear installations in the process of decommissioning will not, at first, be eligible for exclusion. However, at some point during the decommissioning process, the nuclear installation would meet the criteria and could be excluded from the Paris Convention nuclear liability regime, relieving the operator from the obligation to have and maintain the specific, high level nuclear liability insurance coverage. The Decision and Recommendation's Appendix and Explanatory Note are included in the document

  12. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmächer, T

    2015-09-01

    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  13. An Integrated Fuzzy Approach for Strategic Alliance Partner Selection in Third-Party Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Erkayman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing some of the logistic activities is a useful strategy for companies in recent years. This makes it possible for firms to concentrate on their main issues and processes and presents facility to improve logistics performance, to reduce costs, and to improve quality. Therefore provider selection and evaluation in third-party logistics become important activities for companies. Making a strategic decision like this is significantly hard and crucial. In this study we proposed a fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM approach to effectively select the most appropriate provider. First we identify the provider selection criteria and build the hierarchical structure of decision model. After building the hierarchical structure we determined the selection criteria weights by using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP technique. Then we applied fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS to obtain final rankings for providers. And finally an illustrative example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  14. An integrated fuzzy approach for strategic alliance partner selection in third-party logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkayman, Burak; Gundogar, Emin; Yilmaz, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    Outsourcing some of the logistic activities is a useful strategy for companies in recent years. This makes it possible for firms to concentrate on their main issues and processes and presents facility to improve logistics performance, to reduce costs, and to improve quality. Therefore provider selection and evaluation in third-party logistics become important activities for companies. Making a strategic decision like this is significantly hard and crucial. In this study we proposed a fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach to effectively select the most appropriate provider. First we identify the provider selection criteria and build the hierarchical structure of decision model. After building the hierarchical structure we determined the selection criteria weights by using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) technique. Then we applied fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to obtain final rankings for providers. And finally an illustrative example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  15. An Integrated Fuzzy Approach for Strategic Alliance Partner Selection in Third-Party Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogar, Emin; Yılmaz, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    Outsourcing some of the logistic activities is a useful strategy for companies in recent years. This makes it possible for firms to concentrate on their main issues and processes and presents facility to improve logistics performance, to reduce costs, and to improve quality. Therefore provider selection and evaluation in third-party logistics become important activities for companies. Making a strategic decision like this is significantly hard and crucial. In this study we proposed a fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach to effectively select the most appropriate provider. First we identify the provider selection criteria and build the hierarchical structure of decision model. After building the hierarchical structure we determined the selection criteria weights by using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) technique. Then we applied fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to obtain final rankings for providers. And finally an illustrative example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. PMID:23365520

  16. Practical m-k-Anonymization for Collaborative Data Publishing without Trusted Third Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In collaborative data publishing (CDP, an m-adversary attack refers to a scenario where up to m malicious data providers collude to infer data records contributed by other providers. Existing solutions either rely on a trusted third party (TTP or introduce expensive computation and communication overheads. In this paper, we present a practical distributed k-anonymization scheme, m-k-anonymization, designed to defend against m-adversary attacks without relying on any TTPs. We then prove its security in the semihonest adversary model and demonstrate how an extension of the scheme can also be proven secure in a stronger adversary model. We also evaluate its efficiency using a commonly used dataset.

  17. The Impact of Anti-Immigration Parties on Mainstream Parties' Immigration Positions in the Netherlands, Flanders and the UK 1987-2010: Divided electorates, left-right politics and the pull towards restrictionism

    OpenAIRE

    DAVIS, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Defence date: 20 April 2012; Examining Board: Professor Rainer Bauböck, EUI, for Professor Peter Mair (†), EUI (supervisor); Professor Virginie Guiraudon, National Center for Scientific Research, Paris; Professor Meindert Fennema, Universiteit van Amsterdam; Professor Dirk Jacobs, Université Libre de Bruxelles The rise of anti-immigration parties across Western Europe has put enormous pressure on mainstream parties to adapt their competitive strategies. This thesis tests the hypothesis tha...

  18. Benchmarking the interactions among barriers in third-party logistics implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diabat, A.; Khreishah, A.; Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction among some of the major barriers that may hinder the implementation of third-party logistics (TPL) in manufacturing industries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses an interpretive structural modeling (ISM) methodology...... to analyze the interactions among the barriers. Findings: It is beneficial for the management of any firm to be aware of significant barriers and to diagnose those that could be integral to the organization's future survival. Many works have focused on identifying barriers for TPL implementation, but a model...... for such barriers is lacking. This paper attempts to develop a model for the barriers using an ISM methodology and analyzes the mutual interactions among the barriers. The model differentiates between the barriers so that driving barriers, which can intensify other barriers, and dependent barriers are identified...

  19. Parsing the Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms of Third-Party Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, Matthew R; Bonnie, Richard J; Hoffman, Morris B; Shen, Francis X; Simons, Kenneth W; Jones, Owen D; Marois, René

    2016-09-07

    The evolved capacity for third-party punishment is considered crucial to the emergence and maintenance of elaborate human social organization and is central to the modern provision of fairness and justice within society. Although it is well established that the mental state of the offender and the severity of the harm he caused are the two primary predictors of punishment decisions, the precise cognitive and brain mechanisms by which these distinct components are evaluated and integrated into a punishment decision are poorly understood. Using fMRI, here we implement a novel experimental design to functionally dissociate the mechanisms underlying evaluation, integration, and decision that were conflated in previous studies of third-party punishment. Behaviorally, the punishment decision is primarily defined by a superadditive interaction between harm and mental state, with subjects weighing the interaction factor more than the single factors of harm and mental state. On a neural level, evaluation of harms engaged brain areas associated with affective and somatosensory processing, whereas mental state evaluation primarily recruited circuitry involved in mentalization. Harm and mental state evaluations are integrated in medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate structures, with the amygdala acting as a pivotal hub of the interaction between harm and mental state. This integrated information is used by the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at the time of the decision to assign an appropriate punishment through a distributed coding system. Together, these findings provide a blueprint of the brain mechanisms by which neutral third parties render punishment decisions. Punishment undergirds large-scale cooperation and helps dispense criminal justice. Yet it is currently unknown precisely how people assess the mental states of offenders, evaluate the harms they caused, and integrate those two components into a single punishment decision. Using a new design, we isolated

  20. Value-Added Electricity Services: New Roles for Utilities and Third-Party Providers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blansfield, J. [Inst. for Electric Innovations, Washington, DC (United States); Wood, L. [Inst. for Electric Innovations, Washington, DC (United States); Katofsky, R. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Stafford, B. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Waggoner, D. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Schwartz, L. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-30

    New energy generation, storage, delivery, and end-use technologies support a broad range of value-added electricity services for retail electricity customers. Sophisticated energy management services, distributed generation coupled with storage, and electric vehicle charging are just a few examples of emerging offerings. Who should provide value-added services — utilities or third parties, or both, and under what conditions? What policy and regulatory changes may be needed to promote competition and innovation, to account for utility costs to enable these services, and to protect consumers? The report approaches the issues from three perspectives: utilities, third-party service providers, and consumers: -Jonathan Blansfield and Lisa Wood, Institute for Electric Innovation -Ryan Katofsky, Benjamin Stafford and Danny Waggoner, Advanced Energy Economy -National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates

  1. High strength-of-ties and low mobility enable the evolution of third-party punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Patrick; Gelfand, Michele; Nau, Dana; Carr, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    As punishment can be essential to cooperation and norm maintenance but costly to the punisher, many evolutionary game-theoretic studies have explored how direct punishment can evolve in populations. Compared to direct punishment, in which an agent acts to punish another for an interaction in which both parties were involved, the evolution of third-party punishment (3PP) is even more puzzling, because the punishing agent itself was not involved in the original interaction. Despite significant empirical studies of 3PP, little is known about the conditions under which it can evolve. We find that punishment reputation is not, by itself, sufficient for the evolution of 3PP. Drawing on research streams in sociology and psychology, we implement a structured population model and show that high strength-of-ties and low mobility are critical for the evolution of responsible 3PP. Only in such settings of high social-structural constraint are punishers able to induce self-interested agents toward cooperation, making responsible 3PP ultimately beneficial to individuals as well as the collective. Our results illuminate the conditions under which 3PP is evolutionarily adaptive in populations. Responsible 3PP can evolve and induce cooperation in cases where other mechanisms alone fail to do so. PMID:24335985

  2. THIRD PARTY LOGISTIC SERVICE PROVIDER SELECTION USING FUZZY AHP AND TOPSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Kabir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of third party logistic(3PL services providers is increasing globally to accomplish the strategic objectives. In the increasingly competitive environment, logistics strategic management requires systematic and structured approach to have cutting edge over the rival. Logistics service provider selection is a complex multi-criteria decision making process; in which, decision makers have to deals with the optimization of conflicting objectives such as quality, cost, and delivery time. In this paper, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP approach based on technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS method has been proposed for evaluating and selecting an appropriate logistics service provider, where the ratings of each alternative and importance weight of each criterion are expressed in triangular fuzzy numbers.

  3. The Paris Agreement: a new international framework to facilitate the uptake of carbon pricing. Climate Brief No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, Lara; Vaidyula, Manasvini; Afriat, Marion; Alberola, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the implementation of domestic carbon pricing has been expanding at the national and sub-national level. This trend can be attributed to stakeholders and sectors at various levels recognising the benefits of carbon pricing and the ability of these policies to achieve cost-effective reductions. In contrast to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement has adopted a hybrid approach calling on all Parties to determine their own contributions to mitigate climate change affording flexibility to countries in their choice of policy tools. This new format of action gives the responsibility to Parties and sub-governments to implement domestic carbon pricing policies without recommending a specific tool. Article 6 of the Paris Agreement promotes the use of voluntary cooperative approaches by introducing the prospect for Parties to use: ITMOs, SDM and non-market approaches. This provision could create a suitable framework to support the development of trans-national carbon pricing policies by recognising the value of mitigation actions which could directly or indirectly put a price on carbon. Overall expansion of domestic carbon pricing policies will depend on whether it can enable a cost-effective transition to a low-carbon economy with subsequent benefits and co-benefits. Additionally, it will depend on how the rules and modalities of the Paris Agreement, defined in the coming months and years, can be applied to the development of effective carbon pricing policies

  4. 42 CFR 455.202 - Limitation on contractor liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on contractor liability. 455.202 Section... § 455.202 Limitation on contractor liability. (a) A program contractor, a person, or an entity employed... contractor will not be held to have violated any criminal law and will not be held liable in any civil action...

  5. Evaluating the service quality of third-party logistics service providers using the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-hoo So

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we apply the analytic hierarchy process (AHP to evaluate the service quality of third-party logistics (3PL service providers. We first conceptualize five dimensions of 3PL service quality (i.e. tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. We then apply the AHP method to determine the relative weights of the five service quality dimensions and eventually select the best 3PL service provider. To implement this idea in practice, we conduct an empirical case study on four companies providing 3PL services in Korea. The results indicate that Responsiveness out of the five service quality dimensions is the most important factor in the perception of 3PL customers.

  6. Transport of nuclear material under the 1971 Brussels Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagorce, M.

    1975-01-01

    The legal regime in force before entry into force of the 1971 Brussels Convention relating to civil liability for the maritime carriage of nuclear material created serious difficulties for maritime carriers, regarding both the financial risks entailed and restrictions on enjoyment of the rights granted by civil liability conventions. The 1971 Convention exonerates from liability any person likely to be held liable for nuclear damage under maritime law, provided another person is liable under the nuclear conventions or an equivalent national law. A problem remaining is that of compensation of nuclear damage to the means of transport for countries not having opted for re-inclusion of such damage in the nuclear law regime; this does not apply however to countries having ratified the Convention to date. A feature of the latter is that it establishes as extensively as possible the priority of nuclear law over maritime law. Furthermore the new regime continues to preserve efficiently the interests of victims of nuclear incidents. It is therefore to be hoped that insurers will no longer hesitate to cover international maritime carriage of nuclear material [fr

  7. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  8. Liability and damages in Japanese nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, E.

    1981-01-01

    The Japanese legislation relating to nuclear liability is based on two laws which date back to 1961, i.e. the law concerning compensation for nuclear damage and the law concerning financial damage compensation indemnification. In Japan, the legal channelling of liability is in force, a contractual recourse is not possible unless there is intent. The financial security act in Japan consists of a (third-party) liability insurance contract concluded with a private insurer and the cover contract concluded with the state. According to the agreement on financial security concluded between government and operator, the operator has to pay the state a certain sum per year. Basically, the amount covered is DM 50 million per site. This sum will be increased to DM 90 million. The operator is fully liable. The state is not bound by law to fully cover damages but will be - de facto - prepared to do so anyway. For potential damage to personnel, the social insurance law is applicable as it is in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this damage is intended to be subject to nuclear liability, to be effected by an amendmend. (orig./HP) [de

  9. ‘My colleague’: Third party and generalization of referents in reports involving unprotected sexual activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minéia Frezza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, by means of the Conversation Analytical perspective (Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson, 1974, we analyze phone calls initiated by female callers to a toll free, government-run health helpline that offers information about transmission, symptoms and prevention of diseases, and referrals to health centers. The paper aims at analyzing how the participants (callers and call takers refer to the beneficiary of the requested information. Some callers, despite being informed that all calls are anonymous, avoid revealing that they themselves are the beneficiary of the information, and thus attribute to third parties the need for the information, a phenomenon we call here ‘third party referencing’. Other callers refer to the beneficiary of the information as ‘women’, ‘people’, ‘someone’ etc., a phenomenon we call here as ‘generalization’. When making use of third party referencing or of generalizations to talk about the beneficiary of the information, callers exempt themselves of the responsibility for something that might be seen as ‘morally questionable’ (Bergmann, 1992, e.g., having unprotected sexual intercourse. An analysis of how such negotiation unfolds becomes particularly relevant for the context investigated here, as the existence of an actual beneficiary for the information reveals itself as decisive for referrals to health centers to happen.

  10. Innovation in an international third party logistics firm: A strategy-as-practice perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianguang Cui

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Logistics firms play an important role in the economy but they have received little attention in strategic management and logistics management literature. This paper intends to fill in this gap by looking a specific strategising process, innovation, at an international third party logistics (TPL firm. Using strategy as a practice perspective, the paper describes and analyses how innovation emerges and evolves over time. Drawing on an in-depth longitudinal case study of an international TPL firm, this study shows that intra-organisational interactions as well as inter-organisational interactions are essential in the innovation process at logistics firms. The innovation process at logistics firms is complicated and includes both top-down and bottom-up processes. It is vertically decoupled and multidirectional. Innovation at logistics firms emerges as a combination of an ad hoc response to a customer request and a purpose-driven interactive process.

  11. Act No 6453 of 17th October, 1977 on civil liability for nuclear damage and criminal responsibility for acts relating to nuclear activities, and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Act was published on 17 October 1977. It is based to a great extent on the provisions of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nucler Damage of 21 May 1963. Under the Act the operator of a nuclear installation is exclusively liable regardless of fault for compensation of nuclear damage due to a nuclear incident. This exclusive liability is limited to an amount equal to 1,500,000 Treasury Bonds and the operator must take out and maintain insurance or other financial security to cover his liability. The Federative Government will guarantee, up to the prescribed limit, payment of compensation for nuclear damage where it is acknowledged that the operator's liability is involved. As regards apportionment of compensation, persons are granted priority over property. This Act is original in that it contains provisions on criminal liability with penalties ranging from two to ten years imprisonment. (NEA) [fr

  12. NativeProtector: Protecting Android Applications by Isolating and Intercepting Third-Party Native Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Hong , Yu-Yang; Wang , Yu-Ping; Yin , Jie

    2016-01-01

    Part 9: Software Security; International audience; An increasing number of Android developers are incorporating third-party native libraries in their applications for code reuse, CPU-intensive tasks and other purposes. However current Android security mechanism can not regulate the native code in applications well. Many approaches have been proposed to enforce security of Android applications, but few of them involve security of the native libraries in Android applications.In this paper, we p...

  13. Contract law – Symbolic but sensible – the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Tettenborn, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The author looks at the aims and impact of the UK’s Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, describing how the legislation allowing strangers to enforce contracts made for their benefit aligns the UK with much of the USA, New Zealand and Australia. Article by Andrew Tettenborn (Bracton Professor of Law, University of Exeter). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society ...

  14. Report on state liability for radioactive materials transportation incidents: A survey of laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the liability laws of the Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB's) 16 member states. It begins by briefly reviewing potential sources of liability, immunity from liability, waiver of immunity, and statutes of limitation, followed by liability laws of member states. The report was prepared by reviewing legal literature pertaining to governmental liability, with particular emphasis on nuclear waste transportation, including law review articles, legal treatises, technical reports, state statutes and regulations

  15. Third-party reproduction in the Internet Age: the new, patient-centered landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Julia T

    2015-09-01

    The rise of the Internet Age has brought a host of sweeping changes to the landscape of third-party reproduction. What began as a dyadic relationship between doctor and patient has evolved into a more complex system in which patients are able to access information online from a variety of external sources. Patients often seek to play a more active role in their third-party reproductive care, and the Internet allows them to do so. Further, demand for both medical and psychosocial information about donors and donor-conceived siblings, available online through patient forums and genetic registries, has altered the perception of gamete donation from a one-time event to an ongoing relationship. The advantages and disadvantages for patients and providers of this freer flow of information between third-party participants are examined. Search motivations of recipients and offspring, as well as types of information sought, are detailed. Recommendations are made regarding strategies fertility programs can use to optimally support their patients and navigate this new landscape. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The need to bring the new global regime of civil nuclear liability to life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, St.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident raised consciousness around the world about civil liability issues. People in Australia and elsewhere looked at the existing international nuclear liability regime and concluded that it was inadequate. The amount of compensation available under the regime was too low. The regime did not cover environmental damage. Australia decided to take an active role in the proceedings of the Standing Committee on Nuclear liability. Australia has a favourable judgment on the new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for nuclear damages. It provided for a dedicated fund for transboundary damage, the inclusion of environmental damage, the lion's share of the contributions to the international fund established under the Convention to be borne by nuclear power generating states, jurisdiction over actions concerning nuclear damage from a nuclear accident in a Party's territory or Exclusive Economic Zone to lie with the courts of that Party. It reproaches this Convention for compensable damage to be determined by the law of the competent court, and the necessity of emission of ionizing radiations for the Convention to take effect. (N.C.)

  17. Climate - 30 questions to understand the Paris Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfin, Pascal; Staime, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The authors, who participate in the negotiations on climate, propose an analysis and a description of the various geopolitical, economic and financial challenges which are part of the next conference on climate (Conference of Parties, COP 21) which is to take place in France in December 2015. They notably discuss to which extent France is an example, what Obama can do, why things are changing in China, who are the opponents in the struggle against climate change. While one of the main issue of this conference, and the possible cause of its failure, will be the financial issue, and particularly the promise made in 2009 to mobilise 100 billions dollars every year in favour of developing countries which are the most impacted by global warming, in an interview, one of the author evokes the content of his book: he discusses the general consensus about the human origin of climate change, evokes fossil industries and oil producing countries as opponents to an energy revolution, outlines that energy transition is at the heart of what he calls the Battle of Paris (the conference), outlines the important role France can play despite some weaknesses of its climate policy, the new momentum given by China and the USA. He considers low carbon economy as the main world challenge on the long term

  18. Lessons from past experiences: the critical path - a third party perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincenti, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    When most people are confronted with the question, ''What do you think about the low-level radioactive waste disposal issue facing your state,'' the first reaction is one of concern and fear for public health and environmental safety. This reaction, though very common, is but a small part of a complex scenario of social and technical issues that face those who generate and those who are responsible for the disposal of hazardous and toxic waste in America. This paper discusses: 1) ten lessons that the PIER (Public Involvement and Education on Radiation) Program at Penn State has experienced since its inception back in November of 1983; 2) the role of a university as a third party in controversial issues; 3) understanding the public and influential people - what they think and their differences; 4) the importance of interacting with the news media; and 5) the bottom line summary of the important parts of continuing education programs to the public

  19. Risks and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaets, M.; Springett, G.D.; Luotonen, K.; Virole, J.

    1988-01-01

    When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials [fr

  20. Statement to International Conference on Access to Civil Nuclear Energy, 8 March 2010, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2010-01-01

    consider to ensure that nuclear energy is developed beneficially, responsibly and sustainably. The other is called Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. It systematically defines all the milestones that should guide a country's preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power. These cover the appropriate legal and regulatory framework, engineering, financial and environmental concerns, safety and security, as well as the appropriate safeguards regime. These milestones are designed to help countries make progress, not to put obstacles in their way. Our second key role is as a reviewer. At the request of a Member State, we assemble teams of experts to conduct detailed reviews of, for example, the operational safety of its nuclear facilities, the effectiveness of its regulatory system or its overall progress in preparing for nuclear power. This system of peer review - which involves experts sharing information and experience with other experts - is of immense value. It helps to increase transparency, to the benefit of all. Third, the Agency provides a broad range of training to Member States. For example, we organize highly specialised technical training for nuclear engineers and scientists. In Montpelier, we help to run courses in nuclear law. This training helps countries to build up their own expertise so they can make informed decisions and are well prepared in dealing with vendors, consultants, industry associations and other governments. The IAEA plays an active role in contributing to technological development. A good example is the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Continual innovation in nuclear technology is essential. Fast reactors, for example, make it possible to extend the lifetime of uranium resources from hundreds of years to thousands of years, to lower costs and to reduce nuclear waste. Here, also, success will depend on international coordination. Let me state again that

  1. Statement to International Conference on Access to Civil Nuclear Energy, 8 March 2010, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2010-01-01

    consider to ensure that nuclear energy is developed beneficially, responsibly and sustainably. The other is called Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. It systematically defines all the milestones that should guide a country's preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power. These cover the appropriate legal and regulatory framework, engineering, financial and environmental concerns, safety and security, as well as the appropriate safeguards regime. These milestones are designed to help countries make progress, not to put obstacles in their way. Our second key role is as a reviewer. At the request of a Member State, we assemble teams of experts to conduct detailed reviews of, for example, the operational safety of its nuclear facilities, the effectiveness of its regulatory system or its overall progress in preparing for nuclear power. This system of peer review - which involves experts sharing information and experience with other experts - is of immense value. It helps to increase transparency, to the benefit of all. Third, the Agency provides a broad range of training to Member States. For example, we organize highly specialised technical training for nuclear engineers and scientists. In Montpelier, we help to run courses in nuclear law. This training helps countries to build up their own expertise so they can make informed decisions and are well prepared in dealing with vendors, consultants, industry associations and other governments. The IAEA plays an active role in contributing to technological development. A good example is the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Continual innovation in nuclear technology is essential. Fast reactors, for example, make it possible to extend the lifetime of uranium resources from hundreds of years to thousands of years, to lower costs and to reduce nuclear waste. Here, also, success will depend on international coordination. Let me state again that

  2. STUDY ON INTERNAL CONTROL OF SUPPLIERS AND CUSTOMERS IN A CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN RĂVAŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Control covers debts and liabilities, outstanding liabilities and purchases and expenses in the profit and loss and long-term liabilities, provisions and funding costs. The validation tests applied to cover all, claims liabilities in the financial statements but with less emphasis on testing for registration. It can be done but circularize commercial debt is often not necessary because suppliers provide documentary evidence statements from third parties. Direct circularization of claims is a basic procedure, but it does not provide evidence for all relevant assertions. Other important procedures are: tests of independence; testing for the possibility of recovery.

  3. Risk management and liability for environmental harm caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This calls for the existence of a liability regime that will place some legal responsibility on the party responsible for the harm. This paper assesses the South African regulatory framework of relevance to GMOs, which is composed of a fragmented set of laws that deals with risk assessment, risk management and liability for ...

  4. From Paris to the End of Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, Dag Harald; Hveem, Helge

    2016-01-01

    "This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We ana...

  5. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Third-Party Software List - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa

    2016-05-01

    The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOT-P) requires several third-party software packages. These are documented below for each of the CCOT-P elements: client, web server, database server, solver, web application and polling application.

  6. School-located influenza vaccination with third-party billing: outcomes, cost, and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Allison; Daley, Matthew F; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Vogt, Tara; Fang, Hai; Rinehart, Deborah J; Morgan, Nicole; Riis, Mette; Rodgers, Sarah; McCormick, Emily; Hammer, Anne; Campagna, Elizabeth J; Kile, Deidre; Dickinson, Miriam; Hambidge, Simon J; Shlay, Judith C

    2014-01-01

    To assess rates of immunization; costs of conducting clinics; and reimbursements for a school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) program that billed third-party payers. SLIV clinics were conducted in 19 elementary schools in the Denver Public School district (September 2010 to February 2011). School personnel obtained parental consent, and a community vaccinator conducted clinics and performed billing. Vaccines For Children vaccine was available for eligible students. Parents were not billed for any fees. Data were collected regarding implementation costs and vaccine cost was calculated using published private sector prices. Reimbursement amounts were compared to costs. Overall, 30% of students (2784 of 9295) received ≥1 influenza vaccine; 39% (1079 of 2784) needed 2 doses and 80% received both. Excluding vaccine costs, implementation costs were $24.69 per vaccination. The percentage of vaccine costs reimbursed was 62% overall (82% from State Child Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 50% from private insurance). The percentage of implementation costs reimbursed was 19% overall (23% from private, 27% from Medicaid, 29% from SCHIP and 0% among uninsured). Overall, 25% of total costs (implementation plus vaccine) were reimbursed. A SLIV program resulted in vaccination of nearly one third of elementary students. Reimbursement rates were limited by 1) school restrictions on charging parents fees, 2) low payments for vaccine administration from public payers and 3) high rates of denials from private insurers. Some of these problems might be reduced by provisions in the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Brussels' new energy package. Focus on the internal market proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeper, F.W.J.H.N.

    2007-01-01

    January 10, 2007, the European Commission presented its proposals for an integrated climate change and energy package. The proposals set out in the 'Energy Policy for Europe' document follow the Green Paper on a European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy, a consultation document launched in March 2006 by the Commission. The ideas put forward in the Green Paper have been developed and translated into a proposal for an action plan with respect to the three main objectives of a European Energy Policy: security of supply, combating climate change and the completion of the internal market for electricity and gas. This ardcle will briefly discuss the main elements of the Energy Policy for Europe proposals. The article will then focus on some aspects of the proposals for the internal energy market. In doing so it will concentrate on matters related to the natural gas market. Special attention will be given to the proposals with respect to unbundling and improved regulation of network access and the possible trade-off between the degree of unbundling and the level of regulatory involvement

  8. Via Lyon: Parcours de romans et mutations éditoriales au XVIe siècle. Partie II. La circulation des textes entre Lyon et Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Burg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La première partie du dossier Via Lyon (Carte Romanze 2/2 [2014] analysait le rôle de carrefour économique et culturel de la ville de Lyon dans la constitution d’une identité éditoriale des romans publiés en France au XVIe siècle. L’étude de ces «parcours de romans» conduit à replacer, en cette seconde partie du dossier, la notion d’«étape lyonnaise» dans la dynamique qui anime les deux principaux centres d’imprimerie français de la Renaissance. L’étude des pérégrinations éditoriales, de Paris à Lyon et de Lyon à Paris, de Lancelot du Lac (G. Burg, de Valentin et Orson (M. Colombo Timelli et de Méliadus chevalier de la Croix (A. Réach-Ngô met ainsi au jour les diverses formes de circulation, d’adaptation et de réappropriation que les ateliers parisiens et lyonnais confèrent aux œuvres romanesques qui passent sous leurs presses tout au long du siècle. The first part of the file Via Lyon (Carte Romanze 2/2 [2014] analyzed the role of economic and cultural crossroad of Lyon city in the constitution of an editorial identity of novels published in France in the sixteenth century. The study of these «novels’ route» leads to situate the concept of «Lyon step» in the dynamics which animates the two major French printing centers of the Renaissance. The editorial peregrinations, from Paris to Lyon and from Lyon to Paris, of three french novels, Lancelot du Lac (G. Burg, Valentin and Orson (M. Colombo Timelli and Méliadus chevalier de la Croix (A. Réach-Ngô, shows the various forms of circulation, adaptation and reappropriation that various Parisian and Lyon workshops give to novels they print throughout the century. 

  9. Beyond headline mitigation numbers : we need more transparent and comparable NDCs to achieve the Paris Agreement on climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, W.P.; Klein, Richard; Mbeva, Kennedy; Dzebo, A.; Cassanmagnago, Davide; Rudloff, Anna

    Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) were key to reaching the Paris Agreement and will be instrumental in implementing it. Research was quick to identify the ‘headline numbers’ of NDCs: if these climate action plans were fully implemented, global mean warming by 2100 would be reduced from

  10. Some considerations on disciplinary liability overlapping criminal liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania DUMITRACHE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the various forms of legal liability there are many points of contact reflected in their common goal - the encouragement of active members of society. Starting from the statement - the independent nature of the various forms of legal liability does not mean they are excluded - in what follows, given the legal autonomy of spheres of social relations protected by various laws, we will consider disciplinary overlapping with other forms of legal liability - criminal liability. Of course, this is possible only if the act committed by the employee is both disciplinary and criminal. This form of accumulation are possible without violating the principle of non bis in idem that since each of the envisaged legal rules protect different social relations. In addition of this applying the same principle prohibits two or more same kind sanctions for an unlawful action

  11. The Marija Šarapova Case (related to the Croatian legal framework on damages liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Kačer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Here an attempt is made to find a legal solution to a principle problem together with analysis of a concrete example. There is confrontation between two indisputable but partially mutually exclusive rights. On the one hand, freedom of speech privately and /or publicly and this opinion need not be at all positive, and on the other hand there is every individual’s right to be free of any insult both private and public including expressing one’s own opinion which offends another. It is necessary to establish the limit of illegality. This depends on which right takes precedence. This involves an actual event in which various female tennis players publicly protested, and in this way put pressure on tournament organizers against inviting to the tournament a female tennis player who had just finished “serving” her punishment of a 15 month ban on playing at tournaments. This punishment was the result of her being caught under inspection of her as an athlete and whether she had consumed some substances from the list of forbidden substances. After thorough analysis, it was concluded that a mild display of opinion was involved which did not in any way offend another’s honour nor threaten or damage another’s personality rights. However, if this were exaggerated, then the limit has been violated– a line has been crossed which divides illegal from legal behaviour. In this second case, if other legal conditions are met, there is a case for damages lability. In the first instance, because cumulative fulfilment of all conditions is necessary, no civil damages liability exists.

  12. Alcohol on Campus and Possible Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews laws and court cases relating to alcohol and possible civil and criminal liability. Suggests a number of risk management principles, including knowledge of the law, policies forbidding hazing, fostering alcohol awareness, and discipline. (JAC)

  13. 75 FR 1751 - Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation and Its Enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act AGENCY: United... Panther Party Litigation and enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act. The Commission is...

  14. 75 FR 13076 - Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation and Its Enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act AGENCY: United... Department of Justice's actions in the New Black Panther Party Litigation and enforcement of Section 11(b) of...

  15. 75 FR 7441 - Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation and Its Enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act AGENCY: United... Panther Party Litigation and enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act. The Commission is...

  16. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2002

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the first volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by P. Bank/H. Föllmer, F. Baudoin, L.C.G. Rogers, and M. Soner/N. Touzi.

  17. Nuclear operator liability amounts and financial security limits as of June 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This table aims to gather information on the amounts available to compensate potential victims of a nuclear incident in countries and economies having nuclear power plants and/or having ratified at least one of the international conventions on nuclear third party liability. For each country listed in the table are indicated: the International Liability Convention (PC, BSC or VC, RVC and/or JP and/or CSC), the type of Installations / Activities, the Operator's Liability Amount (in National Currency or Special Drawing Rights (SDR) with USD/EUR Equivalent), the Financial Security Limit (in National Currency or Special Drawing Rights (SDR) with USD/EUR Equivalent), the Additional State Compensation if any, and the Additional Compensation (International Arrangements) if any

  18. Political parties and politics on the Internet: An analysis of the websites of Catalan political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Padró-Solanet

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The article analyses the use of New Information and Communications Technologies (NICT by the political parties, going beyond approaches focusing on the potential of these technologies for political transformation and renovation. In order to do this a set of variables that characterise the strategic position of the Catalan parties is employed: ideology, organisation and position in the electoral market. The analysis shows three different forms of usage of the Internet. One group of parties (PSC, CDC-CiU uses it to promote participation and campaigning activities; a second group (ICV, Cs, to generate new resources, and finally, a third group (PSC, ERC uses it to build contact networks. The size, and to a lesser degree the type of organisation, stand out as the major explanatory variables. The major parties use the Internet to promote campaign activities and participation; in contrast, smaller parties tend to make use of the Internet to generate new sources of financing and workforce. Depending on the type of organisation, the parties of the masses seem to be more likely to use the Internet to set up and activate an extensive contact network which recreates the characteristic associative realm of these parties in cyberspace.

  19. The Principal and Tort Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph D.

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the tort liability of principals, especially their commission of unintentional torts or torts resulting from negligent conduct. A tort is defined as a wrongful act, not including a breach of contract or trust, which results in injury to another's person, property, or reputation and for which the injured party is…

  20. Nuclear operator liability amounts and financial security limits (Last updated: July 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This table aims to gather information on the amounts available to compensate potential victims of a nuclear incident in countries and economies having nuclear power plants and/or having ratified at least one of the international conventions on nuclear third party liability. In the table: - First tier corresponds to the liability amount imposed on the operator ('Operator's Liability Amount'). - Second tier corresponds to the amounts provided from public funds beyond the Operator's Liability Amount, to be made available by the State in whose territory the nuclear installation of the liable operator is situated ('Additional State Compensation'). - Third tier corresponds to public funds contributed jointly by all the States parties to the BSC or CSC according to a pre-determined formula ['Additional Compensation (International Arrangements)']. Please note that under Article V, subparagraph 1 of the Vienna Convention, 'The liability of the operator may be limited by the Installation State to not less than US $5 million for any one nuclear incident'. Subparagraph 3 of the same article further provides that 'The United States dollar referred to in this Convention is a unit of account equivalent to the value of the United States dollar in terms of gold on 29 April 1963, that is to say US $35 per one troy ounce of fine gold.' Therefore, in this table (1963: USD 5 million) means that a country applies the Operator's Liability Amount as provided under the Vienna Convention. SDR is a unit of account used by the International Monetary Fund and is based upon a basket of weighted currencies. The latest exchange rates of SDRs per currency units are available at http://www.imf.org/external/np/fin/data/rms_five.aspx

  1. Electricity: taxes on emission liabilities. An examination of the economic effectiveness of Polluter Pays Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.M.; Edwards, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the resolutions of Conference of Parties on Climate Change (COP7), policy practitioners in many countries are currently obligated to react to perceived domestic environmental damages. Like few other sectors, utilities, especially, coal-based electricity generation is often identified as a major source of emission. Since the generating companies and end-users have joint interests in profit maximization but may dichotomize in their activities, the policy practitioners are struggling in designing a unique domestic emission policy. Both law and economic theory suggest that companies should be made to pay the costs of the pollution through assignment and enforcement of full liability--Polluter Pays Principles--and then pass these incurred costs on to end-users by charging higher rates per kWh of electricity usage. Questioning this full liability in designing emission policy with implicit weighting of welfare gains and losses to society as a whole, a three-group (consumers, producers and victims of the emission) supply-demand model is developed, and the net welfare effects are analyzed. With plausible parameter values, our analysis shows that the intermediate liabilities over a full or zero liability are preferable on both economic efficiency and equity grounds. However, the model is quite sensitive to the parameter values

  2. The impact on pension liabilities of Malaysian government pension scheme from remarriage due to removal of pension clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-12-01

    In the event of death of any government employee, their monthly pension will be given to their widow and their child. The government will stop paying that pension when the widow died and when the widow chooses to remarry. However, in 1st January 2002, the remarriage clause has been removed from the regulations. This would allow all widows who remarried to receive pension as usual. In view of this, there are possibilities that those widows who are still young might remarried. If many of the widows choose to remarry, it will be a burden to the government as it would increase the pension liabilities. However, we do not know how many of the widow will remarry. In view of this, the purpose of the study is to assess the impact to pension liabilities of government pension schemes on individual life due to removal clause of the remarriage by determining the pension factor and to assess to what extent the pension liabilities of government pension schemes would be affected.

  3. Choice of Court Clauses and Lis Pendens under Brussels I Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanova

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The principle of party autonomy, known not only in the common law legal system but also in the civil law system, provides parties contracting in civil and commercial matters with the right to establish their own rules, as long as these rules do not contradict mandatory law. This right is presumed to be protected by the force of law. It follows, that when a choice of court clause is included in the contract, disputes are supposed to be solved by the court chosen by the parties.This principle is not compromised by the Brussels I Regulation (or previously, the Brussels Convention. Moreover, it is repeated in its Articles 1 and 23. At the same time, the rule of lis pendens, provided for by its Article 27, aims to preclude subsequent actions in other Member States if a court is already seized and allows the appearance 'on the legal scene' of a court other than the court chosen by the parties. And the lis pendens rule prescribes the latter to stay proceedings until the court not chosen, but first seized, examines and declines its jurisdiction.

  4. Choice of Court Clauses and Lis Pendens under Brussels I Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanova

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The principle of party autonomy, known not only in the common law legal system but also in the civil law system, provides parties contracting in civil and commercial matters with the right to establish their own rules, as long as these rules do not contradict mandatory law. This right is presumed to be protected by the force of law. It follows, that when a choice of court clause is included in the contract, disputes are supposed to be solved by the court chosen by the parties. This principle is not compromised by the Brussels I Regulation (or previously, the Brussels Convention. Moreover, it is repeated in its Articles 1 and 23. At the same time, the rule of lis pendens, provided for by its Article 27, aims to preclude subsequent actions in other Member States if a court is already seized and allows the appearance 'on the legal scene' of a court other than the court chosen by the parties. And the lis pendens rule prescribes the latter to stay proceedings until the court not chosen, but first seized, examines and declines its jurisdiction.

  5. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ioos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Ioos1, Vincent Das1, Eric Maury1,2, Jean-Luc Baudel1, Jérôme Guéchot3, Bertrand Guidet1,2, Georges Offenstadt1,21Réanimation Médicale; 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, INSERM, UMR-S 707; 3Unité d’Hormonologie, APHP, Hôpital Saint Antoine, F-75012, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, dietary pills, thyroxin

  6. Senate report n. 327 law project authorizing the approbation of international agreements on the civil liability in the domain of the nuclear energy; Senat rapport n. 327 projet de loi autorisant l'approbation d'accords internationaux sur la responsabilite civile dans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this law project is to approve two protocols aiming to modify the OECD convention on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain. After a short presentation of the international regime of civil liability in the nuclear domain with the Paris and Vienna conventions, the author analyzes the main improvements offered by the two protocols of February 2004 facing the french legislation. (A.L.B.)

  7. 31 CFR 370.26 - What limitations exist on liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSFERS RELATING TO UNITED STATES SECURITIES Debit Entries § 370.26 What limitations exist on liability? If we sustain a loss because a financial institution fails to handle an entry in accordance with this...

  8. 30 CFR 280.42 - When geological data and information are obtained by a third party, what must we both do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When geological data and information are... SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Data Requirements Geological Data and Information § 280.42 When geological data and information are obtained by a third party, what must we both do? A third party may obtain...

  9. A study on the international cooperation in the nuclear liability system related to the supply of nuclear power plants to North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Chul Hoon.; Kim, Tae Myeong [The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    System of nuclear damage compensation was prepares to protect the interested parties in the implementation of nuclearenterprise and conciliate the conflicts of interests of them. The Light-water Reactor (LWR) Project to supply two units of light-water reactors to North Korea faced difficulties concerning nuclear damage compensation system due to decline of the international reliability and aggravation of economic condition of North Korea. It is necessary to study the special nuclear damage compensation system of the LWR Project to promote the Project and peaceful uses of atomic energy in northeast Asia. The contents and scope of the study is composed as follows; 1. Background of the LWR Project . the pending issues of them and the necessary of the special nuclear damage compensation system 2. Investigation of nuclear damage compensation system of United States, Japan, German, France and Korea 3. Account of conventions on liability for nuclear damage, especially Vienna Convention and its Protocols 4. Searching for issues of the nuclear damage compensation system of the LWR Project and its resolution 5. Comprehensive arrangement on the main issues through the study. 4 tabs. (Author)

  10. European Regional activation towards Brussels: From the heart to the Ultra-periphery of Europe. Walloon and Canary Islands’ strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Tuñón

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wallonia and the Canary Islands are both regions with legislative capacities within the European Union (EU. They have traditionally shared serious socio-economic deficits. Therefore, while a new European Regional policy was being designed, they both built regional strategies in order to extract as much as they can from the EU. How far are these Sub-State activations towards Brussels linked to regional gains (outputs from the EU? How different are both mobilisations? How can the higher degree of success of the Canary Islands be explained, taking into account that the Archipelago is far away from the heart of Europe and Wallonia is within it? The research, based on a qualitative analysis method, will be carried out through findings about the regional mechanisms developed to influence the European institutions: the participation (direct and non direct within the Council of Ministers, the Committee of the Regions, the regional interaction with the European Commission, the establishment of representative bodies in Brussels and the participation within interregional associations.

  11. No Third Parties. The Medical Profession Reclaims Authority in Doctor-Patient Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Thorup Larsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A key aspect of the classic doctor-patient relationship is the idea that doctors exert a professional authority through medical expertise while also taking care of the patient. Some professional organizations have held that “no third parties” should come between doctor and patient, be it governments or corporations. The sanctity of medical authority has also met resistance, and doctors are often said to face more demanding patients today with their own information about diagnoses. This article concerns how the medical profession reacts faced with challenged authority. Do they seek to reestablish a classic authority position or develop an alternative relationship with citizens? The analysis compares approximately 1.000 editorials in American, British and Danish medical journals from 1950 to the present. The analysis shows that all medical professions see their authority challenged by third parties, but some react defensively while others try to rethink the authority relation between professionals and citizens.

  12. Law no. 6.453 of 17th October, 1977 on civil liability for nuclear damage and criminal responsibility for acts relating to nuclear activities, and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Act was published on 17 october 1977. Under the Act the operator of a nuclear installation is exclusively liable regardless of fault for compensation of nuclear damage due to a nuclear incident. This exclusive liability is limited to an amount equal to 1,500,000 Treasury Bonds and the operator must take out the maintain insurance or other financial security to cover his liability. The Federative Government will guarantee, up to the prescribed limit, payment of compensation for nuclear damage where it is acknowledged that the operator's liability is involved. As regards apportionment of compensation, persons are granted priority over property. This Act is original in that it contains provisions on criminal liability with penalties ranging from two to ten years imprisonment

  13. Effect of Se on Yield and Vegetative Characteristics of Brussels Sprouts in Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rozita khademi astaneh

    2017-10-01

    and Methods: This experiment was tested in a controlled condition hydroponic greenhouse of Horticulture Department, College of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, The greenhouse was covered with polyethylene monolayer and equipped with a cooling and fogging systems to control the temperature in the warm months and humidity, respectively. Daily temperatures were setted3 ± 20 3 ± 16. Seeds of Gemmifera varieties brussels cabbage weregerminated in petri dishes. Seedlings were transferred to the plastic cups (to the floating system with perlite in four leaf stage. . Plants root system were floated in solution. Modified Hoagland nutrient solution (Table 1 was prepared (12 liters per container with 40 and 32 cm height and diameter, respectively. Results and Discussion: Results of vegetative Brussels sprouts button showed that selenium significantly increased leaf, stem and root dry weight, leaf number and leaf area. Leaf area, leaves, stems and roots fresh and dry weight increased with increasing selenium up to 8 mg L- but then decreased due to a high concentration of selenium toxicity. There were no significant difference in the treatments on stem length, stem diameter. Number of buds was significantly (P≤0.05 affected by selenium treatments and the highest number of sprouts were in two levels of 8 and 16 mg selenium per liter, respectively. Yield and shoot dry weight showed a significant increase (at 1 percent with increasing levels of selenium,.Conclusions Plants yield significantly (P≤0.01 affected by selenium treatments, so that selenium concentration in the nutrient solution increased from 0 to 8 mg L-1increased yield and reduced afterward. The maximum yield was observed at a concentration of 8 mg L-compared with control. Based on the findings of this study, selenium concentration can be up to 8 mg L-1 in order to improve plant growth to nutrient solution.

  14. Benchmarking criteria for evaluating third-party logistics providers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Karrapan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, deemed the ‘gateway to Africa’, there is limited evidence of the existence of a survey ranking third-party logistics providers (3PLs. This lack of comparative information of the major 3PLs based on key outsourcing and ranking criteria complicates the selection process for companies that intend to contract 3PLs. Objective: The purpose of this article was to determine the critical selection and ranking criteria for the creation of an index to evaluate 3PLs in South Africa for developing a 3PL benchmarking index. Method: Survey data were collected from 103 of the Top 500 Companies in Africa that use 3PLs and operate within the sectors that mostly outsource logistics services in South Africa. A factor analysis method was employed. Results: Three factors for 3PLs selection converged: service quality, information management and compliance, and collaboration. The top three ranked categories for 3PLs selection are cost and price structure, service delivery and the relationship with the 3PL provider. Most respondents (90% confirmed a need for a 3PLs index in South Africa. Conclusion: The results help managers with the strategic selection of 3PLs as these critical logistics outsourcing selection criteria can be used to evaluate and rank 3PLs prior to contracting. Based on the selection criteria for logistics outsourcing identified and ranked in this article, a ranking index for 3PLs in South Africa can be developed.

  15. Third Party Fraud inducing Material Mistake Slip Knot Investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decision is commendable for bringing a measure of certainty to the law of mistake on this point and indicating that the reliance theory (as opposed to the iustus error doctrine) is the appropriate means to resolving such cases. Nevertheless, it is suggested that although the general rule implied by the court's approach is ...

  16. Evaluation of satellite technology for pipeline route surveillance and the prevention of third party interference damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil [Penspen Integrity, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.palmer-jones@penspen.com; p.hopkins@penspen.com; Fraser, Andy [Integrated Statistical Solutions (United States)]. E-mail: andy@issquared.co.uk; Dezobry, Jerome [Gas de France, Paris (France)]. E-mail: jerome.dezobry@gazdefrance.com; Merrienboer, Hugo Van [Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: H.A.M.van.Merrienboer@gasunie.nl

    2003-07-01

    The damage caused by Third Party Interference (TPI) is one of the major causes of pipeline failures. Consequently, new technologies for identifying activities that may cause damage to our pipelines are constantly being developed. A recently completed project sponsored by a number of pipeline operators has investigated the use of high-resolution satellites for the integrity management of onshore transmission pipelines. The sponsors were BG Technology (on behalf of Transco), Dansk Olie NatureGas, Gasunie, BP, Gaz de France, Distrigas, and the Health and Safety Executive. The project started with a general review of the satellite technologies available and their potential. The study was then focussed on the identification of activities that might result in damage to the pipeline and the potential of high-resolution optical satellites in identifying hazardous activities. A key element of the study was a comparison with existing surveillance systems, which generally involve regular aerial patrols of the pipeline route. To achieve this a survey was carried out to try and evaluate the costs and benefits of existing systems. In addition a simple model for analysing the cost benefit of pipeline surveillance was constructed, and a functional specification for a surveillance system drafted. Finally the performance of the IKONOS 2 high-resolution satellite system was tested in a controlled experiment using targets placed along a pipeline route. The results of this test were compared with a similar test of helicopter-based surveillance carried out by one of the sponsors. (author)

  17. Self-marketing and self-consumption by third parties according to the EEG. Practical and legal problems of marketing and selling of self-produced solar electricity; Eigenvermarktung und Selbstverbrauch durch Dritte nach EEG. Praktische und rechtliche Fragen der Veraeusserung selbsterzeugten Solarstroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Christopher; Naumann, Daniel [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    According to Section 33 No. 2 p. 1 EEG, reimbursement for photovoltaic power generation must be granted also if a third party consumes the generated power in the immediate vicinity in the plant and is able to prove it. The wording of the law is ambiguous as 'third party' and 'self-consumption' do not immediately specify when a right to reimbursement has arisen and when not. The contribution attempts to help with the solution of these interpretation problems and also throws a light on the rights and obligations of a PV plant owner in general. The high practical relevance of the issue is also reflected in the fact that the legal problems discussed here were implemented, and solved to a large extent, in the amendment of the EEG that came into force on 1 January 2012.

  18. The Effects of Liquidity Regulation on Bank Assets and Liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Patty Duijm; Peter Wierts

    2014-01-01

    Under Basel III rules, banks become subject to a liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) from 2015 onwards, to promote short-term resilience. We investigate the effects of such liquidity regulation on bank liquid assets and liabilities. Results indicate co-integration of liquid assets and liabilities, to maintain a minimum short-term liquidity buffer. Still, microprudential regulation has not prevented an aggregate liquidity cycle characterised by a pro-cyclical pattern in the size of balance sheets a...

  19. Contract and tort law aspects of the performance of duties of notaries public: Principles of the law pertaining to notaries public, notarial deed and liability of notaries public according to the Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyzes the effective Serbian rules of law on notaries public, in comparative perspective. The principles of law pertaining to notaries, the notarial deed and the legal nature of the notaries' liability for damages are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the principles of public confidence, legality, professionalism, formalism and independence, from which the notaries' liability for damages caused to clients and third parties derives. Although the notaries public are independent, hence they are not subordinate to any judicial or administrative organ, their liability for damages is analogous to the liability of administrative organs, whereby the condition of filing a legal remedy is construed in a fairly broad sense, that is any remark of the client disclosed to the notary is considered as filing a legal remedy. The author's standpoint is that the legal nature of notary's liability is either contractual or delictual, depending on whether the notary infringed a clause of the mandate of the client, which serves as the legal ground of his/her actions, or mandatory rules, that is the statutory requirement of acting in good faith. Besides general rules on the requirements of form of juridical acts (essential form, facultative form, the subject of analysis are also the rules on exclusive and alternative (competing forms of notarial deeds. The effective Serbian law on notaries public envisages the form of notarial deeds and private instruments predominantly as alternative forms, that is a specific kind of deed has the same legal effect, regardless whether it is drafted by a notary or concluded in court.

  20. Judicial control authority and third-party action as laid down in the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhart, C.

    1981-01-01

    The author points out the fundamental complex of problems. From the 'undetermined' legal term of imperative prevention of damage as defined by Sect. 7 para. 2 (3) of the Atomic Energy Law follows the judicial claim for detailed analysis of facts in case of minor radioactive exposure under normal operation and in case of accident prevention. He discusses the relation of the Atomic Energy Law to the Basic Law and to the normative structure of the Atomic Energy Law. The re-orientation to be found in the judicial approach to control does recognize sanctuaries of the executive. Control density and the right of third parties to take action are closely interrelated. From the integration - according to subjective law and basic law - of the Atomic Energy Law into the realtionship existing between technological and cultural development, and the material relation of licences granted for nuclear installations follows a reduction of judicial control intensity, at least for the procedural constellation of third-party actions. (HSCH) [de