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Sample records for brussels conv liability for operation of nuclear ships

  1. Limiting the liability of the nuclear operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the questioning of a fundamental principle of the special nuclear third party liability regime by certain NEA countries: the limitation of the nuclear operator's liability. This regime, set up since the late fifties at European then at worldwide level, had until now been widely adopted in the national legislation of most of the countries with a nuclear power programme. The author analyses the different arguments in favour of restoring unlimited liability for the nuclear operator and attempts to define its implications for the future of the nuclear third party liability regime in NEA countries. (NEA)

  2. Training of operating personnel for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training for Nuclear Power Plant Operators is provided by the Royal Navy in support of the Nuclear Submarine Programme which is based on the Pressurised Water Reactor. The Royal naval college has 21 years of experience in this training field in which the core is the preparation of graduate electro-mechanical engineers to assume the duties of marine engineer in command of a team of supporting Engineer Officers of the Watch and Fleet Chief Petty Officers. The paper describes the training programme and shows how it is monitored by academic, professional and naval authorities and indicates the use of feedback from the user. The lynch pin of the programme is a post-graduate diploma course in Nuclear Reactor Technology attended by graduates after gaining some practical experience at sea. The course which is described in detail makes use of simplified simulators and models to develop the principles, these are applied on the JASON Training Reactor with the emphasis on in-core experiments demonstrating reactivity effects and instrumentation interpretation. The training programme provides for interaction between academic education, practical experience, applied education, full plant simulation training and on-the-job training in which boards or examinations have to be successfully passed at each stage. (author)

  3. Insurance considerations arising from the revision of the Paris and Brussels conventions on nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work being undertaken by the 14 countries, party to the 1960 Paris Convention in preparing a revised instrument will or so it is to be hoped provide a more comprehensive scope of liability and a larger compensatory fund for the protection of potential victims. Both these developments have serious implications for insurers or other providers of financial security. Equally they are of concern to society itself as it will be necessary to balance the needs of the individual for example, in obtaining redress for injury or damage to personal property with the need to provide for the ''common good''. The author's paper will attempt to explore these avenues, to point to perceived difficulties and, perhaps, to acceptable solutions. (author)

  4. Act N0 68-1045 of 29 November 1968 amending Act N0 65-956 of 12 November 1965 on the third party liability of operators of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act amends the 1965 Act, in particular by specifying that the maximum amount of liability of the operator of a foreign nuclear ship is that fixed by the legislation of the State concerned, unless otherwise agreed with that State, but may in no case be lower than that set out in the 1965 Act, namely 500 million French francs. (NEA)

  5. Nature and finality of liability insurance support to nuclear operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the specific features of the law originated from the Paris Convention of 1960 is described: strict liability channeled on the operator, the both principles being already underlying in the insurance policies delivered to nuclear operators before their introduction in the internal legislation of the countries that ratified the convention. Then the specific services expected from the liability Insurer are reviewed and the method now prevailing for a rating approach of the risks is analyzed. The new rating techniques that could be justified by speeding up the erection program of nuclear plants through the world are surveyed

  6. Development of advanced automatic operation system for nuclear ship. 1. Perfect automatic normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Toshio; Yabuuti, Noriaki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shimazaki, Junya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-02-01

    Development of operation support system such as automatic operating system and anomaly diagnosis systems of nuclear reactor is very important in practical nuclear ship because of a limited number of operators and severe conditions in which receiving support from others in a case of accident is very difficult. The goal of development of the operation support systems is to realize the perfect automatic control system in a series of normal operation from the reactor start-up to the shutdown. The automatic control system for the normal operation has been developed based on operating experiences of the first Japanese nuclear ship `Mutsu`. Automation technique was verified by `Mutsu` plant data at manual operation. Fully automatic control of start-up and shutdown operations was achieved by setting the desired value of operation and the limiting value of parameter fluctuation, and by making the operation program of the principal equipment such as the main coolant pump and the heaters. This report presents the automatic operation system developed for the start-up and the shutdown of reactor and the verification of the system using the Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulator System. (author)

  7. The reform of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and of the Brussels Supplementary Convention. An overview of the main features of the modernisation of the two conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrival of nuclear energy gave rise to the need, almost half a century ago, to devise a regime of liability in keeping with the new risks associated with this technology: risks that were not only catastrophic, but also insidious, because they were incapable of detection by ordinary human beings. The principles underlying this regime have stood the test of time, even if the accusation is now sometimes made that some of them were also designed to protect an industry in its infancy. These principles are as follows: the operator of a nuclear installation is objectively liable, meaning that the victim of nuclear damage does not have to prove fault in order to be compensated; - channelling of the liability onto the operator alone, both to avoid sterile debate between professionals and to allow the insurance sector to mobilise the necessary resources; - financial limitation on the liability of the operator. The international nature of the nuclear industry, the serious risk of transborder damage and the carriage operations in this sector led to international conventions being entered into which, having enshrined the three abovementioned principles, were designed in particular to: avoid jurisdictional conflicts arising between a number of courts belonging to more than one state; - prevent the available coverage from being unwisely used up by excluding from its benefit those assets connected with the operation of installations; - fix uniform periods of limitation; - regulate transport operations in order to guarantee continuity of coverage; unify and limit clauses excluding liability. These were the guiding principles that led to the signing, in succession, of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, a regional instrument within the framework of the OEEC (which became the OECD in 1961) in 1960 (referred to hereinafter by the initials PC), and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, a worldwide instrument under the

  8. Operational data of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Toshio; Takahasi, Hiroki; Kyouya, Masahiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Watahiki, Masayuki

    1999-03-01

    The first nuclear ship of Japan, `MUTSU`, experienced voyage of about 82,000 km. Many data on the ship`s motion and the power plant behavior were obtained under various meteorological conditions during the voyage. These data were recorded on more than 500 rolls of magnetic tape (MT). These data were transferred to these in digital audio tapes (DATs). The computer program was developed to transfer the data on DATs into the text form. As the result, we came to be able to utilize these data easily through the nuclear ship database system and a personal computer. This report describes a conversion program, data structure, list of saved data and utilization for the experimental data. Reduction of the storage space was achieved by the data transfer work from the MTs to the DATs. (author)

  9. Third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of nuclear liability legislation are discussed including absolute and limited liability and the role of the Sovereign State in idemnifying the operator for damage in excess of limited liability. European counrties realised the need for unifying the law of nuclear instability and efforts were made accordingly towards producing workable international conventions. The world's first legislation on nuclear liability - the USA Price-Anderson Act - is described in detail and a digest of nuclear liability claims experience is given. Observations of the present status of nuclear third party liability are outlined. (Author)

  10. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    analysis, systemic, comparative analysis method by comparing different conventions and its implications. Findings – two liability regimes set different liability amount for the operator and some additional implications to the State and with its amendments provides additional compensation options from all contracting parties collected funds. However the problem rises for the operator to provide insurance whereas Vienna convention only sets minimum liability amount and it is up to state to decide on liability limits or even to provide unlimited liability for the operator. In this case operator faces difficulties to find appropriate insurance as it has to be guaranteed for certain amount. Another situation when a State provides very high maximum amount of the operator’s liability therefore state aid problem arises because there is a need for state guarantee or when there are several operators and not all of them need this amount of insurance because they are being decommissioned. Research limitations – to analyze liability regimes in the light of cohesion and harmonization of regimes also the obligation of the nuclear installation operator to provide insurance when maximum amounts or blank indemnity are set by national law. Practical implication – This comparative analysis provides a background on further discussions concerning the nuclear operator’s liability and insurance limits issues and cohesion between two regimes by providing a harmonized model throughout European Union. Originality – Only a few authors have analyzed some aspects of nuclear liability there is still a lack of academic insights into nuclear liability regimes and insurance issues in the light of competition law. This work provides insights into nuclear liability issues and will certainly be valuable in practice when developing nuclear projects. Keywords: civil liability for nuclear damage, Vienna Convention, Paris Convention, operator of nuclear installation, strict liability, comparative

  11. United States nuclear merchant ship program: financial protection issues in the operations of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial protection embraces three principal areas: insurance, government indemnity, and limitations of liability. This protection must extend throughout the world following the trades of the nuclear powered merchant marine. Legislation to provide for government indemnity in the United States is in its draft stage. This legislation contains a limitation of liability. 19 refs

  12. The development of natural circulation operation support program for ship nuclear power machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The natural circulation under various ocean and ship motion conditions is studied. ► A natural circulation operation support computer program (NCOSP) is developed with Simulink. ► The NCOSP program has the merit of easy input preparation, fast and accurate simulation. ► The NCOSP is suitable for the fast parameter simulation of ship nuclear power machinery. -- Abstract: The existing simulation program of ship nuclear power machinery (SNPM) cannot adequately deal with the natural circulation (NC) operation and the effects of various ocean conditions and ship motion. Aiming at the problem, the natural circulation operation support computer program for SNPM is developed, in which the momentum conservation equation of the primary loop, some heat transfer and flow resistance models and equations are modified for the various ocean conditions and ship motion. The additional pressure loss model and effective height model for the control volume in the gyration movement, simple harmonic rolling and pitching movements are also discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the transient response to load change under NC conditions is analyzed by the developed program. The results are compared with those predicted by the modified RELAP5/mod3.2 code. It is shown that the natural circulation operation support program (NCOSP) is simple in the input preparation, runs fast and has a satisfactory precision, and is therefore very suitable for the operating field support of SNPM under the conditions of NC.

  13. Nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three existing instruments in the international regime governing liability for nuclear damage. The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) first laid down the principles for third party liability and insurance in 1960 within the framework of the OECD. Later reinforcement of the Paris Convention was provided by the Brussels Supplementary Convention on compensation and both conventions have undergone subsequent amendment. In 1963 the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (Vienna Convention) was established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A Joint Protocol adopted in 1988 resolved problems that had arisen over possible conflicts between the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. The Conventions are based on civil law and share two main factors: the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear installation operator irrespective of negligence and clear limitations on financial liability. Currently a revision of the Vienna convention and work on the elaboration of a supplementary funding convention are being conducted under the auspices of the IAEA. Many states have come to realize the advantages of participation in the Conventions though there are still a number with substantial nuclear programmes who have neither signed nor ratified them. A list is given of participating states. (UK)

  14. Nuclear Liability Act of 8 June 1972 as amended by the Act of 15 September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1972 Nuclear Liability Act has been amended by an Act 1989 to bring its provisions in line with those of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention as amended respectively by the 1982 Protocols. The 1989 Act also raises the limit of the nuclear operator's liability from 42 million Finnish marks (approximately 8 million Special Draing Rights - SDRs) to 100 million SDRs

  15. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified

  16. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerigter, S.T.; Sena, D.J.; Fasel, J.H.

    1998-12-31

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified.

  17. The allocation of liability for nuclear risks - the UK standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While nuclear legislation in most countries channels liability for nuclear damage solely to the operator of a nuclear installation, contractors supplying equipment and services in the United Kingdom and abroad may be liable for nuclear risks in certain circumstances. This paper discusses the risks for which a contractor may be held liable and the uncertainties in their respect. It also suggests some steps that can be taken to ensure that such risks are borne by those who can most readily bear them. (NEA)

  18. Ministerial Decree of 3 March 1978 approving the general conditions of the third party liability insurance policy for operators of nuclear installations and the general conditions of insurance policies for third party liability for transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree by the Ministry for Industry, Commerce and Crafts and the Ministry for transport of Italy was made in implementation of Section 2 of the Decree No. 519 by the president of the Republic of 2 May 1975 amending Section 15 to 24 of Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This present Decree approves the general conditions of third party liability insurance policies for operators of nuclear installations and for transport of radioactive materials. (NEA)

  19. Financial security for nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In almost every country where nuclear insurance pools operate, except for the United States, national nuclear legislation is either based on the principles of the Paris and Vienna nuclear third party liability conventions or is strongly influenced by them. The most important feature of this legislation is the absolute liabilityy of the operator, which simplifies the insurance process by avoiding duplication of cover and minimising the possibility of complex legal questions arising in case of an incident. The paper describes the arrangements for provision of financial security, the prescription period, insurance requirements, legal costs etc. Also, problems connected with the insurance of two or more installations on the same site are analysed. (NEA)

  20. Liability for on-site nuclear property damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typically, liability for on-site property addressed in contracts between operator and its suppliers. Nuclear power plant operators ordinarily protect themselves against risk of nuclear damage to on-site property by insurance. Nuclear liability laws do not specifically address liability for nuclear damage to on-site property. Nuclear plant owners should address risk of damage to on-site property when developing risk management program

  1. A Theory of Generative ConvNet

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jianwen; Lu, Yang; Zhu, Song-Chun; Wu, Ying Nian

    2016-01-01

    We show that a generative random field model, which we call generative ConvNet, can be derived from the commonly used discriminative ConvNet, by assuming a ConvNet for multi-category classification and assuming one of the categories is a base category generated by a reference distribution. If we further assume that the non-linearity in the ConvNet is Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) and the reference distribution is Gaussian white noise, then we obtain a generative ConvNet model that is unique am...

  2. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for nuclear Damage in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With nuclear power generating 43% of its total electricity production, Switzerland is amongst the states, employing the highest percentage of nuclear electricity. Although, the country has not ratified any of the international Nuclear Liability Conventions, its Nuclear Third Party Liability Act reflects all the principles, underlying those Conventions. The statutory liability of the operator of a Swiss nuclear installation itself being unlimited, the total insurance limit of CHF 770 m. provides the highest private insurance protection worldwide. With the support of its foreign Reinsurance Pools, the capacity for this insurance guarantee has, over more than 40 years, been built up by the Swiss Nuclear Insurance Pool. Apart from Third Party Liability cover, the Pool also provides Property insurance to Swiss nuclear installation operators and reinsurance cover to other nuclear insurers worldwide. (author)

  3. Development of advanced automatic control system for nuclear ship. 2. Perfect automatic operation after reactor scram events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shimazaki, Junya; Hoshi, Tsutao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    An automatic operation system has been developed for the purpose of realizing a perfect automatic plant operation after reactor scram events. The goal of the automatic operation after a reactor scram event is to bring the reactor hot stand-by condition automatically. The basic functions of this system are as follows; to monitor actions of the equipments of safety actions after a reactor scram, to control necessary control equipments to bring a reactor to a hot stand-by condition automatically, and to energize a decay heat removal system. The performance evaluation on this system was carried out by comparing the results using to Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and the those measured in the scram test of the nuclear ship `Mutsu`. As the result, it was showed that this system had the sufficient performance to bring a reactor to a hot syand-by condition quickly and safety. (author)

  4. The Chernobyl case: its repercussions on the International System on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the discovery of the Nuclear Energy the world has been development her life the present investigation is based in the accident of the one of the most important Nuclear Power Plant in the world, situated in the Union of Socialist Sovietic Republics. The Nuclear Power Plant of Chernobyl. Us found in the investigation what not exist one legislation agree with the needs of development of the actual world in matter of the liability civil in case of the nuclear accidents. Found only the Convention of the Vienna. the Convention of the Brussels the which only cover the transportation the Nuclear substances in ships and others transportation medios. The complementary a the convention of the Paris and actually The Communication in case of the nuclear accidents and radiological accidents. In the present work think what the Community International haven the needs of created one legislation with character international what can help a the many countries what have Nuclear Power Plants, on all for protection of the her habitants. The International Atomic Energy Agency together with the International Justice Court and the United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) aplicated the law in matter of the nuclear accidents derivates of the liability responsibility in the use of the Nuclear Plants for elaboration the Electrical Energy or for Investigation in matter the nuclear energy both with identical responsibility civil in case the nuclear accident. (Author)

  5. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  6. BRUSLIB and NETGEN: the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library and nuclear network generator for astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Aikawa, M.; Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Takahashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear reaction rates are quantities of fundamental importance in astrophysics. Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decades to measure or calculate them. The present paper presents for the first time a detailed description of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library BRUSLIB and of the nuclear network generator NETGEN so as to make these nuclear data packages easily accessible to astrophysicists for a large variety of applications. BRUSLIB is made of two parts. The first one c...

  7. Insurance of operators liability: the reality principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author's observations commence with -an overview of the principal amendments proposed in relation to the revision of the Paris Convention, in particular the inclusion of preventive measures, the definition of nuclear damage, the notion of reasonableness in respect of preventive measures and measures of reinstatement, increased liability amounts and extended prescription periods. He examines to what extent the insurance industry of today would be able to cover such risks, and the problems or doubts that it may encounter in doing so. This presentation also raises other questions which as yet remain unanswered, in particular the question of priorities and the role that complementary funding, namely the Brussels Supplementary Convention, will play in compensating victims. The author concludes by commenting on the current state of the insurance market. He suggests that before making irreversible political decisions in this field, Contracting Parties should, inter alia, carry out detailed analyses on the adequacy of the financial guarantees, in order to attain existing objectives and eliminate the obstacles which prevent the nuclear insurance market from being a competitive one. The author suggests that it might be in the interests of European nuclear operators to promote an insurance mechanism along the same lines as their American colleagues. (author)

  8. Insurance Cover for Revised Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial security to be provided to victims of an incident at a nuclear installation is the main objective of international nuclear liability conventions. As from the introduction of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy in 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Liability for Nuclear Damage in 1963 insurers have been prepared to provide the financial capacity needed to cover the liability under both conventions. They did so in close co-operation with the competent national and international authorities, which has resulted in the insurability of as much of the nuclear liability under the conventions as possible. This tradition of co-operation between authorities and insurers was extended to include the revision negotiations regarding the above conventions, which were concluded in 1997 and 2004 respectively. This has resulted in the insurability of by far the largest part of the convention based liability. However, some heads of damage have been introduced about which insurers had expressed concerns as to their likelihood to attract insurance support. In view of the explicit choice by Convention States to include the uninsurable heads of damage into the revised conventions one would expect that liability for them would fall upon national Governments. This would reflect practice in a number of States, which already assume liability for uninsurable mandatory liabilities for a long time. Nonetheless some other States now seem reluctant to do so, the resulting deadlock having a tendency to manifest itself in a negative perception of the insurance industry. Insurers are therefore appreciative of the forum provided by the CNS to once again explain the areas where problems as regards insurability have arisen and why this is the case. This presentation will show that those areas are few in number and notably relate to a limited number of environmental damages as well as the extension of prescription periods. Furthermore, thoughts will

  9. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for Nuclear Damage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains some facts about the Swedish nuclear energy production system and about the nuclear operators liability with the important issues. The nuclear insurance of Sweden is also explained in short terms. (author)

  10. Analysis of civil liability for nuclear damage with emphasis on the insurance of liability for the transport of fresh nuclear fuel and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of civil liability for nuclear damage and the mandatory coverage of this liability by insurance or by the other financial means is a topic for experts discussions, particularly due to the existing differences in opinion. The article outlines the major provisions of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (1963) and presents a list of parties to the Convention from among Central and Eastern European countries. In the second part, the paper deals with the various options during the transportation of spent and fresh nuclear fuel from the viewpoint of the regulatory body and with regard to applicable domestic and international legislation. (author)

  11. Nuclear Liability Act of 8 March 1968 (No. 45) as amended by an Act of 10 May 1974 (No. 249) and by an Act of 22 December 1982 (No. 1275)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amendments to this Act fall into two categories. The first category of amendments enabled Sweden to ratify two 1982 Protocols amending the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention respectively. The other amendments raise the nuclear operator's liability from 50 million to 500 million Swedish crowns per incident and introduce a State liability over and above compensation available under the Brussels Convention, thus raising the aggregate amount of compensation to 3,000 million Swedish crowns. (NEA)

  12. Third party liability cover for nuclear damage and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the financial security and cover for third party liability for nuclear damage as provided for by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The relevant Sections of the Act are quoted and explained, as are the nuclear operator's obligation to furnish financial security for his liability. Different possible types of security and cover are described, also with reference to other national legislation. Finally, the author mentions the Paris Convention which provides the basis for Italian nuclear third party liability legislation. (NEA)

  13. Databases and tools for nuclear astrophysics applications BRUSsels Nuclear LIBrary (BRUSLIB), Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REactions II (NACRE II) and Nuclear NETwork GENerator (NETGEN)

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yi; Jorissen, Alain; Chen, Guangling; Arnould, Marcel; 10.1051/0004-6361/201220537

    2012-01-01

    An update of a previous description of the BRUSLIB+NACRE package of nuclear data for astrophysics and of the web-based nuclear network generator NETGEN is presented. The new version of BRUSLIB contains the latest predictions of a wide variety of nuclear data based on the most recent version of the Brussels-Montreal Skyrme-HFB model. The nuclear masses, radii, spin/parities, deformations, single-particle schemes, matter densities, nuclear level densities, E1 strength functions, fission properties, and partition functions are provided for all nuclei lying between the proton and neutron drip lines over the 8<=Z<=110 range, whose evaluation is based on a unique microscopic model that ensures a good compromise between accuracy, reliability, and feasibility. In addition, these various ingredients are used to calculate about 100000 Hauser-Feshbach n-, p-, a-, and gamma-induced reaction rates based on the reaction code TALYS. NACRE is superseded by the NACRE II compilation for 15 charged-particle transfer react...

  14. Economic foundations of limited liability for nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Price-Anderson Act places private financial protection requirements higher than those of any country to ensure that government indemnification will be a last resort. The studies in this volume suggest that, given the presence of nuclear risk, a limitation on liability is the key to maintaining world-wide insurance capacity on a large scale to meet both physical and property claims. The economist finds no paradox in the risk assessments implicit in Price-Anderson, and has no problem with limiting private liability if society is willing to accept the risk. The author concludes that there is no way to rely on social institutions such as free markets or tort law to make the decisions which society must make for itself. 16 references

  15. The law concerning liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This treatise outlines the Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Law No. 147, June 17, 1961) and the Law on Indemnity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage (Law, No. 148, June 17, 1961) which are both came into effect in March, 1962, and describes how these laws will be executed if an accident occurs actually in nuclear facilities. The first law which prescribes various provisions for compensation of nuclear damage is characterised as having the principle of no-fault liability and hence making a nuclear enterpriser responsible for securing adequate financial resources to indemnify general public for their damages from nuclear accidents. Thus, in compliance with the law a nuclear enterpriser should effect both the contract of the indemnity responsible insurance and the indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage. The second law deals with the indemnity agreement which is concluded by a nuclear enterpriser with the government and constitutes a full measure for compensation of nuclear damage supplementing the indemnity responsible insurance. The indemnity agreement is to insure compensation liabilities for nuclear damages which the indemnity responsible insurance can not cover-that is, damages caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and also damages from normal operations of nuclear facilities and those occurs after 10 years of an accident. Then, the author describes in detail how these laws apply in a nuclear accident to damages to third parties and those to facilities of related nuclear enterpriser himself and to his employees. Finally, the author refers to the legal systems for compensation of nuclear damage in the United States, Britain, France and West Germany. (Matsushima, A.)

  16. Review of legislation on civil liability for nuclear damage; Revision de la legislacion relativa a la responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez-Moran, E.

    2011-07-01

    The entry into force of Law 12/2011 is postponed until the Protocols modifying the Paris and Brussels conventions take effect, since their content complements that of the Conventions. The most significant modifications are the extension of the suppositions of nuclear damage, the geographical scope of application and the time period for claiming personal damages, which is accompanied by higher coverage limits of up to 1,200 million euros. It also includes liability for damages caused by radioactive materials in the custody of the installation owner. (Author)

  17. Act No 6453 of 17th October, 1977 on civil liability for nuclear damage and criminal responsibility for acts relating to nuclear activities, and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act was published on 17 October 1977. It is based to a great extent on the provisions of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nucler Damage of 21 May 1963. Under the Act the operator of a nuclear installation is exclusively liable regardless of fault for compensation of nuclear damage due to a nuclear incident. This exclusive liability is limited to an amount equal to 1,500,000 Treasury Bonds and the operator must take out and maintain insurance or other financial security to cover his liability. The Federative Government will guarantee, up to the prescribed limit, payment of compensation for nuclear damage where it is acknowledged that the operator's liability is involved. As regards apportionment of compensation, persons are granted priority over property. This Act is original in that it contains provisions on criminal liability with penalties ranging from two to ten years imprisonment. (NEA)

  18. Development and validation of CONV-3D code for calculation of thermal and hydrodynamics of Fast Reactor at the Supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In IBRAE 3D CFD modules (CONV code) for safety analysis of the operated Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are developed. These modules are based on the developed algorithms with small scheme diffusion, for which the discrete approximations are constructed with use of finite-volume methods and fully staggered grids. For solving of convection problem the regularized nonlinear monotonic operator-splitting scheme is developed. The Richardson iterative method with iterative Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) solver for Laplace’s operator as preconditioner is applied for solving pressure equation. Such approach for solving of the elliptical equations with variable coefficients gives multiple acceleration in a comparison with a usual method of conjugate gradients. For modeling of 3D turbulent single-phase flows Quasi DNS approach is used. The CONV code is fully parallelized and highly effective at the high performance computers such as “Chebyshev”, “Lomonosov” (Moscow State University). The developed modules were validated on a series of the well known tests in a wide range of Rayleigh numbers from a range 106-1016 and Reynolds numbers from a range 103-105. The software has been applied to the analysis results of test LIVE-L1 (L1 is aimed at investigating the melt pool and crust behaviour during the stages of air circulation at the outer RPV surface with subsequent flooding of the lower head) and joint analyses on transient molten pool thermal hydraulics in the LIVE facility in the framework of ISTC project. Moreover CONV was validated successfully on a series of the experimental tests as: the blind test on simulation of flows in T-junction (OECD/NEA), ERCOFTAC experiment (world database on turbulent flows) natural convection in the closures under extremely high Rayleigh numbers. In all cases the good coincidence of numerical predictions with experimental data was reached, that specifies a possibility of application of the developed approach for a prediction of CFD

  19. BRUSLIB and NETGEN: the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library and nuclear network generator for astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawa, M; Goriely, S; Jorissen, A; Takahashi, K

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear reaction rates are quantities of fundamental importance in astrophysics. Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decades to measure or calculate them. The present paper presents for the first time a detailed description of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library BRUSLIB and of the nuclear network generator NETGEN so as to make these nuclear data packages easily accessible to astrophysicists for a large variety of applications. BRUSLIB is made of two parts. The first one contains the 1999 NACRE compilation based on experimental data for 86 reactions with (mainly) stable targets up to Si. The second part of BRUSLIB concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions calculated within a statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation, which limits the reliability of the rates to reactions producing compound nuclei with a high enough level density. These calculations make use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities entering the rate calculations. The use of such models is utterl...

  20. Databases and tools for nuclear astrophysics applications. BRUSsels Nuclear LIBrary (BRUSLIB), Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REactions II (NACRE II) and Nuclear NETwork GENerator (NETGEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Chen, G. L.; Arnould, M.

    2013-01-01

    An update of a previous description of the BRUSLIB + NACRE package of nuclear data for astrophysics and of the web-based nuclear network generator NETGEN is presented. The new version of BRUSLIB contains the latest predictions of a wide variety of nuclear data based on the most recent version of the Brussels-Montreal Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model. The nuclear masses, radii, spin/parities, deformations, single-particle schemes, matter densities, nuclear level densities, E1 strength functions, fission properties, and partition functions are provided for all nuclei lying between the proton and neutron drip lines over the 8 ≤ Z ≤ 110 range, whose evaluation is based on a unique microscopic model that ensures a good compromise between accuracy, reliability, and feasibility. In addition, these various ingredients are used to calculate about 100 000 Hauser-Feshbach neutron-, proton-, α-, and γ-induced reaction rates based on the reaction code TALYS. NACRE is superseded by the NACRE II compilation for 15 charged-particle transfer reactions and 19 charged-particle radiative captures on stable targets with mass numbers A < 16. NACRE II features the inclusion of experimental data made available after the publication of NACRE in 1999 and up to 2011. In addition, the extrapolation of the available data to the very low energies of astrophysical relevance is improved through the systematic use of phenomenological potential models. Uncertainties in the rates are also evaluated on this basis. Finally, the latest release v10.0 of the web-based tool NETGEN is presented. In addition to the data already used in the previous NETGEN package, it contains in a fully documented form the new BRUSLIB and NACRE II data, as well as new experiment-based radiative neutron capture cross sections. The full new versions of BRUSLIB, NACRE II, and NETGEN are available electronically from the nuclear database at http://www.astro.ulb.ac.be/NuclearData. The nuclear material is presented in

  1. International nuclear liability law. Range of application and principles of liability; Internationales Atomhaftungsrecht. Anwendungsbereich und Haftungsprinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissich, S.

    2004-07-01

    In this book the technical and the geographical range of application of the conventions of nuclear liability as well as the new comprehensively are analyzed for the first time. The author distributes a lot of open questions and offers own proposals of solution. Among other things, the questions cover the subsequent topics: liability for final storage facilities, application at military nuclear plants, validity of the conventions in accidents on high seas, application on nuclear damages in third-party governments, impact of the non-applicability of the convention on the liability of the operator and third persons. In addition, this book also is suitable for a venturing into the international nuclear liability law. The complex and bulky subject is prepared clearly and in an easily readable style.

  2. Operational options for green ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  3. Operational Options for Green Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Sherbaz; Wenyang Duan

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors.The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders,responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions,14%-15% of global NOx emissions,and 16% of global SOx emissions.In addition,continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness.The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions.Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness.This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts,principles,and potential of operational options for green ships.The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e.academic qualifications prior to induction,in-service training and motivation were discussed.The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  4. Nuclear liability coverage developments in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown II, Omer F.

    1995-12-31

    The availability of such nuclear liability coverage has been a concern of nuclear power plant vendors, suppliers and operators, and public officials in the United States or many years. This paper addresses implications of the Federal Price-Anderson Act (42 U.S.C. 2014, 2020; Sections 11 and 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended); on the financial liability of persons accountable for an accident in the United States. (author).

  5. Liability for nuclear damage: an international perspective. Reflections on the revision of the Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with deals of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on his experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may not be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed the Committee's work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world's public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussions no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structure of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issue, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author)

  6. Law no. 6.453 of 17th October, 1977 on civil liability for nuclear damage and criminal responsibility for acts relating to nuclear activities, and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act was published on 17 october 1977. Under the Act the operator of a nuclear installation is exclusively liable regardless of fault for compensation of nuclear damage due to a nuclear incident. This exclusive liability is limited to an amount equal to 1,500,000 Treasury Bonds and the operator must take out the maintain insurance or other financial security to cover his liability. The Federative Government will guarantee, up to the prescribed limit, payment of compensation for nuclear damage where it is acknowledged that the operator's liability is involved. As regards apportionment of compensation, persons are granted priority over property. This Act is original in that it contains provisions on criminal liability with penalties ranging from two to ten years imprisonment

  7. Chernobylsk: twenty years later, the international system of nuclear civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International system of nuclear civil liability is based on two international treaties: the Paris convention (24.07.1960) and the Brussels convention (31.01.1963), with a time limit for ratification in each concerned country at 30.10.1968. The Paris convention treats compensation and transfrontier problems, the amount of compensation is limited, the Brussels convention specifies the financial system of compensation. The Vienna system under the IAEA auspices gives minimal norms of financial protection against damages and stood in may 1963 thirty three parties signed it. Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Armenia, czech republic, Estonia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldavia have joined the Vienna convention, then the Russian Federation that had signed the Convention in 1996 became member in august 2005. New elements appear such measures of remedial action or measures of prevention of reduction of nuclear damages are included, the new protocol increases the geographical area by taking into account the maritime areas because of the evolution of the international sea law. The transport needs specific contracts between parties, the only case of exoneration is the armed conflicts, civil war, insurrection. The time of loss of right comes from ten years to thirty years, for deaths and body damages, the others types of damages stay fixed at ten years. The most important revision is about the limit financial amount for the nuclear operator that is increased and the calculation of methods of funding for each contracting party is tackled. In fact it appears that more important funds will be available to make compensation for a more important number of victims. The revised system guarantees that the liability chain will never be broken. (N.C.)

  8. Creation of the reactor plant with lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear ships, Brief history. Generalized results of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is historical in nature and follows the efforts to design a reactor with lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear-powered submarines (NPS). One discusses both the advantages and the disadvantages of a Pb-Bi reactor and analyzes in detail problems faced in the course of ground-base try-out of reactors and in the course of reactor operation at NPS. The accumulated experience enables to make conclusion that the mentioned experience may serve as a basis to ensure safe and reliable NPP operation

  9. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  10. Public announcement of the promulgation of the Nuclear Third Party Liability Convention including supplementary conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to article 4 paragraph 2 of the act of July 8th, 1975 concerning the Convention on Third Party Liability including the Supplementary Conventions dated July 29th, 1960, concerning the Convention the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships and its Additional Protocol dated May 25th, 1962, and concerning the Convention relating to Civil Liability in the field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material it is thus announced that 1) the Convention dated July 29th, 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and its Additional Protocol dated January 28th, 1964 according to its article 19, 2) the Supplementary Convention to the Paris Convention dated July 29th, 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and its Additional Protocol dated January 28th, 1964 according to its article 20 have taken effect for the FRG with reference to 1) on September 30th, 1975, with reference to 2) on January 1st, 1976. (orig.)

  11. Liability for damage resulting from acts of the nuclear and radiological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism is defined as an attack on a nuclear installation serving peaceful uses (such as a nuclear power plant) or non-peaceful uses. Radiological terrorism, which may be more likely, is defined as an action which doesn't trigger a nuclear reaction but gives rise to the release of radioactivity. The aim of this paper is to analyze the existing legal framework covering such situations. The relevant provisions of the Vienna and Paris Conventions on civil liability for nuclear damage, which represent a legal framework for nuclear liability at the international level, are discussed. The focus is on the identification of the the liable subject, including definition of the scope and nature of its liability. (author)

  12. Nuclear Liability and Insurance Cover for Risk of Nuclear Power Plants - Situation for Nuclear Installations in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dispute about nuclear liability and insurance cover for risks of nuclear power plants from an insurer's point of view has to determine and to judge the essential risk relevant factors. These are beside plant and site specific factors considerations of insurance restrictions in the extent of cover compared with the legal scope of liability for (re-)insurability's sake. Among such consideration are: financial limitation and obligation for its reinstatement, exclusions for gradual emissions of approved activities, armed conflicts, hostilities, civil war, insurrections or grave natural disaster and restrictions in the limitation and preclusion periods. In comparison with conventional liability risks there are some specialties to be considered some of which prove to be a risk relief other as a risk burden for insurance: Salvage expenses or interests and court costs to be paid by unsuccessful party in a lost litigation do not fall under legal liability and hence are excluded from the financial security cover so that are compensation is subject to agreed separate limits. A serious burden for the insurers can result out of the loss regulation costs in case of a severe nuclear accident. These expenses, which can exceed hundred million DM by far, are to be carried by the insurers in the frame of their obligation to investigate raised claims. Therefore the insurers should aim a fixed limitation in order to restrict their limit. (author)

  13. Financing of Liabilities Beyond the Service Life of Nuclear Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of a nuclear installation is connected with the creation of long-term liabilities for spent fuel management and disposal, and also decommissioning of the installation (power plant, storages. This means that the operator will have to expend considerable amount of financial resources over a long period after the closure of installation. These financial resources will have to be created during operation of the installation. Related costs to be expended in future must be fully included in the price of electricity, in order to ensure fair competition among different operators. Financial resources for future coverage of liabilities must be continuously invested in order to compensate for inflation and to gain some real interest.Any failure by the operator to comply with its liabilities poses an economic and potentially an environmental hazard for operator’s country. Due attention must therefore be paid to assessing connected costs, defining liabilities and ensuring appropriate regulatory oversight. Appropriate measures must be well defined and firmly anchored in the legislation of countries operating nuclear installations. This paper reviews the basic principles that should ensure operator’s compliance their liabilities, and maps the current situation in the Czech Republic. 

  14. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  15. Liability for nuclear damage: an international perspective. Reflections on the revision of the Vienna Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuski, J.

    1993-12-31

    This book deals with deals of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on his experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may not be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed the Committee`s work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world`s public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussions no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structure of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issue, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author).

  16. New Trends in European Nuclear Liability Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses recent developments in nuclear liability legislation in Europe. The first part deals with the planned revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention; the second part focuses on the reforms envisaged in the field in Switzerland and in the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular concerning unlimited liability. Finally, the author concludes that national reform plans and work at international level are not opposed, but supplementary activities. (NEA)

  17. BRUSLIB and NETGEN: the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library and nuclear network generator for astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, M.; Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Takahashi, K.

    2005-10-01

    Nuclear reaction rates are quantities of fundamental importance in astrophysics. Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decades to measuring or calculating them. This paper presents a detailed description of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library BRUSLIB and of the nuclear network generator NETGEN. BRUSLIB is made of two parts. The first one contains the 1999 NACRE compilation based on experimental data for 86 reactions with (mainly) stable targets up to Si. BRUSLIB provides an electronic link to the published, as well as to a large body of unpublished, NACRE data containing adopted rates, as well as lower and upper limits. The second part of BRUSLIB concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions to complement the experimentally-based rates. An electronic access is provided to tables of rates calculated within a statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation, which limits the reliability of the rates to reactions producing compound nuclei with a high enough level density. These calculations make use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities entering the rate calculations. The use of such models makes the BRUSLIB rate library unique. A description of the Nuclear Network Generator NETGEN that complements the BRUSLIB package is also presented. NETGEN is a tool to generate nuclear reaction rates for temperature grids specified by the user. The information it provides can be used for a large variety of applications, including Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the energy generation and nucleosynthesis associated with the non-explosive and explosive hydrogen to silicon burning stages, or the synthesis of the heavy nuclides through the s-, α- and r-, rp- or p-processes.

  18. Liability for injury to the unborn - Recent amendments to the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption in the United Kingdom in 1976 of an Act to determine liability for injury to the unborn (foetus) has provided the opportunity to amend the Nuclear Installations Act which governs the liability of nuclear operators, which is now extended to such injury. Any 'injury' attributable to a nuclear operator which so affects a mother that her child is born disabled involves the liability of that operator within the meaning of the Nuclear Installations Act whether or not either parent has suffered an injury on that occasion. (NEA)

  19. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION... other matter not within the Commission's statutory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act....

  20. Microscopic nuclear models for astrophysics: The Brussels BRUSLIB nuclear library and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.

    2006-10-01

    Astrophysics is in need of a broad variety of nuclear data. This concerns static ground state properties, characteristics of excited nuclei, spontaneous decay properties, or interactions of nuclei with (mainly) nucleons, α-particles or photons. A strong theoretical activity complementing laboratory efforts is also mandatory. A large variety of highly ‘exotic’ laboratory-unreachable nuclei are indeed involved in the astrophysics modelling. Even when laboratory-studied nuclei are considered, theory has very often to be called for. Mastering the huge volume of nuclear information and making it available in an accurate and usable form for incorporation into astrophysics models is clearly of pivotal importance. The recognition of this necessity has been the driving motivation for the construction of the Brussels library (BRUSLIB) of computed data of astrophysics relevance. It provides an extended information in tabular form on masses, nuclear level densities and partition functions, fission barriers, and thermonuclear reaction rates. In addition of the unprecedented broadness of its scope, BRUSLIB has the unique and most important feature of relying to the largest possible extent on global and coherent microscopic nuclear models. The models of this sort that we have developed to predict the basic properties of the nuclei and of their interactions are briefly reviewed. The content of the BRUSLIB library that relies on these models is described, as well as a user-friendly nuclear network generator (NETGEN) complementing BRUSLIB. Finally, an application of BRUSLIB and NETGEN to the p-process nucleosynthesis during He detonation in sub-Chandrasekhar CO white dwarfs is proposed.

  1. Microscopic nuclear models for astrophysics: The Brussels BRUSLIB nuclear library and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Institut d Astronomie et d Astrophysique, CP 226, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: marnould@astro.ulb.ac.be; Goriely, S. [Institut d Astronomie et d Astrophysique, CP 226, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-10-17

    Astrophysics is in need of a broad variety of nuclear data. This concerns static ground state properties, characteristics of excited nuclei, spontaneous decay properties, or interactions of nuclei with (mainly) nucleons, {alpha}-particles or photons. A strong theoretical activity complementing laboratory efforts is also mandatory. A large variety of highly 'exotic' laboratory-unreachable nuclei are indeed involved in the astrophysics modelling. Even when laboratory-studied nuclei are considered, theory has very often to be called for. Mastering the huge volume of nuclear information and making it available in an accurate and usable form for incorporation into astrophysics models is clearly of pivotal importance. The recognition of this necessity has been the driving motivation for the construction of the Brussels library (BRUSLIB) of computed data of astrophysics relevance. It provides an extended information in tabular form on masses, nuclear level densities and partition functions, fission barriers, and thermonuclear reaction rates. In addition of the unprecedented broadness of its scope, BRUSLIB has the unique and most important feature of relying to the largest possible extent on global and coherent microscopic nuclear models. The models of this sort that we have developed to predict the basic properties of the nuclei and of their interactions are briefly reviewed. The content of the BRUSLIB library that relies on these models is described, as well as a user-friendly nuclear network generator (NETGEN) complementing BRUSLIB. Finally, an application of BRUSLIB and NETGEN to the p-process nucleosynthesis during He detonation in sub-Chandrasekhar CO white dwarfs is proposed.

  2. The convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage (CSC). A cornerstone of a global nuclear liability regime?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International discussions on compensation of nuclear damage seem to be governed by the magic word ''global nuclear liability regime''. It is said that only such regime promises to guarantee full and timely compensation at conditions acceptable and favourable for both the victims and the operator liable and at the same time promotes nuclear industry. Surely, nuclear incidents may have worldwide implications, and a globally unified legal framework appears to be desirable or is even necessitated. But until today we have not yet achieved a global regime. There are international nuclear liability conventions some of which may be qualified to form such regime. But which of them is best qualified and which one could be accepted by all States? Mainly the USA opt for, and strongly support, the 1997 ''Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage'' (CSC) to be the only international instrument which is apt to form a global regime. This paper will deal with the question whether this assertion is convincing. It will also be asked whether we need a global regime.

  3. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the forecast of energy balance in the world to 21st century, the diversification of energy supply and the technical development enabling it are necessary in Japan. The stable supply of marine fuel is important to maintain and develop the national life. At present, as the marine fuel substituting for petroleum, atomic energy is at the position nearest to practical use. In advanced countries, the basic technology required for the practical use of nuclear-powered merchant ships seems to have been established, but Japan is about 10 years behind them due to the delay of the Mutsu project. In order to maintain and improve the technical level of shipbuilders, the independent technology related to nuclear-powered ships must be established in Japan. In the economical examination of nuclear-powered ships, ice breakers and ice breaking tankers are advantageous, but in other types of ships, a number of conditions must be satisfied to be economical. The Mutsu must be operated to collect the data and experience, and the project of an improved marine prototype reactor must be decided. Also a demonstration ship must be built. The standards for the design, construction and operation of nuclear-powered ships and the public acceptance are necessary. (Kako, I.)

  4. Some agenda of Japanese nuclear third party liability system arising from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and proposal for the system reformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account the impact of damage owing to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, the argument of review on Japanese nuclear third party liability system is carried out. As the Fukushima Disaster raised serious legal problems on Japanese nuclear third party liability system that the JCO critical accident did not present, fundamental reformation of the system may be carried out. This paper clarified and analyzed legal problems that Fukushima Disaster raised. In addition, in order to alleviate the problems, this paper showed two options to reform the nuclear compensation system. Our conclusions are summarized as follows. (1) The compensation of the Fukushima Disaster raised the following problems. 1. Regardless of whether the operator has the legally liable for the damage, the necessity of quick victim relief and compensation forced the operator to compensate the damage. 2. Because the damage occurred in broad area and in long term, and cause identification and the calculation of damage amount are difficult, private settlements become so hard that the number of civil litigations increased dramatically. (2) The problems mentioned above are due to the following current legal shortcomings. 1. The victims are not relieved enough unless making bear the operator compensation liability, because Japanese nuclear third party liability system is based on ordinary rules of civil tort liability. 2. The procedure for immunity of operator's nuclear third party liability is not stipulated. 3. The authority of the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation is restricted and cannot discourage damage suits. (3) To overcome the problems, this report showed proposal for system reformation as follows. 1. In order to relieve the victims regardless of whether the operator is liable for the nuclear damages, it is necessary to legislate a Nuclear Disaster Relief Act to relief victims from the viewpoint of governmental aid. 2. It is necessary to introduce the

  5. Extending the Life Time of a Nuclear Power Plant: Impact on Nuclear Liabilities in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    L. Havlíček

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) operators have several basic long-term liabilities. Such liabilities include storage, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste generated at the operators’ NPP, storage and management of nuclear fuel irradiated in the reactor of the operator’s NPP (“spent fuel”), disposal of the spent fuel (SF) or residues resulting from spent fuel reprocessing. Last but not least, the operator is liable for decommissioning its nuclear facilities. If the operator considers extendin...

  6. The Study for the Establishment of the Korea Nuclear Liability System complying with International Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is for making system of the fast and adequate compensation to the victim in the nuclear accident of domestic and foreign country. As a method to come true the purpose we reviewed Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (hereinafter 'CSC') and designed enabling laws for joining the CSC. Moreover international workshop regarding the CSC was hold as a main assignment of this study for sharing knowledge and information with neighboring countries. Convention relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage on Nuclear Material, 1971 shall be analyzed in this study. Legal approach to the CSC and designing enabling laws for joining the CSC were enclosed to this study. As a result of the international workshop this study shows how U.S. (CSC member country) deals with CSC and mandatory obligation of donating the public funds. Finally Convention relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage on Nuclear Material, 1971 is analyzed legally

  7. Prospects for applications of ship-propulsion nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitenkov, F.M.

    1994-10-01

    The use of ship-propulsion nuclear power reactors in remote areas of Russia is examined. Two ship reactors were analyzed: the KLT-40, a 170 MW-thermal reactor; and the KN-3, a 300 MW-thermal reactor. The applications considered were electricity generation, desalination, and drinking water production. Analyses showed that the applications are technically justified and could be economically advantageous. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To secure fair and efficient compensation for damage likely to be caused by the utilisation of nuclear energy, a special civil liability regime was set up by several international conventions. Three of these conventions are in force and Spain is a Contracting Party to all three. The principles established in the first instance at European level by the Paris Convention (absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, limitation of such liability, compulsory insurance...) are intended to guarantee that possible victims of a nuclear incident will obtain compensation for damage suffered. The Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention provides for official funds to compensate victims through intervention by the Contracting Parties. Each Contracting Party should implement these Conventions at national level by appropriate legislation, which is what Spain did with its Act on Nuclear Energy of 29th April 1964, as supplemented in 1967 by the Regulations on Cover for Nuclear Hazards. (N.E.A.)

  9. Decommission of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateyama, Takeshi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    The nuclear-powered ship `MUTSU` was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  10. Extending the Life Time of a Nuclear Power Plant: Impact on Nuclear Liabilities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant (NPP operators have several basic long-term liabilities. Such liabilities include storage, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste generated at the operators’ NPP, storage and management of nuclear fuel irradiated in the reactor of the operator’s NPP (“spent fuel”, disposal of the spent fuel (SF or residues resulting from spent fuel reprocessing. Last but not least, the operator is liable for decommissioning its nuclear facilities. If the operator considers extending the life time of its NPP or if the construction of a new NPP is being evaluated by an investor, an integral part of the economic evaluation must be a comprehensive assessment of future incremental costs related to the above-mentioned long-term liabilities. An economic evaluation performed by standard methods (usually NPV, alternatively real options leads to a decision either to proceed with the project or to shelve it. If the investor decides to go ahead with the project there can be an immediate impact on nuclear liabilities. The impact is not the same for all operator liabilities. Depending on the valid legislation and the nature of the liability, in some cases the extent of the liability must be immediately recalculated when a decision is made to proceed with the project, and the annual accrual of accumulated reserves / funds must be adjusted. In other cases, the change in liability is linked to the generation of additional radioactive waste or spent fuel. In the Czech Republic, responsibility for each of the nuclear liabilities is defined, as is the form in which the financial means are to be accumulated. This paper deals with the impact of NPP life time extension (alternatively NPP power up-rate or construction of a new NPP on individual nuclear liabilities in the conditions of the Czech Republic. 

  11. Sino-American seminar on nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sino-American Seminar on Nuclear Liability was held in Beijing, People's Republic of China from April 26-27, 2000, and co-sponsored by Chinese Nuclear Society and U.S. Nuclear Energy Institute. The topics of the meeting were the follows: 1. Current U.S. Nuclear Liability Regime; 2. Current Chinese Nuclear Liability Regime; 3. Comparison of U.S. and Other Nuclear Liability Regime; International Nuclear Liability Conventions; 4. Role of Nuclear Insurance in U.S.; 5. Chinese Nuclear Insurance and Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool; 6. How nuclear Liability Practices Have Been Implemented in U.S.; U.S. Nuclear Claims Experience; 7. Liability for On-Site Nuclear Property Damage

  12. Source term research for ship reactor anticipated operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the basic hypothesis of anticipated operational events, grounding on the special characters of a ship reactor, the equilibrium vapor specific activity and the cabin activity were calculated using NSRC code for the main loop and the secondary loop. The calculation results show that the computational mode of NSRC code is correct, and the NSRC code can be used to calculate radioactive effect of a ship reactor in anticipated operational events of design basis accidents. The calculation results can provide support to the safe operation of a ship nuclear power device. (authors)

  13. Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modernisation of international conventions governing third-party liability in the nuclear field is essentially an attempt to resolve certain shortcomings whilst setting out higher compensation sums and extending the cover for nuclear damage for which compensation is payable. The latest convention revisions occurred in 2004 and led to the adoption of protocols amending the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention supplementing the Paris Convention. However, the substance of the current regimes is largely the result of conventions drawn up in the 1960's and, in the eyes of the general public, the changes made in 2004 are mainly concerned with increasing the compensation sums. Despite the proposed increases in the compensation amounts, there is certainly no doubt that the potential costs of a major nuclear accident will not be fully covered by the revised Conventions. In other words, the actual compensation amount in the event of nuclear damage is quite low if we refer back to known events. By way of example, the direct cost of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident is estimated to be above EUR 100 billion according to different sources. The accident virtually bankrupted the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) immediately after this event. The economic costs of the Chernobyl accident, however, are difficult to assess even now. But, according to various sources, the costs also exceed USD 100 billion. The Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl accidents share common characteristics. First, the amount of damage could have been even higher had the accident occurred close to major population centres or if the wind direction at the time of the accident had been different. Second, no compensation was provided by the insurance world. Further, these two accidents did not occur within the framework of the new amended conventions (the latest revision of the Paris Convention has still not taken effect). These

  14. New law on extension of liability for nuclear obligations unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provisions of the draft law are highly relevant with regard to fundamental rights and do not stand up to the required proportionality scrutiny. The following fundamental rights are affected: Article 14 (1), (2) GG (German Basic Law): guaranteed right to property; Article 12 (1) GG: freedom of occupation; Article 9 (1) GG: freedom of association; Article 2 (1) GG: general freedom of action; Article 3 (1) GG: equality before the law. In view of the German system of contingency reserves, which is tried and tested in practice and which has been working for 40 years without objections or failure, the envisaged provisions are not necessary, to begin with. If the draft law such as it is today became actual legislation, this would evidently be contrary to the constitution.

  15. Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage was adopted on 21 May 1963 and was opened for signature on the same day. It entered into force on 12 November 1977, i.e. three months after the date of deposit with the Director General of the fifth instrument of ratification, in accordance with Article 23

  16. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  17. Chernobylsk: twenty years later, the international system of nuclear civil liability; Tchernobyl: 20 ans apres, le systeme international de responsabilite civile nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahorgue, M.B. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France)

    2006-06-15

    The International system of nuclear civil liability is based on two international treaties: the Paris convention (24.07.1960) and the Brussels convention (31.01.1963), with a time limit for ratification in each concerned country at 30.10.1968. The Paris convention treats compensation and transfrontier problems, the amount of compensation is limited, the Brussels convention specifies the financial system of compensation. The Vienna system under the IAEA auspices gives minimal norms of financial protection against damages and stood in may 1963 thirty three parties signed it. Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Armenia, czech republic, Estonia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldavia have joined the Vienna convention, then the Russian Federation that had signed the Convention in 1996 became member in august 2005. New elements appear such measures of remedial action or measures of prevention of reduction of nuclear damages are included, the new protocol increases the geographical area by taking into account the maritime areas because of the evolution of the international sea law. The transport needs specific contracts between parties, the only case of exoneration is the armed conflicts, civil war, insurrection. The time of loss of right comes from ten years to thirty years, for deaths and body damages, the others types of damages stay fixed at ten years. The most important revision is about the limit financial amount for the nuclear operator that is increased and the calculation of methods of funding for each contracting party is tackled. In fact it appears that more important funds will be available to make compensation for a more important number of victims. The revised system guarantees that the liability chain will never be broken. (N.C.)

  18. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  19. Liability coverage under the Price-Anderson Act for high level waste shipments and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Price-Anderson Act provides the basis for a national system of liability protection for accidents arising out of nuclear activities. Private nuclear liability insurance and/or government indemnity is provided to certain Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees (principally operators of nuclear reactors) and certain Department of Energy (DOE) contractors (those whose activities DOE considers involve a risk of public liability for a substantial nuclear incident). As presently envisioned, both the coverage extended by the NRC to its licensees shipping spent fuel from reactors and the indemnity coverage extended by the DOE to its contractors operating a DOE repository under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act will be utilized to provide public liability protection for spent fuel shipments and disposal. Increased attention is being given to assuring a seamless web of protection provided under the Price-Anderson Act to Federal licensees and contractors

  20. Building of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System development of the simulator for the integral type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAERI had carried out the design study of a light-weight and compact integral type reactor of power 100 MWth with passive safety as a power source for the future nuclear ships, and completed an engineering design. To confirm the design and operation performance and to utilize the study of automation of the operations of reactor, we developed a real-time simulator for the integral type reactor. This simulator is a part of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and on the same hardware as 'Mutsu' simulator which was developed to simulate the first Japanese nuclear ship Mutsu'. Simulation accuracy of 'Mutsu' simulator was verified by comparing the simulation results With data got in the experimental voyage of 'Mutsu'. The simulator for the integral type reactor uses the same programs which were used in 'Mutsu' simulator for the separate type PWR, and the simulated results are approximately consistent with the calculated values using RELAP5/MOD2 (The later points are reported separately). Therefore simulation accuracy of the simulator for the integral type reactor is also expected to be reasonable, though it is necessary to verify by comparing with the real plant data or experimental data in future. We can get the perspectives to use as a real-time engineering simulator and to achieve the above-mentioned aims. This is a report on development of the simulator for the integral type reactor mainly focused on the contents of the analytical programs expressed the structural features of reactor. (author)

  1. Formal safety assessment and application of the navigation simulators for preventing human error in ship operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has encouraged its member countries to introduce Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) for ship operations since the end of the last century. FSA can be used through certain formal assessing steps to generate effective recommendations and cautions to control marine risks and improve the safety of ships. On the basis of the brief introduction of FSA, this paper describes the ideas of applying FSA to the prevention of human error in ship operations. It especially discusses the investigation and analysis of the information and data using navigation simulators and puts forward some suggestions for the introduction and development of the FSA research work for safer ship operations.

  2. On the Foundations of the Brussels Operational-Realistic Approach to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-05-01

    The scientific community is becoming more and more interested in the research that applies the mathematical formalism of quantum theory to model human decision-making. In this paper, we provide the theoretical foundations of the quantum approach to cognition that we developed in Brussels. These foundations rest on the results of two decade studies on the axiomatic and operational-realistic approaches to the foundations of quantum physics. The deep analogies between the foundations of physics and cognition lead us to investigate the validity of quantum theory as a general and unitary framework for cognitive processes, and the empirical success of the Hilbert space models derived by such investigation provides a strong theoretical confirmation of this validity. However, two situations in the cognitive realm, `question order effects' and `response replicability', indicate that even the Hilbert space framework could be insufficient to reproduce the collected data. This does not mean that the mentioned operational-realistic approach would be incorrect, but simply that a larger class of measurements would be in force in human cognition, so that an extended quantum formalism may be needed to deal with all of them. As we will explain, the recently derived `extended Bloch representation' of quantum theory (and the associated `general tension-reduction' model) precisely provides such extended formalism, while remaining within the same unitary interpretative framework.

  3. On the Foundations of the Brussels Operational-Realistic Approach to Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community is becoming more and more interested in the research that applies the mathematical formalism of quantum theory to model human decision-making. In this paper, we provide the theoretical foundations of the quantum approach to cognition that we developed in Brussels. These foundations rest on the results of two decade studies on the axiomatic and operational-realistic approaches to the foundations of quantum physics. The deep analogies between the foundations of physics and cognition lead us to investigate the validity of quantum theory as a general and unitary framework for cognitive processes, and the empirical success of the Hilbert space models derived by such investigation provides a strong theoretical confirmation of this validity. However, two situations in the cognitive realm, `question order effects' and `response replicability', indicate that even the Hilbert space framework could be insufficient to reproduce the collected data. This does not mean that the mentioned operational-realistic approach would be incorrect, but simply that a larger class of measurements would be in force in human cognition, so that an extended quantum formalism may be needed to deal with all of them. As we will explain, the recently derived `extended Bloch representation' of quantum theory (and the associated `general tension-reduction' model precisely provides such extended formalism, while remaining within the same unitary interpretative framework.

  4. USING A CONTAINMENT VESSEL LIFTING APPARATUS FOR REMOTE OPERATIONS OF SHIPPING PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, Bradley [Savannah River National Laboratory; Koenig, Richard [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-08

    The 9977 and the 9975 shipping packages are used in various nuclear facilities within the Department of Energy. These shipping packages are often loaded in designated areas with designs using overhead cranes or A-frames with lifting winches. However, there are cases where loading operations must be performed in remote locations where these facility infrastructures do not exist. For these locations, a lifting apparatus has been designed to lift the containment vessels partially out of the package for unloading operations to take place. Additionally, the apparatus allows for loading and closure of the containment vessel and subsequent pre-shipment testing. This paper will address the design of the apparatus and the challenges associated with the design, and it will describe the use of the apparatus.

  5. Paris and Vienna nuclear liability conventions: challenges for insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insurers have actively contributed to the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. In the course of these negotiations they have pointed out that some of the proposals for revision may have consequences for insurers and could prove incapable of finding insurance support. This paper aims at explaining the revision related points, which could cause problems in respect of insurability. Furthermore, the writer takes the liberty to expand its scope to more generally include developments, which have the potential to influence the availability of insurance capacity. Therefore, also the insurance implications of terrorist acts combined with share market developments of recent years will be dealt with.(author)

  6. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships.

  7. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships

  8. Building of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System development of the simulator for the integral type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Teruo; Shimazaki, Junya; Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Fukuhara, Yosifumi; Kusunoki, Takeshi; Ochiai, Masaaki [Department of Nuclear Energy Systems, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakazawa, Toshio [Department of HTTR Project, Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    JAERI had carried out the design study of a light-weight and compact integral type reactor of power 100 MW{sub th} with passive safety as a power source for the future nuclear ships, and completed an engineering design. To confirm the design and operation performance and to utilize the study of automation of the operations of reactor, we developed a real-time simulator for the integral type reactor. This simulator is a part of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and on the same hardware as 'Mutsu' simulator which was developed to simulate the first Japanese nuclear ship Mutsu'. Simulation accuracy of 'Mutsu' simulator was verified by comparing the simulation results With data got in the experimental voyage of 'Mutsu'. The simulator for the integral type reactor uses the same programs which were used in 'Mutsu' simulator for the separate type PWR, and the simulated results are approximately consistent with the calculated values using RELAP5/MOD2 (The later points are reported separately). Therefore simulation accuracy of the simulator for the integral type reactor is also expected to be reasonable, though it is necessary to verify by comparing with the real plant data or experimental data in future. We can get the perspectives to use as a real-time engineering simulator and to achieve the above-mentioned aims. This is a report on development of the simulator for the integral type reactor mainly focused on the contents of the analytical programs expressed the structural features of reactor. (author)

  9. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.)

  10. Mining of Ship Operation Data for Energy Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jóan Petur

    model is introduces through a study of the wellknown sunspot time series, and then on ship data. The dynamical modelling approach is investigated using both the Artificial Neural Network and the Gaussian mixture model. The thesis also presentes a novel and publicly available data set of high quality...... sensory data on which all the models are based and tested. No other similar publicly available data set exists. The data presented is a publicly available full-scale data set, with a whole range of features sampled over a period of 2 months. The data is online with an accompanying homepage, where all...

  11. New legislation on civil liability for nuclear facilities; Nueva legislacion sobre responsabilidad civil en instalaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The criteria followed by the new regulation is to both qualitatively and quantitatively broaden the liability of a nuclear power plant operator. This increase, in both senses, goes above and beyond what the traditional insurance market is technically in a position to handle. This has resulted in the need for public funds to cover what the insurance companies cannot. Enforcement of the requirements of the new regulation has been postponed because most of the signatory countries have not ratified the 2004 Protocol to the Paris convention. At this time it is difficult to say when this will take place. (Author)

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Brussels nuclear reaction rate library (Aikawa+, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, M.; Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Takahashi, K.

    2005-07-01

    The present data is part of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library (BRUSLIB) for astrophysics applications and concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions calculated within the statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation and making use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities (nuclear masses, nuclear structure properties, nuclear level densities, gamma-ray strength functions, optical potentials) entering the rate calculations. (4 data files).

  13. Reviewing the justification and adequacy of existing legal principles governing nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a review of the legal principles governing nuclear third party liability which are applied in most countries, this paper discusses certain reforms to this regime which have already been applied or are being studied in certain countries - namely the fixing of an unlimited amount of liability for nuclear damage. (NEA)

  14. Physics and life-business: Participation of IFIN-HH in ConvEX-3 Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper illustrates a less popular yet by no means less consequential task within IFIN-HH's public mission, namely - to provide scientific advice and technical support in the management of nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. The case in point is ConvEX-3, a 36-hour, 41-actor-countries international alert exercise conducted, May 2005, by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna and targeting a virtual accident at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Romania. A comprehensive Technical Report compiled in the aftermath of the exercise covers the results, as well as the ways and means at work, highlighting the productive complementarities of the two chief tools employed as assessment and decision support: RODOS (Real Time On-line Decision Support) - a 'major league' expert system based on fixed workstations, in development under an EC project and vying for a position of comprehensive, reference European tool 160 in nuclear emergency crises - for which IFIN-HH is the sole licensed operator in Romania; and RAT (Radiological Assessment Toolkit), a 'minor league' domestic counterpart operating at PC level, assembling a vademecum of, mainly U.S.-originated, reference models dwelling in radioactive inventories, source terms, environmental dispersion, dose and derived response levels, cadastral evaluation of impacts, and countermeasure assessment. (authors)

  15. Liability in the transport of nuclear material - Existing liability regimes and gaps in their coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two separate multilateral legal regimes covering liability for loss sustained as a result of harm incurred in incidents involving nuclear materials, including during their transportation by sea. Efforts have been made in recent years to clarify the relationship between them in order to develop a more coherent international regime but the situation remains complicated, unclear and inadequate. Complicated because there are two competing regimes with different memberships. Unclear because the scope of coverage under the two regimes is not identical. Inadequate because they do not assure coastal states suffering economic loss from an incident that they will not be left to bear the costs of such loss. (author)

  16. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor

  17. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  18. The Russian approach to nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a view of the challenges of nuclear liability in the specific context of the Russian Federation's legal system. Starting from the Chernobyl disaster and the benefits of nuclear energy, a detailed examination of the development of both internal law and international law regulating nuclear liability matters in Russia is given. Special attention is paid to the regimes established by bilateral treaties, the system of government bodies responsible for nuclear energy affairs, and the consequences of the 1963 Vienna Convention's entry into force for Russia. The value of Russian experience in finding the resolution of global nuclear liability issues is discussed. (author)

  19. The international nuclear liability and compensation regime put to the test of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It appears that nuclear emergency plans place generally more emphasis on the nuclear safety and radiation protection aspects of the management of an accident, both inside the installation concerned and off-site, than on the particular requirements of local residents who would find themselves suddenly in such an emergency situation and of possible victims of nuclear damage. In a similar vein, studies focusing on the international nuclear third party liability regime usually take a global perspective and leave little room for the treatment of individual cases. The albeit welcome dearth of practical experience in Western countries in providing compensation for accidents of nuclear origin has, however, meant that public and local authorities are not always fully conscious of the importance of this question which should be dealt with in as practical a manner as possible. In order to cover all the legal and practical questions that could arise during the management of the consequences of a nuclear accident with regard to third party liability, insurance and compensation, the OECD/NEA held in co-operation with French authorities a workshop in November 2001. It was decided to organize this workshop according to three main stages: the alert phase, the accident phase and the post-accident phase; and to examine during these three stages the various roles played by local and national authorities, the nuclear operator and his insurer, as well as the nature and form of their respective actions. These questions were addressed both from the angle of applicable domestic legislation and of the relevant international conventions. From the analysis of different national experiences and of the information exchanged during the workshop, a striking diversity may be noted of solutions adopted or envisaged to address various aspects of civil liability, insurance and indemnification of damage in a nuclear emergency situation. This lack of uniformity should not necessarily be

  20. Developments in international convention on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few years after the adoption of a Protocol to amend the world-wide Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a new ''global'' Convention on the Supplementary Compensation of Nuclear Damage (September 1997), the countries which are party to the Western Europe based Paris and Brussels Conventions are working on the revision of these instruments within the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The objective of this exercise is not only to preserve the compatibility of the Paris and Vienna provisions, which is now an imperative deriving from the application of the 1988 Joint Protocol linking these two Conventions, but also to substantially improve certain features of this regime such as its technical and geographical scope of application, the facilitation of the rights of victims to defend their claims and, of course, the level of funds effectively available to compensate the damage. This paper reviews briefly the recent evolution of the international nuclear liability regime and discusses some of the challenges which the nuclear countries are facing in this context. (author)

  1. The contribution of industry to complementary financing of nuclear liability risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The members of OPEN (Association of Nuclear Energy Producers) and UNIPEDE (International Union of Producers and Distributors of Electrical Energy) consider that the creation of a pooling system intended to have industry provide complementary financing of nuclear liability risk cannot be taken for granted at the current stage of discussions. If such a system was set-up, it should respect the following principles: free organization of pools by operators and voluntary association of members; creation of pools on a regional basis; setting of a reasonable maximum contribution for each nuclear installation; system of post event contributions; flexible and economic management of funds

  2. Development of Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem (NESSY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kyouya, Masahiko; Takahashi, Teruo; Kobayashi, Hideo; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1993-11-01

    NESSY has been developed for design studies of advanced marine reactors as a part of nuclear ship research and development since 1987. Engineering simulation model of the Mutsu, which is the first nuclear ship in Japan, was completed in March of 1993. In this report we concentration on detail description of softwares for Mutsu modeling. The aims of development of NESSY are as follows; (1) Assessment and confirmation on plant performance of an advanced marine reactor in each step of nuclear ship design (2) Development of abnormality diagnosis system and operator support system as a part of enhanced automization study, and study of human interface with hardware The characteristics of NESSY are the followings. (1) Total engineering simulation system simulate simultaneously ship motions, propulsion system behavior, and nuclear plant behavior under given weather and sea conditions. (2) Models based on physical theory as far as possible. (3) The simulator has high extensibility and flexibility. It is able to apply to other reactors, as the simulation model consists of the part of basic model and the part of plant data which are easy to change. After completion of Mutsu modeling, we are planning to utilize this system as one of design tools for an advanced marine reactor. (author).

  3. Reassembling Procedure of the Fuel Assemblies for the Nuclear Power Ship ''Mutsu''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan's first voyage utilized by nuclear power was made by the nuclear powered ship ''Mutsu'' in 1990. After a research voyage in 1992, decommissioning work of the nuclear reactor for ''Mutsu'' was started to change it from the nuclear power ship to an ordinary power ship. Thirty-four irradiated fuel assemblies of ''Mutsu'' were removed from the reactor and transported to the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) in Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). ''Mutsu'' fuel assemblies were loaded into a hot cell of RFEF using the roof gate as the top loading procedure. After the reliability confirmation tests, fuel assemblies were reassembled for reprocessing. To perform the reliability confirmation tests and reassembling, new devices were developed and installed in the hot cells, ''Fuel assembly transportation device'' for transporting the fuel assemblies between the hot cells, ''Upper nozzle cutting device'' for removing the upper nozzle from the fuel assembly, ''Fuel rod drawing device'' for drawing a fuel rod from the fuel assembly and so on. Thirty-four fuel assemblies were reassembled as six PWR type fuel assemblies in order to adjust the acceptable specifications of the reprocessing plant in JAEA: the shape of fuel assembly is the same as the PWR type commercial reactor fuel and the average enrichment of uranium in the assembly is under 4.0%. This paper reports the reassembling techniques of the ''Mutsu'' irradiated fuel assemblies for reprocessing. (author)

  4. Liability and damages in Japanese nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese legislation relating to nuclear liability is based on two laws which date back to 1961, i.e. the law concerning compensation for nuclear damage and the law concerning financial damage compensation indemnification. In Japan, the legal channelling of liability is in force, a contractual recourse is not possible unless there is intent. The financial security act in Japan consists of a (third-party) liability insurance contract concluded with a private insurer and the cover contract concluded with the state. According to the agreement on financial security concluded between government and operator, the operator has to pay the state a certain sum per year. Basically, the amount covered is DM 50 million per site. This sum will be increased to DM 90 million. The operator is fully liable. The state is not bound by law to fully cover damages but will be - de facto - prepared to do so anyway. For potential damage to personnel, the social insurance law is applicable as it is in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this damage is intended to be subject to nuclear liability, to be effected by an amendmend. (orig./HP)

  5. Operations manual for the Beneficial Uses Shipping System cask. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronowski, D.R.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the Operations Manual for the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask. These operating instructions address requirements; for loading, shipping, and unloading, supplementing general operational information found in the BUSS Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), SAND 83-0698. Use of the BUSS cask is authorized by Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the shipment of special form cesium chloride or strontium flouride capsules.

  6. Transport and repair of contaminated nuclear components - liabilities and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear park has been constructed fairly recently and has not yet required large-scale maintenance efforts; however account should now be taken of the fact that periodic checks of nuclear power plants will imply systematic transfers of irradiated or contaminated materials outside the plants. In this context, the paper reviews the nuclear third party liability regime under the Paris Convention and the Euratom directives on radiation protection. It then describes the cover offered by insurance pools in several European countries. (NEA)

  7. A Prototype of Ship Routing Decision Support System for an Operational Oceanographic Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianandrea Mannarini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A prototype for an operational ship routing Decision Support System using time-dependent meteo-oceanographic fields is presented. The control variable is ship course, which is modified using a directional resolution of less than 27 degrees. The shortest path is recovered using a modified Dijkstra’s algorithm. Safety restrictions for avoiding surfriding and parametric rolling according to the guidelines of the International Maritime Organization (IMO are implemented. Numerical experiments tailored on a medium-size vessel are presented and perspectives of development of the system are outlined.

  8. Decommissioning of naval nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next decade the two major nuclear powers will each have to decommission more than 100 naval nuclear vessels, in particular submarines. The problems connected with this task is considered in this report. Firstly the size of the task is considered, i.e. the number of nuclear vessels that has to be decommissioned. Secondly the reactors of these vessels, their fuel elements, their power level, the number of reactors per vessel and the amount of radioactivity to be handled are discussed. Thirdly the decommissioning procedures, i.e. The removal of fuel from the vessels, the temporary storage of the reactor fuel near the base, and the cleaning and disposal of the reactor and the primary circuit components are reviewed. Finally alternative uses of the newer submarines are briefly considered. It should be emphasizes that much of the detailed information on which this report is based, may be of dubious nature, and that may to some extent affect the validity of the conclusions of the report. (au)

  9. Design Concept of Propulsion System for Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventurer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halimi, B.; Kim, T. W.; Son, H. M.; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    This work centers about advantages of nuclear power propulsion with various naval applications such as military surface ship, submarine, and ice breaker. These applications are required to work for a long periods of time on the ocean, where supply of fuel is complicated and sometimes impracticable. A preliminary design concept is presented of the propulsion system for the Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventurer (NOVA). NOVA employs the Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS), a small fast integral reactor cooled by natural circulation and the Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS), a supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) driven Brayton cycle, as power converter to the Naval Application Vessel Integral System (NAVIS)

  10. 75 FR 48283 - Liability for Termination of Single-Employer Plans; Treatment of Substantial Cessation of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... 71 FR 34819), PBGC published a final rule providing a formula for computing liability under section... penalties are not the only applicable enforcement mechanism. On July 18, 1995 (at 60 FR 36837), PBGC issued... operation to fabricate widget parts for use in the employer's own widget manufactory or for sale to...

  11. Legal analysis at the Law for Civil liabilities by nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has the objective to analyse in specific terms the legal regime of the Civil liability by nuclear damage. It has been the intention of that this compilation is the initiation of a large way which awake the interests of jurists and specialists dedicated to study the aspects as the liability by nuclear damage, compensation guarantee, risk and nuclear damage among others. The peaceful applications of the nuclear energy require the necessity of a legal ordinance that it is updated according to the nuclear technology development that the regulations of the common law do not cover. This work is initiated mentioning some antecedents of the nuclear energy law in Mexico. Also is realized the study of the elemental concepts and definitions about the subject as the evolution of the legal figure in the National law frame where the jurist must do an incursion in the nuclear field and make use of scientific and technical terminology. It was analysed and it was made the reflection of the legal figure of liability, its exoneration cases, about the concepts of risk and nuclear damage overcoming the conceptual error among them. It is talked about the study of nuclear damage and its repairing as financial guarantee to compensate to the people injured by a nuclear accident. Finally, it was treated about the legal analysis and proposals of additions and reforms for updating the Nuclear damage liability Law, concluding with general contributions to the Law resulting products of this work. (Author)

  12. Separator assembly for use in spent nuclear fuel shipping cask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholz, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A separator assembly for use in a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask has a honeycomb-type wall structure defining parallel cavities for holding nuclear fuel assemblies. Tubes formed of an effective neutron-absorbing material are embedded in the wall structure around each of the cavities and provide neutron flux traps when filled with water.

  13. Collision proof properties associated with the ships operated by Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd. and damage survivability in the event of a collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date there have been many reports and papers presented considering the effects of ship fires and collisions on the transport packages (casks). The study presented is to explain the collision proof properties associated with the ships operated by Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd. And to provide an explanation of their damage survivability in the event of a collision. This paper discounts the possible effects on the individual package but considers purely, the survivability of the vessel after a severe collision with another vessel. (author)

  14. ATTRACTORS FOR THE BRUSSELATOR IN RN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yongqian; Guo Boling

    2007-01-01

    We consider the reaction-diffusion system, a model of a certain chemical morphogenetic process and named Brusselator. For the Cauchy problem of this system with nondecaying initial data, the existence and uniqueness of the global solution is established. Moreover, it is proved that this system possesses a global attractor A in the corresponding phase space.

  15. Ship Sensor Observations for Operation Deep Scope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Operation Deep Scope 2007" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  16. Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage. Official Records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Official Records of the Conference contain the summary records of the plenary meetings and of the meetings of the Committee of the Whole, the text of the Convention, the Optional Protocol, the Final Act, the resolutions adopted by the Conference and the reports of the committees and sub-committees, as well as all other documents which were submitted to the plenary and the Committee of the Whole. These Official Records also contain a complete index of documents relevant to each Article of the Convention according to its number in the final text. The history of the preparatory studies and documents is summarized on pages 39, 40 and 65-86. The symbols of International Atomic Energy Agency documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to an International Atomic Energy Agency document. The summary records of the plenary meetings and of the meetings of the Committee of the Whole contained in this volume were originally circulated in mimeographed form as documents CN-12/OR/1 to 7 and CN-12, CW/OR. 1 to 24 respectively. As printed in this volume they include the corrections to the provisional summary records that were requested by the delegations and such drafting and editorial changes as were considered necessary. These official records are available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. (author)

  17. Future of nuclear energy in the enlarged European Union: a perspective from Brussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a trade association of the European nuclear industry FORATOM works to enhance the relations between the industry and European institutions, provides information on nuclear energy to the European institutions, considers the EU enlargement process as the top priority in the lobbying actions. FORATOM working groups focus on the following subjects: accession, climate change, legal affairs, nuclear research and development, decommissioning, quality management, waste, transport, security of supply and sustainable development. The paper presents the current activities and future tasks in the EUs changing operational environment

  18. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  19. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  20. Propulsion of space ships by nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, J. G.; Kravárik, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in the research on deuterium-tritium (D-T) inertially confined microexplosions encourages one to reconsider the nuclear propulsion of spaceships based on the concept originally proposed in the Orion project. We discuss first the acceleration of medium-sized spaceships by D-T explosions whose output is in the range of 0.1 10 t of TNT. The launching of such a ship into an Earth orbit or beyond by a large nuclear explosion in an underground cavity is sketched out in the second section of the paper, and finally we consider a hypothetical Mars mission based on these concepts. In the conclusion it is argued that propulsion based on the Orion concept only is not the best method for interplanetary travel owing to the very large number of nuclear explosion required. A combination of a super gun and subsequent rocket propulsion using advanced chemical fuels appears to be the best solution for space flights of the near future.

  1. ANI [American Nuclear Insurers] support and research facility nuclear liability insurance inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    American Nuclear Insurers (ANI), a voluntary association of insurance companies, provides property and nuclear liability insurance protection to the nuclear industry. It generally offers insurance coverage to nuclear facilities, suppliers, and transporters for the following: (1) their liability for damages because of bodily injury and/or property damage caused by the nuclear energy hazard, and (2) all-risk damage to nuclear facilities. Among the range of facilities and suppliers insured by ANI are (a) operators of nuclear power plants that supply electricity for the general public, (b) operators of nuclear testing and research reactors, (c) fuel fabricators that manufacture fuel for use in reactors, (d) operators of facilities that dispose of nuclear waste that cannot be salvaged, (e) facilities that maintain and repair equipment used at nuclear facilities, (f) nuclear laundries, and (g) low-level-waste processors. The fundamental goal of the ANI nuclear engineering inspection program is to provide protection to pool members' assets by reducing insurance risk

  2. Nuclear energy: liability for damage to the environment according to the National Environmental Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiras, Sergio Alves; Couto, Roberto Toscano [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Liability for damage of the environment is the kind of subject which arouses heated debates in the nuclear energy field among the jurists. Brazil lacks a specific environmental law upon which settlement on questions of nuclear damage could be based. In spite of such lackness, considerable progress has been achieved with the obligatory elaboration of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the constitutional rules establishing competence and responsibilities on this matter, and some scattered laws. The objective of this work is to focus the responsibility of the Union that exercised the monopoly of nuclear activities, its agents and the team of experts which elaborate the EIA as well as the damage to the environment from a nuclear accident. This study is based on the legal definitions of nuclear reactor, radioactive waste and product, radioisotope, among others. It also focuses some proposed amendments of the law regulating both the civil and criminal liabilities for nuclear damage. (author). 7 refs.

  3. Nuclear energy: liability for damage to the environment according to the National Environmental Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liability for damage of the environment is the kind of subject which arouses heated debates in the nuclear energy field among the jurists. Brazil lacks a specific environmental law upon which settlement on questions of nuclear damage could be based. In spite of such lackness, considerable progress has been achieved with the obligatory elaboration of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the constitutional rules establishing competence and responsibilities on this matter, and some scattered laws. The objective of this work is to focus the responsibility of the Union that exercised the monopoly of nuclear activities, its agents and the team of experts which elaborate the EIA as well as the damage to the environment from a nuclear accident. This study is based on the legal definitions of nuclear reactor, radioactive waste and product, radioisotope, among others. It also focuses some proposed amendments of the law regulating both the civil and criminal liabilities for nuclear damage. (author). 7 refs

  4. Knowledge-based full-automatic control system for a nuclear ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant operations aboard nuclear ships require quick judgements and actions due to changing marine conditions such as wind, waves and currents. Furthermore, additional human support is not available for nuclear ship operation at sea, so advanced automatic operations are necessary to reduce the number of operators required finally. Therefore, an advanced automatic operating system has been developed based on operational knowledge of nuclear ship 'Mutsu' plant. The advanced automatic operating system includes both the automatic operation system and the operator-support system which assists operators in completing actions during plant accidents, anomaly diagnosis and plant supervision. These system are largely being developed using artificial intelligent techniques such as neural network, fuzzy logic and knowledge-based expert. The automatic operation system is fundamentally based upon application of an operator's knowledge of both normal (start-up to rated power level) and abnormal (after scram) operations. Comparing plant behaviors from start-up to power level by the automatic operation with by 'Mutsu' manual operation, stable automatic operation was obtained almost same as manual operation within all operating limits. The abnormal automatic system was for hard work of manual operations after scram or LOCA accidents. An integrating system with the normal and the abnormal automatic systems are being developed for interacting smoothly both systems. (author)

  5. Knowledge-based full-automatic control system for a nuclear ship reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, J.; Nakazawa, T.; Yabuuchi, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Plant operations aboard nuclear ships require quick judgements and actions due to changing marine conditions such as wind, waves and currents. Furthermore, additional human support is not available for nuclear ship operation at sea, so advanced automatic operations are necessary to reduce the number of operators required finally. Therefore, an advanced automatic operating system has been developed based on operational knowledge of nuclear ship 'Mutsu' plant. The advanced automatic operating system includes both the automatic operation system and the operator-support system which assists operators in completing actions during plant accidents, anomaly diagnosis and plant supervision. These system are largely being developed using artificial intelligent techniques such as neural network, fuzzy logic and knowledge-based expert. The automatic operation system is fundamentally based upon application of an operator's knowledge of both normal (start-up to rated power level) and abnormal (after scram) operations. Comparing plant behaviors from start-up to power level by the automatic operation with by 'Mutsu' manual operation, stable automatic operation was obtained almost same as manual operation within all operating limits. The abnormal automatic system was for hard work of manual operations after scram or LOCA accidents. An integrating system with the normal and the abnormal automatic systems are being developed for interacting smoothly both systems. (author)

  6. Sensors systems for the automation of operations in the ship repair industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pedro Javier; Muro, Juan Suardíaz; Alcover, Pedro María; Fernández-Isla, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hull cleaning before repainting is a key operation in the maintenance of ships. For years, a method to improve such operation has been sought by means of the robotization of techniques such as grit blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting. Despite this, it continues to be standard practice in shipyards that this process is carried out manually because the developed robotized systems are too expensive to be widely accepted by shipyards. We have chosen to apply a more conservative and realistic approach to this problem, which has resulted in the development of several solutions that have been designed with different automation and operation range degrees. These solutions are fitted with most of the elements already available in many shipyards, so the installation of additional machinery in the workplace would not be necessary. This paper describes the evolutionary development of sensor systems for the automation of the preparation process of ship hull surfaces before the painting process is performed. Such evolution has given rise to the development of new technologies for coating removal.

  7. Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage which was adopted by a Diplomatic Conference, 8-12 September 1997, and the consolidated text of the 1963 Vienna Convention as amended by the Protocol

  8. The Effective Duration and Convexity of Liabilities for Property-Liability Insurers Under Stochastic Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin C. Ahlgrim; Stephen P D'Arcy; Richard W. Gorvett

    2004-01-01

    Managing interest rate risk for property-liability insurers requires appropriate measurement of the sensitivity of liabilities to movements in interest rates. Most prior studies have assumed that interest rates shift in a parallel fashion and that the cash flows from liabilities are unaffected by interest rate changes. This article recognizes that unpaid property-liability (P-L) insurance losses are inflation-sensitive, that movements in interest rates will affect future claim payouts due to ...

  9. Ship nuclear power device of cable aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable for marine nuclear power plant continuous delivery of electrical energy. Cable is mostly in the high temperature and strong radiation and harsh working environment, and can not be replaced in the lifetime This should be the cable aging management methods through research, maintenance and repair program to provide a scientific basis. Cable aging management approach for a number of different levels of cable management at different levels, relying on computers and other modern tools, the use of information management database software maintenance of the cable through the science of aging control. Cable Aging Management including the scope of cable aging management, classification management basis and used for different levels of management supervision and implementation of means testing approach. Application of the ship that has the operational management science, both planned maintenance to improve the science, but also improves the efficiency of aging management. This management method can be extended to nuclear power plants of cable aging management. (authors)

  10. Conflict of law issues related to Switzerland's participation in the Paris Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the active role Switzerland played during the negotiation process of the Paris Convention, it only recently ratified the Convention including all its amending Protocols. The whole Paris regime will become binding for Switzerland only upon entry into force of the Protocols of 2004. Concurrently, the Federal Council will put into force a revised Swiss Nuclear Liability Act and ratify the Joint Protocol. Being a party to the Paris regime and the Joint Protocol, Switzerland will be in treaty relationships with Paris states and with Vienna states which are party to the Joint Protocol. This paper assesses the legal protection of Swiss victims and the liability risks faced by Swiss operators and other potential defendants (such as suppliers and builders) under the new legal regime with a particular view to conflict of laws issues. For the purpose of this assessment the paper examines which courts will be competent to hear claims of Swiss victims and against Swiss defendants in different scenarios, which law these courts should apply, whether or not the principle of legal channelling will apply and what the applicable liability amounts are. The assessment shows an ambiguous picture: Swiss operators, suppliers and builders clearly benefit from a higher degree of legal certainty. While in the absence of treaty relationships Swiss operators could potentially be sued before any foreign court, there will now be only one court with jurisdiction over claims of victims of convention states; Swiss suppliers and builders for their part will be protected by the principle of legal channelling, which basically exempts them from any liability risk. Swiss victims will benefit from treaty-backed entitlement to compensation from foreign operators; also, the judgements rendered in their favour will be enforceable in the whole convention territory; however, the limitation of the operator's liability in many Paris and Vienna states, raises doubts about whether the available funds

  11. The nuclear liability conventions as applied to radioactive waste geological repositories: the test of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While most of the radioactive waste resulting from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is still stored on the site of the installations where it was generated, a growing number of countries are in the course of opening and operating dedicated facilities for their ultimate disposal. In respect of high-level or long-lived waste, emplacement in deep geologic repositories is generally regarded as the safest solution. This requires of course that a suitable legal framework be established beforehand and that, as is the case for all nuclear activities, the potential victims of an accident be protected. When considering if and how the international system of liability and compensation for nuclear damage may apply to geologic repositories' used for the disposal of radioactive waste (including spent fuel if treated as waste), two different questions need to be addressed. The first is whether the existing rules are suitable in respect of the 'active' operation of these repositories. The other is whether one may be confident that this system (in fact, any legal system) will continue to apply in the very long term after the closure of repositories. This paper will undertake to address both of these questions, while acknowledging that to answer the second is a somewhat speculative exercise. Under international nuclear-liability conventions,' damage caused by radioactive waste is in principle subject to the same regime of liability and compensation as other types of nuclear materials. There is no indication that the authors of these Conventions, adopted in the early 1960's, intended to discriminate between them. As a matter of fact, the absence of specific provisions in relation to the risks created by the disposal of radioactive waste (RW) did not raise any particular difficulty for many years. Indeed, it is only after several years of application that the question of whether these Conventions did cover facilities especially designed for the long-term storage or disposal of such

  12. 19 CFR 141.1 - Liability of importer for duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability of importer for duties. 141.1 Section... Merchandise § 141.1 Liability of importer for duties. (a) Time duties accrue. Duties and the liability for... for by law. (b) Payment of duties—(1) Personal debt of importer. The liability for duties,...

  13. The internationalization of health care: the UZ Brussel model for international partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppen, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Globalization of health care, flat medicine, cross-boarder health care, medical tourism, are all terms describing some, but not all, aspects of a growing trend: patients seeking health care provision abroad, and health care providers travelling abroad for temporary or permanent health care delivery services. This trend is a complex, bilateral and multifaceted phenomenon, which in our opinion, cannot be sustained in a single, comprehensive description. Individual hospitals have the unique opportunity to develop a model for appropriate action. The specific model created by the university hospital UZ Brussel is presented here. PMID:23484427

  14. The internationalization of health care: the UZ Brussel model for international partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppen, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Globalization of health care, flat medicine, cross-boarder health care, medical tourism, are all terms describing some, but not all, aspects of a growing trend: patients seeking health care provision abroad, and health care providers travelling abroad for temporary or permanent health care delivery services. This trend is a complex, bilateral and multifaceted phenomenon, which in our opinion, cannot be sustained in a single, comprehensive description. Individual hospitals have the unique opportunity to develop a model for appropriate action. The specific model created by the university hospital UZ Brussel is presented here.

  15. OrgConv: detection of gene conversion using consensus sequences and its application in plant mitochondrial and chloroplast homologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Weilong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ancestry of mitochondria and chloroplasts traces back to separate endosymbioses of once free-living bacteria. The highly reduced genomes of these two organelles therefore contain very distant homologs that only recently have been shown to recombine inside the mitochondrial genome. Detection of gene conversion between mitochondrial and chloroplast homologs was previously impossible due to the lack of suitable computer programs. Recently, I developed a novel method and have, for the first time, discovered recurrent gene conversion between chloroplast mitochondrial genes. The method will further our understanding of plant organellar genome evolution and help identify and remove gene regions with incongruent phylogenetic signals for several genes widely used in plant systematics. Here, I implement such a method that is available in a user friendly web interface. Results OrgConv (Organellar Conversion is a computer package developed for detection of gene conversion between mitochondrial and chloroplast homologous genes. OrgConv is available in two forms; source code can be installed and run on a Linux platform and a web interface is available on multiple operating systems. The input files of the feature program are two multiple sequence alignments from different organellar compartments in FASTA format. The program compares every examined sequence against the consensus sequence of each sequence alignment rather than exhaustively examining every possible combination. Making use of consensus sequences significantly reduces the number of comparisons and therefore reduces overall computational time, which allows for analysis of very large datasets. Most importantly, with the significantly reduced number of comparisons, the statistical power remains high in the face of correction for multiple tests. Conclusions Both the source code and the web interface of OrgConv are available for free from the OrgConv website http

  16. Third party liability of nuclear installation decommissioning with Russian nuclear submarines as an example: insurance versus technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third party and environment of civil liability damage caused by incidents at military nuclear installations, for instance at decommissioned NPS (nuclear powered submarines), may be divided into three main trends: -) Liability of NPS without high-enriched irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) for its self-submersion (radiation incident); -) Liability of NPS with SNF aboard for its self-submersion (radiation incident); and -) Liability of floating NPS for its SNF discharge (nuclear accident). Without step-by-step transition from the Russian Federation guaranties to insurance and making allowance for liability limits according to the Vienna Convention approach, the sizes of the financial guarantee for the civil liability of the NPS owner (Russian state), in US dollars of 2000, are approximately assessed as the following: -) storing decommissioned NPS or a floating module without SNF - from 12 to 25 thousand dollars per year (per one submarine or module); -) storing decommissioned NPS with SNF inside reactors cores - from 25 to 40 thousand dollars per year; -) assembly-by-assembly removing SNF from reactors' core of decommissioned NPS - up to 1.5 million dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period; -) SNF removing within reactor using the filled in-space reactor's core by liquid-phased hardened or dispersed solid-phase materials from decommissioned NPS - from 30 to 50 thousand dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period. Both rates and sums for NPS with damaged reactors are to be estimated for the each damaged reactor and NPS at all. It is necessary to perform the measures reducing the risk of nuclear accidents of NPS with undamaged SNF and NPS with damaged reactors in possibly short time. It will allow not only to cut risks by ten times and more, but also to accumulate necessary insurance reserves faster. These measures can be partially or completely executed using the preventing measures reserves assigned to all decommissioned Russian NPS and

  17. substantiation of nuclear safety ensuring for storing LWR cores, including damaged ones, in NPP of Russian out of service nuclear powered submarines, surface ships and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lot of Russian nuclear ships and vessels, first nuclear powered submarines (NPS) with light water coolant are out of service and non-defueled. The critical economic situation in Russia doesn't allow solving this problem for the tolerable run. The nuclear and radiation safety of such cores long-term storage in the ships and vessels afloat must be ensured. The other serious problem to be tackled by nuclear experts and organizations is the mooring of NPS with accident nuclear powered plants (NPP). The damaged cores should be explored, and their nuclear safety must be ultimately enhanced. The protection of the nearest and distant population and regions from the nuclear man-made hazards caused by the retired non-defueled floating NPS could be ensured by the draining of the core in reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and the filling of the core by heavy melt or pure liquid metal. A metal must possess the necessary nuclear and chemical properties, and thermal hydraulics conditions as well as the properties of the self-solidified in RPV the inert metal. The principal findings, especially the ship's reactor criticality reduction and the fixation of fuel elements in the RPV structure, are of great importance for the prevention of any emergency and the non-proliferation of high-enriched SNF from the naval reactors at the all stages of the handling with the in-RPV core. (author)

  18. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  19. A Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime of a Multilateral Nuclear Approaches Framework in the Asian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two primary challenges for establishing nuclear third party liability (TPL regimes within multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Asian region. The first challenge is to ensure secure and prompt compensation, especially for transboundary damages, which is also a challenge for a nation-based facility. One possible solution is that in order to share common nuclear TPL principles, all states in the region participate in the same international nuclear TPL convention, such as the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC, with a view to its entry into force in the future. One problem with this approach is that many states in the Asian region need to raise their amount of financial security in order to be able to participate in the CSC. The second challenge lies with the multiple MNA member states and encompasses the question of how decisions are to be made and responsabilities of an installation state are to be shared in case of a nuclear incident. Principally, a host state of the MNA facility takes on this responsibility. However, in certain situations and in agreement with all MNA member states, such responsibilities can be indirectly shared among all MNA member states. This can be done through internal arrangements within the MNA framework, such as reimbursement to a host state based on pre-agreed shares in accordance with investment and/or making deposits on such reimbursements in case of an incident.

  20. Quality Assurance for Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes QA activities performed within 'Quality Assurance for Nuclear facility project' and results thereof. Efforts were made to maintain and improve quality system of nuclear facilities. Varification activities whether quality system was implemented in compliance with requirements. QA department assisted KOLAS accredited testing and calibration laboratories, ISO 9001 quality system, establishment of QA programs for R and D, and carried out reviews and surveys for development of quality assurance technologies. Major items of this report are as follows : - Development and Improvement of QA Programs - QA Activities - Assessment of Effectiveness and Adequacy for QA Programs

  1. Nuclear power: An evolving scenario. 2 March 2004, Brussels, Belgium. European Parliament Conference: 'Energy Choices for Europe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of nuclear power remains a very mixed picture - but with some signs that change could be on the horizon. At the end of last year there were 440 nuclear power units operating worldwide. Together, they supply about 16% of the world's electricity. That percentage has remained relatively steady for almost 20 years, meaning that nuclear electricity generation has grown at essentially the same rate as total electricity use worldwide. Nuclear electricity generation is concentrated in developed countries. Current expansion and growth prospects for nuclear power are centred in Asia. Of the 31 units under construction worldwide, 18 are located in India, Japan, South Korea and China, including Taiwan. Twenty of the last 29 reactors to be connected to the grid are also in the Far East and South Asia. Although the focus of this international effort was on improving safety, the secondary benefit was a steady increase in nuclear plant availability and productivity. Some analysts believe the case for new nuclear construction in Europe is gaining new ground, for a number of reasons: Carbon Emissions, Security of Supply, Comparative Public Health Risk. As we look to the future, certain key challenges are, in my view, of direct relevance to the future viability of nuclear power. The greatest challenge lies in the development of clear global and national strategies for the management and disposal of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste. A second key challenge relates to safety performance. The third key challenge - nuclear security - should come as no surprise. A related but separate challenge is the prevention of nuclear weapons proliferation. A final challenge is innovation, encouraging the development of new reactor and fuel cycle technologies. To be successful, these innovative technologies should address concerns related to nuclear safety, proliferation and waste generation, and must be able to generate electricity at competitive prices. In conclusion

  2. The need to bring the new global regime of civil nuclear liability to life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident raised consciousness around the world about civil liability issues. People in Australia and elsewhere looked at the existing international nuclear liability regime and concluded that it was inadequate. The amount of compensation available under the regime was too low. The regime did not cover environmental damage. Australia decided to take an active role in the proceedings of the Standing Committee on Nuclear liability. Australia has a favourable judgment on the new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for nuclear damages. It provided for a dedicated fund for transboundary damage, the inclusion of environmental damage, the lion's share of the contributions to the international fund established under the Convention to be borne by nuclear power generating states, jurisdiction over actions concerning nuclear damage from a nuclear accident in a Party's territory or Exclusive Economic Zone to lie with the courts of that Party. It reproaches this Convention for compensable damage to be determined by the law of the competent court, and the necessity of emission of ionizing radiations for the Convention to take effect. (N.C.)

  3. Airport operator and aircraft operator in case of bird strike. Relations, obligations and liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia KACZYŃSKA-ADAMCZYK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air transport is subject to various risks. One of them is bird strike hazard. Despite numerous regulations concerning prevention from this type of occurrence, it is not possible to eliminate them entirely.Bird strikes most often take place during take-off and landing, that is on or in the vicinity of an airport. For that reason airport operators are the first parties that can be made accountable for this occurence. International law imposes numerous responsibilities on airport operators in terms of bird strike hazard prevention on air operations, thus placing airport operators in a “key position” in the system of safety. However, the party that suffers significant damages in the first instance, is the aircraft operator. If a bird strike takes place on or in the vicinity of an airport, an aicraft operator can sue the airport operator for compensation of damages. Generally, the issue of indemnity is subject to out of court negotiations, however instances in which there is a lack of agreement between the parties, i.e. airport operator, aircraft operator or their insurers, lead to legal proceedings for compensation.This article attempts to illustrate the relationship between air traffic participants such as airport operators and aircraft operators in connection with their obligations and liability, particulary taking into account the legal obligations of an airport operator.

  4. Implementation and ongoing development of a comprehensive program to deal with Canada's nuclear legacy liabilities - 16039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are located at AECL research and prototype reactor sites, and consist of shutdown reactors, research facilities and associated infrastructure, a wide variety of buried and stored waste, and contaminated lands. In 2006, the Government of Canada adopted a new long-term strategy to deal with the nuclear legacy liabilities and initiated a five-year, $520 million (Canadian dollars) start-up phase, thereby creating the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The objective of the long-term strategy is to safely and cost-effectively reduce risks and liabilities based on sound waste management and environmental principles in the best interests of Canadians. The five-year plan is directed at addressing health, safety and environmental priorities, accelerating the decontamination and demolition of shutdown buildings, and laying the groundwork for future phases of the strategy. It also includes public consultation to inform the further development of the strategy and provides for continued care and maintenance activities at the sites. The NLLP is being implemented through a Memorandum of Understanding between Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and AECL whereby NRCan is responsible for policy direction and oversight, including control of funding, and AECL is responsible for carrying out the work and holding and administering all licences, facilities and lands. The paper summarizes achievements during the first three years of program implementation in the areas of decommissioning and dismantling; waste recovery and environmental restoration; the construction of enabling facilities to analyze, handle and store the legacy waste; and, planning for the long-term management of the radioactive waste. (authors)

  5. Analysis of Possible Application of High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors to Contemporary Large-Output Steam Power Plants on Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk T.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analysis of possible application of helium to cooling high-temperature nuclear reactor to be used for generating steam in contemporary ship steam-turbine power plants of a large output with taking into account in particular variable operational parameters. In the first part of the paper types of contemporary ship power plants are presented. Features of today applied PWR reactors and proposed HTR reactors are discussed. Next, issues of load variability of the ship nuclear power plants, features of the proposed thermal cycles and results of their thermodynamic calculations in variable operational conditions, are presented.

  6. Nuclear waste management, reactor decommisioning, nuclear liability and public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with several issues that are frequently raised by the public in any discussion of nuclear energy, and explores some aspects of public attitudes towards nuclear-related activities. The characteristics of the three types of waste associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. mine/mill tailings, reactor wastes and nuclear fuel wastes, are defined, and the methods currently being proposed for their safe handling and disposal are outlined. The activities associated with reactor decommissioning are also described, as well as the Canadian approach to nuclear liability. The costs associated with nuclear waste management, reactor decommissioning and nuclear liability are also discussed. Finally, the issue of public attitudes towards nuclear energy is addressed. It is concluded that a simple and comprehensive information program is needed to overcome many of the misconceptions that exist about nuclear energy and to provide the public with a more balanced information base on which to make decisions

  7. Heavy metal coolant for safe storage of the core in a ship nuclear power unit (NPU), extraction, transportation and storage of the ship reactor vessel with core outside the NPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological and organization-technological solutions of the following problems are proposed: 1) increase in the safety of the spent nuclear fuel storage in the ship nuclear power unit (NPU) on the nuclear submarine (NSM); 2) increase in the nuclear and radiation safety of the ship nuclear power unit of the NSM with nonunloaded cores; 3) extraction and removal of the reactor vessel with the core from the ship NPU of the NSM

  8. INFLUENCE OF OPERABILITY CRITERIA LIMITING VALUES ON SHIP SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Prpić-Oršić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the ship is caught in heavy seas, there are two manoeuvres that the shipmaster can undertake to avoid excessive ship motion and hull damage: changing course or voluntary speed reduction. This paper presents a study of the effect of the various voluntary speed reduction criteria to attainable speed of ship on seaway. The speed loss is calculated by taking into account wind and wave effect on ship speed, the engine and propeller performance in actual seas as well as the mass inertia of the ship. The attainable ship speed for ship in head, following and beam waves by accounting for voluntary speed reduction is estimated for various significant wave height. The criteria of slamming, deck wetness, propeller emergence, excessive accelerations and roll are taken into account. The impact of variations of the limiting values of certain criteria due to which the captain intentionally reduces the ship speed is analysed and discussed.

  9. Nuclearity for Dual Operator Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhe Dong; Jicheng Tao

    2010-02-01

    In this short paper, we study the nuclearity for the dual operator space $V^∗$ of an operator space . We show that $V^∗$ is nuclear if and only if $V^{∗∗∗}$ is injective, where $V^{∗∗∗}$ is the third dual of . This is in striking contrast to the situation for general operator spaces. This result is used to prove that $V^{∗∗}$ is nuclear if and only if is nuclear and $V^{∗∗}$ is exact.

  10. Legal analysis at the Law for Civil liabilities by nuclear damage; Analisis juridico a la Ley de responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez G, A

    2000-07-01

    The present work has the objective to analyse in specific terms the legal regime of the Civil liability by nuclear damage. It has been the intention of that this compilation is the initiation of a large way which awake the interests of jurists and specialists dedicated to study the aspects as the liability by nuclear damage, compensation guarantee, risk and nuclear damage among others. The peaceful applications of the nuclear energy require the necessity of a legal ordinance that it is updated according to the nuclear technology development that the regulations of the common law do not cover. This work is initiated mentioning some antecedents of the nuclear energy law in Mexico. Also is realized the study of the elemental concepts and definitions about the subject as the evolution of the legal figure in the National law frame where the jurist must do an incursion in the nuclear field and make use of scientific and technical terminology. It was analysed and it was made the reflection of the legal figure of liability, its exoneration cases, about the concepts of risk and nuclear damage overcoming the conceptual error among them. It is talked about the study of nuclear damage and its repairing as financial guarantee to compensate to the people injured by a nuclear accident. Finally, it was treated about the legal analysis and proposals of additions and reforms for updating the Nuclear damage liability Law, concluding with general contributions to the Law resulting products of this work. (Author)

  11. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy

  12. Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage. Final act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the Final Act of the Diplomatic Conference held in Vienna between 8-12 September 1997 which adopted the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  13. Content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts, both raw and prepared for consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Slupski, Jacek; Skoczen-Slupska, Radoslawa; Kmiecik, Waldemar [Department of Raw Materials and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Agricultural University of Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts. The investigation included the raw material, cooked sample and two types of frozen product stored at -20 C for 12 months and then prepared for consumption. The frozen products investigated were obtained using the traditional method (blanching before freezing) and the modified method (cooking before freezing, then defrosting and heating in microwave oven after refrigerated storage) of the ready-to-eat type. Brussels sprouts, both fresh and prepared for consumption, were a good source of protein and amino acids. Proline and glutamic acid were dominating; leucine and tyrosine with phenylalanine were limiting amino acids. The product obtained by modified method contained 16% less amino acids in 16 g N than the raw material and 14% less than the raw material after cooking, and also 10% lower than that of the traditionally obtained product. (author)

  14. Evaluation of radioactive inventory of nuclear ship MUTSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ezure, H. [Nuclear Safety Research Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The operation of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU was terminated in January 1992. Radioactivities and dose rates on the surfaces of reactor components were measured in order to estimate the residual radioactive inventory in the MUTSU. The predicted radioactive inventory due to neutron activation was calculated by using a computer code systems. The results show good correlation between predicted and measured values radioactivities in the core baffle plate. The radioactive inventory was estimated to be 8.4 x 10{sup 14} Bq as of 1.5 years from the final shutdown of reactor operation. The contamination in reactor components was estimated from the contamination level measured in the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR), from which the dose rates in the reactor room were calculated. The radioactive inventory due to contamination was estimated at 3.4 x 10{sup 10} Bq. Some difference was found between these calculations and measurements. (Author).

  15. Measurement and computer simulation of antennas on ships and aircraft for results of operational reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubina, Stanley J.

    1989-09-01

    The review of the status of computational electromagnetics by Miller and the exposition by Burke of the developments in one of the more important computer codes in the application of the electric field integral equation method, the Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC), coupled with Molinet's summary of progress in techniques based on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD), provide a clear perspective on the maturity of the modern discipline of computational electromagnetics and its potential. Audone's exposition of the application to the computation of Radar Scattering Cross-section (RCS) is an indication of the breadth of practical applications and his exploitation of modern near-field measurement techniques reminds one of progress in the measurement discipline which is essential to the validation or calibration of computational modeling methodology when applied to complex structures such as aircraft and ships. The latter monograph also presents some comparison results with computational models. Some of the results presented for scale model and flight measurements show some serious disagreements in the lobe structure which would require some detailed examination. This also applies to the radiation patterns obtained by flight measurement compared with those obtained using wire-grid models and integral equation modeling methods. In the examples which follow, an attempt is made to match measurements results completely over the entire 2 to 30 MHz HF range for antennas on a large patrol aircraft. The problem of validating computer models of HF antennas on a helicopter and using computer models to generate radiation pattern information which cannot be obtained by measurements are discussed. The use of NEC computer models to analyze top-side ship configurations where measurement results are not available and only self-validation measures are available or at best comparisons with an alternate GTD computer modeling technique is also discussed.

  16. International law on nuclear liability - a critical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuski, J.Z. [Nicolas Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The author discusses in detail the following topics: Compensation for domestic nuclear damage and for transfrontier nuclear damage - rule of formal equality of parties which belongs to the basic rule of civil law considering the position of domestic and foreign victims of a grave accident-juridical consequences of the preponderant role played by the state in the promotion, development and supervision of the nuclear industry-rationale for applying the concept of global limitation of liability in the law on nuclear liability and compensation - financial consequences of uncompensated nuclear damage, borne by the victims directly affected or spread over the whole community of the affected state? (HP)

  17. Effects of ship`s vibration and motion on plant parameters. Report on sea trials of nuclear ship MUTSU made first in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kamiya, Eisei; Kudou, Takahiro; Naitoh, Akira; Tominaga, Mineo

    1992-03-01

    Present report was written about the study of the effects of ship`s vibration and motion on reactor plant performances measured and analyzed to confirm the total balance for control systems of reactor to propulsion. On July 10, 1990, or on the first day of the first voyage for the power up test, the sea trials of MUTSU, nuclear ship made first in Japan, started from the anchoring test. The trial tests had finished through the third voyage between October 30 and November 9 to the fourth voyage between 7 and 14 of December. The trial tests had been conducted over ten items or so containing in-house tests of the measurements of ship`s vibration and motion in order to research the effects on reactor performance. We here call the in-house tests the plant correlation tests. In regard to the correlation with ship`s vibration, we confirmed that the inherent vibrations of hull and reactor containment arisen from ship structure had precisely been measured and that the plant correlations due to the hull and local vibrations arising from propeller revolutions are very small. Concerning the correlation with ship`s motion, it was shown that her rolling motion strongly had affected on the propulsion system such as shaft power and shaft revolutions. About the correlation with reactor systems it was found that her pitching motion had given effect on the water level in pressurizer, primary coolant average temperature, {epsilon}-signal of the auto-control of reactor power and primary coolant pressure etc, particularly, most-strongly on the water level in pressurizer; her rolling and pitching motions had given effect on nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and startup rate; in addition the fluctuation of 0.06 Hz, we think the response inherent in (MUTSU) reactor systems, had been observed on her reactor parameters like reactivity and startup rate, and her propulsion systems like shaft horse power. (author).

  18. Modification of Japanese first nuclear ship reactor for a regional energy supply system using gadolinia as a burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our laboratory, a small regional energy supply system which uses a small nuclear reactor has been studied for a long time. This system could supply not only heat but also electricity. Heat could be used for hot-water supply, a heating system of a house, melting snow and so on. In this point, this system seems to be useful for the places like northern part of Japan where it snows in winter. This reactor is based on Nuclear Ship Mutsu which was developed as the first nuclear ship of Japan about 40 years ago. It has several advantages for a small reactor. For example, its moderator temperature coefficient is always to be deeply negative because boric acid solution is not used in moderator and coolant. This can lead to a self-controlled operation without control rod maneuvering for load change. But some modifications have been performed in order to satisfy requirements such as (1) longer core life without refueling and reshuffling, (2) reactivity adjustment for load change without control rods or soluble boron, (3) simpler operations for load changes and (4) ultimate safety with sufficient passive capability. In our previous study, we confirmed the core based on Mutsu core had longer core life (about 10 years) using high uranium enrichment fuel (more than 5wt%) and current 17x17 fuel assemblies. We also confirmed excess reactivity during the cycle could be suppressed using combination of erbium oxide (Er2O3) and gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) as burnable poisons. Er2O3 has advantages such that criticality safety can be kept even if uranium enrichment is more than 5wt% and burnup characteristics of the core can be gradual. But at this time there are 2 problems to apply for the core using Er2O3 in Japan. First problem is that more than 5wt% enrichment fuel is not yet accepted in Japan. Second problem is that there are no experiences of using Er2O3 in commercial reactors in Japan. Considering these problems, we have to modify the design of the core, using only Gd2O3 as a

  19. 77 FR 47680 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action... (NRC or the Commission) take action with regard to the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim)....

  20. Nuclear Liability Act. RS, c.29 (1st supp.), s.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Revised Statutes of Canada 1985 which entered into force on 12 December 1988 revoked the Nuclear Liability Act of 1970, replacing it with a new version. The new Act (Chapter N-28 of the Revised Statutes) updates the previous text and makes some linguistic corrections. The principles of the Act of 1970 remain unchanged, namely absolute liability of the nuclear operator, such liability being limited in amount and in time

  1. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Nuclear Third Party Liability: 1 Scope (Geographical scope; Installations subject to the nuclear third party liability regime; Transport; Damage covered); 2 General principles of the nuclear third party regime (Legal channelling of liability to the operator; Strict liability; Liability limited in amount; Operator's insurance or financial security; Liability limited in time; Exclusive jurisdiction); 3 Amendments of the Paris and Brussels Conventions; II. Institutional Framework: 1. The Nuclear Safety Authority (President of the Republic: Council for Nuclear Policy, Council for Defence and National Security; Prime Minister: Inter-ministerial Committee for Nuclear or Radiological Emergencies, General Secretariat for Defence and National Security, Euratom Technical Committee, Administration of the CTE is handed to the Atomic Energy Commission, Atomic Energy Committee; Minister for Industry: Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology Commission; Minister responsible for Ecology and Energy: Directorate General for Energy and Climate, Directorate General for the Prevention of Risks, Department for Defence, Security and Economic Intelligence; Minister for Research; Minister for Health; Minister for Public Safety: Directorate for Public Safety, Central Office for the Prevention of Organised Crime; Minister for Defence: Council for Nuclear Defence, DSND (Minister responsible for Work, Minister for Foreign Affairs); 2. Specialised Committees or Boards (Advisory Commission on Major Nuclear Installations; Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations classified as Secret; Higher Council for Nuclear Safety and Information; Higher Committee for the Transparency of Information on Nuclear Safety); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (The Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission, Atomic Energy Committee, Management Board, Administrator-General, High Commissioner for Atomic Energy, Agence ITER-France - AIF, Agence France Nucleaire international - AFNI; Electricite de

  2. On the optimal environmental liability limit for marine oil transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in the US liability regime for oil pollution damage have intensified a policy debate about environmental liability limits. Economic theory suggests that some type of limit may be needed under certain conditions, and that such a limit should be set so that the marginal social benefit and cost are equal. However, it is unclear how a liability limit may be determined specifically for tanker shipping in US waters. We first examine conditions under which corner solutions (no liability or unlimited liability) are desirable. We then formulate a model to determine a socially optimal liability limit for oil pollution damage in US waters when a non-zero, finite liability limit is desirable. The model captures the tradeoff between less expensive energy supply and more stringent protection of the marine environment. Numerical simulations illustrate the properties of the model and major factors affecting the public policy decision regarding a liability limit. (author)

  3. The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, M.; Matsuo, R.; Fujikawa, S.; Nomura, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author).

  4. Ex-core detector response caused by control rod misalignment observed during operation of the reactor on the nuclear ship Mutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)); Gakuhari, Kazuhiko; Okada, Noboru (Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Sakai, Tomohiro (Japan Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    Unexpected deviations of ex-core neutron detector signals were observed during a voyage of the Japanese nuclear ship, Mutsu. From detailed three-dimensional analyses, this phenomenon was determined to be caused by an asymmetrical neutron source distribution in the core due to a small misalignment between the two control rods of a control rod group. A systematic ex-core detector response experiment was performed during the Mutsu's third experimental voyage to gain some understanding of the relationship between the control rod pattern and the detector response characteristics. Results obtained from analyses of the experiment indicate that the Crump-Lee technique, using calculated three-dimensional source distributions for various control rod patterns, provides good agreement between the calculated and measured detector responses. Xenon transient analyses were carried out to generate accurate three-dimensional source distributions for predicting the time-dependent detector response characteristics. Two types of ex-core detector responses are caused by changes in the control rod pattern in the Mutsu reactor: the detector response ratio tends to decrease with the withdrawal of a group of control rods as a pair, and a difference in the positions of the control rods in a group causes signal deviations among the four ex-core detectors. Control rod misalignment does not greatly affect the mean value of the four detector signals, and the deviation can be minimized if the two rods within a group are set at the same elevation at the time of detector calibration.

  5. The applications of the expanders on nuclear-powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear heating reactor has inherent safety with very simple structures, so it can be used as minitype nuclear-powered equipment. Due to the limits of dimensions and the requirements of mobility of the ship, it is need to simplify the total system. If the conventional steam-generators are replaced with expanders, the system is not only be simplified greatly, but the safety and reliability are improved extremely

  6. Performance evaluation of nuclear ship engineering simulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Kusunoki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Teruo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Uematsu, Haruki

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) has been developed for an efficient design study of an advanced marine reactor, Marine Reactor X (MRX). This time, the performance evaluation of NESSY was carried out by comparing predictions which were computed on NESSY with measurements which were got from experimental voyage of the nuclear ship `Mutsu`. This report writes the way of evaluation and the results. The aims of the performance evaluation is to find out differences between predictions and measurements, to make their causes on the side of simulator clear and to verify the applicable range of NESSY. As a result, it shows that NESSY has a sufficient performance to simulate the `Mutsu` and further is applicable to MRX except for the part of a helical-type once-through steam generator and a water-filled containment vessel which are introduced into it. After this, we are planning to utilize this system effectively as one of design tools for design study of MRX by adding functions of MRX. (author).

  7. 75 FR 16645 - Increase in the Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 140 RIN 3150-AI74 Increase in the Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium AGENCY... is amending its regulations to increase the primary premium for liability insurance coverage in the... providing for deferred premium charges equal to the pro rata share of the aggregate public liability...

  8. Liability for the payment of public school fees

    OpenAIRE

    M Carnelley

    2011-01-01

    The author highlights some legal issues regarding the liability of parents and other individuals to pay public school fees in the light of recent judicial precedent, specifically Fish Hoek Primary School v GW 2009 JOL 24624 (SCA). The various possible legal bases for the liability for such fees are examined. In this regard the common law duty to maintain as amended by legislation; contractual liability; and the concepts of household necessaries, stipulatio alteri, negotiorum gestio and unjust...

  9. Liability for the Payment of Public School Fees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carnelley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights some legal issues regarding the liability of parents and other individuals to pay public school fees in the light of recent judicial precedent, specifically Fish Hoek Primary School v GW 2009 JOL 24624 (SCA. The various possible legal bases for the liability for such fees are examined. In this regard the common law duty to maintain as amended by legislation; contractual liability; and the concepts of household necessaries, stipulatio alteri, negotiorum gestio and unjustified enrichment are considered.

  10. Towards fault-tolerant decision support systems for ship operator guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Lajic, Zoran; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2012-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation are very important elements in the design of fault-tolerant decision support systems for ship operator guidance. This study outlines remedies that can be applied for fault diagnosis, when the ship responses are assumed to be linear in the wave excitation. A novel...

  11. 47 CFR 3.76 - Licensee's liability for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee's liability for payment. 3.76 Section... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.76 Licensee's liability for payment. The U.S. ship station licensee bears ultimate responsibility for final payment of...

  12. Validation of elastic-plastic computer analyses for use in nuclear waste shipping cask design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GA Technologies designed the Defense High Level Waste (DHLW) Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The DHLW cask has a thick-walled stainless steel body and incorporates integral stainless steel impact limiters that protect the two ends of the cask during the hypothetical accident condition 30-ft free drop. These integral impact limiters absorb the drop energy through gross plastic deformations. GA used elastic-plastic computer codes developed at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, HONDOII and DYNA3D, to analyze for this non-linear behavior. In order to evaluate the analyses, GA developed elastic-plastic stress criteria that were adapted from the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Division I, Section III. This innovative design and analytical approach required test verification. Therefore, SNL performed 30-ft drop and puncture tests on a half-scale model of the DHLW cask. The testing confirmed that the analytical approach works and results in a safe, conservative design

  13. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides

  14. Report on state liability for radioactive materials transportation incidents: A survey of laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the liability laws of the Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB's) 16 member states. It begins by briefly reviewing potential sources of liability, immunity from liability, waiver of immunity, and statutes of limitation, followed by liability laws of member states. The report was prepared by reviewing legal literature pertaining to governmental liability, with particular emphasis on nuclear waste transportation, including law review articles, legal treatises, technical reports, state statutes and regulations

  15. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships; Reacteurs. Navires a propulsion nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fribourg, Ch. [Technicatome, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  16. Health requirements for nuclear reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health prerequisites established for the qualification of nuclear reactor operators according to CNEN-NE-1.01 Guidelines Licensing of nuclear reactor operators, CNEN-12/79 Resolution, are described. (M.A.)

  17. Power, Identity, and Organizational Structure as Reflected in Schools for Minority Groups: A Case Study of Jewish Schools in Paris, Brussels, and Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the linkages between organizational structure, power relations, and group identities within the private schools operated by the francophone Jewish communities of Brussels, Paris, and Geneva. A school's organizational structure and balance of power reflect its identity and its conceptual world. That is, its organizational…

  18. The experience of construction and operation of the civilian ship reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main stages in developing several generation of reactor plants for the civilian nuclear ships in the USSR, beginning from the Lenin icebreaker reactor are considered. The brief data on characteristics of the OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40 reactor plants, as well as those concerning the results of their operation for the time period of 1959-2000 are given. The problems connected with further application of nuclear ships in Arctic regions including the main equipment service lifetime increase are discussed. The total operational time for the reactors under extreme conditions of pitching and rolling, shock loads, repeated power alternation exceeds 160 reactor-years. The Arktika icebreaker reactor main equipment service lifetime reaches 142000 hours. At that not a single incident connected with violations in fission reaction control or uncontrollable radioactivity release is marked. It is shown that failures connected with leaks in the reactor cooling system primary circuit, which as a rule take place after equipment nominal service life finish, are the most dangerous ones. Basing on the analysis of the data gained in the process of the nuclear icebreaker operations the conclusion on favourable applicability of the KLT-40S reactor plants when designing floating thermal power plants and desalination complexes for remote areas in Russia and other countries is made

  19. Implementation in Poland of the EU Legislation on VTMIS and Reporting Formalities for Ships Operating to or from Ports of the EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krolikowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the EU legislation on Vessel Traffic Monitoring and Information System (VTMIS and reporting formalities for ships operating to or from ports of the EU Member States, principles of its implementation in Poland and technical investments made in order to build the Polish National Maritime Safety System to ensure safety and security of shipping and economic activities inside the Polish maritime areas and meeting the requirements of these regulations.

  20. Implementation in Poland of the EU Legislation on VTMIS and Reporting Formalities for Ships Operating to or from Ports of the EU Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Krolikowski; Ryszard Wawruch

    2016-01-01

    Article presents the EU legislation on Vessel Traffic Monitoring and Information System (VTMIS) and reporting formalities for ships operating to or from ports of the EU Member States, principles of its implementation in Poland and technical investments made in order to build the Polish National Maritime Safety System to ensure safety and security of shipping and economic activities inside the Polish maritime areas and meeting the requirements of these regulations.

  1. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion.

  2. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion. PMID:22568492

  3. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy Conv - 09. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on Convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( Conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

  4. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy conv - 09. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

  5. Proceedings - Insurance and third party liability; performance of dangerous activities - Nuclear risk and contamination. 11 November 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Centro Italiano Ricerche and Studi Assicurativi' (CIRSA) has published the proceeding of a round table it organised in 1976 on insurance for nuclear risks. The topics discussed covered the relevant national legislation, in particular, regarding liability and compensation for nuclear damage, the financial security required, the insurance system. The papers and ensuing discussions are reproduced in full, and the Appendix contains for consultation, all the texts of the laws in this field. (NEA)

  6. The need of the Nuclear Civil Liability Insurance; La necesidad del Seguro de Responsabilidad Civil Nuclear (SRCN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez del Campo, J.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear Liability Insurance (NLI), emerged as a safety mechanism and product to respond to a great risk. because of the compulsory nature of international and national regulations, it has become a compulsory contract. Nuclear risk coverage pools are founded as groups of insurers and reinsures, without legal entity, which cooperate and pool their resources to deal with these great risks. In spain Atomic Pool has been renamed ESPANUCLEAR, administered by and Economic Interest Grouping called Nuclear risk Insurers. (Author)

  7. Examination on establishment of safety culture for operating nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For safely operating nuclear power facilities, in addition to the technical countermeasures, the performance of the organizations that operate and manage them is important. In this paper, the spontaneous cooperation type management system that supported the introduction and development of nuclear power generation in electric power business is analyzed from the viewpoints of organization science and behavioral psychology, and based on the results of the investigation of the sense of value and psychological characteristics of young organization members who bear future nuclear power generation, on how to foster and establish safety culture which is called second safety principle in organizations, the subjects for hereafter are discussed from the viewpoints of respect of individuals and their integration with organizations, upbringing of talents and systematic learning. The factors which compose the safety culture are shown. The form of operating and managing the organizations are seen in first generation nuclear power generation, the similarity to Japanese type enterprise operation system, the change of the prerequisite of spontaneous cooperation type management and the difference of conscience among the generations of organization members are discussed. The above subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  8. Self-assessment of operational safety for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-assessment processes have been continuously developed by nuclear organizations, including nuclear power plants. Currently, the nuclear industry and governmental organizations are showing an increasing interest in the implementation of this process as an effective way for improving safety performance. Self-assessment involves the use of different types of tools and mechanisms to assist the organizations in assessing their own safety performance against given standards. This helps to enhance the understanding of the need for improvements, the feeling of ownership in achieving them and the safety culture as a whole. Although the primary beneficiaries of the self-assessment process are the plant and operating organization, the results of the self-assessments are also used, for example, to increase the confidence of the regulator in the safe operation of an installation, and could be used to assist in meeting obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Such considerations influence the form of assessment, as well as the type and detail of the results. The concepts developed in this report present the basic approach to self-assessment, taking into consideration experience gained during Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) missions, from organizations and utilities which have successfully implemented parts of a self-assessment programme and from meetings organized to discuss the subject. This report will be used in IAEA sponsored workshops and seminars on operational safety that include the topic of self-assessment

  9. Truck and rail charges for shipping spent fuel and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed techniques for calculating estimates of nuclear-waste shipping costs and compiled a listing of representative data that facilitate incorporation of reference shipping costs into varius logistics analyses. The formulas that were developed can be used to estimate costs that will be incurred for shipping spent fuel or nuclear waste by either legal-weight truck or general-freight rail. The basic data for this study were obtained from tariffs of a truck carrier licensed to serve the 48 contiguous states and from various rail freight tariff guides. Also, current transportation regulations as issued by the US Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were investigated. The costs that will be incurred for shipping spent fuel and/or nuclear waste, as addressed by the tariff guides, are based on a complex set of conditions involving the shipment origin, route, destination, weight, size, and volume and the frequency of shipments, existing competition, and the length of contracts. While the complexity of these conditions is an important factor in arriving at a ''correct'' cost, deregulation of the transportation industry means that costs are much more subject to negotiation and, thus, the actual fee that will be charged will not be determined until a shipping contract is actually signed. This study is designed to provide the baseline data necessary for making comparisons of the estimated costs of shipping spent fuel and/or nuclear wastes by truck and rail transportation modes. The scope of the work presented in this document is limited to the costs incurred for shipping, and does not include packaging, cask purchase/lease costs, or local fees placed on shipments of radioactive materials

  10. Comparison Between Frame-Constrained Fix-Pixel-Value and Frame-Free Spiking-Dynamic-Pixel ConvNets for Visual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eFarabet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most scene segmentation and categorization architectures for the extraction of features in images and patches make exhaustive use of 2D convolution operations for template matching, template search and denoising. Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets are one example of such architectures that can implement general-purpose bio-inspired vision systems. In standard digital computers 2D convolutions are usually expensive in terms of resource consumption and impose severe limitations for efficient real-time applications. Nevertheless, neuro-cortex inspired solutions, like dedicated Frame-Based or Frame-Free Spiking ConvNet Convolution Processors, are advancing real-time visual processing. These two approaches share the neural inspiration, but each of them solves the problem in different ways. Frame-Based ConvNets process frame by frame video in- formation in a very robust and fast way that requires to use and share the available hardware resources (such as: multipliers, adders. Hardware resources are fixed and time multiplexed by fetching data in and out. Thus memory bandwidth and size is important for good performance. On the other hand, spike-based convolution processors are a frame-free alternative that is able to perform convolution of a spike-based source of visual information with very low latency, which makes ideal for very high speed applications. However, hardware resources need to be available all the time and cannot be time-multiplexed. Thus, hardware should be modular, reconfigurable and expansible. Hardware implementations in both VLSI custom integrated circuits (digital and analog and FPGA have been already used to demonstrate the performance of these systems. In this paper we present a comparison study of these two neuro- inspired solutions. A brief description of both systems is presented and also discussions about their differences, pros and cons.

  11. Remote operated systems for the management of nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper shortly presents the remote techniques and systems used regularly for the management of nuclear processes according to the variability and complexity of human operations and to the degree of automation. The paper contains a synthesis of the evolution of remote operating systems and advances the model of an adaptive and self-adaptive expert-robot equipment which is a very complex equipment used for integrated management of nuclear processes. Due to the complexity and variability of the technological operations and environment conditions, none of the techniques and systems presented in the paper do satisfy completely the management of the nuclear technologies as a whole. They must be utilized selectively according to the nature of the actual characteristics of the nuclear process. The expert and expert-robot systems offer a series of advantages among which one can mention: the continuity of the high quality expert's reports, easy extension, the explanation of the decision in detail, the elimination of the routine, the diagnosis of some equipment and process state, forecast of the future behaviour of equipment, processes, market, environment, etc., the multiplying of sources of information, pertinent comparison, the increasing of the performance of the user in general. The expert and expert-robot systems maintain some important drawbacks as: the possibility of taking wrong decision, the difficulty of using information from other expert systems similar to this one at present and not in the least, the high prices. (author)

  12. Ship-Based Nuclear Energy Systems for Accelerating Developing World Socioeconomic Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Robert; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    those having intermittency characteristics. Consideration is directed to the relative economics of ship-based and land-based nuclear power stations, and the costs of undersea transmission lines and suitable moorings are discussed, as well as station-maintenance expenses. Potential cost savings from reduced seismic engineering, serialized production, and reduction/elimination of site-specific engineering are determined to be likely to enable large floating nuclear energy systems to be deployed at both significantly lower cost and with lower financial risk than comparable land-based systems. Such plants thus appear to be a compelling option for agilely supplying flexible energy-flows to developing regions, especially as they allow major components of the overhead costs and time-delays of large-scale energy systems to be avoided. Finally, the critical set of issues related to appropriately regulating and insuring floating nuclear power plants designed for export is examined. Approaches to ensuring adequate safety and environmental stewardship while properly allocating risks between system owners/operators and host countries of floating nuclear energy systems are discussed, along with possible pathways toward implementation. Robustness of exemplary nuclear energy systems from all forms of misuse, including materials diversion, is noted, thus ensuring suitability for complications-free, non-discriminatory global deployments. Availability of abundant, low-cost nuclear energy which can flexibly satisfy the full spectrum of energy demands of the economies of developing countries will inevitably result in significantly earlier and more environmentally-sound energy intensification of societies enjoying such advantages. This will help spur autocatalytic gains in human well-being and economic development rates similar to those seen in the developed world during the last two-thirds of a century, while avoiding some of the undesirable sideeffects often associated with those gains

  13. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment] [and others

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship `MUTSU` was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  14. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  15. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  16. Framework for Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards in the Design and Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Horak, Karl Emanuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaChance, Jeffrey L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tolk, Keith Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitehead, Donnie Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-10-01

    The US is currently on the brink of a nuclear renaissance that will result in near-term construction of new nuclear power plants. In addition, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) ambitious new Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program includes facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and reactors for transmuting safeguards material. The use of nuclear power and material has inherent safety, security, and safeguards (SSS) concerns that can impact the operation of the facilities. Recent concern over terrorist attacks and nuclear proliferation led to an increased emphasis on security and safeguard issues as well as the more traditional safety emphasis. To meet both domestic and international requirements, nuclear facilities include specific SSS measures that are identified and evaluated through the use of detailed analysis techniques. In the past, these individual assessments have not been integrated, which led to inefficient and costly design and operational requirements. This report provides a framework for a new paradigm where safety, operations, security, and safeguards (SOSS) are integrated into the design and operation of a new facility to decrease cost and increase effectiveness. Although the focus of this framework is on new nuclear facilities, most of the concepts could be applied to any new, high-risk facility.

  17. Management of nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture covers management aspects which have an immediate bearing on safety and identifies the objectives and tasks of management which are required for safe operation of a nuclear power plant and is based on the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau. This lecture - discusses the factors to be considered in structuring the operating organization, the support to be provided to plant management, the services and facilities needed and the management system for assuring the safety tasks are performed - describes the responsibilities of plant management and operating organization - outlines the requirements for recruitment, training and retraining as well as qualification and authorization of personnel - describes the programmes for maintenance, testing, examination, inspection, radiological protection, quality assurance, waste management, fuel management, emergency arrangement and security - describes the development of plant operating procedures including procedures to protect the personnel - outlines the requirements for initial and subsequent operation - describes the importance for evaluation and feedback of operating experience - describes the procedures for changes in hardware, procedures and set points - outlines the information flow and the requirements in reference to records and reports. (orig./RW)

  18. Public relations campaign for shipping spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An example of positive outcome of proper attitude of the media and public on the occasion of shipping of nuclear fuel is described. Nothing new was invented in the way of public relations issue management. But a combination of a number of proven techniques were put together and the public relations plan that was highly successful. early planning was of great help. Public officials were well informd by means of ANS organized seminars. ANS had experts from Sandia Labs (a major government research facility), General Electric (the cask supplier), the railroad we planned to use and Northern States Power Company on the program to describe what was going to happen and why it was safe. These sessions are believed to head off a major portion of the local opposition. A cooperation was established with the states of Wisconsin and Minnesota in providing shipment-specific training for emergency response personnel along the route. Safety, obviously, was the number one concern expressed by public officials. Knowing that would be the case, it was decided to provide some optional extras to go with the shipments. There was a consultant yo do a safety analysis of all the possible rail routes between the plant and storage facility. Though none was required by law, a shipment-specific emergency response plan which was prepared. Another important effort which was maintained from the beginning was sharing information among the participants. In dealing with the news media, an attemp was made to stick to a single source of information as much as possible. When dealing with the news media, one should refuse to apologize for modern technology. One should attack, at every opportunity, the idea that a risk-freesociety is worth the price of returning to the Dark Ages. The contributions of nuclear technology are numerous and far-reaching. Its negative impacts on health and safety have been minor compared with most other major industrial technologies. Certainly there is risk in stepping out of

  19. Effect of steam-exhaust operation of secondary coolant circuit on ship reactor blackout accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The ship reactor blackout accident (SRBA) is simulated by the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. • The mitigation effect of steam-exhaust-operation (SEO) on the SRBA is analyzed. • Reasonable SEO scheme can obviously mitigate the accident for several hours. • The SEO scheme without feed water device can hardly mitigate the SRBA. • The failure of intercurrent steam flux control valve will result in the decrease of mitigation time. - Abstract: The ship reactor blackout accident can potentially lead to the severe accident and the radioactive fission product release. In the absence of auxiliary electrical source, the effective mitigation of the accident aftereffect is very important. As the exclusive heat trap in the reactor coolant system, the steam-exhaust operation (SEO) in the secondary coolant circuit (SCC) plays an important role in the accident mitigation. In view of the character of ship nuclear power plant (NPP), the ship reactor blackout accident (SRBA) under the typical operating conditions is simulated by the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code, and the mitigation of SEO on the accident is analyzed. It is found that (1) reasonable SEO can obviously mitigate the accident for several hours, the SEO with 1% rated steam flux of secondary coolant circuit provides about 7 h for the mitigation of accident, (2) a less steam flux of SCC during the SEO means a slower pressure drop of steam generation (SG) and a more time we can mitigate the accident, there are 1.5 h between the SEO with 1% rated steam flux and that with 3% rated steam flux, (3) the SEO without the feed water device can hardly mitigate the accident, and (4) during the blackout accident, the SEO with intercurrent steam flux control valve failure will result in the decrease of mitigation time because of the quick decrease of SG pressure, but the mitigation effect is also obvious

  20. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal. 2. The second experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the second reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on August 30, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 50% of reactor power and under a quiet sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author).

  1. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal (III). The third experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko

    1995-03-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the third reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on September 16, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 70% of reactor power and under a normal sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author).

  2. Establishing a code of ethics for nuclear operating organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel (TWG-T and Q) recommended that the IAEA develop a publication on improving the performance of nuclear facility operating organizations through focusing on the ethics and professionalism of personnel at all levels of such organizations. This publication has been prepared in response to that recommendation. The TWG-T and Q made its recommendation based upon an understanding that an organization's code of ethics should apply to behaviours at all levels of the organization; from the Board Room to the working level. The TWG-T and Q also recognized that having the technical competencies related to nuclear technology is not enough to ensure that an operating organization's performance is at the high standards needed for a sustainable nuclear industry. The values and ethics of individuals and organizational units play an equally important role. This publication is addressed primarily to senior managers of operating organizations, as experience has shown that, in order to succeed, such initiatives need to come from and be continually supported by the highest levels of the organization. This publication was developed under an IAEA project in its 2006-7 programme entitled Achieving Excellence in the Performance of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. The principal objectives of this project were: - To enhance the capability of Member States to utilize proven practices accumulated, developed and transferred by the Agency for improving personnel performance and maintaining high standards, and - To demonstrate how positive attitudes and professionalism, appropriate performance management, adherence to a systematic approach to training, quality management and the use of effective information and knowledge management technologies contribute to the success in achieving organization objectives in a challenging business environment

  3. Possible power train concepts for nuclear powered merchant ships

    OpenAIRE

    Dedes, E; Turnock, S.R.; Hudson, D.A.; Hirdaris, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion has many potential advantages in terms of reduced emissions, as nuclear fission itself has zero CO2, NOx, SOx and PM emissions, although the whole nuclear fuel cycle has an amount of emission associated with it. An overview of current and future reactor technologies suitable for marine propulsion is presented. A comparison in terms of efficiency and technology used is performed and technical and constructional aspects for surface non - military applications are discussed. ...

  4. Development of Inventory Optimization System for Operation Nuclear Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Se-Jin; Park, Jong-Hyuk; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Guk [Korea Electric Power Research Institutes, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. This is why inventory management systems such as manufacturing resources planning(MRP) and enterprise resource planning(ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations. Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. We developed the inventory optimization system for Operation Nuclear Plants to resolve these problems. In this paper, we report a data flow process, data load and inventory calculation process. The main contribution of this paper is development of inventory optimization system which can be used in domestic power plants.

  5. An analysis of the use of merchant ships and containerization in an amphibious operation

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdon, Paul Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This study analyzes the use of merchant ships and container ization in an amphibious operation. Current sources, trends and problems, as they affect the merchant marine's ability to provide military logistical support to amphibious operations are evaluated. The functional capability of the various types of merchant ships to perform in an amphibious environment are analyzed. Modern concepts for solving the vehicle and ...

  6. Third Party Nuclear Liability: The Case of a Supplier in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Anthony; Heffron, Raphael J.

    2012-01-01

    The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term "Supplier" is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...

  7. AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF MAJOR OIL COMPANIES ON CREW SELECTION CRITERIA FOR TANKER OPERATING SHIP MANAGEMENT COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Fışkın, Remzi; ZORBA, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Tanker shipping which is a special sub-sector of maritime transportation industry plays an important role for the world trade. As oil and its derivatives transported by tankers is the fundamental component for developing industries, its transportation becomes an indispensable issue. Though petroleum and chemical transportation is important for all industries, due to its structural properties, these cargoes include major risks for the environment. There have been some enforcement and impositio...

  8. Management of nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide identifies the main objectives and responsibilities of management with respect to safe operation of nuclear power plants. The Guide discusses the factors to be considered in structuring the operating organization to meet these objectives, to establish the management programmes that assure the safety tasks are performed, and to see that the services and facilities needed to accomplish the tasks are available. The Guide is primarily addressed to safety matters directly related to the operating phase. It assumes, in other words, that the safety aspects of siting, design, manufacturing and construction have been resolved. However, it also covers the interrelationships between operations and design, construction and commissioning, including the involvement of the operating organization in appropriate reviews of safety issues with reference to the future operating phase. The Guide is mainly restricted to matters of principle in relation to management-level decision making aimed at establishing safety policies. It is therefore not suitable for implementing such policies at the operational level. The IAEA Codes of Practice and Safety Guides provide detailed guidance for the latter purpose in those areas considered appropriate

  9. Inspection by docking of nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute carried out the docking and inspection of the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' at Sekinehama Port, Mutsu City, Aomori Prefecture, from the middle of June to late in July, 1989. In this inspection, the Mutsu was mounted on a floating dock off the coast, the dock was towed by tugboats into the port and moored at the pier, and after completing the works in the dock, the dock was towed to the outside of the port, and the Mutsu was launched. The Mutsu was built as a nuclear power experiment ship, and length 130 m, breadth 19 m, depth 13.2 m, design draft at full load 6.9 m, 8242 GT. One PWR of 36 MWt and one steam turbine of 10000 ps are installed, and velocity is 16.5 knots. In September, 1974, after the first criticality, the leak of radioactivity occurred. The repair of shield and general inspection on safety were carried out in Sasebo Shipyard from August, 1980 to August, 1982. Thereafter, the Mutsu stayed in Ominato, but in January, 1988, after the completion of Sekinehama Port, the Mutsu was brought there. The Sekinehama Port, the test and inspection of the Mutsu carried out so far and the plan of hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties....

  11. The international code for the safe carriage of packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive waste on board ships (INF Code) - An industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    came to the same conclusion that existing standards are stringent and adequate and any environmental impact would be negligible. These 'complementary' measures were discussed at length in numerous committees of the IMO and in 1998 a specific requirement for ship-board emergency plans and notification to the nearest coastal in the event of an incident were added to the INF code. The INF code came into force as a mandatory instrument on 1 January 2001. The INF Code, as such, has presented no problems to us at British Nuclear Fuels Ltd as we have been operating through our subsidiary, Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited, purpose built ships since 1979. The design resulted from consultation with experts and incorporated the Japanese regulations, with extra equipment added in line with technological developments and operating experience. These are sub-divided into a large number of compartments, which form a double hull around the cargo spaces and the duplication of essential systems and equipment which are in excess of what was to become the INF3 standard 14 years later. (author)

  12. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for.... The license authorizes the operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Vermont Yankee)...

  13. Nuclear Liability and Insurance of Nuclear Damage in the Czech republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a short introduction to the past and present situation of operation and construction of nuclear power plants in the Czech Republic, including some basic technical data and background information. It then continues in providing up to date information on the Czech nuclear legislation and consideration of various questions and problems in the light of the respective legal clauses (e.g. minimum insurance requirements, treatment of small reactors and small quantities of nuclear material, state guarantees etc.). The paper gives more detailed information about practical application of the insurance clauses of the Atomic Act, including some time related questions. A considerable part of the paper is dedicated to the past history and present functions and activities of the Czech Nuclear Insurance Pool which was officially founded in 1995 and is without doubt one of the most active and successful national nuclear insurance pools of the former East European countries. (author)

  14. Effect of Ship Bow Overhang on Water Shipping for Ship Advancing in Regular Head Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdeljalil Benmansour; Benameur Hamoudi; Lahouari Adjlout

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation dealing with the effect of bow overhang extensions on the quantity of shipping water over the foredeck in case of ships advancing in regular head waves. To perform this investigation, a series of free-running tests was conducted in regular waves using an experimental model of a multipurpose cargo ship to quantify the amount of shipping water. The tests were performed on five bow overhang variants with several combinations of wavelength and ship speed conditions. It was observed that the quantity of shipping water was affected by some parameters such as wavelength, ship speed, and bow shape in terms of an overhang extension. The results show the significant influence of an overhang extension, which is associated with the bow flare shape, on the occurrence of water shipping. These results involve the combined incoming regular waves and model speed.

  15. Measure of effectiveness for amphibious ship loading

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited A critical factor in the success of an amphibious operation is how well the load plan supports the landing plan. The current manual system for ship load planning is time consuming and subject to error. A computer system currently under development by a contractor will decrease planning time and reduce mistakes by automating many details of the planning process. A method to assess the quality of load plans and make comparisons among the...

  16. Gaps in the current nuclear liability regime with particular regard to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One aspect of the exercise in risk management is to create a legal framework which is conducive to the development of nuclear commerce. however, there are clearly limits, and not necessarily just geographical limits, to the application of the current convention system. This paper briefly identifies where gaps in the current system may occur, what might be done to plug them and in the context of the transport of nuclear material, the degree to which nuclear operators can 'self-manage' who is the responsible party for nuclear liability and whether additional restrictions may be desirable. (N.C.)

  17. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  18. Static and dynamic performance tests of nuclear powered ship Mutsu reactor (report on nuclear ship Mutsu power-up tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Inoue, Kimio; Yao, Toshiaki; Kamai, Satoshi; Kitamura, Toshikatsu

    1992-08-01

    The power-up tests of the Mutsu reactor were performed from March 29th 1990 to December 14th. The tests were divided into six phases: The tests Phase 0 and Phase 1 were done in the state that the ship was moored at the quay of Sekinehama port in March and April; The tests Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4, and Phase 5 were done on the Pacific Ocean from July to December. Present report describes the test results on the static and dynamic plant performance. On static plant performance tests, there are 13 test items including measurements of primary system heat balance at low and high power levels, a virgin run of feed water pump with SG steam, a change-over test of steam supply of auxiliary boiler to SG. On the dynamic plant performance, there are 11 test items including a test of reactor power auto-control system, a test of main feed water auto-control system, a test of small load variation, a load increasing test, a turbine trip test, tests of ahead and astern maneuvering, a test of single loop operation, and a reactor scram test. The reactor power for each item`s test was increased step by step from zero power to the goal of rated power of 100 %, 36 MWt. In order to confirm proper reactor system performance, criteria were laid down for the static and dynamic tests: for example, (1) reactor scram shall not occur, (2) pressurizer relief valve and steam generator safety valve shall not work, and (3) after the transients reactor systems shall become the steady state without manual adjustment of the reactor control system. The test results satisfied these criteria and some of test data showed that reactor had much more margin in any performance for design. It is verified, therefore, that the Mutsu reactor systems have adequate performances as a marine reactor and that one is capable to respond smoothly and safely to the load of ship`s demand. (author).

  19. Enhanced safe reactor plant KLT-40 for nuclear ships and power - Desalination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OKB Mechanical Engineering (OKBM) is a designer of the reactor plant. OKBM has a long-term experience in development and High qualifications of OKBM research and personnel, advanced engineering equipment, vast experience of reactor plant development and operation ensure high quality of the design. Central Design Bureau (CDB) 'Airbags' is the author of the ship's design that houses the reactor plant and desalination unit. CDB 'Airbags' is the general designer of all soviet nuclear-powered icebreakers. EKATERINBIRG Research And Development Institute Of Chemical Machine Engineering is the chief designer of distillation desalination plant. The Institute has acquired a vast experience of research, development and technical supervision of virtually all operated including the desalination plant in the city of Actau (Kazakstan) currently operated in combination with the reactor plant BN-350. Production Association 'Baltic Works' is the builder of the plant. This enterprise's engaged in building nuclear ships. All currently operated nuclear-powered icebreakers: 'Sibir', 'Rossiya', 'soviet Union', 'Temary' and 'Vaigach' have been built there

  20. Slice them up or slice them out? Legal liability for operating on the troublesome patient in cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Aileen

    2015-09-01

    The practice of cosmetic surgery is constructed as psychologically beneficial. This therapeutic promise transforms cosmetic surgery into proper medical treatment. However, there is emerging evidence that a significant percentage of cosmetic surgery patients suffer from the condition of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), which is characterised by excessive preoccupation with imagined or minor defects in appearance. BDD is uniformly identified as a strong contra-indication for cosmetic surgery. Articles in scholarly journals on cosmetic surgery identify the "red flag" indicators to assist in screening out problem patients. However, a close examination of the most common indicators reveals that most are ineffective in identifying BDD in prospective patients. This article also considers the legal liability of cosmetic surgeons who operate on patients with BDD, and concludes that there is little likelihood of liability in trespass or negligence under current Australia law. PMID:26554204

  1. Earning the social licence for nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to safe nuclear operation, a critical component of earning the social licence is effective communication. This paper outlines development of a communications strategy contributing to overall utility operation and project goals through: 1) Relationships with employees, host communities and the general public that are transparent and honest; 2) Processes that effectively interconnect the internal and external communications; and 3) Organizational leadership models that support communication excellence. With strategic development of these three focus areas the nuclear operator will contribute to increased support of the operator's own licence to operate and of support for the nuclear industry as a whole. (author)

  2. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package-railcar systems during coupling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, S.R.

    1983-10-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Cask Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations. 1 reference, 18 figures.

  3. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems during coupling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, S.R.

    1981-12-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Casks Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations.

  4. Integration of remotely operated manipulator systems for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no getting away from remotely operated manipulator systems in significant part in dismantling operations, because of the actual radioactive emitting level of installations. However, some main contractors, who have been involved in dismantling projects in the past few years are reluctant to use remotely operated systems because: - equipment characteristics are not suitable for the environment and the work to be performed; - There are some design problems; - Main components do not withstand operation any longer, after some time; - There are deficiencies in the management of quality, for critical equipment problems that degrade the productivity and increase direct and indirect labour cost. As a summary therefore, equipment available on this dismantling market are reputedly unreliable and not 'industrial' (sturdy) enough. However, numerous operations in maintenance in primary loops of nuclear reactors, or in the Offshore sector, are carried out remotely, to the satisfaction of the operators and the investors. In the dismantling sector, a thorough analysis of the difficulties encountered indicates that their origin is mostly due to a lack of methodology - that needs to be addressed -, rather than a technical problem. In that context, CYBERNETIX proposes to be involved in phases upstream and downstream of the equipment supply's. Upstream: Participate in developing/validating the scenarios to be used to optimise the constraints of remote operations/equipment. Downstream: Participate actively in supporting the client on-site, ensuring that equipment are available and maintained by competent and motivated people, and thus, getting experience in order to improve the State-of-the-Art of robotic in that field. Then, the contracting authority and CYBERNETIX jointly define the limits and the content of the involvement of each party, and also define the most appropriate type of 'partnership' between the main contactor and the participating companies, and in order to

  5. The needs and wants of business and leisure guests at Marriott Brussels

    OpenAIRE

    Björn, Anu

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Marriott Brussels. Marriott Brussels is part of a well known Marriott hotel chain. Marriott Brussels is a four star hotel situated in the capital of Belgium, Brussels. Theses focused on clarifying the needs and wants of business and leisure guests at Marriott Brussels. The aim was to figure out what are the things these guests value the most and what are the things that are the least valued. In these theses quantitative research was used and guests we...

  6. 26 CFR 1.66-4 - Request for relief from the Federal income tax liability resulting from the operation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for relief from the Federal income tax... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.66-4 Request for...

  7. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  8. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5-10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  9. Nuclear powered ships. Findings from a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear shipping is attractive for several reasons, one of which is its positive effect on emissions (CO2, NOx and SOx). The benefits, however, do not come without risks of possible harmful effects on humans and wildlife. Nuclear ships set themselves apart from conventional ships, as well as from on-shore nuclear power-plants, on several counts. 1) The reactor-unit are non-stationary, and the reactor is subject to the ship motions. 2) Ship reactors must be compact due to space constraints. 3) Special design considerations are required to ensure reactor safety and security, as well as to enable refuelling. 4) A naval nuclear fuel cycle infrastructure for fuel fabrication, handling, and disposal is needed. Technological feasibility of nuclear shipping is by itself inconclusive to a expansion into civilian applications and use. Civilian nuclear propulsion needs to be commercially viable and politically acceptable. Appropriate legislation must be in place, and nuclear shipping concepts with proven safety records and highest possible nuclear proliferation-resistance must be established. Possible 'showstoppers' to a viable nuclear civilian shipping industry are outlined in the paper in view of Political, Technical, Regulatory, Commercial, Safety and Security aspects. Further, different types of ships with different propulsion system are compared in lights of life cycle cost and air emission. (author)

  10. Static and dynamic performance tests of nuclear powered ship Mutsu reactor (report on nuclear ship Mutsu power-up tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ochiai, Masa-aki (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Tanaka, Yoshimi; Inoue, Kimio; Yao, Toshiaki; Kamai, Satoshi; Kitamura, Toshikatsu.

    1992-08-01

    The power-up tests of the Mutsu reactor were performed from March 29th 1990 to December 14th. The tests were divided into six phases: The tests Phase 0 and Phase 1 were done in the state that the ship was moored at the quay of Sekinehama port in March and April; The tests Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4, and Phase 5 were done on the Pacific Ocean from July to December. Present report describes the test results on the static and dynamic plant performance. On static plant performance tests, there are 13 test items including measurements of primary system heat balance at low and high power levels, a virgin run of feed water pump with SG steam, a change-over test of steam supply of auxiliary boiler to SG. On the dynamic plant performance, there are 11 test items including a test of reactor power auto-control system, a test of main feed water auto-control system, a test of small load variation, a load increasing test, a turbine trip test, tests of ahead and astern maneuvering, a test of single loop operation, and a reactor scram test. The reactor power for each item's test was increased step by step from zero power to the goal of rated power of 100 %, 36 MWt. In order to confirm proper reactor system performance, criteria were laid down for the static and dynamic tests: for example, (1) reactor scram shall not occur, (2) pressurizer relief valve and steam generator safety valve shall not work, and (3) after the transients reactor systems shall become the steady state without manual adjustment of the reactor control system. The test results satisfied these criteria and some of test data showed that reactor had much more margin in any performance for design. It is verified, therefore, that the Mutsu reactor systems have adequate performances as a marine reactor and that one is capable to respond smoothly and safely to the load of ship's demand. (author).

  11. Liability problems arising from nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of damage to health or property, it has always been approved legal tradition in all highly developed legal systems to perform compensation for damage in money. This principle also applies to damage caused by nuclear accidents. In the F.R.G., care has been taken at a very early stage to provide for appropriate liability provisions to afford financial security to the extent required by the special hazards involved in the peaceful use of atomic energy. Recent events have shown that the legal provisions available are appropriate and practicable. Citizens affected will receive fair compensation for damage. The Federal Administrative Office so far counted 30.392 applications for compensation in compliance with section 38, sub-sec. (2) Atomic Energy Act. Up to June 16, 1986, payments for compensation of losses amounted to DM 38.7 millions. By accepting the claims for compensation the State provides protection for German nationals and persons of equal rank. A limitation to DM one billion for compensation for damage caused by nuclear energy seems to be appropriate also in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./HP)

  12. Concept of Operations for Nuclear Warhead Embedded Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockett, P D; Koncher, T R

    2012-05-16

    Embedded arms-control-sensors provide a powerful new paradigm for managing compliance with future nuclear weapons treaties, where deployed warhead numbers will be reduced to 1000 or less. The CONOPS (Concept of Operations) for use with these sensors is a practical tool with which one may help define design parameters, including size, power, resolution, communications, and physical structure. How frequently must data be acquired and must a human be present? Will such data be acquired for only stored weapons or will it be required of deployed weapons as well? Will tactical weapons be subject to such monitoring or will only strategic weapons apply? Which data will be most crucial? Will OSI's be a component of embedded sensor data management or will these sensors stand alone in their data extraction processes? The problem space is massive, but can be constrained by extrapolating to a reasonable future treaty regime and examining the bounded options this scenario poses. Arms control verification sensors, embedded within the warhead case or aeroshell, must provide sufficient but not excessively detailed data, confirming that the item is a nuclear warhead and that it is a particular warhead without revealing sensitive information. Geolocation will be provided by an intermediate transceiver used to acquire the data and to forward the data to a central processing location. Past Chain-of-Custody projects have included such devices and will be primarily responsible for adding such indicators in the future. For the purposes of a treaty regime a TLI will be verified as a nuclear warhead by knowledge of (a) the presence and mass of SNM, (b) the presence of HE, and (c) the reporting of a unique tag ID. All of these parameters can be obtained via neutron correlation measurements, Raman spectroscopy, and fiber optic grating fabrication, respectively. Data from these sensors will be pushed out monthly and acquired nearly daily, providing one of several verification layers in

  13. Study on risk management for operation of nuclear generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reputation loss is regarded as a management issue because it impacts to business and industries significantly. Reputation management is one of the approach both business and public organizations. Application of reputation management for nuclear plant management is discussed. (author)

  14. Thermal analysis of spent nuclear fuel shipping cas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) thermal analysis was performed for the TN-24P cask. For the analysis, ANSYS Fluent as a CFD tool was selected since it has the proper finite volume methods to realistically simulate the thermal behavior of shipping casks. For the analysis, spent fuels discharged from pressurized water reactors (PWRs) were modeled. In the model, there are 24 PWR spent fuel assemblies loaded in the TN-24P cask. The fuel design is assumed to be similar to standard Westinghouse 15x15 rod design. Total heat (decay) generated in the cask was estimated to be 20.6 kW. To input the axial power profile required to calculate the heat flux, a User Defined Function was generated. Fuel storage space (canister) is filled with Helium gas to cool spent nuclear fuel. In the cask, heat transfer occurs through the heat conduction by helium and basket, natural circulation driven by gravity, and thermal radiation in the complex geometry. In the canister region, laminar flow model with Boussinesq approximation is used to simulate the natural circulation. The helium domain was assumed symmetric in the model. For thermal radiation, the Discrete Ordinates (DO) model was chosen in the presented study due to its accuracy and capability of parallel processing. In typical vertical TN-24P dry storage cask system consist of two nested cask. Between inner and outer cask is in the air. Air inlet section is at the bottom side of cask and outlet ventilation is at top of cask. At this region, turbulence regime occurs and turbulence is modeled by using k-epsilon model. The analysis include small scaled and full scaled model. In small scale model, geometry is defined rectangular to make mesh generation easy and to validate the analysis tools using the experimental data. In the full-scale simulation, the results of analysis and experimental data for peak clad temperature (PCT) were compared. Key Words: TN-24P dry storage cask, CFD, thermal analysis, PCT, air blockage

  15. Technical support for nuclear power operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report prepared by the group of senior experts from nuclear operating organizations in Member states, addresses the problem of improving the operating performance of nuclear power plants. Safe and reliable operation is essential for strengthening the viability of nuclear power in the increasingly competitive market of electric power. Basic principles and requirements concerning technical procedures and developed practices are discussed. Report reflects the best current international practices and presents those management initiatives that go beyond the mandated regulatory compliance and could lead to enhancement od operational safety and improved plant performance. By correlating experiences and presenting collective effective practices it is meant to assist nuclear power plant managers in achieving improvement in operation through the contribution of effective technical support

  16. Nuclear liability: Joint protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention was adopted by the Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, which met in Vienna, at the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency on 21 September 1988. The Joint Protocol establishes a link between the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963. The Joint Protocol will extend to the States adhering to it the coverage of the two Conventions. It will also resolve potential conflicts of law, which could result from the simultaneous application of the two Conventions to the same nuclear accident. The Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication contains the text of the Final Act of the Conference in the six authentic languages, the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, also in the six authentic languages and an explanatory note, prepared by the IAEA and NEA Secretariats, providing background information on the content of the Joint Protocol

  17. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Government Division's written evidence to the Trade and Industry Committee inquiry into the Government's proposals for nuclear privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful privatisation of the United Kingdom nuclear industry requires the best solution for the future of nuclear liabilities associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of the resultant radioactive wastes. At least some of these liabilities will remain in the public sector. The UKAEA Government Division was brought into being in 1994 to manage the UKAEA's nuclear liabilities. The evidence presented suggests how the experience and expertise of this organisation may be valuable in deciding how public sector nuclear liabilities in general can best be handled. In particular, a number of operating principles have been established which could be successfully applied to the management of other nuclear liabilities. (UK)

  18. 75 FR 57299 - First Energy Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION First Energy Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for... application, dated August 30, 2010, from FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, filed pursuant to Section...

  19. Introduction to the 'CAS' nuclear propulsion plant for ships: specific safety options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the development of nuclear propulsion in FRANCE (Land Based Prototype PAT 1964 - Navy nuclear ships - Advanced Nuclear Boiler Prototype CAP 1975 and now the CAS nuclear plant), the specific safety options of CAS are presented: cold, compartmented fuel (plates); reduced flow during LOCA; permanent cooling of fuel during LOCA; pressurized, entirely passive containment; no control rod ejection and possibility of temporary storage of spent fuel on board

  20. The effectiveness and development trend of nuclear third party liability insurance in the nuclear risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power considerably benefited mankind since it was utilized peaceably. The cleanness, safety and high efficiency of nuclear power were gradually known and recognized by the public. However at the same time, nuclear power had produced significant accident and consequently caused severe aftereffects during its utilization. Therefore, effective management of nuclear risk and reducing its accident probability are the social responsibilities of every nuclear nation. From the insurance point of view, this document analyzes the validity and development trends of nuclear third party insurance in nuclear risk management. It also introduces effectual experience in this field from nuclear insurance developed countries. This document discusses the necessity of consummating nuclear third party insurance under the aggressive development situation of nuclear power in our country. (author)

  1. Liability according to civil law regarding border-crossing nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the liability in border-crossing damage caused by a nuclear-reactor accident is divided into two different areas: the liability according to international law of the state, and liability according to civil right of the licensee of a nuclear power plant. In this study attention is paid to the question of the liability according to civil right: is it possible that an aggrieved obtains compensation for damage? This is investigated on the basis of three standard questions of international private law: which judge is qualified, which law is to be applied, and is acknowledgement and execution of foreign sentences possible? First a historical survey is given of international agreements and national legislations regarding third-party liability. (author). 112 refs

  2. Visualization of Ship Risk Profiles for the Shipping Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); M. van de Velden (Michel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article uses correspondence analysis to visualize risk profiles and their changes over the time period 1977 to 2008. It is based on a unique dataset which combines incident data and ship particular data. The risk profiles can help stakeholders better understand the relationship of s

  3. Nuclear liability legislation in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report contains certain information concerning the current situation dealing with provision of nuclear and radiation safety during the performance of all types of activity associated with nuclear installations, facilities of radioactive waste management and utilization of ionizing radiation sources in 1999. We try to make a concise analysis o legal bases of ensuring safety and to present general information concerning the Nuclear Insurance Pool of Ukraine. (author)

  4. Knowledge management for nuclear industry operating organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy sector is characterized by lengthy time frames and technical excellence. Early nuclear plants were designed to operate for 40 years but their service life now frequently extends between 50 and 60 years. Decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear plants will also be spread over several years resulting in a life cycle - from cradle to grave - in excess of 100 years, which gives rise to two challenges for the nuclear industry: (1) Retention of existing skills and competencies for a period of over fifty years, particularly in countries where no new nuclear power plants are being planned; and (2) Development of new skills and competencies in the areas of decommissioning and radioactive waste management in many industrialized countries if younger workers cannot continue to be attracted to the nuclear disciplines. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. Typically, these retirees are individuals who can answer questions very easily and who possess tacit knowledge never before extracted from them. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to either operations or safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Therefore, the primary challenge of preserving such knowledge is to determine how best to capture tacit knowledge and transfer it to successors. These problems are exacerbated by the deregulation of energy markets around the world. The nuclear industry is now required to reduce its costs dramatically in order to compete with generators that have different technology life cycle profiles. In many countries, government funding has been dramatically reduced or has disappeared altogether while the profit margins of generators have been severely squeezed. The result has been lower electricity prices but also the loss of expertise as a result of downsizing to reduce salary costs, a loss of

  5. Inventory Control of Spare Parts for Operating Nuclear Power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Jang, Se-Jin; Hwang, Eui-Youp; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. The trade-off is clear: on one hand a large number of spare parts ties up a large amount of capital, while on the other hand too little inventory may result in extremely costly emergency actions. This is why during the last few decades inventory of spare parts control has been the topics of many publications. Recently management systems such as manufacturing resources planning (MRP) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. In this paper, we will examine the available inventory optimization models which are applicable to nuclear power plant and then select optimum model and assumptions to make inventory of spare parts strategies. Then we develop the computer program to select and determine optimum level of spare parts which should be automatically controlled by KHNP ERP system. The main contribution of this paper is an inventory of spare parts control model development, which can be applied to nuclear power plants in Korea.

  6. Changes to the principles of nuclear liability and nuclear damage; Evolution des notions de responsabilite et de dommages nucleaires - Essai de comparaison avec le droit commun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, M. [Courtage Technique d`Assurances (France)

    1995-12-31

    The speaker proposes to give a summarized recall on the ordinary rules of liability and damage, by referring to the recent works by the NEA-IAEA as presented during the Helsinki meeting. Then he would compare them to that of nuclear liability and damages, as they currently stand, after the changes they went through, since such rules first appeared. Such comparison will allow the emphasis on differences which lead to question the relevance of these changes. (author).

  7. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  8. 26 CFR 1.955A-4 - Election as to date of determining qualified investment in foreign base company shipping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment in foreign base company shipping operations. 1.955A-4 Section 1.955A-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... company shipping operations. (a) Nature of election. In lieu of determining the increase under the... shipping operations for a taxable year in the manner provided in such provisions, a United...

  9. Sanctity of dispute resolution clauses : strategic coherence of the Brussels system / Ilona Nurmela

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurmela, Ilona, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    1968. aasta Brüsseli konventsioon kohtualluvuse ja kohtuotsuste täitmise kohta tsiviil- ja kaubandusasjades (1968 Brussels Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgements in civil and commercial matters ; Brussels I Convention)

  10. Indicators for monitoring of safety operation and condition of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A common goal of all employees in the nuclear power field is safety operation of nuclear power stations. The evaluation and control of NPP safety operation are a part of the elements of safety management. The present report is related only to a part of the total assessment and control of the plant safety operation, namely - the indicator system for monitoring of Kozloduy NPP operation and condition. (author)

  11. Optimum operation cycle of nuclear plant in power system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extension of nuclear power plant operation cycle leads to improvement of its capacity factor and affects to suppress thermal plant generation of which fuel cost is relatively high. On the other hand, the number of nuclear fuel assembly to be exchanged at the time of maintenance increases with the operation cycle extension and this makes the fuel cost of nuclear generation high. For this reason, there exists the optimum operation cycle from the power system operation. This report deals with the optimum operation cycle of nuclear plant as the optimum sharing problem of generated energy between nuclear and thermal plants. The incremental fuel cost is considered to find the optimum value. The effects of the generation mix and high burn-up fuel on optimum operation cycle are examined. (author)

  12. Using SPOT-5 HRG Data in Panchromatic Mode for Operational Detection of Small Ships in Tropical Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Petit

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest in applications of space remote sensing systems for maritime surveillance which includes among others traffic surveillance, maritime security, illegal fisheries survey, oil discharge and sea pollution monitoring. Within the framework of several French and European projects, an algorithm for automatic ship detection from SPOT-5 HRG data was developed to complement existing fishery control measures, in particular the Vessel Monitoring System. The algorithm focused on feature-based analysis of satellite imagery. Genetic algorithms and Neural Networks were used to deal with the feature-borne information. Based on the described approach, a first prototype was designed to classify small targets such as shrimp boats and tested on panchromatic SPOT-5, 5-m resolution product taking into account the environmental and fishing context. The ability to detect shrimp boats with satisfactory detection rates is an indicator of the robustness of the algorithm. Still, the benchmark revealed problems related to increased false alarm rates on particular types of images with a high percentage of cloud cover and a sea cluttered background.

  13. 3D CFD CONV code: validation and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During some years in IBRAE a set of 3D CFD modules (CONV code) for safety analysis of the operated Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is developing. These modules are based on the developed algorithms with small scheme diffusion, for which the discrete approximations are constructed with use of finite-volume methods and fully staggered grids. For solving of convection problem the regularized nonlinear monotonic operator-splitting scheme is developed. The Richardson iterative method with Chebyshev's set of parameters using FFT solver for Laplace's operator as pre-conditioner is applied for solving pressure equation. Such approach for solving of the elliptical equations with variable coefficients gives multiple acceleration in a comparison with a usual method of conjugate gradients. For modeling of 3D turbulent single-phase flows LES approach (commutative filters) is used. The CONV code is fully parallelized and highly effective at the high performance computers. The developed modules were validated on a series of the well known tests in a wide range of Rayleigh numbers from a range 106-1016 and Reynolds numbers from a range 103-105. The developed software has been applied to the simulation of the experiment on RASPLAV facility and of large-scale RCW test conducted in the frames of MASCA Project. As a result of numerical modeling of aforementioned experiments qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data was obtained including amount of the molten corium and form of the molten pool, distribution of temperature in corium, fluxes and temperatures in a test-wall. The software has been applied also to the analysis results of test L1 and joint analyses on transient molten pool thermal hydraulics in the LIVE facility in the framework of ISTC project. In this paper the examples of use of the developed software for modeling of a fuel assembly, namely, for research of a hydraulic resistance factor of a spacer are demonstrated. The calculations are carried out on a

  14. Scientific and technical aspects of creating spent nuclear fuel shipping and storage equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of advanced capacity shipping packaging set development which allows shipping and storage of heat-producing spent fuel assemblies for pressurized water reactor VVER-1000 type are considered. Analogs and achieved advantages of TUK-146 construction are mentioned

  15. Progress in investigations on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship nuclear reactors under ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship nuclear reactors are very important to the safety and reliability of ship voyage under the ocean conditions. Therefore, many countries have carried out plentiful investigations. This paper is based on some Asia open literature of investigations on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship nuclear reactors under the ocean conditions, reviews and sums up those main progresses such as the method, contents and typical results in this field, analyzes their insufficiency, and puts forward advices on the future investigation based on the known research findings. (authors)

  16. The Exception for the Non-Performance of Contracts and the Exception for the Compensation of Claims and Related Liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Cãzãnel Maria

    2013-01-01

    The compensation of claims and related liabilities is an institution consecrated by the French jurisprudence and it can operate without having met all the conditions set by the law for the legal compensation. This form of connection encountered in the field of obligation relationships in business law is admitted on the idea of a connection between certain claims and liabilities, being circumscribed, at first, to the obligational relationships arising from the same synallagmatic contract. In t...

  17. Computerization of operation and maintenance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a resource for computerization of activities in plant operation and maintenance. Experience gained from design and implementation of various computer systems around the world is described. The material may be useful as a guide to modification and upgrading of existing plants as well as design and engineering of new plants. It should be particularly of interest to managers and engineers who are engaged in planning, bidding, specifying or designing computer systems for operation and maintenance applications. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. International responsibility and liability of states for environmental accidental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with international liability for environmental damage. Environmental pollution is an urgent problem of worldwide concern since damage of this kind can often not be restricted to the area of that state where the nuisance originally had started. It is because of the technical progress of the twentieth century that activities carried out within the control of the state of origin can very much produce effects in areas beyond national jurisdiction or in areas under the control of another state. Therefore there is a great demand for international cooperation and further development of international law regarding trans-frontier environmental pollution. Obviously the main goal of international environmental law lies in the prevention of trans-frontier harm. But up to a certain extent, regulations governing state responsibility and liability can not only provide for compensation of innocent victims but are also able to fulfill an educational function and in this sense to raise concern for environmental problems. There are two different causes of liability in international law. Any violation of a subjective right of another state leads to state responsibility of the author of the violation and particularly to the duty to repair damage. On the other hand there are activities which are as well harmful and dangerous by their nature as absolutely necessary for economic and social reasons. However, uninvolved people have to be compensated if damage occurs to them. In such cases the cause of this obligation is not the violation of a legal duty but arises out of the mere fact that damage had occurred. Briefly these two above mentioned causes of liability form a base for a better approach to the problems of international law concerning environmental risks. (author)

  19. The Uneasy Case for Product Liability

    OpenAIRE

    Polinsky, A. Mitchell; Shavell, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In this Article we compare the benefits of product liability to its costs and conclude that the case for product liability is weak for a wide range of products. One benefit of product liability is that it can induce firms to improve product safety. Even in the absence of product liability, however, firms are often motivated by market forces to enhance product safety because their sales may fall if their products harm consumers. Moreover, products must frequently conform to safety regulations....

  20. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  1. Advanced Demonstration of Motion Correction for Ship-to-Ship Passive Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boehnen, Chris Bensing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ernst, Joseph [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Passive radiation detection is a key tool for detecting illicit nuclear materials. In maritime applications it is most effective against small vessels where attenuation is of less concern. Passive imaging provides: discrimination between localized (threat) and distributed (non-threat) sources, removal of background fluctuations due to nearby shorelines and structures, source localization to an individual craft in crowded waters, and background subtracted spectra. Unfortunately, imaging methods cannot be easily applied in ship-to-ship inspections because relative motion of the vessels blurs the results over many pixels, significantly reducing sensitivity. This is particularly true for the smaller water craft where passive inspections are most valuable. In this project we performed tests and improved the performance of an instrument (developed earlier under, “Motion Correction for Ship-to-Ship Passive Inspections”) that uses automated tracking of a target vessel in visible-light images to generate a 3D radiation map of the target vessel from data obtained using a gamma-ray imager.

  2. Evaluation of legal liability for technological risks in view of requirements for peaceful coexistence and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, Henk

    2011-06-01

    Legal liability for risk-generating technological activities is evaluated in view of requirements that are necessary for peaceful human coexistence and progress in order to show possibilities for improvement. The requirements imply, given that political decision making about the activities proceeds on the basis of majority rule, that legal liability should be unconditional (absolute, strict) and unlimited (full). We analyze actual liability in international law for various risk-generating technological activities, to conclude that nowhere is the standard of unconditional and unlimited liability fully met. Apart from that there are enormous differences. Although significant international liability legislation is in place for some risk-generating technological activities, legislation is virtually absent for others. We discuss fundamental possibilities and limitations of liability and private insurance to secure credible and ethically sound risk assessment and risk management practices. The limitations stem from problems of establishing a causal link between an activity and a harm; compensating irreparable harm; financial warranty; moral hazard in insurance and in organizations; and discounting future damage to present value. As our requirements call for prior agreement among all who are subjected to the risks of an activity about the settlement of these difficult problems, precautionary ex ante regulation of risk-generating activities may be a more attractive option, either combined with liability stipulations or not. However, if ex ante regulation is not based on the consent of all subjected to the risks, it remains that the basis of liability in the law should be unconditional and unlimited liability.

  3. 78 FR 46255 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI42 Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant... environmental effect of renewing the operating license of a nuclear power plant. Compliance with the provisions... nuclear power plant. This document is necessary to clarify and correct the revisions made to the...

  4. Risk-informed optimal routing of ships considering different damage scenarios and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is the development of a risk-informed decision tool for the optimal mission-oriented routing of ships. The strength of the hull is investigated by modeling the midship section with finite elements and by analyzing different damage levels depending on the propagation of plastification throughout the section. Vertical and horizontal flexural interaction is investigated. Uncertainties associated with geometry and material properties are accounted for by means of the implementation of the response surface method. Load effects are evaluated using strip theory. Reliability analysis is performed for several ship operational conditions and considering four different limit states. Then, risk is assessed by including the direct losses associated with five investigated damage states. The effects of corrosion on aged ships are included in the proposed approach. Polar representation of load effects, reliability, and direct risk are presented for a large spectrum of operational conditions. Finally, the optimal routing of ships is obtained by minimizing both the estimated time of arrival and the expected direct risk, which are clearly conflicting objectives. The optimization process provides feasible solutions belonging to the Pareto front. The proposed approach is applied to a Joint High Speed Sealift

  5. The concept of underground nuclear heat and power plants (UNHPP) of upgraded safety, developed on the basis of ship-building technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept of underground nuclear heat and power plants (UNHPP) of upgraded safety on the basis of ship-building technologies is considered, in which the priority is set to population security and environmental protection. Ways of realization of ziro radiation risk for the population residing in a close vicinity of UNHPP are substantiated. basic principles of the concept are formulated which envisage the use of ship propulsion reactor facilities that have been multiply tested in operation. The sources of economic competitiveness of UNHPPs, as compared with the existing NPPs, are shown

  6. Nitrogen balances during growth of Brussels sprouts and leeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, R.; Willigen, de P.; Kreuzer, A.D.H.; Smit, A.L.; Werf, van der A.

    1996-01-01

    The nitrogen balance at different N-application rates was determined in Brussels sprouts and leeks during growth of the crop in two field experiments on a sandy soil. The N-input (from fertilizer and mineralisation) and the N-output (N in the above-ground crop parts and the residual mineral N in the

  7. Performance of Ship Assistance Program for Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Mira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study identify inhibiting factors that make the program Inka Mina did not reach goal. The study uses regression analysis and correlation analysis. Correlation analysis results indicate that the strong correlation between the number of aid ships with determining factors such as the potential for fisheries, the number of fishermen, the amount of production, the number of ship, number of KUB, and the fishing port. Regression analysis results indicate that amount of aid ships in a region is in accordance with the elements set out in the technical guidance. However, a strong correlation does not necessarily determine the success of this program, because there are other factors that have not been considered (qualitative factors , such as culture one day fishing on coastal communities, people's habits (gear and type of size, transfer knowledge, and other factors. Assessment for this problem, government should consider the culture aspect.

  8. 46 CFR 151.12-10 - Operation of oceangoing non-self-propelled ships Carrying Category D NLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of oceangoing non-self-propelled ships... of oceangoing non-self-propelled ships Carrying Category D NLS. (a) An oceangoing non-self-propelled... oceangoing non-self-propelled ship that carries a Category D NLS listed under § 151.12-5 shall ensure...

  9. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  10. Analysis of Pending Problems for a Technology Demand of Domestic Operational Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae Seo; Park, Won Seok; Wi, Myung Hwan; Ha, Jae Joo

    2008-01-15

    Eleven technology fields were chosen, which have a relation with the solution of the pending problems of domestic operational nuclear power plants to manage an efficient operation and safe regulation for domestic nuclear power plants. The progressive background, requirements, and performance on the pending problems, 34, of an operation and regulation for domestic nuclear power plants were analyzed with regard to a risk information application, severe accident, PSR of structural materials, underwater monitoring, operation inspection and a fire protection, an instrument aging, metal integrity and steam generator, human technology and a digital I and C, quality assurance, secondary system and a user reliance and mass communications. KAERI's role is to provide a solution to these pending problems of domestic nuclear power plants. KAERI's technology is to be applicable to the pending problems for domestic nuclear power plants to raise an operational efficiency and an application frequency of nuclear power plants. In the future, a technology treaty between KAERI and KHNP is to be established to solve the pending problems for domestic nuclear power plants. Operation rate of nuclear power plants will also be raised and contribute to the supply of national energy due to this technology treaty.

  11. Remote tool development for nuclear dismantling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote tool systems to undertake nuclear dismantling operations require careful design and development not only to perform their given duty but to perform it safely within the constraints imposed by harsh environmental conditions. Framatome ANP NUCLEAR SERVICES has for a long time developed and qualified equipment to undertake specific maintenance operations of nuclear reactors. The tool development methodology from this activity has since been adapted to resolve some very challenging reactor dismantling operations which are demonstrated in this paper. Each nuclear decommissioning project is a unique case, technical characterisation data is generally incomplete. The development of the dismantling methodology and associated equipment is by and large an iterative process combining design and simulation with feasibility and validation testing. The first stage of the development process involves feasibility testing of industrial tools and examining adaptations necessary to control and deploy the tool remotely with respect to the chosen methodology and environmental constraints. This results in a prototype tool and deployment system to validate the basic process. The second stage involves detailed design which integrates any remaining technical and environmental constraints. At the end of this stage, tools and deployment systems, operators and operating procedures are qualified on full scale mock ups. (authors)

  12. Liabilities identification and long-term management decommissioning of nuclear installations in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning is defined as the safe removal of nuclear facilities from service and reduction of residual radioactivity and/or risk to a level enabling their use for the purpose of another nuclear facility or unrestricted use (site release) and termination of license. The Legal Basis for Decommissioning and Waste Management are described in 4 acts: - 1. Act 130/98 Coll. on peaceful use of nuclear energy (Atomic Act); - 2. The act No 127/1994 Coll. on environmental impact assessment (amended 2000); - 3. The act No 254/1994 Coll. on creation of state found for NPP decommissioning, spent fuel management and disposal investment (amended 2000, 2001); 4. The act No 272/1994 Coll. on protection of public health (amended 1996,2000). The licensing process for radioactive waste management installations as for all nuclear installations is running in following principal steps. The permits for siting, construction, operation including commissioning, individual steps of decommissioning and site release are issued by municipal environmental office on the basis of the Act No 50/1976 Coll. on territorial planning and construction rules and the decisions of the Nuclear regulatory Authority (UJD SR) based on the Atomic Act. The safety documentation shall be prepared by applicant and it is subject of the regulatory bodies approval, for nuclear safety is responsible UJD SR, for radiation protection Ministry of Health, for fire protection Ministry of Interior and for general safety Ministry of Labour, Social Policy and Family. UJD SR issues the permit for each decommissioning phase based on review and approval of safety documentation. Decommissioning Strategy of Slovak Republic was strongly influenced by the changes of Waste Management Strategy. During the last time UJD SR dedicated the great effort to principal improvement of legislation, to cooperation with Ministry of Economy with the aim to create rules for financial sources for decommissioning activities and to enforcement of

  13. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '96. Technical session: Advanced methods for operation, control and management of German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The six papers of this session deal with experience, results and data obtained in nuclear power plant operation in Germany, and with the conclusions drawn relating to optimisation of maintenance work, insight drawn from reports on events and incidents in nuclear power plant, human factors engineering, or power plant life management. One paper discusses measures for safeguarding in the long run the functional integrity of the Mochovce-1 nuclear power station unit. (DG)

  14. Techniques for controlling air pollution from the operation of nuclear facilities. Report of a panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is provided for the guidance of those persons or authorities who are responsible for the organization, control and operation of ventilation systems and air-cleaning installations in nuclear establishments. It is intended to generalize about existing experience in the operation of such systems at nuclear facilities including reactors and laboratories for production, use and handling of radionuclides and other toxic materials. This manual will provide designers and operators of nuclear facilities in which ventilation and air-cleaning systems are used with the factors which have to be considered to create safe working conditions inside facilities and without polluting the atmosphere or the environment to a hazardous level.

  15. Civil liability and nuclear coverage: synthesis report; Responsabilite civile et coverture nucleaires. Rapport du Groupe de Travail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The report has been written considering the advanced work which has been done by the Expert Committee, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, having the purpose to examine the modifications issued in course of Vienna Convention as well as the Paris convention and the complementary Brussels Convention, in view to adapt the legislation to the actual context and to answer the populations expectations. The work has been organized in three majors chapters: the first one in concerned to the damage definition, proposition to the to reach the environment, the prevention and charges. the research and military installations are also considered. The second chapter has been dedicated to the civil responsibility, its limits, financing modes, the national and international legal competence besides the litigation charges due to the nuclear accidents born on the occasion. In the third chapter the insurance considering the damage nature, the capacity to assure liability coverage and the damage management are harmonized.

  16. Evaluation of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) and SPARTAN SCOUT as Information Operations (IO) assets

    OpenAIRE

    Bromley, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis will address the planned configuration of Lockheed Martin's Flight Zero, Module Spiral Alpha Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) and the ongoing development of the SPARTAN SCOUT, one of the Navy's Unmanned Surface Vessels (USV). Technology currently available as well as developmental technologies will be recommended for implementation in order to make the LCS and SCOUT assets to Information Operations (IO) objectives. Specific techn...

  17. IAEA support for operating nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA programme, under the pillar of science and technology, provides support to the existing fleet of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for excellence in operation, support to new countries for infrastructure development, stimulating technology innovation for sustainable development and building national capability. Practical activities include methodology development, information sharing and providing guidance documents and state-of-the-art reports, networking of research activities, and review services using guidance documents as a basis of evaluation. This paper elaborates more on the IAEA's activities in support of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants

  18. Comparisons of interdisciplinary ballast water treatment systems and operational experiences from ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Goran

    2016-01-01

    There are high functioning and low functioning ballast water treatment systems on board ships. In this study, five systems were analysed so as to methodically examine the operational difficulties for ship crew members while giving important consideration to sustainable environment practices. Multi-criteria analysis, a questionnaire, survey and interviews were used as the research method so as to ascertain and corroborate existing problems on board ships, and the reliability of the systems was calculated. The co-insistency, maintenance and the efficiency of the systems, were shown as being the major problem as there are no systems for tracking ship ballast operations from land. The treatment system that used oxidants was, through multi criteria analysis, evaluated as being the best and was ranked first. However, the survey results showed that the ship's crew had serious problems with this system which difficult to solve during the ship's operations with cargo. The deoxygenation system was the most appropriate according to ballast water treatment criteria in the port or at sea. The treatment system which used electrolysis with oxidant was better in terms of efficacy and the treatment system electrolysis with ultra violet light was better in terms of the criterion environment pollution footprint. During further research, it was shown that 7 % of the surveyed crew members had major problems with operating ballast water treatment systems, including the system which was ranked first through multi criteria analysis. They by-passed these systems while continuing to ballast or de-ballast. It was calculated that of the total time needed for the ballast water treatment system operation, 9 % of this time was used for repairs or maintenance of the systems. Some examples are changing a used UV bulb, cleaning the filter or controlling the amount of oxidant which would be discharged into the sea. A conclusion was made and solution was suggested. The study results emphasised

  19. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  20. Licensing procedures for a dedicated ship for carrying spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. Report from workshop held at GOSAOMNADZOR, Moscow 2 -3 July 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes information exchange and discussion about the licensing principles and procedures for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste transportation at sea. Russian health, environment and safety requirements for transportation of waste by ships. (Author)

  1. Licensing procedures for a dedicated ship for carrying spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. Report from workshop held at GOSAOMNADZOR, Moscow 2 -3 July 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Margorzata K.; Bergman, Curt; Markarov, Valentin

    2001-07-01

    The report describes information exchange and discussion about the licensing principles and procedures for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste transportation at sea. Russian health, environment and safety requirements for transportation of waste by ships. (Author)

  2. Operational assessment of the transnuclear TN-9 truck spent fuel shipping cask: studies and research concerning BNFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an operational assessment of the Transnuclear Inc., TN-9 spent fuel cask. This packaging system transports seven current generation boiling-water-reactor nuclear fuel assemblies in a truck shipping mode. The studies were performed at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant by employees of Allied-General Nuclear Services. The work was funded by the Department of Energy during fiscal year 1981. The cooperation of Transnuclear in this effort is gratefully acknowledged. The study is based on repeated simulated unloading runs of TN-9. Specific tasks and areas of study included: (1) sequential dry-run handling operations under simulated unloading conditions, (2) detailed time and manpower studies, (3) estimates of operator radiation exposure, (4) a general evaluation of the cask system capabilities as they relate to unloading and loading facility operations, and (5) preparation of operating procedures for both unloading (confirmed by practice runs) and loading (yet to be confirmed). Also included is general information on the cask, auxiliary equipment, and the Certificate of Compliance

  3. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan; Vahid Rezadoost

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust...

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  5. A Study of Liabilities Scale in Telecommunication Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper analyzes the benefit and risk of liabilities operation in telecom enterprises and the advantages of internal and external conditions in liabilities operation. The quantitative model of liabilities scale is studied by analyzing the factors that act on the liabilities scale.

  6. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  7. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-10 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...

  8. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

  9. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  10. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    's Response Assistance Network. In July 2008, an emergency exercise, hosted by Mexico and known as ConvEx3 (2008), tested the international response to a simulated accident at a nuclear power plant. The Agency used its Incident and during the exercise. The importance of having effective civil liability mechanisms in place to insure against harm to human health and the environment, as well as actual economic loss caused by nuclear damage, receives continued attention among Member States. The deposit by the USA of its instrument of ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) marked an important milestone towards bringing the entry into force of the CSC. The International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) continues to serve as the Agency's main forum dealing with questions related to nuclear liability. In 2008, INLEX discussed, inter alia, outreach activities and the ongoing European Commission's impact assessment on nuclear liability. Nuclear power plant operators continued to show strong safety performance in 2008, with no serious accidents or significant radiation exposure to workers or the public to report. During the Agency's International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety, held in Mumbai, India in November 2008, participants concluded that an integrated nuclear safety approach based on the defence in depth principle and deterministic criteria, when properly applied and complemented with probabilistic analyses and operational experience feedback, continues to be successful. The reevaluation of the integrity of existing nuclear installations, taking into account the increased magnitude observed during recent severe earthquakes and extreme natural events, has begun. At the request of Member States, the Agency has conducted generic reactor safety reviews to assess new nuclear power plant designs for consistency with the Agency's safety standards.

  11. Review of decision aids for nuclear-plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responses to various computer-based operational aids varied widely in detail, thus forcing distillation of the salient features of many operational aids from information sources other than the initial questionnaire. These sources included technical and management presentations, technical papers and reports, personal discussions, taped responses, sales brochures, system specifications and schematics, and other documents. The data base is dynamic, not static, owing to the nature of current trends in operational aid development. The information contained in it is subject to review and revision by the developing organizations. More systems are pending review and entry into the data base; hence the list is incomplete

  12. Constructing New Expertise: Private and Public Initiatives for Safe Food (Brussels in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholliers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In 1856, the mayor of Brussels proposed the establishment of a municipal laboratory with a chemist to analyse food and beverages to restrain fraud. His proposal was accepted and a laboratory – possibly one of the first municipal laboratories in Europe – was set up. The laboratory still exists today. This paper aims at tracing the conditions in which it emerged, situating it within the laissez-faire context of the time. It was brought into existence by a liberal administration, in a period of little interventionism replete with unencumbered private interests (those of bakers, butchers, grocers, millers, pharmacists, doctors and so on). What will be considered here is the general mood with regard to food fraud, fair trade, correct price, and the quality of food in the first half of the nineteenth century. On a broader level, this contribution addresses the frictions between private and public initiative, while focusing on the process of construction of expertise. The paper makes use of contemporary documents such as reviews, newspapers, association reports and city council chronicles. PMID:25284894

  13. Draft law concerning the agreement concluded on 22 October 1986 by the Federal Republic of Germany and the Swiss Confederation, on third party liability in the nuclear energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bill is intented to improve the liability regime for the protection of the population of the two neighbour countries against possible transfrontier effects of nuclear facilities of the two countries. The third-party liability agreement has been signed on 22 October 1986 in Bern/Switzerland to the effect that the Swiss Confederation is regarded as having acceded to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability. The bill in hand is to create the basis for a ratification of the agreement, in accordance with Art. 59, para 2, 1st sentence of the Basic Law. (orig./HP)

  14. Measurement of xenon reactivity in the reactor of the nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Gakuhari, Kazuhiko; Okada, Noboru

    1993-07-01

    This report deals with the measurement of reactivity changes caused by the increase and decrease of xenon concentration in the reactor core of the nuclear ship 'MUTSU' after a change from long-term operation at 70 % to zero power. The change in xenon reactivity was compensated by control-rod movements and the compensated reactivity was measured using a digital reactivity meter. The xenon override peak was recognized five and half hours after the start of power reduction. The equilibrium and peak reactivities of xenon were estimated by reading the initial and peak values of a theoretical curve which was fitted to the measured variation in xenon reactivity. The xenon reactivity results obtained by the present method can be considered to be accurate since no control-rod worth data were used and the measured quantity was the reactivity itself. (author).

  15. Combining ANP and TOPSIS Concepts for Evaluation the Performance of Property-Liability Insurance Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yin Tsai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a significant problem for the property-liability insurance industry. The study first uses Modified Delphi Method to sift influence property-liability insurance effects out norms. Moreover, the evaluation weights are determined using Analytic Network Process (ANP. Finally, the technique for ordering preference by similarity to the ideal solution (TOPSIS constructs performance evaluation model of property-liability insurance companies in Taiwan. This research use financial statements of property-liability insurance industry calculated efficiency placing and through the positive research. Findings may do for the government the important reference of the insure policy.

  16. The Civil Liability Subject for the Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage from Ships%船舶油污损害赔偿民事责任主体探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小军; 戴超

    2014-01-01

    In order to deal with the major oil pollution accident which causes great ecologic and finan-cial losses ,the international community has developed international conventions and domestic law s to es-tablish an effective system for compensation for oil pollution damage after the Second World War .As Chi-na is becoming one of the largest maritime countries ,major oil pollution accidents increase ,w hich made China suffer great losses .Compared with some of the developed countries ,China lacks the law which reg-ulates the subject of liability for oil pollution damage ,and the existing law is ambiguous and devoid of sys-tematicness and operability .Through elaborating the basic provisions of the relevant international conven-tions and some typical national law s on the parties liable for oil pollution damages from ships ,the paper points out the factors that legislators and justices should pay attention to when dealing with such cases .%为应对重大油污事故带来的巨大生态和经济损失,二战以后,国际社会建立了油污损害赔偿机制。随着我国航运大国地位的确立,在我国发生的油污事故日益增多,损害结果触目惊心。相比发达国家,我国船舶油污损害赔偿责任主体的立法很不完善,相关规定较为模糊,缺乏系统性和可操作性。通过对国际公约和我国立法中有关油污责任主体法律法规的梳理与分析,指出我国在涉及油污责任主体方面的立法和司法审判中应考虑的因素。

  17. Used Nuclear Fuel: From Liability to Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, Raymond L.

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear power has proven safe and reliable, with operating efficiencies in the U.S. exceeding 90%. It provides a carbon-free source of electricity (with about a 10% penalty arising from CO2 released from construction and the fuel cycle). However, used fuel from nuclear reactors is highly toxic and presents a challenge for permanent disposal -- both from technical and policy perspectives. The half-life of the ``bad actors'' is relatively short (of the order of decades) while the very long lived isotopes are relatively benign. At present, spent fuel is stored on-site in cooling ponds. Once the used fuel pools are full, the fuel is moved to dry cask storage on-site. Though the local storage is capable of handling used fuel safely and securely for many decades, the law requires DOE to assume responsibility for the used fuel and remove it from reactor sites. The nuclear industry pays a tithe to support sequestration of used fuel (but not research). However, there is currently no national policy in place to deal with the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel. This administration is opposed to underground storage at Yucca Mountain. There is no national policy for interim storage---removal of spent fuel from reactor sites and storage at a central location. And there is no national policy for liberating the energy contained in used fuel through recycling (separating out the fissionable components for subsequent use as nuclear fuel). A ``Blue Ribbon Commission'' has been formed to consider alternatives, but will not report until 2012. This paper will examine alternatives for used fuel disposition, their drawbacks (e.g. proliferation issues arising from recycling), and their benefits. For recycle options to emerge as a viable technology, research is required to develop cost effective methods for treating used nuclear fuel, with attention to policy as well as technical issues.

  18. The liability of transmission grid operators for the delayed grid connection of offshore wind power plants; Die Haftung der Uebertragungsnetzbetreiber fuer den verzoegerten Netzanschluss von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Carsten [Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Deutsches und Europaeisches Wirtschafts-, Wettbewerbs- und Regulierungsrecht

    2013-05-15

    The legislator has newly regulated the responsibility of the transmission system operators for the delayed grid connection of offshore wind turbines by means of the third law on the revision of the energy economy legislation from 20th December, 2012. Independently from indebtedness, according to paragraph 17e section 2 Energy Economy Law, the transmission system operators are liable for property damages resulting from the fact that offshore wind power plants are not connected with the power grids on land just in time. A compensation is to be paid to the plant operators. This compensation accounts for 90 % of the remuneration with respect to the Renewable Energy Law. The most part of the cost of compensation can be given to the power consumers. The economic risks are largely supported by the general public in the future.

  19. Stress analysis of closure bolts for shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report specifies the requirements and criteria for stress analysis of closure bolts for shipping casks containing nuclear spent fuels or high level radioactive materials. The specification is based on existing information conceming the structural behavior, analysis, and design of bolted joints. The approach taken was to extend the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements and criteria for bolting analysis of nuclear piping and pressure vessels to include the appropriate design and load characteristics of the shipping cask. The characteristics considered are large, flat, closure lids with metal-to-metal contact within the bolted joint; significant temperature and impact loads; and possible prying and bending effects. Specific formulas and procedures developed apply to the bolt stress analysis of a circular, flat, bolted closure. The report also includes critical load cases and desirable design practices for the bolted closure, an in-depth review of the structural behavior of bolted joints, and a comprehensive bibliography of current information on bolted joints

  20. Construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How does a nuclear power plant work. Which reactor types are in use. What safety measures are being taken. These questions and the like are frequently asked by those interested in nuclear power generation. The respective answers are to be found in the report ''Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants''. Nuclear-physical fundamentals and the basic safety measures are explained, and four reactor types that are most common in the Federal Republic of Germany are described: PWR-, BWR-, HTR-type and faster breeder reactors. For each reactor type, the principle of operation, steam generator system, auxiliary and service buildings as well as the respective safety devices are indicated, and visualized by means of numerous illustrations. The report is meant to be instrumental to the purpose of getting objectiveness into the public discussion on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (orig.)

  1. Civil liability: characterization of the demand for lawsuits against dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Alice Aquino; Herrera, Lara Maria; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-01-01

    In light of the fact that dentists may be held civilly liable for their practice, it is important to understand the current situation of lawsuits filed against these professionals by studying current legal decisions and the literature. The objective of this study was to analyze the case law of the Court of Justice of São Paulo, Brazil, relative to the profile of patients and professionals, the most commonly involved specialties, the amounts litigated and the court decisions pertaining to civil liability lawsuits against dentists. In an inductive approach, a single researcher screened and collected civil liability rulings by accessing the Court's website, and following a statistical-descriptive procedure and an indirect observation technique. The most frequently involved specialty was prosthodontics. However, oral and maxillofacial surgery was related to a higher incidence of damages awarded to settle claims and to higher damage amounts. The dentist was found guilty in 44.32% of the cases researched. Pecuniary damages ranged between R$ 485.50 and R$ 12,530.00, and non-pecuniary damages ranged between R$ 2,500.00 and R$ 70,000.00. Most lawsuits were filed by women against male dentists. An increase in the relative number of lawsuits against companies versus individuals was observed. PMID:27556556

  2. Civil liability: characterization of the demand for lawsuits against dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Alice Aquino; Herrera, Lara Maria; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-01-01

    In light of the fact that dentists may be held civilly liable for their practice, it is important to understand the current situation of lawsuits filed against these professionals by studying current legal decisions and the literature. The objective of this study was to analyze the case law of the Court of Justice of São Paulo, Brazil, relative to the profile of patients and professionals, the most commonly involved specialties, the amounts litigated and the court decisions pertaining to civil liability lawsuits against dentists. In an inductive approach, a single researcher screened and collected civil liability rulings by accessing the Court's website, and following a statistical-descriptive procedure and an indirect observation technique. The most frequently involved specialty was prosthodontics. However, oral and maxillofacial surgery was related to a higher incidence of damages awarded to settle claims and to higher damage amounts. The dentist was found guilty in 44.32% of the cases researched. Pecuniary damages ranged between R$ 485.50 and R$ 12,530.00, and non-pecuniary damages ranged between R$ 2,500.00 and R$ 70,000.00. Most lawsuits were filed by women against male dentists. An increase in the relative number of lawsuits against companies versus individuals was observed.

  3. Challenges in long-term operation of nuclear power plants - Implications for regulatory bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power reactors have become a major source of electricity supply in many countries in the past half a century. Based on this experience, many operators have sought and have received authorisation for long-term operation, whereby plant operation continues beyond the period considered in the design of the plant. Acceptance of a nuclear power plant for extended service should be based on assurance of the fitness of the plant and the operator for safe and reliable operation over the entire period considered for long-term operation. This assurance may be obtained by establishment of appropriate regulatory requirements, specification of goals and safety levels and regulatory assessment and oversight of the operator's programme for long-term operation. The operators and regulators should ensure that operating experience continues to be evaluated during long-term operation to ensure that any relevant lessons are effectively applied. Other considerations for assurance of safe operation are effective management of ageing, possible need for safety improvements, application of lessons learnt from operating experience, evaluation of environmental impacts, adequate staff resources and performance, review of security at the plant, action in response to emerging issues, and openness and transparency in the transition to long-term operation. Even though most of these considerations are addressed under the regulatory framework that applies to the initial operating period, additional regulatory activities in these areas may be necessary for long-term operation. Although there can be significant differences in regulatory approaches used by different countries for evaluating acceptability of long-term operation, there is general agreement on the purposes and goals of the regulatory reviews. An authorisation of long-term operation could involve a licence renewal or a periodic safety review or an approach that melds elements of both. This report presents guidance that is intended

  4. Operations quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard covers the quality assurance of all activities concerned with the operation and maintenance of plant equipment and systems in CANDU-based nuclear power plants during the operations phase, the period between the completion of commissioning and the start of decommissioning

  5. POST-CASKETSS: a graphic computer program for thermal and structural analysis of nuclear fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program POST-CASKETSS has been developed for the purpose of calculation result representation for thermal and structural analysis computer code system CASKETSS (CASKETSS means a modular code system for CASK Evaluation code system for Thermal and Structural Safety). Main features of POST-CASKETSS are as follows; (1) Function of calculation result representation for thermal and structural analysis computer programs is provided in the program. (2) Two and three dimensional graphic representation for finite element and finite difference programs are available in the program. (3) The capacity of graphics of geometry, temperature contor and temperature-time curve are provided for thermal analysis. (4) The capacity of graphics of geometry, deformation, stress contor, displacement-time curve, velocity-time curve, acceleration-time curve, stress-time curve, force-time curve and moment-time curve are provided for structural analysis. (5) This computer program operates both the time shearing system and the batch system. In the paper, brief illustration of calculation method, input data and sample calculations are presented. (author)

  6. Trends in the International Regime of Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋荣

    2001-01-01

    Since the entry into force of the International Convention on liability and compensation for oil spill damage, there have been many discussions on the improvement of this regime. Based on the existing tworegimes, the writer tried to analysis the advantages of the new regimes and foresee the trends of the international regime of liability and compensation for oil pollution damage.

  7. Consideration of the legal system required for achievement of current nuclear power plant construction programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extensive nuclear power plant construction programmes currently in progress in western countries require updating of the legislation in force in this field, especially as regards the following: acquisition of the sites necessary by means of a national planning programme of available sites; simplification of formalities concerning issuance of administrative licenses; revision of the principle of absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator which forms the basis of the third party liability system for nuclear damage; radioactive waste management and decommissioning of nuclear plants. Furthermore, this new legislation should be harmonized between the different countries concerned. (N.E.A.)

  8. Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment.According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network, makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.

  9. ACCOUNTING ESTIMATION OF LIABILITIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ulianova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is one of the main stream in business development.The purpose of this research is to identify how company should account their environmental liability. The article consists of National Accounting Standards or International Accounting Standard Company analyses as both can be used in Ukraine. This article describes options for environmental liability accounting. On the one hand, company can identify environmental liability, and book it on below-line balance account. It is called contingent liability in that case. On the other hand, such liability can be considered as object for provisions. The second option means that company not only identify its environmental liability, but also will step to step create essential amount for environmental management. Also such allocation can be included into expenses. In that way company divide potential losses between periods and secure company from the big one in some recognized period. Sometimes such outstanding liabilities can lead to bankruptcy because of huge amounts.

  10. Design of an Operator Support System for Online Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Online maintenance based on reliability centered management is very important for the safe and economic operation of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). This paper presents an operator support system by which the operators can manage plant configuration and identify the weakness in plant operation effectively. The proposed operator support system is based on GO-FLOW which a success-oriented reliability analysis methodology and can be used for evaluating phased missions. In this paper, the design of the proposed operator support system is introduced through a case study of the Auxiliary Feed Water System (AFWS)

  11. Design of an operator support system for online maintenance at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Online maintenance based on reliability centered management is pivotal for the safe and economical operation of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). This paper presents an operator support system through which the operators can effectively manage plant configuration and identify the weaknesses in plant operation. The proposed operator support system is based on the GO-FLOW, which is a success-oriented availability analysis methodology and can be used for evaluating phased missions. In this paper, the design of the proposed operator support system is introduced through a case study of the Auxiliary Feed Water System (AFWS). (author)

  12. Introduction to nuclear propulsion safety analysis of military ships; Introducao a seguranca da propulsao nuclear de navios militares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents a brief introduction to naval vessels nuclear propulsion plants safety analysis, including differences regarding nuclear power plants safety objectives, operational conditions analysis and general safety requirements for design, construction and operation. (author)

  13. Response to severe changes of load on the reactor system of nuclear ship Mutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ochiai, Masa-aki (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Tanaka, Yoshimi; Yao, Toshiaki; Inoue, Kimio

    1993-02-01

    The response of the nuclear power system of N.S. Mutsu to severe changes of load have been studied from records taken during the power-raising tests performed on the ship in 1990. The records examined were those involving the most severe load changes foreseen for marine reactors: (a) sharp load increase with total steam flow raised from 25 to 70 % rated full flow in 13s, (b) crash astern maneuver with the position of propulsion turbine command handle changed-taking several seconds-from cruising ahead to STOP, and after about 50s, further changed-taking 30s-to bring the astern propulsion turbine to full speed-to consume approximately 60 % rated total steam flow and (c) turbine trip with the ahead turbine intentionally tripped when operating at roughly 100 % rated total steam flow. The foregoing records from load changes-of severity beyond what is foreseen for land-based reactors-proved that the Mutsu reactor is capable of responding smoothly and securely to such severe load changes. These load changes occasioned relatively large mismatches between reactor power supply and steam flow demand, but with notable freedom from any conspicuous overshooting or hunting of the reactor power. This performance can be attributed to (a) correct functioning of the automatic power control system, (b) effective contribution of the self-regulating reactor control property deriving from the large negative feedback between moderator temperature and reactivity, and (c) the ample inventories of coolant in the primary and secondary loops. The responses to load change are discussed covering those relevant to (a) reactor power, (b) primary loop pressure, and (c) steam generator pressure, with particular reference to the differences seen in response to mild and to severe load changes. (author).

  14. CASTOR registered 1000/19. Shipping and storage cask for dry intermediate storage of spent fuel elements from the Temelin nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CASTOR registered 1000/19-type cask newly developed by GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH has been designed for shipment and dry storage of 19 spent fuel elements from the two VVER-1000 pressurized water reactors of the Temelin nuclear power station. The design and expert approval followed the internationally recognized shipping regulations of IAEA and the Czech rules and regulations for dry intermediate storage. One June 21, 2010, the Czech regulatory authority issued a type approval (integral transport and storage permit) valid for a period of 5 years for the casks of the new CASTOR registered 1000/19 line. As early as on September 9, 2010, which is less than 4 years after the delivery contract had been signed by CEZ and GNS in November 2006, the first cask of the CASTOR registered 1000/19 line was loaded with 19 spent fuel elements in only 5 days and emplaced in the newly built intermediate cask store. Loading, handling, in-plant transport, and emplacement of the cask made successful use of the extensive handling and management equipment furnished by GNS. After successful commissioning of the equipment and cold handling in both power plant units and in the intermediate cask store, successful loading and emplacement represents one of the most important milestones in the project. (orig.)

  15. University Liability for Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Robert W.; Woodruff, William B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes sports injury claims against colleges and universities in recent years to help administrators better understand and minimize liability risks for certain curricular and cocurricular activities. Reviews court cases in areas of duty of care and negligence and proximate cause, and discusses defenses. (Author/NB)

  16. Model for Environmental Assessment of Container Ship Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2012-01-01

    A generic computer model for systematic investigations of container ship designs is described in this paper. The primary statistical data on container ships used for the model development are also presented. The model can be used to calculate exhaust gas emissions from container ships, including...

  17. Criminal Liability of Managers for Excessive Risk-Taking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tosza, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to analyse and evaluate the criminalisation of excessively risky decisions taken by managers of limited liability companies. The potentially disastrous consequences of excessive risk-taking were powerfully highlighted by the most recent financial crunch, although its danger

  18. The Effects on the Operating Condition of a Passenger Ship Retro-fitted with a Composite Superstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Hjørnet, N. K.; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard;

    2016-01-01

    As sustainability and climate change have come on the politi-cal agenda, the shipping industry will have to be operating energy efficient ships. An appealing step to achieve this goal is by designing superstructures made out of Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) aiming at the reduction of the ship...... on the stability and the fuel consumption of the retrofitted ship com-pared to the original design....

  19. Welcome to the Jungle: the Liability of Internet Intermediaries for Privacy Violations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Sloot

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, roughly three regimes apply to the liability of Internet intermediaries for privacy violations conducted by users through their network. These are: the e-Commerce Directive, which, under certain conditions, excludes them from liability; the Data Protection Directive, which imposes a numbe

  20. Operator-based metric for nuclear operations automation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, G.L.; Miao, A.X.; Kalkan, A. [Charles River Analytics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Continuing advances in real-time computational capabilities will support enhanced levels of smart automation and AI-based decision-aiding systems in the nuclear power plant (NPP) control room of the future. To support development of these aids, we describe in this paper a research tool, and more specifically, a quantitative metric, to assess the impact of proposed automation/aiding concepts in a manner that can account for a number of interlinked factors in the control room environment. In particular, we describe a cognitive operator/plant model that serves as a framework for integrating the operator`s information-processing capabilities with his procedural knowledge, to provide insight as to how situations are assessed by the operator, decisions made, procedures executed, and communications conducted. Our focus is on the situation assessment (SA) behavior of the operator, the development of a quantitative metric reflecting overall operator awareness, and the use of this metric in evaluating automation/aiding options. We describe the results of a model-based simulation of a selected emergency scenario, and metric-based evaluation of a range of contemplated NPP control room automation/aiding options. The results demonstrate the feasibility of model-based analysis of contemplated control room enhancements, and highlight the need for empirical validation.

  1. Training of nuclear power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings are presented containing 13 papers on the training of nuclear power plant personnel, especially personnel of WWER type plants. The questions are discussed such as care of personnel, the position of operators and maintenance workers, factors affecting their reliable work, the human factor in reliability and safety of big power facilities, the assurance of a standard system of operators' training with associated social and sociological aspects, the development of psychodiagnostic methodologies for testing and selecting workers for individual jobs. (B.S.)

  2. On liability operation of commercial banks in China%对我国商业银行负债经营的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢太峰; 王建梅

    2001-01-01

    我国商业银行的负债经营存在两大问题:一是负债规模的非理性扩张;二是负债结构的非优化组合。因此,为了提高商业银行的经营效益,既要根据负债成本与资产回报率差额的大小以及有无适当的资金运用机会而对负债规模进行理性控制,又要对负债的利息结构、期限结构以及被动负债与主动负债的结构进行优化重组。%There have been two major problems in liabilities operations of commercial banks in China: irrational expansion of liabilities scale; imperfect combination of liabilities structure. In order to improve the operation profits of commercial banks, not only the liability scale should be controlled rationally according to the difference between liability costs and assets return rate, as well as all kinds of capital operation opportunities, but liability interests structure,expiration structure and the structure of passive and active liability should be optimally reorganized.

  3. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric utility industry established the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, or INPO, the purpose of which is to ensure the highest quality of operations in nuclear power plants. INPO will be an industry self-help instrument focusing on human factors. From top management to the operator trainee, it will measure utility performance against benchmarks of excellence and help utilities reach those benchmarks throughout training and operating programs. INPO will see that the utilities ferret out lessons for all from the abnormal operating experiences of any. It will do everything possible to assist utilities in meeting its certification requirements, but will have the clout to see that those requirements are met. INPO is also managing the nationwide system of utility emergency response capability

  4. Operating performance of LWR nuclear generating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at reviewing, on the basis of historical data, the operational problem areas which explain the degree of availability and productivity achieved up to now by nuclear power plants in commercial operation in the world. The operating performance data of nuclear power plants area analysed with respect to plant type, size and other significant reference parameters and they are evaluated also by comparison with fossil generating unit data. Major performance indices data are presented for both nuclear and fossil units type and distribution of outage causes. Unplanned full outages caused by nuclear power plant equipment and components failure are particulary emphasized. The trend for unplanned full outages due to the failure of components shows decreasing numerical values in 1981 with respect to the previous years. But this result should be weighed with the increasing plant unavailability hours needed for maintenance and repair action (chiefly preventive maintenance on critical components). This means that the number and downtime of forced outage must be drastically reduced for economic reasons (production losses and problems associated with the unavailable unit unplanned replacement) as well as for plant safe and reliable operation (sudden unavailability of key components and frequency of transients associated with plant shutdown and routine startup operation)

  5. Recent development in nuclear ship reactor in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAERI is conducting a design study on advanced nuclear ship reactors. Concepts of two types of reactor have been formulated so far. One is the 100 MWt-power MRX for the use of a bigger merchant ship or an ice breaker, and the other is the 750 KWt-power DRX for the use of a deep sea research submersible. They are adopted new technologies such as the integral type reactor with in-vessel steam generators and control rod drive systems, the water-filled containment, and the passive decay heat removal system. These new systems enable to satisfy the essential requirements for the next generation ship reactors, i.e. compact, light, highly safe and easy operation. JAERI is also performing research and development works on the peculiar components to be used, the advanced automatic operation systems, the study of the thermal hydraulic phenomena for the safety analysis of new system, etc.. This paper summarizes the design study of the MRX and the DRX and the research and development activities being carried out in the JAERI

  6. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage as an ecosystem service for Brussels, Belgium: investigating iron (hydr)oxide precipitation with reactive transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Possemiers, Mathias; Huysmans, Marijke

    2016-04-01

    In an evolving energy system it is important that urbanized areas contribute to their own energy demands. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions sustainable energy systems with a high efficiency are required, e.g. using urban aquifers as an ecosystem service. Here the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery (ATES) for the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium is investigated. An important shallow geologic formation in the Brussels Capital Region is the Brussels Sand formation, a 20-60 m thick phreatic aquifer. The Brussels Sand Formation is known for its potential for ATES systems, but also for its varying redox and hydraulic conditions. Important limiting factors for ATES systems in the Brussels Sand Formation therefore are the hydraulic conductivity and the geochemical composition of the groundwater. Near the redox boundary iron hydroxide precipitation can negatively influence ATES well performance due to clogging. The interactions between physical processes (e.g. particle transport and clogging in the wider proximity of the ATES well) and chemical processes (e.g. influence of the operation temperatures on precipitation processes) during ATES operation are complex but not well understood. Therefore we constructed numerical groundwater flow models in MODFLOW to estimate maximum pumping and injection rates of different hydraulic conditions and competing water uses in the Brussels Sand Formation. In further steps the thermal potential for ATES was quantified using MT3DMS and the reactive transport model PHT3D was applied to assess the effects of operating ATES systems near the redox boundary. Results show that initial mixing plays an important role in the development of iron(hydr)oxide precipitation around the ATES wells, with the highest concentrations around the cold wells. This behavior is enhanced by the temperature effect; temperature differences of ΔT≈10°C already influence the iron (hydr)oxide concentration. The initial injection into the

  7. Spent nuclear fuel shipping cask handling capabilities of commercial light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an evaluation of the cask handling capabilities of those reactors which are operating or under construction. A computerized data base that includes cask handling information was developed with information from the literature and utility-supplied data. The capability of each plant to receive and handle existing spent fuel shipping casks was then evaluated. Modal fractions were then calculated based on the results of these evaluations and the quantities of spent fuel projected to be generated by commercial nuclear power plants through 1998. The results indicated that all plants are capable of receiving and handling truck casks. Up to 118 out of 130 reactors (91%) could potentially handle the larger and heavier rail casks if the maximum capability of each facility is utilized. Design and analysis efforts and physical modifications to some plants would be needed to achieve this high rail percentage. These modifications would be needed to satisfy regulatory requirements, increase lifting capabilities, develop rail access, or improve other deficiencies. The remaining 12 reactors were determined to be capable of handling only the smaller truck casks. The percentage of plants that could receive and handle rail casks in the near-term would be reduced to 64%. The primary reason for a plant to be judged incapable of handling rail casks in the near-term was a lack of rail access. The remaining 36% of the plants would be limited to truck shipments. The modal fraction calculations indicated that up to 93% of the spent fuel accumulated by 1998 could be received at federal storage or disposal facilities via rail (based on each plant's maximum capabilities). If the near-term cask handling capabilities are considered, the rail percentage is reduced to 62%

  8. THE LIABILITY FORMS OF THE MEDICAL PERSONNEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bărcan, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation, namely Law no. 95/2006 on healthcare reform in the medical malpractice domain stipulates that medical staff can be held accountable in the following forms: disciplinary liability, administrative liability, civil liability and criminal liability. Each form of legal liability presents its features, aspects that are found mainly in the procedural rules. However, the differences between the various legal forms of liability are not met only in the procedural rules but also in their effects and consequences. It is necessary to know what the procedure for disciplinary responsibility, administrative liability, civil liability, or criminal liability is. In addition to the differentiation determined by the consequences that may arise from the different forms of legal liability, it is important to know the competent authorities to investigate a case further and the solutions which various public institutions can take regarding the medical staff. Depending on the type of legal liability, authorities have a specialized authority. If the Disciplinary Committee is encountered at the College of Physicians, it may not intervene in cases before the monitoring and competence for malpractice cases Committee. The latter two committees cannot intervene directly in the legal assessment of civil or criminal cases, as no criminal investigation authorities cannot intervene in strictly civilian cases. Therefore, the importance of knowing the competent institutions is imperative.

  9. Fish farming in Kenya with particular reference to the Lake Victoria basin. Paper read by the authors at the Seminar on The Management of integrated freshwater agro-piscicultural ecosystems in tropical areas (Brussels, 16-19 May 1994) organized by the Royal Academy of Overseas Sciences (Brussels), the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-Operation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    OpenAIRE

    Okemwa, E.; Getabu, A.

    1996-01-01

    The total aquaculture production in Kenya in 1992 stood at 1,017 mt worth K.shs. 48,911,000 (about US$ one million). Of the total production, the trouts from the commercial aquaculture sector constituted 268 mt, the common carps, 282 mt and the tilapia, 67 mt. The per capita fish consumption in the country is below the recommended value of 9.3 kg/ind./yr. Its expected improvement is further worsened by the recent significant decline of fish catches from the major source, Lake Victoria (Kenya ...

  10. Nuclear Structure of the Heaviest Elements – Investigated at SHIP-GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heßberger Fritz Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quest for the heaviest nuclei that can exist is a basic topic in natural science as their stability is characterized by a delicate interplay of short range nuclear forces acting between the nucleons (protons and neutrons and long-range Coulomb forces acting solely between charged particles, i.e. the protons. As the stability of a nucleus is strongly correlated to its structure, understanding the nuclear structure of heaviest nuclei is presently a main challenge of experimental and theoretical investigations concerning the field of Superheavy Elements. At the velocity filter SHIP at GSI Darmstadt an extensive program on nuclear structure investigations has been started about a decade ago. The project covered both as well systematic investigations of single particle levels in odd-mass isotopes populated by α-decay as investigation of two- or fourquasi-particle states forming K isomers and was supplemented by direct mass measurements at SHIPTRAP and investigation of spontaneous fission properties. Recent experimental studies allowed to extend the systematics of low lying levels in N = 151 and N = 153 up to 255Rf and 259Sg, investigation of possible relations between nuclear structure and fission properties of odd-mass nuclei and investigation of shell strengths at N = 152 and towards N = 162.

  11. Nuclear structure of the heaviest elements - investigated at SHIP-GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest for the heaviest nuclei that can exist is a basic topic in natural science as their stability is characterized by a delicate interplay of short range nuclear forces acting between the nucleons (protons and neutrons) and long-range Coulomb forces acting solely between charged particles, i.e. the protons. As the stability of a nucleus is strongly correlated to its structure, understanding the nuclear structure of heaviest nuclei is presently a main challenge of experimental and theoretical investigations concerning the field of Superheavy Elements. At the velocity filter SHIP at GSI Darmstadt, an extensive program on nuclear structure investigations started about a decade ago. The project covered both as well systematic investigations of single particle levels in odd-mass isotopes populated by a-decay as investigation of two- or four-quasi-particle states forming K isomers and was supplemented by direct mass measurements at SHIPTRAP and investigation of spontaneous fission properties. Recent experimental studies allowed us to extend the systematics of low lying levels in N = 151 and N = 153 up to 255Rf and 259Sg, investigation of possible relations between nuclear structure and fission properties of odd-mass nuclei and investigation of shell strengths at N = 152 and towards N = 162. (authors)

  12. Plant Life Management Models for Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When nuclear power plants reach the end of their nominal design life, they undergo a special safety review and an ageing assessment of their essential structures, systems and components for the purpose of validating or renewing their licence to operate for terms beyond the service period originally intended. Three different plant life management models have been used to qualify these nuclear power plants to operate beyond their original design life. This publication presents a collection of sample licensing practices for long term operation among IAEA Member States. The various plant life management models used to obtain long term operation authorizations are described and comparisons drawn against the standard periodic safety review model. Lessons learned and warnings about possible complications and pitfalls are also described to minimize the licensing risk during operation and future long term operation applications. The main intention of this publication is to support nuclear power plant owners and operators planning an extension of plant operation beyond its original design life, but it also serves as a useful guide for those interested in procuring from the beginning, the necessary tools to implement ageing management in their future plant with long term operation in mind

  13. Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation of the 9965, 9968, 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 Shipping Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE) has been performed for the 9965, 9968, 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 SRS-designed shipping casks. This was done in support of the recertification effort for the 9965 and 9968, and the certification of the newly designed 9972-9975 series. The analysis supports the use of these packages as Fissile Class I for shipment of fissionable material from the SRS FB-Line, HB-Line, and from Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory. six different types of material were analyzed with varying Isotopic composition, of both oxide and metallic form. The mass limits required to support the fissile Class I rating for each of the envelopes are given in the Table below. These mass limits apply if DOE approves an exception as described in 10 CFR 71.55(c), such that water leakage into the primary containment vessel does not need to be considered in the criticality analysis. If this exception is not granted, the mass limits are lower than those shown below. this issue is discussed in detail in sections 5 and 6 of the report.One finding from this work is important enough to highlight in the abstract. The fire tests performed for this family of shipping casks indicates only minimal charring of the Celotex thermal insulation. Analysis of the casks with no Celotex insulation (assuming it has all burned away), results in values of k-eff that exceed 1.0. Therefore, the Celotex insulation must remain intact in order to guarantee sub criticality of the 9972-9975 family of shipping casks

  14. A recipe for nuclear operation success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario, one of ten Canadian provinces, receives the majority of its electrical service from one utility called Ontario Hydro. Today, Ontario Hydro generates more than 50% of its electricity from nuclear stations of the CANDU type. The CANDU station performance, in respect to worker safety, public safety, environmental protection, reliability and cost, has been out-standing. Operations and maintenance is one of the several functions essential to high performance. This paper discusses some of the major considerations important to successful operations. (author)

  15. Design and implementation of an expert system for remote fault diagnosis in ship lift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an expert system for remote fault diagnosis in the ship lift was developed by analysis of the fault tree and combination with VPN. The fault tree was constructed based on the operation condition of the ship lift. The diagnosis model was constructed by hierarchical classification of the fault tree structure, and the inference mechanism was given. Logical structure of the fault diagnosis in the ship lift was proposed. The implementation of the expert system for remote fault diagnosis in the ship lift was discussed, and the expert system developed was realized on the VPN virtual network. The system was applied to the Gaobaozhou ship lift project, and it ran successfully.

  16. Limitation of Auditors' Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Foged-Ladefoged, Lise Kolding

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the question of whether rules on the limitation of auditors’ liability within the perspective of EU law are needed, and if so, which rules can provide an appropriate balance between the potential injured party’s interests and those of the auditing sector, including with respect...... to the fact that the insurance premiums associated with an unlimited liability must of course make the auditor’s tasks more expensive. Relevant EU recommendations and a comparative glance at other EU countries’ proposed solutions to the problem are included....

  17. Analysis of operational manning requirements and deployment procedures for unmanned surface vehicles aboard U.S. Navy ships

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Matthew P.

    2006-01-01

    This research was conducted in association with Naval Warfare Development Command (NWDC) requests to update Unmanned Vehicle Tactical Memorandum TM-3-22- 5-SW. The research identified and discussed significant USV manning considerations such as source ratings and manpower qualities to pilot, operate sensors, support USV electronics, and the manpower implications associated with various weapons systems alternatives. In addition, this research described several existing and notional USV ta...

  18. FATE Unified Modeling Method for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Sludge Processing, Shipping and Storage - 13405

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified modeling method applicable to the processing, shipping, and storage of spent nuclear fuel and sludge has been incrementally developed, validated, and applied over a period of about 15 years at the US DOE Hanford site. The software, FATETM, provides a consistent framework for a wide dynamic range of common DOE and commercial fuel and waste applications. It has been used during the design phase, for safety and licensing calculations, and offers a graded approach to complex modeling problems encountered at DOE facilities and abroad (e.g., Sellafield). FATE has also been used for commercial power plant evaluations including reactor building fire modeling for fire PRA, evaluation of hydrogen release, transport, and flammability for post-Fukushima vulnerability assessment, and drying of commercial oxide fuel. FATE comprises an integrated set of models for fluid flow, aerosol and contamination release, transport, and deposition, thermal response including chemical reactions, and evaluation of fire and explosion hazards. It is one of few software tools that combine both source term and thermal-hydraulic capability. Practical examples are described below, with consideration of appropriate model complexity and validation. (authors)

  19. Nuclear waste shipping container response to severe accident conditions, A brief critique of the modal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audin, L.

    1990-12-01

    The Modal Study (NUREG/CR-4829) attempts to upgrade the analysis of spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents, and to verify the validity of the present regulatory scheme of cask performance standards as a means to minimize risk. While an improvement over many prior efforts in this area (such as NUREG-0170), it unfortunately fails to create a realistic simulation either of a shipping cask, the severe conditions to which it could be subjected, or the potential damage to the spent fuel cargo during an accident. There are too many deficiencies in its analysis to allow acceptance of its results for the presumed cask design, and many pending changes in new containers, cargoes and shipping patterns will limit applicability of the Modal Study to future shipments. In essence, the Modal Study is a good start, but is too simplistic, incomplete, outdated and open to serious question to be used as the basis for any present-day environmental or risk assessment of spent fuel transportation. It needs to be redone, with peer review during its production and experimental verification of its assumptions, before it has any relevance to the shipments planned to Yucca Mountain. Finally, it must be expanded into a full risk assessment by inputing its radiological release fractions and probabilities into a valid dispersal simulation to properly determine the impact of its results. 51 refs.

  20. Nuclear waste shipping container response to severe accident conditions, A brief critique of the modal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Modal Study (NUREG/CR-4829) attempts to upgrade the analysis of spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents, and to verify the validity of the present regulatory scheme of cask performance standards as a means to minimize risk. While an improvement over many prior efforts in this area (such as NUREG-0170), it unfortunately fails to create a realistic simulation either of a shipping cask, the severe conditions to which it could be subjected, or the potential damage to the spent fuel cargo during an accident. There are too many deficiencies in its analysis to allow acceptance of its results for the presumed cask design, and many pending changes in new containers, cargoes and shipping patterns will limit applicability of the Modal Study to future shipments. In essence, the Modal Study is a good start, but is too simplistic, incomplete, outdated and open to serious question to be used as the basis for any present-day environmental or risk assessment of spent fuel transportation. It needs to be redone, with peer review during its production and experimental verification of its assumptions, before it has any relevance to the shipments planned to Yucca Mountain. Finally, it must be expanded into a full risk assessment by inputing its radiological release fractions and probabilities into a valid dispersal simulation to properly determine the impact of its results. 51 refs

  1. The role of procurement in liabilities management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has as its primary purpose the management of the liabilities left from the nuclear R and D programme. When it was set up in its present form in 1994 (as UKAEA Government Division) it had as its core functions programme management and procurement. It aimed to be involved in project implementation and operations only in so far as it needed to be for purposes of control as nuclear site licensee, or where otherwise this represented best value for money for the taxpayer. This paper describes how the clear definition and split of client and contractor roles has enabled UKAEA to promote the development of a competitive market in decommissioning, to the benefit of the taxpayer and industry. The importance of procurement at the various stages of planning and implementation are explained, along with some of the initiatives UKAEA has taken to improve client-contractor relationships. It is argued that UKAEA's approach has helped to define the boundaries of what is permissible in contractorization within the terms of a nuclear site licence. (author)

  2. Risk of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the opening and words of welcome by Mr. Fritz Unterpertinger (unit director at the Austrian Federal Ministry for the Environment, Youth and Family; BMUJF) Mrs Helga Kromp-Kolb (professor at the Institute for Meteorology and Physics of the University of Natural Resources Science Vienna) illustrated the risks of nuclear damage in Europe by means of a nuclear risk map. She explained that even from a scientific or technical point of view the assessment of risks arising from nuclear power stations was fraught with great uncertainties. Estimates about in how far MCAs (maximum credible accident) could still be controlled by safety systems vary widely and so do assessments of the probability of a core melt. But there is wide agreement in all risk assessments conducted so far that MCAs might occur within a - from a human point of view - conceivable number of years. In this connection one has to bear in mind that the occurrence of such a major accident - whatever its probability may be - could entail immense damage and the question arises whether or not it is at all justifiable to expose the general public to such a risk. Klaus Rennings (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim, Germany) dealt with the economic aspects of nuclear risk assessment. He explained that there are already a number of studies available aiming to assess the risk of damage resulting from a core melt accident in economic terms. As to the probability of occurrence estimates vary widely between one incident in 3,333 and 250,000 year of reactor operation. It is assumed, however, that a nuclear accident involving a core melt in Germany would probably exceed the damage caused by the Chernobyl accident. The following speakers addressed the legal aspects of risks associated with nuclear installations. Mrs Monika Gimpel-Hinteregger (professor at the Institute for Civil Law in Graz) gave an overview on the applicable Austrian law concerning third party liability in the field of nuclear energy

  3. 跨界损害责任的认定——以日本向海洋排放核污水为视角%On Identification of Liability for Cross-border Damage——As an Example of Japan's Discharging Nuclear Waste Water to the Oceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海裕; 汪筱苏

    2011-01-01

    跨界损害责任作为国际责任制度的重要内容,逐渐成为联合国国际法委员会以及各国关注的热点问题。文章通过日本地震后向太平洋排放核污水事件,结合跨界损害责任的法理基础,对该行为进行认定,并指明日本应当承担的相应的损害赔偿责任。%As an important part of international liability regimes,the liability for cross-border damage has become a hot issue for the United Nations' International Law Commission and various countries.Combined with the legal basis of liability for cross-border damage,this article identifies Japan's discharging nuclear waste water to Pacific Ocean after earthquake and points out that it should bear the corresponding liability for damages.

  4. Innovation of nuclear power operation in KHNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHNP has operated the nuclear plants with two major functional areas, operation and maintenance very similar to fossil plant operation. KHNP has recently sent engineers to high performing nuclear power plants in usa and canada for training and familiarization with the engineering organization operation, processes and programs. KHNP has also established a system engineering section at each plant since July 2003. However the system engineering section has not achieved desired results because of a lack of understanding to implement the engineering function and processes. This indicates poor change management preparedness and implementation at KHNP. In September 2005. K SET/(KHNP Special Engineering Task Force Team) was established to enhance KHNP's engineering capability: especially the System Engineering function. The team consists of 13 members: 9 KHNP engineers (including one team manager) who have more than one year's experience working or training in USA or Canada, and 4 foreign engineers who have a wide range of experience and knowledge of engineering areas in Nuclear Power Plants of USA. The team first performed a gap analysis comparing performance and work behavior of 2nd plant to those of world best practice. this was done by interviewing employees and reviewing relevant document. The team identified 26 significant performance gaps among 120 function areas, prioritized the 26 gape, and verified the effectiveness of the selection of gaps by comparing it to SNPM(standard nuclear performance model) developed by NEI

  5. The spatial and temporal rooting pattern of Brussels sprouts and leeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.L.; Booij, R.; Werf, van der A.

    1996-01-01

    Rooting intensity and root distribution of Brussels sprouts and leeks were assessed in field experiments and in the Wageningen Rhizolab, a rhizotron facility built in 1990, in relation to their contrasting N uptake behaviour (Brussels sprouts usually take up N rapidly after planting, resulting in so

  6. Compensation for oil pollution damage caused by oil spills from ships and the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liability and compensation for pollution damage caused by oil spills from laden tankers is governed by two international conventions: the 1969 Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention. The Civil Liability Convention established a system of strict liability for tanker owners and introduced compulsory liability insurance. The Fund Convention created a system of supplementary compensation administered by an intergovernmental organization, the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC Fund), which at present has 56 member states (August 1993). The IOPC Fund pays compensation to victims of oil pollution in member states when the compensation from the ship owner and his insurer is insufficient. (author)

  7. A Step Forward in the Harmonization of European Jurisdiction: Regulation Brussels I Recast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brussels regime is a legislative framework that regulates questions of transnational litigation in the European Union. Having been initially shaped upon negotiation of the 1968 Brussels Convention, it has been subsequently superseded and expanded in scope by the Brussels I Regulation on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, alongside other instruments addressing specific areas of law. Recently, the Brussels regime has been amended by the Recast Brussels I Regulation, which entered into force on January 15, 2015, bringing about significant and long-awaited change. Addressing the experience of application of its predecessors, the changes in the Recast Regulation have been introduced to the treatment of choice-of-court agreements and their relationship with the lis pendens doctrine, abolition of exequatur, reaffirmation and clarification of the arbitration exclusion, as well as further minor amendments.

  8. Fault tolerant strategies for automated operation of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces an automatic control system incorporating a number of verification, validation, and command generation tasks with-in a fault-tolerant architecture. The integrated system utilizes recent methods of artificial intelligence such as neural networks and fuzzy logic control. Furthermore, advanced signal processing and nonlinear control methods are also included in the design. The primary goal is to create an on-line capability to validate signals, analyze plant performance, and verify the consistency of commands before control decisions are finalized. The application of this approach to the automated startup of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is performed using a validated nonlinear model. The simulation results show that the advanced concepts have the potential to improve plant availability andsafety

  9. Parametric study of propeller boss cap fins for container ships

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Sang-Seop; Kim Tae-Won; Lee Dong-Myung; Kang Chung-Gil; Kim Soo-Young

    2014-01-01

    The global price of oil, which is both finite and limited in quantity, has been rising steadily because of the increasing requirements for energy in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, regulations have been strengthened across all industries to address global warming. Many studies of hull resistance, propulsion and operation of ships have been performed to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. This study examined the design parameters of the propeller boss cap fin (PBCF) an...

  10. Fission ships[Nuclear space propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiner, Kurt

    2000-12-02

    This article focuses on the paper project on the development of nuclear propulsion for space craft and considers the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear-powered rockets over conventional designs. Details are given of the miniature reactor engine, MITEE, its fuel elements fabricated from rolled metal sheets impregnated with uranium oxide fuel particles, its operation which is similar to that of a jet engine, and its anticipated use to travel through the atmosphere of Jupiter and to cut the travel time to planets. Public concern regarding nuclear energy is given as one of the reasons why NASA is unlikely to launch a nuclear-powered space craft in the near future.

  11. 1988 changes to United States law regarding nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 1988 has introduced sweeping changes into the nuclear third party liability regime in the United States. The basis principle that a single, assured source of funds for compensation of those injured by a nuclear incident, regardless of the party actually at fault, has been maintained. The amount of such funding has been increased tenfold, to more than $7 billion, with a commitment that even more will be made available by the Congress, if needed. The scope of compensable injury has been broadened to include precautionary evacuations. With respect to contractors carrying out the defense-related nuclear activities of the Government, the changes have been equally momentous. The ceiling on Government idemnification has risen to keep pace with the maximum amount of licensee liability. Provisions designed to provide greater incentive to adherence to all nuclear safety standards have been added, authorizing the imposition of substantial civil and criminal sanctions for violations

  12. 76 FR 69131 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... the operation of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal... Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, for vessel traffic for a 14 day period to facilitate...

  13. The convent of Jericho in Brussels and its literary network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoop, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Augustinian convent of Jericho in Brussels was one of the main centres of textual, literary, and spiritual culture in the late medieval Low Countries. In addition to the large collection of manuscripts which the canonesses wrote for themselves, the sisters produced several books for people and institutions outside the convent walls. Thus the sisters were both important recipients as well as signifi cant producers of texts. This article will focus on the question of the origin of the texts and books that the sisters used to build their library. Additionally, attention will be paid to the external recipients of the books that the Jericho scribes made, in order to shed light on the as yet understudied exchange of texts and books to and from (female convents and the literary networks in which these religious institutions functioned.El convento de las agustinas Jericó en Bruselas fue uno de los centros más importantes de la cultura textual, literaria, y espiritual en los Países Bajos durante la Baja Edad Media. Además de la amplia colección de manuscritos que las canonesas escribieron para sí mismas, produjeron varios libros para personas e instituciones externas al convento. Las religiosas no solo eran receptoras importantes, sino también signifi cativas productoras de textos. El artículo se concentra en la cuestión de la proveniencia de los textos y libros que servían para crear su biblioteca. Se prestará asimismo atención a los destinatarios externos a los que se dirigieron las copistas de Jericó con el fin de arrojar luz sobre la hasta ahora poco estudiada dinámica de intercambio de textos y libros entre conventos (de mujeres y el exterior y las redes literarias en el marco de las cuales esas instituciones religiosas funcionaron.

  14. Agent for environmental protection. Liability and points of Criminal Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keune, H.

    1981-06-01

    The author discusses the concept and status of the agent for environment protection on the basis of the relevant laws because a legal definition does not yet exist. The administrative body accepts the so-called Janus-faced industrial agent who has, as a rule, also the function of the agent for environmental protection, namely, because of the principle of concentration that has greatly been accepted because of rationalizing and efficiency reasons. As a consequence of this principle the so-exposed agent bears an 'outward' responsibility. The criminal liability of the agent for environmental protection is discussed under the aspects of acts performed on behalf of somebody else, the acceptance of responsability for one's own act or omission, the comittment by omitting, the indirect perpetration and the complicity. Furthermore the author looks into the following subjects: protection against work that is liable to be dangerous, claim for compensation under civil law and the new regulations of the German Penal Code that determine what is environmentally criminal.

  15. The income of informal economic activities: Estimating the yield of begging in Brussels

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaenssens, Stef; Hendrickx, Jef

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes and applies a method to estimate the revenues of beggars in Brussels (Belgium). This is relevant for three reasons. First, though the literature on the informal economy assumes that the income will be low, we lack reliable empirical knowledge of informal street-level activities like begging, in particular due to the prevalence of many irregular Eastern-European immigrants among the begging population. Second, popular representation of beggars often depicts them as fraudu...

  16. Influence of nuclear glasses composition on their liability to deterioration; Influence de la composition des verres nucleaires sur leur alterabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovena, I.

    1995-09-29

    This contributes to the study of the nuclear glasses composition influence on their liability to deterioration. The methodology of the experimental research used has lead to define between the thirty oxides which form the reference glass light water, six oxides of interest. For each of these oxides, a composition variation area has been defined. A matrix of twenty glass compositions has then been defined. The preparation of materials of these compositions has sometimes lead to materials weakly heterogeneous which have been characterized before deterioration. This study has been completed by those of three glasses in a composition variation area narrower of the light water nuclear glass : the R7T7 and two glasses at limits having respectively an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees Celsius theoretically maximum and minimum. Some deterioration parameters in pure water have been experimentally measured on the twenty three glasses : 1) an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees (Vo{sub 1}00) Celsius and another one at 90 degrees Celsius (Vo{sub 9}0) 2) a dissolution velocity in conditions near the saturation at 90 degrees Celsius 3) an apparent solubility of glass based on the ortho silicic acid activity 4) the evolution of the dissolution kinetics at 90 degrees Celsius in sub-saturated medium towards saturated medium 5) the alteration films nature developed at the glasses surface during these last alteration tests. Some thermodynamic and structural models have been studied in order to predict Vo{sub 9}0 and Vo{sub 1}00. The dissolution kinetic law developed from reference glass dissolution results has been studied with the calculation code LIXIVER. It has not been able to be used for most of the glasses compositions studied. As a consequence, the glasses dissolution control by a surface reaction which are itself controlled by the only dissolved silica is an hypothesis which is not verified for the greater part of the glasses. (O.L.). refs., figs., tabs.

  17. ACCOUNTING ESTIMATION OF LIABILITIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ulianova

    2014-01-01

    Environmental protection is one of the main stream in business development.The purpose of this research is to identify how company should account their environmental liability. The article consists of National Accounting Standards or International Accounting Standard Company analyses as both can be used in Ukraine. This article describes options for environmental liability accounting. On the one hand, company can identify environmental liability, and book it on below-line balance account. It ...

  18. Conceptual Design of Electrical Propulsion System for Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventurer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halimi, B.; Suh, K. Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A design concept of the electric propulsion system for the Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventure (NOVA) is presented. NOVA employs Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS), a liquid metal cooled small fast integral reactor, and Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS), a supercritical CO {sub 2} (SCO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle as power converter to Naval Application Vessel Integral System (NAVIS)

  19. Computer training aids for nuclear operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Royal Navy's Nuclear Propulsion School at HMS SULTAN which is responsible for training all ratings and officers who operate Submarine Pressurised Water Reactor plants, has available a varied selection of classroom simulator training aids as well as purpose built Submarine Manoeuvring Room simulators. The use of these classroom training aids in the twelve months prior to Autumn 1981 is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of using relatively expensive computer based aids to support classroom instruction for students who do not investigate mathematically the dynamics of the Reactor Plant are identified. The conclusions drawn indicate that for students of limited academic ability the classroom simulators are disproportionately expensive in cost, maintenance load, and instructional time. Secondly, the experience gained in the use of the Manoeuvring Room Simulators to train future operators who have just finished the academic phase of their training is outlined. The possible pitfalls for the instructor are discussed and the lessons learnt, concluding that these simulators provide a valuable substitute for the live plant enabling trainees to be brought up to a common standard and reducing their on job training time to an acceptable level. (author)

  20. [Tour operator liability in health protection for not informing travellers about health risks they could be exposed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, P G

    2009-01-01

    Consumer-tourist is considered the weaker bargaining party in an "all included" travel contract, compared with tour organizer and tour vendor. That's why Statute Act protecting consumer's rights provides a specific discipline concerning this particular sector In front of widening of warrants for travellers, obligations for organizer and seller of the travel have been increased, and include now specific duty to inform travellers as well. According to the law such duties of information are consistent with travel contract performance itself. In such way, failing to inform client constitutes a breach of contract liable not only in the field of civil responsibility; the subject liable with such an omission may face criminal prosecution as well. More specifically we are in front of a breach of contract by the tour organizer who will respond of all damages concerned with such a breach. Damages will concern not only the price of the travel package, but also other damages connected with the illness suffered by traveller: compensation for spoiled holidays, biological damages, patrimonial damages (these last ones could include for instance expenses for medical treatments, just to quote the more likely one). In other words, tour organizer has to grant general organization of the tour which has to take place as specified on travel brochure, but traveller have to be provided also with any information, concerning documents necessary for the travel, whether passport or visa are needed or not, vaccinations peremptory or optional. It will be very difficult for tour operator be exempted from liability for damages if traveller hasn't been informed of health risks; the only possibility consists in managing to demonstrate that the obligation hasn't been compelled due to reason for which the operator couldn't be held responsible. Besides as we have already mentioned before, criminal relevance of such omission of information couldn't be excluded. In fact, it's true that such omission

  1. Gangland Online: Performing the Real Imaginary World of Gangstas and Ghettos in Brussels

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hellemont, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the content analysis of 170 weblogs related to the Brussels-based Black African gangs. This article aims to contribute to the gang literature as it claims that gang myths are considered key for gangs’ consolidation and existence. The paper shows that mythmaking activities increasingly take place online, offering gang members new ways of communicating gang-ness. By using Goffman’s theory (1959) of “Impression Management” as an analytic theoretical framework ...

  2. Charterer's Liability Insurance : A Type of Marine Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The “charterer’s liability insurance” is a type of marine insurance. Most ships are chartered either on a time charter or voyage charter contract. In both cases the charterer assumes liabilities towards the shipowner because of damage caused to the ship in the course of cargo-handling or because of damage resulting from an unsafe port or berth. And also, the charterer becomes liable similarly to the shipowner, with P&I liability to cargo, pollution claims and etc. All charterers require cover...

  3. The relaxation of the operation restrictions at typhoon period for Taipower's nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the station blackout event for Taipower's nuclear power plant and proposes a plan whereby the availability of the plant at typhoon period can be increased through a systematic approach to improvements in the old operating restrictions. The conclusions have shown that the old operating restrictions were too strict and can be relaxed without increasing the likelihood of core damage or core melt for the accident sequence. After a detailed review of this analysis report, Republic of China Atomic Energy Commission (ROCAEC) has approved the relaxation of the operating restrictions as proposed by Taiwan Power Company. (author)

  4. Preservation of Brussels Sprouts by Pullulan Coating Containing Oregano Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraśniewska, Karolina; Gniewosz, Małgorzata; Kosakowska, Olga; Cis, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of pullulan (a fungal polysaccharide) film containing oregano essential oil (OEO) at 1.0 to 10.0% was evaluated against bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The quality of the sprouts, as determined by weight loss, color, and appearance, was monitored during storage at 2 and 16°C. An organoleptic evaluation of odor preference and odor acceptability of OEO on the Brussels sprouts was also conducted. The antimicrobial activity of pullulan films with OEO increased significantly with the increase in OEO concentration (1 to 10%). Pullulan films with OEO were more effective for inhibiting the growth of yeasts and molds than for inhibiting gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Pullulan with 1.0% OEO was an effective combination and was used subsequently as the base coating for maintaining the safety and quality of fresh Brussels sprouts stored at 16°C for 14 days. The pullulan coating containing 1.0% OEO reduced Aspergillus niger populations by 2 log CFU/g. This coating also reduced weight loss in the sprouts. Compared with uncoated Brussels sprouts, the percent weight loss after 14 days was reduced in samples coated with pullulan and with pullulan plus 1% OEO by 3.81 and 6.06%, respectively, after storage at 2°C and by 8.04 and 9.30%, respectively, after storage 16°C. The coating also significantly reduced changes in general appearance and color during storage. Evaluation of the organoleptic properties indicated that pullulan containing OEO had only a slight detrimental effect on odor properties. Incorporating OEO into a delivery system for antimicrobial compounds in pullulan coatings extended the microbiological shelf life of Brussels sprouts. PMID:26939662

  5. The role of ship and mortgage registration in shipping finance: : the prospects for the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an analysis of the current issues and conditions affecting shipping finance in Russia based on the development of the systems of ship and mortgage registration. Particular economic reasons describing the situation on the shipping markets lie outside the scope of this thesis. However, a general overview of the situation of the shipping markets and results achieved by the leading banks will be provided in the first chapter. The reason is to demonst...

  6. Ship emissions and their externalities for the port of Piraeus - Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution from shipping is currently dominating the international and European agenda on environmental protection. Although port emissions are not significantly contributing to the overall picture of ship-generated emissions, it is important to note that the impact of ship exhaust pollutants has a direct effect on the human population and built environment of many urbanized ports. The passenger (main) port of Piraeus qualifies for a ship emission and externality study by virtue of its dominant presence in the Mediterranean expressed in terms of the most frequent port calls by coastal passenger ships and cruise ships operating in the region, as well as in terms of being a most crowded port city through hosting a sizeable resident and visiting (employers and otherwise) population over a relatively small area. An in-port ship activity-based methodology was applied for manoeuvring and berthing of coastal passenger ships and cruise ships calling at the passenger port of Piraeus, in order to estimate the emission of the main ship exhaust pollutants (NO X, SO 2 and PM 2.5) over a twelve-month period in 2008-2009. The estimated emissions were analyzed in terms of gas species, seasonality, activity and shipping sector. The application of external cost factors led to the estimation of the emission externalities, in an attempt to evaluate the economic impact of the damage emissions produce mainly upon the human population and the built environment. The results indicate that ship emissions in the passenger port of Piraeus reach 2600 tons annually and their estimated externalities over this period are around 51 million euro. Summer emissions and associated impacts are more profound and coastal passenger shipping, as opposed to cruise shipping, is the dominant contributor of emissions and associated externalities. Overall, in a port city such as Piraeus, the need to introduce stringent control on the emissions produced by passenger ships, beyond that dictated by the current

  7. N. 2874 Report realized for the foreign Affairs commission on the law project n. 2785 authorizing the approbation of international agreements on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain; N. 2874 Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi n. 2785 autorisant l'approbation d'accords internationaux sur la responsabilite civile dans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This report is discussing the approval of two new protocols aiming to modify the OECD convention on the civil liability in the nuclear energy domain. After a presentation of the international regime of civil liability in the nuclear domain with the Paris and Vienna conventions, the author analyzes the main improvements offered by the two new protocols. (A.L.B.)

  8. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  9. Ownership, Managerial Control and the Governance of Companies Listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines how corporate control is exerted in companies listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange. There are several alternative corporate governance mechanisms which may play a role in disciplining poorly performing management: blockholders (holding companies, industrial companies, families and institutions), the market for partial control, debt policy, and board composition. Even if there is redundancy of substitute forms of discipline, some mechanisms may dominate. We find that top m...

  10. Nuclear law and law of the sea - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general idea behind the work of the Paris Colloqium on Nuclear Law and Law of the Sea was that of an agreement and sometimes opposition between two specificities, that of the law of the maritime and, in particular, ocean environment, and that of the law of nuclear techniques. These relationships were studied notably in the perspective of the problems of transport of nuclear materials and their liability insurance, as well as from the viewpoint of the operation of nuclear powered ships. Another problem studied in this context is that of radioactive marine pollution. (N.E.A.)

  11. Endurance and stability of some surface meteorological sensors under land- and ship-based operating environments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; VijayKumar, K.; Dabholkar, N.; Prabhudesai, S.; Nagvekar, S.; Agarvadekar, Y.

    Tema (Ghana, West Africa). Ship based systems have been operational from research vessels Sagar Kanya, Sagar Sampada, and Sagar Sukti. In view of the importance of data quality in scientific studies, it is vital to keep track of the performance... of instruments from which data have been collected. Several researchers have reported the development of meteorological systems and the performance of meteorological sensors incorporated therein (e.g., [2 to 11]). However, field-performances of such sensors...

  12. Nuclear Operations Excellence: A Foundation for the Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is poised for a nuclear power renaissance. Countries with dormant or phased-out nuclear energy programs are reactivating their plans for building a new generation of safe and economical nuclear plants. Countries with no nuclear programs are actively working to establish them. The renaissance is being driven by a variety of factors, foremost of which are instabilities in the cost and supply of oil and gas, and increasing political pressures to prevent continued global warming as a result of the use of fossil fuels. Nuclear is now seen as a necessary component of a renewable, non-carbon producing energy portfolio along with hydro, wind and solar. So what is required to turn these plans into reality? Most observers, both inside and outside of the industry would agree that the foundation of the renaissance is first and foremost the continued safe and economical operation of the world's existing 436 reactors in 30 countries. Although operating experience varies across existing reactors, it can be confidently said that since the accident at Chernobyl, the vast majority of the world's reactor operators have demonstrated continuous improvements in plant operations. If however, another Chernobyl or TMI type accident were to occur, it would have a devastating impact on nuclear programs all over the world, and seriously jeopardize the plans for a nuclear renaissance for many years to come. Given the premise that continuing improvements in plant operations, or nuclear operations excellence, is a necessary first step in creating a sustained renaissance, what exactly is nuclear operations excellence, how is it measured, how is it achieved, and what are the requirements for the next generation of plants to be built? This paper will attempt to answer these questions, first in a broad sense based upon the 50+ years of combined nuclear industry experience of the authors, and also in a more focused exploration of information technology tools that are supporting the current

  13. Cognitive skills training for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the several past researches, a set of training ways to improve nuclear power plant operators' cognitive skills is proposed With such ways, first the cognitive skills needed in the routine operation and the emergency operation are listed. Then the effective corresponding training ways are developed for improving the listed operators' cognitive skills

  14. Nuclear power plant safety, responsibilities of the operating company: safety management and safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the objectives pursued with the recent amendment of the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) is to define the general legal setting, operating framework and rules of procedure for winding down nuclear energy in Germany. The treatise examines the changes in the duties and responsibilities of power plant owners/operators in the light of the amendment, referring to power plant safety in the remaining service period until decommissioning of the power plant. The focus is on legal aspects and requirements, compliance with safety standards, operators' liability, recurrent safety inspections, safety management in the hands of the operators, but the role of the supervisory authorities is also addressed. (orig./CB)

  15. Mathematical model of processes in cut-off leaking steam generator as a part of operating ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model of processes in cut-off leaking steam generator of an operating ship reactor was presented. The model describes the coolant pressure increasing when filling the heat pipes system of cut-off leaking direct-flow steam generator, and allows estimating the time lag before putting restrictions on power maneuvering of the ship reactor

  16. 26 CFR 1.883-1T - Exclusion of income from the international operation of ships or aircraft (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporation is organized, a diplomatic note between the United States and such country, or an income tax convention between the United States and such country in the case of a corporation described in paragraphs (h... the ship or aircraft of another corporation engaged in the international operation of ships...

  17. Twenty-five years of the VR-1 reactor operation for nuclear education in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VR-1 reactor, operated by the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, the Czech Technical University in Prague, was launched in 1989 and attained criticality in 1990. The history of the reactor is highlighted, the design is described in great detail with focus on the reactor vessels, fuel and reactor core, reactor control system, and equipment for experiments, and the uses of the reactor are outlined. The reactor is a key educational and training facility for students and experts from nuclear industry, power engineering and research. (orig.)

  18. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (China)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  19. Study on mode of on-off operation of water filling-emptying Valve for hydraulic floating ship lift%水力浮动式升船机充泄水阀门启闭方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕊; 吴一红; 章晋雄; 张东

    2011-01-01

    Based on the operation principle of the hydraulic floating ship lift, a conceptual model for its water conveyance system, floating balancing weight-ship lift chamber system is established, and then the on-off operation mode of the water fillingemptying is studied with the numerical computations. The results show that the hydraulic control of the water filling and emptying valve is the key-link to ensure the stable operation and accurate positioning of the hydraulic floating ship lift. Through an intermittent on-off operation mode of the valve, the operation of ship lift chamber can be effectively controlled to meet the requirement concerned by means of setting an appropriate opening of the valve before the chamber being in and out of water, controlling water conveyance flow rate of the system and lowering the speeds of the chamber being in and out of water.%根据水力浮动式升船机的工作原理,研究建立了输水系统、平衡重浮筒--承船厢系统的概化模型,并采用数值计算方法研究了充泄水阀门合理的启闭方式.结果表明,充泄水阀门的水力控制是保证水力浮动式升船机运行稳定和准确停位的关键.通过采用阀门间歇开启方式,在承船厢入、出水前通过设定合适的阀门开度,控制系统输水流量,降低承船厢入、出水的速度,可以有效地控制承船厢运行满足要求.

  20. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moldanová

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of particulate matter (PM from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of PM. The environmental effects of PM from shipping include negative impact on human health through increased concentrations of particles in many coastal areas and harbour cities and the climate impact. The PM emitted by ship engines consists of organic carbon (OC, elemental or black carbon (EC/BC, sulphate, inorganic compounds containing V, Ni, Ca, Zn and other metals and associated water. The chemical composition and physical properties of PM vary with type of fuel burned, type of engine and engine operation mode. While primary PM emissions of species like V, Ni and Ca are supposed to be determined by composition of fuel and lubricant oil, emissions of particulate OC, EC and sulphate are affected both by fuel quality and by operation mode of the engine. In this paper a number of parameters describing emission factors (EFs of gases and of particulate matter from ship engines were investigated during 2 on-board measurement campaigns for 3 different engines and 3 different types of fuels. The measured EFs for PM mass were in the range 0.3 to 2.7 g/kg-fuel with lowest values for emissions from combustion of marine gas oil (MGO and the highest for heavy fuel oil (HFO. Emission factors for particle numbers EF(PN in the range 5 × 1015–1 × 1017 #/kg-fuel were found, the number concentration was dominated by particles in the ultrafine mode and ca. 2/3 of particles were non-volatile. The PM mass was dominated by particles in accumulation mode. Main metal elements in case of HFO exhaust PM were V, Ni, Fe, Ca and Zn, in case of MGO Ca, Zn and P. V and Ni were typical tracers of HFO while Ca, Zn and P are tracers of the lubricant oil. EC makes up 10–38% of the PM mass, there were not found large differences between HFO and MGO fuels. EC and ash elements make up 23–40% of the PM mass. Organic matter makes up 25–60% of the PM. The measured EF

  1. Parametrical Method for Determining Optimal Ship Carrying Capacity and Performance of Handling Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Jan P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of evaluating the optimal value of the cargo ships deadweight and the coupled optimal value of cargo handling capacity. The method may be useful at the stage of establishing the main owners requirements concerning the ship design parameters as well as for choosing a proper second hand ship for a given transportation task. The deadweight and the capacity are determined on the basis of a selected economic measure of the transport effectiveness of ship – the Required Freight Rate. The mathematical model of the problem is of a deterministic character and the simplifying assumptions are justified for ships operating in the liner trade. The assumptions are so selected that solution of the problem is obtained in analytical closed form. The presented method can be useful for application in the preliminary ship design or in the simulation of pre-investment transportation task studies.

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of quality management for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of quality management for nuclear power plant operation has been under way by the IAEA for some time. The preparation of this document was based on understandings developed at a series of advisory group and consultant meetings which used the experience accumulated at operating plants in Member States. The information collected from the use of this document will help to prepare a revision as soon as the proposed methodology, or a revised methodology, can be agreed as generally appropriate by Member States. 16 refs, figs

  3. Recruitment training and licensing of operating personnel for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article covers the step-by-step and most rigid recruitment, training, and licensing procedures undertaken in the selection for personnel involved in nuclear power plant operations. These procedures are true to all countries. However, for developing countries such as the Philippines, a bachelor's degree may be required as compared with the U.S. wherein a high school diploma is the minimum requirement. Because of the complexity of a nuclear facility, the work will require highly capable individuals with mature judgement who can render correct decisions even under highly stressed conditions. Thus during the selection and recruitment of applicants for the operator position, they are not only given aptitude tests but are also subjected to a series of psychological examintions. Once they are accepted, they are made to undergo a comprehensive and in-depth training to ensure that they will be capable of operating the nuclear power plant safely and effectively. Finally, those prospective operators have to pass licensing examinations in order to prove their competence and skills. Retraining programs follow after their training to maintain their skills. (RTD)

  4. 核动力集装箱船经济性分析%Economic analysis of nuclear-powered container ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周盛; 刘六井; 洪金华

    2012-01-01

    以大型集装箱船为研究目标,通过对普通燃油集装箱船与核动力集装箱船的运行费用进行分析,并对2种船舶全寿期内的运行费用进行比较.结果表明,在全寿期内,核动力集装箱船相比普通燃油集装箱船在油价高于367美元/t时,具有较好的经济性.%The author takes the large container ship as a research model, analysis the fuel ship and nuclear-powered container ship operating costs, and compares the whole life costs of fuel and nuclear-powered container ship. The results show that. In the whole life cycle, nuclear-powered container ship compared the fuel container ship have a better economy with the oil price above $ 367/ ton.

  5. Thermoeconomic Diagnosis of an Energy System for Ship Propulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigthorsson, Oskar; Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    A thermoeconomic diagnosis of an energy system for ship propulsion is performed. We consider a Thermo Efficiency System (TES), for a Post-Panamax class ship where the waste heat from the main engine is utilised with a waste heat recovery system consisting of a power turbine expander and a single...

  6. Design and implementation of an expert system for remote fault diagnosis in ship lift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an expert system for remote fault diagnosis in the ship lift was developed by analysis of the fault tree and combination with VPN. The fault tree was constructed based on the operation condition of the ship lift. The diagnosis model was constructed by hierarchical classification of the fault tree structure, and the inference mechanism was given. Logical structure of the fault diagnosis in the ship lift was proposed. The implementation of the expert system for remote fault diagnosis in the ship...

  7. Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yong; Kim, Nakwan

    2014-06-01

    The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.

  8. Argonaut type reactor for the best possible Phase Ia training of nuclear plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argonaut type reactor is an excellent training tool for the training of Electric Utility Nuclear Plant Operators. The training advantages of this type of reactor can best be seen by comparing its design characteristics to a typical large pressurized water reactor and other research/training reactors not necessary for reactor operator training are explained. Some minor modifications of the Argonaut at UCLA would prove valuable and are under consideration. A complete one week Phase Ia training program proposal has been made by UCLA to selected utilities and a summary of this program is presented

  9. Analysis of mitigation effect of steam-exhaust operation of the secondary circuit to ship reactor blackout accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According the characteristics of ship reactor, the RELAP5 models for its primary circuit and the secondary circuit were established, the ship reactor blackout accident under the economy headway condition was simulated using RELAP5/MOD3.2 code, and the mitigation effects of four different steam-exhaust schemes to the accident process were analyzed. The results show that the reasonable steam-exhaust scheme can mitigate the accident remarkably, and the delay time is about hour level: the less the steam is consumed, the longer the operation time of the equipment of the secondary circuit is, the longer the time of the heat sink of the primary circuit can last, and the slower the accident process will be. However, too little steam-exhaust flux will lead to steam generator (SG) water level excessively high or even brimming which will be a threat to normal operation of the devices in the secondary circuit. Meanwhile, there are many devices in the secondary circuit, and the limits to the minimum steam flux to operate the devices are different. Then, the most useful device with the lowest steam- exhaust flux should be chosen as the steam-exhaust operation equipment. The study can provide a reference for the emergent treatment during the ship reactor blackout accident. (authors)

  10. The German simulator center for the training of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulator training for nuclear power plant operators in Germany is conducted in The Simulator Center in Essen. The companies operating The Center are KSG/GfS. KSG provides simulators, GfS performs the training. The German Simulator Center is equipped with five simulators in training, nine simulators are under construction and will be ready for training until the beginning of 1997. This institution serves 22 nuclear power plants units in Germany, Switzerland (NPP Goesgen-Daeniken) and the Netherlands (NPP Borssele) and trains 1,800 persons every year. As a common enterprise the company is owned by 12 utilities, which leads to the necessity to prepare common rules and guidelines for simulator specification, training of instructors, assessment of trainees, training material and preparation and methodical running of simulator courses

  11. Decontamination of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the radiation fields around nuclear power plants, and, consequently, to limit the radiation exposure of and dose commitments to the operating and maintenance personnel, the contamination build-up should be kept to a minimum. The most fruitful approach, from the point of view of economics and efficiency, is to tackle the problems of contamination and decontamination in the design and construction phases of the reactor. To do this, knowledge gained from the operation of existing power reactors should be used to make improvements in new designs. New structural materials with low corrosion rates or whose constituents are not activated by neutrons should also be used. For older reactors, in most cases it is already too late to incorporate design changes without extensive and expensive modifications. For these plants, decontamination remains the most efficient way to reduce radiation fields. The aim of this report is to deal with the different decontamination methods that may be applied to nuclear power plant circuits and equipment during operation. The factors that have to be considered in determining the type and the extent of the methods used are the engineering and the planning of the decontamination operation and the treatment of the resulting waste generated during the process are also discussed

  12. Value-added norms, local litigation, and global enforcement : why the Brussels-philosophy failed in The Hague

    OpenAIRE

    Calliess, Gralf-Peter

    2005-01-01

    In the early Nineties the Hague Conference on International Private Law on initiative of the United States started negotiations on a Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (the "Hague Convention").[1] In October 1999 the Special Commission on duty presented a preliminary text,[2] which was drafted quite closely to the European Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (the "Brussels Conve...

  13. Dynamic selection of ship responses for estimation of on-site directional wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Storhaug, Gaute

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the wave environment in which a ship is operating is crucial for most on-board decision support systems. Previous research has shown that the directional wave spectrum can be estimated by the use of measured global ship responses and a set of transfer functions determined...... for the specific ship. The approach can either be based on parametric or Bayesian (non-parametric) modelling, and in both cases a set of three ship responses usually provides the best estimation. The optimal response combination of three responses at any time depends on the environmental conditions...... and the operation of the ship. Since measurements of more than three responses are usually available, a quick, dynamic selection procedure of the three signals best suited for the wave spectrum estimation procedure is essential. In the present paper the concept of a selection method based on a simple pre...

  14. Study on operation conditions and an operation system of a nuclear powered submersible research vessel, 'report of working group on application of a very small nuclear reactor to an ocean research'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ura, Tamaki [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Takamasa, Tomoji [Tokyo Univ. of Mercantile Marine, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Hajime [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (JP)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    JAERI has studied on design of a nuclear powered submersible research vessel, which will navigate under sea mainly in the Arctic Ocean, as a part of the design activity of advanced marine reactors. This report describes operation conditions and an operating system of the vessel, which were discussed by the specialists of hull design, sound positioning, ship motions and oceanography, etc. The design conditions on ship motions for submersible vessels were surveyed considering regulations in our country, and ship motions were evaluated in the cases of underwater and surface navigations taking account of observation activities in the Arctic Ocean. The effect of ship motions on the compact nuclear reactor SCR was assessed. A submarine transponder system and an on-ice communication buoy system were examined as a positioning and communication system, supposing the activity under ice. The interval between transponders or communication buoys was recommended as 130 km. Procedures to secure safety of nuclear powered submersible research vessel were discussed according to accidents on the hull or the nuclear reactor. These results were reflected to the concept of the nuclear powered submersible research vessel, and subjects to be settled in the next step were clarified. (author)

  15. Training of nuclear power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection is presented containing 11 papers submitted at a conference on the selection and education of specialists for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The conference was attended by specialists from universities and colleges, research institutes and production plants. It debated the methods and aims of both general and specialized theoretical and practical personnel education, the proposals for teaching centre equipment, the use of simulators, computers and other aids in the teaching process; training on school reactors was included. A proposal was put forward of the system of education, the teaching process itself, the content of the basic theoretical subjects, and the method of testing pupils' knowledge. The importance was stressed of establishing a national coordination centre to safeguard the syllabus, methodology, teaching aids, and also the training proper. The system of personnel education in the Paks nuclear power plant, Hungary, is presented as an example. (M.S.)

  16. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...... are just few examples of accident scenarios where the detailed knowledge of the crushing response of ship structure is crucial for a reliable engineering analysis....

  17. Insurance and catastrophic events: can we expect de facto limits on liability recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to take an overview of large technological systems in society to ascertain the prevalence, if any, of situations that can lead to catastrophic effects where the resultant liabilities far exceed the insurances or assets subject to suit in court, thereby imposing de facto limits on liability recoveries. In part, interest in this topic is spurred by the continuing discussion and controversy over the Price-Anderson Act which requires operators of nuclear plants to waive certain defenses and which limits the combined liability of the operator and the government to an amount less than the maximum potential public cost of a major nuclear reactor accident. A variety of technological events could result in assignable liabilities up to $25 billion, or more, depending on the value of life. These postulated events include: (1) the crash of a large aircraft into a crowded sports facility (an estimated $20.3 billion liability); (2) an explosion and subsequent dispersion of a chemical (such as chlorine or LNG) into a population center from a large manufacturing, storage, or transport facility (estimated $25.5 billion liability); (3) a massive nuclear power plant accident and the subsequent dispersal of large quantities of radioactive material to a large downwind population center ($25 billion liability); (4) the collision of two ships, such as a large LNG tanker and a large passenger liner, resulting in the deaths of all passengers on board ($5.5 billion liability); and (5) collapse of a large building in an earthquake, known by the owners to be seismically deficient and no steps having been taken to warn occupants or to remedy the situation (major deficiencies). All these events are found to involve potential liability far exceeding the available resources, whether they be insurance, corporation assets, or government revenues

  18. Scoping studies of the alternative options for defueling, packaging, shipping, and disposing of the TMI-2 spent fuel core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portion of this fuel will be shipped to nuclear facilities to perform detailed physical examinations. Removal of this fuel from the TMI-2 core is also a significant step in the eventual cleanup of this facility. The report presents a scoping study of the technical operations required for defueling and canning. The TMI fuel when canned could be stored in the spent fuel storage pool. After a period of on-site storage, it is expected that the bulk of the fuel will be shipped off-site for either storage or reprocessing. Evaluation is made of the technical, economic, and institutional factors associated with alternate approaches to disposition of this fuel. Recommendations are presented concerning future generic development tasks needed for the defueling, packaging, on-site shipping of this fuel

  19. Scoping studies of the alternative options for defueling, packaging, shipping, and disposing of the TMI-2 spent fuel core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert T.

    1980-09-01

    A portion of this fuel will be shipped to nuclear facilities to perform detailed physical examinations. Removal of this fuel from the TMI-2 core is also a significant step in the eventual cleanup of this facility. The report presents a scoping study of the technical operations required for defueling and canning. The TMI fuel when canned could be stored in the spent fuel storage pool. After a period of on-site storage, it is expected that the bulk of the fuel will be shipped off-site for either storage or reprocessing. Evaluation is made of the technical, economic, and institutional factors associated with alternate approaches to disposition of this fuel. Recommendations are presented concerning future generic development tasks needed for the defueling, packaging, on-site shipping of this fuel.

  20. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation......) and about wings. It then treats propellers in uniform flow, first via advanced actuator disc modelling, and then using lifting-line theory. Pragmatic guidance is given for design and evaluation of performance, including the use of computer modelling.The second part covers the development of unsteady forces...... arising from operation in non-uniform hull wakes. First, by a number of simplifications, various aspects of the problem are dealt with separately until the full problem of a non-cavitating, wide-bladed propeller in a wake is treated by a new and completely developed theory. Next, the complicated problem...

  1. The potential risks from Russian nuclear ships. NKS-SBA-1 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-11-01

    A review is given of the information available on the Russian nuclear ships including submarines, cruisers and ice-breaking ships with special emphasis on the vessels of the Northern Fleet and the Russian icebreakers. A significant part of these ships has today been taken out of active service, and they are in various stages of decommissioning. Information on the decommissioned vessels, their storage sites and the procedures planned for the further decommissioning works is discussed. The handling of spent nuclear fuel is also considered. The various types of accidents, which might occur with these ships, operational as well as decommissioned, are considered, and examples of actual accidents with operational vessels are presented. The types of accidents considered include criticality accidents, loss-of-coolant accidents, fires/explosions and sinking. Some measures taken by the Russians to avoid such accidents are discussed. The special problems connected to the two decommissioned submarines of the Northern Fleet, which have damaged cores, are mentioned. In appendices data on the Russian nuclear vessels are presented. (au)

  2. The potential risks from Russian nuclear ships. NKS-SBA-1 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the information available on the Russian nuclear ships including submarines, cruisers and ice-breaking ships with special emphasis on the vessels of the Northern Fleet and the Russian icebreakers. A significant part of these ships has today been taken out of active service, and they are in various stages of decommissioning. Information on the decommissioned vessels, their storage sites and the procedures planned for the further decommissioning works is discussed. The handling of spent nuclear fuel is also considered. The various types of accidents, which might occur with these ships, operational as well as decommissioned, are considered, and examples of actual accidents with operational vessels are presented. The types of accidents considered include criticality accidents, loss-of-coolant accidents, fires/explosions and sinking. Some measures taken by the Russians to avoid such accidents are discussed. The special problems connected to the two decommissioned submarines of the Northern Fleet, which have damaged cores, are mentioned. In appendices data on the Russian nuclear vessels are presented. (au)

  3. Development of graphic display program of reactor operating parameters for emergency exercise at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scenario of nuclear emergency exercise based on the result of accident progress analysis is expected to ensure effective training. Thereupon a new graphic display program for reactor operating parameters has been developed to present real-time of plant process values (parameters), released radioactivities from the plant, and dose rate data around the site calculated by using the accident analysis code MAAP4 and other codes. This system has a trend graph screen displaying reactor operating parameters, an environmental dose rate summary screen indicating dose rate distribution around the site on the map, and a plant parameters summary screen showing important plant parameters on a simplified plant system diagram. One screen can be switched to another any time. It also has a jump-function easily accessing any stage during the exercise scenario in accordance with progress of the exercise. As a result of the application of this system to a real nuclear emergency exercise, it has been verified that this system is quite useful for confirming the parameters when the nuclear emergency exercise starts and the licensee reports the plant conditions to related bodied. (author)

  4. Neuro-fuzzy models for systems identification applied to the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant has a myriad of complex system and sub-systems that, working cooperatively, make the control of the whole plant. Nevertheless their operation be automatic most of the time, the integral understanding of their internal- logic can be away of the comprehension of even experienced operators because of the poor interpretability those controls offer. This difficulty does not happens only in nuclear power plants but in almost every a little more complex control system. Neuro-fuzzy models have been used for the last years in a attempt of suppress these difficulties because of their ability of modelling in linguist form even a system which behavior is extremely complex. This is a very intuitive human form of interpretation and neuro-fuzzy model are gathering increasing acceptance. Unfortunately, neuro-fuzzy models can grow up to become of hard interpretation because of the complexity of the systems under modelling. In general, that growing occurs in function of redundant rules or rules that cover a very little domain of the problem. This work presents an identification method for neuro-fuzzy models that not only allows models grow in function of the existent complexity but that beforehand they try to self-adapt to avoid the inclusion of new rules. This form of construction allowed to arrive to highly interpretative neuro-fuzzy models even of very complex systems. The use of this kind of technique in modelling the control of the pressurizer of a PWR nuclear power plant allowed verify its validity and how neuro-fuzzy models so built can be useful in understanding the automatic operation of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  5. Qualification requirements and training programs for nonreactor nuclear facility personnel in the Operations Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the program for training, retraining, and qualification of nonreactor nuclear operators in the Operations Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of the program is to provide the Operators and Supervisors of nuclear facilities the knowledge and skills needed to perform assigned duties in a safe and efficient manner and to comply with US Department of Energy Order 5480.1A Chapter V. This order requires DOE nuclear facilities to maintain formal training programs for their operating staff and documentation of that training

  6. Integrated approach to optimize operation and maintenance costs for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of increasingly open electricity markets and the 'unbundling' of generating companies from former utility monopolies, an area of major concern is the economic performance of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants. Nuclear power, inevitably, must compete directly with other electricity generation sources. Coping with this competitive pressure is a challenge that the nuclear industry should meet if the nuclear option is to remain a viable one. This competitive environment has significant implications for nuclear plant operations, including, among others, the need for the more cost effective management of plant activities, and the greater use of analytical tools to balance the costs and benefits of proposed activities, in order to optimize operation and maintenance costs, and thus insure the economic competitiveness of existing nuclear power plants. In the framework of the activities on Nuclear Economic Performance Information System (NEPIS), the IAEA embarked in developing guidance on optimization of operation and maintenance costs for nuclear power plants. The report was prepared building on the fundamental that optimization of operation and maintenance costs of a nuclear power plant is a key component of a broader integrated business strategic planning process, having as overall result achievement of organization's business objectives. It provides advice on optimization of O and M costs in the framework of strategic business planning, with additional details on operational planning and controlling. This TECDOC was elaborated in 2004-2005 in the framework of the IAEA's programme on Nuclear Power Plant Operating Performance and Life Cycle Management, with the support of two consultants meetings and one technical meeting and based on contributions provided by participants. It can serve as a useful reference for the management and operation staff within utilities, nuclear power plant operators and regulators and other organizations involved in

  7. Regulatory approach and nuclear safety requirements for termination of operations and decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to shut down Unit 1 of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) was taken on 5 October 1999, when the 'National Energy Strategy' was adopted by the Seimas (Parliament). In the accession negotiations and according to the position statement, Lithuania has committed to the closure of Unit 2 by 2009. The European Union is in solidarity with Lithuania and is ready to continue to provide adequate additional assistance for the decommissioning effort even after Lithuania's accession to the European Union.The early termination of operations at INPP initiated an elaboration: of the policy; requirements; guidance; capabilities of the regulatory bodies; and technical support organizations in the area of decommissioning safety, waste management, disposal strategy, and the technology of dismantling. A legal basis has been promulgated and regulatory documents issued. Planning has been performed. However, a lack of experience specific to RBMK reactors, and limited financial and human resources, have created an environment of concern with regard to the current uncertainties. VATESI is looking forward to solving the remaining problems using the practices of other countries. The paper describes the activities of the Lithuanian authorities in the establishment of the regulatory framework, the approach for the licensing process, safety assessment of decommissioning projects, and overseeing the safety issues in the final phase of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  8. Automation of nuclear material handling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated systems are more and more used in nuclear material handling operations for increasing safety and operation speed and decreasing the personnel exposure to radiations. Some applications of automation to waste or fuel storage overhead cranes are described, showing the evolution of the control philosophy and of the technology used in this field. The computing capabilities and the flexibility of microprocessors make them particularly powerful for applications. The use of multiple microprocessors in a master-slave configuration, mounted on the crane, leads to a rather simple and efficient system. Those systems are described, showing the use of the ''teach-in'' method for data input, bypassing the effects of possibly large tolerances on civil and mechanical works

  9. Qualification of the WIMS lattice code, for the design, operation and accident analysis of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A basic problem in nuclear reactor physics in that of the description of the neutron population behaviour in the multiplicative medium of a nuclear fuel. Due to the magnitude of the physical problem involved and the present degree of technological evolution regarding computing resources, of increasing complexity and possibilities, the calculation programs or codes have turned to be a basic auxiliary tool in reactor physics. In order to analyze the global problem, several aspects should be taken into consideration. The first aspect to be considered is that of the availability of the necessary nuclear data. The second one is the existence of a variety of methods and models to perform the calculations. The final phase for this kind of analysis is the qualification of the computing programs to be used, i.e. the verification of the validity domain of its nuclear data and the models involved. The last one is an essential phase, and in order to carry it on great variety of calculations are required, that will check the different aspects contained in the code. We here analyze the most important physical processes that take place in a nuclear reactor cell, and we consider the qualification of the lattice code WIMS, that calculates the neutronic parameters associated with such processes. Particular emphasis has been put in the application to natural uranium fuelled reactor, heavy water cooled and moderated, as the Argentinean power reactors now in operation. A wide set of experiments has been chosen: a.-Fresh fuel in zero-power experimental facilities and power reactors; b.-Irradiated fuel in both types of facilities; c.-Benchmark (prototype) experiments with loss of coolant. From the whole analysis it was concluded that for the research reactors, as well as for the heavy water moderated power reactors presently operating in our country, or those that could operate in a near future, the lattice code WIMS is reliable and produces results within the experimental values and

  10. A Simplified Method for Calculating Propeller Thrust Decrease for a Ship Sailing on a Given Shipping Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelazny Katarzyna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During ship sailing on rough water, relative ship motions can be observed which make the propeller emerge from the water, and decrease its thrust as a consequence. The article presents a simplified method for calculating the thrust decrease and the time of propeller emergence from water for the ship on a regular an irregular wave. The method can be used for predicting the operating speed of the ship on a given shipping lane.

  11. Directors’ Liability under thr Doctrine of Piercing the Corporate Veil : The Directors' Liability for Corporate Debt

    OpenAIRE

    Laya Joneydi; Maliheh Zare

    2015-01-01

    The doctrine of piercing the corporate veil fascilitated holding directors liable for corporate debt. Nevertheless, the doctrine is not a seperate cause of action. Directors are bound by fiduciary duty, duty of loyalty and duty of care and skill to the corporation and its shareholders. However, there is not such a contractual relationship between directors and creditors. Thus, requiring directors to compensate creditors should be justified on tort law. In the Iranian, French and American lega...

  12. The operating organization for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  13. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Ship Power Plant Operating with Waste Heat Recovery through Combined Heat and Power Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Grljušić; Vladimir Medica; Nikola Račić

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to study a cogeneration plant for combined heat & power (CHP) production that utilises the low-temperature waste energy in the power plant of a Suezmax-size oil tanker for all heating and electricity requirements during navigation. After considering various configurations, a standard propulsion engine operating at maximum efficiency and a CHP Plant with R245fa fluid using a supercritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is selected. All the ship heat requirements ...

  14. Design, qualification and operation of nuclear rockets for safe Mars missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W.W.; Olson, T.S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Redd, L.R. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion modules planned for use on crew missions to Mars improve mission reliability and overall safety of the mission. This, as well as all other systems, are greatly enhanced if the system specifications take into account safety from design initiation, and operational considerations are well thought through and applied. For instance, the use of multiple engines in the propulsion module can lead to very high system safety and reliability. Operational safety enhancements may include: the use of multiple perigee burns, thus allowing time to ensure that all systems are functioning properly prior to departure from Earth orbit; the ability to perform all other parts of the mission in a degraded mode with little or no degradation of the mission; and the safe disposal of the nuclear propulsion module in a heliocentric orbit out of the ecliptic plane. The standards used to qualify nuclear rockets are one of the main cost drivers of the program. Concepts and systems that minimize cost and risk will rely on use of the element and component levels to demonstrate technology readiness and validation. Subsystem or systems testing then is only needed for verification of performance. Also, these will be the safest concepts because they will be more thoroughly understood and the safety margins will be well established and confirmed by tests.

  15. Design, qualification and operation of nuclear rockets for safe Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear thermal propulsion modules planned for use on crew missions to Mars improve mission reliability and overall safety of the mission. This, as well as all other systems, are greatly enhanced if the system specifications take into account safety from design initiation, and operational considerations are well thought through and applied. For instance, the use of multiple engines in the propulsion module can lead to very high system safety and reliability. Operational safety enhancements may include: the use of multiple perigee burns, thus allowing time to ensure that all systems are functioning properly prior to departure from Earth orbit; the ability to perform all other parts of the mission in a degraded mode with little or no degradation of the mission; and the safe disposal of the nuclear propulsion module in a heliocentric orbit out of the ecliptic plane. The standards used to qualify nuclear rockets are one of the main cost drivers of the program. Concepts and systems that minimize cost and risk will rely on use of the element and component levels to demonstrate technology readiness and validation. Subsystem or systems testing then is only needed for verification of performance. Also, these will be the safest concepts because they will be more thoroughly understood and the safety margins will be well established and confirmed by tests

  16. Design, qualification and operation of nuclear rockets for safe Mars missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W.W.; Olson, T.S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Redd, L.R. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion modules planned for use on crew missions to Mars improve mission reliability and overall safety of the mission. This, as well as all other systems, are greatly enhanced if the system specifications take into account safety from design initiation, and operational considerations are well thought through and applied. For instance, the use of multiple engines in the propulsion module can lead to very high system safety and reliability. Operational safety enhancements may include: the use of multiple perigee burns, thus allowing time to ensure that all systems are functioning properly prior to departure from Earth orbit; the ability to perform all other parts of the mission in a degraded mode with little or no degradation of the mission; and the safe disposal of the nuclear propulsion module in a heliocentric orbit out of the ecliptic plane. The standards used to qualify nuclear rockets are one of the main cost drivers of the program. Concepts and systems that minimize cost and risk will rely on use of the element and component levels to demonstrate technology readiness and validation. Subsystem or systems testing then is only needed for verification of performance. Also, these will be the safest concepts because they will be more thoroughly understood and the safety margins will be well established and confirmed by tests.

  17. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; J. Boman; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; S. Joulie; H. Bladt; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of particulate matter (PM) from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of PM. The environmental effects of PM from shipping include negative impact on human health through increased concentrations of particles in many coastal areas and harbour cities and the climate impact. The PM emitted by ship engines consists of organic carbon (OC), elemental or black carbon (EC/BC), sulphate, inorganic compounds containing V, Ni, Ca, Zn and other metals and associated wat...

  18. Space vehicle design and operation for efficient use of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancati, Mike L.; Hodge, John R.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a high-leverage, and possibly enabling, propulsion choice for sending humans to Mars. Important performance gains are expected for NTP Mars transfer vehicle over their counterparts, the conventional chemical systems. These gains come in spite of vehicle unique requirements for NTP engine development and operations: expected higher development costs, prelaunch and in-space handing safeguards, extra propellant for reactor cool-down after engine burns, and safe, managed disposal of spent NTP engines. Prior studies have also shown that these NTP engines and stages, sized for Mars missions, could increase delivered payloads for some piloted lunar mission as well.

  19. 网状责任制与统一责任制下第三方物流经营人的责任形式与追偿%Study on Form of and Claims against Liabilities of TPL Operators under Network Liability System and Unified Liability System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, starting from the legal status of the TPL operators, we discussed the form of the liabilities they bear toward their contracted clients under the network liability system and the unified liability system and the possible claims against them.%从第三方物流经营人的法律地位入手,探讨两种国际通行责任认定制度下,其对合同委托方应当承担的责任形式及对第三方的追偿行为,旨在构建适用于我国国情的第三方物流经营人责任认定制度。

  20. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  1. Operational Characteristics of a 14-W 140-GHz Gyrotron for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Joye, Colin D.; Griffin, Robert G.; Hornstein, Melissa K.; Hu, Kan-Nian; Kreischer, Kenneth E.; Rosay, Melanie; Shapiro, Michael A; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Woskov, Paul P.

    2006-01-01

    The operating characteristics of a 140-GHz 14-W long pulse gyrotron are presented. The device is being used in dynamic nuclear polarization enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (DNP/NMR) spectroscopy experiments. The gyrotron yields 14 W peak power at 139.65 GHz from the TE(0,3) operating mode using a 12.3-kV 25-mA electron beam. Additionally, up to 12 W peak has been observed in the TE(2,3) mode at 136.90 GHz. A series of mode converters transform the TE(0,3) operating mode to the TE(1,1) mod...

  2. Overview of plant life management for long term operation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many IAEA member states have given high priority to licensing their nuclear power plants to operate for terms longer than the time frame originally anticipated (generally 40 years). The task of managing plant ageing is assigned in most member states to an engineering specialty called 'plant life management' (PLiM) applying a systematic analysis methodology to System Structure Components (SSCs) ageing. In many countries, the safety performance of nuclear power plants is periodically assessed and characterized via the periodic safety review (PSR) process. Regulatory review and acceptance of PSRs constitutes for these countries the licensing requirement for continued operation of the plant to the following PSR cycle (usually 10 years). In the USA and in other countries operating US designed plants, instead of PSR process, a license renewal application (LRA) process is followed, which requires certain prerequisites such as ageing management programs, particularly for passive irreplaceable SSCs. Active components are normally addressed via the maintenance rule (MR) requirements and other established regulatory processes. A third group of member states have adopted a combined approach that incorporates elements of both the PSR process and selected LRA specific requirements, such as time limited ageing analysis. The article ends with some IAEA recommendations for the implementation of national PLiM programs

  3. Evacuation from ships : account for ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Bles, W.

    1999-01-01

    A transnational BriteEuram programme on evacuation of passengers from ships is presented. Recent disasters on ferries of the roll-on/roll-off type have led to higher requirements for safety. These requirements are formulated in terms of overall performance rather than performance of a number of isol

  4. Exploring a decision framework for evaluating cost-effectiveness and utility of CO2 abatement measures in shipping : A methodology applied to the cast fleet of Grieg Shipping Group

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Selecting greenhouse gas abatement measures for a specific fleet of ships is not an easy task and many factors are to be considered by ship operators. Current methodologies for assessing measures are based on cost-effectiveness evaluations. The main aim of this paper is to explore new ways to evaluate and select greenhouse gas abatement measures in shipping. To address this, a case study regarding the open hatch bulk fleet of Grieg Shipping Group is presented in order to illustrate the decisi...

  5. Information management system for design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, M.C. (Duke Power Co. (US)); Jones, C.R. (S. Levy Inc. (US))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the principal requirements and features of a computerized information management system (IMS) believed to be a necessary part of the program to design, build and operate the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States. This way a result of extensive review and input from an industry group studying future nuclear power plant construction improvements. The needs of the power plant constructor, owner and operator for such a computerized technical data base are described in terms of applications and scope and timing of turnover of the IMS by the plant designer. The applications cover the full life cycle of the plant including project control, construction activities, quality control, maintenance and operation. The scope of the IMS is also described in terms of the technical data to be included, hardware and software capabilities and training. The responsibilities of the plant designer for developing the IMS and generating the technical data base is defined as part of the plant process. The requirements to be met include a comprehensive plant data model and computer system hardware and software.

  6. The Accounting Reform in the Brussels-capital Region: New Tool for Financial Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    In the last 20 years, public administrations in Belgium have completely reformed their accounting systems. The new system consists in combining double-entry general accounting with budgetary accounting, which is traditional in the public sector. The accounting reform of 2003 marks a turning point in the history of accounting of the federal State and federated entities (regions and communities). The Brussels-capital region is the first federated entity to embark on the adventure and implement the new accounting system in 2006. The aim of this article is to introduce the legislative framework and the different implementation steps of the accounting reform in the Brussels-capital region and to provide a financial analysis of the region. The objective is to see if the region has a good financial situation. To do this, this paper analyses the data from the balance sheet and the income statements from 2008 to 2011. On one hand, it analyzes the evolution of the region's different results; and on the other hand, it presents different financial ratios. It also analyzes the evolution of the regional debt. This paper concludes that, although expenses and the debt are increasing, the situation of the region is not worrying, because of good budgetary performances, sophisticated financial management, and law loans rates. Even if the results of the analysis don't have to be interpreted as the same way as for a private company, the annual accounts provide interesting information that can be used to improve public finance.

  7. Adaptive design for digital nonlinear autopilot of ship-to-ship missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ki Hong; Chaw, Dongkyoung; Choi, Jin Young

    2005-12-01

    This paper proposes a practical design method for ship-to-ship missiles' autopilot. When the pre-designed analogue autopilot is implemented in digital way, they generally suffer from severe performance degradation and instability problem even for a sufficiently small sampling time. Also, aerodynamic uncertainties can affect the overall stability and this happens more severely when the nonlinear autopilot is digitally implemented. In order to realize a practical autopilot, two main issues, digital implementation problem and compensation for the aerodynamic uncertainties, are considered in this paper. MIMO (multi-input multi-output) nonlinear autopilot is presented first and the input and output of the missile are discretized for implementation. In this step, the discretization effect is compensated by designing an additional control input. Finally, we design a parameter adaptation law to compensate the control performance. Stability analysis and 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) simulations are presented to verify the proposed adaptive autopilot.

  8. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  9. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... requested by Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power... Impact Statement for ] License Renewal of Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station,...

  10. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  11. Operator support architecture for monitoring abnormal symptoms of nuclear power plant based on knowledge engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An architecture to support nuclear power plant operators for monitoring abnormal symptoms has been proposed based on the techniques of knowledge engineering, and the feasibility of a plant monitoring support system was investigated. The purpose of the support system is to present the operators with useful information so that they can make correct judgment at an early and subtle stage of abnormal plant conditions. In the architecture proposed, abductive reasoning is performed to search for causal events and deductive one to predict consequential events using the knowledge representing plant components as frames and those representing causal relations as production rules. A method to deal with uncertainties in each types of reasoning has been adopted, and it is used to rank several hypotheses of causal events and to assess the importance of plant parameters for monitoring. A prototype system was developed, and its usefulness was tested using a case of failure in a recirculation pump of a BWR plant. (author)

  12. 78 FR 61400 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision... and ML102210411, respectively), concerns the operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... (non- EQ) inaccessible cables at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim) are capable of...

  13. Japan's compensation system for nuclear damage - As related to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, extraordinary efforts were undertaken in Japan to implement a compensation scheme for the proper and efficient indemnification of the affected victims. This publication provides English translations of key Japanese legislative and administrative texts and other implementing guidance, as well as several commentaries by Japanese experts in the field of third party nuclear liability. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has prepared this publication in co-operation with the government of Japan to share Japan's recent experience in implementing its nuclear liability and compensation regime. The material presented in the publication should provide valuable insights for those wishing to better understand the regime applied to compensate the victims of the accident and for those working on potential improvements in national regimes and the international framework for third party nuclear liability

  14. A Numerical Model for Torsion Analysis of Composite Ship Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Chirica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology based on a macroelement model proposed for torsional behaviour of the ship hull made of composite material is proposed in this paper. A computer program has been developed for the elastic analysis of linear torsion. The results are compared with the FEM-based licensed soft COSMOS/M results and measurements on the scale simplified model of a container ship, made of composite materials.

  15. CONTRAVENTION AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR PRACTICE OF UNFAIR COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUJAN ION CRISTINEL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available commerce. The commercial activity is, from a legal perspective, a correct exercise of the ownership and free initiative by the legal person in the commercial activities, the business conduct being necessary to circumscribe the legal rules that govern the commercial market. This article has as starting point on the one hand the need for legal provisions ensuring a real protection to the Romanian consumers exposed to unfair trade practices, and on the other hand of some comprehensive legal stipulations on tradesmen’s contravention and criminal liability that show an unfair competitive conduct. The general regulatory framework regarding the unfair competition consists of the Law no. 11/1991 on combating the unfair competition, the legal stipulations which relate to the European provisions on the matter, namely the Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council from May 11th 2005 concerning unfair commercial practices of enterprises in the internal market to consumers and amending the Directive 84/450/EEC of the Council, of the Directives 97/7/EC, 98/27/EC and 2002/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC no. 2006/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The European legislation includes the stipulations regarding the unfair commercial practices prohibited in the E.U. space, as well as the stipulations relating to the economic interests of consumers who enter into transactions with tradesmen. In this respect, the European regulations deem unfair trade practices those acts or actions that violate the principles of professional diligence and which may influence the commercial decisions of consumers, being categorized as misleading practices and aggressive commercial practices. In accordance with the provisions of the Law no. 11/1991 on combating the unfair competition, with the ulterior amendments and supplements, unfair competition represents the commercial practices of the enterprise

  16. Development of robotic systems for the decommissioning operation of Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima nuclear accident required difficult decommissioning work of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) for 40 or 50 years. Development of effective robotic systems for termination of the accident had been conducted. This article introduced some activity and discussed direction of accelerated development of robotic systems for decommissioning of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS. Highly contaminated water was leaking from reactor building damaged by hydrogen explosion at Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS. Fundamental solution was to find leaking place at torus room and stop leaks of contaminated water by repair. For such purpose, neutral buoyancy multi-joint arm (Neutra), several ten meters long and capable of housing compact, was proposed for underwater repair work. Testing of trial manufacture of mechanical model called Neutra-I had been conducted and its housing equipment was also developed. As for inspection and repair work through a small pipe, active-wheeled snake-like robot (ACM) might be operable in such a narrow space. Arm-equipped tracked vehicle (HELIOS) could be used as a terrain adaptive crawler for inside work. Weight compensation wheeled suit for radiation protection (Wheeb) was already developed. Robotic systems should be developed for focusing attainment of on-site requirements of decommissioning work of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS. Robotics challenge should be like that. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Historical Drawbacks of Limited Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Boyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited liability is a human invention which has facilitated enormous economic growth around the world, particularly since the time of its general application in advanced countries during the nineteenth century. The individual legal identity of companies, coupled with the limited liability of their owners, has provided protection for investors from the risks associated with their investments. It has thus contributed to increase the sources of capital available to finance projects which might otherwise have been considered unviable. However, the legal protection offered to investors has negative consequences for other participants in economies. Speculation in stock markets often damages society. It is very important to study the drawbacks of limited liability and to suggest modifications to achieve a more stable, less volatile, economic growth in the world. Although this article goes to some lengths to recognise the work of authors who emphasise the positive historical economic contribution of limited lability, its main objective is to provoke a reflection around texts which point out the drawbacks and propose solutions.

  18. Safety indicators as a tool for operational safety evaluation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance indicators have found a wide use in the conventional and nuclear industries. For the conventional industry, the goal is to optimize production, reducing loss of time with accidents, human error and equipment downtimes. In the nuclear industry, nuclear safety is an additional goal. This paper presents a general methodology to the establishment, selection and use of safety indicators for a two loop PWR plant, as Angra 1. The use of performance indicators is not new. The NRC has its own methodology and the IAEA presents methodology suggestions, but there is no detailed documentation about indicators selection, criteria and bases used. Additionally, only the NRC methodology performs a limited integrated evaluation. The study performed identifies areas considered critical for the plant operational safety. For each of these areas, strategic sub-areas are defined. For each strategic sub-area, specific safety indicators are defined. These proposed Safety Indicators are based on the contribution to risk considering a quantitative risk analysis. For each safety indicator, a goal, a bounded interval and proper bases are developed, to allow for a clear and comprehensive individual behavior evaluation. On the establishment of the intervals and boundaries, a probabilistic safety study, operational experience, international and national standards and technical specifications were used. Additionally, an integrated evaluation of the indicators, using expert systems, was done to obtain an overview of the plant general safety. This evaluation uses well-defined and clear rules and weights for each indicator to be considered. These rules were implemented by means of a computational language, on a friendly interface, so that it is possible to obtain a quick response about operational safety. This methodology can be used to identify situations where the plant safety is challenged, by giving a general overview of the plant operational condition. Additionally, this study can

  19. Wing Sails for Hybrid Propulsion of a Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Dalija Milić Kralj; Branko Klarin

    2016-01-01

    Various types of hybrid drives are increasingly being applied in transportation. Wing sails can provide additional propulsion to a motor-driven ship, thereby decreasing fossil fuel consumption. This article contributes to the selection and consideration of the influencing parameters for applying wing sails for ship propulsion. Basic developmental factors and application of wing sails are described. In addition, influential parameters and their relations are discussed. These parameters are con...

  20. Assessment of radiation consequences of cabins in a nuclear accident of the nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discussed about the spread routes of radioactive nuclides from reactor cabin to other cabins and their distributions in these cabins. Methods and formulas to estimate radioactivities of nuclides and doses received by crews in cabins were established. The radiation consequences of cabins in a nuclear accident was quantified and evaluated. The assessments indicates that the consequences of cabins is light and the doses to the staff will not exceed the dose limits prescribed in standards in a design basis accident, and the consequences of cabins is serious and the doses to the staff will exceed the dose limits prescribed in standards in serious accident. Some suggestions on emergency management and radiation protection were given

  1. The regulatory system governing liability, financial security, and the funding of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principally speaking, the nuclear liability law and the law on financial security constitute a modern system determining indemnification for nuclear damage with due regard to the risks concerned. This holds especially since the introduction of the unlimited financial liability of the owner. The question as to the security through available financial means is of foremost importance: at present the German insurance market can cover up to 500 million DM, another 500 million DM could be provided by a civil-law nuclear liability insurance company; thus the proposal to raise private provision finds to 1 billion DM. Indemnification through the state could consist in a loan for the liable party. As yet there is no obligation under atomic energy law to make provisions for the decommissioning of nuclear installations. Even if negotiations with the industry lead to satisfactory results, a legislative bridge, i.e. regularization through law, is not wholly dispensable and can be realized in various ways: as a precondition for the issue of a licence or as a specific obligation of the operator under atomic energy law. (orig./HSCH)

  2. Design and modelling of innovative machinery systems for large ships

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Ulrik; HAGLIND, Fredrik; Gabrielii, Cecilia; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Eighty percent of the growing global merchandise trade is transported by sea. The shipping industry is required to reduce the pollution and increase the energy efficiency of ships in the near future. There is a relatively large potential for approaching these requirements by implementing waste heat recovery (WHR) systems.Studies of alternative WHR systems in other applications suggests that the Kalina cycle and the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can provide significant advantages over the steam ...

  3. Plant life management for long term operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's fleet of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is approximately 20 years old on average, and most plants are believed to be able to operate for 60 years or more. The design life of a NPP is typically 30 to 40 years. This may be extended by 10 to 20 years, or more, provided that the plant can demonstrate by analysis, trending, equipment and system upgrades, increased vigilance, testing, ageing management, and other means that license renewal presents no threat to public health and safety. The basic goal of Plant Life Management (PLiM) is to satisfy requirements for safe long-term supplies of electricity in an economically competitive way. The basic goal of the operating company and the owners to operate as long as economically reasonable and possible from safety point of view. PLiM is a management tool for doing that. PLiM is a system of programmes and procedures to satisfy safety requirements for safe operation and for power production in a competitive way and for time which is rational from technical and economical point of view. PLiM is not only a technical system, it is also an attitude of the operational company to keep the plant in operation as long as possible from safety and business point of view. The common objectives of PLiM assessment is to help and review the pre-conditions for PLiM and long-term operation approaches. PLiM should not be associated with extension of operational life-time of the NPP only. It is an owner's attitude and rational approach of the operating company to run the business economically and safely. The effectiveness of PLiM Programme can be assessed by three complementary kinds of assessment: self-assessment, peer review and comprehensive programme review by the plant owner/ operator. IAEA will provide the assessment service for peer review of PLiM. Preparation for a PLiM Assessment service will be initiated only after the IAEA has been formally approached by a MS and funding (e.g. an existing Technical cooperation project) has

  4. OPTIMAL INSURANCE FOR CATASTROPHIC RISK: THEORY AND APPLICATION TO NUCLEAR CORPORATE LIABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Louaas, Alexis; Picard, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the optimal insurance coverage for high severity-low probability accidents, both from theoretical and applied standpoints. Such accidents qualify as catastrophic when their risk premium is a non-negligible proportion of the victims’ wealth, although the probability of occurrence is very small. We show that this may be the case when the individual’s absolute risk aversion is very large in the accident case. We characterize the optimal insurance contract firstly for an individual, an...

  5. Causal reasoning and models of cognitive tasks for naval nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In complex industrial process control, causal reasoning appears as a major component in operators' cognitive tasks. It is tightly linked to diagnosis, prediction of normal and failure states, and explanation. This work provides a detailed review of literature in causal reasoning. A synthesis is proposed as a model of causal reasoning in process control. This model integrates distinct approaches in Cognitive Science: especially qualitative physics, Bayesian networks, knowledge-based systems, and cognitive psychology. Our model defines a framework for the analysis of causal human errors in simulated naval nuclear power plant fault management. Through the methodological framework of critical incident analysis we define a classification of errors and difficulties linked to causal reasoning. This classification is based on shallow characteristics of causal reasoning. As an origin of these errors, more elementary component activities in causal reasoning are identified. The applications cover the field of functional specification for man-machine interfaces, operators support systems design as well as nuclear safety. In addition of this study, we integrate the model of causal reasoning in a model of cognitive task in process control. (authors). 106 refs., 49 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to lateral seismic forces assume that the cask rests on a rigid surface. In this analysis, the cask (110 tons) sits on a stainless steel encased (0.25 in. top plate), polyurethane foam (4 ft. thick) crush pad. As the cask tends to rock due to horizontal seismic forces, the contact area between the cask and the crush pad is reduced, increasing the bearing stress, and causing the pivoting corner of the cask to depress into the crush pad. As the crush pad depresses under the cask corner, the pivot point shifts from the corner toward the cask center, which facilitates rocking and potential tipping of the cask. Subsequent rocking of the cask may deepen the depression, further contributing to the likelihood of cask tip over. However, as the depression is created, the crush pad is absorbing energy from the rocking cask. Potential tip over of the cask was evaluated by performing a non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis with acceleration time history input. This time history analysis captured the effect of a deforming crush pad, and also eliminated conservatisms of the conventional approaches. For comparison purposes, this analysis was also performed with the cask sitting on a solid stainless steel crush pad. Results indicate that the conventional methods are quite conservative relative to the more exacting time history analysis. They also indicate that the rocking motion is less on the foam crush pad than on the solid stainless steel pad

  7. A test case of computer aided motion planning for nuclear maintenance operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needs for improved tools for nuclear power plant maintenance preparation are expressed by EDF engineering. These are an easier and better management of logistics constraints such as free spaces for motions or handling tasks. The lack of generic or well suited tools and the specificity of nuclear maintenance operation have led EDF R and D to develop its own motion planning tools in collaboration with LAAS-CNRS, Utrecht University and the software publisher CADCENTRE within the framework of the three years Esprit LTR project MOLOG. EDF users needs will be summed up in the first part of the paper under the title ''Motion feasibility studies for maintenance operation'' and then compared to the current industrial offer in the ''Software's background'''s part. The definition and objectives ''Towards motion planning tools'' follows. It explains why maintenance preparation pertains to automatic motion planning and how it makes studies much simpler. The ''MOLOG's Benchmark and first result'''s part describes the test-case used to evaluate the MOLOG project and gives an outlook at the results obtained so far. (author)

  8. Energy-supply-independent after-heat removal in nuclear propulsion plants for ships in combination with sinking and cuntering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy-supply-independent after-heat-removal in nuclear propulsion plants for ships in combination with sinking and cantering are analysed with a numeric simulation model. Inclination on the seaground are 0 to the vertical. Different heat-transfer-mechanism in and out of the reactor vessel and at the structures of the containment are analysed. The computer calculation shows that in the course of the accident melting of the core at each inclination occurs. Nevertheless no melting of the reactor vessel occurs due to good cooling of the outer wall of the vessel with seawater. The accident sequenz has at inclinations of 500 to 600 to the vertical a maximum in time. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear law and law of the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Colloquium was held on 12th and 13th June 1975. The Proceedings, which deal with the relationship developed in recent years between both these legal systems contain the full texts of the papers submitted and the ensuing discussions between the participants. These papers discuss the technical and economic prospects of nuclear-powered ships, as well as the third party liability and licensing systems applicable to this form of navigation. The rules applicable to third party liability for maritime transport of nuclear materials and the problems raised by insurance for such transport are also described. The question of radioactive marine pollution, in particular in the light of the recent international conventions such as the 1972 London Convention, was analyzed by several speakers, while other papers dealt with the legal aspects of off-shore siting of nuclear power plants and the denuclearisation of the seabed. (NEA)

  10. Training and qualification of nuclear power plant operators (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training center using the simulators, instructor training, training upgrade, deployment of digital control panel and review of training were described with overseas practice. Recently, nuclear power plant on-site simulators were also used for respective operator training. Operator teamwork training, training team performance upgrade, reflection of operating experiences in nuclear power plant accidents, development of training support equipments and management of training records were needed to review and upgrade training and qualification programs. (T. Tanaka)

  11. 40 CFR 80.30 - Liability for violations of diesel fuel control and prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability for violations of diesel fuel control and prohibitions. 80.30 Section 80.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... the corporate, trade or brand name of a refiner or any of its marketing subsidiaries, the...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3202-1 - Collection of, and liability for, employee tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employees... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of, and liability for, employee...

  13. Guide for training nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered include basic preparation, radiation safety and control, principles of reactor operation, general operating characteristics, facility design, safety systems, instrumentation, reactor theory, fuel handling and core parameters, radioactive material handling, and administrative procedures

  14. Application of an expert system for real time diagnosis of the limiting conditions for operation in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Gustavo Varanda; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: gustavopaiva@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    In the history of nuclear power plants operation safety is an important factor to be considered and for this, the use of resistant materials and the application of redundant systems are used to make a plant with high reliability. Through the acquisition of experience with time and accidents that happened in the area, it was observed that the importance of creating methods that simplify the operator work in making decisions in accidents scenarios is an important factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This work aims to create a program made with the Python language, which with the use of an expert systems be able to apply, in real time, the rules contained in the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) and tell to the operator the occurrence of any limiting conditions and the occurrence of failure to perform the require actions in the time to completion. The generic structure used to represent the knowledge of the expert system was a fault tree where the events of this tree are objects in program. To test the accuracy of the program a simplified model of a fault tree was used that represents the LCO of the nuclear power station named Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto 1. With the results obtained in the analysis of the simplified model it was observed a significant reduction in the time to identify the LCO, showing that the implementation of this program to more complex models of fault tree would be viable.(author)

  15. Specific aspects of insurance of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following questions are discussed in connection with the insurance of nuclear risks: insurance techniques, the nuclear operator's limitation of liability in amount and in time, its channelling, the principle of sole liability and exonerations, the insurers' position, the cover provided and state intervention beyond that amount. (NEA)

  16. Safety of nuclear operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc.(Kansai EPC) aims to pursue a high quality and highly reliable operation in nuclear power generation in order to ensure safety by reducing the risk of accidents and win the confidence from the society and the public. It is emphasised that in order to realize this aim manufacturers and contractors cooperate with each other in performing high quality maintenance through plant lifetime maintenance system. TQC (Total Quality Control) activity enhances the motivation for each individual to have a quality-oriented mind and cultivate the safety culture. Under the lifetime employment practice, Kansai EPC and maintenance contractors can conduct systematic education and training, and the Maintenance Training Center helps to make it effective. 6 figs

  17. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... violations caused solely by the addition of misadditized ethanol or other PRC to the gasoline. In any case in...(a) caused solely by another party's addition of misadditized ethanol or other PRC to the gasoline... Detergent Gasoline § 80.169 Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls...

  18. Review of selected cost drivers for decisions on continued operation of older nuclear reactors. Safety upgrades, lifetime extension, decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lately, the approach to the operation of relatively old NPPs has become an important issue for the nuclear industry for several reasons. First, a large part of operating NPPs will reach the planned end of their lives relatively soon. Replacing these capacities can involve significant investment for the concerned countries and utilities. Second, many operating NPPs while about 30 years old are still in very good condition. Their continued safe operation appears possible and may bring about essential economic gains. Finally, with the costs of new NPPs being rather high at present, continued operation of existing plants and eventually their lifetime extension are viable options for supporting the nuclear share in power generation. This is becoming especially important in view of the growing attention to the issue of global warming and the role of nuclear energy in greenhouse gas mitigation. This report is a review of information related to three cost categories that are part of such cost-benefit analysis: costs of safety upgrades for continued operation of a nuclear unit, costs of lifetime extension and costs of decommissioning. It can serve as a useful reference source for experts and decision makers involved in the economics of operating NPPs

  19. Liabilities of the competent person for radiation protection; Les responsabilites de la personne competente en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizet, A. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The article R. 4456-1 of the Labour code requires employer to appoint a competent person for radiation protection (C.P.R.). Although the prerogatives of the CPR are exercised under the responsibility of the employer, the traditional rules of questioning the liability apply to the employer as well as to the C.P.R.. For the civil liability, the object of which is to guarantee the compensation of damage by its author, but also for the criminal liability, which aims at punishing an illegal behaviour, the C.P.R. does not escape these traditional rules which, however, apply in a particular way considering the daily missions of the C.P.R.. If the responsibility of the employer is more questioned, notably because of the authority he/she exercises on his/her employee, the C.P.R. must not be considered as irresponsible regarding civil and penal requirements; the C.P.R. may indeed be questioned by an employee victim of damage. The activity of the C.P.R. (and thus the cases allowing the questioning of its liability) rests widely on the means which it has and the context in which it discharges its missions. Moreover the judge does take into account the resources which an agent has to judge his responsibility. Thus, the relations of the C.P.R. with other actors of the radiation protection, internal or external in the establishment, are determining. (author)

  20. A methodology for nuclear power plant operational events evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jeferson, E-mail: jeferson@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e do Ciclo de Combustivel; Costa, Sergio Dias, E-mail: sergiodiascosta@hotmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Operational events are normal occurrences in industrial plants and in nuclear power plants. The evaluation of operational events gains importance when it comes specifically to nuclear power plants due to the proportions that the impact and the consequences of these events may cause to the installation itself, their workers, the external area of the nuclear installation, the environment and to the public in general. These consequences, for the operation of these facilities can range from very little, until the consequences that lead to accidents and can cause significant impacts. Operational events may be associated or have influence in many fields of knowledge, such as operation, maintenance, engineering, Radiological Protection, physical protection, chemistry, Human or Organizational Factors and external events, among others. The accident at the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant, shows the importance of exhausting all the studies concerning operational events in order to improve the operational safety of nuclear plants, considering all the causes and possible consequences. In this context, the evaluation of operational events discipline emerges as an important and relevant tool to contribute to the maintenance and/or improvement of the operational safety of nuclear installations. Not without reason the nuclear industry actively participates in programs of exchange of operational experience, where relevant events are thoroughly evaluated and discussed in specific forums, such as power plant operators, regulators and/or joint technical meetings, always with the purpose to prevent, minimize or mitigate its consequences. Any evaluation of operational events passes necessarily by an in-depth study of the circumstances of the event, culminating with the identification of your cause and proposition of corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar events. Additionally, the events should not be studied individually, but evaluated within a temporal context in order

  1. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline non-conformity violations caused solely by the addition of misadditized ethanol or other PRC to... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. (a) Persons liable—(1) Gasoline non-conformity. Where gasoline contained in any storage tank...

  2. A novel method for efficient and abundant production of Phytophthora brassicae zoospores on Brussels sprout leaf discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, K.; Govers, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interac

  3. Studies and research concerning BNFP: operational assessment of the FSV-1 (HTGR) spent fuel shipping cask in alternate modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an operational assessment of the FSV-1 spent fuel shipping cask which was developed by General Atomic specifically for the Fort St. Vrain reactor. Of primary interest is the adaptation to underwater loading and unloading of light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel in this cask which was designed for the dry-handling of high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. Also presented is a concept for a system to compare the pros and cons of wet and dry handling of this and other casks

  4. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  5. 第三方物流经营人民事法律责任概述%Summary of Civil Liabilities of Third Party Logistics Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴坤埔

    2014-01-01

    对第三方物流经营人的含义、法律地位与责任形式进行了界定,讨论了《合同法》中关于第三方物流经营人对委托方法律责任的认定及其异同,最后对第三方物流经营人对实际物流经营人的追偿问题进行了讨论。%In this paper, we defined the connotation, legal status and liability form of the third party logistics operator, discussed the recognition of the liability against it in favor of the clients in the Contract Law, and at the end, studied the issues in the damage recovery of the third party logistics operator against the logistics activity providers.

  6. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  7. Application of integrated computer-aided engineering for design, construction and operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-aided-engineering (CAE) is an essential tool for modern nuclear power plant engineering. It greatly varies in definition, application, and technology from project to project and company to company. Despite the fast growing technologies and applications of CAE, its complexty and variety have thrown aonther puzzle to management of a nuclear project. Without due consideration of an integrated CAE system in early planning stage, the overall efficiency of a nuclear project would slow down due to the inefficiency in data flow. In this paper, practices and perspectives of CAE appliation are discussed under the Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) philosophy in CAE approach. (author)

  8. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of... PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation. (a) Shipping containers of foreign product which are shipped to the United...

  9. [Experience about more than 2000 renal transplantations at the university of Brussels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhoun, P; Wissing, M; Broeders, N; Ghisdal, L; Hoang, A; Loi, P; Michalsky, D; Bollens, R; Donckier, V; Hooghe, L; Janssen, F; Hall, M; Depierreux, M; Kinnaert, P; Vereerstraeten, P; Abramowicz, D

    2008-01-01

    Since 1965, more than 2000 renal transplantations (including more than 100 living-donor transplantations) have been performed at the University of Brussels. An end-stage renal disease patient candidate to renal transplantation will be therefore followed from his enrolment on the waiting list to the long-term post-transplant period. Improvement in the outcome of renal transplantation is achieved due to better knowledge in many fields of medicine, such as immunology, infectious disease, metabolic diseases (hyperlipemia, diabetes mellitus), pharmacology, use of immunosuppressive regimen, a more adequate cardiovascular prevention and treatment. If the best results were achieved with kidneys from living donors, the graft survival rate at the University of Brussels was nearly 80% for the last period (2000-2006). Unfortunately, renal transplantation cannot cure certain comorbid conditions and even may promote them: infectious diseases, neoplasia, metabolic disorders (e.a diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia). Many efforts have to be done to develop less toxic and more immune selective therapeutic strategies. Living donation and extension of the pool of cadaveric donors will reduce the length of time spent on the waiting list and will significantly impact on mortality and morbidity after kidney transplantation. PMID:18497218

  10. Safety doctrine for nuclear submarines in Brazil; Doutrina de seguranca para submarinos nucleares no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2012-07-15

    The recognition of nuclear ship as a single system, incorporating the safety problems and the techniques of both naval and nuclear industry, constitutes a pressing need in order to make nuclear energy as a means of propulsion. Recognize the nuclear ship as the results of two major branches of engineering implies the need for a safety doctrine that deals with the ship and the nuclear facility as a system combining and synthesizing all aspects relevant to military ships as to the commercial nuclear power plants. The non-recognition of nuclear ship as a specific system results in the application of safety rules and regulations set for conventional ships, overlapping (and possibly conflicting) rules and regulations developed to nuclear power plants. This approach does not lead to an optimization of design and operation of the ship, neither from the safety nor from the functional point of view. The paper presents the aspects of naval, nuclear and nuclear ships safety, the application of the doctrine, the control methods and conclusions. (author)

  11. 78 FR 39591 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle... the University Bridge, mile 4.3, all crossing the Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA. The... elevation of Lake Washington. The current operating schedule for all three bridges is set out in 33 CFR...

  12. Reporting nuclear power plant operation to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear safety (STUK) is the authority in Finland responsible for controlling the safety of the use of nuclear energy. The control includes, among other things, inspection of documents, reports and other clarification submitted to the STUK, and also independent safety analyses and inspections at the plant site. The guide presents what reports and notifications of the operation of the nuclear facilities are required and how they shall be submitted to the STUK. The guide does not cover reports to be submitted on nuclear material safeguards addressed in the guide YVL 6.10. Guide YVL 6.11 presents reporting related to the physical protection of nuclear power plants. Monitoring and reporting of occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is presented in the guide YVL 7.10 and reporting on radiological control in the environment of nuclear power plants in the guide YVL 7.8.

  13. Legal requirements for post-operation period licensing of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976 the German Nuclear Law (Atomgesetz) was supplemented by a passus concerning decommissioning (Paragraph 7, Abs. 3). After 30 years of operating nuclear plants, jurisdiction and jurisprudence now focus on this passus, caused by untimely and unprepared shutdowns of 14 plants and by the continuing discussion of ways out of nuclear energy. Progressive differentiation in technology and law is reflected by the narrowing of the definition of decommissioning and by the strong distinction of the cases which need a license according to Paragraph 7, Abs. 3. The juridical complexity and ambiguity in this field is outlined, and a pragmatic orientation towards the reduced risk potential of the specific reactor in the specific situation is suggested. (orig.)

  14. Choice of Court Clauses and Lis Pendens under Brussels I Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanova

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The principle of party autonomy, known not only in the common law legal system but also in the civil law system, provides parties contracting in civil and commercial matters with the right to establish their own rules, as long as these rules do not contradict mandatory law. This right is presumed to be protected by the force of law. It follows, that when a choice of court clause is included in the contract, disputes are supposed to be solved by the court chosen by the parties. This principle is not compromised by the Brussels I Regulation (or previously, the Brussels Convention. Moreover, it is repeated in its Articles 1 and 23. At the same time, the rule of lis pendens, provided for by its Article 27, aims to preclude subsequent actions in other Member States if a court is already seized and allows the appearance 'on the legal scene' of a court other than the court chosen by the parties. And the lis pendens rule prescribes the latter to stay proceedings until the court not chosen, but first seized, examines and declines its jurisdiction.

  15. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jun-hyung [Department of Nuclear and Energy System, Dongguk University, Gyeongju Campus, Gyeongju, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  16. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  17. Use of PSA for the analysis of operational events in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An operational event is a safety-relevant incident that occurred in an industrial installation like a nuclear power plant (NPP). The probabilistic approach to event analysis focuses on the potential consequences of an operational event. Within its scope of application, it provides a quantitative assessment of the risk significance of this event (and similar events): it calculates the risk increase induced by the event. Such analyses may result in a more objective and a more accurate event severity measure than those provided by commonly used qualitative methods. Probabilistic event analysis complements the traditional event analysis approaches that are oriented towards the understanding of the (root) causes of an event. In practice, risk-based precursor analysis consists of the mapping of an operational event on a risk model of the installation, such as a probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) model. Precursor analyses result in an objective risk ranking of safety-significant events, called accident precursors. An unexpectedly high (or low) risk increase value is in itself already an important finding. This assessment also yields a lot of information on the structure of the risk, since the underlying dominant factors can easily be determined. Relevant 'what if' studies on similar events and conditions can be identified and performed (which is generally not considered in conventional event analysis), with the potential to yield even broader findings. The findings of such a structured assessment can be used for other purposes than merely risk ranking. The operational experience feedback process can be improved by helping to identify design measures and operational practices in order to prevent re-occurrence or in order to mitigate future consequences, and even to evaluate their expected effectiveness, contributing to the validation and prioritization of corrective measures. Confirmed and re-occurring precursors with correlated characteristics may point out opportunities

  18. Effective corrective actions to enhance operational safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants around the world and the prevention of incidents in these installations remain key concerns for the nuclear community. In this connection the feedback of operating experience plays a major role: every nuclear plant operator needs to have a system in place to identify and feed back the lessons learned from operating experience and to implement effective corrective actions to prevent safety events from reoccurring. An effective operating experience programme also includes a proactive approach that is aimed at preventing the first-time occurrence of safety events. In April 2003, the IAEA issued the PROSPER guidelines for nuclear installations to strengthen and enhance their own operating experience process and for self-assessment on the effectiveness of the feedback process. Subsequently, in the course of the Operational Safety Review Teams missions conducted by the IAEA that focused on the operational safety practices of nuclear power plants, the IAEA enhanced the review of the operating experience in nuclear power plants by implementing a new module that is derived from these guidelines. In order to highlight the effective implementation of the operating experience programme and to provide practical assistance in this area, the IAEA organized workshops and conferences to discuss recent trends in operating experience. The IAEA also performed assistance and review missions at plants and corporate organizations. The IAEA is further developing advice and assistance on operating experience feedback programmes and is reporting on good practices. The present publication is the outcome of two years of coordinated effort involving the participation of experts of nuclear organizations in several Member States. It provides information and good practices for successfully establishing an effective corrective actions programme. This publication forms part of a series that develops the principles set forth in these guidelines

  19. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations 1994 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report highlights the activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The topics of the report include the president and chairmen's joint message, overview of programs serving as the foundation for most of its activities, performance indicators for the US nuclear utility industry, and INPO's 1994 financial reports and rosters. INPO has four technical cornerstone programs that serve as the foundation for most of its activities. (1) Evaluations of nuclear power plants operated by member utilities are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (2) INPO supports its member utilities in their work to achieve and maintain accreditation of training programs. (3) Events analysis programs identify and communicate lessons learned from plant events so utilities can take action to prevent similar events at their plants. (4) INPO helps members improve in nuclear operations areas through assistance programs and other activities that continually evolve to meet the changing needs of the nuclear industry

  20. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations annual report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report highlights the activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The topics of the report include the president and chairmen's joint message, overview of programs serving as the foundation for most of its activities, performance indicators for the US nuclear utility industry, and INPO's 1993 financial reports and rosters. INPO has four technical cornerstone programs that serve as the foundation for most of its activities. (1) Evaluations of nuclear power plants operated by member utilities are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (2) INPO supports its member utilities in their work to achieve and maintain accreditation of training programs. (3) Events analysis programs identify and communicate lessons learned from plant events so utilities can take action to prevent similar events at their plants. (4) INPO helps members improve in nuclear operations areas through assistance programs and other activities that continually evolve to meet the changing needs of the nuclear industry

  1. Relationship between Nuclear Security Culture and Nuclear Safety Culture and Their Role in Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On an example of nuclear security culture and safety culture, the report will show the link between nuclear security and nuclear safety, the importance of their interaction for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. The report will also cover the goals achieved through adherence to norms, rules and procedures of nuclear security and nuclear safety, the differences between them as well as factors that link these two areas to achieve a common goal – the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and non-proliferation

  2. Development of a test bed for operator aid and advanced control concepts in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great amount of research and development is currently under way in the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI), expert system, and control theory advances in nuclear power plants as a basis for operator aids and automatic control systems. This activity requires access to the measured dynamic responses of the plant to malfunction, operator- or automatic-control-initiated actions. This can be achieved by either simulating plant behavior or by using an actual plant. The advantage of utilizing an actual plant versus a simulator is that the true behavior is assured of both the power generation system and instrumentation. Clearly, the disadvantages of using an actual plant are availability due to licensing, economic, and risk constraints and inability to address accident conditions. In this work the authors have decided to employ a functional one-ninth scale model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The scaled PWR (SPWR) facility is a two-loop representation of a Westinghouse PWR utilizing freon as the working fluid and electric heater rods for the core. The heater rods are driven by a neutron kinetics model accounting for measured thermal core conditions. A control valve in the main steam line takes the place of the turbine generator. A range of normal operating and accident situations can be addressed. The SPWR comes close to offering all the advantages of both a simulator and an actual physical plant in regard to research and development on AI, expert system, and control theory applications. The SPWR is being employed in the development of an expert-system-based operator aid system. The current status of this project is described

  3. Operational limits and conditions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It covers the concept of operational limits and conditions, their content as applicable to various types of thermal reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The principles of the operational limits and conditions are established in section 3 of the Agency's Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Operation, including Commissioning and Decommissioning (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O), which this present Safety Guide supplements. In order to present all pertinent information in this Guide, the provisions of section 3 of the Code are repeated

  4. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization.

  5. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization

  6. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  7. ND online software development for data acquisition of replacement operations of fuel assemblies of Atucha I Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ND Online software was developed in order to acquire data on a real-time basis of the refueling operations at the Atucha I nuclear power plant. The fuel elements containing slightly enriched uranium dioxide are located in the nuclear reactor core inside the cooling channels. The refueling operations are made periodically while the reactor is operating at full power. The acquired signals during the refueling operations are: pressure, force and position of the fuel element. In order to improve the safety and availability of the installation, monitoring of the refueling operations is important for the early detection of anomalies related to the fuel element itself, the cooling channels or the refueling machine (author)

  8. Safety guidelines of ultimate hull girder strength for grounded container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, Jeom Kee;

    2013-01-01

    Various accidents commonly occur on operating ships. The structural damage caused by such accidents is often accompanied by casualties and serious pollution. In this regard, an accidental risk-based approach that is in line with the Goal Based Standard (GBS) of the International Maritime...... damage criteria and making rapid salvage plans or rescue schemes for container ships that have sustained a grounding accident. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Determinants Influencing a Rural Household's Preference to Join Individual Liability or Joint Liability Micro Credit Contract Operated by Primary Aagricultural Credit Society

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Amit; MITRA, SURANJANA

    2009-01-01

    Agriculture credit which is one form of micro credit mainly for the small and marginal farmers can be borrowed under two different types of short-term credit contracts: individual liability credit contract or joint liability credit contract under Primary Agricultural Credit Society (PACS). The basic objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence a rural household to link himself directly with PACS for credit contract under individual liability micro credit contract or to t...

  10. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  11. De-regulated electric power markets and operating nuclear power plants: the case of British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One issue addressed in almost all electric power restructuring/de-regulation plans in both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) was the recovery of operating nuclear power plant's spent fuel disposal costs and the expenditures to decommission the unit