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Sample records for brussels conv liability for operation of nuclear ships

  1. The 1968 Brussels convention and liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal regime governing civil liability for transboundary nuclear damage is expressly addressed by two instruments adopted in the 1960's: the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage These establish particular rules governing the jurisdiction of national courts and other matters, including channelling of liability to nuclear operators, definitions of nuclear damage, the applicable standard of care, and limitations on liability. Another instrument - the 1968 Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgements in Civil and Commercial Matters (hereinafter referred to as 'the Brussels Convention') - which is not often mentioned in the nuclear context will nevertheless also be applicable in certain cases. It is premised upon different rules as to forum and applicable law, and presents an alternate vision of the appropriate arrangements governing civil liability for nuclear damage. In this paper we consider the relative merits and demerits of the Brussels Convention from the perspective of non-nuclear states which might suffer damage as a result of a nuclear accident in another state. We conclude that in the context of the applicability of the Brussels Convention the dedicated nuclear liability conventions present few attractions to non-nuclear states in Europe. We focus in particular on issues relating to jurisdiction and applicable law, and do so by reference to a hypothetical accident in the United Kingdom which has transboundary effects in Ireland. (author)

  2. The Brussels I Regulation and Liability for Nuclear Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to 2004, the map of the European Union seemed to be basically identical to the map of the contracting parties to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 ('the Paris Convention'). The 2004 and 2007 enlargements were mainly composed of the contracting parties to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963 ('the Vienna Convention'). In various discussions, the term 'nuclear liability patchwork' is used to describe this existing situation. One of the problems arising from this 'patchwork' is that, while a uniform legal framework was established for matters of jurisdiction and the enforcement of decisions under the authority given to the European Union ('EU') by the Council Regulation on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgements in civil and commercial matters ('Brussels Regulation'), this overall framework does not apply to particular matters governed by the special conventions to which member states may be contracting parties, see Article 71 of the Brussels Regulation. This paper aims to outline the 'patchwork' of these rules that are applicable to nuclear third party liability cases in the EU and to point out the main consequences arising from this legal framework difficult to comprehend.5 Its scope, however, is limited to the legal issues arising from a nuclear incident occurring in a nuclear installation situated within the territory of the European Union

  3. The 1968 Brussels convention and liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal regime governing civil liability for transboundary nuclear damage is expressly addressed by two instruments adopted in the 1960's: the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy and the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage. This paper begins by summarizing the approach of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. It then analyses the jurisdictional rules applicable to accidents and damage occurring in States which are not party to one of the two dedicated international nuclear regimes, concentrating the attention on the rules applicable in the European context, rules which can be found in the 1968 Brussels Convention. Finally it looks at the solutions given to some of the issues analysed in this article, issues addressed by the Irish courts in a ongoing case. (A.L.B.)

  4. Liability and compensation for nuclear damage: the revision of the Paris convention and the Brussels supplementary convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The negotiations to revise the Paris and Brussels Supplementary Conventions aimed to improve the existing international nuclear liability regime, and the texts of the two amending Protocols resulting from those negotiations have been finalized. Their entry into force will provide a higher level of compensation to more victims for a broader range of nuclear damage, should an accident occur. (author)

  5. Legal aspects of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of Chapter VIII of SOLAS Convention, Brussels' Convention on Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships and its impact on national laws and bilateral treaties. Problems encountered with informal agreements on port visits. Prospects and problems of future legal development

  6. The French regime of civil liability for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As civil liability for nuclear is a matter of discussion and initiatives at the European and international levels, the author proposes an overview of the legal framework of the French regime of civil liability for nuclear which is a combination of two international treaties (Paris and Brussels conventions) and a national arrangement (a 1968 law). He presents and comments the main characteristics of this regime (geographical scope of application, concerned activities, excluded events, covered damages, principles regarding operator's liability) and the improvements brought by Paris and Brussels convention review protocols

  7. Limiting the liability of the nuclear operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the questioning of a fundamental principle of the special nuclear third party liability regime by certain NEA countries: the limitation of the nuclear operator's liability. This regime, set up since the late fifties at European then at worldwide level, had until now been widely adopted in the national legislation of most of the countries with a nuclear power programme. The author analyses the different arguments in favour of restoring unlimited liability for the nuclear operator and attempts to define its implications for the future of the nuclear third party liability regime in NEA countries. (NEA)

  8. Training of operating personnel for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training for Nuclear Power Plant Operators is provided by the Royal Navy in support of the Nuclear Submarine Programme which is based on the Pressurised Water Reactor. The Royal naval college has 21 years of experience in this training field in which the core is the preparation of graduate electro-mechanical engineers to assume the duties of marine engineer in command of a team of supporting Engineer Officers of the Watch and Fleet Chief Petty Officers. The paper describes the training programme and shows how it is monitored by academic, professional and naval authorities and indicates the use of feedback from the user. The lynch pin of the programme is a post-graduate diploma course in Nuclear Reactor Technology attended by graduates after gaining some practical experience at sea. The course which is described in detail makes use of simplified simulators and models to develop the principles, these are applied on the JASON Training Reactor with the emphasis on in-core experiments demonstrating reactivity effects and instrumentation interpretation. The training programme provides for interaction between academic education, practical experience, applied education, full plant simulation training and on-the-job training in which boards or examinations have to be successfully passed at each stage. (author)

  9. Specific defences to the liability of a nuclear operator for damages resulting from a nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the cases in which the nuclear operator may be partly or totally exonerated from his liability for a nuclear accident (insurrection, civil war, exceptional natural disasters, intentional act of the victim, etc.) under the Paris and Vienna Conventions and national laws. The laws of the countries reviewed are the following: United States, Japan, Canada, United Kingdom, Brazil, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France (NEA)

  10. Nuclear liability amounts on the rise for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEA Table on Nuclear Operator Liability Amounts and Financial Security Limits (NEA 'Liability Table'), which covers 71 countries, aims to provide one of the most comprehensive listings of nuclear liability amounts and financial security limits. The current and revised Paris and Brussels Supplementary Conventions ('Paris-Brussels regime'), the original and revised Vienna Conventions ('Vienna regime') and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, newly entered into force in April 2015, provide for the minimum amounts to be transposed in the national legislation of states parties to the conventions, and have served as guidelines for non-convention states. This article examine in more detail increases in the liability amounts provided for under these conventions, as well as examples of non-convention states (China, India and Korea)

  11. Liability for nuclear damage and compensation therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles are outlined of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention. (P.A.)

  12. Insurance considerations arising from the revision of the Paris and Brussels conventions on nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work being undertaken by the 14 countries, party to the 1960 Paris Convention in preparing a revised instrument will or so it is to be hoped provide a more comprehensive scope of liability and a larger compensatory fund for the protection of potential victims. Both these developments have serious implications for insurers or other providers of financial security. Equally they are of concern to society itself as it will be necessary to balance the needs of the individual for example, in obtaining redress for injury or damage to personal property with the need to provide for the ''common good''. The author's paper will attempt to explore these avenues, to point to perceived difficulties and, perhaps, to acceptable solutions. (author)

  13. Act N0 68-1045 of 29 November 1968 amending Act N0 65-956 of 12 November 1965 on the third party liability of operators of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act amends the 1965 Act, in particular by specifying that the maximum amount of liability of the operator of a foreign nuclear ship is that fixed by the legislation of the State concerned, unless otherwise agreed with that State, but may in no case be lower than that set out in the 1965 Act, namely 500 million French francs. (NEA)

  14. The modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime: Its impact on transport operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international legal framework applicable to the liability and compensation of damage caused by a nuclear incident has been considerably modified by the adoption, in 1997, of a Protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention and, in parallel, the adoption of a Convention on the Supplementary Compensation of Nuclear Damage. In 2003, the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention [were revised] with a view to substantially upgrading the protection of potential victims of nuclear damage. Although the main objective of this exercise of modernisation was to better cope with the consequences of serious nuclear incidents in land-based installations, it also had the effect of making significant changes to the liability regime applicable to the carriage of nuclear material, both domestic and international. Such changes concern in particular the right to indemnification of victims located in non-Contracting States, the limits of liability of the nuclear operator, including that for transport operations, the insurance arrangements for such operations and the determination of the competent courts, notably those of coastal states affected by an incident during maritime transport. (author)

  15. Development of advanced automatic operation system for nuclear ship. 1. Perfect automatic normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Toshio; Yabuuti, Noriaki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shimazaki, Junya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-02-01

    Development of operation support system such as automatic operating system and anomaly diagnosis systems of nuclear reactor is very important in practical nuclear ship because of a limited number of operators and severe conditions in which receiving support from others in a case of accident is very difficult. The goal of development of the operation support systems is to realize the perfect automatic control system in a series of normal operation from the reactor start-up to the shutdown. The automatic control system for the normal operation has been developed based on operating experiences of the first Japanese nuclear ship `Mutsu`. Automation technique was verified by `Mutsu` plant data at manual operation. Fully automatic control of start-up and shutdown operations was achieved by setting the desired value of operation and the limiting value of parameter fluctuation, and by making the operation program of the principal equipment such as the main coolant pump and the heaters. This report presents the automatic operation system developed for the start-up and the shutdown of reactor and the verification of the system using the Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulator System. (author)

  16. The reform of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and of the Brussels Supplementary Convention. An overview of the main features of the modernisation of the two conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrival of nuclear energy gave rise to the need, almost half a century ago, to devise a regime of liability in keeping with the new risks associated with this technology: risks that were not only catastrophic, but also insidious, because they were incapable of detection by ordinary human beings. The principles underlying this regime have stood the test of time, even if the accusation is now sometimes made that some of them were also designed to protect an industry in its infancy. These principles are as follows: the operator of a nuclear installation is objectively liable, meaning that the victim of nuclear damage does not have to prove fault in order to be compensated; - channelling of the liability onto the operator alone, both to avoid sterile debate between professionals and to allow the insurance sector to mobilise the necessary resources; - financial limitation on the liability of the operator. The international nature of the nuclear industry, the serious risk of transborder damage and the carriage operations in this sector led to international conventions being entered into which, having enshrined the three abovementioned principles, were designed in particular to: avoid jurisdictional conflicts arising between a number of courts belonging to more than one state; - prevent the available coverage from being unwisely used up by excluding from its benefit those assets connected with the operation of installations; - fix uniform periods of limitation; - regulate transport operations in order to guarantee continuity of coverage; unify and limit clauses excluding liability. These were the guiding principles that led to the signing, in succession, of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, a regional instrument within the framework of the OEEC (which became the OECD in 1961) in 1960 (referred to hereinafter by the initials PC), and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, a worldwide instrument under the

  17. A review on liability in case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having evoked assessments of the cost of a nuclear accident in France and of that of damages caused by the Fukushima accident, the authors propose an overview of the issue of liability of companies involved in the operation of a nuclear power plant. They outline that this regime is mainly governed by two international conventions: the Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, and the Brussels Convention. The first one bears on the liability of nuclear installation operators, while the second one aims at ensuring an additional compensation of casualties on public funds. They also evoke the Vienna Convention which aims at defining a world regime for nuclear liability. They outline the limited scope of application of the Paris Convention, and the limitation of compensations. They discuss the liability of companies others than those operating nuclear installations

  18. Nature and finality of liability insurance support to nuclear operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the specific features of the law originated from the Paris Convention of 1960 is described: strict liability channeled on the operator, the both principles being already underlying in the insurance policies delivered to nuclear operators before their introduction in the internal legislation of the countries that ratified the convention. Then the specific services expected from the liability Insurer are reviewed and the method now prevailing for a rating approach of the risks is analyzed. The new rating techniques that could be justified by speeding up the erection program of nuclear plants through the world are surveyed

  19. Plight of China nuclear liability law and solutions of nuclear operating companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of nuclear use for peaceful purposes and the intensification of international cooperation in the field of nuclear energy, many countries attach more and more importance to legal risks of nuclear liability, and the companies in nuclear industry also enhance research on restrictive articles of nuclear liability in their international businesses. However, because China has neither signed any international convention on civil liability for nuclear damage nor adopted any law on atomic energy and on compensation for nuclear damage, many impediments often occur in international cooperation and trade. This essay is trying to outline the status and structure of international nuclear liability, analyze nuclear liabilities in international procurement for nuclear operating companies and respective solutions. (authors)

  20. Operational data of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Toshio; Takahasi, Hiroki; Kyouya, Masahiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Watahiki, Masayuki

    1999-03-01

    The first nuclear ship of Japan, `MUTSU`, experienced voyage of about 82,000 km. Many data on the ship`s motion and the power plant behavior were obtained under various meteorological conditions during the voyage. These data were recorded on more than 500 rolls of magnetic tape (MT). These data were transferred to these in digital audio tapes (DATs). The computer program was developed to transfer the data on DATs into the text form. As the result, we came to be able to utilize these data easily through the nuclear ship database system and a personal computer. This report describes a conversion program, data structure, list of saved data and utilization for the experimental data. Reduction of the storage space was achieved by the data transfer work from the MTs to the DATs. (author)

  1. Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new bilingual (English and French) edition of the 1960 Paris Convention and 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention incorporates the provisions of the Protocols which amended each of them on two occasions, in 1964 and 1982. The Expose des motifs to the Paris Convention, as revised in 1982 is also included in this pubication. (NEA)

  2. Comparison of US and other nuclear liability regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortly after the USA enacted price-anderson Act in 1957, other countries, such as France, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, Republic of Korea, Ukraine began adopting their own nuclear liability laws. The nuclear liability conventions are introduced: the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in field of nuclear energy; Brussels Convention Supplementary to Paris Convention; Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage; Protocol to amend Vienna Convention and Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, adopted by IAEA. The authors indicated that a more uniform world-wide nuclear liability regime is goal of nuclear industry, most governments and IAEA

  3. Operational data of nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first nuclear ship of Japan, 'MUTSU', experienced voyage of about 82,000 km. Many data on the ship's motion and the power plant behavior were obtained under various meteorological conditions during the voyage. These data were recorded on more than 500 rolls of magnetic tape (MT). These data were transferred to these in digital audio tapes (DATs). The computer program was developed to transfer the data on DATs into the text form. As the result, we came to be able to utilize these data easily through the nuclear ship database system and a personal computer. This report describes a conversion program, data structure, list of saved data and utilization for the experimental data. Reduction of the storage space was achieved by the data transfer work from the MTs to the DATs. (author)

  4. Review of legislation on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entry into force of Law 12/2011 is postponed until the Protocols modifying the Paris and Brussels conventions take effect, since their content complements that of the Conventions. The most significant modifications are the extension of the suppositions of nuclear damage, the geographical scope of application and the time period for claiming personal damages, which is accompanied by higher coverage limits of up to 1,200 million euros. It also includes liability for damages caused by radioactive materials in the custody of the installation owner. (Author)

  5. Transport of nuclear material under the 1971 Brussels Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal regime in force before entry into force of the 1971 Brussels Convention relating to civil liability for the maritime carriage of nuclear material created serious difficulties for maritime carriers, regarding both the financial risks entailed and restrictions on enjoyment of the rights granted by civil liability conventions. The 1971 Convention exonerates from liability any person likely to be held liable for nuclear damage under maritime law, provided another person is liable under the nuclear conventions or an equivalent national law. A problem remaining is that of compensation of nuclear damage to the means of transport for countries not having opted for re-inclusion of such damage in the nuclear law regime; this does not apply however to countries having ratified the Convention to date. A feature of the latter is that it establishes as extensively as possible the priority of nuclear law over maritime law. Furthermore the new regime continues to preserve efficiently the interests of victims of nuclear incidents. It is therefore to be hoped that insurers will no longer hesitate to cover international maritime carriage of nuclear material

  6. Codes CONV45 and CONV56 for a PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codes CONV45 and CONV56 convert data files from ENDF/B-4 to ENDF/B-5 and from ENDF/B-5 to ENDF/B-6 format respectively. The codes which were received from US National Nuclear Data Center were implemented at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section for use on personal computers. (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

  7. United States nuclear merchant ship program: financial protection issues in the operations of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial protection embraces three principal areas: insurance, government indemnity, and limitations of liability. This protection must extend throughout the world following the trades of the nuclear powered merchant marine. Legislation to provide for government indemnity in the United States is in its draft stage. This legislation contains a limitation of liability. 19 refs

  8. Third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of nuclear liability legislation are discussed including absolute and limited liability and the role of the Sovereign State in idemnifying the operator for damage in excess of limited liability. European counrties realised the need for unifying the law of nuclear instability and efforts were made accordingly towards producing workable international conventions. The world's first legislation on nuclear liability - the USA Price-Anderson Act - is described in detail and a digest of nuclear liability claims experience is given. Observations of the present status of nuclear third party liability are outlined. (Author)

  9. The development of natural circulation operation support program for ship nuclear power machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The natural circulation under various ocean and ship motion conditions is studied. ► A natural circulation operation support computer program (NCOSP) is developed with Simulink. ► The NCOSP program has the merit of easy input preparation, fast and accurate simulation. ► The NCOSP is suitable for the fast parameter simulation of ship nuclear power machinery. -- Abstract: The existing simulation program of ship nuclear power machinery (SNPM) cannot adequately deal with the natural circulation (NC) operation and the effects of various ocean conditions and ship motion. Aiming at the problem, the natural circulation operation support computer program for SNPM is developed, in which the momentum conservation equation of the primary loop, some heat transfer and flow resistance models and equations are modified for the various ocean conditions and ship motion. The additional pressure loss model and effective height model for the control volume in the gyration movement, simple harmonic rolling and pitching movements are also discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the transient response to load change under NC conditions is analyzed by the developed program. The results are compared with those predicted by the modified RELAP5/mod3.2 code. It is shown that the natural circulation operation support program (NCOSP) is simple in the input preparation, runs fast and has a satisfactory precision, and is therefore very suitable for the operating field support of SNPM under the conditions of NC.

  10. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    analysis, systemic, comparative analysis method by comparing different conventions and its implications. Findings – two liability regimes set different liability amount for the operator and some additional implications to the State and with its amendments provides additional compensation options from all contracting parties collected funds. However the problem rises for the operator to provide insurance whereas Vienna convention only sets minimum liability amount and it is up to state to decide on liability limits or even to provide unlimited liability for the operator. In this case operator faces difficulties to find appropriate insurance as it has to be guaranteed for certain amount. Another situation when a State provides very high maximum amount of the operator’s liability therefore state aid problem arises because there is a need for state guarantee or when there are several operators and not all of them need this amount of insurance because they are being decommissioned. Research limitations – to analyze liability regimes in the light of cohesion and harmonization of regimes also the obligation of the nuclear installation operator to provide insurance when maximum amounts or blank indemnity are set by national law. Practical implication – This comparative analysis provides a background on further discussions concerning the nuclear operator’s liability and insurance limits issues and cohesion between two regimes by providing a harmonized model throughout European Union. Originality – Only a few authors have analyzed some aspects of nuclear liability there is still a lack of academic insights into nuclear liability regimes and insurance issues in the light of competition law. This work provides insights into nuclear liability issues and will certainly be valuable in practice when developing nuclear projects. Keywords: civil liability for nuclear damage, Vienna Convention, Paris Convention, operator of nuclear installation, strict liability, comparative

  11. Nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three existing instruments in the international regime governing liability for nuclear damage. The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) first laid down the principles for third party liability and insurance in 1960 within the framework of the OECD. Later reinforcement of the Paris Convention was provided by the Brussels Supplementary Convention on compensation and both conventions have undergone subsequent amendment. In 1963 the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (Vienna Convention) was established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A Joint Protocol adopted in 1988 resolved problems that had arisen over possible conflicts between the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. The Conventions are based on civil law and share two main factors: the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear installation operator irrespective of negligence and clear limitations on financial liability. Currently a revision of the Vienna convention and work on the elaboration of a supplementary funding convention are being conducted under the auspices of the IAEA. Many states have come to realize the advantages of participation in the Conventions though there are still a number with substantial nuclear programmes who have neither signed nor ratified them. A list is given of participating states. (UK)

  12. Nuclear Liability Act of 8 June 1972 as amended by the Act of 15 September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1972 Nuclear Liability Act has been amended by an Act 1989 to bring its provisions in line with those of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention as amended respectively by the 1982 Protocols. The 1989 Act also raises the limit of the nuclear operator's liability from 42 million Finnish marks (approximately 8 million Special Draing Rights - SDRs) to 100 million SDRs

  13. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified

  14. Safety of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

  15. The International liability of Governments for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international liability of governments for nuclear damage is a topical issue in international law. Unfortunately, however, it is one that does not even have a generally accepted formulation. Liability for nuclear damage can be considered from two angles - that of international law and that of civil law. The standards of international law which apply to claims for compensation regulate both the international liability of governments and the civil liability of nuclear operators. The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 21 May 1963 laid down the principle that civil claims for compensation were independent of claims arising out of the general principles of international law. In this paper, we shall consider situations where the source of the damage is located on the territory of one state, and the damage occurs within the boundaries of another state (or states). It is necessary to take into account the difficulty of determining the potential consequences of nuclear damage, and the fact that the consequences affect not only other states but also the state that is the source of the damage. This gives rise to two problems: the definition of the legal basis of claims for compensation in respect of nuclear damage and the dissection of the codification of the legal provisions with regard to international liability for nuclear damage

  16. The problem of Russian legislation on liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper stresses the need for adoption in Russia of legislation on civil liability in the nuclear field, particularly in the light of current misgivings on the safety of presently-operating, Chernobyl-type nuclear power plants. The authors refer to the Paris and Vienna Conventions, when revised and improved, as a model. They then analyze the provisions they consider suitable for inclusion in nuclear civil liability law, recommending that a reasonable balance be maintained between the interest of victims and that of operators and delimiting the scope of application of this special legislation, account being taken of the provisions of the ordinary law on offenses. 5 refs

  17. Code of safety for nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Code is in chapters, entitled: general (including general safety principles and principles of risk acceptance); design criteria and conditions; ship design, construction and equipment; nuclear steam supply system; machinery and electrical installations; radiation safety (including radiological protection design; protection of persons; dosimetry; radioactive waste management); operation (including emergency operation procedures); surveys. Appendices cover: sinking velocity calculations; seaway loads depending on service periods; safety assessment; limiting dose-equivalent rates for different areas and spaces; quality assurance programme; application of single failure criterion. Initial application of the Code is restricted to conventional types of ships propelled by nuclear propulsion plants with pressurized light water type reactors. (U.K.)

  18. Commercial nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following discussion of the arguments in favour of nuclear merchant ships and development of nuclear ship propulsion, the rentability of nuclear ships is dealt with in a comparative study with conventional ships regarding fuel costs, investments and environmental impact. The structure and components of a nuclear ship are described, with emphasis on its safety equipment. The problem of insurance is examined, particularly in connection with the difficulty in applying insurance for liability due to the present uncertainties of the legal position at international level. French legislation does not solve the problem of visiting foreign nuclear ships. The risk concept at operational, design and construction stages is also discussed. Unresolved difficulties, especially concerning the construction of nuclear ships, uncertainties in competitivity analyses between conventional and nuclear propulsion, and implementation of specific and complete legislation on nuclear ships are also mentioned, particularly in the context of their visits to ports

  19. Federal Act of 29 April 1964 on Liability for Nuclear Damage (Atomic Liability Act)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under this Act, the operator of a nuclear installation is liable for any nuclear incident occurring in such installation or which is caused by nuclear substances in his charge. If an incident is caused by a radioisotope, the person in possession of the radioisotope at the time of the incident is liable therefore. When an incident occurs during transport of nuclear substances, the carrier is liable in three cases only: when such substances are neither despatched to nor originating from installations on Austrian territory; when they are despatched without the written consent of the Austrian operator who is to receive them; and when they are not destined for a nuclear installation. Other provisions of the Act fix liability ceilings, a basis for apportionment of compensation when several victims are involved and the amount of security for coverage of the operators liability. The Act came into force on 1 September 1964. (NEA)

  20. Ministerial Decree of 3 March 1978 approving the general conditions of the third party liability insurance policy for operators of nuclear installations and the general conditions of insurance policies for third party liability for transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree by the Ministry for Industry, Commerce and Crafts and the Ministry for transport of Italy was made in implementation of Section 2 of the Decree No. 519 by the president of the Republic of 2 May 1975 amending Section 15 to 24 of Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This present Decree approves the general conditions of third party liability insurance policies for operators of nuclear installations and for transport of radioactive materials. (NEA)

  1. The allocation of liability for nuclear risks - the UK standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While nuclear legislation in most countries channels liability for nuclear damage solely to the operator of a nuclear installation, contractors supplying equipment and services in the United Kingdom and abroad may be liable for nuclear risks in certain circumstances. This paper discusses the risks for which a contractor may be held liable and the uncertainties in their respect. It also suggests some steps that can be taken to ensure that such risks are borne by those who can most readily bear them. (NEA)

  2. New Swiss legislation on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA)

  3. Financial security for nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In almost every country where nuclear insurance pools operate, except for the United States, national nuclear legislation is either based on the principles of the Paris and Vienna nuclear third party liability conventions or is strongly influenced by them. The most important feature of this legislation is the absolute liabilityy of the operator, which simplifies the insurance process by avoiding duplication of cover and minimising the possibility of complex legal questions arising in case of an incident. The paper describes the arrangements for provision of financial security, the prescription period, insurance requirements, legal costs etc. Also, problems connected with the insurance of two or more installations on the same site are analysed. (NEA)

  4. Transposition into swiss law of the Paris convention and the Brussels supplementary convention, as amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the considerable increase in the amounts of cover, two basic factors lie behind the Swiss government decision to propose shortly to parliament a draft revised L.R.C.N.(federal act on nuclear third party liability). These are, firstly, that the revised Paris/Brussels system still incorporates the principle of the limited liability of the operator of a nuclear installation but now contains a minimum liability amount (liability threshold) and no longer a maximum amount (liability ceiling), and secondly, that the States parties are allowed to provide in their national legislation for the unlimited liability of operators. One of the aims of ratifying the revised conventions is to enable most victims to obtain fair compensation on an egalitarian basis for damage caused by a nuclear incident, and also to join an international system for compensating nuclear damage based on solidarity between states, most of them nuclear. (N.C.)

  5. The protection against nuclear risks under the international nuclear liability law: the geographical and technical scope of the international conventions on third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Ph.D.-research deals with the International Conventions on Third Party Liability for Nuclear Damage. In 1960, the Paris Convention was established with the aim of providing a special uniform nuclear third party liability regime for Western Europe. This Convention was supplemented in 1963 by the Brussels Supplementary Convention. Also in 1963, the Vienna Convention, which aimed to establish a world-wide system based on the same principles as the Paris Convention, was adopted. A further Convention was adopted in 1971 to ensure that nuclear third party liability law and not maritime law would apply to carriage of nuclear materials by sea. In 1988, the Paris and Vienna Conventions have been linked by the adoption of a Joint Protocol. In 1997, the process of amending the 1963 Vienna Convention was successfully concluded and a Convention on Supplementary Compensation was adopted. This Ph.D.-research consists of seven chapters: following an introduction, the second chapter gives a general view of the existing international legal sources. The third chapter describes the international civil nuclear liability law concept and its leading principles. The main element of this work is the question of the technical and geographical scope of the international nuclear liability conventions (chapter IV and V). The conventions are only applicable to nuclear incidents, which occur in a nuclear installation or incidental to the carriage or storage of nuclear material. The nuclear damage must arise out of the radioactive properties of nuclear substances which are also defined by legal terms. In addition, the scope of the conventions is limited by the nature of the installations. The geographical scope of application is established by the provisions on geographical coverage. Only the 1963 Vienna Convention does not contain any specific provision dealing with the territorial scope of its application. The geographical scope determines where the nuclear incident or the nuclear damage

  6. Nuclear liability legislation in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains same basic data about the legal norms relating to the third party liability system for nuclear damage that are in force in Croatia. It also describes the provisions of the new Croatian Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage, giving emphasis on those implementing substantial changes compared to the old Act. Finally, it contains some remarks relating to the possible adoption of Vienna Protocol and Convention on Supplementary Compensation of 1997 or Pariz/Brussels conventions as an alternative and at the end about the practice on the insurance of nuclear risks in the last twenty years by the Croatian Pool. (author)

  7. Liability for international nuclear transport: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many elements can bear on liability for nuclear damage during transport. For example, liability may depend upon a number of facts that may be categorized as follows: shipment, origin or destination of the shipment, deviation from the planed route, temporary storage incidental to carriage; content of shipment, type of nuclear material involved, whether its origin is civilian or defence-related; sites of accident, number and type of territories damaged (i.e. potential conventions involved), applicable territorial limits, exclusive economic zone, high seas, etc.; nature of damages, personal injury, property damage, damage to the means of carriage, indirect damage, preventive measures, environmental cleanup or retrieval at seas, res communis, transboundary damages etc.; victims involved, nationality and domiciles of victims; jurisdiction, flag (for ships) or national registration (for aircraft) of the transporting vessel, courts of one or more states may have (or assert) jurisdiction to hear claims, and may have to determine what law to apply to a particular accident; applicable law, the applicability laws and/or international nuclear liability conventions; the extent to which any applicable convention has been implemented or modified by domestic legislation, conflicts with the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention or other applicable international agreements, and finally, also written agreements between installation operators and carriers can define applicable law as well as responsibilities. Harmonizing nuclear liability protection and applying it to additional international shipments would be facilitated by more countries being in treaty relations with each other as soon as possible. Adherence to an international convention by more countries (including China, Russia, the United States, etc.) would promote the open flow of services and advanced technology, and better facilitate international transport. The conventions protect the public, harmonize legislation in the

  8. A Theory of Generative ConvNet

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jianwen; Lu, Yang; Zhu, Song-Chun; Wu, Ying Nian

    2016-01-01

    We show that a generative random field model, which we call generative ConvNet, can be derived from the commonly used discriminative ConvNet, by assuming a ConvNet for multi-category classification and assuming one of the categories is a base category generated by a reference distribution. If we further assume that the non-linearity in the ConvNet is Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) and the reference distribution is Gaussian white noise, then we obtain a generative ConvNet model that is unique am...

  9. Insurance of liability for the transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal principle governing civil liability for damage involving nuclear substances in course of carriage are summarized, and the main aspects of the French nuclear insurance market are analysed. The financial capacity of insurance and the role of the Atomic Pool as an aid in this respect as well as its use as a mechanism for reinsurance are also discussed. As regards the insured party, cases are reviewed where the principle of the sole liability of the operator is inapplicable. Arguments are put forward demonstrating that acknowledgement of a plurality of insured persons would not necessarily lead to an increase of insurance costs. Finally, a review is made of the nature and extent of the damage covered according to whether such damage is caused to persons or property

  10. Liability for on-site nuclear property damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typically, liability for on-site property addressed in contracts between operator and its suppliers. Nuclear power plant operators ordinarily protect themselves against risk of nuclear damage to on-site property by insurance. Nuclear liability laws do not specifically address liability for nuclear damage to on-site property. Nuclear plant owners should address risk of damage to on-site property when developing risk management program

  11. Development of advanced automatic control system for nuclear ship. 2. Perfect automatic operation after reactor scram events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shimazaki, Junya; Hoshi, Tsutao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    An automatic operation system has been developed for the purpose of realizing a perfect automatic plant operation after reactor scram events. The goal of the automatic operation after a reactor scram event is to bring the reactor hot stand-by condition automatically. The basic functions of this system are as follows; to monitor actions of the equipments of safety actions after a reactor scram, to control necessary control equipments to bring a reactor to a hot stand-by condition automatically, and to energize a decay heat removal system. The performance evaluation on this system was carried out by comparing the results using to Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and the those measured in the scram test of the nuclear ship `Mutsu`. As the result, it was showed that this system had the sufficient performance to bring a reactor to a hot syand-by condition quickly and safety. (author)

  12. Development of advanced automatic control system for nuclear ship. 2. Perfect automatic operation after reactor scram events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic operation system has been developed for the purpose of realizing a perfect automatic plant operation after reactor scram events. The goal of the automatic operation after a reactor scram event is to bring the reactor hot stand-by condition automatically. The basic functions of this system are as follows; to monitor actions of the equipments of safety actions after a reactor scram, to control necessary control equipments to bring a reactor to a hot stand-by condition automatically, and to energize a decay heat removal system. The performance evaluation on this system was carried out by comparing the results using to Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and the those measured in the scram test of the nuclear ship 'Mutsu'. As the result, it was showed that this system had the sufficient performance to bring a reactor to a hot syand-by condition quickly and safety. (author)

  13. Adherence to the conventions for nuclear liability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Chernobyl accident, there has been a continuous world-wide tendency to strengthen the nuclear third party liability system both at international and domestic level, such as adoption of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (the 'CSC'), the amendment of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Convention supplementary thereto, and improvements of domestic nuclear liability laws in various countries. Our Nuclear Liability Act was amended too in 2001. To complete the improvement of our nuclear liability system and to cope with the issue on the protocol for the nuclear liability to be concluded between the KEDO and the DPRK in accordance with the Supply Agreement, it is required for us to adhere to the CSC. In that case, the method to become a party to the CSC, a plan to implement the Conventions in domestic legislation, the person to bear the contribution to the fund of CSC should be studied carefully. In addition to the adherence to the CSC, the adherence of the Viennal Convention should be analysed separately in depth to acquire legal stability for the settlement of transboundary nuclear damage

  14. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for nuclear Damage in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With nuclear power generating 43% of its total electricity production, Switzerland is amongst the states, employing the highest percentage of nuclear electricity. Although, the country has not ratified any of the international Nuclear Liability Conventions, its Nuclear Third Party Liability Act reflects all the principles, underlying those Conventions. The statutory liability of the operator of a Swiss nuclear installation itself being unlimited, the total insurance limit of CHF 770 m. provides the highest private insurance protection worldwide. With the support of its foreign Reinsurance Pools, the capacity for this insurance guarantee has, over more than 40 years, been built up by the Swiss Nuclear Insurance Pool. Apart from Third Party Liability cover, the Pool also provides Property insurance to Swiss nuclear installation operators and reinsurance cover to other nuclear insurers worldwide. (author)

  15. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  16. The Chernobyl case: its repercussions on the International System on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the discovery of the Nuclear Energy the world has been development her life the present investigation is based in the accident of the one of the most important Nuclear Power Plant in the world, situated in the Union of Socialist Sovietic Republics. The Nuclear Power Plant of Chernobyl. Us found in the investigation what not exist one legislation agree with the needs of development of the actual world in matter of the liability civil in case of the nuclear accidents. Found only the Convention of the Vienna. the Convention of the Brussels the which only cover the transportation the Nuclear substances in ships and others transportation medios. The complementary a the convention of the Paris and actually The Communication in case of the nuclear accidents and radiological accidents. In the present work think what the Community International haven the needs of created one legislation with character international what can help a the many countries what have Nuclear Power Plants, on all for protection of the her habitants. The International Atomic Energy Agency together with the International Justice Court and the United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) aplicated the law in matter of the nuclear accidents derivates of the liability responsibility in the use of the Nuclear Plants for elaboration the Electrical Energy or for Investigation in matter the nuclear energy both with identical responsibility civil in case the nuclear accident. (Author)

  17. BRUSLIB and NETGEN: the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library and nuclear network generator for astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Aikawa, M.; Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Takahashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear reaction rates are quantities of fundamental importance in astrophysics. Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decades to measure or calculate them. The present paper presents for the first time a detailed description of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library BRUSLIB and of the nuclear network generator NETGEN so as to make these nuclear data packages easily accessible to astrophysicists for a large variety of applications. BRUSLIB is made of two parts. The first one c...

  18. Improvement of nuclear third party liability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special regime for nuclear third party liability is necessary since the ordinary common law is not well suited to deal with the particular problems in the field of nuclear industry. The basic principles of this regime is i) strict liability (other than traditional fault liability), ii) channelling and the exclusive liability of operator, iii) compulsory financial security, iv) limits on liability in amount and in time v) intervention by the state, etc. In Korea, a revision was made to the Nuclear Damage Compensation Act on 16th January, 2001. The revision aimed at the reflection of the spirit of the new Vienna Convention on Nuclear Liability (1997) such as i) limit of liability to an amount of 300mil SDR, ii) increase of the level of financial protection (in the presidential decree, the 'Phasing-In' system would be introduced), iii) Extension of the definition 'nuclear damage', iv) extension of the scope of application to EEZ, v) deletion of 'natural calamity' from the causes of immunity, vi) extension of prescription period for personal injury to a length of 30 year

  19. Insurance of operators liability: the reality principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author's observations commence with -an overview of the principal amendments proposed in relation to the revision of the Paris Convention, in particular the inclusion of preventive measures, the definition of nuclear damage, the notion of reasonableness in respect of preventive measures and measures of reinstatement, increased liability amounts and extended prescription periods. He examines to what extent the insurance industry of today would be able to cover such risks, and the problems or doubts that it may encounter in doing so. This presentation also raises other questions which as yet remain unanswered, in particular the question of priorities and the role that complementary funding, namely the Brussels Supplementary Convention, will play in compensating victims. The author concludes by commenting on the current state of the insurance market. He suggests that before making irreversible political decisions in this field, Contracting Parties should, inter alia, carry out detailed analyses on the adequacy of the financial guarantees, in order to attain existing objectives and eliminate the obstacles which prevent the nuclear insurance market from being a competitive one. The author suggests that it might be in the interests of European nuclear operators to promote an insurance mechanism along the same lines as their American colleagues. (author)

  20. International nuclear liability as an element of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of nuclear liability law is the compensation of victims of a possible nuclear incident. However, an adequate nuclear liability law is just as important for nuclear industry, in particular the supply industry - including suppliers of know-how and consultants. Without such a law, the liability risk would be incalculable and industry would not be ready to supply to nuclear installations or nuclear activities. This applies especially to programmes which aim at improving nuclear safety in Eastern Europe. Key elements are the exclusive concentration of liability onto the operator of a nuclear installation (channelling of liability) and the channelling of lawsuits onto one single competent court in one single country. There are recent examples: The negotiations on the management of nuclear waste, including submarines, in Northern Russia and the negotiations within the framework of the East Asian project of the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO), demonstrate that a satisfactory solution of the liability issue is crucial for the implementation of these projects. It follows that an adequate nuclear liability law, which is also acceptable for industry, is a substantial element for enhancing nuclear safety. (orig.)

  1. State and supplementary civil liability insurance: the example of swiss nuclear liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes State guarantee and nuclear liability insurance which has been established, in Switzerland, after the vote of the law of 18 march 1983: Civil liability of nuclear operator has no limitations for nuclear damages compensations. The coverage is given by private insurance and State guarantee. 1 tab

  2. Review of the nuclear liability act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has always been concern that nuclear materials have the potential to cause injury and property damage. For this reason, nuclear operators have always been required by national regulatory authorities to exercise special precautions in the operation of their facilities. Federal legislation was drafted in Canada as the Nuclear Liability Act in 1970. The Act ensures that funds are available from all operators of nuclear facilities to provide financial compensation to third parties for injuries or damages suffered as a result of a nuclear incident; at the same time the Act provides protection to the operators by limiting their related liability. The Act also protects persons other than operators. The review of the Act has progressed in stages. The first stage was conducted by the staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board and catalogued previously identified difficulties with the Act. The second stage was a preliminary examination of the Act by an Interdepartmental Working Group. 2 figs

  3. Insurance Cover for Revised Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial security to be provided to victims of an incident at a nuclear installation is the main objective of international nuclear liability conventions. As from the introduction of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy in 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Liability for Nuclear Damage in 1963 insurers have been prepared to provide the financial capacity needed to cover the liability under both conventions. They did so in close co-operation with the competent national and international authorities, which has resulted in the insurability of as much of the nuclear liability under the conventions as possible. This tradition of co-operation between authorities and insurers was extended to include the revision negotiations regarding the above conventions, which were concluded in 1997 and 2004 respectively. This has resulted in the insurability of by far the largest part of the convention based liability. However, some heads of damage have been introduced about which insurers had expressed concerns as to their likelihood to attract insurance support. In view of the explicit choice by Convention States to include the uninsurable heads of damage into the revised conventions one would expect that liability for them would fall upon national Governments. This would reflect practice in a number of States, which already assume liability for uninsurable mandatory liabilities for a long time. Nonetheless some other States now seem reluctant to do so, the resulting deadlock having a tendency to manifest itself in a negative perception of the insurance industry. Insurers are therefore appreciative of the forum provided by the CNS to once again explain the areas where problems as regards insurability have arisen and why this is the case. This presentation will show that those areas are few in number and notably relate to a limited number of environmental damages as well as the extension of prescription periods. Furthermore, thoughts will

  4. Liability and financial security for nuclear risks - topical developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topical developments in the regime of nuclear liability for the operation of nuclear facilities are addressed from the angle of the insurance business. In Germany, plant operators, the Federal Government, Laender governments, and the insurance companies have come to a comprehensive agreement for nuclear liability and financial security. However, there are some details remaining to be settled under section 34 AtG (Atomic Energy Act) before the contracts will be signed. The paper comments some aspects of the revised version of the Vienna Convention on Nuclear Liability, relating to general damage to the environment, precautionary action, owner/operators' liability, terms and conditions for filing damage and statute of limitations, conditions of exclusion, and adjustment costs. The author also gives information about activities under way for establishment of a nuclear liability regime in countries of Eastern Europe. (HP)

  5. Future financial liabilities of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with future financial liabilities arising from nuclear activities, in particular electricity generation. Future financial liabilities are defined as costs which an organisation or company is expected to meet beyond some five years as a consequence of its current and past activities. The study provides a comprehensive picture on policies for recognizing and funding future financial liabilities arising from nuclear activities and their implementation schemes in Nea Member countries. Mechanisms for reporting and funding future financial liabilities are described, analysed and compared. The report offers some findings, conclusions and recommendations for consideration by Member countries. The nuclear activities considered in the report include nuclear research and development, nuclear industry sectors such as uranium mining and milling, conversion and enrichment, nuclear fuel fabrication, nuclear power plant operation and maintenance, and radioisotopes production. Future financial liabilities arising from these activities cover management and disposal of radioactive wastes, reprocessing of spent fuels when applicable and decommissioning of facilities at the end of their life time. 12 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Nuclear Liability Act of 8 March 1968 (No. 45) as amended by an Act of 10 May 1974 (No. 249) and by an Act of 22 December 1982 (No. 1275)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amendments to this Act fall into two categories. The first category of amendments enabled Sweden to ratify two 1982 Protocols amending the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention respectively. The other amendments raise the nuclear operator's liability from 50 million to 500 million Swedish crowns per incident and introduce a State liability over and above compensation available under the Brussels Convention, thus raising the aggregate amount of compensation to 3,000 million Swedish crowns. (NEA)

  7. Nuclear liability for international transport accidents under the modernised nuclear liability conventions: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last decade saw the adoption of four new nuclear liability treaties, resulting in a modernisation of the existing nuclear liability regime. If applicable, the nuclear liability situation, in the case of international transport, might become more complicated, but at the same time also more transparent, should these treaties enter into force for certain States, but not for others. For instance, the extension of the geographical scope and the definition of nuclear damage, as well as the increased liability amounts, will result in higher liability coverage for a wider category of victims than before. On the other hand, the risks of claims outside the nuclear liability regime under other laws and/or in different courts, might be reduced. This paper analyses the possible consequences of nuclear liability protection applicable to multimodal nuclear transport, the cause generatrice being a catastrophic accident causing wide-scale transboundary damage involving different countries. (author)

  8. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for Nuclear Damage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains some facts about the Swedish nuclear energy production system and about the nuclear operators liability with the important issues. The nuclear insurance of Sweden is also explained in short terms. (author)

  9. Analysis of civil liability for nuclear damage with emphasis on the insurance of liability for the transport of fresh nuclear fuel and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of civil liability for nuclear damage and the mandatory coverage of this liability by insurance or by the other financial means is a topic for experts discussions, particularly due to the existing differences in opinion. The article outlines the major provisions of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (1963) and presents a list of parties to the Convention from among Central and Eastern European countries. In the second part, the paper deals with the various options during the transportation of spent and fresh nuclear fuel from the viewpoint of the regulatory body and with regard to applicable domestic and international legislation. (author)

  10. Nuclear Liability and Insurance Protection for Nuclear Transport Accidents Involving Non-Contracting EU States: An assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an analysis of the possible complications and consequences with respect to nuclear liability and insurance protection applicable in respect of transport activities resulting in damage suffered and/or accidents occurring in EU States that are not party to the Paris Convention. It looks at the different legal aspects (jurisdiction, applicable law, liability amounts, reciprocity) should the revised Vienna and Paris Convention become applicable in comparison with the unrevised Conventions. Within Europe, a large number of States are party to the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention, providing liability and insurance protection, in general, up to a limit of 300 million SDRs (or even higher). In principle, such protection is confined to nuclear incidents occurring and nuclear damage suffered in the territory of Contracting Parties, including, as recommended, the high seas, unless the legislation of the Installation State determines otherwise (Article 2). The geographical scope of application of the Paris Convention would thus vary according to the law of the Installation State. However, some EU States never became party to the Paris Convention, and are not bound by its the liability principles (notably, channelling of liability), such as Austria, Luxembourg and Ireland. Transport accidents involving these countries might therefore result in liability claims outside the treaty liability regime against operators, suppliers, carriers or persons involved and for types of damages different from those currently covered by the Paris Convention (e.g., environmental damage). It is uncertain to what extent liability insurance of the installation operators would provide adequate protection and whether related damage claims can be enforceable. In addition, a number of newly entered EU States are party to the Vienna Convention, which, although bound by liability principles basically similar to those of the Paris Convention, will

  11. Manning of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manning of nuclear propelled merchant ships bases on two principles: safe management of the vessel from the starting port to the place of destination, including cargo handling; qualification for operating a nuclear plant. The German Atomic Law requires the proof of sufficient qualifications of the personnel running land-based power stations. These requirements are applied analogously at the technical crews of nuclear powered ships. After dealing with the differences of plant operation on board ship and land-based plants the education of technical crews will be discussed. At the example of NS OTTO HAHN, the manning, education of the key positions, and responsibility of the ship's management are presented. For reasons of comparison the crews of NS SAVANNAH and NS MUTSU are opposed to this. A hint will be given on the new developments in the manning field of conventional ships, and at least a view into the future will be given under the aspect of progressive studies on the questions of manning future ships, and the work carried out by IMCO for a code of nuclear powered merchant ships

  12. Third party liability cover for nuclear damage and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the financial security and cover for third party liability for nuclear damage as provided for by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The relevant Sections of the Act are quoted and explained, as are the nuclear operator's obligation to furnish financial security for his liability. Different possible types of security and cover are described, also with reference to other national legislation. Finally, the author mentions the Paris Convention which provides the basis for Italian nuclear third party liability legislation. (NEA)

  13. Economic foundations of limited liability for nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Price-Anderson Act places private financial protection requirements higher than those of any country to ensure that government indemnification will be a last resort. The studies in this volume suggest that, given the presence of nuclear risk, a limitation on liability is the key to maintaining world-wide insurance capacity on a large scale to meet both physical and property claims. The economist finds no paradox in the risk assessments implicit in Price-Anderson, and has no problem with limiting private liability if society is willing to accept the risk. The author concludes that there is no way to rely on social institutions such as free markets or tort law to make the decisions which society must make for itself. 16 references

  14. The modernization of the international nuclear third party liability regime - does exclusive liability still make sense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to create a perspective for the presentation, it might be useful to recall the general aims and purposes of the existing system for exclusive liability in the international nuclear liability regime. As is well-known, the compensation system is based on two conventions (The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963). The norms in these Conventions define the level at which the compensation system for nuclear accidents is based. The international co-operation which resulted in the conventions was inspired by the aim to construct a system which awards a fair and sufficient compensation for the victims of a nuclear accident. Secondly, the aim was to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The purpose was also to harmonize regulations concerning nuclear energy. The preparatory works for these conventions demand a general goal to balance the interests of the potential victims of a nuclear accident and the interest of society to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. National legislation on nuclear third party liability is based on these conventions. There are four basic principles which guide the normative framework of these conventions. The liability of the operator of a nuclear installation is not based on fault but is strictly based on its nature. Secondly, the liability is restricted to a certain sum per accident. Thirdly, the liability of the operator ought to be covered by insurance or state guarantee. Fourthly, the liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of a nuclear plant, meaning that there are no other persons to be held liable for a possible nuclear accident. Any new orientation on third party liability for nuclear damages should be within the context of existing regulations in the field. Exceptions from established international principles in the area of nuclear liability should be openly discussed and their consequences

  15. Operational Options for Green Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Sherbaz; Wenyang Duan

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors.The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders,responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions,14%-15% of global NOx emissions,and 16% of global SOx emissions.In addition,continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness.The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions.Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness.This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts,principles,and potential of operational options for green ships.The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e.academic qualifications prior to induction,in-service training and motivation were discussed.The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  16. BRUSLIB and NETGEN: the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library and nuclear network generator for astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawa, M; Goriely, S; Jorissen, A; Takahashi, K

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear reaction rates are quantities of fundamental importance in astrophysics. Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decades to measure or calculate them. The present paper presents for the first time a detailed description of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library BRUSLIB and of the nuclear network generator NETGEN so as to make these nuclear data packages easily accessible to astrophysicists for a large variety of applications. BRUSLIB is made of two parts. The first one contains the 1999 NACRE compilation based on experimental data for 86 reactions with (mainly) stable targets up to Si. The second part of BRUSLIB concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions calculated within a statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation, which limits the reliability of the rates to reactions producing compound nuclei with a high enough level density. These calculations make use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities entering the rate calculations. The use of such models is utterl...

  17. 3 July 1985: Convention signed in Brussels on 31 January 1963, supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and Act approving the Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act refers to the Brussels Supplementary Convention approved by Belgium in 1966 and ratified on 20 August 1985 and approves ratification of the Protocols of 16 November 1982 to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention respectively. The Protocols are reproduced in French, Dutch and German. (NEA)

  18. Development and validation of CONV-3D code for calculation of thermal and hydrodynamics of Fast Reactor at the Supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In IBRAE 3D CFD modules (CONV code) for safety analysis of the operated Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are developed. These modules are based on the developed algorithms with small scheme diffusion, for which the discrete approximations are constructed with use of finite-volume methods and fully staggered grids. For solving of convection problem the regularized nonlinear monotonic operator-splitting scheme is developed. The Richardson iterative method with iterative Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) solver for Laplace’s operator as preconditioner is applied for solving pressure equation. Such approach for solving of the elliptical equations with variable coefficients gives multiple acceleration in a comparison with a usual method of conjugate gradients. For modeling of 3D turbulent single-phase flows Quasi DNS approach is used. The CONV code is fully parallelized and highly effective at the high performance computers such as “Chebyshev”, “Lomonosov” (Moscow State University). The developed modules were validated on a series of the well known tests in a wide range of Rayleigh numbers from a range 106-1016 and Reynolds numbers from a range 103-105. The software has been applied to the analysis results of test LIVE-L1 (L1 is aimed at investigating the melt pool and crust behaviour during the stages of air circulation at the outer RPV surface with subsequent flooding of the lower head) and joint analyses on transient molten pool thermal hydraulics in the LIVE facility in the framework of ISTC project. Moreover CONV was validated successfully on a series of the experimental tests as: the blind test on simulation of flows in T-junction (OECD/NEA), ERCOFTAC experiment (world database on turbulent flows) natural convection in the closures under extremely high Rayleigh numbers. In all cases the good coincidence of numerical predictions with experimental data was reached, that specifies a possibility of application of the developed approach for a prediction of CFD

  19. The law concerning liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This treatise outlines the Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Law No. 147, June 17, 1961) and the Law on Indemnity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage (Law, No. 148, June 17, 1961) which are both came into effect in March, 1962, and describes how these laws will be executed if an accident occurs actually in nuclear facilities. The first law which prescribes various provisions for compensation of nuclear damage is characterised as having the principle of no-fault liability and hence making a nuclear enterpriser responsible for securing adequate financial resources to indemnify general public for their damages from nuclear accidents. Thus, in compliance with the law a nuclear enterpriser should effect both the contract of the indemnity responsible insurance and the indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage. The second law deals with the indemnity agreement which is concluded by a nuclear enterpriser with the government and constitutes a full measure for compensation of nuclear damage supplementing the indemnity responsible insurance. The indemnity agreement is to insure compensation liabilities for nuclear damages which the indemnity responsible insurance can not cover-that is, damages caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and also damages from normal operations of nuclear facilities and those occurs after 10 years of an accident. Then, the author describes in detail how these laws apply in a nuclear accident to damages to third parties and those to facilities of related nuclear enterpriser himself and to his employees. Finally, the author refers to the legal systems for compensation of nuclear damage in the United States, Britain, France and West Germany. (Matsushima, A.)

  20. Improvement of nuclear liability system and pros and cons for becoming a party to conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the 2001 amendment of the Nuclear Liability Act of 1969, the definition of nuclear damage was extended, the amount of liability and compulsory financial security became 300 million SDRs, prescription period for personal injury or loss of life became 30 years. Under the condition that the benefit of becoming a party to a international nuclear liability regime keeps in equilibrium with the cost thereof, we may become a party to the convention

  1. Aspects of nuclear penal liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics are treated with reference to articles of the Law 6.453 of october 17, 1977, relating to the nuclear penal liability. At the same time, the Penal Code disposes on illicits which may involve nuclear activity. With regard to the Jurisdiction, mention is made to the Federal Justice competence, due to the constitutional disposal. On the international field, the Convention on Physic Protection on Nuclear Material Transport disposes on illicit fact in which nuclear material may be involved. (Author)

  2. Act No 6453 of 17th October, 1977 on civil liability for nuclear damage and criminal responsibility for acts relating to nuclear activities, and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act was published on 17 October 1977. It is based to a great extent on the provisions of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nucler Damage of 21 May 1963. Under the Act the operator of a nuclear installation is exclusively liable regardless of fault for compensation of nuclear damage due to a nuclear incident. This exclusive liability is limited to an amount equal to 1,500,000 Treasury Bonds and the operator must take out and maintain insurance or other financial security to cover his liability. The Federative Government will guarantee, up to the prescribed limit, payment of compensation for nuclear damage where it is acknowledged that the operator's liability is involved. As regards apportionment of compensation, persons are granted priority over property. This Act is original in that it contains provisions on criminal liability with penalties ranging from two to ten years imprisonment. (NEA)

  3. Reform of civil nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In taking the initiative to organize this Symposium, the objectives of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency were threefold. First to evaluate the work which concluded in 1997 with the amendment of the Vienna Convention and the adoption of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, at the outset of the current negotiations on the revision of the Paris Convention; furthermore to examine the evolution of national legislation on third party liability in Eastern Europe and in various other countries which have not yet adhered to the international conventions; and finally to serve as a forum to bring together governmental experts, representatives of the nuclear industry, insurers and academics, with a view to comparing their opinions. (author)

  4. Risk in Nuclear Industry. Liability for Nuclear Damage. Status of the Problem in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia is one of a few nuclear power states obtaining the whole number of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) components - from mining of uranium and on-site electricity production, from NPP spent nuclear fuel processing and extracted fissile materials and radionuclides, which are available in industry, in medicine and in other relevant areas, to radioactive waste processing and disposal. For this reason it is very important to solve the problem of nuclear fuel cycle safety as it is a single system task with an adequate approach for all cycle components. The problem is that NFC facilities are technologically various and refer to different industries (mining, machinery engineering, power engineering, chemistry, etc.). Besides, the above facilities need the development of various scientific bases. The most NFC facilities is directly connected with peaceful use of nuclear energy and with military nuclear industry, as the defense orders stimulated the development of NFC. The specific attention to safety problems at the beginning of nuclear complex foundation adversely affected the state attitude towards the risk in nuclear industry, it has left the traces at present. In our paper we touch upon the problems of risk and the liability for nuclear damage for the third persons. The problems of nuclear damage compensation for nuclear facilities personnel and for the owners (operating organizations) are beyond our subject

  5. Risk in Nuclear Industry. Liability for Nuclear Damage. Status of the Problem in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalevich, Oleg M. [Gosatomnadzor of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, Sergey D. [PREKSAT LTD, Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, Dmitry B. [Moscow Joint-Stock Insurance Company, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Russia is one of a few nuclear power states obtaining the whole number of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) components - from mining of uranium and on-site electricity production, from NPP spent nuclear fuel processing and extracted fissile materials and radionuclides, which are available in industry, in medicine and in other relevant areas, to radioactive waste processing and disposal. For this reason it is very important to solve the problem of nuclear fuel cycle safety as it is a single system task with an adequate approach for all cycle components. The problem is that NFC facilities are technologically various and refer to different industries (mining, machinery engineering, power engineering, chemistry, etc.). Besides, the above facilities need the development of various scientific bases. The most NFC facilities is directly connected with peaceful use of nuclear energy and with military nuclear industry, as the defense orders stimulated the development of NFC. The specific attention to safety problems at the beginning of nuclear complex foundation adversely affected the state attitude towards the risk in nuclear industry, it has left the traces at present. In our paper we touch upon the problems of risk and the liability for nuclear damage for the third persons. The problems of nuclear damage compensation for nuclear facilities personnel and for the owners (operating organizations) are beyond our subject.

  6. Remediation of old environmental liabilities at Nuclear Research Institute Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Research Institute's environmental liabilities include decommissioning of old obsolete facilities and radioactive waste accumulated from operation and dismantling of nuclear facilities. Remediation of the environmental liabilities started in 2003 and will be finished in 2014. The major items of environmental liabilities are described and information is presented about the history, current state, progress, and future activities in the field of remediation of environmental liabilities in Nuclear Research Institute. (orig.)

  7. Government Decree No 24/84 approving accession to the Convention of 31 January 1963 Supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portugal is a Contracting Party of the Paris Convention which establishes a special system of liability for the operator of nuclear installations in Contracting States: absolute liability and its limitation in amount and in time. The Brussels Supplementary Convention, to which Portugal will accede in accordance with this Decree of 24 April 1984, introduces an additional compensation in two further tiers, the first out of public funds from the country where the nuclear incident originates and the second, highest amount, out of public funds from all Contracting States in cases where damage exceeds the sum to be paid by the Contracting Party concerned. (NEA)

  8. Nuclear liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear liability insurance, which exists in some countries, is provided by pools, which are groups of insurance companies that have voluntarily combined to share the insurance risk. Currently, 28 insurance pools operate worldwide. National pools are members of the international pool system. The pools cover both third party liability and material damage. Entities insured by pools include not only nuclear power plants but also fuel fabrication plants, research reactors, nuclear waste treatment plants, spent fuel reprocessing plants, facilities for protecting nuclear wastes before disposal, as well as nuclear fuel and facility carriers and suppliers. (J.B.)

  9. Nuclear ships and their safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation

  10. Proposals for amending the Nuclear Liability Act (1968:45)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal is to amend the Nuclear Liability Act so that the nuclear operator liability has an unlimited liability. An insurance duty covering at least 300 million SDRs (about 3.1 billion SEK) is also proposed

  11. Nuclear liability coverage developments in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of such nuclear liability coverage has been a concern of nuclear power plant vendors, suppliers and operators, and public officials in the United States or many years. This paper addresses implications of the Federal Price-Anderson Act (42 U.S.C. 2014, 2020; Sections 11 and 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended); on the financial liability of persons accountable for an accident in the United States. (author)

  12. Nuclear liability coverage developments in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown II, Omer F.

    1995-12-31

    The availability of such nuclear liability coverage has been a concern of nuclear power plant vendors, suppliers and operators, and public officials in the United States or many years. This paper addresses implications of the Federal Price-Anderson Act (42 U.S.C. 2014, 2020; Sections 11 and 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended); on the financial liability of persons accountable for an accident in the United States. (author).

  13. Passage of nuclear powered ships in territorial waters and their stay in harbours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specificity of rules governing entry of nuclear ships in the territorial waters of a State and their liability are reviewed. The concept of innocent passage prevailing for navigation in territorial waters is examined as are the protective measures taken by the Host State, in particular the prior authorisation characterizing thate State's discretionary powers of acceptance or refusal to admit the nuclear ship and the control over it. Liability rules and the nature of liability are analysed on the basis of agreements on the Savannah and the Otto Hahn. The importance of State intervention is demonstrated in its relationship with the operator particularly regarding control of operation and financial assistance. Also mentioned is liability for breach of the rules of procedure laid down in bilateral agreements, and in this context, a study is made of the rules of conduct for nuclear ships in territorial waters set out in the Savannah and Otto Hahn agreements. The liability of the coastal State is reviewed from the viewpoint of its grounds and possibilities of extension, given the development of nuclear navigation and the importance attached to protection against marine environmental pollution

  14. Liability for nuclear damage: an international perspective. Reflections on the revision of the Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with deals of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on his experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may not be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed the Committee's work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world's public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussions no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structure of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issue, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author)

  15. Creation of the reactor plant with lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear ships, Brief history. Generalized results of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is historical in nature and follows the efforts to design a reactor with lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear-powered submarines (NPS). One discusses both the advantages and the disadvantages of a Pb-Bi reactor and analyzes in detail problems faced in the course of ground-base try-out of reactors and in the course of reactor operation at NPS. The accumulated experience enables to make conclusion that the mentioned experience may serve as a basis to ensure safe and reliable NPP operation

  16. Chernobylsk: twenty years later, the international system of nuclear civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International system of nuclear civil liability is based on two international treaties: the Paris convention (24.07.1960) and the Brussels convention (31.01.1963), with a time limit for ratification in each concerned country at 30.10.1968. The Paris convention treats compensation and transfrontier problems, the amount of compensation is limited, the Brussels convention specifies the financial system of compensation. The Vienna system under the IAEA auspices gives minimal norms of financial protection against damages and stood in may 1963 thirty three parties signed it. Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Armenia, czech republic, Estonia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldavia have joined the Vienna convention, then the Russian Federation that had signed the Convention in 1996 became member in august 2005. New elements appear such measures of remedial action or measures of prevention of reduction of nuclear damages are included, the new protocol increases the geographical area by taking into account the maritime areas because of the evolution of the international sea law. The transport needs specific contracts between parties, the only case of exoneration is the armed conflicts, civil war, insurrection. The time of loss of right comes from ten years to thirty years, for deaths and body damages, the others types of damages stay fixed at ten years. The most important revision is about the limit financial amount for the nuclear operator that is increased and the calculation of methods of funding for each contracting party is tackled. In fact it appears that more important funds will be available to make compensation for a more important number of victims. The revised system guarantees that the liability chain will never be broken. (N.C.)

  17. Law no. 6.453 of 17th October, 1977 on civil liability for nuclear damage and criminal responsibility for acts relating to nuclear activities, and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act was published on 17 october 1977. Under the Act the operator of a nuclear installation is exclusively liable regardless of fault for compensation of nuclear damage due to a nuclear incident. This exclusive liability is limited to an amount equal to 1,500,000 Treasury Bonds and the operator must take out the maintain insurance or other financial security to cover his liability. The Federative Government will guarantee, up to the prescribed limit, payment of compensation for nuclear damage where it is acknowledged that the operator's liability is involved. As regards apportionment of compensation, persons are granted priority over property. This Act is original in that it contains provisions on criminal liability with penalties ranging from two to ten years imprisonment

  18. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  19. The evolution of nuclear third party liability conventions: challenges for Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper refers to new questions which arise in the international nuclear third party liability regime, including issues related to waste - and its long-term management, environmental impact, the precautionary principle, emergency measures and differences in risks according to whether a nuclear incident takes place at a fixed installation or during the course of transport. The author notes that from industry's point of view, the amendments to the Vienna Convention which were adopted in September 1997 can be divided into three categories: those which are positive and should appear in a revised Paris Convention; those which are sensitive and require careful thought with a view to their improvement before incorporating them into the Paris Convention; and lastly those which may compromise the efficiency of the system. Among those amendments that the author suggests incorporating into the Paris Convention are the increase of liability amounts and the extension of geographic scope. He expresses some reservations in relation to the inclusion of preventive measures in the definition of nuclear accident, and the extension of the prescription period to thirty years for loss of life and personal injury. The author concludes by citing certain proposed modifications which he believes may threaten the existence of the regime. These include the proposal to expressly provide for the possibility of unlimited liability, along with the raising of the existing ceiling to an amount situated between 300 and 600 million SDRs; the extension of existing guarantees; the recent choice of certain States to reject the principle of channelling liability to the operator and the insertion of the notion of environmental damage into the regular mechanisms of third party liability without adaptation to the particular circumstances. The author expresses the opinion that risk cover and victim protection can and should be extended during the revision process, but within reasonable limits in order to

  20. Managing nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the importance of managing liabilities in the nuclear industry and considers the main ingredients which make for successful liabilities management. It looks specifically at UKAEA's experience to date and lists its key management principles, including the use of the liabilities management ratio which is the company's current bottom-line performance measure. (Author)

  1. The Protocol of 1997 to amend the Vienna Convention on civil liability for nuclear damage: a chance for strengthening the liability framework in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most recently, several Contracting Parties to the Vienna Convention announced their plans to play an important role in the process ofnuclear renaissance” in Europe. However, this process cannot be limited to a mere multiplication of nuclear facilities, but must be accompanied by strengthening of the legal and regulatory framework. Taking the potential magnitude of a nuclear incident into regard, strengthening of the existing legal framework for the nuclear third party liability must play an eminent role in this legislation. This paper deals with the current liability frameworks in both countries, analyzing the implementation of theirs commitments arising from the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963. Further, it points out major challenges for the future development in this field, in particular taking the provisions of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1997 into regard. (author)

  2. Public announcement of the promulgation of the Nuclear Third Party Liability Convention including supplementary conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to article 4 paragraph 2 of the act of July 8th, 1975 concerning the Convention on Third Party Liability including the Supplementary Conventions dated July 29th, 1960, concerning the Convention the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships and its Additional Protocol dated May 25th, 1962, and concerning the Convention relating to Civil Liability in the field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material it is thus announced that 1) the Convention dated July 29th, 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and its Additional Protocol dated January 28th, 1964 according to its article 19, 2) the Supplementary Convention to the Paris Convention dated July 29th, 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and its Additional Protocol dated January 28th, 1964 according to its article 20 have taken effect for the FRG with reference to 1) on September 30th, 1975, with reference to 2) on January 1st, 1976. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear propulsion for merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear propulsion was first used in submarines. The experience acquired in this way has shown the characteristics of naval propulsion reactors: essentially reliability, strength, manoeuvrability and ease of operation. The technique has now been perfected and the development of nuclear propulsion depends mainly on problems of safety, economic competitivity and legislation. With regard to safety, the technical solutions concern essentially the interface with the ship. Competitivity must be studied, not only in the case of replacing a conventional boiler by a nuclear boiler on a given type of vessel, but also against the wider background of a system of transport with optimization of all the factors of its economy. Finally, operation is governed seriously by legislation and much still remains to be done in this field

  4. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  5. Establishment of an east asian nuclear safety and liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, almost all of the countries which owned nuclear reactors soon reviewed the security of all their nuclear power plants(NPP) in operation and those under construction, and committed to pursue higher standards of nuclear power plant safety and performance of nuclear power plant. However, many countries still remain their nuclear development policies unchanged. In East Asian countries, China has 11 nuclear reactors in operation and another 24 units under construction. Korea has 21 nuclear reactors in operation, which represents approximately 31.1% of the whole country’s power output and the number of units will be 34 before 2024. In Japan, it also possesses 50 operating nuclear units. And Taiwan now has three nuclear power plants (NPP) including 6 operating units and 2 units still under construction. There will be more than 100 units of NPP in these 4 East Asia countries. Therefore nuclear safety is a matter of the utmost importance to the East Asia countries. This article is going to discuss nuclear safety and third party liability in the 4 East Asia countries, including China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. In order to enhance the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in East Asia, we will focus on the following issues: A- An effective independence of the national regulatory authorities. B- How to enhance transparency on nuclear safety matters. C- From the viewpoint of the Precautionary Principle and Transparency to reinforce the monitoring and exchange of experiences. D- In nuclear liability regime, all 4 countries, China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan are not members of any nuclear liability regime (neither Paris Convention nor Vienna Convention and nor CSC regime). How to solve the nuclear damage problems? E- Is it necessary to establish an East Asian nuclear safety and liability regime? (author)

  6. Fuel exchanging machine for a nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent atmospheric contaminations upon fuel exchange thereby keep the environmental circumstance clean in the periphery of the nuclear ship. Constitution: A nuclear reactor container is disposed to the inside of a containing vessel in the ship body and a shutter is mounted to the upper opening of the ship body. Further, a landing container having a bottom opening equipped with shutter for alingning the upper opening equipped with shuuter of the ship is elevatably suspended to the trolley of a crane by way of a wire rope and a winch, and a fuel exchange cask is elevatably disposed to the inside of the landing container. Further, airs in the inside of the container is adapted to be discharged externally through a filter by means of a blower and the inside is kept at a negative pressure. Thus, since the containing vessel is covered with the landing container upon fuel exchanging operation, atmospheric contamination can be prevented sufficiently. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. Liability of suppliers to nuclear power plants in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paris Convention provides that liability for a nuclear incident is channelled onto the operator of the nuclear installation concerned. However, the author analyses in which cases and by what mechanisms, the operator can have a right of recourse against a supplier of that installation. He illustrates, by several scenarios of nuclear incident with transfrontier effects how a supplier may be held liable, and describes the relevant rules of law applicable, based on private international law and tort law principles (NEA)

  8. Safety aspects of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety equipment of a nuclear merchant ship is, to a great extent, defined by postulated reactor and ship's accidents. Examples of measures to cope with such accidents and to prevent undue environmental impact from abnormal ship operation are cited. The discussion is based upon the recent design of the Nuclear Container Ship NCS 80 carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt mbH (GKSS) and the industrial consortium INTERATOM/BREMER VULKAN. (orig.)

  9. An overview of the international regime governing liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common features of the Paris and Vienna Conventions on nuclear liability are highlighted. Although the Joint Protocol has formed a link between the two Conventions, the Vienna Convention had to be reviewed and the feasibility of creating a system of additional financing through governmental participation or through third countries discussed. The Vienna Convention amendments should concern the following items: geographical scope, facilities employed for non-peaceful purposes, definition of nuclear damage, acquittal of charge, financial liability limitation, time limits for making claims, settlement of claims, and national responsibility. With respect to additional financing, it is recognized that the operator's financial liability under the Vienna and Paris Conventions is insufficient to cover nuclear damage resulting from serious accidents. Two ways of solving this problem are discussed, viz. the Levy Draft and the Pool Draft. Another, new draft proposes that a sufficiently high compensating sum from states would be introduced into the Vienna Convention to serve as a threshold for the additional financing scheme. A proposal was put forth limiting the application scope to transboundary damage solely. A list of countries that have acceded to the Joint Protocol and the Vienna Convention is given. (J.B.). 2 tabs

  10. The EU Commission initiative of nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU Commission has recently tackled the difficult issue of nuclear liability in the EU. A public consultation on this topic, via an online questionnaire, has just been closed. The next step would normally be for the Commission to launch a draft piece of legislation. But the situation is complicated, and the Commission may have opened Pandora's box when they decided to deal with nuclear liability. The 'patchwork' of different international conventions and national legislations in force within the EU is on the one hand a very good reason to launch an EU initiative with the aim of harmonization. At the same time, the existing situation poses numerous obstacles to any attempt of finding viable solutions. What is more, the competence of the EU to issue legislation in the field of nuclear liability is doubtful. The article describes the current situation in the EU and explains some options which might be considered by the Commission. Scope and content of any future EU legislation on nuclear liability will be defined by the extent to which the Commission succeeds in obtaining a qualified majority in the Council. In the author's opinion, it is extremely important that any EU legislation does not collide with the existing system of international conventions. Within this framework, there is sufficient room for far-reaching solutions. Some of the more realistic options would be broadly compatible with German nuclear law and their introduction on EU level should be seriously considered. (orig.)

  11. New Trends in European Nuclear Liability Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses recent developments in nuclear liability legislation in Europe. The first part deals with the planned revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention; the second part focuses on the reforms envisaged in the field in Switzerland and in the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular concerning unlimited liability. Finally, the author concludes that national reform plans and work at international level are not opposed, but supplementary activities. (NEA)

  12. Liability for damage resulting from acts of the nuclear and radiological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism is defined as an attack on a nuclear installation serving peaceful uses (such as a nuclear power plant) or non-peaceful uses. Radiological terrorism, which may be more likely, is defined as an action which doesn't trigger a nuclear reaction but gives rise to the release of radioactivity. The aim of this paper is to analyze the existing legal framework covering such situations. The relevant provisions of the Vienna and Paris Conventions on civil liability for nuclear damage, which represent a legal framework for nuclear liability at the international level, are discussed. The focus is on the identification of the the liable subject, including definition of the scope and nature of its liability. (author)

  13. Financing of Liabilities Beyond the Service Life of Nuclear Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of a nuclear installation is connected with the creation of long-term liabilities for spent fuel management and disposal, and also decommissioning of the installation (power plant, storages. This means that the operator will have to expend considerable amount of financial resources over a long period after the closure of installation. These financial resources will have to be created during operation of the installation. Related costs to be expended in future must be fully included in the price of electricity, in order to ensure fair competition among different operators. Financial resources for future coverage of liabilities must be continuously invested in order to compensate for inflation and to gain some real interest.Any failure by the operator to comply with its liabilities poses an economic and potentially an environmental hazard for operator’s country. Due attention must therefore be paid to assessing connected costs, defining liabilities and ensuring appropriate regulatory oversight. Appropriate measures must be well defined and firmly anchored in the legislation of countries operating nuclear installations. This paper reviews the basic principles that should ensure operator’s compliance their liabilities, and maps the current situation in the Czech Republic. 

  14. Managing UK nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper sets out a framework for a fundamental reappraisal of the management of nuclear liabilities in the United Kingdom, built around two policy objectives, sustainable development and cost-effectiveness. The practical implications of the policy objectives are explored in relation to nuclear liability strategies, such as the adequacy or otherwise of current funding arrangements, the completeness of liability estimates and the distribution of financial responsibility between the public and private sector. A fundamental review of the management of nuclear liabilities is urged in the light of inadequacies identified in this paper. (UK)

  15. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for... other matter not within the Commission's statutory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act. Nuclear... property damage caused by the nuclear energy hazard to property of an insured which is away from...

  16. Nuclear materials transport: liability and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations concerning civil and contractual liability for nuclear materials transport are reviewed, and damage repairs are provided by the insurance. Organization, guarantees for nuclear transport and operation of the nuclear insurance market are examined

  17. Nuclear Liability and Insurance Cover for Risk of Nuclear Power Plants - Situation for Nuclear Installations in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dispute about nuclear liability and insurance cover for risks of nuclear power plants from an insurer's point of view has to determine and to judge the essential risk relevant factors. These are beside plant and site specific factors considerations of insurance restrictions in the extent of cover compared with the legal scope of liability for (re-)insurability's sake. Among such consideration are: financial limitation and obligation for its reinstatement, exclusions for gradual emissions of approved activities, armed conflicts, hostilities, civil war, insurrections or grave natural disaster and restrictions in the limitation and preclusion periods. In comparison with conventional liability risks there are some specialties to be considered some of which prove to be a risk relief other as a risk burden for insurance: Salvage expenses or interests and court costs to be paid by unsuccessful party in a lost litigation do not fall under legal liability and hence are excluded from the financial security cover so that are compensation is subject to agreed separate limits. A serious burden for the insurers can result out of the loss regulation costs in case of a severe nuclear accident. These expenses, which can exceed hundred million DM by far, are to be carried by the insurers in the frame of their obligation to investigate raised claims. Therefore the insurers should aim a fixed limitation in order to restrict their limit. (author)

  18. Liability for nuclear damage: an international perspective. Reflections on the revision of the Vienna Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuski, J.

    1993-12-31

    This book deals with deals of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on his experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may not be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed the Committee`s work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world`s public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussions no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structure of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issue, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author).

  19. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.)

  20. Domestic issue on the liability of nuclear power plant's supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the historical background and progress of establishment of the Nuclear Damage Compensation Act in our country, and describes the general theory relevant to the nuclear liability system. The major subjects of the general theory of this system consist of the following principles in general : a. strict liability for the part of nuclear utility ; b. channelling of liability which means the whole liability is concentrated on the utility ; c. limit of the recourse right ; d. limit of immunity ; e. enforcement of financial protection ; f. governmental indemnification. With the Chernobyl nuclear accident as a turning-point, the international society is making a new attempt at the nuclear liability system. In relation to the domestic issue on the liability of nuclear power plant's supplier, we checked lawsuit of third party and correspondent options

  1. Operational Measures For Energy Efficiency In Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Emin ÖZTÜRK

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify potential solutions to improve energy efficiency of the existing ships. To have an Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) on board has become mandatory for all ships starting from 1 January 2013. Increasing fuel prices and growing environmental concerns are driving the shipping industry to be more efficient. Therefore it is necessary to develop energy efficient operational measures.

  2. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now only six non-military ships have been built or are under construction. The operation and experience with the NS OTTO HAHN, which is of value for future large-scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion, is discussed. In many countries studies and plans are being made for further nuclear merchant ships. The types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: nuclear ship technology; economy of nuclear ship propulsion; and legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology has been based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant, entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proved by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in FRG. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proved by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions, e.g. in connection with port entry permission, are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land-based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long-distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account. (author)

  3. Liability for injury to the unborn - Recent amendments to the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption in the United Kingdom in 1976 of an Act to determine liability for injury to the unborn (foetus) has provided the opportunity to amend the Nuclear Installations Act which governs the liability of nuclear operators, which is now extended to such injury. Any 'injury' attributable to a nuclear operator which so affects a mother that her child is born disabled involves the liability of that operator within the meaning of the Nuclear Installations Act whether or not either parent has suffered an injury on that occasion. (NEA)

  4. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the forecast of energy balance in the world to 21st century, the diversification of energy supply and the technical development enabling it are necessary in Japan. The stable supply of marine fuel is important to maintain and develop the national life. At present, as the marine fuel substituting for petroleum, atomic energy is at the position nearest to practical use. In advanced countries, the basic technology required for the practical use of nuclear-powered merchant ships seems to have been established, but Japan is about 10 years behind them due to the delay of the Mutsu project. In order to maintain and improve the technical level of shipbuilders, the independent technology related to nuclear-powered ships must be established in Japan. In the economical examination of nuclear-powered ships, ice breakers and ice breaking tankers are advantageous, but in other types of ships, a number of conditions must be satisfied to be economical. The Mutsu must be operated to collect the data and experience, and the project of an improved marine prototype reactor must be decided. Also a demonstration ship must be built. The standards for the design, construction and operation of nuclear-powered ships and the public acceptance are necessary. (Kako, I.)

  5. Nuclear liability in the Russian Federation: the problem of indemnities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reason for reform of the nuclear liability legislation in the Russian Federation lies not only in the necessity to improve the nuclear legislation itself but is also due to the need for legal reform in general in Russia following the transition to a market economy. The Civil code of the Russian Federation is being reformed at present and has already been substantially modified. The norms and principles of the International agreements to which the Russian Federation is a Party are incorporated into the national legal system. In the event of contradiction between international and internal norms, the former take priority. The first part of this presentation is devoted to the detailed analysis of arrangements governing the liability of nuclear operators. The liability, the field of application, the covered damages, the exemption and limitations system, the financial guarantee and the government intervening are given. Some gaps or contradictions are still existing but a new specific legislation is actually studied. (N.C.)

  6. Act no 388 to amend Section 15 of the Nuclear Liability Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland is ratifying the Montreal Protocols Nos 3 and 4 to the Warsaw Convention concerning carriage by air; protocol No 4 contains no exclusion clause for nuclear damage. This Act amends the 1972 Nuclear Liability Act to the effect that air carriers of nuclear substances have a right of recourse against the operator liable under nuclear legislation. In this way the principle of channelling liability onto the nuclear operator is maintained. (NEA)

  7. New international agreement documents in the field of liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new international documents dealing with liability for nuclear damage are described, viz. the Protocol to amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The two documents were signed in 1997

  8. Inventory of nuclear liabilities - The Belgian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like all countries that use radioactive materials for producing electricity or for other peaceful purposes, Belgium is faced with an important challenge: the safe management of all these materials, in both the short and long term. Of course there is a price to pay for this management, which in accordance with the ethical principle of inter-generational fairness should be borne mainly by the current generations. However, it is possible that when the moment has come, the financial resources to cover the costs of decommissioning and remediation of these installations, prove to be insufficient or even completely non-existent: this then results in a nuclear liability. This kind of situation can have several causes, such as an underestimation of the actual costs by the operator or the owner of the nuclear installation or by the holder or the owner of the radioactive materials, negligence, transfer of ownership of the nuclear installation or the nuclear site without transfer of the corresponding provisions, a reduction in the operating time, a bankruptcy as well as ignorance. Because it wishes to avoid the occurrence of new nuclear liabilities, the Belgian legislator, by virtue of article 9 of the programme law of 12.12.97, charged ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, with collecting all the elements that are necessary in order to examine to which degree the decommissioning and remediation costs can be actually covered when the time comes. ONDRAF/NIRAS was specifically charged with ascertaining all facts of a technical and financial nature which should enable the minister responsible for energy to verify whether every operator or owner of a nuclear installation and every holder or owner of radioactive materials have provided in time for the requisite financial resources to cover the future costs of decommissioning and remediation. This evaluation of course also serves to enable the government to take the necessary

  9. Improvement of nuclear liability system and remaining issues thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To keep in line with the world-wide tendency to strengthen the nuclear third party liability system both at international and domestic level, the Nuclear Liability Act and the Act on Indemnity Agreement for Nuclear Liability have been amended in 2001. The pending issues are the completion of the improvement of the national nuclear liability system and protocol between the KEDO and the DPRK for the nuclear liability and indemnification thereof. Since adherence to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage(CSC) is required to strike out the pending issues, the method to become a party to the CSC, necessary implementation enactment, the person to bear the contribution to the fund of CSC should be studied carefully this year. The government is now carrying out a political study, to lay a bill of ratification for the adherence to the CSC before the National Assembly in a regular session this year

  10. The convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage (CSC). A cornerstone of a global nuclear liability regime?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International discussions on compensation of nuclear damage seem to be governed by the magic word ''global nuclear liability regime''. It is said that only such regime promises to guarantee full and timely compensation at conditions acceptable and favourable for both the victims and the operator liable and at the same time promotes nuclear industry. Surely, nuclear incidents may have worldwide implications, and a globally unified legal framework appears to be desirable or is even necessitated. But until today we have not yet achieved a global regime. There are international nuclear liability conventions some of which may be qualified to form such regime. But which of them is best qualified and which one could be accepted by all States? Mainly the USA opt for, and strongly support, the 1997 ''Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage'' (CSC) to be the only international instrument which is apt to form a global regime. This paper will deal with the question whether this assertion is convincing. It will also be asked whether we need a global regime.

  11. Prospects for applications of ship-propulsion nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitenkov, F.M.

    1994-10-01

    The use of ship-propulsion nuclear power reactors in remote areas of Russia is examined. Two ship reactors were analyzed: the KLT-40, a 170 MW-thermal reactor; and the KN-3, a 300 MW-thermal reactor. The applications considered were electricity generation, desalination, and drinking water production. Analyses showed that the applications are technically justified and could be economically advantageous. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional and nuclear merchant ships are compared with a view to economics. Still, one should keep in mind that for quite a time, nuclear merchant ships will remain improbable - not the least for environmental reasons. For the time beyond the year 2000, it is expectet that nuclear fission will be replaced by fusion energy. This form of energy cannot be directly used for ship propulsion, but it may indirectly give new impetus to merchant ship operation via coastal fusion plants for the production of synthetic fuels. (UA)

  13. Nuclear Liability, State of the Art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over fifty years ago states started to introduce legislation protecting the public against the potential magnitude and peculiarity of risks arising from the nuclear energy production. They did so trough a specific liability and compensation regime. Whether legislation was based on national initiatives or, as more frequently, related to international nuclear liability conventions, it was based on a number of principles being applied universally. Furthermore, it at the same time strived for not preventing the development of the nuclear industry because of an unbearable liability. This paper aims at explaining the broad outline of the above legislation, its development since its early years, the state of the art as regards its modernisation as well as the (alleged) problems underlying the delay in its introduction in a number of countries. When dealing with those problems it will be inevitable to touch upon a number of insurance related matters, which, as an insurer I am happy to tell, will lead me to familiar territory.(author).

  14. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  15. The future of nuclear propulsion in merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention is paid to a number of issues which must be resolved before any firm commitment to build a commercial nuclear powered ship will be made. Basically, these can be grouped into three major problem areas: first, economic; second, indemnification and liability; and third, port entry and international clearance. It is concluded that there is reason for guarded optimism, as concerted efforts to solve the important issues are now underway. Some examples are briefly discussed

  16. Aspects of the Brazilian law on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The civil liability for nuclear damage in the Brazilian law is analysed. The innovations introduced by the 6.453 act of October 17 th, 1977 are emphasized. The influence of international conventions on the Brazilian law are also mentioned. (A.L.)

  17. Some agenda of Japanese nuclear third party liability system arising from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and proposal for the system reformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account the impact of damage owing to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, the argument of review on Japanese nuclear third party liability system is carried out. As the Fukushima Disaster raised serious legal problems on Japanese nuclear third party liability system that the JCO critical accident did not present, fundamental reformation of the system may be carried out. This paper clarified and analyzed legal problems that Fukushima Disaster raised. In addition, in order to alleviate the problems, this paper showed two options to reform the nuclear compensation system. Our conclusions are summarized as follows. (1) The compensation of the Fukushima Disaster raised the following problems. 1. Regardless of whether the operator has the legally liable for the damage, the necessity of quick victim relief and compensation forced the operator to compensate the damage. 2. Because the damage occurred in broad area and in long term, and cause identification and the calculation of damage amount are difficult, private settlements become so hard that the number of civil litigations increased dramatically. (2) The problems mentioned above are due to the following current legal shortcomings. 1. The victims are not relieved enough unless making bear the operator compensation liability, because Japanese nuclear third party liability system is based on ordinary rules of civil tort liability. 2. The procedure for immunity of operator's nuclear third party liability is not stipulated. 3. The authority of the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation is restricted and cannot discourage damage suits. (3) To overcome the problems, this report showed proposal for system reformation as follows. 1. In order to relieve the victims regardless of whether the operator is liable for the nuclear damages, it is necessary to legislate a Nuclear Disaster Relief Act to relief victims from the viewpoint of governmental aid. 2. It is necessary to introduce the

  18. The Study for the Establishment of the Korea Nuclear Liability System complying with International Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is for making system of the fast and adequate compensation to the victim in the nuclear accident of domestic and foreign country. As a method to come true the purpose we reviewed Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (hereinafter 'CSC') and designed enabling laws for joining the CSC. Moreover international workshop regarding the CSC was hold as a main assignment of this study for sharing knowledge and information with neighboring countries. Convention relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage on Nuclear Material, 1971 shall be analyzed in this study. Legal approach to the CSC and designing enabling laws for joining the CSC were enclosed to this study. As a result of the international workshop this study shows how U.S. (CSC member country) deals with CSC and mandatory obligation of donating the public funds. Finally Convention relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage on Nuclear Material, 1971 is analyzed legally

  19. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  20. Extending the Life Time of a Nuclear Power Plant: Impact on Nuclear Liabilities in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    L. Havlíček

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) operators have several basic long-term liabilities. Such liabilities include storage, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste generated at the operators’ NPP, storage and management of nuclear fuel irradiated in the reactor of the operator’s NPP (“spent fuel”), disposal of the spent fuel (SF) or residues resulting from spent fuel reprocessing. Last but not least, the operator is liable for decommissioning its nuclear facilities. If the operator considers extendin...

  1. Current status and key issues of nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear liability regime has been established from the beginning of the nuclear power industry. The first nuclear accident with major transboundary consequences occurred at Chernobyl, and led to reexamination of the nuclear liability regime. Current status and key issues of the national and international nuclear liability regime are reviewed. (author)

  2. Act of 18 March 1983 on Nuclear Third Party Liability (LRCN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new Act on nuclear third party liability maintains the two essential principles established by the law in force, namely those of causation and the channelling of liability on to the operator of a nuclear installation. On the other hand, the Act waives the principle of third party liability limited in amount and provides that the person liable must commit himself for an unlimited amount. Such liability is covered as follows: by private insurance up to 300 million francs; by the Confederation up to one thousand million francs over and above the amount covered by private insurance; by all the assets of the person liable. (NEA)

  3. Nuclear Energy and Liability in Law. Records of the meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of nuclear energy and liability in law was discussed at a one-day meeting organised jointly by the Societe francaise de radioprotection and the Societe francaise d'energie nucleaire. This report contains three of the papers presented. The first paper describes the different types of liability: civil, penal, administrative, international and explains the reasons which have led the legislator to introduce special liability rules to meet the problems raised by nuclear energy. The second paper deals with radiation protection and the different types of liability in law which may result from activities involving radiation protection. Finally, the third paper discusses nuclear risk insurance from the viewpoint of atomic insurance pools and specifies that insurers are concerned with improving accident prevention measures, in close collaboration with nuclear operators and the public authorities. (NEA)

  4. Compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To secure fair and efficient compensation for damage likely to be caused by the utilisation of nuclear energy, a special civil liability regime was set up by several international conventions. Three of these conventions are in force and Spain is a Contracting Party to all three. The principles established in the first instance at European level by the Paris Convention (absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, limitation of such liability, compulsory insurance...) are intended to guarantee that possible victims of a nuclear incident will obtain compensation for damage suffered. The Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention provides for official funds to compensate victims through intervention by the Contracting Parties. Each Contracting Party should implement these Conventions at national level by appropriate legislation, which is what Spain did with its Act on Nuclear Energy of 29th April 1964, as supplemented in 1967 by the Regulations on Cover for Nuclear Hazards. (N.E.A.)

  5. Notes on third party liability for nuclear damage in connection with the construction of the first nuclear power plant in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responsibilities for the construction and operation of the first nuclear power plant have been transferred from the National Nuclear Energy Commission to Electrobras, a public undertaking set up for this purpose. In view of such transfer of responsibilities and the implementation of further nuclear power projects, liability for nuclear damage has to be regulated in a way consistent with international conventions. A working group associating representatives of national authorities and public utilities was entrusted with the task of drafting rules for co-ordinating their respective activities in relation to the execution of the first nuclear power project; these rules were issued by Ministerial order in 1970. The working group also prepared a draft law on civil liability for nuclear damage, based on the Vienna Convention. This draft law has reached its final stage and, after promulgation, will enable Brazil to ratify the Vienna Convention. (author)

  6. Source term research for ship reactor anticipated operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the basic hypothesis of anticipated operational events, grounding on the special characters of a ship reactor, the equilibrium vapor specific activity and the cabin activity were calculated using NSRC code for the main loop and the secondary loop. The calculation results show that the computational mode of NSRC code is correct, and the NSRC code can be used to calculate radioactive effect of a ship reactor in anticipated operational events of design basis accidents. The calculation results can provide support to the safe operation of a ship nuclear power device. (authors)

  7. Decommission of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateyama, Takeshi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    The nuclear-powered ship `MUTSU` was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  8. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. A legal framework of financial liability of the nuclear power reactor industry in the field of waste management in Sweden and proposals for improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the nuclear legislation in Sweden, companies licensed to operate nuclear power plants have overall responsibility for safely managing all nuclear waste and to pay all expenses regarding final disposal. A committee was set up by the Government to explore the requirements in the present legislation, and if necessary, make proposals for improvements. The committee proposed that the liability of the industry for costs should be formalised by extending the liability to pay fees until the time at which the waste disposal sites are sealed, and by extending this liability to include an owning company in each group, in addition to the reactor owner. The aim of this secondary liability payment is that it shall rest with the company in a group that has ability to make the payments. (author)

  10. Towards a global and comprehensive IAEA's nuclear liability regime, in particular for nuclear damage caused during the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen years ago, the Chernobyl accident demonstrated the weakness of existing international arrangements on liability for nuclear damage. The IAEA's liability regime was reviewed and enhanced. However, the enhanced regime is not into force and does not have global membership. Countries that carry substantial nuclear and related activities across the globe are not yet parties to the international liability arrangements. The IAEA should assess the reasons that are preventing the entry into force of a clear, more comprehensive and global nuclear liability regime. (author)

  11. Annual report of the Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency, for fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All the works of shielding repair and safety general inspection for the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' were completed. For advancing the research and development of nucear ships, of course, the data and experience of the behavior of marine nuclear reactors are required, which can be obtained only by operating nuclear ships. The Agency will carry out the experimental voyage after the prescribed tests are finished, and endeavor to attain the objective. A new development was observed on the new home port for the Mutsu. In May, 1981, the agreement was reached among those concerned to decide Sekine Beach, Mutsu City, as the candidate site after the survey and coordination, and to construct the home port as early as possible. The Agency carried out the survey required for the location, and reported in March, 1982, that the construction of the home port is technically feasible, and also the concept of the home port and the incidental facilities on land was informed to Aomori Prefecture. Hereafter, the compensation for fishery and the purchase of land will be actively promoted. In order to ease the restriction on the energy supply for shipping industry, the technical basis for the practical use of nuclear ships must be urgently consolidated. In this report, the works performed by the Agency in fiscal 1981 are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. Decree No. 519 of 10 May 1975 of the President of the Republic on regulations implementing international instruments in the field of nuclear third party liability ratified and brought into force by Act No. 109 of 12 February 1974 and for co-ordination of the above-instruments with the provisions of laws in force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree was made by the President of the Republic under a delegation of powers conferred by Act No. 109 of 12th February 1974 ratifying the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention on nuclear third party liability. Its purpose is to make provision for implementing these Conventions in domestic law and to amend national legislation accordingly, i.e. Act No. 1860 of 31st December 1962 on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. The provisions so amended are Section 1 (definitions) and Sections 15 to 24 (third party liability following from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy). In particular, the maximum amount of liability of the operator of a nuclear installations is set at 7,500 million lire; beyond this amount the ceiling of compensation which may be granted by the State's financial intervention is 43,750 million lire. In cases where damage exceeds this ceiling it will be compensated up to 75,000 million lire by a contribution from other countries Party to the above-mentioned Conventions. The Decreee came into force on 6th November 1975. (N.E.A.)

  13. Utilization of nuclear technology to ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SMART, a medium sized power plant with an output of 330mwth, can be used on barges to generate electric power and water, and can be used to propel container ships. For high speed, to secure the container cargo, and huge container carriers, to lower the operating expenses, the use of nuclear power reactor is essential. To compete in this challenging area with the advanced countries, a well-orchestrated joint effort will be necessary by the government and the industries

  14. The concept of ''pollution damage'' in the maritime conventions governing liability and compensation for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compensation for pollution damage caused by spills from oil tankers is governed by an international regime elaborated under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization (I.M.O.). The framework for the regime was originally by the 1969 International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (1969 Civil liability convention) and the 1971 International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (1971 Fund Convention). This old regime was amended in 1992 by two protocols, and the amended Conventions are known as 1992 Civil Liability Convention and the 1992 Fund Convention. The Civil Liability conventions govern the liability of ship-owners for oil pollution damage. The Conventions lay down the principle of strict liability for ship-owners and create a system of compulsory liability insurance. The ship-owner is normally entitled to limit his liability to an amount which is linked to the tonnage of his ship. The regime of liability and the funds created by the 1971 and 1992 Conventions are analyzed in detail. Are studied as following: the concepts of pollution damage and the safeguard measures or preventive measures, the question of receivability for compensation demands (damage to properties, cleansing operations, costs, economic loss). The question of compensation conditions for the only economic loss and the damage to environment are tackled. This expose is concluded by enlightening the contribution brought by the previously named Conventions to the International law about the civil liability. (N.C.)

  15. The New International Nuclear Liability Conventions: Status of their Implementation into National Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade or so, a number of significant improvements have been made to the international nuclear liability regimes. The first major advancement was the adoption, in September 1997, of the Protocol to amend the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (VC Protocol) and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC). This was followed, in February 2004, by the adoption of Protocols to amend both the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (PC Protocol) and the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention (BSC Protocol). The principle goal of these new instruments is to provide more compensation to more victims in respect of more types of nuclear damage suffered than ever before. A second objective, at least for the VC and PC Protocols, is to maintain compatibility between the Paris and Vienna Conventions, thereby ensuring the smooth functioning of the 1988 Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention (VC) and the Paris Convention (PC). In addition, both Vienna and Paris Convention States wish to ensure that the newly revised Conventions will not prevent them from joining the global liability and compensation regime established by the CSC, should they so wish. However, one wonders to what extent these new instruments will attract a sufficient number of adherents to make them truly effective. While the VC Protocol is already in force, it has drawn surprisingly little support from the 1963 Vienna Convention States and even less from those countries with important nuclear generating capacity but which have not yet joined any of the international nuclear liability and compensation instruments. For its part, and notwithstanding its adoption almost 10 years ago, the CSC has not yet entered into force and only the future will tell whether it ever will, particularly given its strict requirements in this regard. As for the PC and BSC

  16. Resolving Past Liabilities for Future Reduction in Greenhouse Gases; Nuclear Energy and the Outstanding Federal Liability of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Jay

    This thesis will: (1) examine the current state of nuclear power in the U.S.; (2) provide a comparison of nuclear power to both existing alternative/renewable sources of energy as well as fossil fuels; (3) dissect Standard Contracts created pursuant to the National Waste Policy Act (NWPA), Congress' attempt to find a solution for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and the designation of Yucca Mountain as a repository; (4) the anticipated failure of Yucca Mountain; (5) explore WIPP as well as attempts to build a facility on Native American land in Utah; (6) examine reprocessing as a solution for SNF used by France and Japan; and, finally, (7) propose a solution to reduce GHG's by developing new nuclear energy plants with financial support from the U.S. government and a solution to build a storage facility for SNF through the sitting of a repository based on a "bottom-up" cooperative federalism approach.

  17. Focus on the future of nuclear liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main nuclear liability principles are examined. Then, aspects newly introduced by the 1997 Convention on Supplementary Compensation and by the new austrian nuclear liability law are studied. Then general deliberations on the extent and the limits of a civil nuclear liability regime are tackled. (N.C.)

  18. Liability for environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1. January 1991 the Environment Liability Law is in force. It aims at compensating and avoiding environmental damages. This booklet presents terminology and liability preconditions; liability exclusions and limitations; causality proof; extent of compensation obligations; financial security provisions; insurability problems. The political legislative intent is correct, however, a collective concept replacing liability will be necessary: In those case where the state cannot guarantee environmental protection, and legislation cannot take care of indemnification, another basis for realizable titles to compensation have to be created. Also dealt with are the particularities for nuclear risks - liability for installations pursuant to the Paris Convention; other liability; financial security in connection with nuclear liability risk. (HSCH)

  19. Civilian nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

  20. The question of exclusive liability - Austria's response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation examines the Austrian approach to the international nuclear third party liability regime, particularly in light of the recent adoption of comprehensive national legislation reviewing the principles which underlie that regime. The author outlines the historical circumstances leading to the turning point in Austrian nuclear policy on 5 November 1978, when the Austrian electorate rejected the nuclear power option by a very slim majority. He notes that the 1964 Law on Nuclear Third Party Liability was adopted at a time when the legislator's prevailing objective was to promote nuclear energy, and that its outmoded concepts were subject to criticism in the 1990's. The author, having set out the reasons behind the adoption of the new legislation in 1999, presents its main features, including in particular those which run counter to certain well established principles set out in the Paris, Brussels and Vienna Conventions. These include the principle of the exclusive liability of the operator and the jurisdiction of the courts of the State in which the nuclear incident occurs. He explains that Austria wished to retract those privileges previously granted to constructors and suppliers, due to their complete exemption from liability in respect of goods delivered and services rendered. The author concludes by highlighting Austria's intention to closely follow and participate in negotiations and developments in the international nuclear third party liability regime, with a view to substantially increasing liability amounts available. He notes that Austria's participation in the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention or the Convention on Supplementary Compensation depends on their eventual entry into force and ratification by nuclear states, while confirming that Austria would be prepared to reconsider its non participation in the Paris and Brussels regime if substantial developments were made during the revision of these Conventions. (author)

  1. Nuclear liability act and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Liability Act, enacted in June 1970 and proclaimed effective October 11, 1976, is a federal law governing civil liability for nuclear damage in Canada incorporating many of the basic principles of the international conventions. Exceptions to operator liability for breach of duty imposed by the Act and duty of the operator as well as right of recourse, time limit on bringing actions, special measures for compensation and extent of territory over which the operator is liable are of particular interest. An operator must maintain $75,000,000. of insurance for each nuclear installation for which he is the operator. The Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada (NIAC) administers two ΣPoolsΣ or groups of insurance companies where each member participates for the percentage of the total limit on a net basis, one pool being for Physical Damage Insurance and the other for Liability Insurance. The Atomic Energy Control Board recommends to the Treasury Board the amount of insurance (basic) for each installation. Basic insurance required depends on the exposure and can range from $4 million for a fuel fabricator to $75 million for a power reactor. Coverage under the Operator's Policy provides for bodily injury, property damage and various other claims such as damage from certain transportation incidents as well as nuclear excursions. Workmen's Compensation will continue to be handled by the usual channels. (L.L.)

  2. Flooding and sinking of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to land-based power plants for ship reactors the marine environment brings up the peril of sinking. But this peril is low for nuclear ships with its high safety standard. An evaluation of casualties from 1964 - 1974 for ships>8000 GRT allows to estimate a very low sink probability for nuclear ships in the range of 10-7 to 10-8 p.a. In spite of this low probability a sinking cannot be excluded absolutely. Therefore passive means must be provided for sinking in deep waters: to maintain the integrity of at least one enclosure as activity barrier; to supply seawater into the safety containment for decay heat removal. For sinking in shallow waters and flooding at least one of the redundant decay heat removal systems including power supply stays operable. A mathematical tool is available for the design of flood openings of sufficient cross sections to flood the containment and to reach a pressure balance in case of postulated sinking in deep waters of any depth

  3. Report of the Panel on Nuclear Standards Needed for Neutron Cross Section Measurements. Brussels, Belgium, 8-12 May 1967. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), in September of 1965, recommended to the International Atomic Energy Agency that a panel be convened to examine the nuclear standards needed for neutron cross section measurements. The accuracy requirements for cross sections of structural and fuel materials needed for the design of nuclear reactors and for precision neutron dosimetry have fostered an interest in the selection and investigation of standard cross sections and in the neutron flux measuring techniques. A Panel met in Brussels during the second week of May 1967 to review the problems and progress associated with these standards activities, and to make specific recommendations concerning these matters to the IAEA. This Panel consisted of 23 scientists representing 11 countries, European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the IAEA, and Bureau International des Poids and Mesures (BIPM). The field of neutron cross section standards is not one in which rapid progress can be expected. Very rarely is there a breakthrough to initiate a spectacular advance; on the contrary it is necessary to depend upon persistent application of effort to effect gradual improvements in accuracies or the clearing up of aggravating discrepancies. Despite this, however, the progress of recent years has been very encouraging. There are no doubt many reasons for this, but three are worthy of mention here. First the Symposium on Neutron Flux Standards in the 1-100 keV Region held at Oxford, United Kingdom, 1963, suggested and strongly supported by the European American Nuclear Data Committee (EANDC), certainly stimulated much activity in the field. Second, the EANDC itself has kept a watchful eye on the subsequent activity and has made sure that the interest has been sustained. Third, the recognized Standards laboratories in several countries have become more aware of the problems and are rapidly becoming major contributors to the field. The Panel of which the present report is the

  4. Extending the Life Time of a Nuclear Power Plant: Impact on Nuclear Liabilities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant (NPP operators have several basic long-term liabilities. Such liabilities include storage, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste generated at the operators’ NPP, storage and management of nuclear fuel irradiated in the reactor of the operator’s NPP (“spent fuel”, disposal of the spent fuel (SF or residues resulting from spent fuel reprocessing. Last but not least, the operator is liable for decommissioning its nuclear facilities. If the operator considers extending the life time of its NPP or if the construction of a new NPP is being evaluated by an investor, an integral part of the economic evaluation must be a comprehensive assessment of future incremental costs related to the above-mentioned long-term liabilities. An economic evaluation performed by standard methods (usually NPV, alternatively real options leads to a decision either to proceed with the project or to shelve it. If the investor decides to go ahead with the project there can be an immediate impact on nuclear liabilities. The impact is not the same for all operator liabilities. Depending on the valid legislation and the nature of the liability, in some cases the extent of the liability must be immediately recalculated when a decision is made to proceed with the project, and the annual accrual of accumulated reserves / funds must be adjusted. In other cases, the change in liability is linked to the generation of additional radioactive waste or spent fuel. In the Czech Republic, responsibility for each of the nuclear liabilities is defined, as is the form in which the financial means are to be accumulated. This paper deals with the impact of NPP life time extension (alternatively NPP power up-rate or construction of a new NPP on individual nuclear liabilities in the conditions of the Czech Republic. 

  5. On the Foundations of the Brussels Operational-Realistic Approach to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-05-01

    The scientific community is becoming more and more interested in the research that applies the mathematical formalism of quantum theory to model human decision-making. In this paper, we provide the theoretical foundations of the quantum approach to cognition that we developed in Brussels. These foundations rest on the results of two decade studies on the axiomatic and operational-realistic approaches to the foundations of quantum physics. The deep analogies between the foundations of physics and cognition lead us to investigate the validity of quantum theory as a general and unitary framework for cognitive processes, and the empirical success of the Hilbert space models derived by such investigation provides a strong theoretical confirmation of this validity. However, two situations in the cognitive realm, `question order effects' and `response replicability', indicate that even the Hilbert space framework could be insufficient to reproduce the collected data. This does not mean that the mentioned operational-realistic approach would be incorrect, but simply that a larger class of measurements would be in force in human cognition, so that an extended quantum formalism may be needed to deal with all of them. As we will explain, the recently derived `extended Bloch representation' of quantum theory (and the associated `general tension-reduction' model) precisely provides such extended formalism, while remaining within the same unitary interpretative framework.

  6. Formal safety assessment and application of the navigation simulators for preventing human error in ship operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has encouraged its member countries to introduce Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) for ship operations since the end of the last century. FSA can be used through certain formal assessing steps to generate effective recommendations and cautions to control marine risks and improve the safety of ships. On the basis of the brief introduction of FSA, this paper describes the ideas of applying FSA to the prevention of human error in ship operations. It especially discusses the investigation and analysis of the information and data using navigation simulators and puts forward some suggestions for the introduction and development of the FSA research work for safer ship operations.

  7. Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modernisation of international conventions governing third-party liability in the nuclear field is essentially an attempt to resolve certain shortcomings whilst setting out higher compensation sums and extending the cover for nuclear damage for which compensation is payable. The latest convention revisions occurred in 2004 and led to the adoption of protocols amending the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention supplementing the Paris Convention. However, the substance of the current regimes is largely the result of conventions drawn up in the 1960's and, in the eyes of the general public, the changes made in 2004 are mainly concerned with increasing the compensation sums. Despite the proposed increases in the compensation amounts, there is certainly no doubt that the potential costs of a major nuclear accident will not be fully covered by the revised Conventions. In other words, the actual compensation amount in the event of nuclear damage is quite low if we refer back to known events. By way of example, the direct cost of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident is estimated to be above EUR 100 billion according to different sources. The accident virtually bankrupted the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) immediately after this event. The economic costs of the Chernobyl accident, however, are difficult to assess even now. But, according to various sources, the costs also exceed USD 100 billion. The Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl accidents share common characteristics. First, the amount of damage could have been even higher had the accident occurred close to major population centres or if the wind direction at the time of the accident had been different. Second, no compensation was provided by the insurance world. Further, these two accidents did not occur within the framework of the new amended conventions (the latest revision of the Paris Convention has still not taken effect). These

  8. Sino-American seminar on nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sino-American Seminar on Nuclear Liability was held in Beijing, People's Republic of China from April 26-27, 2000, and co-sponsored by Chinese Nuclear Society and U.S. Nuclear Energy Institute. The topics of the meeting were the follows: 1. Current U.S. Nuclear Liability Regime; 2. Current Chinese Nuclear Liability Regime; 3. Comparison of U.S. and Other Nuclear Liability Regime; International Nuclear Liability Conventions; 4. Role of Nuclear Insurance in U.S.; 5. Chinese Nuclear Insurance and Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool; 6. How nuclear Liability Practices Have Been Implemented in U.S.; U.S. Nuclear Claims Experience; 7. Liability for On-Site Nuclear Property Damage

  9. Nuclear liability in the course of transport - some insurance aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with some legal and practical problems in the transport liability field, problems the author has met over the years as an insurer of nuclear risks. The intention is not to give a presentation of the nuclear liability rules as such, which should be familiar to the reader, neither to give an overall survey of the insurance procedures as regards transport of nuclear substances. It will just point out a few questions that are typical for this kind of business and that might be of interest for those who in one way or another might be involved in the insurance of nuclear transports

  10. 1997 Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This consolidated text of the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage as amended by the 1997 protocol thereto has been established by the Secretariat of the IAEA as required by that protocol. The consolidated text does not have final clauses of its own. A State wishing to adhere to the 1963 Vienna Convention as amended by the 1997 protocol may do so by adhering to the 1997 protocol in accordance with its terms. Reference to the 'Protocol' in this consolidated text means the 1997 'Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage'

  11. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  12. Enhancing of Carriers’ Liabilities in the Rotterdam Rules – Too Expensive Costs for Navigational Safety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sooksripaisarnkit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea (the ‘Rotterdam Rules’ was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 11 December 2008. The Rotterdam Rules contain two oft-criticised changes from the existing regime governing international carriage of goods widely adopted among maritime nations, namely the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to Bills of Lading, Brussels, 25 August 1924 (the ‘Hague Rules’ and its subsequent Protocol in 1968 (the ‘Visby Protocol’ or the ‘Hague-Visby Rules’. These changes are, namely, an extension of the carrier’s obligations to maintain seaworthy vessel throughout the voyage (Article 14 and a deletion of an exclusion of carrier’s liabilities due to negligent navigation (Article 17. This paper addresses implications of these changes and assess whether ship-owners and ship-operators can comply with these without having to incur excessive additional expenses.

  13. Harmonisation of Nuclear Liability in the European Union: Challenges, Options and Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Handrlica

    2009-01-01

    Recent discussions have identified gaps in the existing nuclear liability regimes in a more focused fashion. The so-called nuclear renaissance or nuclear new build1 cannot be limited to the mere multiplication of nuclear power plants. It must take place together with the creation and strengthening of legal frameworks for nuclear safety and radiation protection, security and safeguards. As the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) highli...

  14. Nuclear liability insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the German law on peaceful use of nuclear energy and the protection against damages and the Atomic-Coverage-Regulation Act. Liability and coverage of damages by insurance policy, mutual interest association or government liability-State Guarantee are also studied. In the last part, development of premiums and cost for damages in the period of 1957 - 1991 in the Federal Republic of Germany are given. 2 figs

  15. USING A CONTAINMENT VESSEL LIFTING APPARATUS FOR REMOTE OPERATIONS OF SHIPPING PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, Bradley [Savannah River National Laboratory; Koenig, Richard [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-08

    The 9977 and the 9975 shipping packages are used in various nuclear facilities within the Department of Energy. These shipping packages are often loaded in designated areas with designs using overhead cranes or A-frames with lifting winches. However, there are cases where loading operations must be performed in remote locations where these facility infrastructures do not exist. For these locations, a lifting apparatus has been designed to lift the containment vessels partially out of the package for unloading operations to take place. Additionally, the apparatus allows for loading and closure of the containment vessel and subsequent pre-shipment testing. This paper will address the design of the apparatus and the challenges associated with the design, and it will describe the use of the apparatus.

  16. Changes to the principles of nuclear liability and nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speaker proposes to give a summarized recall on the ordinary rules of liability and damage, by referring to the recent works by the NEA-IAEA as presented during the Helsinki meeting. Then he would compare them to that of nuclear liability and damages, as they currently stand, after the changes they went through, since such rules first appeared. Such comparison will allow the emphasis on differences which lead to question the relevance of these changes. (author)

  17. New law on extension of liability for nuclear obligations unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provisions of the draft law are highly relevant with regard to fundamental rights and do not stand up to the required proportionality scrutiny. The following fundamental rights are affected: Article 14 (1), (2) GG (German Basic Law): guaranteed right to property; Article 12 (1) GG: freedom of occupation; Article 9 (1) GG: freedom of association; Article 2 (1) GG: general freedom of action; Article 3 (1) GG: equality before the law. In view of the German system of contingency reserves, which is tried and tested in practice and which has been working for 40 years without objections or failure, the envisaged provisions are not necessary, to begin with. If the draft law such as it is today became actual legislation, this would evidently be contrary to the constitution.

  18. Building of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System development of the simulator for the integral type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAERI had carried out the design study of a light-weight and compact integral type reactor of power 100 MWth with passive safety as a power source for the future nuclear ships, and completed an engineering design. To confirm the design and operation performance and to utilize the study of automation of the operations of reactor, we developed a real-time simulator for the integral type reactor. This simulator is a part of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and on the same hardware as 'Mutsu' simulator which was developed to simulate the first Japanese nuclear ship Mutsu'. Simulation accuracy of 'Mutsu' simulator was verified by comparing the simulation results With data got in the experimental voyage of 'Mutsu'. The simulator for the integral type reactor uses the same programs which were used in 'Mutsu' simulator for the separate type PWR, and the simulated results are approximately consistent with the calculated values using RELAP5/MOD2 (The later points are reported separately). Therefore simulation accuracy of the simulator for the integral type reactor is also expected to be reasonable, though it is necessary to verify by comparing with the real plant data or experimental data in future. We can get the perspectives to use as a real-time engineering simulator and to achieve the above-mentioned aims. This is a report on development of the simulator for the integral type reactor mainly focused on the contents of the analytical programs expressed the structural features of reactor. (author)

  19. Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage was adopted on 21 May 1963 and was opened for signature on the same day. It entered into force on 12 November 1977, i.e. three months after the date of deposit with the Director General of the fifth instrument of ratification, in accordance with Article 23

  20. A critical review of the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime. The Nuclear Security Act (Law 18.302), enacted in 1984, and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, ratified ed by Chile in 1989, are the fundamental laws of the current regime. Although Chile has no nuclear power plants, it is still important to analyze how the Chilean legislation would protect citizens from nuclear damages. This paper does not consider the policy reasons for and against the promotion of atomic energy. Rather, it critically examines the current status of the Chilean nuclear regime. Undoubtedly, if in the future Chile chooses to include nuclear sources in its energy mix, it will not be enough to introduce some isolated legal amendments, but it will be necessary to build a new Chilean Energy Regime which includes nuclear energy. In that scenario, though, it will be useful to know and understand how the current nuclear liability regime works. From this point of view, the reforms this article proposes to the current nuclear liability regime might be helpful to academics and policy makers alike

  1. The renovated international nuclear third party liability regime: the Italian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Italy, traditionally a party to the Paris/Brussels system, signed the two new conventions as early as October 1997, in a mere gesture of 'good will' but intended to give concrete expression to its determination to participate in the general effort to create a global regime of nuclear third party liability. Italy regards this as a target to be pursued independently of its own choice as to a nuclear power programme, in that such a regime, if adequate, is beneficial to all countries involved, whether they are producers or potential victims. We therefore attach the utmost importance to the current revision of the Paris Convention, (the other pillar of the whole system and decisive for the desired uniformity of the system) as well as to the revision of the Brussels Supplementary Convention, whenever it might be felt that this revision should be pursued. The achievement of a true global regime is all the more important as a minimum goal, considering that Italy - just as other countries - has always stressed the need for a comprehensive regime of nuclear liability covering also the international liability of States. This kind of liability, in fact, is referred to by a provision in the new Conventions, which is merely intended to leave general public international law unaffected, and therefore meets only in part and indirectly the international liability of States issue in the nuclear sector. (author)

  2. NEL-PIA: insurance for the nuclear industry. [Nuclear Energy Liability-Property Insurance Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    NEL-PIA (Nuclear Energy Liability-Property Insurance Association) is a voluntary, unincorporated association of insurance companies formed for the purpose of accumulating the capacity required to provide property and liability insurance protection at a fair price to the nuclear energy industry and at a reasonable profit to its participating companies. It provides a broad range of engineering services to its customers in the areas of loss prevention, risk evaluation, and quality assurance; acts promptly and equitably to settle losses and adjust claims, engages in nuclear energy safety standards development; cedes and accepts reinsurance in the worldwide nuclear energy insurance market; maintains liaison with governmental agencies, trade associations, and other organizations associated with the nuclear energy industry; supports the concept of nuclear energy as a viable source of electric power; maintains a responsive attitude and meaningful liaison with its customers and producers; and is guided in its decisions and actions by a long range point of view. The NEL-PIA was formed in 1974 through the merger of the Nuclear Energy Liability Insurance Association and the Nuclear Energy Property Insurance Association, both of which started writing insurance in 1957. NEL-PIA works closely with the Mutual Atomic Energy Reinsurance Pool and the Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters, who, as of January 1976, have the capability of providing up to $300 million for a single risk. More than 45 percent (in 1975) was reinsured overseas by foreign nuclear insurance pools, by individual reinsurers, and reinsurance syndicates. Operations, management, and the future of the NEL-PIA are summarized. (MCW)

  3. Civil liability versus state liability in case of a nuclear incident - some thoughts inspired by the Vienna Convention revision exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The juridical reconstruction involved in the current work in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage is not simply a matter of re-surfacing the edifice of private law liability. It has also led certain architects to draw up plans for the foundations of a regime of State responsibility in this field, based on the strict liability of States to compensate for transfrontier damage. Following the post-Chernobyl stocktaking by the author and Otto von Busckist for the Tokyo Congress in 1989, this report sets out to analyse the question of the implementation of States' liability in the case of a nuclear accident, from the viewpoints of positive law, the work of the International Law Commission and specific aspects linked to the nuclear risk. It also examines the proposals in this regard deposited with the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage. (author)

  4. Civil liability for nuclear damage law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Law has as its main objective to regulate civic responsability on damages or injuries that may be brought about by the usage of nuclear reactors and the use of nuclear substances or fuels and their consecuent wastes. The text of this law is consituted by 5 chapters that deal with the following subjects: CHAPTER ONE.- Objective and Definitions. CHAPTER TWO.-On Civic Responsability on Nuclear Damages or Injuries. CHAPTER THREE.- On the Limits of Responsability. CHAPTER FOUR.- On Prescription. CHAPTER FIVE.- General Regulations Concepts such as the following are defined concretely and precisely: Nuclear Accident, Nuclear Damage or Injury, Atomic Energy, Operator of a Nuclear Facility, Nuclear Facility, Radioactive Product or Waste Material, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Substances Remittance and Hazardous Nuclear Substance

  5. Legal aspects of merchant ships with nuclear propulsion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Status and prospects of using nuclear power plants for merchant ship propulsion are considered. Standard acts adopted in the USSR concerning nuclear power application on merchant ships and the problems of responsibility fo damage caused by utilization of nuclear power plants on sea ships are discussed. Nuclear ships compare favourably with ships using the traditional types of fuels in performance. At the same time despite high degree of nuclear ship reliability and safety extremely strict requirements making severe their legal status are specified to them

  6. Liability coverage under the Price-Anderson Act for high level waste shipments and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Price-Anderson Act provides the basis for a national system of liability protection for accidents arising out of nuclear activities. Private nuclear liability insurance and/or government indemnity is provided to certain Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees (principally operators of nuclear reactors) and certain Department of Energy (DOE) contractors (those whose activities DOE considers involve a risk of public liability for a substantial nuclear incident). As presently envisioned, both the coverage extended by the NRC to its licensees shipping spent fuel from reactors and the indemnity coverage extended by the DOE to its contractors operating a DOE repository under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act will be utilized to provide public liability protection for spent fuel shipments and disposal. Increased attention is being given to assuring a seamless web of protection provided under the Price-Anderson Act to Federal licensees and contractors

  7. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  8. Remediation of old environmental liabilities in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) after 55 years of activities in the nuclear field produced some environmental liabilities that shall be remedied. There are three areas of remediation: (1) decommissioning of old obsolete facilities (e.g. decay tanks, RAW treatment technology, special sewage system), (2) processing of RAW from operation and dismantling of nuclear facilities, and (3) elimination of spent fuel from research nuclear reactors operated by the NRI. The goal is to remedy the environmental liabilities and eliminate the potential negative impact on the environment. Remediation of the environmental liabilities started in 2003 and will be finished in 2014. The character of the environmental liabilities is very specific and requires special remediation procedures. Special technologies are being developed with assistance of external subcontractors. The NRI has gained many experiences in the field of RAW management and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and will use its facilities, experienced staff and all relevant data needed for the successful realization of the remediation. The most significant items of environmental liabilities are described in the paper together with information about the history, the current state, the progress, and the future activities in the field of remediation of environmental liabilities in the NRI. (author)

  9. Romania. Law on civil liability for nuclear damage (3 december 2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this law is to regulate civil liability for the compensation of damage resulting from activities involving the utilisation of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. It governs relations in respect of civil liability for nuclear damage, establishes the rules and procedures for compensation for damage caused by a nuclear incident, defines the methods of ensuring financial security of civil liability and establishes its limits. (N.C.)

  10. Ukraine. Law on civil liability for nuclear damage and its financial security (13 december 2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this law is to regulate civil liability for the compensation of damage resulting from activities involving the utilisation of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. It governs relations in respect of civil liability for nuclear damage, establishes the rules and procedures for compensation for damage caused by a nuclear incident, defines the methods of ensuring financial security of civil liability and establishes its limits. (N.C.)

  11. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.)

  12. The ERICAM model: a proposal for amelioration of nuclear liability by funding on the capital markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ERICAM model (Environmental Risk Internalization through Capital Markets) includes the capital markets as a source contributing to the coverage of risks due to nuclear activites, thus enhancing the effectiveness and functions of the nuclear liability law. The model proposed will allow higher amounts for compensation and will increase financial security, flow of information, and efficient use of resources. The implementation of the model can be achieved on the financing side by issuing Nuke bonds, linking accident-specific options to government bonds. This will essentially increase the risk coverage compared to present means, and will be a pin-pointed addition to the existing layer system. There are three institutions proposed to act as mediators in the implementation of the model: A government authority to supervise the trade in Nuke bonds. Risk-bearing associations in oder to enhance the model's efficiency, and to reduce transaction costs. Rating agencies that will reduce the expenditure for information. (orig./HP)

  13. Law no. 6.453 of 17th October, 1977 on civil liability for nuclear damage and criminal responsibility for acts relating to nuclear activities, and other provisions; Lei no. 6.453, de 17 de outubro de 1977. Dispoe sobre a responsabilidade civil por danos nucleares e a responsabilidade criminal por atos relacionados com atividades nucleares e da outras providencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-10-17

    This Act was published on 17 october 1977. Under the Act the operator of a nuclear installation is exclusively liable regardless of fault for compensation of nuclear damage due to a nuclear incident. This exclusive liability is limited to an amount equal to 1,500,000 Treasury Bonds and the operator must take out the maintain insurance or other financial security to cover his liability. The Federative Government will guarantee, up to the prescribed limit, payment of compensation for nuclear damage where it is acknowledged that the operator's liability is involved. As regards apportionment of compensation, persons are granted priority over property. This Act is original in that it contains provisions on criminal liability with penalties ranging from two to ten years imprisonment.

  14. Mining of Ship Operation Data for Energy Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jóan Petur

    model is introduces through a study of the wellknown sunspot time series, and then on ship data. The dynamical modelling approach is investigated using both the Artificial Neural Network and the Gaussian mixture model. The thesis also presentes a novel and publicly available data set of high quality...... sensory data on which all the models are based and tested. No other similar publicly available data set exists. The data presented is a publicly available full-scale data set, with a whole range of features sampled over a period of 2 months. The data is online with an accompanying homepage, where all the...

  15. The Indian civil liability for nuclear damage act, 2010. Legislation with flaws?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. India has had no special legislation so far about liability under civil law for nuclear damage. Instead, the general law about damages outside of contractual provisions applied. 2. The ambitious Indian civil nuclear program requires intensified international cooperation. The potential partners in that cooperation demand that liability regulations be adopted on the basis of the principles of the international nuclear liability conventions so as to grant legal assurance to their export industries. 3. In May 2010, draft liability legislation was introduced into the Indian parliament. Final deliberations were held on August 30, 2010. On September 21, 2010, the President confirmed the draft legislation, thereby making it law. The draft legislation had been a matter of dispute in India from the outset. 4. The law applies to nuclear facilities owned or controlled by the Indian central government. Only the government or government institutions or state-owned companies can be owners of a nuclear facility. The owner is liable without fault having to be proven. The details of liability follow the provisions of the liability conventions. 5. The law provides for legal channelling of liability to the owner of a nuclear facility. 6. Regular courts of law have no competence to rule about claims for damages under the law. Instead, a 'Claims Commissioner' appointed ad hoc by the government, or a 'Nuclear Claims Commission,' are competent. 7. The 2010 Indian nuclear liability law is a piece of legislation with deficiencies. Key elements are incompatible with the principles of international nuclear liability regimes. (orig.)

  16. Technical issues in the international acceptance of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international movement of nuclear merchant ships on a regular basis requires expeditions and precedent-setting administrative procedures. Special nuclear constraints and safety issues have been considered and identified by the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD; recommendations for a code of conduct for nuclear ships is now being considered by IMCO. This paper discusses typical technical safety issues and the measures being taken to solve them in advance of the general usage of nuclear merchant ships

  17. Nuclear Liability Legislation in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains a basic data about the legislation referring to third party liability for nuclear damage in Croatia. It also, gives some drafting provisions in the Croatian Nuclear Liability Act, but only those which implements a substantial changes compared to the Act currently in force. (author)

  18. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships.

  19. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships

  20. Nuclear liability conventions and transport: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the international nuclear liability conventions and their applicability to transport, with particular emphasis on the coverage for international shipments already provided under the IAEA's Vienna Convention (including the 1997 Protocol) and the 1997 Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The paper draws upon extensive knowledge of and experience with nuclear liability and transport matters. In particular, the paper outlines the advantages of expanding adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to the existing IAEA nuclear liability conventions. It also outlines the scope of available supplier's and transporter's nuclear liability insurance. (author)

  1. Paris and Vienna nuclear liability conventions: challenges for insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insurers have actively contributed to the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. In the course of these negotiations they have pointed out that some of the proposals for revision may have consequences for insurers and could prove incapable of finding insurance support. This paper aims at explaining the revision related points, which could cause problems in respect of insurability. Furthermore, the writer takes the liberty to expand its scope to more generally include developments, which have the potential to influence the availability of insurance capacity. Therefore, also the insurance implications of terrorist acts combined with share market developments of recent years will be dealt with.(author)

  2. Liability and compensation for nuclear damage. An international overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential hazards of nuclear power have been acknowledged since the inception of the nuclear power industry. While the risks of accidents are low, the consequences may be both severe and widespread, affecting the populations and environment of many countries. This book describes the legal regime established to deal with the aftermath of a nuclear accident and the reappraisal of that regime following the Chernobyl disaster. It focuses particularly on the international regime, but includes an account of certain national legislations and of system of nuclear liability insurance. Schedules provide texts of the major international nuclear liability conventions. (Authors)

  3. The compensation convention. Path to a global regime for dealing with legal liability and compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Compensation Convention) opens a new chapter in international nuclear liability law. The Compensation Convention provides the world community with the opportunity to deal with legal liability and compensation for nuclear damage through a global regime that includes all countries that operate nuclear power plants (nuclear power generating countries) and most countries that do not operate nuclear power plants (non-nuclear power generating countries). Such a global regime can remove legal uncertainty as an impediment to (1) ensuring the highest level of safety in nuclear activities and (2) arranging international co-operation in nuclear projects, while guaranteeing the availability of meaningful compensation in the event of a nuclear incident. The features of the Compensation Convention that creates the opportunity for a global regime are described. Some of the provisions in the Convention that underlie these features are presented. (author)

  4. Building of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System development of the simulator for the integral type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Teruo; Shimazaki, Junya; Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Fukuhara, Yosifumi; Kusunoki, Takeshi; Ochiai, Masaaki [Department of Nuclear Energy Systems, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakazawa, Toshio [Department of HTTR Project, Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    JAERI had carried out the design study of a light-weight and compact integral type reactor of power 100 MW{sub th} with passive safety as a power source for the future nuclear ships, and completed an engineering design. To confirm the design and operation performance and to utilize the study of automation of the operations of reactor, we developed a real-time simulator for the integral type reactor. This simulator is a part of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and on the same hardware as 'Mutsu' simulator which was developed to simulate the first Japanese nuclear ship Mutsu'. Simulation accuracy of 'Mutsu' simulator was verified by comparing the simulation results With data got in the experimental voyage of 'Mutsu'. The simulator for the integral type reactor uses the same programs which were used in 'Mutsu' simulator for the separate type PWR, and the simulated results are approximately consistent with the calculated values using RELAP5/MOD2 (The later points are reported separately). Therefore simulation accuracy of the simulator for the integral type reactor is also expected to be reasonable, though it is necessary to verify by comparing with the real plant data or experimental data in future. We can get the perspectives to use as a real-time engineering simulator and to achieve the above-mentioned aims. This is a report on development of the simulator for the integral type reactor mainly focused on the contents of the analytical programs expressed the structural features of reactor. (author)

  5. Study of the legal problems raised by the siting of nuclear power stations in artificial islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creation and operation of a nuclear power station on an artificial island in French waters are governed by domestic law and are subject to two types of procedure: the first concerns erection of the artificial island and the second the control of the public authorities over creation and operation of the nuclear power station. At administrative level, the setting up of an artificial island requires that it be attached to a commune as well as permission for occupancy from the maritime authorities. Furthermore, setting up of a nuclear power station on an artificial island is subject to the licensing procedure for large nuclear installations and to delivery of the licenses required for release of gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents. Given the proximity of the high seas and eventually, the borders of other States, siting of a nuclear power station on an artificial island imposes obligations at international level. These requirements, which concern prevention of transfrontier pollution, stem from the London (1972) and Paris (1974) Conventions on marine pollution. The third party liability regime for a nuclear incident caused by an installation sited in territorial seas is that of the 1960 Paris Convention on third party liability in the nuclear field and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention. Another problem likely to be raised is that of the right of innocent passage of ships near such installations

  6. Optional Protocol concerning the compulsory settlement of disputes to the Vienna Convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Optional Protocol Concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 21 May 1963 by the International Conference held in Vienna from 29 April to 19 May 1963. It came into force on 13 May 1999

  7. BNFL nuclear decommissioning liabilities management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to describe BNFL's policy and strategy for decommissioning and also to summarize the overall scope of nuclear liabilities in the wider field of waste retrieval and storage, as well as the dismantling and demolition aspects of decommissioning. BNFL's recently established organisational arrangements for discharging all types of these liabilities are explained, together with a review of practical progress in dealing with them. Organisational changes in recent years have amalgamated decommissioning work with operations covering waste storage and retrieval operations. A strategy of minimising residual activity in shutdown plants is pursued, followed by dismantling and demolition on appropriate time scales to minimise risk and cost. Since April 1995, a new BNFL subsidiary, Nuclear Liabilities Management Company Limited has taken responsibility for discharge of BNFL's Waste Retrieval and Decommissioning liabilities on all BNFL sites. NLM has the objectives of optimal and lowest cost management of liabilities and much clearer segregation of physical operations from project specification and planning. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) policy, strategy, work programmes and progress for the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are also outlined. MoD/AEA has established an equivalent strategy for dealing with its liabilities. (J.S.). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 appends

  8. Prospects of small nuclear plants utilization for civil ships, floating heat and power stations and power-seawater desalination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small power nuclear reactor plants are widely used in Russia for nuclear ice-breakers and cargo ships, which operations for a long time provides life sustaining and economic development of regions in Russia's at extreme North and Far East. They have a real prospects of further utilization. Successful experience of small power propulsion reactor plants operation in nuclear ice-breakers and other civil ships gives grounds to recommend them as energy sources for floating heat and power co-generation stations and floating power-seawater desalination complexes. Based on the advanced propulsion nuclear steam supply system a leading co-generation nuclear station with floating power unit is currently being created in Russia, for deployment at port of Peveck in Chuckot national district, which may be a prototype of a floating power unit for power desalination complex

  9. Nuclear liability claims experience of the nuclear insurance pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the advance preparations the insurance pools had made and how this preparation affected the actual response to the Three Mile Island accident. Key features of the response were a channel of strict liability to the plant operator and the requirement of financial protection to cover all interests. This helped to reduce the high claims handling costs that are usually associated with the conventional tort system. The report supports the premise that Price-Anderson's concern is primarily for the potential large-scale accident. Expect for the Three Mile Island accident, members of the public have brought suit against reactor operators only three times, and these were the result of normal operations

  10. Standardized analyses of nuclear shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes improved capabilities for analyses of nuclear fuel shipping containers within SCALE -- a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Criticality analysis improvements include the new KENO V, a code which contains an enhanced geometry package and a new control module which uses KENO V and allows a criticality search on optimum pitch (maximum k-effective) to be performed. The SAS2 sequence is a new shielding analysis module which couples fuel burnup, source term generation, and radial cask shielding. The SAS5 shielding sequence allows a multidimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a shipping cask with code generated biasing of the particle histories. The thermal analysis sequence (HTAS1) provides an easy-to-use tool for evaluating a shipping cask response to the accident capability of the SCALE system to provide the cask designer or evaluator with a computational system that provides the automated procedures and easy-to-understand input that leads to standarization

  11. Through the looking glass: placing India's new civil liability regime for nuclear damage in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until India adopted the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010 (Liability Act) and the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Rules, 2011 (Liability Rules or Rules), no specific legislation was in place to govern nuclear liability or to compensate victims for damages due to a nuclear incident in India. Before delving into a more legal-technical analysis of the Liability Act and Rules (Part B), it is worth first briefly touching upon India's general energy situation, which necessarily influences India's policies, laws and negotiating strategies while also driving the significant business opportunities in the nuclear energy sector (Part A). Taking a look at India's energy sector today also underscores the sheer size of India's plans to build new nuclear power plants, which stands in dramatic contrast to the goals of many other countries. In this article, we will address the relationship of the Liability Act with the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) (Part C), while also touching upon the current status of an Indian nuclear insurance pool (Part D) and discussing some recent domestic developments, including the filing of public interest litigations and amendments to the Liability Rules (Part E), before presenting some concluding thoughts (Part F)

  12. Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . As directed by the plan, the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) made recommendations in June 2012 to facilitate the achievement of such a global regime. 2 More recently, the Joint Statement on Liability for Nuclear Damage signed by France and the United States in August 2013, the G20 Leaders’ Declaration of September 2013, 4 and the Franco-Russian Nuclear Power Declaration signed in November 2013 encourage multilateral co-operation towards achieving a global nuclear liability regime. (author)

  13. The Resolution of the Board of Governors on the establishment of maximum limits for the exclusion of small quantities of nuclear material from the application of the Vienna Convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document establishes the maximum limits for the total activity of radionuclides and some special provisions for fissile materials which are excluded from the application of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage while in international nuclear transport

  14. Nuclear liability under the Paris convention in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials are without any doubt dangerous materials, which may cause very important damages in case of an accident. Although the safety level in the transport of nuclear materials is very high if the corresponding regulations are fulfilled, it is impossible to absolutely exclude personal or material damages in case of an accident. This is why the necessary provisions must be made, to make sure claims for indemnity may be fulfilled. In order to improve the situation of potential victims of damages the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy has been established. This convention is based on two main characteristics: the principle of strict but limited liability and the channelling of liability to the so-called operator of the nuclear installation. Moreover a financial security is required to cover the third party nuclear liability. One cannot, however, talk of a uniform liability situation, as the Paris Convention concedes many exceptions to the signatory countries. This paper will present the situation from the German point of view, and the differences with other signatory countries will be shown. (author)

  15. Physics and life-business: Participation of IFIN-HH in ConvEX-3 Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper illustrates a less popular yet by no means less consequential task within IFIN-HH's public mission, namely - to provide scientific advice and technical support in the management of nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. The case in point is ConvEX-3, a 36-hour, 41-actor-countries international alert exercise conducted, May 2005, by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna and targeting a virtual accident at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Romania. A comprehensive Technical Report compiled in the aftermath of the exercise covers the results, as well as the ways and means at work, highlighting the productive complementarities of the two chief tools employed as assessment and decision support: RODOS (Real Time On-line Decision Support) - a 'major league' expert system based on fixed workstations, in development under an EC project and vying for a position of comprehensive, reference European tool 160 in nuclear emergency crises - for which IFIN-HH is the sole licensed operator in Romania; and RAT (Radiological Assessment Toolkit), a 'minor league' domestic counterpart operating at PC level, assembling a vademecum of, mainly U.S.-originated, reference models dwelling in radioactive inventories, source terms, environmental dispersion, dose and derived response levels, cadastral evaluation of impacts, and countermeasure assessment. (authors)

  16. Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage. Signatures, ratifications, accessions and successions and text of reservations/declarations. Status as of 31 December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document refers to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (IAEA-INFCIRC-500), giving the status of signatures, ratifications, accessions and successions, and the texts of reservations/declarations as of 31 December 1996

  17. Licensing requirements for nuclear merchant ships in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure of approval in the Federal Republic of Germany will be discussed, referring to the participated authorities and organizations. Rules and guidelines relevant for licensing are mentioned in the frame of legal positions. After presentation of general aspects of basic licensing requirements more detailed information is given relative to their accomplishment demonstrated on the German Nuclear Contained Ship NCS-80-Project

  18. The inventory of nuclear liabilities - A mission of public interest - 16317

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe management of a country's radioactive substances in both the short and the long term implies a cost to its present society and necessitates financial resources to cover these costs. Once they are needed, these financial resources may prove to be insufficient or even completely lacking, leading to a nuclear liability. By virtue of article 9 of the Belgian law of 12 December 1997, the Belgian Government wishes to avoid the occurrence of such nuclear liabilities. This law charges ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials with the mission to draw up a register of the localisation and the state of all nuclear sites and all sites containing radioactive substances, to estimate the costs of their decommissioning and remediation, to evaluate the existence and adequacy of the provisions for financing these future or current operations and to update the resulting inventory of nuclear liabilities on a five-yearly basis. This paper outlines the methodology put in place by ONDRAF/NIRAS to accomplish this assignment and highlights some of the results of this exercise. It than focuses on the main recommendations ONDRAF/NIRAS made to the Belgian Government on the field of avoiding potential nuclear liabilities. (authors)

  19. A new global regime of civil nuclear liability: Canadian membership in the international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is three-fold: (i) to provide information on the Canadian regime for third party nuclear liability; (ii) to provide an overview of current efforts to revise and update Canadian legislation in this area; and (iii) to present Canada's perspective on international nuclear liability and the prospect of joining one of the international conventions in the area. (author)

  20. Reviewing the justification and adequacy of existing legal principles governing nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a review of the legal principles governing nuclear third party liability which are applied in most countries, this paper discusses certain reforms to this regime which have already been applied or are being studied in certain countries - namely the fixing of an unlimited amount of liability for nuclear damage. (NEA)

  1. Liability and insurance of nuclear accident risk the swiss regulation in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we argue that compulsory insurance of nuclear liability should be extended. Most countries have explicit limitations of operators' liability, which also lie at the heart of international conventions. Moreover, there are implicit limitations imposed by operators' inability to pay where unlimited and strict liability applies. These limitations result in static and dynamic inefficiencies because they allow nuclear plant operators to eschew the risk costs of a severe nuclear accident. Extension of compulsory insurance, however, will exacerbate problems of market failure in insurance: National insurance pools have monopolized the business and are expected to exercise market power. Furthermore, their capacity may fall short of required coverage. Bringing in capital market investors can alleviate these problems. Nuclear liability insurance data from Switzerland provides statistical evidence in support of our main points. (authors)

  2. A Prototype of Ship Routing Decision Support System for an Operational Oceanographic Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianandrea Mannarini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A prototype for an operational ship routing Decision Support System using time-dependent meteo-oceanographic fields is presented. The control variable is ship course, which is modified using a directional resolution of less than 27 degrees. The shortest path is recovered using a modified Dijkstra’s algorithm. Safety restrictions for avoiding surfriding and parametric rolling according to the guidelines of the International Maritime Organization (IMO are implemented. Numerical experiments tailored on a medium-size vessel are presented and perspectives of development of the system are outlined.

  3. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor

  4. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  5. Liability for damage caused by terrorist attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  6. Sensors Systems for the Automation of Operations in the Ship Repair Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Fernández-Isla; Pedro María Alcover; Juan Suardíaz Muro; Pedro Javier Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Hull cleaning before repainting is a key operation in the maintenance of ships. For years, a method to improve such operation has been sought by means of the robotization of techniques such as grit blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting. Despite this, it continues to be standard practice in shipyards that this process is carried out manually because the developed robotized systems are too expensive to be widely accepted by shipyards. We have chosen to apply a more conservative and rea...

  7. Liability in the transport of nuclear material - Existing liability regimes and gaps in their coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two separate multilateral legal regimes covering liability for loss sustained as a result of harm incurred in incidents involving nuclear materials, including during their transportation by sea. Efforts have been made in recent years to clarify the relationship between them in order to develop a more coherent international regime but the situation remains complicated, unclear and inadequate. Complicated because there are two competing regimes with different memberships. Unclear because the scope of coverage under the two regimes is not identical. Inadequate because they do not assure coastal states suffering economic loss from an incident that they will not be left to bear the costs of such loss. (author)

  8. The law for Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agency intends to develop and research nuclear ships according to the principles of the atomic energy act and contribute to advance the utilization of atomic energy and the development of ship building and marine transportation. It shall be a juridical person, and its main office shall be in Tokyo Metropolis. Its capital shall be the sum of 100 million yen paid in by the government and the amounts invested by persons other than the government at the time of establishment. The agency may increase, if necessary, its capital with the approval of the competent minister. It shall define the following matters by its articles: object, name, the place of the office, the matters concerning capital, investments and assets, executives, advisers and meeting, business and its execution, finance and accounting, public announcement and the change of the articles. Its executives consist of a chief director, a representative director, directors not more than 3 and an auditor. The chief director and the auditor are appointed by the competent minister after hearing opinions of the Atomic Energy Commission. The representative and other directors are determined by the chief director with approval of the competent minister. The term of office is four years for the chief director, the representative director and other directors, and two years for the auditor. The agency performs business, such as study and research necessary for the development of nuclear ships, design, building and operation of these ships and the training of crew for these nuclear ships, etc. It is under the superintendence of the competent minister. (Okada, K.)

  9. Reassembling Procedure of the Fuel Assemblies for the Nuclear Power Ship ''Mutsu''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan's first voyage utilized by nuclear power was made by the nuclear powered ship ''Mutsu'' in 1990. After a research voyage in 1992, decommissioning work of the nuclear reactor for ''Mutsu'' was started to change it from the nuclear power ship to an ordinary power ship. Thirty-four irradiated fuel assemblies of ''Mutsu'' were removed from the reactor and transported to the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) in Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). ''Mutsu'' fuel assemblies were loaded into a hot cell of RFEF using the roof gate as the top loading procedure. After the reliability confirmation tests, fuel assemblies were reassembled for reprocessing. To perform the reliability confirmation tests and reassembling, new devices were developed and installed in the hot cells, ''Fuel assembly transportation device'' for transporting the fuel assemblies between the hot cells, ''Upper nozzle cutting device'' for removing the upper nozzle from the fuel assembly, ''Fuel rod drawing device'' for drawing a fuel rod from the fuel assembly and so on. Thirty-four fuel assemblies were reassembled as six PWR type fuel assemblies in order to adjust the acceptable specifications of the reprocessing plant in JAEA: the shape of fuel assembly is the same as the PWR type commercial reactor fuel and the average enrichment of uranium in the assembly is under 4.0%. This paper reports the reassembling techniques of the ''Mutsu'' irradiated fuel assemblies for reprocessing. (author)

  10. Development of Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem (NESSY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kyouya, Masahiko; Takahashi, Teruo; Kobayashi, Hideo; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1993-11-01

    NESSY has been developed for design studies of advanced marine reactors as a part of nuclear ship research and development since 1987. Engineering simulation model of the Mutsu, which is the first nuclear ship in Japan, was completed in March of 1993. In this report we concentration on detail description of softwares for Mutsu modeling. The aims of development of NESSY are as follows; (1) Assessment and confirmation on plant performance of an advanced marine reactor in each step of nuclear ship design (2) Development of abnormality diagnosis system and operator support system as a part of enhanced automization study, and study of human interface with hardware The characteristics of NESSY are the followings. (1) Total engineering simulation system simulate simultaneously ship motions, propulsion system behavior, and nuclear plant behavior under given weather and sea conditions. (2) Models based on physical theory as far as possible. (3) The simulator has high extensibility and flexibility. It is able to apply to other reactors, as the simulation model consists of the part of basic model and the part of plant data which are easy to change. After completion of Mutsu modeling, we are planning to utilize this system as one of design tools for an advanced marine reactor. (author).

  11. Development of Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem (NESSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NESSY has been developed for design studies of advanced marine reactors as a part of nuclear ship research and development since 1987. Engineering simulation model of the Mutsu, which is the first nuclear ship in Japan, was completed in March of 1993. In this report we concentration on detail description of softwares for Mutsu modeling. The aims of development of NESSY are as follows; (1) Assessment and confirmation on plant performance of an advanced marine reactor in each step of nuclear ship design (2) Development of abnormality diagnosis system and operator support system as a part of enhanced automization study, and study of human interface with hardware The characteristics of NESSY are the followings. (1) Total engineering simulation system simulate simultaneously ship motions, propulsion system behavior, and nuclear plant behavior under given weather and sea conditions. (2) Models based on physical theory as far as possible. (3) The simulator has high extensibility and flexibility. It is able to apply to other reactors, as the simulation model consists of the part of basic model and the part of plant data which are easy to change. After completion of Mutsu modeling, we are planning to utilize this system as one of design tools for an advanced marine reactor. (author)

  12. Guidance and decision-support system for safe navigation of ships operating in close proximity.

    OpenAIRE

    Husjord, Dagfinn

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies the control and operational aspects of Ship-to-Ship (STS) operations. The aim of this tool is to enhance the efficiency and safety of these operations. A stepwise approach has been selected. The first step includes specification, development and testing of the tool in a simulated work environment using full-mission simulators. In the second step the findings from application of the tool in the simulated work environment will be used to develop a prototype wh...

  13. Developments in international convention on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few years after the adoption of a Protocol to amend the world-wide Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a new ''global'' Convention on the Supplementary Compensation of Nuclear Damage (September 1997), the countries which are party to the Western Europe based Paris and Brussels Conventions are working on the revision of these instruments within the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The objective of this exercise is not only to preserve the compatibility of the Paris and Vienna provisions, which is now an imperative deriving from the application of the 1988 Joint Protocol linking these two Conventions, but also to substantially improve certain features of this regime such as its technical and geographical scope of application, the facilitation of the rights of victims to defend their claims and, of course, the level of funds effectively available to compensate the damage. This paper reviews briefly the recent evolution of the international nuclear liability regime and discusses some of the challenges which the nuclear countries are facing in this context. (author)

  14. Nuclear biomedical and hospital waste management at the University of Brussels (VUB): optimization in the Belgian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level nuclear waste (LLW) from biomedical research laboratories and from hospitals has specific characteristics, requiring a different management than the LLW from nuclear energy. Biomedical waste generally does not contain emitters and essentially consists of short-lived β/γ-emitters and a range of pure β-emitters, which are difficult to measure. Except for 3H and 14C, the radionuclides found in biomedical waste have half-lives less then 100 days and hence do not require nuclear disposal. Limited quantities of accelerator activation products (mainly 65Zn and 60Co) and compact sealed sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 226Ra and 192Ir form the only exceptions. National nuclear waste agencies typically do not have a specific policy for treatment and disposal of this type of LLW. In 2001 new price increases were announced for specific categories of this waste. They were implemented by NIRAS/ONDRAF early 2002. The major universities and academic hospitals expressed concern. The Health Council has considered the problem and has recently recommended to the authorities a set of measures to prevent non authorised liberation of this waste. Moreover non-nuclear waste companies have noticed a considerable growing inventory of radioactivity in incoming waste transports before treatment. A variety of radionuclides and activities were found in a diversity of origins from municipal waste over medical waste to industrial waste. Dismantling of accelerators and their shielding could add considerable amounts of waste. Due to the escalating costs and the lack of acceptance of near-surface disposal facilities, the university of Brussels (VUB) and its hospital, have developed a successful on-site waste decay storage program in collaboration with Canberra Europe, which is discussed hereafter

  15. The Russian approach to nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a view of the challenges of nuclear liability in the specific context of the Russian Federation's legal system. Starting from the Chernobyl disaster and the benefits of nuclear energy, a detailed examination of the development of both internal law and international law regulating nuclear liability matters in Russia is given. Special attention is paid to the regimes established by bilateral treaties, the system of government bodies responsible for nuclear energy affairs, and the consequences of the 1963 Vienna Convention's entry into force for Russia. The value of Russian experience in finding the resolution of global nuclear liability issues is discussed. (author)

  16. Environmental impact analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program-addendum. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study represents a qualitative extension of an earlier Environmental Impact Analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program (MarAd, 1975) using an Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC) as the reference ship, to other types of ships including a containership, dry-bulk cargo vessel, and an icebreaking oil tanker. This qualitative analysis shows that, for ships operating into coastal ports (containerships and possibly dry-bulk carriers), both ecological and radiological impacts would be somewhat greater than for the reference ULCC docking at an offshore terminal. These impacts can be kept within the guidelines established for land based nuclear power plants by implementation of appropriate operating procedures

  17. Shielding designs and tests of a new exclusive ship for transporting spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rokuei-Maru, a ship built specially for the transport of spent nuclear fuels in casks, was launched April in 1996. She is the first ship to comply with special Japanese regulations, KAISA 520, based on the INF code. DOT3.5 and MCNP-4A were used for the evaluation of dose equivalent rates of her shielding structures. On-board gamma-ray shielding tests were executed to confirm the effectiveness of the ship's shielding performance. The tests confirmed that effective shielding has been achieved and the dose equivalent rate in the accommodation and other inhabited spaces is sufficiently lower than the regulated limitations. This was achieved by employing the appropriate calculation methods and shielding materials. (author)

  18. Long-term management of radioactive waste - will the Price-Anderson system work for third party liability issues arising from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two pieces of legislation have been enacted in the United States to provide a framework for the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel: the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Neither of these statutes provide a means for resolving third party liability issues arising out of radioactive waste management. However, the Price Anderson Act (originally enacted in 1957) provides a system of financial protection that can be applied to waste management activities and that can resolve most issues pertaining to liability for nuclear damage that may result from long-term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. (NEA)

  19. Organization and liability of British regulating authorities involved in nuclear safety and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Great Britain, nuclear safety juridic basis is made of two law: HSWA (1974) for hygiene and security in working environment, and NIA (1965) specific to nuclear sites. The HSWA law created an HSC (Hygiene and Security Commission) in charge of workers and public security. HSC executive organ is HSE, whose nuclear office is NSD. Nevertheless, the general philosophy remains the one of HSWA, which results in the liability of operators in nuclear matters, as well as for any other industrial matter. (D.L.). 1 fig., 1 map

  20. Risks and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials

  1. Decommissioning of naval nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next decade the two major nuclear powers will each have to decommission more than 100 naval nuclear vessels, in particular submarines. The problems connected with this task is considered in this report. Firstly the size of the task is considered, i.e. the number of nuclear vessels that has to be decommissioned. Secondly the reactors of these vessels, their fuel elements, their power level, the number of reactors per vessel and the amount of radioactivity to be handled are discussed. Thirdly the decommissioning procedures, i.e. The removal of fuel from the vessels, the temporary storage of the reactor fuel near the base, and the cleaning and disposal of the reactor and the primary circuit components are reviewed. Finally alternative uses of the newer submarines are briefly considered. It should be emphasizes that much of the detailed information on which this report is based, may be of dubious nature, and that may to some extent affect the validity of the conclusions of the report. (au)

  2. Ship Sensor Observations for Operation Deep Scope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Operation Deep Scope 2007" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  3. The contribution of industry to complementary financing of nuclear liability risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The members of OPEN (Association of Nuclear Energy Producers) and UNIPEDE (International Union of Producers and Distributors of Electrical Energy) consider that the creation of a pooling system intended to have industry provide complementary financing of nuclear liability risk cannot be taken for granted at the current stage of discussions. If such a system was set-up, it should respect the following principles: free organization of pools by operators and voluntary association of members; creation of pools on a regional basis; setting of a reasonable maximum contribution for each nuclear installation; system of post event contributions; flexible and economic management of funds

  4. Nuclear liability, nuclear safety, and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation applies the methods of economic analysis to nuclear liability and Price-Anderson. First the legislative history is reviewed; in that history the economic role of liability in affecting safety and allocating risk was virtually ignored. Succeeding chapters reformulate issues from the policy debate and subject them to economic analysis. A persistent issue is whether nuclear utilities respond to their limited liability by allowing a higher probability of serious accident. Comparative-static analysis shows that limited liability does lead to a higher chance of accidents, though the effect may be small. The analysis also shows that safety is achieved in a more capital-intensive manner than is cost-minimizing and that limited liability causes reactor owners to favor more heavily populated sites for plants. Therefore, the siting decision makes potential loss greater even if there is no change in the probability of an accident. Citizens' preferences on nuclear liability are examined next, starting with the nature of coverage that would be just in the sense of contraction theories such as John Rawls' Theory of Justice. Citizens behind Rawls' veil of ignorance, forced to be fair because of their ignorance of whether they will be harmed, unanimously choose a high level of coverage. The just level of coverage is greater than the existing $560 million. Second, the nature of economically efficient liability coverage is determined and contrasted with coverage that would emerge from a democratic system of public choice. Population and expected damage profiles indicate that majorities could easily be formed among groups of citizens expecting to suffer little of the damage of a nuclear accident. Thus, majority voting on liability arrangements is likely to produce an inefficiently low level of coverage

  5. The international nuclear liability and compensation regime put to the test of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It appears that nuclear emergency plans place generally more emphasis on the nuclear safety and radiation protection aspects of the management of an accident, both inside the installation concerned and off-site, than on the particular requirements of local residents who would find themselves suddenly in such an emergency situation and of possible victims of nuclear damage. In a similar vein, studies focusing on the international nuclear third party liability regime usually take a global perspective and leave little room for the treatment of individual cases. The albeit welcome dearth of practical experience in Western countries in providing compensation for accidents of nuclear origin has, however, meant that public and local authorities are not always fully conscious of the importance of this question which should be dealt with in as practical a manner as possible. In order to cover all the legal and practical questions that could arise during the management of the consequences of a nuclear accident with regard to third party liability, insurance and compensation, the OECD/NEA held in co-operation with French authorities a workshop in November 2001. It was decided to organize this workshop according to three main stages: the alert phase, the accident phase and the post-accident phase; and to examine during these three stages the various roles played by local and national authorities, the nuclear operator and his insurer, as well as the nature and form of their respective actions. These questions were addressed both from the angle of applicable domestic legislation and of the relevant international conventions. From the analysis of different national experiences and of the information exchanged during the workshop, a striking diversity may be noted of solutions adopted or envisaged to address various aspects of civil liability, insurance and indemnification of damage in a nuclear emergency situation. This lack of uniformity should not necessarily be

  6. Looking at nuclear liability and insurance in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent seminar in Moscow has addressed the issue of nuclear liability and insurance in the Russian nuclear industry since the breakup of the Soviet Union. The potential benefits of joining the international liability regime and adopting comprehensive nuclear liability legislation were discussed. The need to establish appropriate nuclear insurance structures and provide indemnity to cover the liability were also debated. Whether these changes can be put into action or not is less certain than the need for them. (UK)

  7. Liability and damages in Japanese nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese legislation relating to nuclear liability is based on two laws which date back to 1961, i.e. the law concerning compensation for nuclear damage and the law concerning financial damage compensation indemnification. In Japan, the legal channelling of liability is in force, a contractual recourse is not possible unless there is intent. The financial security act in Japan consists of a (third-party) liability insurance contract concluded with a private insurer and the cover contract concluded with the state. According to the agreement on financial security concluded between government and operator, the operator has to pay the state a certain sum per year. Basically, the amount covered is DM 50 million per site. This sum will be increased to DM 90 million. The operator is fully liable. The state is not bound by law to fully cover damages but will be - de facto - prepared to do so anyway. For potential damage to personnel, the social insurance law is applicable as it is in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this damage is intended to be subject to nuclear liability, to be effected by an amendmend. (orig./HP)

  8. Brief introduction to China's nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of the development of nuclear power, the Chinese government focused on safety and nuclear safety supervision and administration, therefore establishing a large quantity of regulation, national standards and professional standards related to safety, such regulations on the Safety Regulation for Civilian Nuclear Installations of the People's Republic of China, Regulation on Nuclear Materials Control, Emergency Management Regulation for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants etc; to ensure the safe and healthy development of nuclear power. In respect of nuclear liability, a chinese delegation took part in the sessions of the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage to follow the amendment of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the negotiations leading to the adoption of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The 'Official Reply', administrative regulation, is the legal basis on how to deal with nuclear third party liability issues. The main points of it are as follow: the Principle of Absolute and exclusive liability, the Principle of Limited Liability, the government support, the rights of recourse, exonerations, competent cost. (N.C.)

  9. Transport and repair of contaminated nuclear components - liabilities and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear park has been constructed fairly recently and has not yet required large-scale maintenance efforts; however account should now be taken of the fact that periodic checks of nuclear power plants will imply systematic transfers of irradiated or contaminated materials outside the plants. In this context, the paper reviews the nuclear third party liability regime under the Paris Convention and the Euratom directives on radiation protection. It then describes the cover offered by insurance pools in several European countries. (NEA)

  10. Collision proof properties associated with the ships operated by Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd. and damage survivability in the event of a collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date there have been many reports and papers presented considering the effects of ship fires and collisions on the transport packages (casks). The study presented is to explain the collision proof properties associated with the ships operated by Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd. And to provide an explanation of their damage survivability in the event of a collision. This paper discounts the possible effects on the individual package but considers purely, the survivability of the vessel after a severe collision with another vessel. (author)

  11. Civil liability and nuclear coverage: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report has been written considering the advanced work which has been done by the Expert Committee, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, having the purpose to examine the modifications issued in course of Vienna Convention as well as the Paris convention and the complementary Brussels Convention, in view to adapt the legislation to the actual context and to answer the populations expectations. The work has been organized in three majors chapters: the first one in concerned to the damage definition, proposition to the to reach the environment, the prevention and charges. the research and military installations are also considered. The second chapter has been dedicated to the civil responsibility, its limits, financing modes, the national and international legal competence besides the litigation charges due to the nuclear accidents born on the occasion. In the third chapter the insurance considering the damage nature, the capacity to assure liability coverage and the damage management are harmonized

  12. Future of nuclear energy in the enlarged European Union: a perspective from Brussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a trade association of the European nuclear industry FORATOM works to enhance the relations between the industry and European institutions, provides information on nuclear energy to the European institutions, considers the EU enlargement process as the top priority in the lobbying actions. FORATOM working groups focus on the following subjects: accession, climate change, legal affairs, nuclear research and development, decommissioning, quality management, waste, transport, security of supply and sustainable development. The paper presents the current activities and future tasks in the EUs changing operational environment

  13. Separator assembly for use in spent nuclear fuel shipping cask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholz, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A separator assembly for use in a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask has a honeycomb-type wall structure defining parallel cavities for holding nuclear fuel assemblies. Tubes formed of an effective neutron-absorbing material are embedded in the wall structure around each of the cavities and provide neutron flux traps when filled with water.

  14. Strict liability as a legal mechanism protecting the aggrieved parties' interests within the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The no-fault liability principle of nuclear liability regime, its compensation schemes, sociological and legal grounds of its construction as well as liberation grounds are analysed. The simple existence of causation of damage and nuclear accident without necessity of proving negligence or any other type of fault on the part of the operator as an adequate basis for the operator’s strict liability is highlighted thus simplifying the litigation process eliminating potential obstacles, especially such as might exist with the burden of proof. The question of weighing the interests of society in the development of nuclear industry, the necessary extent of protection of victims of nuclear accidents and the interests of operators of nuclear facilities as main determinants of the strict nature of nuclear liability is also described. (orig.)

  15. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  16. Employer's liability for damage

    OpenAIRE

    Baštýřová, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to analyse and clarify in detail the issue of liability for damage in Labour law with focus on liability for damage of employer. At first the thesis defines conception of liability and liability in Labour law in general. The thesis also deals with characteristic features, functions and prevention of liability for damage in Labour law as well. The main part is devoted to liability for damage of employer with regards to judicial decision. It explains gener...

  17. Nuclear of the future. Assets of an energy source. Sustainedly inscribing nuclear energy among the energies of the future. Europe: launching at Brussels of the technological platform on sustainable nuclear energy. An acknowledged expertise in the domain of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the properties of radioactive matter to generate energy without CO2 emission represents a suitable answer to the increasing problem of energy and environment constraints. The counterpart of these advantages is the irradiation risk, which is taken into consideration by a strict respect of safety rules by nuclear operators and by the implementation of a high quality safety culture. This press kit presents the evolutions to come in the domain of reactor technology according to the conclusions of the Generation 4 international forum launched in the year 2000. These evolutions give a clear preference to fast neutron technologies, and in a lesser extend to thermal neutron technologies. These choices represent an opportunity to rediscover technologies already tested at the prototype stage (sodium-cooled FBRs for instance) and to develop alternative and new technologies for new applications (gas-cooled FBRs for high temperature cogeneration, very-high temperature reactors for hydrogen or synthetic fuels generation). The overall research program on fast neutron reactors aims at demonstrating the industrial perspectives of separation-transmutation processes and at developing a new generation of fast reactors, competitive with the water reactors technology, and fulfilling the safety, non-proliferation and waste management requirements. A new technological platform devoted to sustainable nuclear energy was launched on September 21, 2007 at Brussels (Belgium) and aims at controlling the security of energy supplies in member states, ensuring a sustainable development, and improving the competitiveness of the offer. The French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) is in charge of the national control of nuclear safety in France. The IRSN obtained in July 2007 the ISO 9001 certification of its quality management system for its overall activities. (J.S.)

  18. Legal analysis at the Law for Civil liabilities by nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has the objective to analyse in specific terms the legal regime of the Civil liability by nuclear damage. It has been the intention of that this compilation is the initiation of a large way which awake the interests of jurists and specialists dedicated to study the aspects as the liability by nuclear damage, compensation guarantee, risk and nuclear damage among others. The peaceful applications of the nuclear energy require the necessity of a legal ordinance that it is updated according to the nuclear technology development that the regulations of the common law do not cover. This work is initiated mentioning some antecedents of the nuclear energy law in Mexico. Also is realized the study of the elemental concepts and definitions about the subject as the evolution of the legal figure in the National law frame where the jurist must do an incursion in the nuclear field and make use of scientific and technical terminology. It was analysed and it was made the reflection of the legal figure of liability, its exoneration cases, about the concepts of risk and nuclear damage overcoming the conceptual error among them. It is talked about the study of nuclear damage and its repairing as financial guarantee to compensate to the people injured by a nuclear accident. Finally, it was treated about the legal analysis and proposals of additions and reforms for updating the Nuclear damage liability Law, concluding with general contributions to the Law resulting products of this work. (Author)

  19. Design Concept of Propulsion System for Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventurer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halimi, B.; Kim, T. W.; Son, H. M.; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    This work centers about advantages of nuclear power propulsion with various naval applications such as military surface ship, submarine, and ice breaker. These applications are required to work for a long periods of time on the ocean, where supply of fuel is complicated and sometimes impracticable. A preliminary design concept is presented of the propulsion system for the Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventurer (NOVA). NOVA employs the Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS), a small fast integral reactor cooled by natural circulation and the Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS), a supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) driven Brayton cycle, as power converter to the Naval Application Vessel Integral System (NAVIS)

  20. STEADY-SHIP: a computer code for three-dimensional nuclear and thermal-hydraulic analyses of marine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A code STEADY-SHIP has been developed to calculate three-dimensional distributions of neutron flux, power and coolant temperature in the reactor core of the nuclear ship MUTSU. The code consists of two parts, that is, a few-group three-dimensional neutron diffusion module DIFFUSION-SHIP and a thermal-hydraulic module HYDRO-SHIP: In the DIFFUSION-SHIP the leakage iteration method is used for solving the three-dimensional neutron diffusion equation with small computer core memory and short computing time; The HYDRO-SHIP performs the general thermal-hydraulic calculation for evaluating feedbacks required in the neutronic calculation by the DIFFUSION-SHIP. The macroscopic nuclear constants are generated by a module CROSS-SHIP as functions of xenon poison, fuel temperature, moderator temperature and moderator density. A module LOCAL-FINE has the capability of computing a detailed rod power distribution for each local node in the core, using the boundary conditions on the surface of the node which were supplied by the STEADY-SHIP whole-core calculation. The applicability of this code to marine reactors has been demonstrated by comparing the computed results with the data measured during the MUTSU land-loaded core critical experiments and with the data obtained during the hot-zero-power tests performed for the actual MUTSU plant. (author)

  1. Nuclear liability and research reactor fuel. A plant supplier's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    compensation than of the operator's country. As there are many potential conflicts around the issue and as there is the need to protect the supplier from, there has been established already early in nuclear history an international regime on how to deal with such claims: 1960 - the Paris Convention (amended 1964/1982) plus the 1963 - the Brussels Supplementary Convention; 1963 - the Vienna Convention; 1988 - the Joint Protocol linking the application of the Vienna and the Paris Convention. But as many states have joined neither the Vienna nor the Paris Convention (nor the Joint Protocol), there have often been established bilateral agreements on how to deal with the nuclear liability in terms of a specific project. The main issue with such bilateral agreements is the backing by that state the owner of the plant belongs to for the owner's obligation out of the nuclear liability. Often this cannot be reached due to the need of a state's decree or modification of the law for that very purpose. This is refused sometimes as well due to lack of insight in its need for a nuclear facility as small as a research reactor. All the above issues have to be taken into considerations during the contract negotiation between the plant supplier and the plant owner when contracting for its construction. All the issues may influence also whether the plant supplier find subsuppliers which accept or can live with the results of such negotiations for their subsupplies. It is inherent that the fuel suppliers are especially keen in solutions which indemnify them from any such risk out of nuclear events; so are organisations which perform safety evaluations. The fuel suppliers especially may be the more interested in high protection the more they are urged to deliver advanced fuel with less tests prior to application, e.g. as consequence of the steady announcement of extremely ambitious development progress by the RERTR program. This contribution to the RERTR-meeting will detail and give examples in

  2. Propulsion of space ships by nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, J. G.; Kravárik, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in the research on deuterium-tritium (D-T) inertially confined microexplosions encourages one to reconsider the nuclear propulsion of spaceships based on the concept originally proposed in the Orion project. We discuss first the acceleration of medium-sized spaceships by D-T explosions whose output is in the range of 0.1 10 t of TNT. The launching of such a ship into an Earth orbit or beyond by a large nuclear explosion in an underground cavity is sketched out in the second section of the paper, and finally we consider a hypothetical Mars mission based on these concepts. In the conclusion it is argued that propulsion based on the Orion concept only is not the best method for interplanetary travel owing to the very large number of nuclear explosion required. A combination of a super gun and subsequent rocket propulsion using advanced chemical fuels appears to be the best solution for space flights of the near future.

  3. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  4. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  5. Sensors systems for the automation of operations in the ship repair industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pedro Javier; Muro, Juan Suardíaz; Alcover, Pedro María; Fernández-Isla, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hull cleaning before repainting is a key operation in the maintenance of ships. For years, a method to improve such operation has been sought by means of the robotization of techniques such as grit blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting. Despite this, it continues to be standard practice in shipyards that this process is carried out manually because the developed robotized systems are too expensive to be widely accepted by shipyards. We have chosen to apply a more conservative and realistic approach to this problem, which has resulted in the development of several solutions that have been designed with different automation and operation range degrees. These solutions are fitted with most of the elements already available in many shipyards, so the installation of additional machinery in the workplace would not be necessary. This paper describes the evolutionary development of sensor systems for the automation of the preparation process of ship hull surfaces before the painting process is performed. Such evolution has given rise to the development of new technologies for coating removal. PMID:24064601

  6. Should nuclear liability limits be removed. Yes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguing in favor of unlimited liability in the event of a nuclear accident, the author cites a mathematical probability of a core meltdown in the US as 45% during the next 20 years. The liability insurance carried by the nuclear industry is less than for large hotels and industrial parks, and is only a small fraction of the potential costs of damage and compensation. If nuclear technology is safe, limits are not needed. If liability is limited, it removes the incentive to improve safety and sends inaccurate price signals to utilities choosing among competing technologies. There is also the ethical aspect of shifting liability costs from ratepayers and stockholders to accident victims and general taxpayers. There are other ways to finance nuclear risks, such as a sinking fund, the removal of the nuclear exclusion in property insurance policies, and annual retrospective assessments per reactors

  7. Establishment of nuclear liability regime in the developing countries. Examples of China and Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the nuclear developed countries has been establishing the nuclear liability regime in the form of national law and international treaty, establishment of the nuclear liability regime in the developing countries which try to actively promote nuclear development is desired. In the Asian area in which a large-scale nuclear development is expected in the future, China which has already started nuclear development showed a basic policy of nuclear liability regime in the form of 'reply' instead of establishing a legal framework, and Indonesia which will start a nuclear development in the future has made a high-level legal framework covering nuclear liability regime. To develop nuclear liability regime in the developing countries it is important to give consideration to establishment of national law in each country, increase in amount of liability and international cooperation and linkage in the area. (author)

  8. 1986 Agreement on third party liability in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Agreement intends to facilitate the settlement of disputes, if they are due to an event (caused by the peaceful utilisation of nuclear energy) which occurs on the territory of one State and gives rise to damage on the territory of the other State. Unlike the Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland has neither ratified the Paris Convention of 29th July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy nor the Brussels Supplementary Convention of 31st January 1963. This might result in diverging interpretations by the German and Swiss courts, in particular, regarding the competent courts and the laws applicable if a third party liability problem were to arise between both countries. The Agreement therefore aims to settle these matters directly by treaty between the States before the courts are confronted by an occurrence of damage and have to seek a solution which conforms to international private law. (NEA)

  9. Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage. Official Records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Official Records of the Conference contain the summary records of the plenary meetings and of the meetings of the Committee of the Whole, the text of the Convention, the Optional Protocol, the Final Act, the resolutions adopted by the Conference and the reports of the committees and sub-committees, as well as all other documents which were submitted to the plenary and the Committee of the Whole. These Official Records also contain a complete index of documents relevant to each Article of the Convention according to its number in the final text. The history of the preparatory studies and documents is summarized on pages 39, 40 and 65-86. The symbols of International Atomic Energy Agency documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to an International Atomic Energy Agency document. The summary records of the plenary meetings and of the meetings of the Committee of the Whole contained in this volume were originally circulated in mimeographed form as documents CN-12/OR/1 to 7 and CN-12, CW/OR. 1 to 24 respectively. As printed in this volume they include the corrections to the provisional summary records that were requested by the delegations and such drafting and editorial changes as were considered necessary. These official records are available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. (author)

  10. A bridge between two Conventions on civil liability for nuclear damage: the Joint protocol Relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of the Joint-Protocol and its signature on 21 September 1988, at the closure of the diplomatic conference jointly convened in Vienna by the IAEA and NEA, was hailed as a landmark in efforts towards the establishment of a comprehensive civil nuclear liability regime. The importance of liability and compensation for transfrontier damage caused by a nuclear incident is indeed one of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident. This article describes the history of the Joint Protocol during the many years it took to develop this link between the two Conventions, provides a comment on its objectives and content, and discusses some important questions related to its application. (NEA)

  11. Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During its April 2014 meeting, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held a policy debate on 'Progress towards a Global Nuclear Liability Regime'. The Steering Committee heard presentations from several experts on nuclear liability issues. To prepare the delegates to the Steering Committee for the policy debate, the NEA Secretariat prepared a background note on the status of the nuclear liability regimes, as well as on current issues and challenges in implementing the regimes. This article is based on the background note and is intended to provide basic information on the relevant international conventions and an overview of recent developments to enhance the understanding of the legal framework in which policy-makers and practitioners are engaging to respond to the call for broader adherence to the international liability instruments. (authors)

  12. Problems faced by host nations in accepting visits by nuclear powered merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international Code of Practice would make a major contribution to the effective regulation of nuclear merchant ships. Ensuring compliance with such a Code would be a significant problem for host nations. An impediment to the development of nuclear shipping is the absence of third party liability provision. There are also problems in host port acceptance into crowded ports and some limitations may be imposed until there is more confidence. There are indications that ship accidents will become the predominant risk and considerably more attention to the problem is required. Waste management need not be a major issue to the acceptance of nuclear merchant ships

  13. Knowledge-based full-automatic control system for a nuclear ship reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, J.; Nakazawa, T.; Yabuuchi, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Plant operations aboard nuclear ships require quick judgements and actions due to changing marine conditions such as wind, waves and currents. Furthermore, additional human support is not available for nuclear ship operation at sea, so advanced automatic operations are necessary to reduce the number of operators required finally. Therefore, an advanced automatic operating system has been developed based on operational knowledge of nuclear ship 'Mutsu' plant. The advanced automatic operating system includes both the automatic operation system and the operator-support system which assists operators in completing actions during plant accidents, anomaly diagnosis and plant supervision. These system are largely being developed using artificial intelligent techniques such as neural network, fuzzy logic and knowledge-based expert. The automatic operation system is fundamentally based upon application of an operator's knowledge of both normal (start-up to rated power level) and abnormal (after scram) operations. Comparing plant behaviors from start-up to power level by the automatic operation with by 'Mutsu' manual operation, stable automatic operation was obtained almost same as manual operation within all operating limits. The abnormal automatic system was for hard work of manual operations after scram or LOCA accidents. An integrating system with the normal and the abnormal automatic systems are being developed for interacting smoothly both systems. (author)

  14. Knowledge-based full-automatic control system for a nuclear ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant operations aboard nuclear ships require quick judgements and actions due to changing marine conditions such as wind, waves and currents. Furthermore, additional human support is not available for nuclear ship operation at sea, so advanced automatic operations are necessary to reduce the number of operators required finally. Therefore, an advanced automatic operating system has been developed based on operational knowledge of nuclear ship 'Mutsu' plant. The advanced automatic operating system includes both the automatic operation system and the operator-support system which assists operators in completing actions during plant accidents, anomaly diagnosis and plant supervision. These system are largely being developed using artificial intelligent techniques such as neural network, fuzzy logic and knowledge-based expert. The automatic operation system is fundamentally based upon application of an operator's knowledge of both normal (start-up to rated power level) and abnormal (after scram) operations. Comparing plant behaviors from start-up to power level by the automatic operation with by 'Mutsu' manual operation, stable automatic operation was obtained almost same as manual operation within all operating limits. The abnormal automatic system was for hard work of manual operations after scram or LOCA accidents. An integrating system with the normal and the abnormal automatic systems are being developed for interacting smoothly both systems. (author)

  15. Incentives for the allowance of ''burnup credit'' in the design of spent nuclear fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis has been completed which indicates that the consideration of spent fuel histories ('burnup credit') in the criticality design of spent fuel shipping casks could result in significant public risk benefits and cost savings in the transport of spent nuclear fuel. Capacities of casks could be increased considerably in some cases. These capacity increases result in lower public and occupational exposures to ionizing radiation due to the reduced number of shipments necessary to transport a given amount of fuel. Additional safety benefits result from reduced non-radiological risks to both public and occupational sectors. In addition, economic benefits result from lower in-transit shipping costs, reduced transportation fleet capital costs, and fewer cask handling requirements at both shipping and receiving facilities

  16. Incentives for the allowance of burnup credit in the design of spent nuclear fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis has been completed which indicates that the consideration of spent fuel histories ('burnup credit') in the criticality design of spent fuel shipping casks could result in considerable public risk benefits and cost savings in the transport of spent nuclear fuel. Capacities of casks could be increased considerably in some cases. These capacity increases result in lower public and occupational exposures to ionizing radiation due to the reduced number of shipments necessary to transport a given amount of fuel. Additional safety benefits result from reduced non-radiological risks to both public and occupational sectors. In addition, economic benefits result from lower in-transit shipping costs, reduced transportation fleet capital costs, and fewer cask handling requirements at both shipping and receiving facilities

  17. Nuclear accidents - Liabilities and guarantees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1992 Symposium on Nuclear Accidents - Liabilities and guarantees, organized by the OECD NUCLEAR Energy Agency in collaboration with the international Atomic Energy Agency, discussed the nuclear third party liability regime established by the Paris and Vienna Conventions, its advantages and shortcomings, and assessed the teachings of the Chernobyl accident in the context of that regime. The topics included the geographical scope of the Conventions, the definition of nuclear damage, in particular environmental damage, insurance cover and capacity, supplementary compensation by means of a collective contribution from the nuclear industry or governments, and finally, the international liability of States in case of a nuclear accident. This proceeding contains 26 papers which have been selected

  18. Nuclear liability insurance. The Price-Anderson reparations system and the claims experience of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews nuclear liability legislation in the United States (Price-Anderson Act) and discusses the amount of nuclear liability insurance presently available as well as the plan proposed by the insurance pools which represents a fundamental change in the Price-Anderson indemnity programme. It also reports on the claims presented for the accident at Three Mile Island and contains tables which reproduce claims history in general and annual numbers of monitored onsite workers. (NEA)

  19. ANI [American Nuclear Insurers] support and research facility nuclear liability insurance inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    American Nuclear Insurers (ANI), a voluntary association of insurance companies, provides property and nuclear liability insurance protection to the nuclear industry. It generally offers insurance coverage to nuclear facilities, suppliers, and transporters for the following: (1) their liability for damages because of bodily injury and/or property damage caused by the nuclear energy hazard, and (2) all-risk damage to nuclear facilities. Among the range of facilities and suppliers insured by ANI are (a) operators of nuclear power plants that supply electricity for the general public, (b) operators of nuclear testing and research reactors, (c) fuel fabricators that manufacture fuel for use in reactors, (d) operators of facilities that dispose of nuclear waste that cannot be salvaged, (e) facilities that maintain and repair equipment used at nuclear facilities, (f) nuclear laundries, and (g) low-level-waste processors. The fundamental goal of the ANI nuclear engineering inspection program is to provide protection to pool members' assets by reducing insurance risk

  20. Choice Between Microfinance System Operating on the Basis of Individual Liability Loan Contract or Through Joint Liability Loan Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Amit

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider that a representative of a not so affluent rural household has three options. He (she) may join in a microfinance system operating on the basis of individual liability credit contract, or on the basis of joint liability loan contract through forming self-help group or may not participate in any type of microfinance system. This paper establishes that wealthier among the not so affluent rural household prefers to join microfinance system operating on the basis of indi...

  1. Utilization of uranium cost/benefit study for nuclear powered merchant ships. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a cost/benefit analysis for the utilization of uranium in merchant ships versus the use of uranium for the generation of electricity in central power stations. The study concludes that an alternative naval fuel to oil must be developed for the merchant marine to reduce U.S. dependency upon foreign supplies of a critical fuel. The study further indicates that use of uranium for ship propulsion results in transport of large quantities of needed import/exports while the residual oil saved will generate the same quantity of electricity in a central power station as the uranium used for ship propulsion

  2. Nuclear energy: liability for damage to the environment according to the National Environmental Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liability for damage of the environment is the kind of subject which arouses heated debates in the nuclear energy field among the jurists. Brazil lacks a specific environmental law upon which settlement on questions of nuclear damage could be based. In spite of such lackness, considerable progress has been achieved with the obligatory elaboration of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the constitutional rules establishing competence and responsibilities on this matter, and some scattered laws. The objective of this work is to focus the responsibility of the Union that exercised the monopoly of nuclear activities, its agents and the team of experts which elaborate the EIA as well as the damage to the environment from a nuclear accident. This study is based on the legal definitions of nuclear reactor, radioactive waste and product, radioisotope, among others. It also focuses some proposed amendments of the law regulating both the civil and criminal liabilities for nuclear damage. (author). 7 refs

  3. Nuclear energy: liability for damage to the environment according to the National Environmental Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiras, Sergio Alves; Couto, Roberto Toscano [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Liability for damage of the environment is the kind of subject which arouses heated debates in the nuclear energy field among the jurists. Brazil lacks a specific environmental law upon which settlement on questions of nuclear damage could be based. In spite of such lackness, considerable progress has been achieved with the obligatory elaboration of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the constitutional rules establishing competence and responsibilities on this matter, and some scattered laws. The objective of this work is to focus the responsibility of the Union that exercised the monopoly of nuclear activities, its agents and the team of experts which elaborate the EIA as well as the damage to the environment from a nuclear accident. This study is based on the legal definitions of nuclear reactor, radioactive waste and product, radioisotope, among others. It also focuses some proposed amendments of the law regulating both the civil and criminal liabilities for nuclear damage. (author). 7 refs.

  4. The House of Commons of Canada, Bill C-249: An act to amend the nuclear liability act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this bill is to increase the maximum level of liability for which a private sector nuclear facility operator may be required to have insurance coverage from 75 million dollars to 500 million dollars. If the Governor in Council is of the opinion that liability could exceed the insured amount and a Commission created under Part II of the Act orders that further compensation should be made. At present, the Crown may make such payments but is not required to do so

  5. Overview of the Government of Canada Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program - 13551

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from more than 60 years of nuclear research and development carried out on behalf of Canada. The liabilities are located at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario and Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba, as well as three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec that are being maintained in a safe storage state. Estimated at about $7.4 billion (current day dollars), these liabilities consist of disused nuclear facilities and associated infrastructure, a wide variety of buried and stored waste, and contaminated lands. In 2006, the Government of Canada adopted a long-term strategy to deal with the nuclear legacy liabilities and initiated a five-year, $520 million start-up phase, thereby creating the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The Government of Canada renewed the NLLP in 2011 with a $439-million three-year second phase that ends March 31, 2014. The projects and activities carried out under the Program focus on infrastructure decommissioning, environmental restoration, improving the management of legacy radioactive waste, and advancing the long-term strategy. The NLLP is being implemented through a Memorandum of Understanding between Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and AECL whereby NRCan is responsible for policy direction and oversight, including control of funding, and AECL is responsible for implementing the program of work and holding and administering all licences, facilities and lands. (authors)

  6. Overview of the Government of Canada Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program - 13551

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, D.; McCauley, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E4 (Canada); Miller, J.; Brooks, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from more than 60 years of nuclear research and development carried out on behalf of Canada. The liabilities are located at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario and Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba, as well as three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec that are being maintained in a safe storage state. Estimated at about $7.4 billion (current day dollars), these liabilities consist of disused nuclear facilities and associated infrastructure, a wide variety of buried and stored waste, and contaminated lands. In 2006, the Government of Canada adopted a long-term strategy to deal with the nuclear legacy liabilities and initiated a five-year, $520 million start-up phase, thereby creating the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The Government of Canada renewed the NLLP in 2011 with a $439-million three-year second phase that ends March 31, 2014. The projects and activities carried out under the Program focus on infrastructure decommissioning, environmental restoration, improving the management of legacy radioactive waste, and advancing the long-term strategy. The NLLP is being implemented through a Memorandum of Understanding between Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and AECL whereby NRCan is responsible for policy direction and oversight, including control of funding, and AECL is responsible for implementing the program of work and holding and administering all licences, facilities and lands. (authors)

  7. Ship nuclear power device of cable aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable for marine nuclear power plant continuous delivery of electrical energy. Cable is mostly in the high temperature and strong radiation and harsh working environment, and can not be replaced in the lifetime This should be the cable aging management methods through research, maintenance and repair program to provide a scientific basis. Cable aging management approach for a number of different levels of cable management at different levels, relying on computers and other modern tools, the use of information management database software maintenance of the cable through the science of aging control. Cable Aging Management including the scope of cable aging management, classification management basis and used for different levels of management supervision and implementation of means testing approach. Application of the ship that has the operational management science, both planned maintenance to improve the science, but also improves the efficiency of aging management. This management method can be extended to nuclear power plants of cable aging management. (authors)

  8. Design of a spent fuel shipping cask for Korea Nuclear unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To transport the spent fuel assemblies of Korea Nuclear Unit 1, which is a Westinghouse type two loop pressurized water reactor, it has been found that steel is the most appropriate material for the design of a shipping cask in comparison with lead and depleted uranium considering the aspects of transportability, cost, fabricability and safety. The proposed shipping cask will transport nine fuel assemblies at the same time and is well within the weight limit of transportation by unrestricted rail car. The cask requires 33 cm thick steel shield and 27 cm thick water region to satisfy the 3 feet apart dose limit set forth in 10CFR 71, and 1.27 cm thick steel boron fuel basket to hold the fuel elements inside the cask and control the effective multiplication factor. As a safety analysis, the fuel temperature was calculated under the accident condition of complete loss of water coolant, and it was found that the temperature was much lower than the limit of the melting point. ksub(eff) was calculated with fresh fuel assemblies, which was found to be well lower than 0.95. For shielding computation, the multipurpose Monte Carlo code MORSE-CG and one dimensional discrete ordinates transport code ANISN were used, and the Monte Carlo codes KENO and MORSE-CG were used for criticality calculation. The radiation source terms were calculated using ORIGEN-79. (Author)

  9. Design study of a spent fuel shipping cask for Korea nuclear unit, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To transport the spent fuel assemblies of Korea Nuclear Unit 1, which is a Westinghouse type two loop pressurized water reactor, it has been found that steel is the most appropriate material for the design of a shipping cask in comparison with lead and depleted uranium. The proposed shipping cask will transport nine fuel assemblies at the same time and is well within the weight limit of transportation by unrestricted rail-car. The cask requires 33cm thick steel shield and 27cm thick water region to satisfy the 3 feet apart dose rate limit set forth in 10 CFR 71, and 1.27cm thick steel boron fuel basket to hold the fuel elements inside the cask and control the effective multiplication factor. As a safety analysis, the fuel cladding and centerline temperatures were calculated under the accident condition of complete loss of water coolant, and it was found that the temperature was much lower than the limit of the melting point. Keff was calculated with fresh fuel assemblies, which was found to be well lower than 0.95. For shielding computation, the multipurpose Monte Carlo code MORSE-CG and one dimensional discrete ordinates transport code ANISN were used, and the Monte Carlo codes KENO and MORSE-CG were used for criticality calculation. The radioactivity source terms were calculated using ORIGEN-79. (author)

  10. Nuclear civil liabilities. International conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convention on the complementary repair of nuclear damages comes and superposes on the Convention of Paris and the Convention of Vienna or national autonomous conventions of nuclear civil liability. In case of accident, a fund would be created to compete the first level of indemnification beyond the contribution of the government. (N.C.)

  11. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  12. Current operating practices of nuclear insurance pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the nuclear pooling system and co-operation between the pools, present practice and capacity, with a breakdown of the limits for third party liability and material damage. The author also describes the relationship between the pools and the nuclear operators (the policyholders), and concludes that the nuclear pools have been successful in serving the interests of their member companies, their policyholders and the governments as they have provided a stable insurance market by making available capacity in amounts that had never before been assembled and placed at risk in a single location. 2 tabs

  13. Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant accident brought a renewed focus to the discussion of international nuclear liability regimes, and notably the administration of a liability system to compensate damages resulting from a nuclear accident, this article recalls the background on existing international nuclear liability conventions (original and revised Paris and Vienna conventions), briefly indicates the common principles reflected in the international nuclear liability conventions. The author outlines the challenges in achieving a global nuclear liability regime, reports and comments the Japanese experience in handling compensation issues in the wake of the Fukushima accident. He gives an overview of recent developments: IAEA action plan on nuclear safety, action of the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX), CSC or Convention on Supplementary Compensation

  14. OrgConv: detection of gene conversion using consensus sequences and its application in plant mitochondrial and chloroplast homologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Weilong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ancestry of mitochondria and chloroplasts traces back to separate endosymbioses of once free-living bacteria. The highly reduced genomes of these two organelles therefore contain very distant homologs that only recently have been shown to recombine inside the mitochondrial genome. Detection of gene conversion between mitochondrial and chloroplast homologs was previously impossible due to the lack of suitable computer programs. Recently, I developed a novel method and have, for the first time, discovered recurrent gene conversion between chloroplast mitochondrial genes. The method will further our understanding of plant organellar genome evolution and help identify and remove gene regions with incongruent phylogenetic signals for several genes widely used in plant systematics. Here, I implement such a method that is available in a user friendly web interface. Results OrgConv (Organellar Conversion is a computer package developed for detection of gene conversion between mitochondrial and chloroplast homologous genes. OrgConv is available in two forms; source code can be installed and run on a Linux platform and a web interface is available on multiple operating systems. The input files of the feature program are two multiple sequence alignments from different organellar compartments in FASTA format. The program compares every examined sequence against the consensus sequence of each sequence alignment rather than exhaustively examining every possible combination. Making use of consensus sequences significantly reduces the number of comparisons and therefore reduces overall computational time, which allows for analysis of very large datasets. Most importantly, with the significantly reduced number of comparisons, the statistical power remains high in the face of correction for multiple tests. Conclusions Both the source code and the web interface of OrgConv are available for free from the OrgConv website http

  15. Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage which was adopted by a Diplomatic Conference, 8-12 September 1997, and the consolidated text of the 1963 Vienna Convention as amended by the Protocol

  16. Conflict of law issues related to Switzerland's participation in the Paris Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the active role Switzerland played during the negotiation process of the Paris Convention, it only recently ratified the Convention including all its amending Protocols. The whole Paris regime will become binding for Switzerland only upon entry into force of the Protocols of 2004. Concurrently, the Federal Council will put into force a revised Swiss Nuclear Liability Act and ratify the Joint Protocol. Being a party to the Paris regime and the Joint Protocol, Switzerland will be in treaty relationships with Paris states and with Vienna states which are party to the Joint Protocol. This paper assesses the legal protection of Swiss victims and the liability risks faced by Swiss operators and other potential defendants (such as suppliers and builders) under the new legal regime with a particular view to conflict of laws issues. For the purpose of this assessment the paper examines which courts will be competent to hear claims of Swiss victims and against Swiss defendants in different scenarios, which law these courts should apply, whether or not the principle of legal channelling will apply and what the applicable liability amounts are. The assessment shows an ambiguous picture: Swiss operators, suppliers and builders clearly benefit from a higher degree of legal certainty. While in the absence of treaty relationships Swiss operators could potentially be sued before any foreign court, there will now be only one court with jurisdiction over claims of victims of convention states; Swiss suppliers and builders for their part will be protected by the principle of legal channelling, which basically exempts them from any liability risk. Swiss victims will benefit from treaty-backed entitlement to compensation from foreign operators; also, the judgements rendered in their favour will be enforceable in the whole convention territory; however, the limitation of the operator's liability in many Paris and Vienna states, raises doubts about whether the available funds

  17. Review of the nuclear liability act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of the Act has progressed in stages. The first stage was conducted by the staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and catalogued previously identified difficulties with the Act. The second stage was a preliminary examination of the Act by an Interdepartmental Working Group (IWG). The IWG was formed in 1982 at the direction of the President of the AECB. It was instructed to review all matters relating to the administration of, and experience with, the Act and to examine these matters in as much detail as was required to resolve each point raised during the review. The IWG was composed of representatives of the AECB (which administers the Act), the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, the Department of Finance, the Department of Insurance, the Department of Justice, and the Treasury Board Secretariat

  18. The nuclear liability conventions as applied to radioactive waste geological repositories: the test of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While most of the radioactive waste resulting from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is still stored on the site of the installations where it was generated, a growing number of countries are in the course of opening and operating dedicated facilities for their ultimate disposal. In respect of high-level or long-lived waste, emplacement in deep geologic repositories is generally regarded as the safest solution. This requires of course that a suitable legal framework be established beforehand and that, as is the case for all nuclear activities, the potential victims of an accident be protected. When considering if and how the international system of liability and compensation for nuclear damage may apply to geologic repositories' used for the disposal of radioactive waste (including spent fuel if treated as waste), two different questions need to be addressed. The first is whether the existing rules are suitable in respect of the 'active' operation of these repositories. The other is whether one may be confident that this system (in fact, any legal system) will continue to apply in the very long term after the closure of repositories. This paper will undertake to address both of these questions, while acknowledging that to answer the second is a somewhat speculative exercise. Under international nuclear-liability conventions,' damage caused by radioactive waste is in principle subject to the same regime of liability and compensation as other types of nuclear materials. There is no indication that the authors of these Conventions, adopted in the early 1960's, intended to discriminate between them. As a matter of fact, the absence of specific provisions in relation to the risks created by the disposal of radioactive waste (RW) did not raise any particular difficulty for many years. Indeed, it is only after several years of application that the question of whether these Conventions did cover facilities especially designed for the long-term storage or disposal of such

  19. Documents and legal texts: Canada, Japan, Nuclear Power Plant Exporters' Principles of Conduct, International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada: Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012, Assented to 29 June 2012 (An Act respecting the environmental assessment of certain activities and the prevention of significant adverse environmental effects). Japan: Act for Establishment of a Nuclear Regulation Authority - Act No. 47 of 2012 (An Act in order to eliminate the harmful effects of the vertically segmented nature of administration related to policy on nuclear power research, development and use). Nuclear Power Plant Exporters' Principles of Conduct: Principle 1 - Safety, Health, and Radiological Protection; Principle 2 - Physical Security; Principle 3 - Environmental Protection and the Handling of Spent Fuel and Nuclear Waste; Principle 4 - Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Principle 5 - Non-proliferation and Safeguards; Principle 6 - Ethics. International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX): Recommendations on how to facilitate achievement of a global nuclear liability regime, as requested by the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety

  20. Paris convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy. Progress report on negotiations to revise the convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the different points studied by the Contracting Parties and exposed in this communication is the amount of the operator's liability. Another achievement is that the Paris Convention countries have agreed, in principle, that the revised Convention will contain a provision expressly permitting a Contracting Party Convention country to establish the unlimited liability of its operators. The definition of nuclear damage continues to raise difficulties, especially in the geographical application field. (N.C.)

  1. Criticality analysis for storage and shipping of nuclear fuel elements outside of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calculation method for criticality of PWR elements in storage pool, shipping cask, reprocessing plant... was developed and tested. This method is based on use of computer codes Apollo and Dot 3.5, solving neutron propagation equation in transport theory. Its validity was checked by comparing with results of some criticality experiences and other Benchmarks obtained by computer Monte Carlo code Tripoli

  2. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  3. Nuclear power: An evolving scenario. 2 March 2004, Brussels, Belgium. European Parliament Conference: 'Energy Choices for Europe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of nuclear power remains a very mixed picture - but with some signs that change could be on the horizon. At the end of last year there were 440 nuclear power units operating worldwide. Together, they supply about 16% of the world's electricity. That percentage has remained relatively steady for almost 20 years, meaning that nuclear electricity generation has grown at essentially the same rate as total electricity use worldwide. Nuclear electricity generation is concentrated in developed countries. Current expansion and growth prospects for nuclear power are centred in Asia. Of the 31 units under construction worldwide, 18 are located in India, Japan, South Korea and China, including Taiwan. Twenty of the last 29 reactors to be connected to the grid are also in the Far East and South Asia. Although the focus of this international effort was on improving safety, the secondary benefit was a steady increase in nuclear plant availability and productivity. Some analysts believe the case for new nuclear construction in Europe is gaining new ground, for a number of reasons: Carbon Emissions, Security of Supply, Comparative Public Health Risk. As we look to the future, certain key challenges are, in my view, of direct relevance to the future viability of nuclear power. The greatest challenge lies in the development of clear global and national strategies for the management and disposal of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste. A second key challenge relates to safety performance. The third key challenge - nuclear security - should come as no surprise. A related but separate challenge is the prevention of nuclear weapons proliferation. A final challenge is innovation, encouraging the development of new reactor and fuel cycle technologies. To be successful, these innovative technologies should address concerns related to nuclear safety, proliferation and waste generation, and must be able to generate electricity at competitive prices. In conclusion

  4. Influence of nuclear glasses composition on their liability to deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the study of the nuclear glasses composition influence on their liability to deterioration. The methodology of the experimental research used has lead to define between the thirty oxides which form the reference glass light water, six oxides of interest. For each of these oxides, a composition variation area has been defined. A matrix of twenty glass compositions has then been defined. The preparation of materials of these compositions has sometimes lead to materials weakly heterogeneous which have been characterized before deterioration. This study has been completed by those of three glasses in a composition variation area narrower of the light water nuclear glass : the R7T7 and two glasses at limits having respectively an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees Celsius theoretically maximum and minimum. Some deterioration parameters in pure water have been experimentally measured on the twenty three glasses : 1) an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees (Vo100) Celsius and another one at 90 degrees Celsius (Vo90) 2) a dissolution velocity in conditions near the saturation at 90 degrees Celsius 3) an apparent solubility of glass based on the ortho silicic acid activity 4) the evolution of the dissolution kinetics at 90 degrees Celsius in sub-saturated medium towards saturated medium 5) the alteration films nature developed at the glasses surface during these last alteration tests. Some thermodynamic and structural models have been studied in order to predict Vo90 and Vo100. The dissolution kinetic law developed from reference glass dissolution results has been studied with the calculation code LIXIVER. It has not been able to be used for most of the glasses compositions studied. As a consequence, the glasses dissolution control by a surface reaction which are itself controlled by the only dissolved silica is an hypothesis which is not verified for the greater part of the glasses. (O.L.). refs., figs., tabs

  5. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. The program encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1/8-scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  6. Public international law and civil law liability for compensation for damages by virtue of international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A.

    The author analyses the current provisions in international law and international private law for their suitability to establish liability for damages due to transfrontier pollution, also taking into account damage occurred through the operation of nuclear power plants. As a result the author suggests that the national goverments should jointly set up standards and catalogues of environmentally detrimental effects and impacts, and of the seriousness thereof, and to make these form part of international conventions and agreements which also should unambigiously state liability for compensation for damages. For activities involving special hazards, liability for risks should be introduced in such a body of international regulations.

  7. Third party nuclear liability regime in the Romanian legislation - current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined by Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damages, as well as Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper aims at presenting to the audience the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the scope of Law no. 703/2001, as well as the subjects to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania (with special emphasis on the relevant responsibilities of nuclear operators), the Romanian nuclear damages compensation system, statute of limitation for claims, types of insurance and financial guarantees covering against civil liability for nuclear damages, limits of nuclear operators' liability, specific requirements regarding the insurance, responsibilities of control and supervision bodies, assessment of nuclear damage.(author)

  8. substantiation of nuclear safety ensuring for storing LWR cores, including damaged ones, in NPP of Russian out of service nuclear powered submarines, surface ships and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lot of Russian nuclear ships and vessels, first nuclear powered submarines (NPS) with light water coolant are out of service and non-defueled. The critical economic situation in Russia doesn't allow solving this problem for the tolerable run. The nuclear and radiation safety of such cores long-term storage in the ships and vessels afloat must be ensured. The other serious problem to be tackled by nuclear experts and organizations is the mooring of NPS with accident nuclear powered plants (NPP). The damaged cores should be explored, and their nuclear safety must be ultimately enhanced. The protection of the nearest and distant population and regions from the nuclear man-made hazards caused by the retired non-defueled floating NPS could be ensured by the draining of the core in reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and the filling of the core by heavy melt or pure liquid metal. A metal must possess the necessary nuclear and chemical properties, and thermal hydraulics conditions as well as the properties of the self-solidified in RPV the inert metal. The principal findings, especially the ship's reactor criticality reduction and the fixation of fuel elements in the RPV structure, are of great importance for the prevention of any emergency and the non-proliferation of high-enriched SNF from the naval reactors at the all stages of the handling with the in-RPV core. (author)

  9. A bridge between two conventions on civil liability for nuclear damage: The Joint Protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of the Joint Protocol and its signature on 21 September 1988, at the closure of the diplomatic conference jointly convened in Vienna by the IAEA and the NEA, was hailed as landmark in efforts towards the establishment of a comprehensive civil nuclear liability regime. The importance of liability and compensation for transfrontier damage caused by a nuclear incident is indeed one of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident. The present article attempts to describe the history of the Joint Protocol during the many years it took to develop this link between the two conventions, to provide comment on its objectives and content, and to discuss some important questions related to its application

  10. Introduction to the French legislation dealing with nuclear financial liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at describing the new legal frame that has been set in France by law to face the issue of the financial liabilities of the nuclear industry, i.e. financing of the decommissioning and of the long term management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. An Act has been passed, dated 28 June 2006 (waste law), for a sustainable management of radioactive material and waste, which, in particular, implies new financial duties for nuclear operators. (authors)

  11. Towards an overhauling of the international nuclear liability regime - the revision of the Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper addresses the major items of relevance to compensation for nuclear damage under civil liability law. The revision of the Vienna Convention deserves support as a contribution to enhancing the protection of those who suffered damage, and of the environment. The results of the revision will have an impact on the liability regimes in existing and future signatory states, and to some extent will also set the goals of a future reshaping of the Paris Convention, all the more since the Joint Protocol calls for harmonization of at least basic provisions of substantive law in the two Conventions. (orig./HP)

  12. Content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts, both raw and prepared for consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Slupski, Jacek; Skoczen-Slupska, Radoslawa; Kmiecik, Waldemar [Department of Raw Materials and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Agricultural University of Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts. The investigation included the raw material, cooked sample and two types of frozen product stored at -20 C for 12 months and then prepared for consumption. The frozen products investigated were obtained using the traditional method (blanching before freezing) and the modified method (cooking before freezing, then defrosting and heating in microwave oven after refrigerated storage) of the ready-to-eat type. Brussels sprouts, both fresh and prepared for consumption, were a good source of protein and amino acids. Proline and glutamic acid were dominating; leucine and tyrosine with phenylalanine were limiting amino acids. The product obtained by modified method contained 16% less amino acids in 16 g N than the raw material and 14% less than the raw material after cooking, and also 10% lower than that of the traditionally obtained product. (author)

  13. Third party liability of nuclear installation decommissioning with Russian nuclear submarines as an example: insurance versus technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third party and environment of civil liability damage caused by incidents at military nuclear installations, for instance at decommissioned NPS (nuclear powered submarines), may be divided into three main trends: -) Liability of NPS without high-enriched irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) for its self-submersion (radiation incident); -) Liability of NPS with SNF aboard for its self-submersion (radiation incident); and -) Liability of floating NPS for its SNF discharge (nuclear accident). Without step-by-step transition from the Russian Federation guaranties to insurance and making allowance for liability limits according to the Vienna Convention approach, the sizes of the financial guarantee for the civil liability of the NPS owner (Russian state), in US dollars of 2000, are approximately assessed as the following: -) storing decommissioned NPS or a floating module without SNF - from 12 to 25 thousand dollars per year (per one submarine or module); -) storing decommissioned NPS with SNF inside reactors cores - from 25 to 40 thousand dollars per year; -) assembly-by-assembly removing SNF from reactors' core of decommissioned NPS - up to 1.5 million dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period; -) SNF removing within reactor using the filled in-space reactor's core by liquid-phased hardened or dispersed solid-phase materials from decommissioned NPS - from 30 to 50 thousand dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period. Both rates and sums for NPS with damaged reactors are to be estimated for the each damaged reactor and NPS at all. It is necessary to perform the measures reducing the risk of nuclear accidents of NPS with undamaged SNF and NPS with damaged reactors in possibly short time. It will allow not only to cut risks by ten times and more, but also to accumulate necessary insurance reserves faster. These measures can be partially or completely executed using the preventing measures reserves assigned to all decommissioned Russian NPS and

  14. 75 FR 48283 - Liability for Termination of Single-Employer Plans; Treatment of Substantial Cessation of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... 71 FR 34819), PBGC published a final rule providing a formula for computing liability under section... ``established and maintained.'' PBGC believes the textual analysis in the Rose case would be appropriate in... penalties are not the only applicable enforcement mechanism. On July 18, 1995 (at 60 FR 36837), PBGC...

  15. Heavy metal coolant for safe storage of the core in a ship nuclear power unit (NPU), extraction, transportation and storage of the ship reactor vessel with core outside the NPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological and organization-technological solutions of the following problems are proposed: 1) increase in the safety of the spent nuclear fuel storage in the ship nuclear power unit (NPU) on the nuclear submarine (NSM); 2) increase in the nuclear and radiation safety of the ship nuclear power unit of the NSM with nonunloaded cores; 3) extraction and removal of the reactor vessel with the core from the ship NPU of the NSM

  16. New developments in international nuclear liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Bord of Governors at its session in February 1990 entrusted its Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability under a new mandate with the preparatory work for the revision of the Vienna Convention. This Standing Committee has so far helt three sessions. The following four main items appeared on its agenda: 1. proposals for the revision of the Vienna Convention; 2. the question of supplementary funding for compensation of nuclear damage under the revised Vienna Convention; 3. procedure for the settlement of claims for nuclear damage under the revised Vienna Convention; and 4. International State liability for nuclear damage and its relationship to the international civil liability regime. A brief description is provided of these initiatives to improve the existing international nuclear liability regime. Also progress made with regard to each of them is reported. Because of the different legal character of these initiatives, belonging to international civil, international state law and sometimes a mixture, there is a serious risk that the new developments will not be formalized as soon as hoped for. (orig.)

  17. Division of nuclear liabilities between different license holders and owners - 59214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden was one of the first six countries to build and operate a nuclear power reactor. Thus, there exists a corresponding legacy in terms of liabilities for decommissioning and waste management of the historic facilities. Compliance with the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) and its corollary on equity between generations implies that plans for decommissioning must be made and funds set aside for its execution. The need for precision in the cost estimates often governs the timing of the technical planning. Cost estimates are treacherous since cost raisers may be identified and evaluated only after considerable efforts have been made. Further complications and challenges arise as a result of changes that take place between construction and decommissioning of facilities in terms of the entities involved as owners, operators, license holders, Authorities and financiers. From this perspective, the present paper summarizes the general legislation as well as the legislation that applies particularly to nuclear activities. It also summarizes the relation between the nuclear decommissioning fund system and financial reporting. Three examples are provided that wholly or partially fall under the Studsvik act (that specifically covers old facilities): - The Aagesta nuclear power plant; - The Ranstad uranium mining and beneficiation facility; - The Neutron Research Laboratory at Studsvik; The findings include the following: - It is important that the legislation be clear as to what is included and not. - The rationale for the legislation should also be clear and well communicated. - Old agreements can be significant for the assessment of liabilities, even in cases where a party may no longer exist. - Support for assessment of when activities are continuing or not (which may have a strong significance for the liability) can be found in court cases on chemically contaminated soil. - Analysis of facilities and the work carried out at different times can be very helpful in

  18. A novel method for efficient and abundant production of Phytophthora brassicae zoospores on Brussels sprout leaf discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govers Francine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interactions. One attractive model system is the interaction between Arabidopsis and Phytophthora brassicae. Under laboratory conditions, Arabidopsis can be easily infected with mycelial plugs as inoculum. In the disease cycle, however, sporangia or zoospores are the infectious propagules. Since the current P. brassicae zoospore isolation methods are generally regarded as inefficient, we aimed at developing an alternative method for obtaining high concentrations of P. brassicae zoospores. Results P. brassicae isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Brussels sprout plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Microscopic examination of leaves, stems and roots infected with a GFP-tagged transformant of P. brassicae clearly demonstrated the susceptibility of the various tissues. Leaf discs were cut from infected Brussels sprout leaves, transferred to microwell plates and submerged in small amounts of water. In the leaf discs the hyphae proliferated and abundant formation of zoosporangia was observed. Upon maturation the zoosporangia released zoospores in high amounts and zoospore production continued during a period of at least four weeks. The zoospores were shown to be infectious on Brussels sprouts and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The in vitro leaf disc method established from P. brassicae infected Brussels sprout leaves facilitates convenient and high-throughput production of infectious zoospores and is thus suitable to drive small and large scale inoculation experiments. The system has the advantage that zoospores are produced continuously over a period of at least one month.

  19. The coverage of nuclear third party liability risks as seen by the insurance business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German insurance companies at a very early stage met the challenges resulting from the coverage of nuclear risks. Even before the German Atomic Energy Act entered into force, the German Nuclear Reactor Insurance Pool (Deutsche Kernreaktorversicherungsgemeinschaft) was set up. International cooperation has helped it to meet the growing requirements to this day. It will continue to make its contribution also in the future. A major precondition for this to be achieved is the stabilization of the proven concepts of liability and coverage. (orig.)

  20. The need to bring the new global regime of civil nuclear liability to life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident raised consciousness around the world about civil liability issues. People in Australia and elsewhere looked at the existing international nuclear liability regime and concluded that it was inadequate. The amount of compensation available under the regime was too low. The regime did not cover environmental damage. Australia decided to take an active role in the proceedings of the Standing Committee on Nuclear liability. Australia has a favourable judgment on the new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for nuclear damages. It provided for a dedicated fund for transboundary damage, the inclusion of environmental damage, the lion's share of the contributions to the international fund established under the Convention to be borne by nuclear power generating states, jurisdiction over actions concerning nuclear damage from a nuclear accident in a Party's territory or Exclusive Economic Zone to lie with the courts of that Party. It reproaches this Convention for compensable damage to be determined by the law of the competent court, and the necessity of emission of ionizing radiations for the Convention to take effect. (N.C.)

  1. Implementation and ongoing development of a comprehensive program to deal with Canada's nuclear legacy liabilities - 16039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are located at AECL research and prototype reactor sites, and consist of shutdown reactors, research facilities and associated infrastructure, a wide variety of buried and stored waste, and contaminated lands. In 2006, the Government of Canada adopted a new long-term strategy to deal with the nuclear legacy liabilities and initiated a five-year, $520 million (Canadian dollars) start-up phase, thereby creating the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The objective of the long-term strategy is to safely and cost-effectively reduce risks and liabilities based on sound waste management and environmental principles in the best interests of Canadians. The five-year plan is directed at addressing health, safety and environmental priorities, accelerating the decontamination and demolition of shutdown buildings, and laying the groundwork for future phases of the strategy. It also includes public consultation to inform the further development of the strategy and provides for continued care and maintenance activities at the sites. The NLLP is being implemented through a Memorandum of Understanding between Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and AECL whereby NRCan is responsible for policy direction and oversight, including control of funding, and AECL is responsible for carrying out the work and holding and administering all licences, facilities and lands. The paper summarizes achievements during the first three years of program implementation in the areas of decommissioning and dismantling; waste recovery and environmental restoration; the construction of enabling facilities to analyze, handle and store the legacy waste; and, planning for the long-term management of the radioactive waste. (authors)

  2. A Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime of a Multilateral Nuclear Approaches Framework in the Asian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two primary challenges for establishing nuclear third party liability (TPL regimes within multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Asian region. The first challenge is to ensure secure and prompt compensation, especially for transboundary damages, which is also a challenge for a nation-based facility. One possible solution is that in order to share common nuclear TPL principles, all states in the region participate in the same international nuclear TPL convention, such as the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC, with a view to its entry into force in the future. One problem with this approach is that many states in the Asian region need to raise their amount of financial security in order to be able to participate in the CSC. The second challenge lies with the multiple MNA member states and encompasses the question of how decisions are to be made and responsabilities of an installation state are to be shared in case of a nuclear incident. Principally, a host state of the MNA facility takes on this responsibility. However, in certain situations and in agreement with all MNA member states, such responsibilities can be indirectly shared among all MNA member states. This can be done through internal arrangements within the MNA framework, such as reimbursement to a host state based on pre-agreed shares in accordance with investment and/or making deposits on such reimbursements in case of an incident.

  3. Civil liability in the field of nuclear power: an impediment against nuclear equipment sales?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So as the Chernobyl accident showed, the effects of nuclear accidents can not be confined within the national boundaries but rather reach many countries and as such the protection of victims which the civil liability regime can afford should be shared fairly among the affected countries. These arguments backed nuclear industry and 'inspired' world's states in regulating the present juridical regimes. Besides, the international nuclear materials transport was likewise taken into consideration. The current international agreements as well as the national legislation of many countries are still inadequate and as such they create an impediment on the way of developing the international market of nuclear materials and equipment. There are two basic international juridical regulations regarding the civil liability: the Arrangement concerning the civil liability on third parties in the nuclear field (Paris Convention) agreed upon in Paris on July 29, 1960 under Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the IAEA Vienna Convention that came into force on May 21, 1962. This work presents an analysis of the main differences between the current international agreements and the main anxieties the suppliers are experiencing. A number of suggestions to solve the current problems of international nuclear legislation are discussed

  4. The law for Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law prescribes in the 1st chapter the establishment of above mentioned agency as a legal person with its principal office in Tokyo and with the investment of 100 million yens by the government as a part of its capital. The 2nd chapter includes the provisions about officers of the agency, according to them: the agency has a president and a executive director, directors within 3 persons, and a auditor; the president and auditor are to be appointed by the competent Minister after consulting with the Atomic Energy Commission and directors including the executive director should be appointed by the president after receiving the approval of the competent Minister; and terms of their offices are 2 (auditor) to 4 years (others). In the 3rd chapter the business of the agency is defined as to include: the design, construction and operation of nuclear ships; education and training of the crew of those ships; research and studies concerning above listed activities; and others. The 4th chapter prescribes the procedures of finance and accounting of the agency, according to them: the agency's business plan, budget and finance plan should each year be sanctioned by the competent Minister before the beginning of the year; and the financial documents should each year be approved by the Minister after the end of the year. (Matsushima, A.)

  5. Quality Assurance for Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes QA activities performed within 'Quality Assurance for Nuclear facility project' and results thereof. Efforts were made to maintain and improve quality system of nuclear facilities. Varification activities whether quality system was implemented in compliance with requirements. QA department assisted KOLAS accredited testing and calibration laboratories, ISO 9001 quality system, establishment of QA programs for R and D, and carried out reviews and surveys for development of quality assurance technologies. Major items of this report are as follows : - Development and Improvement of QA Programs - QA Activities - Assessment of Effectiveness and Adequacy for QA Programs

  6. Limitation of third party nuclear liability. Causes, implications and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third party liability of the nuclear power generation industry is discussed. It has several purposes. One is to clarify the distinctive features of nuclear liability as compared with traditional liability in tort. Particular interest is devoted to one such feature, namely the express liability limitation from which the nuclear power generation industry benefits. The causes and implications of this feature are discussed. One important implication of the current order is that the top risk of the nuclear power generation industry is explicitly or implicitly transferred to governments. This risk transfer can be regarded as a subsidy to the nuclear power generation industry. Subsidizations counteract efficiency. Therefore, the possibilities of neutralizing or abolishing the subsidy are explored. (author)

  7. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  8. Nuclear waste management, reactor decommisioning, nuclear liability and public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with several issues that are frequently raised by the public in any discussion of nuclear energy, and explores some aspects of public attitudes towards nuclear-related activities. The characteristics of the three types of waste associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. mine/mill tailings, reactor wastes and nuclear fuel wastes, are defined, and the methods currently being proposed for their safe handling and disposal are outlined. The activities associated with reactor decommissioning are also described, as well as the Canadian approach to nuclear liability. The costs associated with nuclear waste management, reactor decommissioning and nuclear liability are also discussed. Finally, the issue of public attitudes towards nuclear energy is addressed. It is concluded that a simple and comprehensive information program is needed to overcome many of the misconceptions that exist about nuclear energy and to provide the public with a more balanced information base on which to make decisions

  9. Evaluation of radioactive inventory of nuclear ship MUTSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ezure, H. [Nuclear Safety Research Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The operation of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU was terminated in January 1992. Radioactivities and dose rates on the surfaces of reactor components were measured in order to estimate the residual radioactive inventory in the MUTSU. The predicted radioactive inventory due to neutron activation was calculated by using a computer code systems. The results show good correlation between predicted and measured values radioactivities in the core baffle plate. The radioactive inventory was estimated to be 8.4 x 10{sup 14} Bq as of 1.5 years from the final shutdown of reactor operation. The contamination in reactor components was estimated from the contamination level measured in the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR), from which the dose rates in the reactor room were calculated. The radioactive inventory due to contamination was estimated at 3.4 x 10{sup 10} Bq. Some difference was found between these calculations and measurements. (Author).

  10. Use of ports, bays and waters under national Brazilian jurisdiction by nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This norm establishes the requirements of nuclear safety and radioprotection for the entrance and utilization of ports, bays and waters under Brazilian national jurisdiction, by nuclear ships, aiming the obtention of governmental authorization and further control from the proper authorities

  11. Effects of ship`s vibration and motion on plant parameters. Report on sea trials of nuclear ship MUTSU made first in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kamiya, Eisei; Kudou, Takahiro; Naitoh, Akira; Tominaga, Mineo

    1992-03-01

    Present report was written about the study of the effects of ship`s vibration and motion on reactor plant performances measured and analyzed to confirm the total balance for control systems of reactor to propulsion. On July 10, 1990, or on the first day of the first voyage for the power up test, the sea trials of MUTSU, nuclear ship made first in Japan, started from the anchoring test. The trial tests had finished through the third voyage between October 30 and November 9 to the fourth voyage between 7 and 14 of December. The trial tests had been conducted over ten items or so containing in-house tests of the measurements of ship`s vibration and motion in order to research the effects on reactor performance. We here call the in-house tests the plant correlation tests. In regard to the correlation with ship`s vibration, we confirmed that the inherent vibrations of hull and reactor containment arisen from ship structure had precisely been measured and that the plant correlations due to the hull and local vibrations arising from propeller revolutions are very small. Concerning the correlation with ship`s motion, it was shown that her rolling motion strongly had affected on the propulsion system such as shaft power and shaft revolutions. About the correlation with reactor systems it was found that her pitching motion had given effect on the water level in pressurizer, primary coolant average temperature, {epsilon}-signal of the auto-control of reactor power and primary coolant pressure etc, particularly, most-strongly on the water level in pressurizer; her rolling and pitching motions had given effect on nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and startup rate; in addition the fluctuation of 0.06 Hz, we think the response inherent in (MUTSU) reactor systems, had been observed on her reactor parameters like reactivity and startup rate, and her propulsion systems like shaft horse power. (author).

  12. Nuclear civil liability international system. Evolution prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs

  13. Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Deal with Canada's Nuclear Legacy Liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of Canada nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development (R and D) carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are largely located at AECL research sites, and consist of shutdown research buildings (including several prototype and research reactors), a wide variety of buried and stored wastes, and contaminated lands. The shutdown buildings and contaminated lands need to be safely decommissioned to meet federal regulatory requirements, and long-term solutions need to be developed and implemented for management of the wastes. More than half of the liabilities are the result of Cold War activities during the 1940's, 50's and early 60's. The remaining liabilities stem from R and D for medical isotopes and nuclear reactor technology, as well as national science programs. About 70 percent of the liabilities are located at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in Ontario, and a further 20 percent are located at AECL's shutdown Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba. The remaining 10 percent relate largely to three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec, which were key to the developmental stage of Canada's CANDU reactor technology. The inventory of legacy waste includes spent fuel, high-level, intermediate-level and low-level solid and liquid radioactive waste, and wastes (largely contaminated soils) from site clean-up work across Canada. Most of the wastes are in raw, unconditioned form, and limited characterization information is available for the wastes generated in past decades. In many cases unique and potentially costly solutions will be required to recover, handle and process the wastes. In conclusion: the Government of Canada has initiated a program to deal with nuclear legacy liabilities dating back to the Cold War and the birth of nuclear technologies and medicine in Canada. The 5

  14. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy

  15. The new definition of nuclear damage in the 1997 protocol to amend the 1963 vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication analyzes the content and the impact of the new definition of nuclear damage contented in the amendment protocol of the Vienna Convention relative to the civil liability in the 1963 Convention. Having in mind the experience of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents, it is demonstrated that the costs of preventive measures, damage to the environment and economic loss may constitute substantial portions of the total damage following a nuclear accident. Then, the new definition is studied in detail, on insisting on the notion of economic loss. A development is devoted to the question of damage to the environment. The preventive measures are studied and their conditions of the compensation receivability evoked with the criteria of reasonable measures. (N.C.)

  16. Highlights of the annual meeting of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine: Brussels 1995. The art of imaging the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The congress was structured in five pre-congress meetings (gastrointestinal nuclear medicine, benign bone diseases, infection and inflammation imaging, pediatric investigation and nuclear medicine in oncology), 81 scientific sessions, 34 poster sessions, 14 oral sessions and two poster sessions for technologists. Eight lectures were given on invitation of the Scientific Committee. (orig.)

  17. The tasks of the employer's liability insurance association and their commitment in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The employers liability insurance association in the field of precision engineering and electrical engineering is the competent association for commitment in nuclear power plant. Their activities include advising and supervisory functions as well as training and other tasks for the purpose of accident prevention in the power plants, as are done in the all in all 800.000 industrial facilities liable to insurance by this association, covering well over 2 millions of insured persons. (orig./HP)

  18. Reflections on drafting of civil liability clauses and solving of disputes in supply contracts throughout the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lengthy duration and diversity of the stages of the fuel cycle and the geographical distribution of the nuclear industries give the contracts for carrying out the different operations such flexibility that in order to settle disputes concerning notably but not exclusively liability, reference may be made to different legal systems according to whether the regulations of international public or private law can be applied. The options provided for co-contractors in view of the flexibility of the contracts lead to adoption of varying clauses for settling disputes according to the different industrial achievements envisaged. (NEA)

  19. Overview of Requirements for Using Overweight Vehicles to Ship Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, considered a range of options for transportation. In evaluating the impacts of the mostly-legal weight truck scenario, DOE assumed that some shipments would use overweight trucks. The use of overweight trucks is also considered in the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, issued for public comment in Fall 2007. With the exception of permit requirements and operating restrictions, the vehicles for overweight shipments would be similar to legal-weight truck shipments but might weigh as much as 52,200 kilograms (115,000 pounds). The use of overweight trucks was determined to be acceptable for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because the payload is not divisible and the packaging alone may make shipments overweight. Overweight truck shipments are common, and states routinely issue overweight permits, some for vehicles with a gross vehicle weight up to 58,500 kilograms (129,000 pounds). This paper will present an overview of state overweight truck permitting policies and national and regional approaches to promote safety and uniformity. In conclusion: Overweight truck shipments are made routinely by carriers throughout the country. State permits are obtained by the carriers or by companies that provide permitting services to the carriers. While varying state permit restrictions may add complexity to OCRWM's planning activities, the well-established experience of commercial carriers and efforts to bring uniformity to the permitting process should allow the overweight shipment of SNF to be a viable option. (authors)

  20. Nuclearity for Dual Operator Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhe Dong; Jicheng Tao

    2010-02-01

    In this short paper, we study the nuclearity for the dual operator space $V^∗$ of an operator space . We show that $V^∗$ is nuclear if and only if $V^{∗∗∗}$ is injective, where $V^{∗∗∗}$ is the third dual of . This is in striking contrast to the situation for general operator spaces. This result is used to prove that $V^{∗∗}$ is nuclear if and only if is nuclear and $V^{∗∗}$ is exact.

  1. International responsibility of using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the stability of the idea of international responsibility in public international law, the international jurisprudence has not settled on a definition. The concept of international responsibility is no longer limited to the legal effects or consequences under international law to violate its provisions. The states recognized that the customary principles governing the international responsibility in public international law does not take into account the specificities of nuclear dangers, this sought to conclude a number of international conventions include a special system of nuclear liability not based on the wrongful act, but on the principle of keeping things, and it requires the existence of an international regime for nuclear liability in order to establish measures and procedures to achieve the implementation of the provisions for compensation unhindered by national legal systems. There is no doubt that the use of nuclear energy in time of peace falls within the scope of internationally prohibited acts. Atomic activities undertaken by the State within its borders for peaceful purposes are considered legitimate activities as long as they have taken necessary measures to avoid damage to neighboring countries. States has tended to conclude international agreements under which disputes that may result from the use of nuclear energy can be solved. The existing international legal framework on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage consists of three major interrelated agreements: Paris Convention on civil liability in the field of nuclear energy, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for civil damages and the Brussels Convention on Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Materials.

  2. Nuclear merchant ships: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the hitherto successful operation of the OTTO HAHN the next steps in the development of an economical, commercial nuclear ship in the FRG are discussed. This ship is to be built until 1985, and from then on it is to be taken into service. (UA)

  3. Legal analysis at the Law for Civil liabilities by nuclear damage; Analisis juridico a la Ley de responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez G, A

    2000-07-01

    The present work has the objective to analyse in specific terms the legal regime of the Civil liability by nuclear damage. It has been the intention of that this compilation is the initiation of a large way which awake the interests of jurists and specialists dedicated to study the aspects as the liability by nuclear damage, compensation guarantee, risk and nuclear damage among others. The peaceful applications of the nuclear energy require the necessity of a legal ordinance that it is updated according to the nuclear technology development that the regulations of the common law do not cover. This work is initiated mentioning some antecedents of the nuclear energy law in Mexico. Also is realized the study of the elemental concepts and definitions about the subject as the evolution of the legal figure in the National law frame where the jurist must do an incursion in the nuclear field and make use of scientific and technical terminology. It was analysed and it was made the reflection of the legal figure of liability, its exoneration cases, about the concepts of risk and nuclear damage overcoming the conceptual error among them. It is talked about the study of nuclear damage and its repairing as financial guarantee to compensate to the people injured by a nuclear accident. Finally, it was treated about the legal analysis and proposals of additions and reforms for updating the Nuclear damage liability Law, concluding with general contributions to the Law resulting products of this work. (Author)

  4. Modification of Japanese first nuclear ship reactor for a regional energy supply system using gadolinia as a burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our laboratory, a small regional energy supply system which uses a small nuclear reactor has been studied for a long time. This system could supply not only heat but also electricity. Heat could be used for hot-water supply, a heating system of a house, melting snow and so on. In this point, this system seems to be useful for the places like northern part of Japan where it snows in winter. This reactor is based on Nuclear Ship Mutsu which was developed as the first nuclear ship of Japan about 40 years ago. It has several advantages for a small reactor. For example, its moderator temperature coefficient is always to be deeply negative because boric acid solution is not used in moderator and coolant. This can lead to a self-controlled operation without control rod maneuvering for load change. But some modifications have been performed in order to satisfy requirements such as (1) longer core life without refueling and reshuffling, (2) reactivity adjustment for load change without control rods or soluble boron, (3) simpler operations for load changes and (4) ultimate safety with sufficient passive capability. In our previous study, we confirmed the core based on Mutsu core had longer core life (about 10 years) using high uranium enrichment fuel (more than 5wt%) and current 17x17 fuel assemblies. We also confirmed excess reactivity during the cycle could be suppressed using combination of erbium oxide (Er2O3) and gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) as burnable poisons. Er2O3 has advantages such that criticality safety can be kept even if uranium enrichment is more than 5wt% and burnup characteristics of the core can be gradual. But at this time there are 2 problems to apply for the core using Er2O3 in Japan. First problem is that more than 5wt% enrichment fuel is not yet accepted in Japan. Second problem is that there are no experiences of using Er2O3 in commercial reactors in Japan. Considering these problems, we have to modify the design of the core, using only Gd2O3 as a

  5. Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage. Final act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the Final Act of the Diplomatic Conference held in Vienna between 8-12 September 1997 which adopted the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  6. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties....

  7. Towards fault-tolerant decision support systems for ship operator guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Lajic, Zoran; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2012-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation are very important elements in the design of fault-tolerant decision support systems for ship operator guidance. This study outlines remedies that can be applied for fault diagnosis, when the ship responses are assumed to be linear in the wave excitation. A novel num...

  8. Power, Identity, and Organizational Structure as Reflected in Schools for Minority Groups: A Case Study of Jewish Schools in Paris, Brussels, and Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the linkages between organizational structure, power relations, and group identities within the private schools operated by the francophone Jewish communities of Brussels, Paris, and Geneva. A school's organizational structure and balance of power reflect its identity and its conceptual world. That is, its organizational…

  9. Impact of nuclear-related safety requirements on the design of merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear ships have more stringent safety requirements than conventional ships. This paper identifies differences in these requirements, and discusses the effect they have on ship design. It does not address safety requirements for the reactor itself-only those which apply to the ship. Their effects are treated in terms of increased design time, delays in construction, added weight and space requirements, and arrangement constraints. Dollar costs are not included. The views in this paper are solely those of the authors and concern only commercial nuclear propulsion. They in no way represent information, policy, or practices of the U.S. Government

  10. On the optimal environmental liability limit for marine oil transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in the US liability regime for oil pollution damage have intensified a policy debate about environmental liability limits. Economic theory suggests that some type of limit may be needed under certain conditions, and that such a limit should be set so that the marginal social benefit and cost are equal. However, it is unclear how a liability limit may be determined specifically for tanker shipping in US waters. We first examine conditions under which corner solutions (no liability or unlimited liability) are desirable. We then formulate a model to determine a socially optimal liability limit for oil pollution damage in US waters when a non-zero, finite liability limit is desirable. The model captures the tradeoff between less expensive energy supply and more stringent protection of the marine environment. Numerical simulations illustrate the properties of the model and major factors affecting the public policy decision regarding a liability limit. (author)

  11. New start of nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu'. 1. Decommissioning works of 'Mutsu' and research and development of nuclear-powered ships hereafter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' was launched in June, 1969, and used Ominato, Aomori Prefecture, as its home port. The initial criticality of the reactor was attained in August, 1974. However, radiation leak occurred, and the repair of shielding and the general safety checkup were carried out in Sasebo since 1980. The ship moved to the new home port Sekinehama in 1988, and after the trial, it received the certificate of inspection from Science and Technology Agency and Ministry of Transport. Thus 'Mutsu' was completed as the nuclear-powered ship. The experimental voyage was begun in February, 1991, and finished in January, 1992. The reconstruction works are in progress to change 'Mutsu' to a large ocean observation and research ship. The course of the research and development, the reactor power raising test and the sea trial, the experimental voyage and the results attained by 'Mutsu' are reported. One of the important items is the training of the crew who operate nuclear-powered ships and nuclear reactors, and about 400 seamen took part in the operation of 'Mutsu'. (K.I.)

  12. Disposal of Russian nuclear submarines and surface ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A German contribution to the initiative of the Global G8 Partnership against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction is a project for the disposal of decommissioned nuclear submarines of the Russian Northern Sea Fleet. The Federal Republic of Germany makes available a total of 600 million euro for this purpose for the period of 2003 to 2014. Since 2003, a long-term store has been under construction in the Saida Bay in the Murmansk region for land-based storage of mothballed reactor sections from decommissioned nuclear submarines and components of nuclear surface ships with a total of 178 storage positions, the necessary infrastructure included. At the present time, 33 mothballed reactor sections of disassembled nuclear submarines are stored there. Work is also under way to build and equip a center for conditioning, treatment, and long-term storage of radioactive waste from the northwestern region of Russia, which will be commissioned in 2014. This waste management center is a key item in Russian plans for the establishment of radiologically safe conditions in the region. Germany financed the disassembly of 20 submarines into reactor sections fit for storage. Extensive assistance was provided in improving the material technical basis of the shipyard commissioned to dispose of the nuclear submarines. (orig.)

  13. Shield design development of nuclear propulsion merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shielding design both in Japan and abroad for nuclear propulsion merchant ships is explained, with emphasis on the various technological problems having occurred in the shield design for one-body type and separate type LWRs as conceptual design. The following matters are described: the peculiarities of the design as compared with the case of land-based nuclear reactors, problems in the design standards of shielding, the present status and development of the design methods, and the instances of the design; thereby, the trends of shielding design are disclosed. The following matters are pointed out: Importance of the optimum design, of shielding, significance of radiation streaming through large voids, activation of the secondary water in built-in type steam generators, and the need of the guides for shield design. (Mori, K.)

  14. Ex-core detector response caused by control rod misalignment observed during operation of the reactor on the nuclear ship Mutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)); Gakuhari, Kazuhiko; Okada, Noboru (Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Sakai, Tomohiro (Japan Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    Unexpected deviations of ex-core neutron detector signals were observed during a voyage of the Japanese nuclear ship, Mutsu. From detailed three-dimensional analyses, this phenomenon was determined to be caused by an asymmetrical neutron source distribution in the core due to a small misalignment between the two control rods of a control rod group. A systematic ex-core detector response experiment was performed during the Mutsu's third experimental voyage to gain some understanding of the relationship between the control rod pattern and the detector response characteristics. Results obtained from analyses of the experiment indicate that the Crump-Lee technique, using calculated three-dimensional source distributions for various control rod patterns, provides good agreement between the calculated and measured detector responses. Xenon transient analyses were carried out to generate accurate three-dimensional source distributions for predicting the time-dependent detector response characteristics. Two types of ex-core detector responses are caused by changes in the control rod pattern in the Mutsu reactor: the detector response ratio tends to decrease with the withdrawal of a group of control rods as a pair, and a difference in the positions of the control rods in a group causes signal deviations among the four ex-core detectors. Control rod misalignment does not greatly affect the mean value of the four detector signals, and the deviation can be minimized if the two rods within a group are set at the same elevation at the time of detector calibration.

  15. The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, M.; Matsuo, R.; Fujikawa, S.; Nomura, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author).

  16. The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author)

  17. Arrangements for and experience with the visits of the nuclear ship OTTO HAHN to the Harbours of Rotterdam and Vlaardingen in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After signing in 1968 an agreement between the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany, regarding the visit of the German nuclear ship 'Otto Hahn' to Dutch territorial watersand ports, discussions started between the operator of the ship, local port authorities and representatives of different ministries concerned to work out in addition to the port entry plan of the operator, special arrangements for visits to the harbours of Rotterdam and Vlaardingen. At the same time the legal procedures to obtain a licence, according to the Nuclear Energy Act started. After consultation with the National Health Council a safety review group and the port authorities, a licence was granted with some specific requirements and the arrangement for visits to the harbours of Rotterdam and Vlaardingen was established. In the years 1971 to 1977 several visits to the above mentioned ports took place, the procedures being more or less routine nowadays. In the years 1974 - 1975, based on the request of the operator, the possibility of visits to other Dutch ports was investigated. A model was developed to compare, with respect to population distribution, the different harbours together with the routes to an emergency berth or the open sea. The results of this study, where all nautical aspects were disregarded, are given

  18. Performance evaluation of nuclear ship engineering simulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Kusunoki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Teruo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Uematsu, Haruki

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) has been developed for an efficient design study of an advanced marine reactor, Marine Reactor X (MRX). This time, the performance evaluation of NESSY was carried out by comparing predictions which were computed on NESSY with measurements which were got from experimental voyage of the nuclear ship `Mutsu`. This report writes the way of evaluation and the results. The aims of the performance evaluation is to find out differences between predictions and measurements, to make their causes on the side of simulator clear and to verify the applicable range of NESSY. As a result, it shows that NESSY has a sufficient performance to simulate the `Mutsu` and further is applicable to MRX except for the part of a helical-type once-through steam generator and a water-filled containment vessel which are introduced into it. After this, we are planning to utilize this system effectively as one of design tools for design study of MRX by adding functions of MRX. (author).

  19. Performance evaluation of nuclear ship engineering simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) has been developed for an efficient design study of an advanced marine reactor, Marine Reactor X (MRX). This time, the performance evaluation of NESSY was carried out by comparing predictions which were computed on NESSY with measurements which were got from experimental voyage of the nuclear ship 'Mutsu'. This report writes the way of evaluation and the results. The aims of the performance evaluation is to find out differences between predictions and measurements, to make their causes on the side of simulator clear and to verify the applicable range of NESSY. As a result, it shows that NESSY has a sufficient performance to simulate the 'Mutsu' and further is applicable to MRX except for the part of a helical-type once-through steam generator and a water-filled containment vessel which are introduced into it. After this, we are planning to utilize this system effectively as one of design tools for design study of MRX by adding functions of MRX. (author)

  20. Application of risk assessment to nuclear merchant ship safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the risk assessment technique which is a part of the system safety approach. It examines studies performed in both the land based reactor safety field and the marine safety field and determines, in a general sense, how the techniques can be applied to nuclear propelled merchant ships. Several examples are given which illustrate the facilitation of the approach

  1. Variational Iteration Method for a Fractional-Order Brusselator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jafari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents approximate analytical solutions for the fractional-order Brusselator system using the variational iteration method. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. This method is based on the incorporation of the correction functional for the equation. Two examples are solved as illustrations, using symbolic computation. The numerical results show that the introduced approach is a promising tool for solving system of linear and nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  2. The applications of the expanders on nuclear-powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear heating reactor has inherent safety with very simple structures, so it can be used as minitype nuclear-powered equipment. Due to the limits of dimensions and the requirements of mobility of the ship, it is need to simplify the total system. If the conventional steam-generators are replaced with expanders, the system is not only be simplified greatly, but the safety and reliability are improved extremely

  3. Liability for the Payment of Public School Fees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carnelley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights some legal issues regarding the liability of parents and other individuals to pay public school fees in the light of recent judicial precedent, specifically Fish Hoek Primary School v GW 2009 JOL 24624 (SCA. The various possible legal bases for the liability for such fees are examined. In this regard the common law duty to maintain as amended by legislation; contractual liability; and the concepts of household necessaries, stipulatio alteri, negotiorum gestio and unjustified enrichment are considered.

  4. Implementation in Poland of the EU Legislation on VTMIS and Reporting Formalities for Ships Operating to or from Ports of the EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krolikowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the EU legislation on Vessel Traffic Monitoring and Information System (VTMIS and reporting formalities for ships operating to or from ports of the EU Member States, principles of its implementation in Poland and technical investments made in order to build the Polish National Maritime Safety System to ensure safety and security of shipping and economic activities inside the Polish maritime areas and meeting the requirements of these regulations.

  5. Implementation in Poland of the EU Legislation on VTMIS and Reporting Formalities for Ships Operating to or from Ports of the EU Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Krolikowski; Ryszard Wawruch

    2016-01-01

    Article presents the EU legislation on Vessel Traffic Monitoring and Information System (VTMIS) and reporting formalities for ships operating to or from ports of the EU Member States, principles of its implementation in Poland and technical investments made in order to build the Polish National Maritime Safety System to ensure safety and security of shipping and economic activities inside the Polish maritime areas and meeting the requirements of these regulations.

  6. Nuclear Liability Act. RS, c.29 (1st supp.), s.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Revised Statutes of Canada 1985 which entered into force on 12 December 1988 revoked the Nuclear Liability Act of 1970, replacing it with a new version. The new Act (Chapter N-28 of the Revised Statutes) updates the previous text and makes some linguistic corrections. The principles of the Act of 1970 remain unchanged, namely absolute liability of the nuclear operator, such liability being limited in amount and in time

  7. 47 CFR 3.76 - Licensee's liability for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee's liability for payment. 3.76 Section... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.76 Licensee's liability for payment. The U.S. ship station licensee bears ultimate responsibility for final payment of...

  8. ANI (American Nuclear Insurers) support and research facility nuclear liability insurance inspection program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, B.

    1988-01-01

    American Nuclear Insurers (ANI), a voluntary association of insurance companies, provides property and nuclear liability insurance protection to the nuclear industry. It generally offers insurance coverage to nuclear facilities, suppliers, and transporters for the following: (1) their liability for damages because of bodily injury and/or property damage caused by the nuclear energy hazard, and (2) all-risk damage to nuclear facilities. Among the range of facilities and suppliers insured by ANI are (a) operators of nuclear power plants that supply electricity for the general public, (b) operators of nuclear testing and research reactors, (c) fuel fabricators that manufacture fuel for use in reactors, (d) operators of facilities that dispose of nuclear waste that cannot be salvaged, (e) facilities that maintain and repair equipment used at nuclear facilities, (f) nuclear laundries, and (g) low-level-waste processors. The fundamental goal of the ANI nuclear engineering inspection program is to provide protection to pool members' assets by reducing insurance risk.

  9. The experience of construction and operation of the civilian ship reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main stages in developing several generation of reactor plants for the civilian nuclear ships in the USSR, beginning from the Lenin icebreaker reactor are considered. The brief data on characteristics of the OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40 reactor plants, as well as those concerning the results of their operation for the time period of 1959-2000 are given. The problems connected with further application of nuclear ships in Arctic regions including the main equipment service lifetime increase are discussed. The total operational time for the reactors under extreme conditions of pitching and rolling, shock loads, repeated power alternation exceeds 160 reactor-years. The Arktika icebreaker reactor main equipment service lifetime reaches 142000 hours. At that not a single incident connected with violations in fission reaction control or uncontrollable radioactivity release is marked. It is shown that failures connected with leaks in the reactor cooling system primary circuit, which as a rule take place after equipment nominal service life finish, are the most dangerous ones. Basing on the analysis of the data gained in the process of the nuclear icebreaker operations the conclusion on favourable applicability of the KLT-40S reactor plants when designing floating thermal power plants and desalination complexes for remote areas in Russia and other countries is made

  10. Validation of elastic-plastic computer analyses for use in nuclear waste shipping cask design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GA Technologies designed the Defense High Level Waste (DHLW) Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The DHLW cask has a thick-walled stainless steel body and incorporates integral stainless steel impact limiters that protect the two ends of the cask during the hypothetical accident condition 30-ft free drop. These integral impact limiters absorb the drop energy through gross plastic deformations. GA used elastic-plastic computer codes developed at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, HONDOII and DYNA3D, to analyze for this non-linear behavior. In order to evaluate the analyses, GA developed elastic-plastic stress criteria that were adapted from the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Division I, Section III. This innovative design and analytical approach required test verification. Therefore, SNL performed 30-ft drop and puncture tests on a half-scale model of the DHLW cask. The testing confirmed that the analytical approach works and results in a safe, conservative design

  11. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Nuclear Third Party Liability: 1 Scope (Geographical scope; Installations subject to the nuclear third party liability regime; Transport; Damage covered); 2 General principles of the nuclear third party regime (Legal channelling of liability to the operator; Strict liability; Liability limited in amount; Operator's insurance or financial security; Liability limited in time; Exclusive jurisdiction); 3 Amendments of the Paris and Brussels Conventions; II. Institutional Framework: 1. The Nuclear Safety Authority (President of the Republic: Council for Nuclear Policy, Council for Defence and National Security; Prime Minister: Inter-ministerial Committee for Nuclear or Radiological Emergencies, General Secretariat for Defence and National Security, Euratom Technical Committee, Administration of the CTE is handed to the Atomic Energy Commission, Atomic Energy Committee; Minister for Industry: Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology Commission; Minister responsible for Ecology and Energy: Directorate General for Energy and Climate, Directorate General for the Prevention of Risks, Department for Defence, Security and Economic Intelligence; Minister for Research; Minister for Health; Minister for Public Safety: Directorate for Public Safety, Central Office for the Prevention of Organised Crime; Minister for Defence: Council for Nuclear Defence, DSND (Minister responsible for Work, Minister for Foreign Affairs); 2. Specialised Committees or Boards (Advisory Commission on Major Nuclear Installations; Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations classified as Secret; Higher Council for Nuclear Safety and Information; Higher Committee for the Transparency of Information on Nuclear Safety); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (The Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission, Atomic Energy Committee, Management Board, Administrator-General, High Commissioner for Atomic Energy, Agence ITER-France - AIF, Agence France Nucleaire international - AFNI; Electricite de

  12. Report on state liability for radioactive materials transportation incidents: A survey of laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the liability laws of the Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB's) 16 member states. It begins by briefly reviewing potential sources of liability, immunity from liability, waiver of immunity, and statutes of limitation, followed by liability laws of member states. The report was prepared by reviewing legal literature pertaining to governmental liability, with particular emphasis on nuclear waste transportation, including law review articles, legal treatises, technical reports, state statutes and regulations

  13. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion. The present status in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest report of the Nuclear Ship Stearing Group which deals with three important aspects; economic assessments, international safety and operating procedures for nuclear ships, and the industrial capability of the UK shipbuilding and nuclear industries, is discussed. The integral design concept for a pressurised water reactor for use as a marine reactor is considered. The operational safety aspects of such reactors and of the attendant refuelling facilities are discussed. U.K. capability in the whole nuclear merchant ship propulsion project is considered; reference being made to the design and construction of small PWR reactors, the development, design and supply of the nuclear propulsion unit, financial aspects, and the requirement for cooperation between industrial interests and governmental research units. (U.K.)

  14. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy -with reference to the strategy on the NPT extension and analysis of nuclear liability-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objectives of this study are to analyze the international nuclear export control system and the international non-proliferation circumstance, to establish national strategies for the NPT extension, to suggest revisions of the IAEA Statute Article VI giving Korea permanent membership on the IAEA board of Governors, and to analyze and establish counter measurements for nuclear liability in verious fields. (Author)

  15. Civil liability: quantitative and qualitative limitations analysis in the occurrence of a nuclear disaster in view of international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paris and Vienna Conventions were involved to establish the liability regime aiming the public protection without decrease in the development at nuclear area. The proposal of this work is to discuss the lacks and limitations of these to both Brazilian reality and Brazilian legislation, and analyze limitations in civil liability in the occurrence of nuclear disaster. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab

  16. 77 FR 47680 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action... Regulations (10 CFR) 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  17. Separator assembly for use in spent-nuclear-fuel shipping cask. [Patent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1981-04-24

    A separator assembly for use in a spent-nuclear-fuel shipping cask has a honeycomb-type wall structure defining parallel cavities for holding nuclear fuel assemblies. Tubes formed of an effective neutron-absorbing material are embedded in the wall structure around each of the cavities and provide neutron flux traps when filled with water.

  18. Non-Military Nuclear Ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents short description of nuclear reactor of loop-type PWRs for non-military ships in Russia and in Japan. It starts with the first nuclear ice-breaker ''Lenin'' initially powered with 3 x OK-150 reactors, replaced later by only 2 x OK-900 and then 2 x OK-900A. By reason of success the OK-900A twins were chosen for the six subsequent ice-breaker. Newer generation of propulsion reactors is KLT-40, also loop-type PWRs, which is used for container transport despite ice-breaking capabilities. Its modification, KLT-40M is meant also for river bound routes. Whereas the KLT-40C is intended for a floating power plant version. As the number of nuclear ships, civilian as well as military (aircraft carriers, submarines) increased it was rational to provide special (diesel powered) fleet to serve them for refueling, fuel storage, and liquid radwaste processing and interim storage. The Japanese nuclear research ship, Mutsu (36 MWt), had terminated its service several years ago. A stationary version of its reactor design (36 MWt, 9 MWe), being smaller in pressure vessel size, is being offered by the MHI for the coupling with a desalination plant

  19. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships; Reacteurs. Navires a propulsion nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fribourg, Ch. [Technicatome, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  20. New Slovak Act on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Slovak act (to enter into force 1 January 2016) is discussed with focus on the impact of the provisions on the various stakeholders in the nuclear field. Some application problems arising from the new Act are highlighted and solutions are proposed. The impacts of the new legislation vis-á-vis obligations arising from the international treaties are also analysed. (orig.)

  1. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy Conv - 09. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on Convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( Conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

  2. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy conv - 09. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

  3. Effect of steam-exhaust operation of secondary coolant circuit on ship reactor blackout accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The ship reactor blackout accident (SRBA) is simulated by the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. • The mitigation effect of steam-exhaust-operation (SEO) on the SRBA is analyzed. • Reasonable SEO scheme can obviously mitigate the accident for several hours. • The SEO scheme without feed water device can hardly mitigate the SRBA. • The failure of intercurrent steam flux control valve will result in the decrease of mitigation time. - Abstract: The ship reactor blackout accident can potentially lead to the severe accident and the radioactive fission product release. In the absence of auxiliary electrical source, the effective mitigation of the accident aftereffect is very important. As the exclusive heat trap in the reactor coolant system, the steam-exhaust operation (SEO) in the secondary coolant circuit (SCC) plays an important role in the accident mitigation. In view of the character of ship nuclear power plant (NPP), the ship reactor blackout accident (SRBA) under the typical operating conditions is simulated by the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code, and the mitigation of SEO on the accident is analyzed. It is found that (1) reasonable SEO can obviously mitigate the accident for several hours, the SEO with 1% rated steam flux of secondary coolant circuit provides about 7 h for the mitigation of accident, (2) a less steam flux of SCC during the SEO means a slower pressure drop of steam generation (SG) and a more time we can mitigate the accident, there are 1.5 h between the SEO with 1% rated steam flux and that with 3% rated steam flux, (3) the SEO without the feed water device can hardly mitigate the accident, and (4) during the blackout accident, the SEO with intercurrent steam flux control valve failure will result in the decrease of mitigation time because of the quick decrease of SG pressure, but the mitigation effect is also obvious

  4. A Model of Ship Auxiliary System for Reliable Ship Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martinović, Dragan; Tudor, Mato; Bernečić, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of a vessel is to transport goods and passengers at minimum cost. Out of the analysis of relevant global databases on ship machinery failures, it is obvious that the most frequent failures occur precisely on the generator-running diesel engines. Any failure in the electrical system can leave the ship without propulsion, even if the main engine is working properly. In that case, the consequences could be devastating: higher running expenses, damage to the ship, oil spill or su...

  5. Berth Operability Estimation Related to Ship Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić-Oršić, Jasna; Slapničar, Vedran; Turk, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The method of exposed berth operability estimation based on moored ship criteria for safe working and mooring is presented. The solution methodology consists of modelling a ship as a panel model used to calculate the hydrodynamic loads and responses from the potential theory. The mooring lines are modelled by ship-to-ground spring elements. The stiffness of those elements is accumulated in the global restoring matrix of the rigid body equations of motion. The obtained system of differential e...

  6. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  7. Law no. 10.308 of 20th November, 2001 on radioactive waste repositories siting, construction, licensing, operation, inspection, costs, indemnity, civil liability and guarantees concerning to the radioactive wastes repositories and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act was published on November 20, 2001 and set forth regulations on the final disposal of radioactive wastes produced in Brazil, including siting, construction, licensing, operation, inspection, costs, indemnities, civil liability and guarantees concerning to the radioactive wastes repositories. This act allows for installation and operation of initial, intermediary and final repositories in accordance with the criteria established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN. The person or organization granted with CNEN authorization for operation of the initial repositories shall be liable for personal, patrimony and environmental radiological damages. The civil liability of CNEN is concerned to the radioactive waste intermediary and final disposals and transportation

  8. Truck and rail charges for shipping spent fuel and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed techniques for calculating estimates of nuclear-waste shipping costs and compiled a listing of representative data that facilitate incorporation of reference shipping costs into varius logistics analyses. The formulas that were developed can be used to estimate costs that will be incurred for shipping spent fuel or nuclear waste by either legal-weight truck or general-freight rail. The basic data for this study were obtained from tariffs of a truck carrier licensed to serve the 48 contiguous states and from various rail freight tariff guides. Also, current transportation regulations as issued by the US Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were investigated. The costs that will be incurred for shipping spent fuel and/or nuclear waste, as addressed by the tariff guides, are based on a complex set of conditions involving the shipment origin, route, destination, weight, size, and volume and the frequency of shipments, existing competition, and the length of contracts. While the complexity of these conditions is an important factor in arriving at a ''correct'' cost, deregulation of the transportation industry means that costs are much more subject to negotiation and, thus, the actual fee that will be charged will not be determined until a shipping contract is actually signed. This study is designed to provide the baseline data necessary for making comparisons of the estimated costs of shipping spent fuel and/or nuclear wastes by truck and rail transportation modes. The scope of the work presented in this document is limited to the costs incurred for shipping, and does not include packaging, cask purchase/lease costs, or local fees placed on shipments of radioactive materials

  9. Transfrontier nuclear civil liability without international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan is not a contracting party of any international convention in the field of nuclear civil liability, and neither are other east Asian countries who have or will soon have nuclear plants. Therefore, the ordinary rules on private international law will play an important role in dealing with transfrontier nuclear civil liability. Above all, the problems on judicial jurisdiction and governing law are crucial points. With regard to the relations between the above countries and the countries whose legal systems are within the framework of Paris or Vienna Conventions, geographical scopes of these conventions are to be considered. There are two different parts in the international civil liability conventions: uniform civil liability law and mutual funds. As to the first, it is important that, even without the conventions, the basic structure of the nuclear civil liability laws in non-member countries are almost the same with those of members. In any event, considering that the establishment of a single international regime to cover all countries will be hardly possible, legal consequences under the private international law will be explored. (author)

  10. A radical approach to decommissioning and nuclear liabilities management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UKAEA Government Division has been set up primarily to manage and eventually eliminate the nuclear liabilities left from the many national nuclear programmes in which UKAEA has been involved. It is no longer primarily a nuclear plant or decommissioning operator but has developed a radical approach to decommissioning. It targets best value for money, alongside meeting safety and environmental requirements, by major use of contractors for its work, including as managing agents for big projects. In its first year of operation it made considerable progress in setting out the mission, goals, performance measures and operational principles for such an organisation, as well as reducing costs on a wide front from those expected in increasing competition for future projects, and in keeping individual projects under good control. It also made major physical progress with specific decommissioning projects. For the future it has established a programme of continuous performance improvement which will bring further benefits and provide a benchmark for all organisations in the business of liabilities management. (author)

  11. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides

  12. Effect of Ship Bow Overhang on Water Shipping for Ship Advancing in Regular Head Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdeljalil Benmansour; Benameur Hamoudi; Lahouari Adjlout

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation dealing with the effect of bow overhang extensions on the quantity of shipping water over the foredeck in case of ships advancing in regular head waves. To perform this investigation, a series of free-running tests was conducted in regular waves using an experimental model of a multipurpose cargo ship to quantify the amount of shipping water. The tests were performed on five bow overhang variants with several combinations of wavelength and ship speed conditions. It was observed that the quantity of shipping water was affected by some parameters such as wavelength, ship speed, and bow shape in terms of an overhang extension. The results show the significant influence of an overhang extension, which is associated with the bow flare shape, on the occurrence of water shipping. These results involve the combined incoming regular waves and model speed.

  13. International Co-operation in providing insurance cover for nuclear damage to third parties and for damage to nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article in three parts analyses cover for damage to third parties by fixed nuclear installations, cover for damage to third parties during transport of nuclear substances and finally, cover for damage to nuclear installations. Part I reviews the principles of nuclear third party liability and describes nuclear insurance pools, the coverage and contracts provided. Part II describes inter alia the role of pools in transport operations as well as the type of contracts available, while Part III discusses material damage, the pools' capacities and the vast sums involved in indemnifying such damage. (NEA)

  14. AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF MAJOR OIL COMPANIES ON CREW SELECTION CRITERIA FOR TANKER OPERATING SHIP MANAGEMENT COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Fışkın, Remzi; ZORBA, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Tanker shipping which is a special sub-sector of maritime transportation industry plays an important role for the world trade. As oil and its derivatives transported by tankers is the fundamental component for developing industries, its transportation becomes an indispensable issue. Though petroleum and chemical transportation is important for all industries, due to its structural properties, these cargoes include major risks for the environment. There have been some enforcement and impositio...

  15. How the deletion of fissile classes affects the nuclear criticality safety evaluation for fissile shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well, it has finally happened. The long-anticipated changes to the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 71, which will bring the U.S. domestic transportation regulations and requirements for the safe transportation of radioactive, and especially fissile, materials much closer to those regulations being used around the world under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, have been issued final with an effective implementation date of April 1, 1996. Of the multitude of changes incorporated into this new edition, there are two primary changes that affect the nuclear criticality safety evaluation for a package. However, only the elimination of fissile classes is discussed here. The other primary change related to criticality safety, the addition of a requirement for performing a open-quotes crushclose quotes test for container designs that meet certain criteria, may be the subject of another presentation as there is not enough space to adequately address the details of the crush test requirements as a part of this paper

  16. Public relations campaign for shipping spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An example of positive outcome of proper attitude of the media and public on the occasion of shipping of nuclear fuel is described. Nothing new was invented in the way of public relations issue management. But a combination of a number of proven techniques were put together and the public relations plan that was highly successful. early planning was of great help. Public officials were well informd by means of ANS organized seminars. ANS had experts from Sandia Labs (a major government research facility), General Electric (the cask supplier), the railroad we planned to use and Northern States Power Company on the program to describe what was going to happen and why it was safe. These sessions are believed to head off a major portion of the local opposition. A cooperation was established with the states of Wisconsin and Minnesota in providing shipment-specific training for emergency response personnel along the route. Safety, obviously, was the number one concern expressed by public officials. Knowing that would be the case, it was decided to provide some optional extras to go with the shipments. There was a consultant yo do a safety analysis of all the possible rail routes between the plant and storage facility. Though none was required by law, a shipment-specific emergency response plan which was prepared. Another important effort which was maintained from the beginning was sharing information among the participants. In dealing with the news media, an attemp was made to stick to a single source of information as much as possible. When dealing with the news media, one should refuse to apologize for modern technology. One should attack, at every opportunity, the idea that a risk-freesociety is worth the price of returning to the Dark Ages. The contributions of nuclear technology are numerous and far-reaching. Its negative impacts on health and safety have been minor compared with most other major industrial technologies. Certainly there is risk in stepping out of

  17. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment] [and others

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship `MUTSU` was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  18. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  19. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  20. An intelligent tool for the training of nuclear plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of pedagogical tool has been developped for the training of nuclear power plant operation. This tool combines simulation and expert system. The first process developped is about Steam Generator Tube Rupture (S.G.T.R.). All nuclear power plants will be equiped with this system in 1989 and 1990. After this first experiment, others processes will be developped for this tool

  1. Liability and cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fifth part is relative to liability and cover it includes: the modernization of the international nuclear third party liability regime, diplomatic conference convened to adopt a protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage and to adopt a Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage, the legislative mechanism for compensation of nuclear damage in Ukraine, international nuclear liability developments from the Usa perspective, nuclear liability law in Russia, the third party liability system for nuclear damage in the Republic of Korea. (N.C.)

  2. Ship-Based Nuclear Energy Systems for Accelerating Developing World Socioeconomic Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Robert; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    those having intermittency characteristics. Consideration is directed to the relative economics of ship-based and land-based nuclear power stations, and the costs of undersea transmission lines and suitable moorings are discussed, as well as station-maintenance expenses. Potential cost savings from reduced seismic engineering, serialized production, and reduction/elimination of site-specific engineering are determined to be likely to enable large floating nuclear energy systems to be deployed at both significantly lower cost and with lower financial risk than comparable land-based systems. Such plants thus appear to be a compelling option for agilely supplying flexible energy-flows to developing regions, especially as they allow major components of the overhead costs and time-delays of large-scale energy systems to be avoided. Finally, the critical set of issues related to appropriately regulating and insuring floating nuclear power plants designed for export is examined. Approaches to ensuring adequate safety and environmental stewardship while properly allocating risks between system owners/operators and host countries of floating nuclear energy systems are discussed, along with possible pathways toward implementation. Robustness of exemplary nuclear energy systems from all forms of misuse, including materials diversion, is noted, thus ensuring suitability for complications-free, non-discriminatory global deployments. Availability of abundant, low-cost nuclear energy which can flexibly satisfy the full spectrum of energy demands of the economies of developing countries will inevitably result in significantly earlier and more environmentally-sound energy intensification of societies enjoying such advantages. This will help spur autocatalytic gains in human well-being and economic development rates similar to those seen in the developed world during the last two-thirds of a century, while avoiding some of the undesirable sideeffects often associated with those gains

  3. Access by victims to the compensation regime of the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage. The question of ''geographical scope''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After noticing that the Chernobyl accident had emphasized the importance of transfrontier damages risk, two points of views are exposed: the territoriality principle that expresses that the compensation regime of the Convention (Vienna Convention on civil liability in 1963) should be profitable to national from states having accepted the rights and the obligations of the Convention. The other principle is the universality principle that advocates that states at the origin of nuclear risks have to take in charge the compensation of eventual victims whatever they are or no national from countries being Parties of the Convention. (N.C.)

  4. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal. 2. The second experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the second reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on August 30, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 50% of reactor power and under a quiet sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author).

  5. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal (III). The third experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko

    1995-03-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the third reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on September 16, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 70% of reactor power and under a normal sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author).

  6. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal (II). The second experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the second reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on August 30, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 50% of reactor power and under a quiet sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author)

  7. Liability in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the application of the IAEA-sponsored 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage to the maritime transport of radioactive materials. The paper refers also to the regime for civil liability created by other Conventions, including the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, concluded under the auspices of the OECD and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, also an IAEA sponsored Convention. The paper will primarily focus on the Vienna Convention. (author)

  8. Proceedings - Insurance and third party liability; performance of dangerous activities - Nuclear risk and contamination. 11 November 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Centro Italiano Ricerche and Studi Assicurativi' (CIRSA) has published the proceeding of a round table it organised in 1976 on insurance for nuclear risks. The topics discussed covered the relevant national legislation, in particular, regarding liability and compensation for nuclear damage, the financial security required, the insurance system. The papers and ensuing discussions are reproduced in full, and the Appendix contains for consultation, all the texts of the laws in this field. (NEA)

  9. Fuel operation of EDF nuclear fleet presentation of the centralized organization for operational engineering at the nuclear generation division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main feature of EDF Nuclear Fleet is the standardization, with 'series' of homogeneous plants (same equipment, fuel and operation technical documents). For fuel operation, this standardization is related to the concept of 'fuel management scheme' (typical fuel reloads with fixed number and enrichment of fresh assemblies) for a whole series of plants. The context of the Nuclear Fleet lead to the choice of a centralized organization for fuel engineering at the Nuclear Generation Division (DPN), located at UNIPE (National Department for Fleet Operation Engineering) in Lyon. The main features of this organization are the following: - Centralization of the engineering activities for fuel operation support in the Fuel Branch of UNIPE, - Strong real-time link with the nuclear sites, - Relations with various EDF Departments in charge of design, nuclear fuel supply and electricity production optimization. The purposes of the organization are: - Standardization of operational engineering services and products, - Autonomy with independent methods and computing tools, - Reactivity with a technical assistance for sites (24 hours 'hot line'), - Identification of different levels (on site and off site) to solve core operation problems, - Collection, analysis and valorization of operation feedback, - Contribution to fuel competence global management inside EDF. This paper briefly describes the organization. The main figures of annual engineering production are provided. A selection of examples illustrates the contribution to the Nuclear Fleet performance. (authors)

  10. New nuclear legislation proposals from the European Commission funds to cover nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 30 January 2003, the European Commission adopted two proposals for new Directives in the area of nuclear safety: - a proposal for a Council Directive defining the basic obligations and the general principles on the safety of nuclear installations; - a proposal for a Council Directive on the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The first of these includes a requirement for the setting up of 'decommissioning funds'. However, this is a 'short-hand' title as the funds must cover all nuclear liabilities that remain after the end of operation of a nuclear installation, not just its closure and dismantling. The liabilities that remain following the closure of a nuclear installation need to be managed safely. They also need to be managed over a period that ranges from decades to centuries. It is vitally important that the financial resources for the safe management of these liabilities can be guaranteed over the full period. In the Commission's view, this can be best achieved by establishing a segregated fund that is built up over the operating life of the facility and by placing clear limitations on how the fund may be used. Ideally the segregated fund should be 'external' to the company and managed in such a way to ensure that it retains its value. The funds should not be spent on anything other than their identified purpose. The fund should be sufficient to cover all liabilities that remain once a facility stops generating revenue. These liabilities would include long-term management of spent nuclear fuel and all radioactive waste (including its disposal), not already paid for during operation, and the full dismantling of the facility. The Directive should cover all nuclear installations, not just nuclear power plants. It would not be logical to require a fund to cover reactor decommissioning, but not for a reprocessing plant. Special provisions will have to be made for those installations, such as some research reactors, that do not generate

  11. Nuclear Reactors and Their Legal Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines Regulatory Regime in Turkey has no general Nuclear Energy Act and apart from legislation to the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, the applicable law mainly covers protection and the licensing against of nuclear installation. In Addition this paper also contains briefly the major points which have to be taken into consideration and advance in the legal liability insurance of the nuclear power plants

  12. LNG as an alternative fuel for the operation of ships and heavy-duty vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wurster, Reinhold; WEINDORF Werner; Zittel, Werner; Schmidt, Patrick; Heidt, Christoph; Lambrecht, Udo; Lischke, Andreas; Müller, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The transport sector is characterised by distinct rises in energy consumption both throughout Europe and globally. In addition to its dependency on limited fossil resources (e.g. mineral oil), the transport sector is further recognised as a key contributor to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. On a global scale, transport is responsible for about 22% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Germany, the contribution of road transport to overall greenhouse gas emissions ranges between 17% and 2...

  13. Nuclear operations summary Engineering organization for Plowshare nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of nuclear explosives for peaceful projects has given the engineer a new dimension in his thinking. He can now seek methods of adapting Plowshare to a variety of industrial applications. The full potential of the Plowshare Program can only be attained when industry begins to use nuclear explosives on a regular basis, for economically sound projects. It is the purpose of this paper to help the engineer familiarize himself with Plowshare technology to hasten the day when 'Plowsharee goes commercial'. An engineering project utilizing nuclear exposives ordinarily involves three main phases: Phase I (a) The theoretical and empirical analysis of effects. (b) Projected economic and/or scientific evaluation. (c) A safety analysis. Phase II (a) Field construction. (b) Safe detonation of the nuclear explosive. (c) Data acquisition. Phase III The evaluation and/or exploitation of the results. This paper will be restricted to Phase II, referred to collectively as the 'nuclear operation'

  14. Health requirements for nuclear reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health prerequisites established for the qualification of nuclear reactor operators according to CNEN-NE-1.01 Guidelines Licensing of nuclear reactor operators, CNEN-12/79 Resolution, are described. (M.A.)

  15. Hypermedia integration of information resources for nuclear plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer hypermedia technologies offer significant possibilities for integrating data, information, and multifaceted knowledge resources abounding in existing and next-generation nuclear plant operations. A hypermedia system may be viewed as a set of nodes and links allowing nonlinear access to plant information residing in computers regardless of format. The process of accessing information in hypermedia systems is known as navigation. After a review of the state of the art, quantitative criteria are presented for the development of hypermedia databases and a fuzzy graph-based methodology for navigating the large information spaces involved in nuclear plant operations. In the developed methodology, membership functions embodying context-dependent criteria provide application-specific tools for navigation. The methodology is illustrated through numerical examples and a Hyper-Card-based prototypical system for monitoring special material in a next-generation nuclear reactor

  16. EDP systems for the operational management of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An EDP-aided operational management system is to be understood as the total of all organizational conditions (structural organization, procedural organization) and technical means, and is intended to give the individual person a better overview to fulfill his/her responsibilities. The introduction of such a system is aimed at providing the operating personnel with a set of tools matching today's technology for management and administration systems which will enable them to fulfill their tasks in an optimum way. Powerful EDP systems are already used in many nuclear power plants to control and monitor operating processes and to collect and evaluate operational data. (orig./DG)

  17. Report on radioactivity monitoring during the visits of nuclear powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radiation Laboratory of the Department of Health is required under NZAEC Report 500 'New Zealand Code for Nuclear Powered Shipping' (June 1976) to monitor for release of radioactivity during the stay of such a ship in a New Zealand port and to provide technical assistance to Civil Defence organisations charged with dealing with any emergency arising from an accidental release of radioactive materials. This report outlines the activities undertaken for the two visits which took place in 1976

  18. Opinion of the Consultative Committee for the EURATOM Research and Training Programme in the Field of Nuclear Energy (Fusion) - CCE-FU - on the European domestic assessment of the ITER-FEAT outline design report. Brussels, 11 July 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CCE-FU endorses the findings of the FTC on the European Domestic Assessment of the ITER-FEAT Outline Design Review, and expresses the opinion that: The machine, ITER-FEAT, the design of which is presented in the Outline Design Report and accompanying document (Technical Basis for the ITER-FEAT Outline Design) successfully responds, in broad terms, to the requirements set by the Special Working Group, established by the ITER Council, in response to Task No. 1 and adopted by the Council; The parameters chosen represent convergence towards a coherent design, based upon preserving adequate margins within the cost target against the new objectives and yet retaining flexibility to exploit advances in physics understanding; ITER-FEAT can meet its objectives of extended burn in induction operation with power amplification Q>10 at the reference operating values of Ip=15MA, Paux=40MW, thus providing 400 MW of fusion power. The margins to achieve this objective are in the range of 15-25%. The design also has sufficient flexibility to explore hybrid scenarios with long pulse capability (> 2000 seconds), and scenarios aiming at demonstrating steady state operation with the ratio of fusion power to input power for current drive of at least 5, provided further confinement enhancement can be achieved; Although most of the components of ITER-FEAT are still in a preliminary design state, the new design appears suitable to be developed into the final design stage, the new design appears suitable to be developed into the final design of a machine capable of achieving the objectives set by the ITER Council; The target cost for the realisation of ITER-FEAT was set by the ITER Council at about half of the 1998 ITER cost estimates. The present preliminary analysis provides confidence that this target will be reached. By the end of 2000, the detailed cost estimates will be provided from the detailed design specifications and manufacturing studies in the industries of the three Parties

  19. Possible power train concepts for nuclear powered merchant ships

    OpenAIRE

    Dedes, E; Turnock, S.R.; Hudson, D.A.; Hirdaris, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion has many potential advantages in terms of reduced emissions, as nuclear fission itself has zero CO2, NOx, SOx and PM emissions, although the whole nuclear fuel cycle has an amount of emission associated with it. An overview of current and future reactor technologies suitable for marine propulsion is presented. A comparison in terms of efficiency and technology used is performed and technical and constructional aspects for surface non - military applications are discussed. ...

  20. The needs and wants of business and leisure guests at Marriott Brussels

    OpenAIRE

    Björn, Anu

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Marriott Brussels. Marriott Brussels is part of a well known Marriott hotel chain. Marriott Brussels is a four star hotel situated in the capital of Belgium, Brussels. Theses focused on clarifying the needs and wants of business and leisure guests at Marriott Brussels. The aim was to figure out what are the things these guests value the most and what are the things that are the least valued. In these theses quantitative research was used and guests we...

  1. Examination on establishment of safety culture for operating nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For safely operating nuclear power facilities, in addition to the technical countermeasures, the performance of the organizations that operate and manage them is important. In this paper, the spontaneous cooperation type management system that supported the introduction and development of nuclear power generation in electric power business is analyzed from the viewpoints of organization science and behavioral psychology, and based on the results of the investigation of the sense of value and psychological characteristics of young organization members who bear future nuclear power generation, on how to foster and establish safety culture which is called second safety principle in organizations, the subjects for hereafter are discussed from the viewpoints of respect of individuals and their integration with organizations, upbringing of talents and systematic learning. The factors which compose the safety culture are shown. The form of operating and managing the organizations are seen in first generation nuclear power generation, the similarity to Japanese type enterprise operation system, the change of the prerequisite of spontaneous cooperation type management and the difference of conscience among the generations of organization members are discussed. The above subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  2. Transnational compensation for oil pollution damage: examining changing spatialities of environmental liability

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The civil liability regime for ship-source oil pollution stands at the forefront of rule development for transnational environmental compensation, advancing private law remedies to enable national victims of oil spill damage to make financial claims against domestic and non-domestic tanker owners and, in certain circumstances, the global oil cargo industry. This rule formulation and implementation attests to the significance of legal norms in constituting new spaces of financial accountabilit...

  3. Self-assessment of operational safety for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-assessment processes have been continuously developed by nuclear organizations, including nuclear power plants. Currently, the nuclear industry and governmental organizations are showing an increasing interest in the implementation of this process as an effective way for improving safety performance. Self-assessment involves the use of different types of tools and mechanisms to assist the organizations in assessing their own safety performance against given standards. This helps to enhance the understanding of the need for improvements, the feeling of ownership in achieving them and the safety culture as a whole. Although the primary beneficiaries of the self-assessment process are the plant and operating organization, the results of the self-assessments are also used, for example, to increase the confidence of the regulator in the safe operation of an installation, and could be used to assist in meeting obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Such considerations influence the form of assessment, as well as the type and detail of the results. The concepts developed in this report present the basic approach to self-assessment, taking into consideration experience gained during Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) missions, from organizations and utilities which have successfully implemented parts of a self-assessment programme and from meetings organized to discuss the subject. This report will be used in IAEA sponsored workshops and seminars on operational safety that include the topic of self-assessment

  4. The insurance of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account is given of the development of nuclear insurance. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: the need for nuclear insurance, nuclear insurance pools, international co-operation, nuclear installations which may be insured, international conventions relating to the liability of operators of nuclear installations, classes of nuclear insurance, nuclear reactor hazards and their assessment, future developments. (U.K.)

  5. Decree No. 33/77 of 11 March approving ratification of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, signed in Paris on 29 July 1960 and amended by the Additional Protocol, signed in Paris on 29 January 1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree, promulgated on 21 February 1977, approves ratification of the Paris Convention and reproduces the full text of the Convention in French, followed by its translation into Portuguese. The Paris Convention provides an exceptional nuclear liability system and its scope is limited to risks of an exceptional character for which common law rules and practice are not suitable. Under the Convention, liability is absolute, channelled onto the nuclear operator and limited in amount. (NEA)

  6. End Of Line: Combining Housing, Facilities and Transport Infrastructure in Brussels

    OpenAIRE

    De Clerck, Philippe; Moritz, Benoît; Stessens, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This publication presents the results of the Brussels Master Class 2013 “End Of Line, Combining Housing, Facilities and Transport Infrastructure in Brussels”, organized from Oct. 28 to Nov. 8 by Louise (Laboratory for Urbanism, Infrastructure and Ecologies, Faculté d'Architecture de l'ULB) and Cosmopolis (Centre for Urban Research, VUB) with the support of the Secretary of State in charge of Urbanism for the Brussels-Capital Region. Architecture practice URA (BE) and consultancy agency Mobili...

  7. Inspection by docking of nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute carried out the docking and inspection of the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' at Sekinehama Port, Mutsu City, Aomori Prefecture, from the middle of June to late in July, 1989. In this inspection, the Mutsu was mounted on a floating dock off the coast, the dock was towed by tugboats into the port and moored at the pier, and after completing the works in the dock, the dock was towed to the outside of the port, and the Mutsu was launched. The Mutsu was built as a nuclear power experiment ship, and length 130 m, breadth 19 m, depth 13.2 m, design draft at full load 6.9 m, 8242 GT. One PWR of 36 MWt and one steam turbine of 10000 ps are installed, and velocity is 16.5 knots. In September, 1974, after the first criticality, the leak of radioactivity occurred. The repair of shield and general inspection on safety were carried out in Sasebo Shipyard from August, 1980 to August, 1982. Thereafter, the Mutsu stayed in Ominato, but in January, 1988, after the completion of Sekinehama Port, the Mutsu was brought there. The Sekinehama Port, the test and inspection of the Mutsu carried out so far and the plan of hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  9. Remote operated systems for the management of nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper shortly presents the remote techniques and systems used regularly for the management of nuclear processes according to the variability and complexity of human operations and to the degree of automation. The paper contains a synthesis of the evolution of remote operating systems and advances the model of an adaptive and self-adaptive expert-robot equipment which is a very complex equipment used for integrated management of nuclear processes. Due to the complexity and variability of the technological operations and environment conditions, none of the techniques and systems presented in the paper do satisfy completely the management of the nuclear technologies as a whole. They must be utilized selectively according to the nature of the actual characteristics of the nuclear process. The expert and expert-robot systems offer a series of advantages among which one can mention: the continuity of the high quality expert's reports, easy extension, the explanation of the decision in detail, the elimination of the routine, the diagnosis of some equipment and process state, forecast of the future behaviour of equipment, processes, market, environment, etc., the multiplying of sources of information, pertinent comparison, the increasing of the performance of the user in general. The expert and expert-robot systems maintain some important drawbacks as: the possibility of taking wrong decision, the difficulty of using information from other expert systems similar to this one at present and not in the least, the high prices. (author)

  10. The international code for the safe carriage of packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive waste on board ships (INF Code) - An industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    came to the same conclusion that existing standards are stringent and adequate and any environmental impact would be negligible. These 'complementary' measures were discussed at length in numerous committees of the IMO and in 1998 a specific requirement for ship-board emergency plans and notification to the nearest coastal in the event of an incident were added to the INF code. The INF code came into force as a mandatory instrument on 1 January 2001. The INF Code, as such, has presented no problems to us at British Nuclear Fuels Ltd as we have been operating through our subsidiary, Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited, purpose built ships since 1979. The design resulted from consultation with experts and incorporated the Japanese regulations, with extra equipment added in line with technological developments and operating experience. These are sub-divided into a large number of compartments, which form a double hull around the cargo spaces and the duplication of essential systems and equipment which are in excess of what was to become the INF3 standard 14 years later. (author)

  11. Prospects for the utilization of small nuclear plants for civil ships, floating heat and power stations and power seawater desalination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small power nuclear reactor plants developed by OKB Mechanical Engineering are widely used as propulsion plants in various civil ships. Russia is the sole country in the world that possesses a powerful icebreaker and transport fleet which offers effective solution for vital socio-economic tasks of Russia's northern regions by maintaining a year-round navigation along the Arctic sea route. In the future, intensification of freighting volumes is expected in Arctic seas and at estuaries of northern rivers. Therefore, further replenishment of nuclear-powered fleet is needed by new generation ice-breakers equipped with advanced reactor plants. Adopted progressive design and technology solutions, reliable equipment and safety systems being continuously perfected on the basis of multi year operation experience feedback, addressing updated safety codes and achievement of science and technology, allow the advanced propulsion reactor plants of this type to be recommended as energy sources for floating heat and power co-generation stations and power-seawater desalination complexes. (author)

  12. Environmental impacts of ship dismantling : screening for sustainable ways

    OpenAIRE

    Vuori, Juho

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study how ocean-going vessels are permanently withdrawn from operation by dismantling. The intention was to gain an understanding on how the ship dismantling has developed into the current state and what the near future holds for the industry. This thesis concentrates particularly on the impacts that ship dismantling has on the environment – nature and the human. The purpose was to find ways to reduce the environmental impacts. The dismantling of a ship in...

  13. Management of nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture covers management aspects which have an immediate bearing on safety and identifies the objectives and tasks of management which are required for safe operation of a nuclear power plant and is based on the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau. This lecture - discusses the factors to be considered in structuring the operating organization, the support to be provided to plant management, the services and facilities needed and the management system for assuring the safety tasks are performed - describes the responsibilities of plant management and operating organization - outlines the requirements for recruitment, training and retraining as well as qualification and authorization of personnel - describes the programmes for maintenance, testing, examination, inspection, radiological protection, quality assurance, waste management, fuel management, emergency arrangement and security - describes the development of plant operating procedures including procedures to protect the personnel - outlines the requirements for initial and subsequent operation - describes the importance for evaluation and feedback of operating experience - describes the procedures for changes in hardware, procedures and set points - outlines the information flow and the requirements in reference to records and reports. (orig./RW)

  14. Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage and optional protocol concerning the compulsory settlement of disputes. Status lists as of 12 September 2000. Signature, ratification, accession, or succession. Declarations/reservations made upon expressing consent to be bound and objections thereto. Declarations/reservations made upon signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document provides the status list to the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and optional protocol concerning the compulsory settlement of disputes as of 12 September 2000

  15. Third Party Nuclear Liability: The Case of a Supplier in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Anthony; Heffron, Raphael J.

    2012-01-01

    The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term "Supplier" is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...

  16. Third Party Nuclear Liability: The Case of a Supplier in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Anthony; Heffron, Raphael J.

    2012-01-01

    The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term “Supplier” is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...

  17. Static and dynamic performance tests of nuclear powered ship Mutsu reactor (report on nuclear ship Mutsu power-up tests)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power-up tests of the Mutsu reactor were performed from March 29th 1990 to December 14th. The tests were divided into six phases: The tests Phase 0 and Phase 1 were done in the state that the ship was moored at the quay of Sekinehama port in March and April; The tests Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4, and Phase 5 were done on the Pacific Ocean from July to December. Present report describes the test results on the static and dynamic plant performance. On static plant performance tests, there are 13 test items including measurements of primary system heat balance at low and high power levels, a virgin run of feed water pump with SG steam, a change-over test of steam supply of auxiliary boiler to SG. On the dynamic plant performance, there are 11 test items including a test of reactor power auto-control system, a test of main feed water auto-control system, a test of small load variation, a load increasing test, a turbine trip test, tests of ahead and astern maneuvering, a test of single loop operation, and a reactor scram test. The reactor power for each item's test was increased step by step from zero power to the goal of rated power of 100 %, 36 MWt. In order to confirm proper reactor system performance, criteria were laid down for the static and dynamic tests: for example, (1) reactor scram shall not occur, (2) pressurizer relief valve and steam generator safety valve shall not work, and (3) after the transients reactor systems shall become the steady state without manual adjustment of the reactor control system. The test results satisfied these criteria and some of test data showed that reactor had much more margin in any performance for design. It is verified, therefore, that the Mutsu reactor systems have adequate performances as a marine reactor and that one is capable to respond smoothly and safely to the load of ship's demand. (author)

  18. Static and dynamic performance tests of nuclear powered ship Mutsu reactor (report on nuclear ship Mutsu power-up tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Inoue, Kimio; Yao, Toshiaki; Kamai, Satoshi; Kitamura, Toshikatsu

    1992-08-01

    The power-up tests of the Mutsu reactor were performed from March 29th 1990 to December 14th. The tests were divided into six phases: The tests Phase 0 and Phase 1 were done in the state that the ship was moored at the quay of Sekinehama port in March and April; The tests Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4, and Phase 5 were done on the Pacific Ocean from July to December. Present report describes the test results on the static and dynamic plant performance. On static plant performance tests, there are 13 test items including measurements of primary system heat balance at low and high power levels, a virgin run of feed water pump with SG steam, a change-over test of steam supply of auxiliary boiler to SG. On the dynamic plant performance, there are 11 test items including a test of reactor power auto-control system, a test of main feed water auto-control system, a test of small load variation, a load increasing test, a turbine trip test, tests of ahead and astern maneuvering, a test of single loop operation, and a reactor scram test. The reactor power for each item`s test was increased step by step from zero power to the goal of rated power of 100 %, 36 MWt. In order to confirm proper reactor system performance, criteria were laid down for the static and dynamic tests: for example, (1) reactor scram shall not occur, (2) pressurizer relief valve and steam generator safety valve shall not work, and (3) after the transients reactor systems shall become the steady state without manual adjustment of the reactor control system. The test results satisfied these criteria and some of test data showed that reactor had much more margin in any performance for design. It is verified, therefore, that the Mutsu reactor systems have adequate performances as a marine reactor and that one is capable to respond smoothly and safely to the load of ship`s demand. (author).

  19. RICH - A new AMS facility at the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage, Brussels, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudin, Mathieu; Van Strydonck, Mark; van den Brande, Tess; Synal, Hans-Arno; Wacker, Luckas

    2015-10-01

    Since 1989 the radiocarbon dating lab has their own graphitization system for 14C AMS dating but RICH (Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage) did not possess their own AMS and measurements were carried out in collaboration with other AMS facilities. In April 2013 the Micadas (Mini Carbon Dating System) AMS was installed at RICH in Brussels and after 1.5 year operation the high stability and performance of the Micadas can be demonstrated by repeated analyses of primary standard OXA II and secondary standards. Results of unknown samples measured on the RICH-Micadas and on other AMS systems are in good agreement.

  20. The protection of operating personnel in nuclear power plants against the risk of nuclear incidents and ionizing radiation arising from normal operation of the plant. Rules and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an analysis of the nuclear third party liability insurance policy to be taken out in Italy in implementation of Act no. 1860 of 31 December 1962 and Decree No. 519 of 10 May 1979, the collective policy against radiation injuries taken out for operating personnel in nuclear installations is described. The author is in favour of further harmonization of the legal system presently in force in this respect. (NEA)

  1. The impact of the liberalisation of electricity markets on nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    transferral of shares focused on a fair share of all parties concerned in the future losses of COVRA. HLW is presently generated by essentially 5 customers: Borsele and Dodewaard NPPs, JRC and IRI research reactors, and one institute for nuclear energy research (ECN). These 5 customers have joined forces and concluded an agreement for the construction of a long-term interim storage facility for HLW, the HABOG. This agreement includes a break-down of the costs associated with construction (1999 - 2003) as well as with maintenance of the HABOG both during its active phase (2003 - 2015) and passive phase of operation (2015 - ). The total construction cost for the HABOG is estimated at euro 116 million. For the realisation of an underground disposal facility for both LILW and HLW a total amount of about euro 1.23 billion is estimated. For HLW only a cost estimate of approximately euro 0.82 billion is utilised. Financial provisions have been made on the assumption that disposal will not occur before 2130 and annual contributions are being paid into the fund which are based on a discounting rate of 3.5 %. An advisory committee on the stranded costs in the electricity production sector recommended that as a next step after the transformation of COVRA into a State-owned Agency, a merger between GKN, the operator of the decommissioned nuclear power station at Dodewaard and COVRA, should be effectuated. It is envisaged that the joint venture between the two companies can be realised as soon as the financial obligations for the long-term management of the radioactive waste from Dodewaard NPP have been settled. Both parties have the intention to achieve an agreement in the course of 2003. The main issues of contention at the moment are related to the total cost estimates for the liabilities of GKN - which to the view of COVRA and the government are underestimated

  2. Slice them up or slice them out? Legal liability for operating on the troublesome patient in cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Aileen

    2015-09-01

    The practice of cosmetic surgery is constructed as psychologically beneficial. This therapeutic promise transforms cosmetic surgery into proper medical treatment. However, there is emerging evidence that a significant percentage of cosmetic surgery patients suffer from the condition of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), which is characterised by excessive preoccupation with imagined or minor defects in appearance. BDD is uniformly identified as a strong contra-indication for cosmetic surgery. Articles in scholarly journals on cosmetic surgery identify the "red flag" indicators to assist in screening out problem patients. However, a close examination of the most common indicators reveals that most are ineffective in identifying BDD in prospective patients. This article also considers the legal liability of cosmetic surgeons who operate on patients with BDD, and concludes that there is little likelihood of liability in trespass or negligence under current Australia law. PMID:26554204

  3. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous effluents from nuclear-powered merchant ships (NMS-GEFF code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization IMCO) is currently preparing guidelines concerning the safety of nuclear-powered merchant ships. An important aspect of these guidelines is the determination of the releases of radioactive material in effluents from these ships and the control exercised by the ships over these releases. To provide a method for the determination of these releases, the NRC staff has developed a computerized model, the NMS-GEFF Code, which is described in the following chapters. The NMS-GEFF Code calculates releases of radioactive material in gaseous effluents for nuclear-powered merchant ships using pressurized water reactors

  4. Assessment of specialized educational programs for licensed nuclear reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the job-relatedness of specialized educational programs for licensed nuclear reactor operators. The approach used involved systematically comparing the curriculum of specialized educational programs for college credit, to academic knowledge identified as necessary for carrying out the jobs of licenses reactor operators. A sample of eight programs, including A.S. degree, B.S. degree, and coursework programs were studied. Subject matter experts in the field of nuclear operations curriculum and training determined the extent to which individual program curricula covered the identified job-related academic knowledge. The major conclusions of the report are: There is a great deal of variation among individual programs, ranging from coverage of 15% to 65% of the job-related academic knowledge. Four schools cover at least half, and four schools cover less than one-third of this knowledge content; There is no systematic difference in the job-relatedness of the different types of specialized educational programs, A.S. degree, B.S. degree, and coursework; and Traditional B.S. degree programs in nuclear engineering cover as much job-related knowledge (about one-half of this knowledge content) as most of the specialized educational programs

  5. Enhanced safe reactor plant KLT-40 for nuclear ships and power - Desalination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OKB Mechanical Engineering (OKBM) is a designer of the reactor plant. OKBM has a long-term experience in development and High qualifications of OKBM research and personnel, advanced engineering equipment, vast experience of reactor plant development and operation ensure high quality of the design. Central Design Bureau (CDB) 'Airbags' is the author of the ship's design that houses the reactor plant and desalination unit. CDB 'Airbags' is the general designer of all soviet nuclear-powered icebreakers. EKATERINBIRG Research And Development Institute Of Chemical Machine Engineering is the chief designer of distillation desalination plant. The Institute has acquired a vast experience of research, development and technical supervision of virtually all operated including the desalination plant in the city of Actau (Kazakstan) currently operated in combination with the reactor plant BN-350. Production Association 'Baltic Works' is the builder of the plant. This enterprise's engaged in building nuclear ships. All currently operated nuclear-powered icebreakers: 'Sibir', 'Rossiya', 'soviet Union', 'Temary' and 'Vaigach' have been built there

  6. Establishing a code of ethics for nuclear operating organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel (TWG-T and Q) recommended that the IAEA develop a publication on improving the performance of nuclear facility operating organizations through focusing on the ethics and professionalism of personnel at all levels of such organizations. This publication has been prepared in response to that recommendation. The TWG-T and Q made its recommendation based upon an understanding that an organization's code of ethics should apply to behaviours at all levels of the organization; from the Board Room to the working level. The TWG-T and Q also recognized that having the technical competencies related to nuclear technology is not enough to ensure that an operating organization's performance is at the high standards needed for a sustainable nuclear industry. The values and ethics of individuals and organizational units play an equally important role. This publication is addressed primarily to senior managers of operating organizations, as experience has shown that, in order to succeed, such initiatives need to come from and be continually supported by the highest levels of the organization. This publication was developed under an IAEA project in its 2006-7 programme entitled Achieving Excellence in the Performance of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. The principal objectives of this project were: - To enhance the capability of Member States to utilize proven practices accumulated, developed and transferred by the Agency for improving personnel performance and maintaining high standards, and - To demonstrate how positive attitudes and professionalism, appropriate performance management, adherence to a systematic approach to training, quality management and the use of effective information and knowledge management technologies contribute to the success in achieving organization objectives in a challenging business environment

  7. Development of Inventory Optimization System for Operation Nuclear Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. This is why inventory management systems such as manufacturing resources planning(MRP) and enterprise resource planning(ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations. Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. We developed the inventory optimization system for Operation Nuclear Plants to resolve these problems. In this paper, we report a data flow process, data load and inventory calculation process. The main contribution of this paper is development of inventory optimization system which can be used in domestic power plants

  8. Visualization of Ship Risk Profiles for the Shipping Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); M. van de Velden (Michel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article uses correspondence analysis to visualize risk profiles and their changes over the time period 1977 to 2008. It is based on a unique dataset which combines incident data and ship particular data. The risk profiles can help stakeholders better understand the relationship of s

  9. Study of behavior of running parameters after scram on Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important for an operator on Nuclear Ship to control the plant after scram properly, in order to prevent the nuclear plant condition from exceeding the permitted limits and to regain her propulsion rapidly. And the proper control needs an exact knowledge about the transient pattern of some principal parameters such as primary coolant temperature, steam flow, bus electric power and etc. Present paper describes characteristic behavior of these parameters every 0.1 second, 1 second and 1 minute after scram, in connection with the sequential workings of the equipment and the manual operation. And it includes a study about the effects of the reactor power before scram. As the results of the present investigation, for example concerning primary coolant temperature, some phenomena worthy of mention are here. (1) The instantaneous rate of temperature drop runs up to 1000 degC/h immediately after 100% scram. (2) Transient of the rate of temperature drop always calms down after two peaks. (3) The maximum value of temperature drop is mainly influenced by manual operation. It would be useful for an operator to know the cause-and-effect relationship between the behavior of principal parameters and the operation after scram. (author)

  10. Nuclear third party liability and insurance - Status and prospects. Proceedings of the Munich symposium, 10th-14th September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A symposium on Nuclear Third Party Liability and Insurance, organised by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1984 reviewed the fundamental principles of the nuclear third party liability regime and discussed the relationship of the insurance market with the international Conventions in this field. It also examined the concept of nuclear damage and a number of new issues raised by technical developments such as long-term radioactive waste management and decommissioning of nuclear installations. These proceedings reproduce the papers presented, in English or French, as well as the ensuing discussions and panel discussions. (NEA)

  11. Conclusions from collision examinations for nuclear merchant ships in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany model tests have been performed for the utilization of a resisting type barrier instead of an energy absorbing type barrier, the latter used in nuclear merchant ships up to now only. After reviewing the model technique the results of nine tests with the new barrier are discussed. Calculations performed to the newly raised questions of the shock accelerations of the reactor plant and of possible overstressing of the hull are reported. The new design has many advantages with respect to safety and to the arrangement of a reactor plant in a ship too. Some questions partly remain unanswered at the moment concerning oblique collisions to the ends of the barrier and the possible effects of bulk cargo in holds close to the bow in striking ships of smaller size

  12. Report on state liability for radioactive materials transportation incidents: A survey of laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the liability laws of the Southern States Energy Board`s (SSEB`s) 16 member states. It begins by briefly reviewing potential sources of liability, immunity from liability, waiver of immunity, and statutes of limitation, followed by liability laws of member states. The report was prepared by reviewing legal literature pertaining to governmental liability, with particular emphasis on nuclear waste transportation, including law review articles, legal treatises, technical reports, state statutes and regulations.

  13. Management of nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide identifies the main objectives and responsibilities of management with respect to safe operation of nuclear power plants. The Guide discusses the factors to be considered in structuring the operating organization to meet these objectives, to establish the management programmes that assure the safety tasks are performed, and to see that the services and facilities needed to accomplish the tasks are available. The Guide is primarily addressed to safety matters directly related to the operating phase. It assumes, in other words, that the safety aspects of siting, design, manufacturing and construction have been resolved. However, it also covers the interrelationships between operations and design, construction and commissioning, including the involvement of the operating organization in appropriate reviews of safety issues with reference to the future operating phase. The Guide is mainly restricted to matters of principle in relation to management-level decision making aimed at establishing safety policies. It is therefore not suitable for implementing such policies at the operational level. The IAEA Codes of Practice and Safety Guides provide detailed guidance for the latter purpose in those areas considered appropriate

  14. Procedural system for increased management control of nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department-level administrative procedures or procedural controls have been traditionally used as a means of controlling technical activities in nuclear power generating facilities, usually prompted by operational quality assurance program criteria. More recently, procedural controls at the corporate or senior management level have emerged as utilities have developed multiple-plant facilities, reorganized their nuclear operations, and placed increased emphasis on involvement by the highest levels of management. In response to these developments, and as part of its plan to improve Nuclear Department operations, Public Service Electric and Gas Company, with assistance from Management Analysis Company, embarked on a program to develop a Vice President-Nuclear Level-Procedures manual that would clarify organization responsibilities and strengthen management control of specific activities, which would be followed by the development or revision of lower level procedures necessary to ensure department-wide compliance with the policies and requirements provided in the manual

  15. The design of operating procedures manuals for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the findings of a research on the desirable design of operating procedures manuals for nuclear power plants. The work was supported by a grant of the Federal Department of the Interior. Information was acquired from different sources. Interviews and discussions on manual design were carried out with manual users in nuclear power plants. Moreover, tasks carried out using procedures were either observed or, alternatively, the manner of using procedures was elicited by interviews. In addition, manual writers, managers from manufacturers and utilities, nuclear experts, and individuals involved in manual specification activities were interviewed. A major source of information has been the pertinent scientific and technical findings scattered in the literature on topics such as instructional technology, engineering psychology, psycholinguistics, and typography. A comprehensive bibliography is included. General rules are established on designing instructional material for use on the job, aiming at increasing their legability, comprehensibility, and suitability to guide human performance. The application of these rules to the design of individual operating procedures is demonstrated. Recommendations are given on the design, layout, development and implementation of manuals. (orig.)

  16. Shipping and storage cask data for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of data on casks used for the storage and/or transport of commercially generated spent fuel in the US based on publicly available information. In using the information contained in the following data sheets, it should be understood that the data have been assembled from published information, which in some instances was not internally consistent. Moreover, it was sometimes necessary to calculate or infer the values of some attributes from available information. Nor was there always a uniform method of reporting the values of some attributes; for example, an outside surface dose of the loaded cask was sometimes reported to be the maximum acceptable by NRC, while in other cases the maximum actual dose rate expected was reported, and in still other cases the expected average dose rate was reported. A summary comparison of the principal attributes of storage and transportable storage casks is provided and a similar comparison for shipping casks is also shown. References to source data are provided on the individual data sheets for each cask

  17. Nuclear Liability and Insurance of Nuclear Damage in the Czech republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a short introduction to the past and present situation of operation and construction of nuclear power plants in the Czech Republic, including some basic technical data and background information. It then continues in providing up to date information on the Czech nuclear legislation and consideration of various questions and problems in the light of the respective legal clauses (e.g. minimum insurance requirements, treatment of small reactors and small quantities of nuclear material, state guarantees etc.). The paper gives more detailed information about practical application of the insurance clauses of the Atomic Act, including some time related questions. A considerable part of the paper is dedicated to the past history and present functions and activities of the Czech Nuclear Insurance Pool which was officially founded in 1995 and is without doubt one of the most active and successful national nuclear insurance pools of the former East European countries. (author)

  18. Gaps in the current nuclear liability regime with particular regard to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One aspect of the exercise in risk management is to create a legal framework which is conducive to the development of nuclear commerce. however, there are clearly limits, and not necessarily just geographical limits, to the application of the current convention system. This paper briefly identifies where gaps in the current system may occur, what might be done to plug them and in the context of the transport of nuclear material, the degree to which nuclear operators can 'self-manage' who is the responsible party for nuclear liability and whether additional restrictions may be desirable. (N.C.)

  19. Recipe for nuclear operation success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario one of ten Canadian provinces, receives the majority of its electrical service from one utility called Ontario Hydro. Today, Ontario Hydro generates more than 50% of its electricity from nuclear stations of the CANDU type. The CANDU station performance, in respect to worker safety, public safety, environmental protection, reliability and cost, has been outstanding. Operations and maintenance is one of the several functions essential to high performance. This paper discusses some of the major considerations important to successful operations

  20. The Brussels Declaration: the need for change in asthma management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgate, S.; Bisgaard, H.; Bjermer, L.; Haahtela, T.; Haughney, J.; Horne, R.; McIvor, A.; Palkonen, S.; Price, D.B.; Thomas, M.; Valovirta, E.; Wahn, U.

    2008-01-01

    ; "real world" studies should be funded and results used to inform guidelines; variations in care across Europe should be addressed; people with asthma should participate in their own care; the impact of environmental factors should be understood; and targets should be set for improvement. The present......Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration on...... Asthma, sponsored by The Asthma, Allergy and Inflammation Research Charity, was developed to call attention to the shortfalls in asthma management and to urge European policy makers to recognise that asthma is a public health problem that should be a political priority. The Declaration urges recognition...

  1. Sanctity of dispute resolution clauses : strategic coherence of the Brussels system / Ilona Nurmela

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurmela, Ilona, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    1968. aasta Brüsseli konventsioon kohtualluvuse ja kohtuotsuste täitmise kohta tsiviil- ja kaubandusasjades (1968 Brussels Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgements in civil and commercial matters ; Brussels I Convention)

  2. Static and dynamic performance tests of nuclear powered ship Mutsu reactor (report on nuclear ship Mutsu power-up tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ochiai, Masa-aki (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Tanaka, Yoshimi; Inoue, Kimio; Yao, Toshiaki; Kamai, Satoshi; Kitamura, Toshikatsu.

    1992-08-01

    The power-up tests of the Mutsu reactor were performed from March 29th 1990 to December 14th. The tests were divided into six phases: The tests Phase 0 and Phase 1 were done in the state that the ship was moored at the quay of Sekinehama port in March and April; The tests Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4, and Phase 5 were done on the Pacific Ocean from July to December. Present report describes the test results on the static and dynamic plant performance. On static plant performance tests, there are 13 test items including measurements of primary system heat balance at low and high power levels, a virgin run of feed water pump with SG steam, a change-over test of steam supply of auxiliary boiler to SG. On the dynamic plant performance, there are 11 test items including a test of reactor power auto-control system, a test of main feed water auto-control system, a test of small load variation, a load increasing test, a turbine trip test, tests of ahead and astern maneuvering, a test of single loop operation, and a reactor scram test. The reactor power for each item's test was increased step by step from zero power to the goal of rated power of 100 %, 36 MWt. In order to confirm proper reactor system performance, criteria were laid down for the static and dynamic tests: for example, (1) reactor scram shall not occur, (2) pressurizer relief valve and steam generator safety valve shall not work, and (3) after the transients reactor systems shall become the steady state without manual adjustment of the reactor control system. The test results satisfied these criteria and some of test data showed that reactor had much more margin in any performance for design. It is verified, therefore, that the Mutsu reactor systems have adequate performances as a marine reactor and that one is capable to respond smoothly and safely to the load of ship's demand. (author).

  3. Nuclear powered ships. Findings from a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear shipping is attractive for several reasons, one of which is its positive effect on emissions (CO2, NOx and SOx). The benefits, however, do not come without risks of possible harmful effects on humans and wildlife. Nuclear ships set themselves apart from conventional ships, as well as from on-shore nuclear power-plants, on several counts. 1) The reactor-unit are non-stationary, and the reactor is subject to the ship motions. 2) Ship reactors must be compact due to space constraints. 3) Special design considerations are required to ensure reactor safety and security, as well as to enable refuelling. 4) A naval nuclear fuel cycle infrastructure for fuel fabrication, handling, and disposal is needed. Technological feasibility of nuclear shipping is by itself inconclusive to a expansion into civilian applications and use. Civilian nuclear propulsion needs to be commercially viable and politically acceptable. Appropriate legislation must be in place, and nuclear shipping concepts with proven safety records and highest possible nuclear proliferation-resistance must be established. Possible 'showstoppers' to a viable nuclear civilian shipping industry are outlined in the paper in view of Political, Technical, Regulatory, Commercial, Safety and Security aspects. Further, different types of ships with different propulsion system are compared in lights of life cycle cost and air emission. (author)

  4. Nitrogen balances during growth of Brussels sprouts and leeks

    OpenAIRE

    Booij, R.; Willigen, van, J.A.; Kreuzer, A.D.H.; Smit, A.L.; Werf, van der, F.

    1996-01-01

    The nitrogen balance at different N-application rates was determined in Brussels sprouts and leeks during growth of the crop in two field experiments on a sandy soil. The N-input (from fertilizer and mineralisation) and the N-output (N in the above-ground crop parts and the residual mineral N in the soil (Nmin)) were calculated. No deficit on the nitrogen balance was observed during crop growth of Brussels sprouts up to a fertilizer rate of 300 kg ha-1. In leeks no deficit was found when 125 ...

  5. Thermal analysis of spent nuclear fuel shipping cas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) thermal analysis was performed for the TN-24P cask. For the analysis, ANSYS Fluent as a CFD tool was selected since it has the proper finite volume methods to realistically simulate the thermal behavior of shipping casks. For the analysis, spent fuels discharged from pressurized water reactors (PWRs) were modeled. In the model, there are 24 PWR spent fuel assemblies loaded in the TN-24P cask. The fuel design is assumed to be similar to standard Westinghouse 15x15 rod design. Total heat (decay) generated in the cask was estimated to be 20.6 kW. To input the axial power profile required to calculate the heat flux, a User Defined Function was generated. Fuel storage space (canister) is filled with Helium gas to cool spent nuclear fuel. In the cask, heat transfer occurs through the heat conduction by helium and basket, natural circulation driven by gravity, and thermal radiation in the complex geometry. In the canister region, laminar flow model with Boussinesq approximation is used to simulate the natural circulation. The helium domain was assumed symmetric in the model. For thermal radiation, the Discrete Ordinates (DO) model was chosen in the presented study due to its accuracy and capability of parallel processing. In typical vertical TN-24P dry storage cask system consist of two nested cask. Between inner and outer cask is in the air. Air inlet section is at the bottom side of cask and outlet ventilation is at top of cask. At this region, turbulence regime occurs and turbulence is modeled by using k-epsilon model. The analysis include small scaled and full scaled model. In small scale model, geometry is defined rectangular to make mesh generation easy and to validate the analysis tools using the experimental data. In the full-scale simulation, the results of analysis and experimental data for peak clad temperature (PCT) were compared. Key Words: TN-24P dry storage cask, CFD, thermal analysis, PCT, air blockage

  6. Some legal-liability considerations on the Romanian concerns in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national nuclear legislation is concerned with specific issues related to nuclear safety radiation protection clean-up activities, liability and financial guarantees for nuclear damages; it may be noted that Romania adhered to the nuclear third party liability Vienna Convention and Joint Protocol on December 29, 1992. The Romanian National Nuclear Program, which includes not only the nuclear fuel cycle but also nuclear research facilities and other peaceful applications of radioactivity implies that Romania government is aware for its own facilities, by the settlement of the insurance and pooling system for its own nuclear facilities, as well as for the regional aspects for the liability system for nuclear damage. It must be point out the opportunity and the priority to cooperate with the developed country having in mind the necessity for nuclear insurance coverage of the financial capital invested in Romania's power sector, as well as in the eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. (Author)

  7. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for.... The license authorizes the operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Vermont Yankee)...

  8. Third party liability in the field of nuclear law an irish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will first set out in summary form the main provisions of the Paris Convention, the instrument under which issues of third party liability between the majority of NEA member states affected by any such incident would be resolved, and will then set out some of the perceived advantages and disadvantages which would result from an application of the provisions of the Convention to a non-nuclear state such as Ireland. This paper will then consider how Irish victims of a nuclear incident might re.cover compensation for loss and damage caused by such an incident. For reasons set out below, it is the view of the authors that Irish victims of such an incident could first bring their claim in Ireland or in France, that it is likely that Irish law would apply to any such claim and that any judgement, including any interlocutory judgement in such proceedings, could be enforced in the courts of any other European Union state, including France. (authors)

  9. 75 FR 57299 - First Energy Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION First Energy Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for Renewal of Davis Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, Facility Operating License No. NPF-003 for an Additional 20-Year Period The U.S. Nuclear...

  10. Model-based assessment of the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery as a groundwater ecosystem service for the Brussels-Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Urban areas are characterized by their concentrated demand of energy, applying a high pressure on urban ecosystems including atmosphere, soils and groundwater. In the light of global warming, urbanization and an evolving energy system, it is important to know how urbanized areas can contribute to their own energy demands. One option is to use the possibilities aquifers offer as an ecosystem service (BONTE et al., 2011). If used effectively an improvement in air and groundwater quality is achieved. Additionally, the more efficient distribution of the used energy may also lead to a decrease in primary energy consumption (ZUURBIER, 2013). Therefore, investigations of the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery (ATES) for the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium is being conducted. The potential of ATES systems are of special interest for energy demands in high density urban areas because of such infrastructure as office buildings, schools, hospitals and shopping malls. In an open water circuit ATES systems consist of two or more groundwater wells, where in seasonal cycles one subtracts and the other recharges water to the aquifer. Heat pumps use the heat capacity of water for heating or cooling a building. An important limitation of the methodology is the quality of the groundwater used (i.e. precipitation of Fe- or Mn-oxides can decrease the yield). However, ATES systems on the other hand can also improve groundwater quality and groundwater ecosystems. The current knowledge of the potential for ATES systems in the Brussels-Capital Region is based on geological assessments from VITO (2007). The Brussels-Capital Region is divided into a western and eastern section with respect to geology. While the western part has less favorable conditions for ATES, the eastern is composed of the Brussels Sand formation, which is a 20-40 m thick aquifer layer that has the highest potential for ATES systems in the region. By applying groundwater flow and heat

  11. Sustainable development and nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the high safety standards of the nuclear industry mean that the risk of an accident is low, the magnitude of damage that could result to third parties from such an accident is considerable. It was thus recognised from the very inception of the nuclear power industry that a special legal regime would need to be established to provide for the compensation of victims of a nuclear accident. The ordinary rules of tort and contract law were simply not suited to addressing such a situation in an efficient and effective manner. (authors)

  12. Changes in plan for installation of reactor in No. 1 nuclear ship of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (change in description of its cool shutdown state) (report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    In response to the request from the Prime Minister, the Nuclear Safety Commission made adequate deliberations on the proposed changes in the plan for the installation of the reactor in the No.1 nuclear ship of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The subject matter is related with the shift of the reactor from a cool shutdown state to a shutdown state at the Ominato Port. The Nuclear Safety Commission started examinations at the 29th meeting of the Commission held on September 3, 1985, and made a conclusion at its 30th meeting held on September 10 of the same year. It was confirmed that if the reactor is shifted into a hot shutdown state, all control rods will continue to be in the inserted state while the clutch current in the control rod drive system will be cut to maintain the reactor in a subcritical state. It was concluded that the proposed change in the installation plan will not affect the safety of the relevant nuclear reactor facilities and can meet the provisions under Article 24 Paragraph 1 of Law Concerning Regulations on Nuclear Materials, Nuclear Fuel Substances and Nuclear Reactors. The conclusion was reported to the Prime Minister as of September 10, 1987. (Nogami, K.).

  13. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  14. 26 CFR 1.955A-4 - Election as to date of determining qualified investment in foreign base company shipping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment in foreign base company shipping operations. 1.955A-4 Section 1.955A-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... company shipping operations. (a) Nature of election. In lieu of determining the increase under the... shipping operations for a taxable year in the manner provided in such provisions, a United...

  15. State of the Art of Fuel Cells for Ship Applications

    OpenAIRE

    HAN, Jingang; Charpentier, Jean-Frederic; Tang, Tianhao

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells promise to be far more efficient, produce lower or zero emissions, and operate cleaner than conventional internal-combustion engine and gas turbine. They are already used for transportation application (buses, cars and tramways). Fuel cells can also be an interesting solution for ships power. However the developments of fuel cell systems for ship are in infancy. The only exception is the PEMFC in the submarines. This solution allows obtaining an air-independent propulsion (AIP) ...

  16. Nuclear liability insurance interest in radioactive waste management at utility power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for costly nuclear liability claims is often a hidden dimension to the effective management of radioactive waste programs. In order to help members of the audience to be more aware of this potential, this paper briefly introduces the radioactive waste manager to such subjects as: the nuclear liability insurance policy; radioactive waste emission and personnel exposure claims; claims avoidance and claims defense strategy; and the role of the ANI Nuclear Engineering Department (NED) in this overall process

  17. A Spectrum of Liabilities for Off-Campus Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Mary-Pat

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this article is liability of higher education institutions for off-campus housing. In the off-campus housing context, the "assumed duty" theory was determinative in a 2006 Delaware Supreme Court case. A student was assaulted by the boyfriend of another student in the parking lot of off-campus housing. The housing was…

  18. Academic training for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly outlined the importance of academic training of nuclear power plant operators and the objectives of such a training (quality, addressing industry needs), the author evokes the programs implemented at the Center for Nuclear Studies of the Memphis State university. He notices that an academic degree is necessary for the recognition of the operator's job as a professional, and that such a training program is useful to improve safety and reliability of nuclear power plants

  19. Earning the social licence for nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to safe nuclear operation, a critical component of earning the social licence is effective communication. This paper outlines development of a communications strategy contributing to overall utility operation and project goals through: 1) Relationships with employees, host communities and the general public that are transparent and honest; 2) Processes that effectively interconnect the internal and external communications; and 3) Organizational leadership models that support communication excellence. With strategic development of these three focus areas the nuclear operator will contribute to increased support of the operator's own licence to operate and of support for the nuclear industry as a whole. (author)

  20. Liabilities of the competent person for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article R. 4456-1 of the Labour code requires employer to appoint a competent person for radiation protection (C.P.R.). Although the prerogatives of the CPR are exercised under the responsibility of the employer, the traditional rules of questioning the liability apply to the employer as well as to the C.P.R.. For the civil liability, the object of which is to guarantee the compensation of damage by its author, but also for the criminal liability, which aims at punishing an illegal behaviour, the C.P.R. does not escape these traditional rules which, however, apply in a particular way considering the daily missions of the C.P.R.. If the responsibility of the employer is more questioned, notably because of the authority he/she exercises on his/her employee, the C.P.R. must not be considered as irresponsible regarding civil and penal requirements; the C.P.R. may indeed be questioned by an employee victim of damage. The activity of the C.P.R. (and thus the cases allowing the questioning of its liability) rests widely on the means which it has and the context in which it discharges its missions. Moreover the judge does take into account the resources which an agent has to judge his responsibility. Thus, the relations of the C.P.R. with other actors of the radiation protection, internal or external in the establishment, are determining. (author)

  1. 75 FR 16645 - Increase in the Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 140 RIN 3150-AI74 Increase in the Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium AGENCY... is amending its regulations to increase the primary premium for liability insurance coverage in the....). Existing requirements were approved by the Office of Management and Budget, approval number...

  2. Integration of remotely operated manipulator systems for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no getting away from remotely operated manipulator systems in significant part in dismantling operations, because of the actual radioactive emitting level of installations. However, some main contractors, who have been involved in dismantling projects in the past few years are reluctant to use remotely operated systems because: - equipment characteristics are not suitable for the environment and the work to be performed; - There are some design problems; - Main components do not withstand operation any longer, after some time; - There are deficiencies in the management of quality, for critical equipment problems that degrade the productivity and increase direct and indirect labour cost. As a summary therefore, equipment available on this dismantling market are reputedly unreliable and not 'industrial' (sturdy) enough. However, numerous operations in maintenance in primary loops of nuclear reactors, or in the Offshore sector, are carried out remotely, to the satisfaction of the operators and the investors. In the dismantling sector, a thorough analysis of the difficulties encountered indicates that their origin is mostly due to a lack of methodology - that needs to be addressed -, rather than a technical problem. In that context, CYBERNETIX proposes to be involved in phases upstream and downstream of the equipment supply's. Upstream: Participate in developing/validating the scenarios to be used to optimise the constraints of remote operations/equipment. Downstream: Participate actively in supporting the client on-site, ensuring that equipment are available and maintained by competent and motivated people, and thus, getting experience in order to improve the State-of-the-Art of robotic in that field. Then, the contracting authority and CYBERNETIX jointly define the limits and the content of the involvement of each party, and also define the most appropriate type of 'partnership' between the main contactor and the participating companies, and in order to

  3. Using SPOT-5 HRG Data in Panchromatic Mode for Operational Detection of Small Ships in Tropical Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Petit

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest in applications of space remote sensing systems for maritime surveillance which includes among others traffic surveillance, maritime security, illegal fisheries survey, oil discharge and sea pollution monitoring. Within the framework of several French and European projects, an algorithm for automatic ship detection from SPOT-5 HRG data was developed to complement existing fishery control measures, in particular the Vessel Monitoring System. The algorithm focused on feature-based analysis of satellite imagery. Genetic algorithms and Neural Networks were used to deal with the feature-borne information. Based on the described approach, a first prototype was designed to classify small targets such as shrimp boats and tested on panchromatic SPOT-5, 5-m resolution product taking into account the environmental and fishing context. The ability to detect shrimp boats with satisfactory detection rates is an indicator of the robustness of the algorithm. Still, the benchmark revealed problems related to increased false alarm rates on particular types of images with a high percentage of cloud cover and a sea cluttered background.

  4. Introduction to the 'CAS' nuclear propulsion plant for ships: specific safety options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the development of nuclear propulsion in FRANCE (Land Based Prototype PAT 1964 - Navy nuclear ships - Advanced Nuclear Boiler Prototype CAP 1975 and now the CAS nuclear plant), the specific safety options of CAS are presented: cold, compartmented fuel (plates); reduced flow during LOCA; permanent cooling of fuel during LOCA; pressurized, entirely passive containment; no control rod ejection and possibility of temporary storage of spent fuel on board

  5. Morocco. Act no. 12-02 on civil liability for nuclear damage. Promulgated on 7 january 2005. Chapter 1. General provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three texts concern Morocco with the Act on civil liability for Nuclear damage (2005), International Atomic energy Agency with the code of conduct on the safety of research reactors (2004), United Nations with U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004). (N.C.)

  6. Large scale determination of glucosinolates in brussels sprouts samples after degradation of endogenous glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, H E; van der Kruk, G C; van Holst, G J

    1999-03-01

    A method was developed for the determination of the glucosinolate content in glucose-rich samples of Brassica vegetables such as Brussels sprouts. Glucose in the samples was enzymatically degraded by the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD). The resulting hydrogen peroxide and the enzyme GOD were thereafter respectively dissociated and inactivated by a heat treatment at 100 degrees C. After the degradation of endogenous glucose the glucosinolates were converted into glucose and related metabolites with the enzyme thioglucosidase originating from Brussels sprouts seeds. Glucose released was determined enzymatically with a glucose oxidase/peroxidase assay as a measure for the glucosinolate content of samples. The method was used to study the influence of harvest time, crop production location, and the choice of parental lines on the glucosinolate content of Brussels sprouts F1-hybrids. The sum of sinigrin and progoitrin of F1-hybrids was found to be significantly correlated to the glucosinolate content. PMID:10552411

  7. The Legal Position of the Operator and the Constructor of a Nuclear Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Note analyses the procedures required in Italy for nuclear power plant construction and operation under Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and Presidential Decree No. 185 of 13 February 1964 on radiation protection, made under that Act; this latter Decree lays down the licensing system for nuclear power plants. The Note describes the standards for plant construction; the third party liability regime for nuclear damage; the step-by-step licensing procedure, siting; the supply of fuel elements and fuel loading; the protection of workers involved with ionizing radiation and finally the penal provisions in case of violation of the Act and Decree. (NEA)

  8. Liability problems arising from nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of damage to health or property, it has always been approved legal tradition in all highly developed legal systems to perform compensation for damage in money. This principle also applies to damage caused by nuclear accidents. In the F.R.G., care has been taken at a very early stage to provide for appropriate liability provisions to afford financial security to the extent required by the special hazards involved in the peaceful use of atomic energy. Recent events have shown that the legal provisions available are appropriate and practicable. Citizens affected will receive fair compensation for damage. The Federal Administrative Office so far counted 30.392 applications for compensation in compliance with section 38, sub-sec. (2) Atomic Energy Act. Up to June 16, 1986, payments for compensation of losses amounted to DM 38.7 millions. By accepting the claims for compensation the State provides protection for German nationals and persons of equal rank. A limitation to DM one billion for compensation for damage caused by nuclear energy seems to be appropriate also in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./HP)

  9. Performance of Ship Assistance Program for Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Mira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study identify inhibiting factors that make the program Inka Mina did not reach goal. The study uses regression analysis and correlation analysis. Correlation analysis results indicate that the strong correlation between the number of aid ships with determining factors such as the potential for fisheries, the number of fishermen, the amount of production, the number of ship, number of KUB, and the fishing port. Regression analysis results indicate that amount of aid ships in a region is in accordance with the elements set out in the technical guidance. However, a strong correlation does not necessarily determine the success of this program, because there are other factors that have not been considered (qualitative factors , such as culture one day fishing on coastal communities, people's habits (gear and type of size, transfer knowledge, and other factors. Assessment for this problem, government should consider the culture aspect.

  10. The present status of Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'', the repair of shielding on the ship itself was completed in March, and on the reactor plant in January, 1982. Comprehensive safety check-up on both hardware and software, started in October, 1975, has been finished within fiscal 1981, except some on hardware. On the basis of the results, repair work is in progress to raise the safety and reliability of the reactor plant. As the new home port of the n.s. Mutsu, the Sekinehama area in Aomori Prefecture has been chosen as its candidate, where site survey was carried out. The following matters are described: shielding repair work on the ship hull and reactor plant, safety check-up on reactor plant components and plant design, the analysis of reactor plant accident, the candidate home port for the n.s. Mutsu and the results of its site survey. (J.P.N.)

  11. Nuclear liability: Joint protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention was adopted by the Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, which met in Vienna, at the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency on 21 September 1988. The Joint Protocol establishes a link between the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963. The Joint Protocol will extend to the States adhering to it the coverage of the two Conventions. It will also resolve potential conflicts of law, which could result from the simultaneous application of the two Conventions to the same nuclear accident. The Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication contains the text of the Final Act of the Conference in the six authentic languages, the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, also in the six authentic languages and an explanatory note, prepared by the IAEA and NEA Secretariats, providing background information on the content of the Joint Protocol

  12. Risk-informed optimal routing of ships considering different damage scenarios and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is the development of a risk-informed decision tool for the optimal mission-oriented routing of ships. The strength of the hull is investigated by modeling the midship section with finite elements and by analyzing different damage levels depending on the propagation of plastification throughout the section. Vertical and horizontal flexural interaction is investigated. Uncertainties associated with geometry and material properties are accounted for by means of the implementation of the response surface method. Load effects are evaluated using strip theory. Reliability analysis is performed for several ship operational conditions and considering four different limit states. Then, risk is assessed by including the direct losses associated with five investigated damage states. The effects of corrosion on aged ships are included in the proposed approach. Polar representation of load effects, reliability, and direct risk are presented for a large spectrum of operational conditions. Finally, the optimal routing of ships is obtained by minimizing both the estimated time of arrival and the expected direct risk, which are clearly conflicting objectives. The optimization process provides feasible solutions belonging to the Pareto front. The proposed approach is applied to a Joint High Speed Sealift

  13. Liability for nuclear damage: financial and definitional limitations with particular reference to the EEC rules prohibiting subsidies and anti-competitive practices and agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1990 the Commission of the European Communities (EEC) held that a package of state aids (subsidies) to the United Kingdom nuclear industry were compatible with Article 92 of the EEC Treaty. The decision was significant because it held that the package of measures constituted ''state aids'' and that the nuclear industry was subject to Article 92 of the EEC Treaty; and it set some of the parameters to determine the conditions under which the Commission will authorise such state aids. The decision has implications for the emerging rules governing civil liability for damage caused by waste, including nuclear waste, currently being prepared by the EC Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability. (author)

  14. Liability according to civil law regarding border-crossing nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the liability in border-crossing damage caused by a nuclear-reactor accident is divided into two different areas: the liability according to international law of the state, and liability according to civil right of the licensee of a nuclear power plant. In this study attention is paid to the question of the liability according to civil right: is it possible that an aggrieved obtains compensation for damage? This is investigated on the basis of three standard questions of international private law: which judge is qualified, which law is to be applied, and is acknowledgement and execution of foreign sentences possible? First a historical survey is given of international agreements and national legislations regarding third-party liability. (author). 112 refs

  15. Technical aspects of reactor core unloading of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unloading technique is dominated by the need to transfer the fuel from the reactor vessel to a storage facility which (according to the OMCI regulations now being worked out) must not be on board. This transfer has to take place in perfect safety conditions given the residual power and the still high activity of the fission products when the operation is being effected. There are several possible solutions which boil down to the following cases: (a) either connect the on-board confinement vessel to the storage area so that this transfer is carried out without breaking the confinement or (b) establish a mobile confinement around the fuel whilst it is being moved. At all events, such an operation can only be conceived in a special base nuclear installation

  16. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Government Division's written evidence to the Trade and Industry Committee inquiry into the Government's proposals for nuclear privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful privatisation of the United Kingdom nuclear industry requires the best solution for the future of nuclear liabilities associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of the resultant radioactive wastes. At least some of these liabilities will remain in the public sector. The UKAEA Government Division was brought into being in 1994 to manage the UKAEA's nuclear liabilities. The evidence presented suggests how the experience and expertise of this organisation may be valuable in deciding how public sector nuclear liabilities in general can best be handled. In particular, a number of operating principles have been established which could be successfully applied to the management of other nuclear liabilities. (UK)

  17. Administração por convênios, um instrumento gerencial de políticas: uma análise dos convênios da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo - 1987 Administration by agreement a management tool of health policies: an analysis of agreements made by the Health Secretariat of S. Paulo State, Brazil - 1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Naked de Castro Sá

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada análise dos 1.141 convênios vigentes no primeiro semestre de 1987, celebrados pela Secretaria de Saúde do Estado de São Paulo, segundo os objetivos dos convênios e entidades conveniadas. Foram consideradas as potencialidades do convênio como instrumento de execução de políticas públicas de saúde e as necessidades de resposta organizacional da Secretaria para definição, acompanhamento, avaliação e controle dos convênios. Foram recomendadas algumas medidas para aumentar o rendimento de ações conveniadas para aperfeiçoar a expressão orçamentário-financeira da administração por convênios, com base num plano abrangente das ações de saúde.Research was carried out into 1,141 agreements made by the State Health Department of S. Paulo State, Brazil, and which were in force during the first semester of 1987. An analysis was made of the obj