Sample records for brussels conv liability for maritime carriage nuc mater 1971

  1. A Contribution to Recognising Carrier's Liability in International Carriage by Air and Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Kaštela


    Full Text Available The paper presents the provisions of the part of MontrealConvention which refers to the air carriers' liability regardingdamage to passengers and luggage, with the intention of indicatingthe possible influence of this Convention on the equal liabilityin maritime carriage, settled by the recent changes of theAthens Convention on the carriage of passengers and their luggageby sea. The provisions of these documents are comparedregarding the basic principles of the carrier's liability and theamount of liability for the damage, showing both some similaritiesand some differences in the carriage of passengers by air, sea.

  2. Carrier’s liability under the international conventions for the carriage of goods by sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available As is well known, there is no international convention for the carriage of goods in general. Each mode of transport counts on one or several international conventions that specifically regulate the provision of international transport by sea, rail, road or air. Thus, multimodal freight transport are characterised by a patchwork of different legal regimes that represents a huge challenge for the growth of multimodal transport industry. The paper aims to analyse the latest, but still not in force Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea (the Rotterdam rules that should provide global solution for multimodal carrier liability. Comparison of the carrier’s liability in the former conventions relating to the international carriage of goods by sea and other rules are also discussed.

  3. Limitation of liability for maritime claims: Chronological critical review (international instruments and Croatian solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilj Aleksandra V.


    Full Text Available Limitation of liability of shipowner can based on property or can be personal - shipowner responds to certain part of the property (for example ship or his entire assets to a certain amount. In the first case it is a real, and in the other the personal limitation of liability. On these principles all international instruments in this legal field have been developed. One of the well-known 'universal' principle of civil law says that the injurer must pay for a damage in full, in full extent and amount. However, when we are applying provisions of maritime law (as well as transport law in general on the liability for damages and its compensation, the situation is quite opposite. Though, that the amount of suffered damages is coming closer to said universal principle of civil law has been confirmed by Amendments to the Protocol to the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 1996 (LLMC 1996. These Amendments increased amount of general (global limitation of liability for maritime claims by 51% compared to the amounts in LLMC. Increased amounts are applicable from 8th June 2015. Regarding these amendments, a number of issues can be placed: justification for introducing the institute of limitation of liability in general; reasons why the injurer is privileged in maritime (and broader in transport, in the context of the amount of the obligation of compensation for damage; and whether the application of the institute undermine the principle that is enshrined in the legal system of every modern country, according to which the injured party has the right to just compensation. On the other hand, justice can be taken as well as an argument just to implement the limitation of liability system.

  4. 47 CFR 3.76 - Licensee's liability for payment. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee's liability for payment. 3.76 Section... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.76 Licensee's liability for payment. The U.S. ship station licensee bears ultimate responsibility for final payment of its...

  5. Comparative analysis of international environmental liability arising from maritime accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luciana Vianna; Victorio, Glaucia Lima [Trench, Rossi e Watanabe Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The oil industry is dynamic and global, being performed worldwide and by investors from several countries. In this sense, it is essential for investors to be informed of the legal frameworks in target countries and the differences between the legislation in those countries and their own legal systems. In this article, we will analyze the main differences on the environmental liability in Brazil, which is, currently, one of the most attractive markets in the oil and gas industry, the United States of America (US), the largest consumer of oil and the third producer around the world; and the European Union (EU) which concentrates the second largest global consumer, besides being the main player in the international and diplomatic relationships. Thus, the present paper, without the intent to exhaust the subject matter, aims at presenting comparisons between the legal environment of the three main players in the international oil and gas scenario, specifying not only the legal aspects of each of them, but also outlining the economic impacts generated over business investors from the oil industry, determining that although the differences in the basis of legal framework, all players have presented the liability and the duty to compensate. (author)

  6. "Mater puerorum'. A medieval naming for an enigmatic children's disease. (United States)

    Kottek, S S


    The pediatric clinical entity called "Mater Puerorum' appears first in the latin translation of Rhazes' "Practica Puerorum' and in his "Continens'. His descriptions of the disease could give some likeness either to a diagnosis of night terrors, or of hyperpyretic convulsions, or of a slight form of epilepsy. Mater Puerorum is afterwards described by most pediatric authors till the Renaissance period without much originality. Rhazes being one of their main sources anyway. Mater Puerorum has been considered by Still and Radbill as a synonym for hysterical fits in children. Going back to the Arabic original naming: Ummu's Sibyan, we venture another etymology based on Babylonian-Judeo-Arabic demonology. The "Mother of the Children' could be the female demon Karina--or Lilith--which is said to come to plague the children at night. The naming Mater Puerorum could thus be ascribed to a folklore origin, rather than to hysteria.

  7. The Brussels Declaration: the need for change in asthma management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgate, S.; Bisgaard, H.; Bjermer, L.


    Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration on A...... reviews the evidence supporting the need for change in asthma management and summarises the ten key points contained in the Brussels Declaration Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12......Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration...... on Asthma, sponsored by The Asthma, Allergy and Inflammation Research Charity, was developed to call attention to the shortfalls in asthma management and to urge European policy makers to recognise that asthma is a public health problem that should be a political priority. The Declaration urges recognition...

  8. Tree-based indexing for real-time ConvNet landmark-based visual place recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hou


    Full Text Available Recent impressive studies on using ConvNet landmarks for visual place recognition take an approach that involves three steps: (a detection of landmarks, (b description of the landmarks by ConvNet features using a convolutional neural network, and (c matching of the landmarks in the current view with those in the database views. Such an approach has been shown to achieve the state-of-the-art accuracy even under significant viewpoint and environmental changes. However, the computational burden in step (c significantly prevents this approach from being applied in practice, due to the complexity of linear search in high-dimensional space of the ConvNet features. In this article, we propose two simple and efficient search methods to tackle this issue. Both methods are built upon tree-based indexing. Given a set of ConvNet features of a query image, the first method directly searches the features’ approximate nearest neighbors in a tree structure that is constructed from ConvNet features of database images. The database images are voted on by features in the query image, according to a lookup table which maps each ConvNet feature to its corresponding database image. The database image with the highest vote is considered the solution. Our second method uses a coarse-to-fine procedure: the coarse step uses the first method to coarsely find the top-N database images, and the fine step performs a linear search in Hamming space of the hash codes of the ConvNet features to determine the best match. Experimental results demonstrate that our methods achieve real-time search performance on five data sets with different sizes and various conditions. Most notably, by achieving an average search time of 0.035 seconds/query, our second method improves the matching efficiency by the three orders of magnitude over a linear search baseline on a database with 20,688 images, with negligible loss in place recognition accuracy.

  9. Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces (United States)

    Minev, Ivan R.; Musienko, Pavel; Hirsch, Arthur; Barraud, Quentin; Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jérôme; Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Asboth, Léonie; Torres, Rafael Fajardo; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Liu, Qihan; Pavlova, Natalia; Duis, Simone; Larmagnac, Alexandre; Vörös, Janos; Micera, Silvestro; Suo, Zhigang; Courtine, Grégoire; Lacour, Stéphanie P.


    The mechanical mismatch between soft neural tissues and stiff neural implants hinders the long-term performance of implantable neuroprostheses. Here, we designed and fabricated soft neural implants with the shape and elasticity of dura mater, the protective membrane of the brain and spinal cord. The electronic dura mater, which we call e-dura, embeds interconnects, electrodes, and chemotrodes that sustain millions of mechanical stretch cycles, electrical stimulation pulses, and chemical injections. These integrated modalities enable multiple neuroprosthetic applications. The soft implants extracted cortical states in freely behaving animals for brain-machine interface and delivered electrochemical spinal neuromodulation that restored locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.

  10. Preventive Rad/Nuc Detection Equipment Categorization for Consequence Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Musolino, S. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klemic, G. [US Dept. of Homeland Security National Security Technology Lab., New York, NY (United States)


    The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection equipment (PRND) to provide state and local agencies with guidance on how to best use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation. While the equipment being tested in this effort has been specifically designed for detection and interdiction operations, the fleet of PRND equipment can help fill critical needs for radiological instrumentation should a consequence management response take place. This effort will provide scientific guidance on the best way to deploy and operate this class of equipment for consequence management missions. With the support of the US Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), PRND equipment has been placed into service at federal, state, and local agencies throughout the nation. If the equipment capability and limitations are taken into account, this large inventory can be repurposed to support the emergency response in the aftermath of a radiological of nuclear event. This report evaluates PRND equipment to define key categories of equipment and the types of missions they can be used for. This is important because there are over 100 different types of PRND equipment, often with significantly different capabilities with respect to the consequence management mission. The current DNDO draft NIMS PRND equipment types were used as a foundation and expanded, when necessary, to address key characteristics important for the consequence mission. Table 1 provides a summary of the PRND instrument categories developed for this effort. Also included on the table are some common response mission detection equipment categories that will be used for capability comparisons.

  11. Liability. (United States)

    Hollander, Patricia A.

    Tort liability covers most injurious, civil, wrongful acts that occur between individuals. For tort liability to exist, four elements must be present: a duty to use due care, a breach of that duty, a direct causal relationship between the conduct complained of and the injury suffered, and proof of actual injury. Recent court cases involving tort…

  12. Liability for Diagnosing Malingering. (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Van Dell, Landon


    Malingering is a medical diagnosis, but not a psychiatric disorder. The label imputes that an evaluee has intentionally engaged in false behavior or statements. By diagnosing malingering, psychiatrists pass judgment on truthfulness. Evaluees taking exception to the label may claim that the professional has committed defamation of character (libel or slander) when the diagnosis is wrong and costs the claimant money or benefits. Clinicians may counter by claiming immunity or that the diagnosis was made in good faith. This problem has come into focus in military and veterans' contexts, where diagnoses become thresholds for benefits. Through historical and literary examples, case law, and military/veterans' claims of disability and entitlement, the authors examine the potency of the malingering label and the potential liability for professionals and institutions of making this diagnosis. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  13. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină


    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  14. General outline of scientific programme for 1971

    CERN Multimedia


    A description of the 1971 scientific and technical programme at CERN was prepared for the Scientific Policy Committee and was used to accompany the budget document. The opening chapter is reproduced here with a few minor modifications.

  15. University Liability for Sports Injuries. (United States)

    Rieder, Robert W.; Woodruff, William B., Jr.


    Analyzes sports injury claims against colleges and universities in recent years to help administrators better understand and minimize liability risks for certain curricular and cocurricular activities. Reviews court cases in areas of duty of care and negligence and proximate cause, and discusses defenses. (Author/NB)

  16. Total Liability for Excessive Harm


    Cooter, Robert; Porat, Ariel


    The harm that each individual causes others is unverifiable in some circumstances where the total harm caused by everyone is verifiable. For example, the environmental agency can often measure the total harm caused by pollution much easier than it can measure the harm caused by each individual polluter. In these circumstances, implementing the usual liability rules or externality taxes is impossible. We propose a novel solution: Hold each participant in the activity responsible for all of the...

  17. Identifying Maritime Logistics Competences for Sustaining Maritime Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Kinra, Aseem; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    This paper conducts a comparative assessment of the Danish maritime cluster, measured against a range of international known and respected maritime clusters like Virginia, London, the Netherlands, Singapore, Shanghai, Norway and Hong Kong. The aim is also to bring out the characteristics of the D......This paper conducts a comparative assessment of the Danish maritime cluster, measured against a range of international known and respected maritime clusters like Virginia, London, the Netherlands, Singapore, Shanghai, Norway and Hong Kong. The aim is also to bring out the characteristics...... of excellence in the selected maritime clusters were maritime policies, R&D, and the prevalence of higher education....

  18. International Liability Issues for Software Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, Nancy


    This report focuses on international law related to cybercrime, international information security standards, and software liability issues as they relate to information security for critical infrastructure applications...

  19. Comparison Between Frame-Constrained Fix-Pixel-Value and Frame-Free Spiking-Dynamic-Pixel ConvNets for Visual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eFarabet


    Full Text Available Most scene segmentation and categorization architectures for the extraction of features in images and patches make exhaustive use of 2D convolution operations for template matching, template search and denoising. Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets are one example of such architectures that can implement general-purpose bio-inspired vision systems. In standard digital computers 2D convolutions are usually expensive in terms of resource consumption and impose severe limitations for efficient real-time applications. Nevertheless, neuro-cortex inspired solutions, like dedicated Frame-Based or Frame-Free Spiking ConvNet Convolution Processors, are advancing real-time visual processing. These two approaches share the neural inspiration, but each of them solves the problem in different ways. Frame-Based ConvNets process frame by frame video in- formation in a very robust and fast way that requires to use and share the available hardware resources (such as: multipliers, adders. Hardware resources are fixed and time multiplexed by fetching data in and out. Thus memory bandwidth and size is important for good performance. On the other hand, spike-based convolution processors are a frame-free alternative that is able to perform convolution of a spike-based source of visual information with very low latency, which makes ideal for very high speed applications. However, hardware resources need to be available all the time and cannot be time-multiplexed. Thus, hardware should be modular, reconfigurable and expansible. Hardware implementations in both VLSI custom integrated circuits (digital and analog and FPGA have been already used to demonstrate the performance of these systems. In this paper we present a comparison study of these two neuro- inspired solutions. A brief description of both systems is presented and also discussions about their differences, pros and cons.

  20. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers. (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha


    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

  1. Reporting for Europe: How Brussels correspondents shape the EU communication deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.


    This article explores the role of Brussels correspondents within the EU communication deficit debate. It posits that correspondents from newer Member States are at risk of not being able to report European politics adequately, due to, for example, a lack of interest from editors at home, as well as

  2. MaterSci

    CERN Document Server

    MaterSci.Net provides a searchable database of Internet resources related to Materials Science and Metallurgy. Launched in January of 2000, the mission of MaterSci.Net is to become the best source for information related to all branches of Materials. This includes consideration of materials and components as used therein, standardization of definitions, nomenclature, symbols, and operating characteristics; and exchange of information as by techn. papers, conference sessions, and demonstrations

  3. Liability and Insurance for Suborbital Flights (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, T.


    This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.

  4. Evaluation of LAMP Assay Using Phenotypic Tests and Conventional PCR for Detection of nuc and mecA genes Among Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus spp. (United States)

    Sudhaharan, Sukanya; Vanjari, Lavanya; Mamidi, Neeraja; Ede, Nagapriyanka; Vemu, Lakshmi


    The purpose of this study is to develop a nuc and mecA gene specific Loop-mediated isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid identification and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among clinical isolates. A total of 100 (70 from pus and 30 from blood), clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp were screened for the nuc gene to differentiate between S.aureus and Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CONS) by a nuc gene specific LAMP assay. The isolates were also screened for the presence of the mec Agene by the mecA specific LAMP assay. The results were compared with the phenotypic identification and methicillin resistance by Vitek-2 system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) and conventional PCR. Among 100 Staphylococcus isolates, there were 82 (82%) Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 18 (18%) coagulase negative Staphylococcus as detected by the Vitek 2, conventional PCR and the LAMP assay using the nuc gene. The mecA gene was detected by the LAMP assay in 56(56%) isolates (44 Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 12 Methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCONS), which were also identified by the Vitek 2 and conventional PCR as methicillin resistant. The results of the LAMP assay were available within 90min as compared to the Vitek 2 results (18- 24hours) and conventional PCR (3-4 hours). The present study proved that LAMP assay can be used for the simultaneous differentiation of Staphylococcal spp and detection of methicillin resistance.

  5. Malpractice liability for informal consultations. (United States)

    Olick, Robert S; Bergus, George R


    Informal ("curbside") consults are widely used by primary care physicians. These interactions occur in person, by telephone, or even by e-mail. Exposure to malpractice liability is a frequent concern of subspecialty physicians and influences their willingness to engage in this activity. To assess this risk, we reviewed reported judicial opinions involving informal consultation by physicians. A search of the existing medical literature, and of the Westlaw national database was undertaken to identify reported judicial opinions involving informal physician consults that address whether informal consultations create a legal relationship between consulting specialist physicians and patients that gives rise to a legal duty of care owed by the consulting specialist to the patient. Courts have consistently ruled that no physician-patient relationship exists between a consultant and the patient who is the focus of the informal consultation. In the absence of such a relationship, the courts have found no grounds for a claim of malpractice. Malpractice risks associated with informal consultation appear to be minimal, regardless of the method of communication. While "informal consultation" is not a term used by the courts, the courts have applied a consistent set of criteria that help define the legal parameters of this activity.

  6. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (United States)


    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408. ...

  7. Vicarious Liability for Group Companies: the Final Frontier of Vicarious Liability?


    Morgan, Phillip David James


    This article seeks to explore the pressing unanswered commercial issue: whether or not a parent company can potentially be vicariously liable for its subsidiary's torts. It is currently undecided in English law, however, the theory of vicarious liability as recently expounded by the Supreme Court, as well as the development of new categories of vicarious liability, point towards vicarious liability for legal persons. This article argues that a legal (or natural) person may employ, or be in a ...

  8. Data Quality Assessment for Maritime Situation Awareness (United States)

    Iphar, C.; Napoli, A.; Ray, C.


    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) initially designed to ensure maritime security through continuous position reports has been progressively used for many extended objectives. In particular it supports a global monitoring of the maritime domain for various purposes like safety and security but also traffic management, logistics or protection of strategic areas, etc. In this monitoring, data errors, misuse, irregular behaviours at sea, malfeasance mechanisms and bad navigation practices have inevitably emerged either by inattentiveness or voluntary actions in order to circumvent, alter or exploit such a system in the interests of offenders. This paper introduces the AIS system and presents vulnerabilities and data quality assessment for decision making in maritime situational awareness cases. The principles of a novel methodological approach for modelling, analysing and detecting these data errors and falsification are introduced.

  9. Supporting the Maritime Information Dominance: Optimizing Tactical Network for Biometric Data Sharing in Maritime Interdiction Operations (United States)


    biometric data collection. Capture role- player mock biometric data including finger prints, iris scans, and facial recognition photos. (MOC training...boarded vessel used the SEEK II to collect biometrics including fingerprints, iris scans, and facial recognition photos. Following system setup and...MARITIME INFORMATION DOMINANCE: OPTIMIZING TACTICAL NETWORK FOR BIOMETRIC DATA SHARING IN MARITIME INTERDICTION OPERATIONS by Adam R. Sinsel

  10. The Analysis of the Causes for Exoneration from Liability of the Danubian Carrier in the International Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IORGA


    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to continue the analysis of the river international contract of carriage of goods on the Danube, in general, and, in particular, to analyze the causes for exoneration from the liability of the Danubian carrier. Objectives: The main objective is to argue how, in the event of damage caused during transport, the carrier is presumed to be at fault, as an effect of triggering the presumption of liability, it may rebut the presumption of juris tantum by contrary evidence, proving that the real cause of the prejudice is not imputable. Prior Work: In the context where also the Romanian and European doctrine analyzes these causes, this paper aims at examining in detail and comparatively their impact, analyzing the legal texts, and also their impact during the trial. Approach: We will consider the exemption circumstances, based on the interpretation of international regulation of the contract of carriage of goods by inland waterways, which we will report in detail. Results: By comparing the two international conventions, we will demonstrate that these causes of removal of liability have a predetermined scope, in the sense that they affect both contractual relations and in tort liability of the carrier. Values: In the article it was used as a research method the analysis of these incidents laws, with direct interpretation of causes for exemption from liability of the Danubian carrier.

  11. RICH – A new AMS facility at the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage, Brussels, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudin, Mathieu; Van Strydonck, Mark; Brande, Tess van den [Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage, Jubelpark 1, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Synal, Hans-Arno; Wacker, Luckas [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)


    Since 1989 the radiocarbon dating lab has their own graphitization system for {sup 14}C AMS dating but RICH (Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage) did not possess their own AMS and measurements were carried out in collaboration with other AMS facilities. In April 2013 the Micadas (Mini Carbon Dating System) AMS was installed at RICH in Brussels and after 1.5 year operation the high stability and performance of the Micadas can be demonstrated by repeated analyses of primary standard OXA II and secondary standards. Results of unknown samples measured on the RICH–Micadas and on other AMS systems are in good agreement.

  12. The internationalization of health care: the UZ Brussel model for international partnerships. (United States)

    Noppen, Marc


    Globalization of health care, flat medicine, cross-boarder health care, medical tourism, are all terms describing some, but not all, aspects of a growing trend: patients seeking health care provision abroad, and health care providers travelling abroad for temporary or permanent health care delivery services. This trend is a complex, bilateral and multifaceted phenomenon, which in our opinion, cannot be sustained in a single, comprehensive description. Individual hospitals have the unique opportunity to develop a model for appropriate action. The specific model created by the university hospital UZ Brussel is presented here.

  13. Acoustic Emission Sensing for Maritime Diesel Engine Performance and Health (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Acoustic Emission Sensing for Maritime Diesel Engine Performance and Health Brian Dykas and James Harris...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Acoustic Emission Sensing for Maritime Diesel Engine Performance and Health Executive Summary This work was...DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA 1. DLM/CAVEAT (OF DOCUMENT) 2. TITLE Acoustic Emission Sensing for Maritime Diesel Engine Performance and

  14. Directors’ Liability under thr Doctrine of Piercing the Corporate Veil : The Directors' Liability for Corporate Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Joneydi


    Full Text Available The doctrine of piercing the corporate veil fascilitated holding directors liable for corporate debt. Nevertheless, the doctrine is not a seperate cause of action. Directors are bound by fiduciary duty, duty of loyalty and duty of care and skill to the corporation and its shareholders. However, there is not such a contractual relationship between directors and creditors. Thus, requiring directors to compensate creditors should be justified on tort law. In the Iranian, French and American legal systems, fault-based liability is the cause of action for directors' liability. The author found that in piercing cases, directors' liability follows the traditional rules of fault-based liability unless specified otherwise by statute as strict liability.

  15. An Optical tracker for the maritime environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, AK


    Full Text Available for the maritime environment is an optical system that performs the automatic tracking of an above water target. Ideally, a track of the target is required for as long as is possible. Some examples of targets include boats, yachts, ships, jet-skis and aircraft. A...

  16. 26 CFR 50.5 - Liability for the tax. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for the tax. 50.5 Section 50.5... TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.5 Liability for the tax. Liability for tax attaches to any person engaged at any time during the...

  17. Optical carriage for laser-induced fluorescence in a magnetized plasma (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Paris, P. J.; Skiff, F.; Good, T. N.; Tran, M. Q.


    An ``optical carriage'' has been developed to improve plasma access for LIF diagnostics. Laser light inducing the fluorescence is transported through an optical fiber to the carriage. A telescope fixed on the carriage collects the plasma fluorescence light and sends it through a fiber bundle to an external PMT. The whole carriage is mounted on rails and can be scanned along and across the magnetic field.

  18. DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report for 1971 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  19. Application of the NucliSENS easyMAG system for nucleic acid extraction: optimization of DNA extraction for molecular diagnosis of parasitic and fungal diseases. (United States)

    Jeddi, Fakhri; Piarroux, Renaud; Mary, Charles


    During the last 20 years, molecular biology techniques have propelled the diagnosis of parasitic diseases into a new era, as regards assay speed, sensitivity, and parasite characterization. However, DNA extraction remains a critical step and should be adapted for diagnostic and epidemiological studies. The aim of this report was to document the constraints associated with DNA extraction for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases and illustrate the adaptation of an automated extraction system, NucliSENS easyMAG, to these constraints, with a critical analysis of system performance. Proteinase K digestion of samples is unnecessary with the exception of solid tissue preparation. Mechanically grinding samples prior to cell lysis enhances the DNA extraction rate of fungal cells. The effect of host-derived nucleic acids on the extraction efficiency of parasite DNA varies with sample host cell density. The optimal cell number for precise parasite quantification ranges from 10 to 100,000 cells. Using the NucliSENS easyMAG technique, the co-extraction of inhibitors is reduced, with an exception for whole blood, which requires supplementary extraction steps to eliminate inhibitors. © F. Jeddi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  20. Evidence for CGRP re‐uptake in rat dura mater encephali

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Saurabh; Amrutkar, Dipak Vasantrao; Mataji, Aydin; Salmasi, Hassan; Hay‐Schmidt, Anders; Sheykhzade, Majid; Messlinger, Karl; Olesen, Jes; Jansen‐Olesen, Inger


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Calcitonin gene‐related peptide (CGRP) is widely distributed in the trigeminovascular system and released from sensory fibres of the cranial dura mater upon noxious stimulation...

  1. Screening for suitable areas for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage within the Brussels Capital Region, Belgium using coupled groundwater flow and heat transport modelling tools (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Kukral, Janik; Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md; Huysmans, Marijke


    Urban areas have a great potential for shallow geothermal systems. Their energy demand is high, but currently they have only a limited potential to cover their own energy demand. The transition towards a low-carbon energy regime offers alternative sources of energy an increasing potential. Urban areas however pose special challenges for the successful exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. High building densities limit the available space for drillings and underground investigations. Urban heat island effects and underground structures influence the thermal field, groundwater pollution and competing water uses limit the available subsurface. To tackle these challenges in the Brussels Capital Region, Belgium two projects 'BruGeo' and the recently finished 'Prospective Research of Brussels project 2015-PRFB-228' address the investigation in urban geothermal systems. They aim to identify the key factors of the underground with respect to Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) installations like thermal properties, aquifer thicknesses, groundwater flow velocities and their heterogeneity. Combined numerical groundwater and heat transport models are applied for the assessment of both open and closed loop shallow geothermal systems. The Brussels Capital Region comprises of the Belgian Capital, the City of Brussels and 18 other municipalities covering 161 km2 with almost 1.2 million inhabitants. Beside the high population density the Brussels Capital Region has a pronounced topography and a relative complex geology. This is both a challenge and an opportunity for the exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. The most important shallow hydrogeological formation in the Brussels-Capital Region are the Brussels Sands with the Brussels Sands Aquifer. Scenarios where developed using criteria for the hydrogeological feasibility of ATES installations such as saturated aquifer thickness, groundwater flow velocity and the groundwater head below surface. The Brussels Sands

  2. The Mater-Bi® biodegradable film for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. mulching: effects on fruit yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Morra


    Full Text Available Two trials in different agricultural farms were carried out from October 2014 to June 2015 with the aim to assess the advantages linked to the substitution of the low density polyethylene (LDPE films for soil mulching with the Mater-Bi® biodegradable films in the strawberry cultivation under tunnel in Campania. Lifetime of biodegradable mulch and influence of type of mulch on the yield and the quality of cvs Sabrina and Fortuna were evaluated. Plants were cultivated on mulched, raised beds, high 40 cm from bottom soil. Mater-Bi® film was 20 µm thick while LDPE film was 50 mm thick. The physical-chemical parameters (firmness, pH, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity and skin colour and some bioactive compounds (total polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity of fruits were determined by three samplings effected in consecutive months (from March to May 2015 of the harvest cycle. Biodegradable film guaranteed an effective mulch along the whole strawberry cycle (9-10 months including the time of drawing up of film. Yields of cv Sabrina on LDPE was 18% higher than those on Mater-Bi® while the opposite was detected in cv Fortuna (+10%. The physical-chemical parameters of fruits were not modified by the mulches. The content of the bioactive compounds, instead, resulted, in each time of sampling, significantly higher in fruits picked on Mater-Bi® based film.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Klimkowska


    Full Text Available In the last few years, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS have become more important and its use for different application is appreciated. At the beginning UAS were used for military purposes. These successful applications initiated interest among researchers to find uses of UAS for civilian purposes, as they are alternative to both manned and satellite systems in acquiring high-resolution remote sensing data at lower cost while long flight duration. As UAS are built from many components such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, sensing payloads, communication systems, ground control stations, recovery and launch equipment, and supporting equipment, knowledge about its functionality and characteristics is crucial for missions. Therefore, finding appropriate configuration of all elements to fulfill requirements of the mission is a very difficult, yet important task. UAS may be used in various maritime applications such as ship detection, red tide detection and monitoring, border patrol, tracking of pollution at sea and hurricane monitoring just to mention few. One of the greatest advantages of UAV is their ability to fly over dangerous and hazardous areas, where sending manned aircraft could be risky for a crew. In this article brief description of aerial unmanned system components is introduced. Firstly characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles are presented, it continues with introducing inertial navigation system, communication systems, sensing payloads, ground control stations, and ground and recovery equipment. Next part introduces some examples of UAS for maritime applications. This is followed by suggestions of key indicators which should be taken into consideration while choosing UAS. Last part talks about configuration schemes of UAVs and sensor payloads suggested for some maritime applications.

  4. Maritime Laser Scanning as the Source for Spatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulwic Jakub


    Full Text Available The rapid development of scanning technology, especially mobile scanning, gives the possibility to collect spatial data coming from maritime measurement platforms and autonomous manned or unmanned vehicles. Presented solution is derived from the mobile scanning. However we should keep in mind that the specificity of laser scanning at sea and processing collected data should be in the form acceptable in Geographical Information Systems, especially typical for the maritime needs. At the same time we should be aware that data coming from maritime mobile scanning constitutes a new approach to the describing of maritime environment and brings a new perspective that is completely different than air and terrestrial scanning.

  5. NAFTA and member country strategies for maritime trade and marine invasive species. (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda


    Maritime shipping has two vectors of spreading marine invasive species: ballast water inside the ship and biofouling on the hulls outside the ship. While some attention has focused on ballast water, virtually none is focused on biofouling. This paper offers a quantitative analysis of economic incentives for shippers and regulating ports to address both pollution vectors. The strategies to address the vectors are induced by incentive mechanisms involving liability, subsidies and taxes. Results show these offer ample incentives in order to truly foster abatement of both vectors. Data from North America's Pacific coast is included in the analysis.

  6. DeepConvLSTM on single accelerometer locomotion recognition


    Sjöstrm, Henrik


    This project aims to evaluate the deep neural network architecture Deep-ConvLSTM to classify locomotive human activities using data from a single accelerometer. The evaluation involves comparisons to a simpler convolutional neural network and a hyperparameter evaluation in regards to the networks number of convolutional layers. The benchmark OPPORTUNITY dataset is used for training and evaluation from which triaxial accelerometer data from hips and legs are extracted. The results of the evalu...

  7. Liability in Employment Law


    Lang, Roman


    97 Liability in labour law Summary This diploma paper analyzes liability in labour law with focus on liability for damage. At first the diploma paper introduces conception of liability in general and idea of liability in labour law considering different position of employee and employer in labour relations. The diploma paper then enumerates the types of labour-law liability. The next chapter concentrates on liability for damage. This chapter describes characteristic features of liability for ...

  8. A role of nesfatin-1/NucB2 in dehydration-induced anorexia. (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuura, Takanori; Ohkubo, Junichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Ishikura, Toru; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Mori, Masatomo; Ueta, Yoichi


    Nesfatin-1/NucB2, an anorexigenic molecule, is expressed mainly in the hypothalamus, particularly in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Nesfatin-1/NucB2 is also expressed in the subfornical organ (SFO). Because the SON and PVN are involved in body fluid regulation, nesfatin-1/NucB2 may be involved in dehydration-induced anorexia. To clarify the effects of endogenous nesfatin-1/NucB2, we studied changes in nesfatin-1/NucB2 mRNA levels in the SFO, SON, and PVN in adult male Wistar rats after exposure to osmotic stimuli by using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Significant increases in nesfatin-1/NucB2 mRNA levels, ∼2- to 3-fold compared with control, were observed in the SFO, SON, and PVN following water deprivation for 48 h, consumption of 2% NaCl hypertonic saline in drinking water for 5 days, and polyethylene glycol-induced hypovolemia. In addition, nesfatin-1/NucB2 expression was increased in response to water deprivation in a time-dependent manner. These changes in nesfatin-1/NucB2 mRNA expression were positively correlated with plasma sodium concentration, plasma osmolality, and total protein levels in all of the examined nuclei. Immunohistochemistry for nesfatin-1/NucB2 revealed that nesfatin-1/NucB2 protein levels were also increased after 48 h of dehydration and attenuated by 24 h of rehydration. Moreover, intracerebroventricular administration of nesfatin-1/NucB2-neutralizing antibody after 48 h of water deprivation resulted in a significant increase in food intake compared with administration of vehicle alone. These results suggested that nesfatin-1/NucB2 is a crucial peptide in dehydration-induced anorexia. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Closer to Brussels than to Rome? The EU as the new external referent for a secularised Irish society and a redefined Catholic identity


    Penet, Jean-Christophe


    As soon as Ireland submitted its first application for EEC membership in 1961, Brussels became another external referent alongside Rome for an Irish society that increasingly looked to outside influences. If the Irish Catholic Church first was reluctant for Ireland to join in the European project, it soon realised the importance of embracing the project, if only to control it. Brussels has nonetheless seriously challenged Rome’s position as Ireland’s main external point of reference in the la...

  10. Generalized Hough Transform for Object Classification in the Maritime Domain (United States)


    HOUGH TRANSFORM FOR OBJECT CLASSIFICATION IN THE MARITIME DOMAIN by Pornrerk Rerkngamsanga December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Murali Tummala Co...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GENERALIZED HOUGH TRANSFORM FOR OBJECT CLASSIFICATION IN THE MARITIME DOMAIN 5. FUNDING...public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) A Generalized Hough Transform (GHT)-based

  11. Civil Liability of Schools, Teachers and Pupils for Careless Behaviour. (United States)

    Wenham, David


    Identifies elements that (British) courts consider in school or teacher negligence cases. Reviews significant case law establishing liability of schools and teachers for harm sustained by pupils and children's personal liability for careless acts leading to personal harm. Discusses implications of a recent child negligence case. (Contains 14…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie ECKHARDT


    Full Text Available This paper tests the usefulness of a multilevel model (MLM for explaining the spatial occurrence of road accidents; it also shows and confirms how far the characteristics of the geographical environment influence the location and concentration of road accidents at two levels of spatial aggregation. The results are compared to those obtained from a more classical logistic regression. The analysis is performed on the southern periphery of Brussels (Belgium. The main conclusions are: (1 that MLM is a potentially useful technique for modelling road accidents, but that hierarchical levels are not easy to define for spatial data and so MLM are less useful than other regression techniques for modelling spatial occurrences of road accidents; (2 that the characteristics of the environment and the road itself significantly influence the occurrence of road accidents, and changes in these characteristics are quite important elements in the explanation, leading to the suggestion that road users do not adapt their behaviour sufficiently to changes in road conditions. Hence, concentrations of road accidents often correspond to places where improvements could be made in terms of road design, signalling and land-use planning.

  13. Historical Shoreline for New Jersey (1971 to 1978): Vector Digital Data (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — features a digitized historic shoreline for the New Jersey coastline (Point Pleasant, NJ to Longport, NJ) from 1971 to...

  14. (NUC) Accreditation Exercise on University Administrative Structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    exist, no study to our knowledge has investigated such criteria and their adequacy and appropriateness to meet the enthusiastic accreditation process engaged upon by the NUC. It will be recalled that the NUC was set up partly to establish and monitor quality and standard in Nigeria universities. It was however noted that ...

  15. 76 FR 36993 - Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Clarification of Classification for Human Dura Mater... (United States)


    ... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the device regulations to clarify the applicability of the device... of the final rule, human dura mater was regulated as a medical device under Sec. 882.5975. As stated... CFR Part 882 Medical devices, Neurological devices. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and...

  16. Socially Vulnerable Youth and Volunteering in Sports: Analyzing a Brussels Training Program for Young Soccer Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Buelens


    Full Text Available A considerable number of young Europeans live or risk ending up in socially vulnerable situations. Different social channels (e.g., education, on the job training, leisure exist through which youths can enhance their chances to improve their social position. There is a growing belief that sports in particular can help personal and social development of socially vulnerable youths. Nevertheless, there is little understanding of the mechanisms through which sports can foster development. In addition to participating in sports, volunteering in sports is also regarded as providing developmental opportunities for socially vulnerable youths. Today, however, there is an underrepresentation of socially vulnerable youths in volunteering and volunteer training programs. A case study in Brussels was set up within a volunteer soccer training program focused on socially vulnerable youths. A qualitative research design was used to analyze developmental experiences of participants (n = 11 and program organizers (n = 3. The study also aimed to gain more insight into the mechanisms underlying the program. Participating youths indicated development in both technical and key competences. It is concluded that a systematic approach of the volunteer training program can play an important role in the development of competences of socially vulnerable youths both as a volunteer and an individual.

  17. Geomatics for Maritime Parks and Preserved Areas (United States)

    Lo Tauro, Agata


    The aim of this research is to use hyperspectral MIVIS data for protection of sensitive cultural, natural resources, Nature Reserves and maritime parks. A knowledge of the distribution of submerged vegetation is useful to monitor the health of ecosystems in coastal areas. The objective of this project was to develop a new methodology within geomatic environment to facilitate the analysis and application of Local Institutions who are not familiar with Spatial Analysis softwares in order to implement new research activities in this field of study. Field controls may be carried out with the support of accurate and novel in situ analysis in order to determine the training sites for the novel tested classification. The methodology applied demonstrates that the combination of hyperspectral sensors and ESA Remote Sensing (RS) data can be used to analyse thematic cartography of submerged vegetation and land use analysis for Sustainable Development. This project will be implemented for Innovative Educational and Research Programmes.

  18. Mitigated-force carriage for high magnetic field environments (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Ludtka, Gail M.; Wilgen, John B.; Murphy, Bart L.


    A carriage for high magnetic field environments includes a plurality of work-piece separators disposed in an operable relationship with a work-piece processing magnet having a magnetic field strength of at least 1 Tesla for supporting and separating a plurality of work-pieces by a preselected, essentially equal spacing, so that, as a first work-piece is inserted into the magnetic field, a second work-piece is simultaneously withdrawn from the magnetic field, so that an attractive magnetic force imparted on the first work-piece offsets a resistive magnetic force imparted on the second work-piece.

  19. Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y Seguridad 1971-1975 (National Plan for Development and Security, 1971-1975). (United States)

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, 1971


    This article discusses the education provisions established in the Argentine Plan for Development and Security (1971-1975). The statements on educational development call for a diagnostic study of the current cultural and educational situation, the establishment of objectives and strategies, goals for each level of education, steps for the…

  20. Liability exposure for surgical robotics instructors. (United States)

    Lee, Yu L; Kilic, Gokhan; Phelps, John Y


    Surgical robotics instructors provide an essential service in improving the competency of novice gynecologic surgeons learning robotic surgery and advancing surgical skills on behalf of patients. However, despite best intentions, robotics instructors and the gynecologists who use their services expose themselves to liability. The fear of litigation in the event of a surgical complication may reduce the availability and utility of robotics instructors. A better understanding of the principles of duty of care and the physician-patient relationship, and their potential applicability in a court of law likely will help to dismantle some concerns and uncertainties about liability. This commentary is not meant to discourage current and future surgical instructors but to raise awareness of liability issues among robotics instructors and their students and to recommend certain preventive measures to curb potential liability risks. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Review of legislation on civil liability for nuclear damage; Revision de la legislacion relativa a la responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez-Moran, E.


    The entry into force of Law 12/2011 is postponed until the Protocols modifying the Paris and Brussels conventions take effect, since their content complements that of the Conventions. The most significant modifications are the extension of the suppositions of nuclear damage, the geographical scope of application and the time period for claiming personal damages, which is accompanied by higher coverage limits of up to 1,200 million euros. It also includes liability for damages caused by radioactive materials in the custody of the installation owner. (Author)

  2. Vacuum-assisted closure for complex cranial wounds involving the loss of dura mater. (United States)

    Powers, Alexander K; Neal, Matthew T; Argenta, Louis C; Wilson, John A; DeFranzo, Anthony J; Tatter, Stephen B


    The aim in this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) in patients with complex cranial wounds with extensive scalp, bone, and dural defects who were not candidates for immediate free tissue transfer. Five patients (4 men and 1 woman) ages 24-73 years with complex cranial wounds were treated with VAC at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center. Etiologies included trauma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant meningioma. Cutaneous wound defects measured as large as 15 cm in diameter. Four of the 5 patients had open skull defects with concomitant dural defects, and 1 patient had dural dehiscence. After surgical debridement, all 5 patients were treated with the direct application of a VAC device to a reapproximated dura mater (1 patient), to a pericranial flap (1 patient), or to a regenerative tissue matrix overlying CNS tissue (3 patients). In all cases involving open cranial wounds, the VAC device promoted granulation tissue formation over the dural substitute, prevented CSF leakage, and kept the wounds free from local infection. The duration of VAC therapy ranged from 16 to 91 days. Although VAC therapy was intended as a temporary measure until these patients could be stabilized for larger tissue transfer procedures or they succumbed to their primary pathology, 1 patient had a successful skin graft following VAC therapy. Hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement developed in 2 patients during VAC therapy. The VAC dressings applied to a tissue matrix or other barrier over brain tissue in extensive cranial wounds are safe and well tolerated, providing a functional barrier and preventing infection.

  3. Timber resource statistics for the Sitka inventory unit, Alaska, 1971. (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees; Vernon J. LaBau


    This report summarizes a 1971 timber resource inventory of the Sitka unit in southeast Alaska. Estimates for timberland total 821,700 acres (332 500 ha) with 4.8 billion cubic feet (137.6 million m3) of net growing stock volume. Annual net growth is estimated at -36.8 million cubic feet and mortality at 59.7 million cubic feet (-1.0 and 1.7...

  4. Liability of the European Union for acts of its Institutions


    Mihaescu, Bucura Catalina


    The following article will assess the real extent of the potential liability of the European Union. It will fi rstly focus on the recognition and the development by the EU Courts of the conditions which must be fulfi lled in order for the EU to incur liability for the acts of its institutions. It will be emphasised in this regard that, as the EU Courts’ case-law currently stand, the criteria for Union liability can differ, depending on a number of variables including whether the c...

  5. International pact limits airline's liability for needle injury. (United States)


    [Name removed] sued Mexicana de Aviacion S.A. de C.V. for liability after he was pricked in the leg by a hypodermic needle that was found in the plane's seat cushion. A Federal judge ruled that since liability claims resulting from injuries on international flights are covered by the Warsaw Convention, [name removed] could not recover more than $75,000 for his fear-of-AIDS liability lawsuit. The judge also stated that the Signature Support Corporation, a second defendant named in the case because they are subcontracted to clean Mexicana's planes, may also be covered by the Warsaw Convention.

  6. Regional Maritime University Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maritime education and training; Maritime technology; Maritime administration; Maritime environmental and ocean management; Port and shipping administration; Maritime transport and ... The need for satellite detection and monitoring of sea-based oil spillage: a case in Ghana · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  7. Great Lakes maritime education program for K-12 teachers. (United States)


    Michigan Technological University has led an educational/outreach effort for the Great Lake Maritime Research Institute since 2006. : Despite Michigan Techs relative isolation and long distance from most locations in the Great Lakes Basin, every s...

  8. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  9. NucliTrack: an integrated nuclei tracking application. (United States)

    Cooper, Sam; Barr, Alexis R; Glen, Robert; Bakal, Chris


    Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack's interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly. NucliTrack is available as a free, cross platform application and open source Python package. Installation details and documentation are at: A video guide can be viewed online: Source code is available through Github: A Matlab toolbox is also available at: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Player violence or violent players? Vicarious liability for sports participants


    James, Mark; McArdle, David


    This article analyses two recent English cases concerning the law on vicarious liability for acts of violence and considers their significance in respect of on-field acts of violence in contact sports. It provides an overview of how the law of negligence has developed in the specific context of sports injuries (including the application of the defence of volenti) and critiques the application of vicarious liability to sports cases. This is followed by a consideration of the wider law on vicar...

  11. City and the sea: maritime identity for urban sustainable regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Clemente


    Full Text Available The extraordinary shape of cities by the sea is the result of the synthesis between urban culture and maritime culture – a synthesis that is full of charm and semantic values. The harmonious union of maritime culture and urban culture offers a different point of view – the one that Konvitz defined as “Urban maritime culture” (Konvitz, 1978 – for appreciating the coastal human settlements.Cities by the sea have been a really central theme in architectural and urban debate of last few decades. The suggestion behind the research is that to understand coastal and port cities we must move our point of view from the mainland on the sea – actually we must refer to maritime culture to understand urban culture in the city by the sea.The contribution describes the main research findings related to several studies that, since 2009, the Group "City and Architecture" in the National Research Council of Italy has carried out about the relationship between city and sea. The starting point is to consider the maritime interpretation of seaside cities as a relevant issue for an innovative research related to urban planning and design in coastal urban areas.The first phase of the research project has concerned with an original multidisciplinary methodology based on a mindful maritime re-interpretation of architectures and urban spaces and, more generally, of coastal urban areas. The second phase is aimed to refer the research results to real case studies with the broad involvement of multidisciplinary scholars, stakeholders and policy.The approach has permitted a review of the waterfront renewal processes – in ever greater numbers over the last fifty years – in a very different way. The objective is to define innovative methodologies and strategies for enhancing maritime identity as key tool for the urban sustainable regeneration of cities by the sea.

  12. Spatial ontologies for detecting abnormal maritime behaviour


    Vandecasteele, Arnaud; Napoli, Aldo


    International audience; The upsurge in piracy and the impact of recent environmental disasters have highlighted the need to improve maritime surveillance. Governmental and private initiatives have developed monitoring systems with improved acquisition and analysis capabilities. These systems rely on one major component, namely the detection of abnormal ship behaviour. This implies a detailed formalisation of expert knowledge. However, the quantity of data, the complexity of situations, the fa...

  13. Maritime DC Microgrids - A Combination of Microgrid Technologies and Maritime Onboard Power System for Future Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez


    system. Not only frequency-related constraints are eliminated, which allows high-speed smaller generators to be used, but also new fault-tolerant configurations involving power electronics, generation control, as well as smart systemic management. For these reasons, DC power systems become natural...... and coordination methods, and specific issues of maritime onboard power system, fuel efficiency optimization and systemic reconfiguration are outlined, referring to state-of-the-art realizations as well as to novel concept designs presently under development and investigation....

  14. Characterization and morphological comparison of human dura mater, temporalis fascia, and pericranium for the correct selection of an autograft in duraplasty procedures. (United States)

    Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Soto-Domínguez, Adolfo; García-Juárez, Jaime; Saucedo-Cardenas, Odila; Bonilla-Galvan, José R; Cardenas-Serna, Marcela; Guzmán-López, Santos; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo E


    The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the morphological characteristics of the dura mater, the pericranium, and the temporal fascia to ascertain the most adequate tissue to use as a dura graft. 20 dura mater, 20 pericranium and 20 temporalis fascia samples were analyzed. Each of the samples was stained with hematoxylin and eosin, orcein, Van Gieson, Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff-Van Gieson (600 slides in total) for a general morphological evaluation, as well as a quantitative, morphometric and densitometric analysis of elastic fibers present in each of the tissues. The micro-densitometric analysis of the tissues indicated that the area occupied by the elastic fibers showed values of 1.766 ± 1.376, 4.580 ± 3.041, and 8.253 ± 4.467 % for the dura mater, the temporalis fascia and the pericranium, respectively (p fascia and the pericranium, respectively (p fascia and dura mater vs. pericranium). This is the first study to compare the dura mater with tissues for dural autograft and to quantify the elastic component present in these tissues. The results indicate that the temporalis fascia is a better dural graft because of its intrinsic tissue properties.

  15. Liability for industrial disasters: law and democracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalo, A. [Nice Univ., 06 (France)


    Full text of publication follows: a sociological sample survey was carried out with 1200 people living in the industrial area of Le Havre and its surroundings in Normandy where there is the greatest concentration of high risk industrial plants in France. The collected data was interpreted according to the German philosopher J. Habermas's political concept of 'public space' which formalizes the methods of democratic debate between citizens and authorities. The results show, according to the legal history of 'prudence', i.e. cautionary measures, that citizens do not reduce the liability for major technological accidents simply to the individual dimension, be it the fault committed or the error,of the company director as a person, but that they tend to insist on the 'risks' inherent to the complexity of modem production systems and to the dangerousness of the products used such as chemicals, oil or gas. The people questioned prefer the idea of 'shared responsibility'. The economic aspect of this notion of 'sharing' refers to the collective sharing of the costs for damages which corresponds to the legal principles of 'solidarity' and 'compensation' which, since the beginning of the 20. Century, have been a basis to the logic of 'insurance', and the government's policy emphasizing technical precaution and risk prevention. However, the ethical aspect of this notion of 'sharing' also, reveals the refusal of any impunity and shows that the attribution of responsibility is not to be 'diluted' into an anonymous collective entity. Emphasis is put neither on the individual person nor on the authorities as a whore, but rather on the system and positions within the organization. Between the paradigms of guilt and individual error on the one hand and collective solidarity and risk on the other hand, a third possibility may be seen which is systemic responsibility and

  16. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (United States)


    ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative percent... every three years from the year the limits of liability were last adjusted for inflation, the Director...

  17. Screening Adolescents in the Emergency Department for Weapon Carriage (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resko, Stella M.; Harrison, Stephanie Roahen; Zimmerman, Marc; Stanley, Rachel; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.


    Objective To describe prevalence and correlates of past year weapon involvement among adolescents seeking care in an inner-city ED. Methods This cross-sectional study administered a computerized survey to all eligible adolescents (age 14–18), seven days a week seeking care in the ED over an 18 month period in an inner-city Level 1 ED. Validated measures were administered including measures of demographics, sexual activity, substance use, injury, violent behavior and weapon carriage/use. Results Adolescents (N=2069, 86% response rate) completed the computerized survey. 55% were female; 56.5% were African American. In the past year, 20% of adolescents reported knife/razor carriage, 7% reported gun carriage, and 6% pulled a knife/gun on someone; zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression models were used to identify correlates of the occurrence and past year frequency of these weapon variables. Although gun carriage was more frequent among males, females were as likely to carry a knife or pull a weapon in the past year. Conclusions One fifth of all adolescent’s seeking care in this inner city ED have carried a weapon. Understanding weapon carriage among teens seeking ED care is a critical first step to future ED based injury prevention initiatives. PMID:20370746

  18. Stabat Mater. Chant gregorien / Patric Wiklacz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wiklacz, Patric


    Uuest heliplaadist "Stabat Mater. Chant gregorien. Palestrina: Stabat Mater a 8; Pärt: Stabat Mater; Browne: Stabat Mater dolorosa a 6. Fretwork (concort de violes)". Virgin Classics 545 272-2 (CD: 167F)

  19. Addendum: Compliant electrostatic chuck based on hairy microstructure (2013 Smart Mater. Struct. 22 015019) and Electrostatic chuck consisting of polymeric electrostatic inductive fibers for handling of objects with rough surfaces (2013 Smart Mater. Struct. 22 095010) (United States)

    Saito, Shigeki; Kikutani, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kunio; Takarada, Wataru; Soda, Fumiaki; Sawai, Kenji; Dhelika, Radon


    The recent papers Saito et al 2013 Smart Mater. Struct. 22 015019 and Dhelika et al 2013 Smart Mater. Struct. 22 095010 described studies of an electrostatic chuck that mimics the structure of gecko-like toes. Earlier work published by the authors and other researchers is cited to further illustrate the origin and motivation of the research.

  20. Experimental human pneumococcal carriage models for vaccine research. (United States)

    Ferreira, Daniela M; Jambo, Kondwani C; Gordon, Stephen B


    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have had unprecedented success in controlling vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease. As serotype replacement and the complexity of designing vaccines to multiple capsular polysaccharides ultimately pose a threat to these vaccines, the development of alternative protein vaccines is important. Protein vaccines offer the promise of extended serotype coverage, reduced cost, and improved protection against otitis media and pneumococcal pneumonia. As placebo-controlled trials are not currently ethically justifiable, human pneumococcal challenge models using prevention of carriage as a test endpoint offer an attractive link between preclinical studies and clinical efficacy trials. Experimental human pneumococcal carriage studies offer a means of describing mechanisms of protection against carriage and a clinical tool to choose between vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Legal liability for failure to prevent pregnancy (wrongful pregnancy). (United States)

    Coetzee, Lodewicus Charl


    Can the conception of a child ever constitute damage recoverable in law? This article considers the liability of healthcare practitioners for failing to prevent a pregnancy. Developments leading to the recognition of wrongful pregnancy as a cause of (legal) action in South Africa (SA), are briefly outlined. The salient points of the relevant judgments by SA courts are set out to expose the rationale underlying the judgments and to highlight that recognition of liability for wrongful pregnancy resulted from an application of fair and equitable principles of general application. Conduct that could expose practitioners to liability is identified from reported cases and inferred from general principles laid down in case law.

  2. Analysis of a Pareto Mixture Distribution for Maritime Surveillance Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham V. Weinberg


    Full Text Available The Pareto distribution has been shown to be an excellent model for X-band high-resolution maritime surveillance radar clutter returns. Given the success of mixture distributions in radar, it is thus of interest to consider the effect of Pareto mixture models. This paper introduces a formulation of a Pareto intensity mixture distribution and investigates coherent multilook radar detector performance using this new clutter model. Clutter parameter estimates are derived from data sets produced by the Defence Science and Technology Organisation's Ingara maritime surveillance radar.

  3. (NUC) Accreditation Exercise on University Administrative Structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the impact of National University Commission (NUC) accreditation exercise on university administrative structure of four selected Nigerian universities between 1995 and 1999. Data were collected through questionnaires administered to 400 staff and 200 students of four Nigerian universities.

  4. (NUC) Accreditation Exercise on University Administrative Structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    in general and incessant strikes. At the core of this tension is the apparent inability of the universities to meet the complex and competing needs of the students, the staff and the society at large. There is therefore the need to examine the impact of NUC. Accreditation Exercise on University Administration, hence this study.

  5. Liability of Defense Contractors for Hazardous Waste Cleanup Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinbeck, Margaret O


    .... While the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) imposes strict, joint, and several liability, the contractor and the Department of Defense (DoD...

  6. Civil Liability for Failure to Train to Standard. (United States)

    Sample, John


    Reviews the legal concept of "failure to train to standard" from the context of law enforcement. Responsibility for training is discussed, case examples and examples of monetary judgments are given, and recommendations for preventing and limiting liability for failure to train to standard are presented. (16 references) (LRW)

  7. Maritime labour convention 2006: implications for seafarers after a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined whether the current legal framework provides sufficient support for seafarers and to assess potential options for reform. In carrying out this study, the primary international legislation which is the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) 2006 was considered and focus was on two jurisdictions, Panama and ...

  8. [Ion-beam irradiated ePTFE for an artificial dura mater]. (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriyoshi; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Iwaki, Masaya; Hori, Tomokatsu


    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) is a stable polymer and widely used as a prosthesis because of its chemical inertness. However, ePTFE as an artificial dura mater is often associated with postoperative leakage of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to its very low adhesiveness to fibrin glue and surrounding tissue. The surfaces of ePTFE were modified by ion-beam irradiation in order to improve tissue adhesiveness. The morphological changes of ePTFE that was irradiated with 150 keV-He+, Net, Ar+ and Kr+ ions applied at a rate of 1 x 10(14), 5 x 10(14) and 1 x 10(15) ions/cm2 were examined with scanning electron microscopy. Next, surrounding tissue reactions to the implanted ePTFE into the rabbit calvarial defects were analyzed at intervals from 1 week up to 1 month. The micromesh structures of the ePTFE were destroyed by ion-beam irradiation, and the depth and width of the gaps increased with heavy particle ion and irradiated fluence. In an implantation study using experimental rabbits, a dura defect was patched with four types of ion-beam irradiated ePTFE with different in irradiation fluence. A CSF leakage was observed in the rabbit covered with non-irradiated ePTFE, but, CSF leakage did not occur in any of the rabbits covered with ion-beam irradiated ePTFE that adhered in a water-tight manner to surrounding tissues. Histological study indicated that fibroblast-like cells had infiltrated and anchored the gaps in the ion-beam irradiated ePTFE. Ar+ or Kr+ with 1 x 10(15) ions/cm2 irradiated ePTFE had the highest adhesiveness and produced the best healing of dura defects.

  9. Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallowfield Joanne L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1, carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1 Placebo (flavoured water [PLA], (2 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086. During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1 recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1 recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091 and 48 h (P = 0.177, respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions.

  10. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse. (United States)

    Lehto, Neil J.


    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  11. Baltic Sea Maritime Spatial Planning for Sustainable Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Schrøder, Anne Lise


    in the marine and maritime sectors with great potential for innovation and economic growth. Holistic spatial planning systems supporting sustainable development have proved themselves in terrestrial planning and are also needed at sea. Due to this reason, the BONUS BASMATI project is based on the ecosystem...... services approach to assist in assessing sustainable solutions corresponding to policy goals....

  12. 29 CFR 4281.18 - Outstanding claims for withdrawal liability. (United States)


    ... INSOLVENCY, REORGANIZATION, TERMINATION, AND OTHER RULES APPLICABLE TO MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS DUTIES OF PLAN... in insolvency proceedings. The plan sponsor shall value an outstanding claim for withdrawal liability... title 11, United States Code, or any case or proceeding under similar provisions of state insolvency...

  13. A Spectrum of Liabilities for Off-Campus Housing (United States)

    Cormier, Mary-Pat


    The focus of this article is liability of higher education institutions for off-campus housing. In the off-campus housing context, the "assumed duty" theory was determinative in a 2006 Delaware Supreme Court case. A student was assaulted by the boyfriend of another student in the parking lot of off-campus housing. The housing was…

  14. 26 CFR 31.3403-1 - Liability for tax. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for tax. 31.3403-1 Section 31.3403-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3111-4 - Liability for employer tax. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for employer tax. 31.3111-4 Section...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers...

  16. Hospital exclusion clauses limiting liability for medical malpractice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2002 the Supreme Court of Appeal ruling in Afrox Healthcare Beperk v. Strydom held that the common law allows hospitals to exclude liability for medical malpractice resulting in death or physical or psychological injury – except in the case of gross negligence. The effect of this judgment has now been superseded by the ...

  17. 40 CFR 80.23 - Liability for violations. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability for violations. 80.23 Section 80.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... the corporate, trade, or brand name of a gasoline refiner or any of its marketing subsidiaries appears...

  18. Rule-based expert system for maritime anomaly detection (United States)

    Roy, Jean


    Maritime domain operators/analysts have a mandate to be aware of all that is happening within their areas of responsibility. This mandate derives from the needs to defend sovereignty, protect infrastructures, counter terrorism, detect illegal activities, etc., and it has become more challenging in the past decade, as commercial shipping turned into a potential threat. In particular, a huge portion of the data and information made available to the operators/analysts is mundane, from maritime platforms going about normal, legitimate activities, and it is very challenging for them to detect and identify the non-mundane. To achieve such anomaly detection, they must establish numerous relevant situational facts from a variety of sensor data streams. Unfortunately, many of the facts of interest just cannot be observed; the operators/analysts thus use their knowledge of the maritime domain and their reasoning faculties to infer these facts. As they are often overwhelmed by the large amount of data and information, automated reasoning tools could be used to support them by inferring the necessary facts, ultimately providing indications and warning on a small number of anomalous events worthy of their attention. Along this line of thought, this paper describes a proof-of-concept prototype of a rule-based expert system implementing automated rule-based reasoning in support of maritime anomaly detection.

  19. Dura mater mitral and tricuspid bioprostheses: 30 years of follow-up Bioprótese de dura mater mitral e tricúspide: 30 anos de acompanhamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Boro Puig


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The dura mater bioprosthesis was developed in the Department of Cardiopneumology of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School in 1971. Here, we present the clinical results of the dura mater bioprosthesis over 30 years of follow-up. METHODS: We studied 70 consecutive patients who underwent mitral or tricuspid valve replacement with a dura mater bioprosthesis between January 1971 and August 1972. RESULTS: The early mortality was 10% (7 patients. The follow-up was 87% complete (9 patients were lost to follow-up. Two patients were alive and asymptomatic 30 years after valve replacement; 33 patients underwent reoperations due to valve dysfunction, and 19 died during the follow-up period. At 30 years, the actuarial survival was 49.2 ± 8.6%; freedom from rupture, 27.0 ± 10.2%; freedom from calcification, 78.8 ± 8.6%; and freedom from reoperation, 18.8 ± 7.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The dura mater bioprosthesis played an important role in the treatment of patients with mitral and tricuspid valve disease. The low rate of thromboembolism and the long period of follow-up without evidence of valve dysfunction, which occurred for several of our patients, are important characteristics of these bioprosthesis.A bioprótese de dura-mater foi desenvolvida no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo em 1971. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados clínicos com 30 anos de seguimento. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 70 pacientes consecutivos com bioprótese mitral ou tricúspide, operados de janeiro de 1971 a agosto de 1972. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade imediata foi 10% (7 pacientes. Dois pacientes evoluem bem com a bioprótese de dura-máter, 9 não tem seguimento atualizado, 33 apresentaram disfunção da bioprotese e foram reoperados e 19 faleceram durante a evolução tardia. A curva atuarial de sobrevida foi de 49,2 ± 8,6%, livre de rotura, 27,0 ± 10,2%, livre de calcificação, 78,8 ± 8,6% e

  20. ConvNet-Based Localization of Anatomical Structures in 3-D Medical Images. (United States)

    de Vos, Bob D; Wolterink, Jelmer M; de Jong, Pim A; Leiner, Tim; Viergever, Max A; Isgum, Ivana


    Localization of anatomical structures is a prerequisite for many tasks in a medical image analysis. We propose a method for automatic localization of one or more anatomical structures in 3-D medical images through detection of their presence in 2-D image slices using a convolutional neural network (ConvNet). A single ConvNet is trained to detect the presence of the anatomical structure of interest in axial, coronal, and sagittal slices extracted from a 3-D image. To allow the ConvNet to analyze slices of different sizes, spatial pyramid pooling is applied. After detection, 3-D bounding boxes are created by combining the output of the ConvNet in all slices. In the experiments, 200 chest CT, 100 cardiac CT angiography (CTA), and 100 abdomen CT scans were used. The heart, ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta were localized in chest CT scans, the left cardiac ventricle in cardiac CTA scans, and the liver in abdomen CT scans. Localization was evaluated using the distances between automatically and manually defined reference bounding box centroids and walls. The best results were achieved in the localization of structures with clearly defined boundaries (e.g., aortic arch) and the worst when the structure boundary was not clearly visible (e.g., liver). The method was more robust and accurate in localization multiple structures.

  1. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage as an ecosystem service for Brussels, Belgium: investigating iron (hydr)oxide precipitation with reactive transport modeling (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Possemiers, Mathias; Huysmans, Marijke


    In an evolving energy system it is important that urbanized areas contribute to their own energy demands. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions sustainable energy systems with a high efficiency are required, e.g. using urban aquifers as an ecosystem service. Here the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery (ATES) for the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium is investigated. An important shallow geologic formation in the Brussels Capital Region is the Brussels Sand formation, a 20-60 m thick phreatic aquifer. The Brussels Sand Formation is known for its potential for ATES systems, but also for its varying redox and hydraulic conditions. Important limiting factors for ATES systems in the Brussels Sand Formation therefore are the hydraulic conductivity and the geochemical composition of the groundwater. Near the redox boundary iron hydroxide precipitation can negatively influence ATES well performance due to clogging. The interactions between physical processes (e.g. particle transport and clogging in the wider proximity of the ATES well) and chemical processes (e.g. influence of the operation temperatures on precipitation processes) during ATES operation are complex but not well understood. Therefore we constructed numerical groundwater flow models in MODFLOW to estimate maximum pumping and injection rates of different hydraulic conditions and competing water uses in the Brussels Sand Formation. In further steps the thermal potential for ATES was quantified using MT3DMS and the reactive transport model PHT3D was applied to assess the effects of operating ATES systems near the redox boundary. Results show that initial mixing plays an important role in the development of iron(hydr)oxide precipitation around the ATES wells, with the highest concentrations around the cold wells. This behavior is enhanced by the temperature effect; temperature differences of ΔT≈10°C already influence the iron (hydr)oxide concentration. The initial injection into the

  2. AIS Data Visualization for Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP)


    Fiorini, Michele; Capata, Andrea; Bloisi, Domenico D.


    The constant increase in marine traffic and the simultaneous growth of the demand for exploiting marine areas (e.g., installing offshore wind power plants) require an adequate planning strategy for managing high traffic volumes. Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) is the process of public development of an allocation plan for distributing, both spatially and temporally, human activities in marine areas. The adoption of e-Navigation is a possible solution for improving safety and security at sea b...

  3. Epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in children in Hungary. (United States)

    Laub, Krisztina; Tóthpál, Adrienn; Kardos, Szilvia; Dobay, Orsolya


    The aim of this study was to assess the Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage rate in healthy children all over Hungary and to specify some risk factors, the antibiotic resistance patterns of the bacteria, and their genetic relatedness. In total, 878 children (aged 3-6 years) were screened at 21 day-care centers in 16 different cities in Hungary, between February 2009 and December 2011. Samples taken from both nostrils were cultured on blood agar, and suspected S. aureus isolates were identified by β-hemolysis, catalase positivity, clump test, and nucA PCR. Methicillin-resistant strains were screened by mecA and mecC PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by agar dilution or gradient test strips. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for genotyping. S. aureus carriage rate was found to be 21.3%, which correlates well with international data. We found no statistically significant correlation between the gender or the sibling status and S. aureus carriage. All isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and mupirocin. The resistance rates for erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were 7.5%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 3.7%, and 4.3%, respectively. The isolates showed very high genetic diversity. In summary, carried S. aureus isolates are more sensitive to antibiotics compared with clinical isolates in Hungary, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage rate is very low yet.

  4. Mass Processing of Sentinel-1 Images for Maritime Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Santamaria


    Full Text Available The free, full and open data policy of the EU’s Copernicus programme has vastly increased the amount of remotely sensed data available to both operational and research activities. However, this huge amount of data calls for new ways of accessing and processing such “big data”. This paper focuses on the use of Copernicus’s Sentinel-1 radar satellite for maritime surveillance. It presents a study in which ship positions have been automatically extracted from more than 11,500 Sentinel-1A images collected over the Mediterranean Sea, and compared with ship position reports from the Automatic Identification System (AIS. These images account for almost all the Sentinel-1A acquisitions taken over the area during the two-year period from the start of the operational phase in October 2014 until September 2016. A number of tools and platforms developed at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC that have been used in the study are described in the paper. They are: (1 Search for Unidentified Maritime Objects (SUMO, a tool for ship detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images; (2 the JRC Earth Observation Data and Processing Platform (JEODPP, a platform for efficient storage and processing of large amounts of satellite images; and (3 Blue Hub, a maritime surveillance GIS and data fusion platform. The paper presents the methodology and results of the study, giving insights into the new maritime surveillance knowledge that can be gained by analysing such a large dataset, and the lessons learnt in terms of handling and processing the big dataset.

  5. Basic Study on Term of Warranty Liability for Miscellaneous Work (United States)

    Park, Junmo; Seo, Deokseok


    In Korea, defect lawsuits for apartment buildings, the most common housing style, are becoming a social issue. Among various issues in defect lawsuits, warranty of liability is very important. This is because the business entities are responsible for assuring the maintenance of the defects during this period, and at the same time, the residents can request fair compensation for the defects. However, provisions on the term of warranty of liability provided in the current Housing Act were made 40 years ago when the social basis were weak. Thus, it does not have any rational foundation. In order to improve these problems, basic research on the warranty of liability by major types of apartments is needed. In this study, the defect cases for miscellaneous works of apartments were examined and analyzed. Miscellaneous work consists of ondol work, kitchenware work, indoor and outdoor equipment work, and metallic work. Among them, kitchenware work and metallic work showed a lot of defects. On the other hand, warranty of liability covers up to 10 years in total. The defect occurrence for the entire miscellaneous work showed a tendency to concentrate in the first and the second year. It is the third year that the total defects reach 95%, and the fourth year that exceeds 99%. The ondol work, indoor and outdoor equipment work and metallic work had this tendency. On the other hand, for kitchenware work, it is the third year that the defect occurrence reaches 99%, and it implies that the defect tends to occur more quickly than in other detailed works.

  6. A Design for Maintaining Maritime Superiority, Version 1.0 (United States)


    global force is the traffic on the oceans , seas, and waterways, including the sea floor – the classic maritime system. For millennia, the seas thinking. Looking forward, it is clear that the challenges the Navy faces are shifting in character, are increasingly difficult to address in...U.S. Combat at sea must address “ blue -water” scenarios far from land and power projection ashore in a highly “informationalized” and contested

  7. An easy method for detection of nasopharyngeal carriage of multiple Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Margit S.; Sørensen, Uffe; Slotved, Hans-Christian


    In this paper, a simplified method for detection of pneumococcal carriage and for revealing the presence of several serotypes in a nasopharyngeal sample is evaluated. Enrichment broth was used for transportation and for the initial culturing of samples. All specimens were examined directly by the...

  8. Activation of central nesfatin-1/NucB2 after intraperitoneally administered cisplatin in rats. (United States)

    Akiyama, Yasuki; Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Nishimura, Kazuaki; Nishimura, Haruki; Sonoda, Satomi; Ueno, Hiromichi; Mitojima, Yasuhito; Saito, Reiko; Maruyama, Takashi; Nonaka, Yuki; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Uezono, Yasuhito; Hirata, Keiji; Ueta, Yoichi


    Cisplatin, known as an anticancer drug, has been widely used; however, diverse disadvantageous side effects, including appetite loss, afflict patients. Nesfatin-1/NucB2, discovered as an anorexic neuropeptide, is broadly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral organ. In the present study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered cisplatin on central nesfatin-1/NucB2. Saline, as control, or cisplatin (6 mg/kg dissolved in saline) was i.p. administered in adult male Wistar rats (180-220 g). Cumulative food intake was remarkably suppressed for at least 24 h and body weight was significantly smaller at 24 h after i.p. administration of cisplatin compared to control group. At 90 min after i.p. administration, they were perfused, followed by carrying out double-immunohistochemistry for Fos and nesfatin-1/NucB2. The percentage of nesfatin-1/NucB2 immunoreactive neurons expressing Fos was marked increased in the hypothalamus and brainstem after i.p. administration of cisplatin. Intracerebroventricularlly administered nesfatin-1/NucB2-antisense resulted in a significant attenuation of decreased food intake for 2 h after i.p. administration of cisplatin compared to nesfatin-1/NucB2-missense treated group. These results suggest that i.p. administration of cisplatin activated, at least in part, nesfatin-1/NucB2 neuron in the CNS and may exert anorexigenic effects in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates. (United States)


    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.118 Contracts for carriage..., railway line or oil or gas pipeline where published tariff rates are in effect”. In order for this... is actually governed by published tariff rates in effect pursuant to State or Federal law for such...

  10. In-Network Processing on Low-Cost IOT Nodes for Maritime Surveillance (United States)



  11. Prospective evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of dried blood spots from finger prick samples for determination of HIV-1 load with the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 version 2.0 assay in Malawi. (United States)

    Fajardo, Emmanuel; Metcalf, Carol A; Chaillet, Pascale; Aleixo, Lucia; Pannus, Pieter; Panunzi, Isabella; Triviño, Laura; Ellman, Tom; Likaka, Andrew; Mwenda, Reuben


    HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing is not widely available in resource-limited settings. The use of finger prick dried blood spot (FP-DBS) samples could remove barriers related to sample collection and transport. Measurement of VL using DBS from EDTA venous blood (VB-DBS) in place of plasma has previously been validated using the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 v2.0 assay, but information on the accuracy of FP-DBS samples for measuring VL is limited. This prospective study, conducted at Thyolo District Hospital in southern Malawi, compared VL levels measured on FP-DBS samples and plasma using the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 v2.0 assay. Comparability was assessed by means of agreement and correlation (131 patients with VLs of ≥100 copies/ml), sensitivity, and specificity (612 patients on antiretroviral treatment [ART]). Samples of EDTA venous blood and FP-DBS from 1,009 HIV-infected individuals were collected and prepared in the laboratory. Bland-Altman analysis found good agreement between plasma and FP-DBS VL levels, with a mean difference of -0.35 log10, and 95% limits of agreement from -1.26 to 0.55 log10. FP-DBS had a sensitivity of 88.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.1 to 94.4%) and a specificity of 97.8% (95% CI, 96.1 to 98.9%) using a 1,000-copies/ml cut point and a sensitivity of 83.0% (95% CI, 73.4 to 90.1%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99.3 to 100%) using a 5,000-copies/ml cut point. This study shows that FP-DBS is an acceptable alternative to plasma for measuring VL using the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 v2.0. We are conducting a second study to assess the proficiency of health workers at preparing FP-DBS in primary health care clinics.

  12. A Novel Concept for Monitoring of Maritime Traffic by Micro-Satellites


    Narheim, B.T.; ERIKSEN T.; Høye, G.K.; Wahl, T.


    A concept for monitoring of maritime traffic by micro-satellites has been studied at FFI [1]. The concept is based on localization of maritime vessels by passive detection of their X-band navigation radar (3 cm wavelength), and subsequent direction finding and determination of the geographic position. A Phase-A study [3] on the utilization of this concept, for monitoring of the maritime traffic in ocean areas under Norwegian jurisdiction has demonstrated the feasibility of the concept. Locali...

  13. CSIR Annual report 1971

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)



    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty seventh annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1971, to the 31st December 1971. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  14. Littoral and Coastal Management in Supporting Maritime Security for Realizing Indonesia as World Maritime Axis (United States)

    Brotosusilo, Agus; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.; Agung Satria, Afrizal; Jokopitoyo, Trisasono


    The Indonesian under President Joko Widodo has new goal to make Indonesia as the world maritime axis. This is supported by the geographic of Indonesia as the largest archipelagic country where the sea is two-thirds wide among the whole spacious. Indonesia is the world largest archipelagic state. More than two-third of its territory consist of seas. The ecosystem of littoral and coastal has correlative relationship with country development. There is no doubt of physically facts that Indonesian littoral and coastal with total wide of 5.8 million km2 is rich with various natural resources. Therefore, the condition of Indonesia with its world second longest coastline has several comparative advantages. Not only the country has an abundant natural resources, but it also blessed by demographic bonus advantage. The population of Indonesian is the fifth largest in the world which approximately 220 million people and approximately 60 percent among them live at coastal areas. The people in coastal area relies their live from its surrounding natural resource. Hence, most of their life and daily activity is related with the presence of natural resources. The dealing of conflict potential and attention to maritime security are important to be studied as a reference in preparing and facing the government policies that will lead to the development of maritime.

  15. Comparison of the performance of the NucliSENS EasyQ HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay and HPV DNA chip for testing squamous cell lesions of the uterine cervix. (United States)

    Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Choi, Yeonim; Lee, Dongsup; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Geehyuk; Park, Sangjung; Choi, Eunhee; Jin, Hyunwoo; Jeon, Bo-Young; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Kwang Hwa


    This study aims to evaluate the clinical performance of the NucliSENS EasyQ assay and compare it with HPV DNA genotyping for the detection of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and cancer in a Korean population. In 188 total thin prep samples, the remaining fluid after cytology slide preparation was tested with Goodgene HPV DNA chips and the NucliSENS EasyQ HPV E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) assay. The sensitivity and specificity of each test were calculated with HSIL and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as the disease endpoint. Out of the 188 samples, 139 (74%) were positive for DNA of 14 HPV types, while 57 (30%) cases were positive for E6/E7 mRNA. The DNA test was positive in cytology cases of SCC, HSIL, and atypical squamous cell. The mRNA test yielded results of 75%, 74%, 60%, 56%, and 29% positivity in abnormal cytology cases of SCC, HSIL, atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude HSIL, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, respectively. In normal cytology cases, the positivity rates were 9% and 53% for the mRNA and DNA tests, respectively. For detection of HSIL and SCC, the sensitivity of the mRNA test was 74.36% and that of the DNA test was 100%, while the specificities of the tests were 85% and 40.83%, respectively. These findings suggest that the HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay can overcome the shortcoming of low specificity of DNA assays for clinical detection of high-grade cervical lesions and malignancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.



    Stefania-Alina DUMITRACHE


    According to article 253 and 254 of Labor Code, both employers and employees are responsible under the rules and principles of contractual liability for damages to the other party of legal labor relationship and we emphasize that this is not purely civil liability, but a variety of it, determined by the specific peculiarities of legal labor relations. Thus, we highlight that labor law provisions which refer to liability for damages complement, unquestionably, with the common law relating to c...

  17. Criminal liability for spreading sexually transmitted infections. (United States)

    Griffith, Richard


    Last month's article considered capacity to consent to sexual activity. This month's article reviews the case of a man from Nottingham who was jailed for 7 years for infecting two former lovers with HIV and considers whether those who act recklessly put others at risk of infection during sexual activity should be held criminally liable and prosecuted for their actions.

  18. Environments for online maritime simulators with cloud computing capabilities (United States)

    Raicu, Gabriel; Raicu, Alexandra


    This paper presents the cloud computing environments, network principles and methods for graphical development in realistic naval simulation, naval robotics and virtual interactions. The aim of this approach is to achieve a good simulation quality in large networked environments using open source solutions designed for educational purposes. Realistic rendering of maritime environments requires near real-time frameworks with enhanced computing capabilities during distance interactions. E-Navigation concepts coupled with the last achievements in virtual and augmented reality will enhance the overall experience leading to new developments and innovations. We have to deal with a multiprocessing situation using advanced technologies and distributed applications using remote ship scenario and automation of ship operations.

  19. Legal Liability: When Is the Union Responsible? (United States)

    Barr, Margaret J.


    Issues concerning legal liability for college student unions are examined, and guidelines are presented to reduce the risk of liability claims exposure for both the individual and the institution. General information is provided on: tort liability, civil rights liability, criminal liability, and contractual liability. In determining the potential…

  20. Employers' Liability for Employees' Personal Injuries


    Štaňková, Helena


    Employer's lability for damages of an employee's health The purpose of my thesis is to analyze contemporary legal regulation of employer's lability for damages of employee's health with its former regulation in the labor code from 1965 and its future regulation in the code 266/2006 Sb. The thesis is composed of eleven chapters. Chapter one is introductory and characterises the basic sources of law in this sphere. The chapter is subdivided into three parts - International agreements, European ...

  1. Securitization product design for China's environmental pollution liability insurance. (United States)

    Pu, Chengyi; Addai, Bismark; Pan, Xiaojun; Bo, Pangtuo


    The environmental catastrophic accidents in China over the last three decades have triggered implementation of myriad policies by the government to help abate environmental pollution in the country. Consequently, research into environmental pollution liability insurance and how that can stimulate economic growth and the development of financial market in China is worthwhile. This study attempts to design a financial derivative for China's environmental pollution liability insurance to offer strong financial support for significant compensation towards potential catastrophic environmental loss exposures, especially losses from the chemical industry. Assuming the risk-free interest rate is 4%, the market portfolio expected return is 12%; the financial asset beta coefficient is 0.5, by using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and cash flow analysis; the principal risk bond yields 9.4%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; the principal partial-risk bond yields 10.09%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; and the principal risk-free bond yields 8.94%, single-period and two-period prices are 107.99 and 115.83, respectively. This loss exposure transfer framework transfers the catastrophic risks of environmental pollution from the traditional insurance and reinsurance markets to the capital market. This strengthens the underwriting capacity of environmental pollution liability insurance companies, mitigates the compensation risks of insurers and reinsurers, and provides a new channel to transfer the risks of environmental pollution.

  2. Criminal Liability for Multiple Medical Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathi Shahta Ebrahim


    Full Text Available Medical errors that result in the harm or death of patients are still a major problem in health sectors all over the world. Identifying the cause of a medical error can be a difficult task because a large number of medical procedures involve the intervention of a number of medical experts. Consequently, it can also be difficult to identify the individual responsible for a medical error. In addition to this, further complications arise when there are a number of medical errors made by numerous individuals that result in the harm or death of a patient. Taking this into account, laws, regulations, and judicial procedures must be effective enough to overcome the complexity of these cases and ensure that those responsible for medical errors are correctly identified and appropriately judged. This paper presents two topics: The first is a discussion of general laws related to cases involving multiple medical errors, and the second is an examination of the applications of these laws in cases involving multiple medical errors from Saudi and Egyptian law. This study found that when multiple medical errors made by a number of individuals contribute to the harm or death of a patient, then it is a legal obligation to hold each of those individuals responsible for the resulting harm or death caused.

  3. Fault Analysis for Protection Purposes in Maritime Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede


    The method of symmetrical components simplifies analysis of a three-phase network and provides information regarding the existance of a fault in the system. This concept is applied to a radial power system in the maritime sector. A fault analysis is performed for the main types of faults, applied...... in different locations of the network. The fault current is measured using the curent transformers that are already present in the system as part of a time-inverse overcurrent protection. Simulation results show that the symmetrical components of the currents seen by these current transformers can be used...

  4. Ethylene oxide sterilization of bone, dura mater, and fascia lata for human transplantation. (United States)

    Prolo, D J; Pedrotti, P W; White, D H


    The use of allogeneic human bone, dura, and fascia has achieved an enduring and accelerating role in the augmentation of spinal fusions and the repair of skeletal and dural defects. Primary sterilization of these nonviable cadaveric tissues magnifies the potential sources and ensures the microbiological sterility of the implant. Subsequent lyophilization facilitates preservation and distribution and reduces the immunogenicity of the graft. The evaluation of gaseous ethylene oxide (EO) as a sterilant was suggested by the delerious effects of alternative methods. Through a series of experiments, the following properties of EO sterilization were studied: (a) surface and interstitial sterilization; (b) the diffusion of EO into tissue, the formation of the reaction products ethylene chlorohydrin (EC) and ethylene glycol (EG), and the desorption of all three from tissues; (c) lyophilization and aeration in the removal of residues; and (d) minimization of residues through pretreatment. Gaseous EO is a very effective surface sterilant of wet bone, dura, and fascia and does not grossly alter these tissues. Its partial penetration through compact bone renders it less reliable for an interstitial antimicrobial effect, unless access to the interior is provided by serial openings. The toxicity of EO, EC, and EG mandates the desorption through lyophilization of these compounds (EC and EG are formed during sterilization with EO). Before sterilization, bone must be rid of marrow by vigorous irrigation with deionized water. The resultant reduction of the number of cells and of the available chloride decreases antigenicity and the formation of EC. Freeze-drying for more than 72 hours, in some cases augmented by prolonged aeration at room temperature, reduces EO, EC, and EG to acceptable levels. The accurate assay of residues in tissue requires acetone extraction for gas chromatography on rehydrated tissues because extraction of dry tissues gives falsely low results. Rigorous

  5. Regulating regulators through liability
    The case for applying normal tort rules to supervisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Giesen


    Full Text Available This article claims that liability of supervisors, given the arguments in favour and against liability, should be treated as a regular form of civil law liability (either in tort or contract. The rules regarding the existence and content of the duty of care are well equipped to deal with that topic fairly and justly, thus preventing undesirable or unreasonable outcomes. There is no sufficiently compelling reason to deviate from these generally applied rules or to accept immunity for supervisors. The system of tort law is well capable of avoiding the award of too much compensation too fast, as the conditions for liability are not easily fulfilled.

  6. [Perspectives in medical liability]. (United States)

    Pizarro W, Carlos


    The progressive increase of medical negligence law suits requires an updated analysis of the current situation of medical liability in Chile. The application of a new criminal procedure will avoid criminal prosecution of doctors, transferring to the civil courts the pecuniary sanctions for malpractice. Medical negligence and damage inflicted by doctors that require compensation are explained. The most likely evolution of medical liability is proposed, through an increase in civil liability insurance and the necessary standardization of rules applicable to professional liability.

  7. A Mathematical Model for the Removal of Organic Mater in Stabilization Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Medri


    Full Text Available This work presents an application to systemize the construction of ponds systems for treatment of domestic sewage. It consisted of two anaerobic ponds operated in parallel during May/97 to April/99. These were connected in series with a chicaned facultative pond. The treatment system was controlled with samples collected from the crude sewage (compound sample, in the affluents and effluents of the ponds and along the flux of the anaerobic and facultative ponds. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Solids, Sedimentable Solids, Total Coliforms, Oxygen Consumed in Acid Medium (OCAM and temperature.Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação para sistematizar a construção de sistemas de lagoas para tratamento de esgoto doméstico. O sistema consiste de duas lagoas anaeróbias operando em paralelo durante o período de maio/97 até abril/99. Estas lagoas eram conectadas em série com uma lagoa facultativa chicaneada. O sistema de tratamento foi monitorado com amostra coletadas no esgoto bruto (amostra composta, nos afluentes e efluentes das lagoas e ao longo dos fluxos das lagoas anaeróbia e facultativa. Os seguintes parâmetros foram analisados: pH, Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio (DBO, Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, Sólidos Totais (ST, Sólidos Sedimentáveis (SS, Coliformes Totais (CT, Oxigênio Consumido em Meio Ácido (OCMA e Temperatura.

  8. Use of Earth observation for monitoring soil sealing trends in Flanders and Brussels between 1976 and 2013


    Vanderhaegen, Sven; Canters, Frank


    The on-going growth of urban area in Flanders and in the Brussels Capital Region over the past decades has resulted in a highly sprawled urban tissue, consisting of large and smaller urban agglomerations, connected by a well-developed transportation network. The conversion of open land to urban area is accompanied by an increase in soil sealing, affecting the hydrological cycle and the urban climate. Despite a growing interest in monitoring the process of soil sealing in urban areas, to date ...

  9. AIS Data Visualization for Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fiorini


    Full Text Available The constant increase in marine traffic and the simultaneous growth of the demand for exploiting marine areas (e.g., installing offshore wind power plants require an adequate planning strategy for managing high traffic volumes. Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP is the process of public development of an allocation plan for distributing, both spatially and temporally, human activities in marine areas. The adoption of e-Navigation is a possible solution for improving safety and security at sea by integrating maritime information on board and ashore. Automatic Identification System (AIS data represents a fundamental source of information, since the analysis of AIS data can highlight the presence of congested areas as well as of illegal actions, such as smuggling, pollution, and unauthorized phishing in protected areas. Indeed, those activities are often characterized by abnormal manoeuvres that can be recognized by analyzing the routes of the vessels. However, the huge dimension of the AIS data to process requires the adoption of careful strategies for the data visualization. In this paper, we present a complete pipeline for visualizing ship routes from raw AIS data, which is a fundamental pre-requisite for carrying out a significant AIS-based route analysis, and describe a real case study, where 90 million AIS records, corresponding to one month of world-wide observations, are visualized using only open-source software.

  10. Persistent maritime traffic monitoring for the Canadian Arctic (United States)

    Ulmke, M.; Battistello, G.; Biermann, J.; Mohrdieck, C.; Pelot, R.; Koch, W.


    This paper presents results of the Canadian-German research project PASSAGES (Protection and Advanced Surveillance System for the Arctic: Green, Efficient, Secure)1 on an advanced surveillance system for safety and security of maritime operations in Arctic areas. The motivation for a surveillance system of the Northwest Passage is the projected growth of maritime traffic along Arctic sea routes and the need for securing Canada's sovereignty by controlling its arctic waters as well as for protecting the safety of international shipping and the intactness of the arctic marine environment. To ensure border security and to detect and prevent illegal activities it is necessary to develop a system for surveillance and reconnaissance that brings together all related means, assets, organizations, processes and structures to build one homogeneous and integrated system. The harsh arctic conditions require a new surveillance concept that fuses heterogeneous sensor data, contextual information, and available pre-processed surveillance data and combines all components to efficiently extract and provide the maximum available amount of information. The fusion of all these heterogeneous data and information will provide improved and comprehensive situation awareness for risk assessment and decision support of different stakeholder groups as governmental authorities, commercial users and Northern communities.

  11. Variable performance of models for predicting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in European surgical wards. (United States)

    Lee, Andie S; Pan, Angelo; Harbarth, Stephan; Patroni, Andrea; Chalfine, Annie; Daikos, George L; Garilli, Silvia; Martínez, José Antonio; Cooper, Ben S


    Predictive models to identify unknown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage on admission may optimise targeted MRSA screening and efficient use of resources. However, common approaches to model selection can result in overconfident estimates and poor predictive performance. We aimed to compare the performance of various models to predict previously unknown MRSA carriage on admission to surgical wards. The study analysed data collected during a prospective cohort study which enrolled consecutive adult patients admitted to 13 surgical wards in 4 European hospitals. The participating hospitals were located in Athens (Greece), Barcelona (Spain), Cremona (Italy) and Paris (France). Universal admission MRSA screening was performed in the surgical wards. Data regarding demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for MRSA carriage were prospectively collected during the study period. Four logistic regression models were used to predict probabilities of unknown MRSA carriage using risk factor data: "Stepwise" (variables selected by backward elimination); "Best BMA" (model with highest posterior probability using Bayesian model averaging which accounts for uncertainty in model choice); "BMA" (average of all models selected with BMA); and "Simple" (model including variables selected >50% of the time by both Stepwise and BMA approaches applied to repeated random sub-samples of 50% of the data). To assess model performance, cross-validation against data not used for model fitting was conducted and net reclassification improvement (NRI) was calculated. Of 2,901 patients enrolled, 111 (3.8%) were newly identified MRSA carriers. Recent hospitalisation and presence of a wound/ulcer were significantly associated with MRSA carriage in all models. While all models demonstrated limited predictive ability (mean c-statistics MRSA-positive individuals despite screening fewer patients than the Stepwise model. Moreover, the Simple model improved

  12. Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.

  13. Model-based assessment of the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery as a groundwater ecosystem service for the Brussels-Capital Region (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke


    Urban areas are characterized by their concentrated demand of energy, applying a high pressure on urban ecosystems including atmosphere, soils and groundwater. In the light of global warming, urbanization and an evolving energy system, it is important to know how urbanized areas can contribute to their own energy demands. One option is to use the possibilities aquifers offer as an ecosystem service (BONTE et al., 2011). If used effectively an improvement in air and groundwater quality is achieved. Additionally, the more efficient distribution of the used energy may also lead to a decrease in primary energy consumption (ZUURBIER, 2013). Therefore, investigations of the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery (ATES) for the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium is being conducted. The potential of ATES systems are of special interest for energy demands in high density urban areas because of such infrastructure as office buildings, schools, hospitals and shopping malls. In an open water circuit ATES systems consist of two or more groundwater wells, where in seasonal cycles one subtracts and the other recharges water to the aquifer. Heat pumps use the heat capacity of water for heating or cooling a building. An important limitation of the methodology is the quality of the groundwater used (i.e. precipitation of Fe- or Mn-oxides can decrease the yield). However, ATES systems on the other hand can also improve groundwater quality and groundwater ecosystems. The current knowledge of the potential for ATES systems in the Brussels-Capital Region is based on geological assessments from VITO (2007). The Brussels-Capital Region is divided into a western and eastern section with respect to geology. While the western part has less favorable conditions for ATES, the eastern is composed of the Brussels Sand formation, which is a 20-40 m thick aquifer layer that has the highest potential for ATES systems in the region. By applying groundwater flow and heat

  14. A framework for studying the importance of open innovation in the maritime industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    The industry leaders require from maritime organizations to open up their innovation processes. The question is if the industry is ready for that? In this paper we theorize about that possibility and develop a framework for studying the importance and relevance of open innovation for the maritime...

  15. Coastal Planning for Sustainable Maritime Management (United States)

    Hakim, F.; Santoso, E. B.; Supriharjo, R.


    The Kendari Bay has a unique asset as a tourist attraction for the residents of the city of Kendari. The coastal area with all its potential like as a green open space, mangrove forests, the play area, is still a main destination to attract visitors. The function of Kendari Bay area as a tourist attraction makes this area as a place that has potential as a center of the economic vibrant and social interaction. Unfortunately, the arrangement of the area has not been done so that the integrated development of the region is not optimal. Therefore, it is important to promote a concept of area development as a tourist destination of coastal areas in order to improve function of the area. The concept of the coastal development area of Kendari Bay as tourist areas is formulated by the development criteria that influence to capable of attracting tourists. The criteria is formulated by the factors that play a role in the development of tourist areas, further exploration by qualitative descriptive analysis based on the information respondents. Fixation of the results of the criteria development was done with descriptive analysis assessed based on theoretically references through literature and regulations regarding the criteria for the development of tourism. To formulating the concept of tourism development used qualitative descriptive analysis technique with validation using triangulation techniques. The concept of tourism development based on the potential of the region is divided into three zones, namely area development of the core zone, direct supporting zone and indirect supporting zone. The macro spatial concept is necessary for the development of the area through the improvement of accessibility to tourist attraction, while the micro spatial concept includes improvements and additions to the activity in each zone to provide the convenience facilities for the tourists.

  16. Maritime Support for Ocean-Resources Development. (United States)


    of California in 1969 and the IXTOC blowout in the Campeche field off Mexico in 1979. The facts of ocean pollution taken as a whole appear to show...protracted delays in the Georges Bank lease sales generated further pessimism, the sale when it was finally held on December 18, 1979, generated larger...exploration activities and the fact that any international treaty will probably incorporate provisions for a " banking " system (i.e., contractor explores two

  17. The Company Director’s Liability for Untrue Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstov Leonid


    Full Text Available In the modern information society the success or failure of a person participating in activities related to legal issues depends increasingly more on the relevance and correctness of available information and this is why higher demands are put on giving out information. In the context of company law it is evident that although the company is always liable for the information issued, in reality it is not the legal person giving out information, but its legal representative (the director instead. Therefore, it would be reasonable to ask whether the director could simply hide behind the company; or, should the director also be held personally liable for disclosing untrue statements? The aim of this article is, on the basis of English, German, Spanish and Estonian law, to analyze if and in which cases a director can be held personally liable for disclosing false information to a third party in the name of a company and what the optimal standard of a directors’ liability for disclosing false information could be. The liability of the company itself is not the current article’s object of the research.

  18. Identifying Societal Preferences for River Restoration in a Densely Populated Urban Environment: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Central Brussels (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y.; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven


    One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost. Our econometric analysis based on mixed logit models revealed that overall public would like to have a more natural river (open and naturalized channel, good water quality, and with rich species diversity), while achieving good water quality was the most preferred attribute. Respondents categorized as male, non-Belgian citizen, or not being a member of an environmental organization constituted an inclination to prefer the status quo. Belgian citizens showed a pronounced preference for good biodiversity, and being a member of an environmental organization could moderate the strong preference for good water quality. This study provided insights into the relative attractiveness of key attributes pertaining to river restoration, in general, and served as a useful input to the ongoing discussion concerning the future plan for the Zenne River in Brussels, specifically. Possible implications also exist for other urban river restorations in the rest of Europe, where the Water Framework Directive has become a major impetus for the expansion of freshwater ecosystem restoration from rural and peri-urban areas to densely populated urban areas. Particularly, the cultural heterogeneity of societal preferences should be tested and accounted for to compare the welfare impacts of river restoration and to facilitate benefit transfer, within and between river basins, in the

  19. 78 FR 9709 - Draft Guidance Regarding Voluntary Inspection of Vessels for Compliance With the Maritime Labour... (United States)


    ... Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for.... vessels for voluntary compliance with the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (Convention), which enters into... on or before March 13, 2013 or reach the Docket Management Facility by that...

  20. Civil liability: characterization of the demand for lawsuits against dentists. (United States)

    Zanin, Alice Aquino; Herrera, Lara Maria; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff


    In light of the fact that dentists may be held civilly liable for their practice, it is important to understand the current situation of lawsuits filed against these professionals by studying current legal decisions and the literature. The objective of this study was to analyze the case law of the Court of Justice of São Paulo, Brazil, relative to the profile of patients and professionals, the most commonly involved specialties, the amounts litigated and the court decisions pertaining to civil liability lawsuits against dentists. In an inductive approach, a single researcher screened and collected civil liability rulings by accessing the Court's website, and following a statistical-descriptive procedure and an indirect observation technique. The most frequently involved specialty was prosthodontics. However, oral and maxillofacial surgery was related to a higher incidence of damages awarded to settle claims and to higher damage amounts. The dentist was found guilty in 44.32% of the cases researched. Pecuniary damages ranged between R$ 485.50 and R$ 12,530.00, and non-pecuniary damages ranged between R$ 2,500.00 and R$ 70,000.00. Most lawsuits were filed by women against male dentists. An increase in the relative number of lawsuits against companies versus individuals was observed.

  1. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be counted...

  2. Liability for Sexual Harassment Involving Students under Federal Civil Rights Law. (United States)

    Beckham, Joseph


    Discusses school district liability for sexual harassment under two provisions of federal law that are typically invoked as alternative bases for liability for sexual harassment: Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and Section 1983 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (78 footnotes) (MLF)

  3. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights. (United States)

    Raday, Frances


    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  4. Educating Maritime Engineers for a Globalised Industry - Bridging the Gap Between Industry and Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam


    In Denmark, the maritime engineering competences requested by the industry have changed in the past one to two decades. The typical naval architects do no longer find themselves working in the ship-building industry but rather in the industry of ship operators, consultancies, class societies, etc....... This means that universities educating maritime engineers need to reflect the changes in the curricula for their maritime engineering students. Topics and issues regarding this matter have recently been addressed in a survey made in the Danish maritime industry. The survey concludes that the demand...... are outlined together with work commenced at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) to update the curricula for DTU’s maritime engineering students. Thus, DTU offers an education reflecting a large share of the recommendations in the curricula....

  5. Comparative Study on Implementing Home Air Conditioning for Passenger Carriages in the Indonesian Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardianto Eko Prasetio


    Full Text Available Passenger comfort is important in railway transport system. The train operator company in Indonesia would like to increase passenger comfort by installing home air conditioning into all existing carriages of the economy train. The air conditioning is expected to give better passenger convince. Therefore, the aims of this research are to know the cooling load and compare characteristic between home Air Conditioning (AC and train AC. The cooling load calculation is analyzed using Cooling Load Temperature Difference (CLTD/Solar Cooling Load (SCL/Cooling Load Factor (CLF method. Comparison between both home air conditioning and train air conditioning are discussed to identify the benefits and drawbacks of each type. The total heat that needs to be removed from a passenger carriage with home AC is 104,334 Btu/h, while the total cooling capacity of home AC is 75,000 Btu/h. The passenger carriages with train AC have cooling capacity 119,100 Btu/h to remove heat 11,5290 Btu/h. The Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER value of most home AC is higher than train AC, installation time of home AC is shorter than train AC, total cost for 20 years period of home AC is more than train AC. There is no guarantee for home AC, so everything that happens to it will become the full responsibility of train operator company. The train AC control system is more effective than the home AC. No fresh air is permitted to circulate within the home AC system hence, the same air is repeatedly processed in the system. Implementing home air conditioning in the existing passenger carriages is worthwhile for short time period in the goal to increase and improve the level of service provided by giving better comfortability to the passenger.

  6. Evaluation of legal liability for technological risks in view of requirements for peaceful coexistence and progress. (United States)

    Zandvoort, Henk


    Legal liability for risk-generating technological activities is evaluated in view of requirements that are necessary for peaceful human coexistence and progress in order to show possibilities for improvement. The requirements imply, given that political decision making about the activities proceeds on the basis of majority rule, that legal liability should be unconditional (absolute, strict) and unlimited (full). We analyze actual liability in international law for various risk-generating technological activities, to conclude that nowhere is the standard of unconditional and unlimited liability fully met. Apart from that there are enormous differences. Although significant international liability legislation is in place for some risk-generating technological activities, legislation is virtually absent for others. We discuss fundamental possibilities and limitations of liability and private insurance to secure credible and ethically sound risk assessment and risk management practices. The limitations stem from problems of establishing a causal link between an activity and a harm; compensating irreparable harm; financial warranty; moral hazard in insurance and in organizations; and discounting future damage to present value. As our requirements call for prior agreement among all who are subjected to the risks of an activity about the settlement of these difficult problems, precautionary ex ante regulation of risk-generating activities may be a more attractive option, either combined with liability stipulations or not. However, if ex ante regulation is not based on the consent of all subjected to the risks, it remains that the basis of liability in the law should be unconditional and unlimited liability. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Surveillance of Australian Hajj pilgrims for carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria: Data from two pilot studies. (United States)

    Azeem, Mohammad Irfan; Tashani, Mohamed; Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Heron, Leon; Pedersen, Kristen; Jeoffreys, Neisha; Kok, Jen; Haworth, Elizabeth; Dwyer, Dominic E; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert


    To estimate the pharyngeal carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) among Australian Hajj pilgrims. In 2014, surveillance was conducted in two phases among Australian Hajj pilgrims: The first phase during Hajj in Mina, and the second phase soon after returning home to Australia. Nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swabs were taken from participants then tested, firstly by nucleic acid testing, and also by standard culture. Of 183 participants recruited in the first phase, 26 (14.2%) tested positive for S. pneumoniae; 4 had received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Only one tested positive for N. meningitidis (W). Of 93 2nd phase samples cultured, 17 (18.3%) grew S. aureus, all methicillin sensitive, 2 (2.2%) grew N. meningitidis (on subculture; one serotype B, one negative), and 1 (1%), from an unvaccinated pilgrim, grew S. pneumoniae. Relatively high carriage of S. pneumoniae and little meningococcal carriage was found. This indicates the importance of a larger study for improved infection surveillance and possible vaccine evaluation.

  8. School District Liability for Federal Civil Rights Violations under Section 1983. (United States)

    Sorenson, Gail Paulus


    Section 1983 of the 1871 Civil Rights Act includes the option of money damages for violations of the Constitution and federal laws. The focus of this paper is on the scope and limit of school district liability. Questions decisions where boards may have avoided liability by intentional ignorance of inaction in the face of supervisory incompetence.…

  9. 17 CFR 232.103 - Liability for transmission errors or omissions in documents filed via EDGAR. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for transmission errors or omissions in documents filed via EDGAR. 232.103 Section 232.103 Commodity and Securities... documents filed via EDGAR. An electronic filer shall not be subject to the liability and anti-fraud...

  10. Welcome to the Jungle: the Liability of Internet Intermediaries for Privacy Violations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, B.


    In Europe, roughly three regimes apply to the liability of Internet intermediaries for privacy violations conducted by users through their network. These are: the e-Commerce Directive, which, under certain conditions, excludes them from liability; the Data Protection Directive, which imposes a

  11. Analysis of recent property price developments and implications for Local Property Tax liabilities and revenue yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Connor Brendan


    Full Text Available The introduction of the Local Property Tax (LPT in 2013 marked a significant reform to tax policy in Ireland. Initial liabilities for LPT were determined by self-assessment into bands of property values as of May 2013, and the first revaluation was initially scheduled for November 2016. Reflecting the significant residential property price growth which has occurred since the initial valuation date, this paper estimates the implications for LPT liabilities of a hypothetical revaluation at May 2015 property prices. Drawing on a range of data sources, the authors use a transition matrix approach to illustrate the likely changes in LPT valuation bands and liabilities for residential properties. Revaluation is estimated to significantly increase tax liabilities for some taxpayers, with properties in higher valuation bands in May 2013 incurring larger increases in liability. The analysis also indicates substantial regional variation in band changes, with the largest band movements mainly occurring in Dublin.

  12. The civil liability for damages of the criminally insane. (United States)

    Melamed, Yuval; Ganot, Nitza; Mester, Roberto; Bleich, Avi


    As a rule, mentally ill patients are held to be responsible for their acts just like everyone else. Notwithstanding, the law in Israel contains special rules which distinguish individuals with mental illness from other people. The instructions laid out in article 34h of the Israeli Penal Law empower the court to release a defendant from criminal responsibility. To do this the following criteria must be met: (a) the defendant was mentally ill, (b) he/she was in a psychotic state at the time he/she performed the felony, (c) his/her mental illness deprived him/her of his/her abilities in at least one of the two following areas: 1] he/she could not understand what he/she was doing, or the forbidden nature of the act; 2] he/she was incapable of preventing him/herself from carrying it out. In the case presented, a mentally ill individual was charged with the murder of his child and with an attempt to murder another child. The court ruled him to be legally insane and therefore non-punishable. He was later sued by the other child's parents for damages on the grounds of the assault tort. The issue in question was how does the fact that the defendant was ruled legally insane while committing the wrong doing affect the legal ruling of the defendant's liability especially regarding the tort of assault? The Magistrate's Court ruled that the Israeli Tort Law did not determine exemption from responsibility for the mentally ill. Liability for damages will be imposed upon an individual whenever the prerequisites to define a tort are met, even if the mental requisite is an outcome of one's mentally ill state. The District Court determined that an individual who intended to inflict harm is guilty of assault, even though the intent was an outcome of his mental state. Lack of volition due to one's inability to refrain from action does not constitute a defense for assault. In this case liability for damages was imposed on the defendant. The Court related to the issue of justice

  13. The regionalization of maritime governance: Towards a polycentric governance system for sustainable shipping in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.


    Driven by the global nature of shipping, maritime governance is characterized by a long history of intergovernmental decision making with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) as central locus of authority. Since the 1980s, maritime governance for the European Union (EU) and its member

  14. The Substantiation of the Principal’s Liability for the Agent’s Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sorin Curpan


    Full Text Available Although the institution of liability was consecrated centuries ago, the principal’s liability for the acts of the agent has been one of the concerns of legislators in every epoch.Even though the disputes in the juridical doctrine and practice continue, it ought to be appreciated that the New Civil Code has tried to regulate as clearly and concisely as possible the characteristic notions and relations of this type of liability which has its origin in article 1373 of the Civil Code. Being the type of liability with the highest applicability in court, the principal’s liability is one of the three cases of indirect tort, answering for their agents’ acts.    

  15. Legal liability and claims for the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimcho Todorov


    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of various aspects of legal liability and claims to hotel management arising in the hotel industry in the context of the legal framework and possible legal consequences for hotels and other types of commercial accommodation establishments. The main reasons for accidents' occurrence in the hotel industry are chronologically traced. Possible claims to the hotel management are also presented in detail. The problem with workplace discrimination, which is considered as unrightfully actions from administration towards hospitably industry personnel and the connected consequences, is discussed. A definition is given of the various forms of discrimination and the obligations of management to provide a healthy work environment without problems for the personnel are stated, as well. Regulative measures and documents are also presented, regarding measures following possible labour law violations. Conclusions and recommendations are formulated and ways to prevent and overcome problems and accidents in various accommodation establishments and the hotel industry as a whole are shown

  16. Timber resource statistics for the Tanana inventory unit, Alaska, 1971-75. (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees


    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented for the 1971-75 timber inventory of the Tanana unit, Alaska. This report summarizes statistics previously published for the four inventory blocks of the unit: Fairbanks, Kantishna, Upper Tanana, and Wood-Salcha. Timberland area is estimated at 2.19 million...

  17. A historical vignette (16). Following in the footsteps of Vesalius around Brussels. (United States)

    Tainmont, J


    Following in the footsteps of Vesalius around Brussels. Every physician is indebted to Vesalius! Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) lived in Brussels for about thirty years in all. First from birth until the age of sixteen years (1514-1530), and later as an adult (1544-1559). These two periods of time in Brussels can be described by walking around some areas of the city.

  18. Knowledge-aided multisensor data fusion for maritime surveillance (United States)

    Battistello, Giulia; Ulmke, Martin; Koch, Wolfgang


    Multi sensor fusion techniques are widely employed in several surveillance applications (e.g., battlefield monitoring, air traffic control, camp protection, etc). The necessity of tracking the elements of a dynamic system usually requires combining information from heterogeneous data sources in order to overcome the limitations of each sensor. The gathered information might be related to the target kinematics (position, velocity), its physical features (shape, size, composition) or intentions (route plan, friend/foe, engaged sensor modes, etc). The combination of such heterogeneous sensor data proved to benefit from the exploitation of context information, i.e., static and dynamic features of the scenario, represented in a Knowledge Base (KB). A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a typical example for a KB that can be exploited for the enhancement of multi sensor data fusion. The present paper describes potential strategies for "knowledge-based" data fusion in the area of Maritime Situational Awareness (MSA). MSA is founded on the data from heterogeneous sources, including radars, Navigation Aids, air- and space-based monitoring services, and recently-conceived passive sensors. Several strategies for optimally fusing two or more of these information data flows have been proposed for MSA applications. Relevant KB information comprises port locations, coastal lines, preferred routes, traffic rules, and potentially a maritime vessel database. We propose mathematical models and techniques to integrate kinematic constraints, e.g., in terms of navigation fields, and different object behaviour into a data fusion approach. For an exemplary sensor suite, we evaluate performance measures in the framework of centralised and decentralised fusion architectures.

  19. Enhanced TCP for maritime communications over satellite network (United States)

    Zong, Liang; Du, Wencai; Bai, Yong


    For maritime communications over satellite network, TCP performance is essential for data transmissions. TCP ADaLR is congestion control algorithm that the sender judgments the relevant window change and measures roundtrip time to control congestion window. It can adapt to the characteristics of the satellite link and improve the performance of TCP than conventional TCP. However, it does not take into account distinction of random packet loss and congestion loss like TCP Veno. In this paper, we propose further enhancement of TCP ADaLR, called TCP ADaLR+, that can distinguish between random packet loss and congestion loss. The improved performance of proposed TCP ADaLR+ is demonstrated by simulations.

  20. The liability threshold model for censored twin data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Klaus K.; Scheike, Thomas; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.


    Family studies provide an important tool for understanding etiology of diseases, with the key aim of discovering evidence of family aggregation and to determine if such aggregation can be attributed to genetic components. Heritability and concordance estimates are routinely calculated in twin...... the disease thus still being at risk. Ignoring this right-censoring can lead to severely biased estimates. The classical liability threshold model can be extended with inverse probability of censoring weighting of complete observations. This leads to a flexible way of modelling twin concordance and obtaining...... consistent estimates of heritability. The method is demonstrated in simulations and applied to data from the population based Danish twin cohort to describe the dependence in prostate cancer occurrence in twins....

  1. Performance limits for maritime Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The performance of an Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. In this report we specifically examine ISAR as applied to maritime targets (e.g. ships). It is often difficult to get your arms around the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall ISAR system. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the seek time.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Hryhorov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of a mathematical model that describes the cable crane «carriage-cargo» system motion, taking into account the carriage movement resistance, the wind strength and the friction forces. The obtained system equations can be used to build the controllability function for the «carriage-cargo» system and determine the cable crane control by minimizing the operation cycle time by cargo oscillation damping.

  3. Feasibility analysis of system dynamics for inland maritime logistics. (United States)


    In the last decades, a number of factors have re-shaped the shipping industry, including the growth of international trade, the emergence of new markets, and the development of multimodal supply chains. This has led maritime transportation system, wh...

  4. NucTools: analysis of chromatin feature occupancy profiles from high-throughput sequencing data. (United States)

    Vainshtein, Yevhen; Rippe, Karsten; Teif, Vladimir B


    Biomedical applications of high-throughput sequencing methods generate a vast amount of data in which numerous chromatin features are mapped along the genome. The results are frequently analysed by creating binary data sets that link the presence/absence of a given feature to specific genomic loci. However, the nucleosome occupancy or chromatin accessibility landscape is essentially continuous. It is currently a challenge in the field to cope with continuous distributions of deep sequencing chromatin readouts and to integrate the different types of discrete chromatin features to reveal linkages between them. Here we introduce the NucTools suite of Perl scripts as well as MATLAB- and R-based visualization programs for a nucleosome-centred downstream analysis of deep sequencing data. NucTools accounts for the continuous distribution of nucleosome occupancy. It allows calculations of nucleosome occupancy profiles averaged over several replicates, comparisons of nucleosome occupancy landscapes between different experimental conditions, and the estimation of the changes of integral chromatin properties such as the nucleosome repeat length. Furthermore, NucTools facilitates the annotation of nucleosome occupancy with other chromatin features like binding of transcription factors or architectural proteins, and epigenetic marks like histone modifications or DNA methylation. The applications of NucTools are demonstrated for the comparison of several datasets for nucleosome occupancy in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The typical workflows of data processing and integrative analysis with NucTools reveal information on the interplay of nucleosome positioning with other features such as for example binding of a transcription factor CTCF, regions with stable and unstable nucleosomes, and domains of large organized chromatin K9me2 modifications (LOCKs). As potential limitations and problems we discuss how inter-replicate variability of

  5. Development of liability syndromes for schizophrenia: where did they come from and where are they going? (United States)

    Stone, William S; Giuliano, Anthony J


    Three decades after Paul Meehl proposed the term "schizotaxia" to describe a conceptual framework for understanding the liability to schizophrenia, Ming Tsuang et al. at Harvard University reformulated the concept as a clinical syndrome with provisional research criteria. The reformulated view relied heavily on more recent data showing that many non-psychotic, un-medicated biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia showed difficulties in cognitive and other clinical functions that resembled those seen in their ill relatives. The reformulation raised questions about both whether and when liability could be assessed validly in the absence of psychosis, and about the extent to which symptoms of liability are reversible. Both questions bear on the larger issue of early intervention in schizophrenia. This article reviews the efforts of Tsuang et al. to conceptualize and validate schizotaxia as one such syndrome of liability. Towards this end, liability is considered first more generally as an outcome of interactive genetic and environmental factors. Liability is then considered in the context of endophenotypes as a concept that is both broader and is potentially more specific (and predictive) than many DSM or ICD diagnostic symptoms. Liability syndromes are then considered in the context of their proximity to illness, first by reviewing prodromal syndromes (which are more proximal), and then by considering schizotaxia, which, as it is currently formulated, is pre-prodromal and, therefore, less proximal. Finally, challenges to validation and future directions for research are considered. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Innovative bio-mediated particulate materials for sustainable maritime transportation infrastructure. (United States)


    The mechanical properties of sandy soils in the coastal area and beach sands often do not satisfy construction expectation for maritime transportation infrastructure. The salty, loose sand makes it difficult for quick construction of port, building a...

  7. [Legal aspects of the health care institution liability for nosocomial infections]. (United States)

    Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek; Pakowski, Maciej


    In this paper, the basic concepts concerning the liability of health care institution for nosocomial infections are presented. The principles of ex contracto and ex delicto liabilities, as well as the concept of so-called anonymous guilt are discussed. The range of duties for both the health care institution and the employed medical personnel is indicated, the duties and the consequences of their non-fulfillment are systematized, and the obligatory jurisdiction concerning the functioning of prima facie evidence is considered. The author aimed at explaining the principles governing the civil liability of health care institutions and their employees.

  8. Outbreaks of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in day care cohorts in Finland – implications for elimination of transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auranen Kari


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Day care centre (DCC attendees play a central role in maintaining the circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus in the population. Exposure within families and within DCCs are the main risk factors for colonisation with pneumococcal serotypes in DCC attendees. Methods Transmission of serotype specific carriage was analysed with a continuous time event history model, based on longitudinal data from day care attendees and their family members. Rates of acquisition, conditional on exposure, were estimated in a Bayesian framework utilising latent processes of carriage. To ensure a correct level of exposure, non-participating day care attendees and their family members were included in the analysis. Posterior predictive simulations were used to quantify transmission patterns within day care cohorts, to estimate the basic reproduction number for pneumococcal carriage in a population of day care cohorts, and to assess the critical vaccine efficacy against carriage to eliminate pneumococcal transmission. Results The model, validated by posterior predictive sampling, was successful in capturing the strong temporal clustering of pneumococcal serotypes in the day care cohorts. In average 2.7 new outbreaks of pneumococcal carriage initiate in a day care cohort each month. While 39% of outbreaks were of size one, the mean outbreak size was 7.6 individuals and the mean length of an outbreak was 2.8 months. The role of families in creating and maintaining transmission was minimal, as only 10% of acquisitions in day care attendees were from family members. Considering a population of day care cohorts, a child-to-child basic reproduction number was estimated as 1.4 and the critical vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage as 0.3. Conclusion Pneumococcal transmission occurs in serotype specific outbreaks of carriage, driven by within-day-care transmission and between-serotype competition. An amplifying effect of the day

  9. Epidemiological Markers for Interactions Among Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus in Upper Respiratory Tract Carriage. (United States)

    Lewnard, Joseph A; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Huppert, Amit; Pettigrew, Melinda M; Regev-Yochay, Gili; Dagan, Ron; Weinberger, Daniel M


    Cocolonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae among children has been noted in numerous studies, as has an inverse relationship involving colonization with these species and Staphylococcus aureus. Interactions among these pathogens could mediate unanticipated outcomes of clinical interventions, including changes in H. influenzae and S. aureus disease incidence following pneumococcal vaccine introduction. However, it remains unclear whether cocolonization patterns represent true interspecies interactions or whether they result from confounding factors. We investigated polymicrobial carriage using longitudinal data from 369 Bedouin children and 400 Jewish children in Israel who were enrolled in a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) trial. Children were swabbed 10 times between 2 and 30 months of age. The pathogens followed distinct age and seasonal distributions, but polymicrobial carriage associations persisted after controlling for these and other confounding factors. Receipt of PCV7 resulted in pneumococcal serotype replacement but did not influence total carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or S. aureus. The fact that S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and S. aureus polymicrobial carriage patterns do not result from confounding by age and season supports the idea of active interspecies interactions. However, pneumococcal serotype replacement may prevent changes in H. influenzae and S. aureus carriage among PCV7 recipients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail

  10. Neisseria meningitidis nasopharyngeal carriage during the Hajj: A cohort study evaluating the need for ciprofloxacin prophylaxis. (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Almasri, Malak; Azhar, Esam I; Yasir, Muhammad; Al-Saeed, Muneera S; Ben Helaby, Huda; Borrow, Ray; Turkistani, Abdulhafeez; Assiri, Abdallah


    The annual Muslim pilgrimage has the potential of increase risk for acquisition of Neisseria meningitidis. Here, we evaluate the Hajj impact on the prevalence of N. meningitidis carriage in a paired and non-paired cohort of pilgrims. Secondary objectives were to calculate the compliance with recommended vaccination. This is a prospective paired (arriving and departing), non-paired arriving and non-paired departing cohort study with the collection of nasopharyngeal samples at the start and the end of the Hajj. The study included unpaired arriving pilgrims at King Abdul Aziz International Airport (N=1055), unpaired departing cohort (N=373), and a paired cohort (N=628) who were tested on arrival and departure. Meningococcal vaccination was received by all pilgrims, 98.2% received quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine (ACWY), and 1.8% received meningococcal quadrivalent conjugate vaccine (MCV4). Only 1.61% and 23.03% received pneumococcal and influenza vaccines, respectively. Of the 1055 arriving unpaired pilgrim, 36 (3.4%) tested positive for nasopharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis, and 24 (66.7%) of these were serogroup B, the remainder were non-groupable. Haemophilus influenza was detected among 45 (4.3%), and 11 (1%) carriers were positive for both N. meningitidis and H. influenzae. Out of 373 in the unpaired departing cohort, 6 (1.61%) tested positive for N. meningitidis, and 34 (9.1%) were positive for H. influenzae. Of the 628 paired cohort pilgrims, 36 (5.7%) pilgrims were positive for N. meningitidis at arrival and 16 (2.5%) pilgrims were positive after the hajj. This the largest study of the epidemiology of N. meningitidis among pilgrims. The study showed a significant difference in the carriage between pilgrims from high endemicity and other pilgrims with a predominance of serogroup B. The continued use of ciprofloxacin as prophylactic antibiotics should be reconsidered as well as the consideration to add serogroup B as a required vaccination. Copyright

  11. Murine Vaginal Colonization Model for Investigating Asymptomatic Mucosal Carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes (United States)

    Watson, Michael E.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.


    While many virulence factors promoting Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease have been described, specific streptococcal factors and host properties influencing asymptomatic mucosal carriage remain uncertain. To address the need for a refined model of prolonged S. pyogenes asymptomatic mucosal colonization, we have adapted a preestrogenized murine vaginal colonization model for S. pyogenes. In this model, derivatives of strains HSC5, SF370, JRS4, NZ131, and MEW123 established a reproducible, asymptomatic colonization of the vaginal mucosa over a period of typically 3 to 4 weeks' duration at a relatively high colonization efficiency. Prior treatment with estradiol prolonged streptococcal colonization and was associated with reduced inflammation in the colonized vaginal epithelium as well as a decreased leukocyte presence in vaginal fluid compared to the levels of inflammation and leukocyte presence in non-estradiol-treated control mice. The utility of our model for investigating S. pyogenes factors contributing to mucosal carriage was verified, as a mutant with a mutation in the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA) demonstrated significant impairment in vaginal colonization. An assessment of in vivo transcriptional activity in the CcpA− strain for several known CcpA-regulated genes identified significantly elevated transcription of lactate oxidase (lctO) correlating with excessive generation of hydrogen peroxide to self-lethal levels. Deletion of lctO did not impair colonization, but deletion of lctO in a CcpA− strain prolonged carriage, exceeding even that of the wild-type strain. Thus, while LctO is not essential for vaginal colonization, its dysregulation is deleterious, highlighting the critical role of CcpA in promoting mucosal colonization. The vaginal colonization model should prove effective for future analyses of S. pyogenes mucosal colonization. PMID:23460515

  12. The Brazilian approach to internet intermediary liability: blueprint for a global regime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolo Zingales


    Full Text Available While intermediary liability is becoming an issue of increasing importance in internet governance discussions, little is being made at the institutional level to minimise conflicts across jurisdictions and ensure the compliance of intermediary liability laws with fundamental rights and the freedom to innovate. The experience leading to the adoption of the Brazilian “Marco Civil da Internet” offers concrete insights for the definition of a baseline framework at the international level. This article also suggests the creation of a global forum of discussion on intermediary liability, allowing the interests of a variety of stakeholders to be taken into account in the definition and implementation of those baseline principles.

  13. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This IMP documents the priority inventory, monitoring, and research surveys for the Alaska Maritime NWR. Refuge management prioritizes survey and research efforts in...

  14. Great Lakes maritime education program for K-12 teachers, year 2. (United States)


    Michigan Technological University has led an educational/outreach effort for the Great Lake Maritime Research Institute since 2006. : Despite Michigan Techs relative isolation and long distance from most locations in the Great Lakes Basin, every s...

  15. Fitness standards for the Maritime and Coastguard Agency and the Oil and Gas Industry


    Milligan, Gemma


    The studies presented in this thesis were conducted to develop two minimum fitness standards, one for the Maritime and Coastguard Agency and the second for the Oil and Gas Industry. This provided the opportunity to compare across the essential tasks and resultant standards. The following stages were used for both the Maritime and Coastguard Agency and Oil and Gas Industry: a. Review the tasks requiring a significant physical fitness component (Task Analysis); b. Determine the importance o...

  16. Green Maritime Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.


    By green maritime logistics we mean achieving an acceptable environmental performance of the maritime transport logistical supply chain while at the same time respecting traditional economic criteria. In this paper the environmental focus is on maritime emissions. Achieving such goal may involve...... several trade-offs, and win-win solutions are typically sought. However, finding these solutions may be more difficult than may appear at first glance. The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise overview of the challenges of green maritime logistics and present some examples, both for greenhouse...

  17. Agent for environmental protection. Liability and points of Criminal Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keune, H.


    The author discusses the concept and status of the agent for environment protection on the basis of the relevant laws because a legal definition does not yet exist. The administrative body accepts the so-called Janus-faced industrial agent who has, as a rule, also the function of the agent for environmental protection, namely, because of the principle of concentration that has greatly been accepted because of rationalizing and efficiency reasons. As a consequence of this principle the so-exposed agent bears an 'outward' responsibility. The criminal liability of the agent for environmental protection is discussed under the aspects of acts performed on behalf of somebody else, the acceptance of responsability for one's own act or omission, the comittment by omitting, the indirect perpetration and the complicity. Furthermore the author looks into the following subjects: protection against work that is liable to be dangerous, claim for compensation under civil law and the new regulations of the German Penal Code that determine what is environmentally criminal.

  18. Industry specific PSS: A study of opportunities and barriers for maritime suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Axel Bejbro; McAloone, Tim C.; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià


    Product-Service System (PSS) business models are finding applications with suppliers and manufacturers across industries, but the models have yet to establish a strong foothold in the maritime sector. A number of metrics for evaluating the attractiveness of PSS business models have been proposed...... in chiefly design research and operations management literature. This paper applies a number of these metrics to the maritime sector using data from a number of maritime suppliers. It is found that the industry is, at least in some aspects, attractive from this PSS metrics standpoint. To explain the inherent...... lack of PSS maturity in the industry despite this metrics-based conclusion, the discussion moves beyond the quantitative factors and considers a number of organisational, structural and cultural issues that stand in the way of PSS. This paper is based on the initial responses provided by maritime...

  19. Military airborne and maritime application for cooperative behaviors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Robinett, Rush D. III


    As part of DARPA's Software for Distributed Robotics Program within the Information Processing Technologies Office (IPTO), Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with identifying military airborne and maritime missions that require cooperative behaviors as well as identifying generic collective behaviors and performance metrics for these missions. This report documents this study. A prioritized list of general military missions applicable to land, air, and sea has been identified. From the top eight missions, nine generic reusable cooperative behaviors have been defined. A common mathematical framework for cooperative controls has been developed and applied to several of the behaviors. The framework is based on optimization principles and has provably convergent properties. A three-step optimization process is used to develop the decentralized control law that minimizes the behavior's performance index. A connective stability analysis is then performed to determine constraints on the communication sample period and the local control gains. Finally, the communication sample period for four different network protocols is evaluated based on the network graph, which changes throughout the task. Using this mathematical framework, two metrics for evaluating these behaviors are defined. The first metric is the residual error in the global performance index that is used to create the behavior. The second metric is communication sample period between robots, which affects the overall time required for the behavior to reach its goal state.

  20. Particle in the Brusselator Model with Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuptsov, P.V.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Mosekilde, Erik


    . By partially blocking the flow, the particle gives rise to a local increment of the flow rate. For certain parameter values a response with intermittent Hopf and Turing type structures is observed. In other regimes a wave of substitution of missing peaks runs across the pattern.......We consider the interaction of a small moving particle with a stationary space-periodic pattern in a chemical reaction-diffusion system with a flow. The pattern is produced by a one-dimensional Brusselator model that is perturbed by a constant displacement from the equilibrium state at the inlet...

  1. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.


    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  2. Process Algebra Approach for Action Recognition in the Maritime Domain (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry


    The maritime environment poses a number of challenges for autonomous operation of surface boats. Among these challenges are the highly dynamic nature of the environment, the onboard sensing and reasoning requirements for obeying the navigational rules of the road, and the need for robust day/night hazard detection and avoidance. Development of full mission level autonomy entails addressing these challenges, coupled with inference of the tactical and strategic intent of possibly adversarial vehicles in the surrounding environment. This paper introduces PACIFIC (Process Algebra Capture of Intent From Information Content), an onboard system based on formal process algebras that is capable of extracting actions/activities from sensory inputs and reasoning within a mission context to ensure proper responses. PACIFIC is part of the Behavior Engine in CARACaS (Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing), a system that is currently running on a number of U.S. Navy unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. Results from a series of experimental studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system are also presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania-Alina Dumitrache


    Full Text Available According to article 253 and 254 of Labor Code, both employers and employees are responsible under the rules and principles of contractual liability for damages to the other party of legal labor relationship and we emphasize that this is not purely civil liability, but a variety of it, determined by the specific peculiarities of legal labor relations. Thus, we highlight that labor law provisions which refer to liability for damages complement, unquestionably, with the common law relating to civil liability. The paper analyzes the objective basis of legal accountability, namely the illicit act causing damages committed in fulfilling labor duties or in connection tot hem, therewith the method detailed and comparative documentation of legislation in the field and relevant doctrine.

  4. Some Considerations on the Liability of Principal for Acts of the Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela COSTACHE


    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to briefly examine the stipulations of article 1373 of the Civil Code, referring to regulating the tort liability of the principal for the illicit act of the agent. From a comparative point of view with the old provisions, and also in a critical formulation, the study contributes in supporting the recognition of principle nature of the subject under review. Using content analysis, through descriptive documentary research and case-law analysis, this study aims at identifying the content of the obligation for the liability of the principal, presenting a view on the legal status of such type of legal liability. The paper continues further research in this area which has been published in various publications. The concrete results of the research focuse on the examination and interpretation of the new provisions relating to subsistence of the general and special conditions of this type of liability

  5. Preclinical Assessment of a Strategy to Minimize the Abuse Liability of Opiate Medications for Pain (United States)


    1 Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0305 TITLE: Preclinical Assessment of a Strategy to Minimize the Abuse Liability of Opiate Medications for Pain...Minimize the Abuse Liability of Opiate Medications for Pain 5b. GRANT NUMBER 10251229 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wynne Schiffer, PhD...clinically relevant animal model. We have tested two animal models; the Formalin Paw Test (FPT) and the Acetic Acid (AA) writhing test in the

  6. Legal Environments for Digital Trust: Trustmarks, Trusted Computing and the Issue of Legal Liability


    Danidou, Yianna; Schafer, Burkhard


    Trusted Computing and Trustmarks are two approaches developed to enhance internet security and trust and we claim that they are structurally similar and an exercise in mutual learning would be of great benefit for both. We argue that TC philosophy could possibly supplement TMOs so that TMs become to TMOs more than just a mere link while we address critical questions regarding reliance liability. With our present study we propose that the model for adequate TMO liability could possibly be an ...

  7. Antivibration pipeline-filtering algorithm for maritime small target detection (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Wenhai; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Houde


    When searching for small targets at sea based on an infrared imaging system, irregular and random vibration of the airborne imaging platform causes intense interference for the pipeline-filtering, which is an algorithm that performs well in detecting small targets but is particularly sensitive to interframe vibrations of sequence images. This paper puts forward a pipeline-filtering algorithm that has a good performance on self-adaptive antivibration. In the block matching method that combines the normalized cross-correlations coefficient with the normalized mutual information, the interframe vibration of sequence images is acquired in real time and used to correct coordinates of the single-frame detection results, and then the corrected detection results are used to complete the pipeline-filtering. In addition, under severe sea conditions, small targets at sea may disappear transiently, leading to missing detection. This algorithm is also able to resolve this problem. Experimental results show that the algorithm can overcome the problem of interframe vibration of sequence images, thus realizing accurate detection of small maritime targets.

  8. Modified three-dimensional skull base model with artificial dura mater, cranial nerves, and venous sinuses for training in skull base surgery: technical note. (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Takuji; Oyama, Kazutaka; Ueno, Hideaki; Nakao, Yasuaki; Honma, Keiichirou


    Experience with dissection of the cavernous sinus and the temporal bone is essential for training in skull base surgery, but the opportunities for cadaver dissection are very limited. A modification of a commercially available prototype three-dimensional (3D) skull base model, made by a selective laser sintering method and incorporating surface details and inner bony structures such as the inner ear structures and air cells, is proposed to include artificial dura mater, cranial nerves, venous sinuses, and the internal carotid artery for such surgical training. The transpetrosal approach and epidural cavernous sinus surgery (Dolenc's technique) were performed on this modified model using a high speed drill or ultrasonic bone curette under an operating microscope. The model could be dissected in almost the same way as a real cadaver. The modified 3D skull base model provides a good educational tool for training in skull base surgery.

  9. Substantial asymptomatic submicroscopic Plasmodium carriage during dry season in low transmission areas in Senegal: Implications for malaria control and elimination. (United States)

    Niang, Makhtar; Thiam, Laty Gaye; Sane, Rokhaya; Diagne, Nafissatou; Talla, Cheikh; Doucoure, Souleymane; Faye, Joseph; Diop, Fode; Badiane, Abdoulaye; Diouf, Babacar; Camara, Diogop; Diene-Sarr, Fatoumata; Sokhna, Cheikh; Richard, Vincent; Toure-Balde, Aissatou


    In the progress towards malaria elimination, the accurate diagnosis of low-density asymptomatic infections is critical. Low-density asymptomatic submicroscopic malaria infections may act as silent reservoirs that maintain low-level residual malaria transmission in the community. Light microscopy, the gold standard in malaria diagnosis lacks the sensitivity to detect low-level parasitaemia. In this study, the presence and prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium carriage were investigated to estimate the parasites reservoir among asymptomatic individuals living in low transmission areas in Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal during the dry season. A total of 2,037 blood samples were collected during cross-sectional surveys prior the malaria transmission season in July 2013 (N = 612), June 2014 (N = 723) and June 2015 (N = 702) from asymptomatic individuals living in Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal. Samples were used to determine the prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium carriage by real time PCR (qPCR) in comparison to microscopy considered as gold standard. The prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium carriage was 3.75% (23/612), 12.44% (90/723) and 6.41% (45/702) in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. No Plasmodium carriage was detected by microscopy in 2013 while microscopy-based prevalence of Plasmodium carriage accounted for only 0.27% (2/723) and 0.14% (1/702) in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for the majority of submicroscopic infections and represented 86.95% (20/23), 81.11% (73/90) and 95.55 (43/45) of infections in 2013, 2014 and 2015 respectively. Low-density submicroscopic asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage is common in the study areas during the dry season indicating that traditional measures are insufficient to assess the scale of parasite reservoir when transmission reaches very low level. Control and elimination strategies may wish to consider using molecular methods to identify parasites carriers to guide Mass screening and Treatment

  10. Economic Analysis of Legal Regulations Regarding Liability for Loss Resulting from a Dangerous Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kuźmicka-Sulikowska


    Full Text Available The article considers fundamental issues associated with economic analysis of legal regulations pertaining to liability for damage caused by a dangerous product. The discussion is conducted from the perspective of a lawyer analysing the conclusions stemming from economic analyses of the aforementioned liability by individual authors, which constitutes a base for subsequent observations. The relationships between the various potential configurations of manufacturer liability are discussed, in particular a situation where such liability is not stipulated, as well as where there is the introduction of liability based on the risk or fault principles and the ensuing motivation for maintaining an appropriate level of carefulness. Attention is focused on the search for an economically efficient solution. An analysis of current regulation is performed, as well as de lege ferenda conclusions grounded in economic analysis of law with reference to the shape of the regulatory liability regime for damage caused by a dangerous product. Many reservations are also listed, including ones concerning the fact that it does not seem that the legislative process should be guided only by conclusions stemming from economic analysis of law (especially considering the differences of opinion in that area, which does, however, unquestionably constitute a useful tool in such matters.

  11. motor vehicle lessors' liability for damages to third parties: acomment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Introduction. Amidst deteriorating road safety and increased motor vehicle accidents, litigations involving Article 2081 et seq. of the Ethiopian Civil Code appear to have increased in the last few years. Interesting court decisions involving, among other things, the scope of the strict liability rules of the Ethiopian extra-.

  12. Robustness for Asset-Liability Management of Pension Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, Ferenc; de Jong, Frank; Werker, Bas


    We survey the literature on robust dynamic asset allocation with an emphasis on the asset-liability management of pension funds. After demonstrating the difference between risk and uncertainty (Section 1), we introduce two levels of uncertainty: parameter uncertainty and model uncertainty (Section

  13. Translating guilt: Identifying leadership liability for mass atrocity crimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steer, C.E.


    The truism that crimes of mass atrocity are by definition collective may be one of the greater banes of criminal law lawyers attempting to solve the problem of liability. Collective crimes are familiar to all domestic criminal law systems, however the context in which mass atrocity takes place is

  14. Dried Saliva Spots: A Robust Method for Detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Krone


    Full Text Available The earliest studies in the late 19th century on Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae carriage used saliva as the primary specimen. However, interest in saliva declined after the sensitive mouse inoculation method was replaced by conventional culture, which made isolation of pneumococci from the highly polymicrobial oral cavity virtually impossible. Here, we tested the feasibility of using dried saliva spots (DSS for studies on pneumococcal carriage. Saliva samples from children and pneumococcus-spiked saliva samples from healthy adults were applied to paper, dried, and stored, with and without desiccant, at temperatures ranging from −20 to 37 °C for up to 35 days. DNA extracted from DSS was tested with quantitative-PCR (qPCR specifically for S. pneumoniae. When processed immediately after drying, the quantity of pneumococcal DNA detected in spiked DSS from adults matched the levels in freshly spiked raw saliva. Furthermore, pneumococcal DNA was stable in DSS stored with desiccant for up to one month over a broad range of temperatures. There were no differences in the results when spiking saliva with varied pneumococcal strains. The collection of saliva can be a particularly useful in surveillance studies conducted in remote settings, as it does not require trained personnel, and DSS are resilient to various transportation conditions.

  15. International arbitration and its exclusion from the Brussels regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alavi


    Full Text Available The Brussels regime, which regulates the matters of transnational litigation excludes arbitration from its scope. Upon formation of the Brussels regime the existing instruments concerning arbitration - the United Nations Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards and the 1961 European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration - were believed to be sufficient. The original Brussels Convention 1968 on recognition and enforcement of judgments delivered in the courts of the EU Member States expressly provided for the exclusion of arbitration. The following Brussels I Regulation followed the trend and reinforced the exclusion of arbitration from their material scopes. The rationale for doing so was primarily the prevention of parallel proceedings and irreconcilable judgments. The arbitration exclusion from the Brussels regime has caused a fair amount of confusion, especially regarding the extent and limits of the exclusion. That is, whether the arbitration agreement, the arbitral award and its consequences are covered by the exclusion or they may fall under the scope of the Brussels regulation if they constitute only an incidental question to the main cause of action? The confusion was illustrated in the ECJ judgment West Tankers, which generated negative feedback from the arbitration community and indicated the need for reform. The recently adopted Recast Regulation took it upon itself to clarify the relationship between arbitration and the EU regime of transnational litigation. The exclusion is reinforced ye again and its boundaries are specified in the Preamble. However, whether or not the concerns about the extent and objectives of arbitration exclusion have been at present eliminated, remains to be seen.

  16. Decentralized Adaptive Overcurrent Protection for Medium Voltage Maritime Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede


    control unit. The new adaptive protection method is based on communication between the overcurrent relays and the equipment that could affect the protection system, such as circuit breakers and generators. Using PSCAD, the proposed method is implemented in a test medium voltage maritime power system...

  17. Mater semper incertus est: who's your mummy? (United States)

    D'alton-Harrison, Rita


    In English law, the legal term for father has been given a broad definition but the definition of mother remains rooted in biology with the Roman law principle mater semper certa est (the mother is always certain) remaining the norm. However, motherhood may be acquired through giving birth to a child, by donation of gametes or by caring and nurturing a child so that the identity of the mother is no longer certain particularly in the case of surrogacy arrangements. While the law in the UK may automatically recognise the parental status of a commissioning father in a traditional surrogacy arrangement, the parental status of the commissioning mother is not automatically recognised in either a traditional or a gestational surrogacy arrangement. Thus the maxim mater est quam gestation demonstrat (meaning the mother is demonstrated by gestation) is also not approached consistently in the legal interpretation of parentage or motherhood in surrogacy as against other assisted reproduction methods. This raises questions about the extent to which motherhood should be affected by the method of reproduction and whether the sociological and philosophical concept of motherhood should, in the case of surrogacy, give rise to a new principle of 'mater semper incertus est' (the mother is uncertain). This article will argue that the time has come to move away from a legal definition of 'mother' that is based on biology to one that recognises the different forms of motherhood. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  18. TEDxBrussels broadcast live at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni, TEDxCERN organiser


    In order to give you a taste of a TEDx event, the team of TEDxCERN will show the live webcast of TEDxBrussels at the CERN main restaurant on November 12th from 9 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. and from 2 p.m to 7 p.m.  Come and discover the event, in preparation for TEDxCERN, which will take place in May next year.     This year the theme for TEDxBrussels is Bits, Atoms, Neurons, Genes (BANG BANG). The digital world and the real world are interconnected like never before. You can send off online for a personal genome readout and control physical objects with your mind. Computer thinking is driving medicine, music and play. With brain-computer interfaces now used in nuclear power stations and bio hackers doing lab biology in their garages, BANG BANG is a concept whose time has come. BANG BANG means the evolving mesh of ideas and practices, a rich mix of citizens, scientists and culture. Among the speakers are Steve Wozniak, Mitch Altman, Neelie Kroes, Xavier Damman, Zoe Laughli...

  19. Bond Sales for Public School Purposes, 1971-72. (United States)

    King, Irene A.

    This report provides information about the sale of bonds for financing the construction of public elementary and secondary school facilities. It contains a description of the characteristics of primary market bond sales for public elementary and secondary schools during the 1972 fiscal year. The report also provides specific information regarding…

  20. Risk factors for gametocyte carriage in uncomplicated falciparum malaria. (United States)

    Price, R; Nosten, F; Simpson, J A; Luxemburger, C; Phaipun, L; ter Kuile, F; van Vugt, M; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T; White, N J


    The factors affecting the development of patent Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia were assessed in 5,682 patients entered prospectively into a series of antimalarial drug trials conducted in an area of low and seasonal transmission on the western border of Thailand. Of the 4,565 patients with admission thick smear assessments, 110 (2.4%) had gametocytemia. During the follow-up period 170 (3%) of all patients developed patent gametocytemia, which in 89% had developed by day 14 following treatment. In a multiple logistic regression model five factors were found to be independent risk factors at presentation for the development or persistence of gametocytemia during follow up; patent gametocytemia on admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 7.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.7-16, P < 0.001), anemia (hematocrit <30%) (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.3-6.5, P < 0.001), no coincident P. vivax malaria (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.04-11.5, P < 0.04), presentation with a recrudescent infection (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3-4.1, P < 0.004), and a history of illness longer than two days (AOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.7-6.6, P < 0.001). Patients whose infections responded slowly to treatment or recrudesced subsequently were also more likely to carry gametocytes than those who responded rapidly or were cured (relative risks = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.7 and 2.8, 95% CI = 2.0-4.0, respectively; P < 0.001). These data provide further evidence of important epidemiologic interactions between P. falciparum and P. vivax, and drug resistance and transmission potential.

  1. Comment on I. Lashkevych, O. Yu. Titov, and Yu. G. Gurevich, "Ohm's Law for a Bipolar Semiconductor: The Role of Carrier Concentration and Energy Nonequilibria" [J. Electron. Mater., 46, 585 (2017) (United States)

    Swartz, C. H.


    In a recent publication [J. Electron. Mater., 46, 585 (2017)], a number of formulae are presented for the effective conductivity of a bipolar semiconductor sandwiched between two metal contacts. However, the results are shown to be nonphysical, and the explanation is traced to errors appearing in previous literature on the subject.

  2. Liability for nuclear damage: an international perspective. Reflections on the revision of the Vienna Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuski, J.


    This book deals with deals of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on his experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may not be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed the Committee`s work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world`s public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussions no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structure of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issue, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author).

  3. Maritime Law Enforcement: A Critical Capability for the Navy? (United States)


    Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202–4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction...enforcement authorities that complement, hopefully, what you all do. Can you just comment on that briefly? Admiral HARRIS. Yes, sir , I would be glad to...366 Admiral Humphry Smith cited in Till, Seapower, 359. 367 Till, Seapower, 359; Murphy, “Suppression of Piracy and Maritime Terrorism: A Suitable

  4. A proactive approach for maritime safety policy making for the Gulf of Finland: seeking best practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Helle, Inari; Lehikoinen, Annukka


    was conducted in order to examine the opportunities for developing a framework for the GoF for handling regional risks at regional level. Best practices were sought from nuclear safety management and fisheries management, and from a particular case related to maritime risk management. A regional approach...

  5. Assessment of the impact of NUC accreditation exercise on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the exercise had a low extent of impact on staff/student ratio of 1:30, on students understanding of departmental mission and on competent technical officers manning the computer laboratory in business education programmes. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that NUC should continue to ...

  6. Biomechanical characterization of human dura mater. (United States)

    De Kegel, Dries; Vastmans, Julie; Fehervary, Heleen; Depreitere, Bart; Vander Sloten, Jos; Famaey, Nele


    A reliable computational model of the human head is necessary for better understanding of the physical mechanisms of traumatic brain injury (TBI), car-crash investigation, development of protective head gear and advancement of dural replacement materials. The performance and biofidelity of these models depend largely on the material description of the different structures present in the head. One of these structures is the dura mater, the protective layer around the brain. We tested five human dura mater specimens, with samples at different locations, using planar biaxial tests. We describe the resulting stress-strain curves using both the anisotropic Gasser-Ogden-Holzapfel (GOH) model and the isotropic one-term Ogden model. The low-strain section of the curves is also described using a Neo-Hookean formulation. The obtained stress-strain curves reveal highly nonlinear but isotropic behaviour. A significant amount of inter- and intra-specimen variability is noticed, whereby the latter does not seem to be influenced by location. The GOH model achieves the best fit of the individual test data. A simple Neo-Hookean model can only be used with extreme caution, as it does not manage to capture the nonlinear effects present even at low strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of pet contact as a risk factor for carriage of multidrug-resistant staphylococci in nursing home residents. (United States)

    Gandolfi-Decristophoris, Paola; De Benedetti, Anna; Petignat, Christiane; Attinger, Monica; Guillaume, Jan; Fiebig, Lena; Hattendorf, Jan; Cernela, Nicole; Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther


    Pets, often used as companionship and for psychological support in the therapy of nursing home residents, have been implicated as reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We investigated the importance of pets as reservoirs of multidrug-resistant (MDR) staphylococci in nursing homes. We assessed the carriage of MDR staphylococci in pets and in 2 groups of residents, those living in nursing homes with pets and those living without pet contacts. We collected demographic, health status, and human-pet contact data by means of questionnaires. We assessed potential bacteria transmission pathways by investigating physical resident-to-pet contact. The observed prevalence of MDR staphylococci carriage was 84/229 (37%) in residents living with pets and 99/216 (46%) in those not living with pets (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-0.9). Active pet contact was associated with lower carriage of MDR staphylococci (aOR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8). Antibiotic treatment during the previous 3 months was associated with significantly increased risk for MDR carriage in residents (aOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.8-5.7). We found no evidence that the previously reported benefits of pet contact are compromised by the increased risk of carriage of MDR staphylococci in residents associated with interaction with these animals in nursing homes. Thus, contact with pets, always under good hygiene standards, should be encouraged in these settings. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maritime Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman


    Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text.......Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text....

  9. Bud initiation and optimum harvest date in Brussels sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Sukkel, W.


    For six cultivars of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) with a decreasing degree of earliness, or optimum harvest date, the time of bud initiation was determined during two seasons. Fifty percent of the plants had initiated buds between 60 and 75 days after planting (DAP) in 1994

  10. Nuc2p, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, inhibits septation initiation network following cytokinesis in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gang Chew


    Full Text Available In most cell types, mitosis and cytokinesis are tightly coupled such that cytokinesis occurs only once per cell cycle. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe divides using an actomyosin-based contractile ring and is an attractive model for the study of the links between mitosis and cytokinesis. In fission yeast, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C and the septation initiation network (SIN, a spindle pole body (SPB-associated GTPase-driven signaling cascade, function sequentially to ensure proper coordination of mitosis and cytokinesis. Here, we find a novel interplay between the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domain-containing subunit of the APC/C, Nuc2p, and the SIN, that appears to not involve other subunits of the APC/C. Overproduction of Nuc2p led to an increase in the presence of multinucleated cells, which correlated with a defect in actomyosin ring maintenance and localization of the SIN component protein kinases Cdc7p and Sid1p to the SPBs, indicative of defective SIN signaling. Conversely, loss of Nuc2p function led to increased SIN signaling, characterized by the persistent localization of Cdc7p and Sid1p on SPBs and assembly of multiple actomyosin rings and division septa. Nuc2p appears to function independently of the checkpoint with FHA and ring finger (CHFR-related protein Dma1p, a known inhibitor of the SIN in fission yeast. Genetic and biochemical analyses established that Nuc2p might influence the nucleotide state of Spg1p GTPase, a key regulator of the SIN. We propose that Nuc2p, by inhibiting the SIN after cell division, prevents further deleterious cytokinetic events, thereby contributing to genome stability.

  11. A multi-layered risk estimation routine for strategic planning and operations for the maritime industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); S. Vander Hoorn (Stephen)


    textabstractMaritime regulators and port authorities require the ability to predict risk exposure for strategic planning aspects to optimize asset allocation, mitigate and prevent incidents. This article builds on previous work to develop the strategic planning component and introduces the concept

  12. Lifestyle-Associated Risk Factors for Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in the Netherlands: An Exploratory Hospital-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda M L van Rijen

    Full Text Available Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA is rapidly increasing. Currently, it is unknown which reservoirs are involved. An exploratory hospital-based case-control study was performed in sixteen Dutch hospitals to identify risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage in patients not belonging to established risk groups.Cases were in- or outpatients from sixteen Dutch hospitals, colonised or infected with MRSA without healthcare- or livestock-associated risk factors for MRSA carriage. Control subjects were patients not carrying MRSA, and hospitalised on the same ward or visited the same outpatients' clinic as the case. The presence of potential risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage was determined using a standardised questionnaire.Regular consumption of poultry (OR 2⋅40; 95% CI 1⋅08-5⋅33, cattle density per municipality (OR 1⋅30; 95% CI 1⋅00-1⋅70, and sharing of scuba diving equipment (OR 2⋅93 95% CI 1⋅19-7⋅21 were found to be independently associated with CA-MRSA carriage. CA-MRSA carriage was not related to being of foreign origin.The observed association between the consumption of poultry and CA-MRSA carriage suggests that MRSA in the food chain may be a source for MRSA carriage in humans. Although sharing of scuba diving equipment was found to be associated with CA-MRSA carriage, the role played by skin abrasions in divers, the lack of decontamination of diving materials, or the favourable high salt content of sea water is currently unclear. The risk for MRSA MC398 carriage in areas with a high cattle density may be due to environmental contamination with MRSA MC398 or human-to-human transmission. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to determine the absolute risks of MRSA acquisition associated with the factors identified.

  13. Application of a method of welding for improvement of reliability of hoppers of slag carriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аркадій Васильович Лоза


    Full Text Available Reliability of the design of slag carriages is of great importance, as these belong to transportation system of iron and steel works, operating with enhanced danger due to the necessity to carry molten materials. That is why it is required to eliminate the slightest possibility of any failures of emergency situations at operation of slag carriages. Presence of defects in the hopper’s wall undermines its reliability and diminishes its service life. Hopper’s wall undergo at operation tremendous mechanical and thermal loads. Heating over the temperature range 500-600C º leads to appearance of residual deformations, it deteriorating exploitation conditions of a slag carrier. Overheating of separate sections of the casing can drastically deteriorate strength characteristics of the material, specified for the hopper’s design. This leads to alternations of its original geometry. The existing methods of improvement of its strength are insufficient due to economic and technological reasons. For this reason a technical solution was proposed and tested, in which additional reinforcing ribs to be installed above the deformation area on the side surface of the hopper were presumed. The indicted area is characterized by the smallest heating temperature its exploitation temperature possesses higher strength characteristics than other sections. This feature was used for strengthening of a less strong adjoining deformation area, undergoing high heating temperature. Reinforcing ribs are made by foundry methods do not always ensure the desired effect as they present the source of inner defects and formation of cracks. This is explained by formation of heat centres and T-shaped elements of casting, that are last crystallized and have no dense structure. That is why it was proposed to install welded reinforcing ribs for improved design of a slag carriers. The ribs are to be manufactured of steel rolled stock. This variant of installation of additional

  14. Detection of selection signatures for ear carriage in Maltese goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Talenti


    Full Text Available Selection and breeding practices in goats have led to the fixation of several traits. This is probably due to the standardization of several peculiar morphological characteristics that have always been one of the major exclusion criteria of individuals from selection. Among these, ear carriage is one of the most ancient and considered a signature of domestication in several species, such as the dog, pig, sheep and goat (Boyko et al., 2010. The availability of improved genomic analyses tools for goats may provide useful information on genes involved in this trait. By studying, for example, the homozygosity decay of haplotypes (contiguous length of alleles such information can be detected. In the current study, we focused on the Maltese goat, a breed showing floppy ears, in comparison with other Italian breeds using a goat medium density SNP chip (Nicoloso et al., 2015. A total 48,767 SNP markers for 369 animals belonging to 16 breeds or populations were analyzed. Genotypes were imputed within population excluding markers without known position on the current genome assembly (ARS1, Bickhart et al., 2017. Population analysis using MDS, ADMIXTURE and fastSTRUCTURE confirmed the good differentiation among the populations. Integrated Haplotype Score (iHS, Sabeti et al., 2007 was performed for each population, comparing the regions detected on the Maltese breed with the others considered to detect genes that may be involved into shaping  ear morphology. These results may provide new insights into ear carriage phenotype by detecting genes that play a pivotal role in shaping the goat phenotypic diversity. Acknowledgement The research was funded by INNOVAGEN project.

  15. Aspects of Legal Translation in Contracts of Carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Nădrag


    Full Text Available This article analyzes several aspects of the maritime law vocabulary, in order to overcome theproblem of maritime inaccuracies in translation and to contribute to the better understanding andtranslation of texts and legislations within this field. The first section of this article deals withseveral key terms and issues in the field of legal translation and maritime language and highlightsthe fact that maritime language represents a functional variety of register. The second sectionpresents the corpus analyzed within this paper in order to reveal the language variation in the twolanguages (i.e. Romanian and English and to assess their lexical density. The third section isfocused on corpus analysis, highlighting the language variation in the English and Romaniantranslation of the chosen texts from the field of contracts of carriage in maritime law.

  16. Annual Report of the Chief, National Guard Bureau for the Fiscal Year 1971 (United States)


    caaBKinan nicnaKs «a as $mm KI K oriiiims m nriiws liflSIW KI 00 msoHii imsM •» o» 13 J Army CHAMPS Team Handball In January 1971 the Army CHAMPS...the sport of team handball in the United States which would provide a talent base from which to draw players for the U.S. Olympic Team. These... handball . Domestic Action National Guard Domestic Action programs, designed to alleviate social problems within communities throughout the United States

  17. PSS Support for Maritime Technology Ventures: From Exploration to Methodology and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Axel Bejbro

    In the last decade, the situation for Danish maritime suppliers has gone from growth and prosperity to crisis and foreclosures. The reason for this downturn can be found in macroscopic factors like the economic crisis of 2008, the closing of Danish shipyards and the emergence of cost-efficient, c......In the last decade, the situation for Danish maritime suppliers has gone from growth and prosperity to crisis and foreclosures. The reason for this downturn can be found in macroscopic factors like the economic crisis of 2008, the closing of Danish shipyards and the emergence of cost...

  18. Social host liability for minors and underage drunk-driving accidents. (United States)

    Dills, Angela K


    Social host laws for minors aim to reduce teenage alcohol consumption by imposing liability on adults who host parties. Parents cite safety reasons as part of their motivation for hosting parties, preferring their teens and their teens' friends to drink in a supervised and safe locale. Both sides predict an effect of social host liability for minors on alcohol-related traffic accident rates for under-aged drinkers; the effects, however, work in opposite directions. This paper finds that, among 18-20 year olds, social host liability for minors reduced the drunk-driving fatality rate by 9%. I find no effect on sober traffic fatalities. Survey data on drinking and drunk driving suggest the declines resulted mostly from reductions in drunk driving and not reductions in drinking. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gynaecological cytopathology and the search for perfection: civil liability and regulatory ramifications. (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian


    The article analyses the potential for false negative and false positive results from Pap smear testing by gynaecological cytopathology laboratories. It also reviews case law in relation to the liability of general practitioners, gynaecologists, cytoscreeners and pathologists in respect of cervical cancer diagnoses. It argues that the concerns expressed in the 1990s about unfair findings of liability against cervical screeners have not been borne out, liability only having been found by the courts where culpable failure to adhere to the standards to be expected of professional behaviour has been established by probative evidence. It argues that the challenge for the future is for cytology screening to articulate definitively where the distinctions lie between acceptable and unacceptable error and for the medical profession and the legal profession to accommodate to the limitations of gynaecological cytopathology.

  20. Development of a Gridded Maritime Traffic DB for e-Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Il Kim


    Full Text Available In the era of e-Navigation, it is important to deliver maritime traffic information from a shore based station to all navigating vessels. However, in a vessel boarding system, there is a limit to the amount of raw traffic data that can be processed. In this paper, we used the Automatic Identification System (AIS data as metadata to build up the maritime traffic gridded database by projecting traffic data on a geographic coordinate system. In order to apply this database to the image layer for transferring to the ship efficiently, we have developed a maritime traffic display layer and route traffic information layer. All simulated data was collected and analyzed with the AIS in a Vessel Traffic Service(VTS center.

  1. The Use of Air Power for Maritime Homeland Defense (United States)


    061102bolkcom.pdf (accessed 17 March 2006). 21 Ibid. 22 Ibid., 1. 23 George J. Tenet, “Worldwide Threat - Converging Dangers in a Post 9/11 World,” Testimony...available from default.htm (accessed 17 March 2006). 87 Group Captain B. C. Laite , Maritime Air Operations...D.C: National Security Council/Homeland Security Council, October 2005), 6. 30 and intercept dangers long before they threaten our homeland.”129

  2. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in health care workers: First report from a major public hospital in Argentina. (United States)

    Boncompain, Carina Andrea; Suárez, Cristian Alejandro; Morbidoni, Héctor Ricardo

    Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous mild to severe infections in humans, both in health facilities and in the community. Patients and health care workers (HCWs) may disseminate strains during regular medical examinations or hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus among health care workers at Hospital Provincial del Centenario, a public general hospital in Rosario, Argentina. A transversal study was conducted on 320 health care workers. Nasal swabs were taken and presumptive S. aureus colonies were isolated. Bacterial identity and methicillin resistance status were confirmed by amplification of the nuc and mec genes. Chi square test and Fisher exact test were used for statistical analysis. Of 320 HCWs, 96 (30%) were nasal carriers of S. aureus, 20 of whom (6.3%) carried methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 76 (23.7%) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Carriage was within thepublished values for physicians (30%) and higher for technicians (57%). Accompanying resistance (62/96, 64.6%) was detected, including resistance to fluoroquinolones (23/96, 24%), aminoglucosides (13/96, 13.5%) or to macrolides (33/96, 34.4%). All the strains were susceptible to vancomycin whereas only 3.1% (3/96), all of them on MSSA strains, were resistant to mupirocin. This study is the first one of its kind in Argentina and one of the few performed in South America, to highlight the relevance of nasal carriage of MRSA and MSSA in health care personnel and brings to light the need for consensus recommendations for regular S. aureus carriage screening as well as for decolonization strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Variable performance of models for predicting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in European surgical wards


    Lee, Andie S; Pan, Angelo; Harbarth, Stephan; Patroni, Andrea; Chalfine, Annie; Daikos, George L; Garilli, Silvia; Mart?nez, Jos? Antonio; Cooper, Ben S


    BACKGROUND: Predictive models to identify unknown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage on admission may optimise targeted MRSA screening and efficient use of resources. However, common approaches to model selection can result in overconfident estimates and poor predictive performance. We aimed to compare the performance of various models to predict previously unknown MRSA carriage on admission to surgical wards. METHODS: The study analysed data collected during a prospe...

  4. OrgConv: detection of gene conversion using consensus sequences and its application in plant mitochondrial and chloroplast homologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Weilong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ancestry of mitochondria and chloroplasts traces back to separate endosymbioses of once free-living bacteria. The highly reduced genomes of these two organelles therefore contain very distant homologs that only recently have been shown to recombine inside the mitochondrial genome. Detection of gene conversion between mitochondrial and chloroplast homologs was previously impossible due to the lack of suitable computer programs. Recently, I developed a novel method and have, for the first time, discovered recurrent gene conversion between chloroplast mitochondrial genes. The method will further our understanding of plant organellar genome evolution and help identify and remove gene regions with incongruent phylogenetic signals for several genes widely used in plant systematics. Here, I implement such a method that is available in a user friendly web interface. Results OrgConv (Organellar Conversion is a computer package developed for detection of gene conversion between mitochondrial and chloroplast homologous genes. OrgConv is available in two forms; source code can be installed and run on a Linux platform and a web interface is available on multiple operating systems. The input files of the feature program are two multiple sequence alignments from different organellar compartments in FASTA format. The program compares every examined sequence against the consensus sequence of each sequence alignment rather than exhaustively examining every possible combination. Making use of consensus sequences significantly reduces the number of comparisons and therefore reduces overall computational time, which allows for analysis of very large datasets. Most importantly, with the significantly reduced number of comparisons, the statistical power remains high in the face of correction for multiple tests. Conclusions Both the source code and the web interface of OrgConv are available for free from the OrgConv website http


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gawliczek


    Full Text Available The subject of the article was the issue of shaping the image of piracy and maritime terrorism. Emphasis was put on the media, including those using information and communication technologies. The answers to problem questions were sought: (1 Who and why forms that image (2 what tools are used for its construction. The article presents the trends and development tendencies of the analyzed phenomena, based on the report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD. Furthermore, the results of surveys, conducted among students of military academies, on perception of piracy and maritime terrorism, are cited.

  6. Planning and scheduling for maritime container yards supporting and facilitating the global supply network

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenkai; Goh, Mark


    Maximizing reader insights into the challenges facing maritime supply chains and container port logistics service providers in Asia, this book highlights their innovative responses to these challenges through real-world case studies. With a focus on mathematical modeling, simulation and heuristics approaches, this book provides academics, engineers, container terminal operators, students in logistics and supply chain management with the latest approaches that can be used to address the planning and scheduling problem in large container terminal yards. This book can be used on a self-contained basis as teaching cases in an undergraduate or specialist class setting, or on techniques applied to maritime container operations for port operations.

  7. Liability for damage caused by shortage and failure to use necessary medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Mihajlo


    Full Text Available In order to provide for successful, safe and high quality medical services, health care institutions need to be equipped with adequate medical devices. For this reason, every medical institution is legally obliged to have relevant medical devices. In case a patient has been deprived of some medical service for the lack of necessary medical devices (which the institution has been obliged to provide, the medical institution is responsible for the damage and harm sustained by the patient. The responsibility implies non-contractual liability (in tort law or pre-contractual liability (in contract law. In both cases, the liability is based on the presumed culpability. In order to be excluded from liability, the medical institution has to prove that the patient has been deprived of medical service (or that the institution has refused to enter into a medical service provider agreement on justifiable grounds, i.e. due to the lack of necessary medical devices. On the other hand, in case the medial institutions fail to provide needed care or violate their obligation to use medical devices when necessary, it is regarded as medical negligence (professional error. In most cases, it implies the liability of medical institutions for damage, injury or harm caused to the patient by medical services provided without applying a relevant medical device, whose use has been medically indicated. The liability is even more substantial in cases where the medical device has been available but the medical institutions has not applied it in medial treatment (even though its use has been medically indicated; such conduct is qualified as gross negligence.

  8. The Possibility of Deduction of Environmental Liabilities in Expropriation for Each Breach of Environmental Rural Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Nasser Sefer


    Full Text Available This study aims to address the deductibility of environmental liability indemnification of quantum measured in the expropriation of rural property that failed to fulfill its environmental function. The Federal Constitution of 1988, provided for the possibility to expropriate rural property that failed to comply with its social and environmental role. On the subject, the Federal Regional Court of the 1st Region does not signed a single position on this opportunity to deduct the environmental liability, generating as a result, legal uncertainty for landowners and the community itself, being the Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform - INCRA the correct deduction.

  9. Liability of Banking Institutions for the Payment of Forged or Altered Checks in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Padilla Sánchez


    Full Text Available We face a trend to turn liability of financial institutions to strict liability for breach of their contractual obligations, trend that has been extended by the Colombian judicial activity to situations that do not have legal grounds, under the pretext of protecting the financial consumer as a subject of special protection by the law. Perhaps one of the most emblematic cases of this trend is the responsibility of banking institutions for payment of counterfeit or adulterated checks, which does have a legal mandate that allows distinguish it from the general system of responsibility of such entities.

  10. Liability immunity as a legal defense for recent emergency medical services system litigation. (United States)

    Morgan, D L; Trail, W R; Trompler, V A


    Although many emergency medical services (EMS) providers are concerned about liability litigation, no comprehensive, national studies of EMS appelate cases have been published. Information about these cases and the use of liability immunity (sovereign immunity, emergency medical care immunity, or Good Samaritan immunity) as a defense could be used for EMS risk management and better patient care. To review recent EMS system civil litigation cases to determine their common characteristics and the number that used liability immunity as a legal defense. An observational study of the WESTLAW computerized database of legal cases from all state and federal appellate courts. All legal cases that named a member of the EMS system as a defendant, involved either a patient-care incident or ambulance collision, and received an appellate court opinion from 1987 through 1992, were studied. Eighty-six cases were identified and analyzed. Most cases (85%) were related to a patient-care incident, and 71% of the cases involved a death or significant physical injury. More than 49% of the patient cases alleged inadequate assessment or treatment, and 27% alleged delay in ambulance arrival or no ambulance arrival. There were 11 cases (15%) that alleged no transport of the patient to the hospital. Liability immunity was used as a defense in 53% of the cases. The appellate courts ruled in favor of 68% of the defendants that did not use an immunity defense and in favor of 72% of those that did use liability immunity. There have been a large number of recent appellate cases involving EMS systems. The common characteristics of many of these cases demonstrate the need for providing rapid ambulance arrival, proper assessment and treatment, and rapid patient transportation to a hospital. Although liability immunity was used as a legal defense by most EMS system defendants, the appellate court outcome was similar regardless of its use.

  11. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for invasive S. aureus infections in various population including children. The extent of S. aureus carriage in Sierra Leonean children is largely unknown. To determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of nasal S.

  12. 46 CFR 126.170 - Carriage of offshore workers. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of offshore workers. 126.170 Section 126.170... CERTIFICATION General § 126.170 Carriage of offshore workers. (a) Offshore workers may be carried aboard an OSV in compliance with this subchapter. The maximum number of offshore workers authorized for carriage...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Murovana


    Full Text Available The main problems of accounting organization of liabilities for taxes and duties under current complicated economic and environmental conditions were investigated. Measures for improving tax calculation reflecting, environmental tax and other environmental liabilities in accounting, tax and financial reporting in order to simplify the accounting process, improve organization of business activities, ensure implementation of environmental policy balance were developed.

  14. Maritime logistics: contemporary issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, D.W; Panayides, P.M


    .... It brings together leading authorities in the field to consider for the first time maritime logistics, and in doing so it defines the area, registers its boundaries and contributes to its development...

  15. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among medical students of Belgrade University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Ivana


    Full Text Available Introduction Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA present the growing problem in the whole world. Carriage of MRSA is most frequent in the nose, and medical students come in contact both with patients and different persons in the community. Therefore, they may be significant for the transmission of MRSA from hospitals to out- of-hospital communities and vice versa. Objective. The aim of this study was to establish the carriage rate among students of the second, third and fourth year of study at the School of Medicine in Belgrade and to analyze their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Methods. In total 533 nasal samples were taken. The samples were incubated in Trypcase-soy broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, and thereafter the swabs were inoculated on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 2 µg/mL of oxacillin. The presence of nuc, mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes was examined by PCR. The characteristics of the MRSA strains were determined using: antibiotic susceptibility testing by Vitek2 System, SCCmec, agr typing and MLST. Results. MRSA was isolated from two of 533 investigated samples (0.37%. MRSA were isolated from the students of the second and third year of study. Profiles of strains were: ST80 (SCCmec type IV, agr type 3 and ST152 (SCCmec type V, agr type 1. MRSA strains were multiresistant. Conclusion. The nasal carriage rate of MRSA in population of medical students of the first year of study in Belgrade is low. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MRSA strains indicate their community origin. MLST typing revealed that isolates belong to ST80 and ST152. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON175039

  16. Power, Identity, and Organizational Structure as Reflected in Schools for Minority Groups: A Case Study of Jewish Schools in Paris, Brussels, and Geneva (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit


    This article compares the linkages between organizational structure, power relations, and group identities within the private schools operated by the francophone Jewish communities of Brussels, Paris, and Geneva. A school's organizational structure and balance of power reflect its identity and its conceptual world. That is, its organizational…

  17. Maritime Standards for Compliance Safety and Health Officers (Instructor Manual). Volume 3 (United States)


    struck tools. Chicaeo, IT., Klein Tools, Inc. 1l77. 47-2 for CSHOS OccupatiOna Safety and Healt Adrnftraio TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Types of Tools Used in...4Lesson 40: Welding, Cutting and Heating (Continued) 52-4 Maritime Standards U.S. Department of Labor for CSHOs Ocupational Safety and Health

  18. The Maritime Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Lützen, Marie


    This article describes the outcome of a survey initiated by the Danish Maritime Fund (DMF). The survey resulted in a report that describes the engineering competencies requested by the Danish maritime industry. This is of interest since the desired competencies have changed in the past one to two...... decades, where Denmark no longer has a considerable ship-building industry. Furthermore, the DMF initiated report concludes that the demand for maritime engineers in the industry is larger than the output. The report sets forth a series of recommendations to the industry as well as the universities...... to enable meeting the demand for maritime engineers in Denmark. The recommendations are outlined together with the work commenced at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) to follow up on the recommendations in the report....

  19. A cross-sectional study of the effects of load carriage on running characteristics and tibial mechanical stress: implications for stress fracture injuries in women (United States)


    effects of load carriage on running characteristics and tibial mechanical stress : implications for stress -fracture injuries in women Chun Xu1, Amy Silder2...Ju Zhang3, Jaques Reifman1* and Ginu Unnikrishnan1Abstract Background: Load carriage is associated with musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress ...kinematics and kinetics of the body, as well as the tibial mechanical stress during running. We also compared the biomechanics of walking (studied

  20. Priority for import capacity. The fear of the European Union for a free European energy market; Voorrang aan importcapaciteit. Brussel vreest werking vrije Europese markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)


    Brussels (the seat of the European Union in Belgium) is worried about the performance of the liberalized European energy market. The natural gas and electricity networks are suffering from chronic congestion. Some areas are largely or even entirely cut off from the European energy infrastructure. Those problems must be addressed to realize the internal market. A package of reforms has been put forward by the European Commission the end of 2001 and 12 priority projects are identified and briefly discussed in this article. [Dutch] Brussel vreest dat een vrije Europese markt niet goed zal werken als grensoverschrijdende knelpunten met de transportcapaciteit voor aardgas en elektriciteit niet opgelost worden en geisoleerde landen geen adequate toegang krijgen met het buitenland. Eind 2001 heeft de Europese Commissie een pakket maatreglen voor de energie-infrastructuur voorgesteld. Twaalf projecten van Europees belang krijgen prioriteit.

  1. Evaluation of the Swabbing of Disposable Absorbent Incontinence Products for Assessing the Carriage of Multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae in Nursing Home Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Naf


    Full Text Available We compared the performance of incontinence product (IP and rectal swabbing for the detection of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE carriage in a large multicenter study conducted in February 2017 among the residents of 23 French nursing homes. The study included 547 residents who habitually wore IP, 88 of whom were MDRE carriers (16.1%. Positive results were obtained for both rectal and IP swabs for 64 of these residents, for rectal swabs only for 22 and for IP swabs only for two of these patients. The estimated prevalence of MDRE carriage depended on the type of sample: 15.7% for rectal swabs and 12.1% for IP swabs (p < 0.001. The positive percent agreement was 84.2% and the negative percent agreement was 97.4%. Rectal swabbing remains the best method for detecting MDRE carriage in elderly residents, but our findings provide support for the use of swabs from IP used overnight to increase response rates in MDRE surveys in elderly residents that habitually wear IP, when rectal swabbing is not feasible.

  2. ERP Human Enhancement Progress Report : Use case and computational model for adaptive maritime automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R. van der; Broek, J. van den; Brake, G.M. te; Rypkema, J.A.; Schilder, C.M.C.


    Automation is often applied in order to increase the cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of maritime ship and offshore operations. Automation of operator tasks, has not, however, eliminated human error so much as created opportunities for new kinds of error. The ambition of the Adaptive

  3. 32 CFR 537.17 - Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature. 537.17 Section 537.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS... nature. Under the River and Harbors Act (33 U.S.C. 408), the United States has the right to recover fines...

  4. European Union's Policy on Corporate Social Responsibility and Opportunities for the Maritime Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Jan


    the two following issues. To which extent has the EU CSR policies created opportunities for competitive advantage in the post-2008 maritime world and to which extent did the shipping industry utilises on these opportunities in 2008 to 2010 by implementing CSR policies compared to other industries....

  5. Possibility of cogeneration from maritime and conventional energy sources for mining industry purposes. (United States)

    Beloglazov, I. I.; Shabalov, M. Y.


    Renewable energy sources in developed countries are usually considered as a possible alternative to traditional energy sources in the production of electricity and heat. Authors consider an importance of energy margin in regard to usability of renewable energy in mining industry. An original wave power plant is suggested as an additional energy source for some maritime mining operations and its features are thoroughly discussed.

  6. 26 CFR 521.115 - Credit against United States tax liability for Danish tax. (United States)


    ... Danish tax. 521.115 Section 521.115 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.115 Credit against United States tax liability for Danish tax. For the purpose of avoidance of double taxation, Article XV provides that, on the...

  7. 22 CFR 211.9 - Liability for loss damage or improper distribution of commodities. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for loss damage or improper distribution of commodities. 211.9 Section 211.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... English translation and shall be forwarded as set forth in paragraphs (c)(1) (iii) and (iv) of this...

  8. Enhanced Detection of Vaccine Type Colonization and Dual Serotype Carriage with Molecular Strategies for Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization (United States)

    Little, Brent A; Meehan, Julianne; Shea, Kimberly M; Pelton, Stephen I


    Abstract Background Detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) carriage in children via conventional microbiological methods lacks sensitivity as high density is required for routine culture and identification of dual serotype colonization is a technical challenge. To increase understanding of post vaccine nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage, specifically persistence of vaccine serotypes, strategies for molecular identification of SP have been developed. These methods most often rely on the identification of the SP autolysin gene lytA through non-quantitative PCR or semi-quantitative real-time PCR (RTPCR). Methods We collected NP swabs from 600 healthy or sick children Pelton, Pfizer: Board Member and Grant Investigator, Consulting fee, Research grant and Speaker honorarium; Merck vaccines: Board Member, Consulting fee and Speaker honorarium; GSK: Board Member, Consulting fee and Speaker honorarium; Sequiris: Board Member, Consulting fee and Speaker honorarium

  9. Maritime strategy in Pakistan


    Nawaz, Raja Rab


    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited As a maritime nation, Pakistan has not been able to effectively exploit the sea and its resources. Decades of neglect have hampered the development of the maritime sector, which in turn has hurt both economic growth and the national security of the country. While seaborne trade is the backbone of Pakistan's economy, the domestic shipping and shipbuilding industries are in disarray. The exploitation of offshore natural resources is rest...

  10. Viscoelastic finite-element analysis of human skull - dura mater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the work, the dynamic characteristics of the human skull-dura mater system were studied. For the purpose of our analysis, we adopted a model consisted of a hollow sphere. By using the 'Patran and. Ansys' finite element processor, a simplified three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of a human skull was ...

  11. Analytical Modeling of a Ball Screw Feed Drive for Vibration Prediction of Feeding Carriage of a Spindle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang


    Full Text Available An analytical modeling approach for ball screw feed drives is proposed to predict the dynamic behavior of the feeding carriage of a spindle. Mainly considering the rigidity of linear guide modules, a ball-screw-feeding spindle is modeled by a mass-spring system. The contact stiffness of rolling interfaces in linear guide modules is accurately calculated according to the Hertzian theory. Next, a mathematical model is derived using the Lagrange method. The presented model is verified by conducting modal experiments. It is found that the simulated results correspond closely with the experimental data. In order to show the applicability of the proposed mathematical model, parameter-dependent dynamics of the feeding carriage of the spindle is investigated. The work will contribute to the vibration prediction of spindles.

  12. Asymptomatic carriage of Clostridium difficile in an Irish continuing care institution for the elderly: prevalence and characteristics. (United States)

    Ryan, J; Murphy, C; Twomey, C; Paul Ross, R; Rea, M C; MacSharry, J; Sheil, B; Shanahan, F


    Clostridium difficile is an increasing cause of nosocomial diarrhoea and colitis. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic C. difficile carriage in a continuing care institution for the elderly. Stool samples were collected from 100 asymptomatic patients, whose median age was 83 years. Samples were tested for C. difficile using traditional culturing methods, 16s rDNA and 16s-23s intergenic spacer (IGS) rDNA sequencing, and analysed for toxin production and toxin genes. The prevalence of C. difficile carriage was 10/100 (10%) following culture and 16s and IGS sequencing. An additional seven isolates, initially identified as C. difficile, were subsequently identified by IGS rDNA sequencing as C. sordellii of the 10% that tested positive for C. difficile, seven tested positive for toxin A and B. A significant number of C. difficile carriers had recent antibiotic exposure compared with non-carriers, P = 0.046. The prevalence of asymptomatic C. difficile carriage in this institution was 10%, 7% of which were toxin positive. This study underscores the importance of increased vigilance for C. difficile using microbial and molecular methodology and identifies patients at increased risk following antibiotic administration.

  13. Analytical Modeling of a Ball Screw Feed Drive for Vibration Prediction of Feeding Carriage of a Spindle


    Lei Zhang; Taiyong Wang; Songling Tian; Yong Wang


    An analytical modeling approach for ball screw feed drives is proposed to predict the dynamic behavior of the feeding carriage of a spindle. Mainly considering the rigidity of linear guide modules, a ball-screw-feeding spindle is modeled by a mass-spring system. The contact stiffness of rolling interfaces in linear guide modules is accurately calculated according to the Hertzian theory. Next, a mathematical model is derived using the Lagrange method. The presented model is verified by conduct...

  14. Civil Liability of Teachers for Injuries to Students, and Other Torts. (United States)

    Brown, R. A.


    Addresses issues involving the tort liability of Australian teachers. Explores broad interpretations of negligence, such as giving students incorrect information or negligent advice resulting in some physical or economic damage to the student. Exhorts teachers to provide their charges with the best advice possible for their individual development.…

  15. 48 CFR 1452.228-72 - Liability for Loss or Damage-Department of the Interior. (United States)


    ... Damage-Department of the Interior. 1452.228-72 Section 1452.228-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1452.228-72 Liability for Loss or Damage—Department of the Interior. As prescribed in...

  16. 78 FR 8821 - Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal Reclamation by Certified... (United States)


    ... reclaiming abandoned mine lands and waters adversely impacted by inadequately reclaimed surface coal mining... CFR Parts 700, 875, 879, et al. Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal... Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Parts 700, 875, 879, 884, and 885 RIN 1029-AC66 Abandoned Mine Land...

  17. 26 CFR 53.4961-2 - Court proceedings to determine liability for second tier tax. (United States)


    ... second tier tax. 53.4961-2 Section 53.4961-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-2 Court proceedings to determine liability for second tier tax. (a) Introduction...

  18. 39 CFR 273.3 - Liability for false claims and statements. (United States)


    ... OF PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 273.3 Liability for false claims and statements. Section 3802... agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State or political subdivision thereof... actually made to an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State or political...

  19. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. (United States)


    ... tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.65 Section 44.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX General § 44.65 Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. The...

  20. Crime on Campus: Institutional Tort Liability for the Criminal Acts of Third Parties. (United States)

    Raddatz, Anita

    To aid colleges and universities in protecting students and other potential victims of crime, a general analysis of the pertinent case law concerning institutional tort liability for campus crime is provided. The analysis of case law explains that lawsuits are usually based on the theory of negligence. Negligence consists of four elements: duty;…

  1. The liability of churches for the historical sexual assault of children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liability of churches for the historical sexual assault of children by priests. ... In Canada, the UK and South Africa courts have in different ways acknowledged the fact that victims of child sexual abuse are often not able to process their claims timeously, because of psychological factors. The victims are allowed to bring ...

  2. Legal Issues for Orientation and Mobility Specialists: Minimizing the Risks of Liability. (United States)

    Marsh, Ruth Ann; Hartmeister, Fred; Griffin-Shirley, Nora


    This article discusses the potential negligence-based liability risks that orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists often face when assisting students with visual impairments with independent travel in uncontrolled environments. It also presents strategies that may minimize the risks of O&M training for both students and specialists. (Contains…

  3. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... operating under such refiner's corporate, trade, or brand name or that of any of its marketing subsidiaries...

  4. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. 80.169 Section 80.169 Protection of Environment... operating under such refiner's corporate, trade, or brand name or that of any of its marketing subsidiaries...

  5. Research on Aerospace Cooperative Continuation Observation Strategy for Maritime Moving Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xingxing


    Full Text Available Maritime moving targets continuation observation has important implications to maintain the safety of the navigation barrier. Existing methods either rely on satellite observations, or only rely on UAV observations. Even though the two cooperative observations, it confined to a simple task allocation. They did not solve the problem of maritime moving targets continuation observation. On the basis of difference between satellites observation and UAV observation, we constructed the aerospace collaborative continuation observation model for maritime moving target, and put forward aerospace collaborative continuation observation strategy (ACCOS to reduce the complexity of solving the model. According to the spatial and temporal characteristics of the task, ACCOS extracted five sub problems to solve the model: Satellite planning, UAV flight plan, UAV observation sequence, target potential area and distribution probability density prediction, UAV path planning. In order to realize the optimization goal of the model, the five sub problems are modelled and solved in turn. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed method can greatly reduce the average observation period of the target, and effectively solve the problem of the continuous observation of maritime moving target.

  6. Defendants' liability for pure mental harm to third parties in Australia: still a work in progress. (United States)

    Mendelson, Danuta


    In Australia, both common and statutory law allows compensation for negligently occasioned recognised psychiatric injury, but distinguishes between pure mental harm and consequential mental harm. This column briefly discusses the concept of pure "mental harm" and the major Australian cases relating to defendants' liability to third parties for causing them pure mental harm (Jaensch v Coffey (1984) 155 CLR 549; Tame v New South Wales; Annetts v Australian Stations Pty Ltd (2002) 211 CLR 317; Sullivan v Moody (2001) 207 CLR 562; and Gifford v Strang Patrick Stevedoring Pty Ltd (2003) 214 CLR 269). The analysis focuses on judicial approaches to determining liability in these cases, especially causation. Lack of guiding principles and precise tests for attribution of liability are illustrated by Kemp v Lyell McEwin Health Service (2006) 96 SASR 192. This case is analysed first in the context of common law, and then in the light of the reform legislation contained in the Civil Liability Act 1936 (SA) and similar provisions in other jurisdictions.

  7. 41 CFR 102-117.260 - What are my responsibilities to employees regarding the TSP's liability for loss or damage claims? (United States)


    ... responsibilities to employees regarding the TSP's liability for loss or damage claims? 102-117.260 Section 102-117...-117.260 What are my responsibilities to employees regarding the TSP's liability for loss or damage claims? Regarding the TSP's liability for loss or damage claims, you must: (a) Advise employees on the...

  8. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Brussels District : Annual Narrative Report : Fiscal Year 1997 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Brussels District of Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1997 fiscal year. Apple Creek...

  9. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Brussels District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Brussels District of Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. Apple Creek...

  10. Surgery for Conditions of Infectious Etiology in Resource-Limited Countries Affected by Crisis: The Médecins Sans Frontières Operations Centre Brussels Experience. (United States)

    Sharma, Davina; Hayman, Kate; Stewart, Barclay T; Dominguez, Lynette; Trelles, Miguel; Saqeb, Sanaulhaq; Kasonga, Cheride; Hangi, Theophile Kubuya; Mupenda, Jerome; Naseer, Aamer; Wong, Evan; Kushner, Adam L


    Surgery for infection represents a substantial, although undefined, disease burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Médecins Sans Frontières-Operations Centre Brussels (MSF-OCB) provides surgical care in LMICs and collects data useful for describing operative epidemiology of surgical need otherwise unmet by national health services. This study aimed to describe the experience of MSF-OCB operations for infections in LMICs. By doing so, the results might aid effective resource allocation and preparation of future humanitarian staff. Procedures performed in operating rooms at facilities run by MSF-OCB from July 2008 through June 2014 were reviewed. Projects providing specialty care only were excluded. Procedures for infection were described and related to demographics and reason for humanitarian response. A total of 96,239 operations were performed at 27 MSF-OCB sites in 15 countries between 2008 and 2014. Of the 61,177 general operations, 7,762 (13%) were for infections. Operations for skin and soft tissue infections were the most common (64%), followed by intra-abdominal (26%), orthopedic (6%), and tropical infections (3%). The proportion of operations for skin and soft tissue infections was highest during natural disaster missions (pcrisis. This study found that infections require greater than expected surgical input given frequent need for serial operations to overcome contextual challenges and those associated with limited resources in other areas (e.g., ward care). Furthermore, these results demonstrate that the pattern of operations for infections is related to nature of the crisis. Incorporating training into humanitarian preparation (e.g., surgical sepsis care, ultrasound-guided drainage procedures) and ensuring adequate resources for the care of surgical infections are necessary components for providing essential surgical care during crisis.

  11. Evaluation of methods for the detection of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Eriksen, N H; Espersen, F; Rosdahl, V T; Jensen, K


    In the present study we investigate the optimal methodology for determination of the nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus. Tests were performed on 91 healthy laboratory staff. The reproducibility of different sampling, transportation, storage and culture methods was examined. We compared sterile dry cotton wool swabs with sterile dry cotton wool swabs impregnated with charcoal and 5% blood agar plates with mannitol salt agar plates after different incubation periods. Finally, we investigated the detection rate for S. aureus following direct plating compared to storage in Stuart's transport medium for 7 days. There were no differences in isolation rates from the right or left nostril using either cotton or charcoal swabs. Charcoal swabs gave an increased isolation rate as compared to cotton swabs, and incubation in broth enrichment medium containing 6.5% NaCl also increased the isolation rate. Storage in Stuart's transport medium for 7 days gave an increase in isolation rate as compared to direct plating on blood agar. With mannitol salt agar plates the increase in isolation rate when incubation was performed for from 2 to 4, 2 to 7, and 4 to 7 days was 5.9%, 16.7%, and 11.5%, respectively. For the detection of S. aureus nasal carriers we find the use of charcoal swabs and Stuart's transport medium combined with cultivation on mannitol salt agar for 7 days to be the optimal method.

  12. Screening for fecal carriage of MCR-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy humans and primary care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Zurfluh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of the occurrence of the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-2 among humans is currently sparsely studied in Western Europe. Objectives To determine the occurrence of MCR-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of healthy humans with high occupational exposure to food and primary care patients in Switzerland. Methods Stool samples from 1091 healthy individuals and fecal swabs from 53 primary care patients were screened for polymyxin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using LB agar containing 4 mg/L colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of colistin were determined for non-intrinsic colistin-resistant isolates. Isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes. Results The fecal carriage rate of colistin resistant (MIC value >2 mg/l Enterobacteriaceae was 1.5% for healthy people and 3.8% for primary care patients. Isolates included Hafnia alvei (n = 9, Escherichia coli (n = 3, Enterobacter cloacae (n = 4, Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1 and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1. None of the isolates harbored the mcr-1 or mcr-2 genes. Conclusions There is no evidence for the presence of MCR-producers in the fecal flora of healthy people or primary care patients. Therefore, the risk of transfer of mcr genes from animals, food or the environment to humans is likely to be low in Switzerland.

  13. End Of Line: Combining Housing, Facilities and Transport Infrastructure in Brussels


    De Clerck, Philippe; Moritz, Benoît; Stessens, Philippe


    This publication presents the results of the Brussels Master Class 2013 “End Of Line, Combining Housing, Facilities and Transport Infrastructure in Brussels”, organized from Oct. 28 to Nov. 8 by Louise (Laboratory for Urbanism, Infrastructure and Ecologies, Faculté d'Architecture de l'ULB) and Cosmopolis (Centre for Urban Research, VUB) with the support of the Secretary of State in charge of Urbanism for the Brussels-Capital Region. Architecture practice URA (BE) and consultancy agency Mobili...

  14. Report made on behalf of the inquiry commission for the enforcement of the measures preconized for the safety of the maritime transport of hazardous or polluting products and for the evaluation of their efficiency; Rapport fait au nom de la commission d'enquete sur l'application des mesures preconisees en matiere de securite du transport maritime des produits dangereux ou polluants et l'evaluation de leur efficacite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    On February 5, 2003, three years after the creation of an inquiry commission about the Erika tanker-ship wreck, the principle of a new inquiry commission about the safety of maritime transports was decided by the French house of commons. Its mission is: to evaluate the efficiency of the existing measures of prevention of marine pollution by hydrocarbons, to examine if the preconized safety measures for the transport of dangerous or polluting products are effectively enforced, and to evaluate the status of the transposition of the European directives relative to the control of hazardous ships. This document is the first tome of the report made on behalf of this inquiry commission. It comprises four parts dealing with: 1 - the Prestige tanker-ship wreck and the pollution of Spanish and French coasts: similarities with the Erika wreck but differences in the conditions of crisis management, diverging accident analyses, problems encountered in Spain, a significantly improved management of the crisis by the French administration, the public opinion and the local economy, the global increase of maritime transport and the reduction of accidents frequency; 2 - the real improvements after the Erika wreck: the significant advances but their partial implementation, the acceleration of actions following the Prestige wreck; 3 - the expected and realistic perspectives: the sustain of the political will at the national scale, the concretizing of the European decisions and the follow up of the retained trends, the need for more outstanding evolutions at the international scale; 4 - the international liability and compensation regime: its limitation to the hydrocarbons pollution, the lack of victims indemnification in the case of chemical pollution, the need for an increase of the liability of all actors of the maritime transport and the improvement of the compensation system, a community compensation fund to compensate the inefficiencies of the international compensation mechanisms

  15. 26 CFR 1.6654-4 - Waiver of penalty for underpayment of 1971 estimated tax by an individual. (United States)


    ... estimated tax by an individual. 1.6654-4 Section 1.6654-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6654-4 Waiver of penalty for underpayment of 1971 estimated tax by... individuals, the penalty prescribed by section 6654(a) and § 1.6654-1 for underpayment of estimated tax shall...

  16. Implementation of Multiple Access Techniques Applicable for Maritime Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojce Dimov Ilcev


    Full Text Available In this paper are introduced fundamentals, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of Multiple Access (MA employed as transmission techniques in the Maritime Mobile Satellite Communications (MMSC between ships and Coast Earth Station (CES via Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO or Not-GEO satellite constellations. In fixed satellite communication, as a rule, especially in MMSC many users are active at the same time. The problem of simultaneous communications between many single or multipoint mobile satellite users can be solved by using MA technique, such as Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA, Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA and Random (Packet Division Multiple Access (RDMA. Since the resources of the systems such as the transmitting power and the bandwidth are limited, it is advisable to use the channels with complete charge and to create a different MA to the channel. This generates a problem of summation and separation of signals in the transmission and reception parts, respectively. Deciding this problem consists in the development of orthogonal channels of transmission in order to divide signals from various users unambiguously on the reception part.

  17. Optimization of Molecular Approaches to Genogroup Neisseria meningitidis Carriage Isolates and Implications for Monitoring the Impact of New Serogroup B Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rojas

    Full Text Available The reservoir for Neisseria meningitidis (Nm is the human oropharynx. Implementation of Nm serogroup C (NmC glycoconjugate vaccines directly reduced NmC carriage. Prophylactic vaccines are now available to prevent disease caused by the five major Nm disease causing serogroups (ABCWY. Nm serogroup B (NmB vaccines are composed of antigens that are conserved across Nm serogroups and therefore have the potential to impact all Nm carriage. To assess the effect of these vaccines on carriage, standardized approaches to identify and group Nm are required. Real-time PCR (rt-PCR capsule grouping assays that were internally controlled to confirm Nm species were developed for eight serogroups associated with carriage (A, B, C, E, W, X, Y and Z. The grouping scheme was validated using diverse bacterial species associated with carriage and then used to evaluate a collection of diverse Nm carriage isolates (n=234. A scheme that also included porA and ctrA probes was able to speciate the isolates, while ctrA also provided insights on the integrity of the polysaccharide loci. Isolates were typed for the Nm vaccine antigen factor H binding protein (fHbp, and were found to represent the known diversity of this antigen. The porA rt-PCR yielded positive results with all 234 of the Nm carriage isolates. Genogrouping assays classified 76.5% (179/234 of these isolates to a group, categorized 53 as nongenogroupable (NGG and two as mixed results. Thirty seven NGG isolates evidenced a disrupted capsular polysaccharide operon judged by a ctrA negative result. Only 28.6% (67/234 of the isolates were serogrouped by slide agglutination (SASG, highlighting the reduced capability of carriage strains to express capsular polysaccharide. These rt-PCR assays provide a comprehensive means to identify and genogroup N. meningitidis in carriage studies used to guide vaccination strategies and to assess the impact of novel fHbp containing vaccines on meningococcal carriage.

  18. 78 FR 79071 - National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity (United States)


    ... intended to develop a robust national maritime strategy. Stakeholders were asked to provide their ideas for... Maritime Administration National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity... listen-only information January 10, 2014. distributed to registrants. National Maritime Strategy...

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuland, E A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325855633; Al Naiemi, N; Kaiser, A M; Heck, M; Kluytmans, J A J W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323262139; Savelkoul, P H M; Elders, P J M; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in a representative sample of the general adult Dutch community, to identify risk factors and to gain understanding of the epidemiology of these resistant strains.

  20. Dried saliva spots : A robust method for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krone, Cassandra L.; Oja, Anna E.; van de Groep, Kirsten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413649776; Sanders, Elisabeth A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126771960; Bogaert, Debby|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/264105834; Trzcinski, Krzysztof|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323349609


    The earliest studies in the late 19th century on Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) carriage used saliva as the primary specimen. However, interest in saliva declined after the sensitive mouse inoculation method was replaced by conventional culture, which made isolation of pneumococci from the

  1. 78 FR 76332 - Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Liability for... (United States)


    ... INFORMATION: Section 4062 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, provides that... group (``the employer'') incur liability (``employer liability'') if the plan terminates with assets... 30 percent of the employer's net worth. Section 4062.6 of PBGC's employer liability regulation (29...

  2. Incidence, Carriage and Case-Carrier Ratios for Meningococcal Meningitis in the African Meningitis Belt: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Koutangni, Thibaut; Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Mueller, Judith E.


    Background To facilitate the interpretation of meningococcal meningitis epidemiology in the “African meningitis belt”, we aimed at obtaining serogroup-specific pooled estimates of incidence, carriage and case-carrier ratios for meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt and describe their variations across the endemic, hyperendemic and epidemic context. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting serogroup-specific meningococcal meningitis monthly incidence and carriage in the same population and time period. Epidemiological contexts were defined as endemic (wet season, no epidemic), hyperendemic (dry season, no epidemic), and epidemic (dry season, epidemic). Findings Eight studies reporting a total of eighty pairs of serogroup-specific meningococcal meningitis incidence and carriage estimates were included in this review. For serogroup A, changes associated with the transition from endemic to hyperendemic incidence and from hyperendemic to epidemic incidence were 15-fold and 120-fold respectively. Changes in carriage prevalence associated with both transitions were 1-fold and 30-fold respectively. 
For serogroup W and X, the transition from endemic to hyperendemic incidence involved a 4-fold and 1•1-fold increase respectively. Increases in carriage prevalence for the later transition were 7-fold and 1•7-fold respectively. No data were available for the hyperendemic-epidemic transition for these serogroups. Our findings suggested that the regular seasonal variation in serogroup A meningococcal meningitis incidence between the rainy and the dry season could be mainly driven by seasonal change in the ratio of clinical cases to subclinical infections. In contrast appearance of epidemic incidences is related to a substantial increase in transmission and colonisation and to lesser extent with changes in the case-carrier ratio. Conclusion Seasonal change in the rate of progression to disease given carriage

  3. Biocompatible Mater Constructed Microneedle Arrays as a Novel Vaccine Adjuvant- Delivery System for Cutaneous and Mucosal Vaccination. (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Ning


    Vaccination is the most cost-effective and the best prophylactic strategy for the treatment of many diseases and, therefore, is widely used to improve human health. However, currently, most vaccines are given by injection which has a number of intrinsic disadvantages, such as inoculation needing professionals, waste metal needle pollution and infection, and low vaccination compliance. To overcome these drawbacks, in the past two decades a variety of microneedles have been developed and these are increasingly being widely tried to deliver vaccines due to many prominent advantages, such as their convenience, and effectiveness, over other delivery systems. In particular, the biocompatible material-constituted microneedle arrays (bioMMAs) that are fabricated with biocompatible materials in the form of a matrix or formulated micro/nanoparticles, such as liposomes, PLA/PLGA/ chitosan nanoparticles, hydrogels, polyelectrolyte multiplelayers (PEMs), plasmids, and nonvirulent pathogens, have proven an effective and stable vaccine adjuvant-delivery system (VADS) allowing painless vaccination via the cutaneous or mucosal route by minimally trained workers or by self-administration. When given to mammals through the skin or oral mucosa where affluent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as Langerhans cells, dendritic cells and macrophages, are actively patrolling for immune surveillance, the bioMMAs can efficiently elicit robust systemic as well as mucosal immunoresponses against the loaded antigens. In addition, when different vaccine adjuvants, such as TLR (toll-like receptor) ligands, have been incorporated, the bioMMAs can govern and redirect the immunoresponse toward a Th1, Th2 or a mixed Th1/Th2 pathway to establish cellular and humoral immunity to the target pathogens. In this review, various types of bioMMAs used as a VADS are described to show the latest advances and their diverse uses and potential applications in vaccine-related fields.

  4. Propaganda and alternative countermeasures for road safety. Lecture, Brussels, January 1969 for Fondation d'Étude en Recherche.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, D.J.


    1. Knowledge of the psychology of driving behaviour is incomplete and does not in fact deserve the name if it is to be limited to conditions existing ''inside'' the driver. 2. Compared to other opportunities for influencing driving behaviour, in particular those involving ''external'' circumstances,

  5. Artium mater in relativistic astrophysics : New perspectives for a European-Latin American PhD program (United States)

    Chardonnet, Pascal


    extra-European connections with Brazil, China and India will be guaranteed: in China, with the Shanghai Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Science, studying the formation and evolution of large-scale structure and galaxies; in India, with the Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP), renowned for its research on compact objects as well as on solar physics and astrochemistry; in Brazil with ICRANet Brazil where a successful program of research and teaching in relativistic astrophysics has been established in recent years.

  6. MARCOnI-ConvNet-Based MARker-Less Motion Capture in Outdoor and Indoor Scenes. (United States)

    Elhayek, A; de Aguiar, E; Jain, A; Thompson, J; Pishchulin, L; Andriluka, M; Bregler, C; Schiele, B; Theobalt, C


    Marker-less motion capture has seen great progress, but most state-of-the-art approaches fail to reliably track articulated human body motion with a very low number of cameras, let alone when applied in outdoor scenes with general background. In this paper, we propose a method for accurate marker-less capture of articulated skeleton motion of several subjects in general scenes, indoors and outdoors, even from input filmed with as few as two cameras. The new algorithm combines the strengths of a discriminative image-based joint detection method with a model-based generative motion tracking algorithm through an unified pose optimization energy. The discriminative part-based pose detection method is implemented using Convolutional Networks (ConvNet) and estimates unary potentials for each joint of a kinematic skeleton model. These unary potentials serve as the basis of a probabilistic extraction of pose constraints for tracking by using weighted sampling from a pose posterior that is guided by the model. In the final energy, we combine these constraints with an appearance-based model-to-image similarity term. Poses can be computed very efficiently using iterative local optimization, since joint detection with a trained ConvNet is fast, and since our formulation yields a combined pose estimation energy with analytic derivatives. In combination, this enables to track full articulated joint angles at state-of-the-art accuracy and temporal stability with a very low number of cameras. Our method is efficient and lends itself to implementation on parallel computing hardware, such as GPUs. We test our method extensively and show its advantages over related work on many indoor and outdoor data sets captured by ourselves, as well as data sets made available to the community by other research labs. The availability of good evaluation data sets is paramount for scientific progress, and many existing test data sets focus on controlled indoor settings, do not feature much variety

  7. Testing of a compact 10-Gbps Lasercomm system for maritime platforms (United States)

    Juarez, Juan C.; Souza, Katherine T.; Nicholes, Dustin D.; Riggins, James L.; Tomey, Hala J.; Venkat, Radha A.


    Lasercomm technology continues to be of interest for many applications both in the commercial and defense sectors because of its potential to provide high bandwidth communications that are secure without the need for RF spectrum management. Over the last decade, terrestrial Lasercomm development has progressed from initial experiments in the lab through field demonstrations in airborne and maritime environments. While these demonstrations have shown high capability levels, the complexity, size, weight, and power of the systems has slowed transition into fielded systems. This paper presents field test results of a recently developed maritime Lasercomm terminal and modem architecture with a compact form factor for enabling robust, 10-Gbps class data transport over highly scintillated links as found in terrestrial applications such as air-to-air, air-to-surface, and surface-to-surface links.

  8. An introduction to the Research Innovation and Knowledge Management Roadmap for the South African Maritime Sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES & ACTIONS We have a maritime culture and recognise and learn from our maritime history 1 Foster national maritime pride 3 Develop and communicate a co-authored discourse on South Africa’s maritime history 2 Support maritime historical..., collaboration and knowledge sharing 3 Strengthen networks between schools, HEIs and industry 4 Promote collaboration in the maritime sector with a focus on education and training 3 Create a co-ordinating body 1 Reduce “Red tape” 2 Create funding...

  9. Operational energy capability portfolio analysis for protection of maritime forces against small boat swarms


    Cheang, Whye Kin Melvin


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This research examines the requirements of a capability portfolio for protecting a maritime force against a conventional small boat swarm attack. It provides decision makers with insights gleaned from exploring the trade space between weapon consumption, fuel consumption, and cost against the need to protect the force. Such an attack can deplete a force's resources and create risk to overall mission accomplishment. In this research, th...

  10. Influence of the Summer Marine Layer on Maritime Chaparral and Implications for Conservation Policy in the California Coastal Zone


    Vasey, Michael Charles


    Influence of the Summer Marine Layer on Maritime Chaparral and Implications for Conservation Policy in the California Coastal ZoneMichael C. VaseyThe California coast is renowned for its exceptional diversity of local endemic species, particularly in evergreen, sclerophyllous shrubland known as maritime chaparral. This species rich, fire-adapted shrubland is typical of other regions in the world with Mediterranean-type climates characterized by cool, wet winters and long, dry summers. Th...

  11. Financial Institutions, the Environment and Liability of Financing: the Financing Paper for Induction of Conduct Sustainable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alebe Linhares Mesquita


    Full Text Available This study has the scope to analyze as currently happens to liability financing institutions for environmental damage. Justifies the analysis because of the few and restricted references that deign to examine the issue, in addition to the basic need for renewed discussion of the responsibility matrix of institutions that benefit from lending. They also observed the need that all requirements for the issuance of new investments are reviewed in light of a Social Environmental Responsibility Policy. It will be brief comments on the legal framework for environmental liability, designed to promote a better understanding of the principles applicable. In order to give concreteness to the study, analyzes the importance of licensing and other impact assessment tools as part of an internal mitigation system risk of damage and consequent accountability.

  12. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Precipitation, 1971-2000 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the...

  13. Designing for Inter-Organizational Coordination in Indonesia’s Maritime Domain (United States)


    Indonesia uses geospatial analysis to determine the gravity of the maritime issues. These incidents then can be grouped into clusters to identify the types...of gravity for the network in accordance with its role as the coordinator to ensure the network is running well. However, a very different picture...civilization. In L. C. Freeman (Ed.), Centrality in social Networks conceptual clarification (pp. 1). Bethlehem : Department of Social Relations. Corteville

  14. Nuclear energy: liability for damage to the environment according to the National Environmental Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiras, Sergio Alves; Couto, Roberto Toscano [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Liability for damage of the environment is the kind of subject which arouses heated debates in the nuclear energy field among the jurists. Brazil lacks a specific environmental law upon which settlement on questions of nuclear damage could be based. In spite of such lackness, considerable progress has been achieved with the obligatory elaboration of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the constitutional rules establishing competence and responsibilities on this matter, and some scattered laws. The objective of this work is to focus the responsibility of the Union that exercised the monopoly of nuclear activities, its agents and the team of experts which elaborate the EIA as well as the damage to the environment from a nuclear accident. This study is based on the legal definitions of nuclear reactor, radioactive waste and product, radioisotope, among others. It also focuses some proposed amendments of the law regulating both the civil and criminal liabilities for nuclear damage. (author). 7 refs.

  15. A comparative analysis of dynamic range compression techniques in IR images for maritime applications (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Acito, Nicola; Diani, Marco; Luison, Cristian; Olivieri, Monica; Barani, Gianni


    Modern thermal cameras acquire IR images with a high dynamic range because they have to sense with high thermal resolution the great temperature changes of monitored scenarios in specific surveillance applications. Initially developed for visible light images and recently extended for display of IR images, high dynamic range compression (HDRC) techniques aim at furnishing plain images to human operators for a first intuitive comprehension of the sensed scenario without altering the features of IR images. In this context, the maritime scenario represents a challenging case to test and develop HDRC strategies since images collected for surveillance at sea are typically characterized by high thermal gradients among the background scene and classes of objects at different temperatures. In the development of a new IRST system, Selex ES assembled a demonstrator equipped with modern thermal cameras and planned a measurement campaign on a maritime scenario so as to collect IR sequences in different operating conditions. This has led to build up a case record of situations suitable to test HDRC techniques. In this work, a survey of HDRC approaches is introduced pointing out advantages and drawbacks with focus on strategies specifically designed to display IR images. A detailed analysis of the performance is discussed in order to address the task of visualization with reference to typical issues of IR maritime images, such as robustness to the horizon effect and displaying of very warm objects and flat areas.

  16. «…For our happy childhood»: juvenile criminal liability in soviet legislation of 1920–1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еvgeny F. Krinko


    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the dynamics of juvenile criminal liability in Soviet legislation of 1920–1940 and states tightening penalties for young and juvenile offenders under rise in child crime.

  17. Quasi and real toughening of criminal liability for mediation of bribery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya V. Rogova


    Full Text Available Objective to identify the disputable issues of criminallegal regulation and problems of criminal law norms application establishing liability for mediation in bribery. Basing on the analysis to propose ways to resolve some of them. Methods for the accuracy and completeness general and special methods of scientific cognition were applied. The general methods include historicallegal logicallegal comparative legal methods systemic analysis and synthesis. Special methods are study of documents and content analysis expert evaluation method. Results the authors came to a conclusion about the need to reform the law concerning the criminal liability for mediation in bribery. One of the solutions to the problem is to change the disposition of Article 291.1 of the Criminal Code. However a comprehensive analysis of the problems of application of this regulation and the norms of the General part of the Criminal Code indicates that there is no need to legislatively confirm the criminal liability for mediation in bribery. Scientific novelty the complex analysis of problems of the application of Article 291.1 of the RF Criminal Code has been made which serves as the basis to justify the inconsistency of this provision of the criminal law a proposal is made to make amendments in the norms of the General part of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation relating to the concept of accomplice of the crime. Practical significance the results can be used in the reforming of criminal legislation of the Russian Federation and also at the further research of problems of differentiation of liability for bribery.

  18. Optimal Entropy-Based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Maritime Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Ejaz


    Full Text Available Maritime cognitive radio networks (MCRNs have recently been proposed for opportunistic utilization of the licensed band. Spectrum sensing is one of the key issues for the successful deployment of the MCRNs. The maritime environment is unique in terms of radio wave propagation over water, surface reflection and wave occlusions. In order to deal with the challenging maritime environment, we proposed an optimal entropy-based cooperative spectrum sensing. As the results of spectrum sensing are sensitive to the number of samples in an entropy-based local detection scheme, we first calculated the optimal number of samples. Next, a cooperative spectrum sensing scheme considering the conditions of the sea environment is proposed. Finally, the throughput optimization of the m-out-of-n rule is considered. Results revealed that although the existing schemes work well for the lower sea states, they fail to perform at higher sea states. Moreover, simulation results also indicated the robustness of the entropy-based scheme and the proposed cooperative spectrum sensing scheme at higher sea states in comparison with the traditional energy detector.

  19. Introducing GIS to TransNav and its Extensive Maritime Application: An Innovative Tool for Intelligent Decision Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica M. Baylon


    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce GIS, its definition, principle, application in any discipline particularly maritime, its process, data sets and features and its benefits to maritime and universities. Specifically, the paper intends to provide an overview of its wide applications in maritime including but not limited to marine transportation, marine environment, port management and operation, maritime education and training (MET and maritime research. GIS simplest task is in mapping and visualization. But its most important function is in spatial analysis. Spatial analysis takes into account the location, geometry, topology, and relationships of geographic data, which lend itself to intelligent decision making. GIS is not just for researchers and students. GIS is especially useful for decision makers such as: managers, administrators, and directors of large and small projects. Scenarios are “seen” and analyzed even before events happen. To planners and decision makers, this is very important because they can assess the impact of events or scenario and may save a lot of time, effort, and money before implementing the actual project. An additional skill on GIS when learned or thought would certainly result to a technically competent maritime global workforce. The paper would provide ideas on possible areas for collaborations among TransNav member institutions for data sharing which may be processed and analyzed by a GIS specialist.

  20. Engaging Law Enforcement in Overdose Reversal Initiatives: Authorization and Liability for Naloxone Administration. (United States)

    Davis, Corey S; Carr, Derek; Southwell, Jessica K; Beletsky, Leo


    Opioid overdose is reversible through the timely administration of naloxone, which has been used by emergency medical services for decades. Law enforcement officers (LEOs) are often the first emergency responders to arrive at an overdose, but they are not typically equipped with naloxone. This is rapidly changing; more than 220 law enforcement agencies in 24 states now carry naloxone. However, rollout in some departments has been hampered by concerns regarding officer and agency liability. We systematically examined the legal risk associated with LEO naloxone administration. LEOs can be authorized to administer naloxone through a variety of mechanisms, and liability risks related to naloxone administration are similar to or lower than those of other activities in which LEOs commonly engage.

  1. Synthesizing Dynamic Patterns by Spatial-Temporal Generative ConvNet


    Xie, Jianwen; Zhu, Song-Chun; Wu, Ying Nian


    Video sequences contain rich dynamic patterns, such as dynamic texture patterns that exhibit stationarity in the temporal domain, and action patterns that are non-stationary in either spatial or temporal domain. We show that a spatial-temporal generative ConvNet can be used to model and synthesize dynamic patterns. The model defines a probability distribution on the video sequence, and the log probability is defined by a spatial-temporal ConvNet that consists of multiple layers of spatial-tem...

  2. PACFEST 2004 : enabling technologies for maritime security in the Pacific region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Chellis, Craig (Pacific Disaster Center, Kihei, HI)


    In October of 2003 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the Pacific region met to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorming (a 'fest') on the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result was a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrations of advanced technological solutions to these issues. Since PacFest 2003, the maritime dimensions of the international security environment have garnered increased attention and interest. To this end, PacFest 2004 sought to identify gaps and enabling technologies for maritime domain awareness and responsive decision-making in the Asia-Pacific region. The PacFest 2004 participants concluded that the technologies and basic information building blocks exist to create a system that would enable the Pacific region government and private organizations to effectively collaborate and share their capabilities and information concerning maritime security. The proposed solution summarized in this report integrates national environments in real time, thereby enabling effective prevention and first response to natural and terrorist induced disasters through better use of national and regional investments in people, infrastructure, systems, processes and standards.

  3. Maritime wideband communication networks video transmission scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tingting


    This Springer Brief covers emerging maritime wideband communication networks and how they facilitate applications such as maritime distress, urgency, safety and general communications. It provides valuable insight on the data transmission scheduling and protocol design for the maritime wideband network. This brief begins with an introduction to maritime wideband communication networks including the architecture, framework, operations and a comprehensive survey on current developments. The second part of the brief presents the resource allocation and scheduling for video packet transmission wit

  4. Impacts of the Pacific meridional mode on rainfall over the maritime continent and australia: potential for seasonal predictions (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel A.


    This study assesses whether, the extent to which and why the Pacific Meridional Mode (PMM) modulates rainfall in Australia and the Maritime Continent. We find a statistically significant time-lagged association between March-to-May (MAM) PMM and September-to-November (SON) rainfall in the Maritime Continent and Australia. The association is largely caused by the contribution of PMM to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Positive (negative) MAM PMM is generally followed by El Niño (La Niña) events in the following SON and December-to-February (DJF), which then suppresses (enhances) rainfall in the Maritime Continent and Australia. The suppression (enhancement) of rainfall is closely tied to the dynamical changes of moisture flux using moisture flux potential and its divergent components. Following the positive (negative) PMM phases, there is a strong moisture flux potential sink (source) in SON over the Maritime Continent and Australia, which act to suppress (enhance) rainfall there. Using MAM PMM as a predictor for SON rainfall in the Maritime Continent and Australia, the prediction skill is comparable to the North American Multimodel Ensemble project (NMME) forecasts initialized in June over the period 1981-2014. This suggests that MAM PMM may be used as a predictor for SON rainfall in the Maritime Continent and Australia.

  5. Integrity Analysis of Real-Time Ppp Technique with Igs-Rts Service for Maritime Navigation (United States)

    El-Diasty, M.


    Open sea and inland waterways are the most widely used mode for transporting goods worldwide. It is the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that defines the requirements for position fixing equipment for a worldwide radio-navigation system, in terms of accuracy, integrity, continuity, availability and coverage for the various phases of navigation. Satellite positioning systems can contribute to meet these requirements, as well as optimize marine transportation. Marine navigation usually consists of three major phases identified as Ocean/Coastal/Port approach/Inland waterway, in port navigation and automatic docking with alert limit ranges from 25 m to 0.25 m. GPS positioning is widely used for many applications and is currently recognized by IMO for a future maritime navigation. With the advancement in autonomous GPS positioning techniques such as Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and with the advent of new real-time GNSS correction services such as IGS-Real-Time-Service (RTS), it is necessary to investigate the integrity of the PPP-based positioning technique along with IGS-RTS service in terms of availability and reliability for safe navigation in maritime application. This paper monitors the integrity of an autonomous real-time PPP-based GPS positioning system using the IGS real-time service (RTS) for maritime applications that require minimum availability of integrity of 99.8 % to fulfil the IMO integrity standards. To examine the integrity of the real-time IGS-RTS PPP-based technique for maritime applications, kinematic data from a dual frequency GPS receiver is collected onboard a vessel and investigated with the real-time IGS-RTS PPP-based GPS positioning technique. It is shown that the availability of integrity of the real-time IGS-RTS PPP-based GPS solution is 100 % for all navigation phases and therefore fulfil the IMO integrity standards (99.8 % availability) immediately (after 1 second), after 2 minutes and after 42 minutes of convergence

  6. Evaluation of the educational impact of a special study module on maritime medicine for medical undergraduate students. (United States)

    McCarthy, Nora; O'Flynn, Siun; Murphy, John; Barry, David; Canals, Maria Luisa


    The hazardous occupation of seafaring brings many unique medical challenges. Despite its international nature, maritime medicine does not typically form a part of undergraduate medical studies. A unique and innovative, optional student-selected module (SSM) 'maritime medicine' was offered to medical students. A key objective was to develop students' attitudes to maritime medicine and increase their awareness of the discipline and its specialised nature. The aim of this study was to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the educational impact of the maritime medicine SSM and to improve the module content and design for future academic years. Students' perceived relevance and knowledge before and after the module was assessed using a Likert-based questionnaire. Comparison was made with controls in the post module100 multiple choice question (MCQ) paper. Qualitative feedback was obtained from semi-structured focus student discussion groups and the questionnaire's free comments section. A significant increase in perceived knowledge was seen between pre and post module p timetabling and enjoyment. This unique and innovative maritime medicine module harnessed local expertise and raised the awareness and profile of maritime medicine among undergraduate medical students. It was very well received and had a significant educational impact. Practical teaching methods were highly valued by students, with these areas also performing best in quantitative analysis.

  7. Oral cannabidiol does not produce a signal for abuse liability in frequent marijuana smokers. (United States)

    Babalonis, Shanna; Haney, Margaret; Malcolm, Robert J; Lofwall, Michelle R; Votaw, Victoria R; Sparenborg, Steven; Walsh, Sharon L


    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of the marijuana plant. In the past few years, there has been great interest in the therapeutic effects of isolated CBD and it is currently being explored for numerous disease conditions (e.g., pain, epilepsy, cancer, various drug dependencies). However, CBD remains a Schedule I drug on the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Despite its status, there are no well-controlled data available regarding its abuse liability. Healthy, frequent marijuana users (n=31) were enrolled in this within subject, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multisite study that administered oral cannabidiol (0, 200, 400, 800mg) alone and in combination with smoked marijuana (0.01%, 5.3-5.8% THC). Participants received one dose combination across 8 once-weekly outpatient sessions (7.5h). The primary findings on the drug interaction effects were previously reported (Haney et al., 2016). The present study is a secondary analysis of the data to examine the abuse liability profile of oral cannabidiol (200, 400, 800mg) in comparison to oral placebo and active smoked marijuana (5.3-5.8% THC). Active marijuana reliably produced abuse-related subjective effects (e.g., high) (p0.05). Overall, CBD did not display any signals of abuse liability at the doses tested and these data may help inform U.S. regulatory decisions regarding CBD schedule on the CSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral cannabidiol does not produce a signal for abuse liability in frequent marijuana smokers (United States)

    Babalonis, Shanna; Haney, Margaret; Malcolm, Robert J.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Votaw, Victoria R.; Sparenborg, Steven; Walsh, Sharon L.


    Background Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of the marijuana plant. In the past few years, there has been great interest in the therapeutic effects of isolated CBD and it is currently being explored for numerous disease conditions (e.g., pain, epilepsy, cancer, various drug dependencies). However, CBD remains a Schedule I drug on the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Despite its status, there are no well-controlled data available regarding its abuse liability. Methods Healthy, frequent marijuana users (n=31) were enrolled in this within subject, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multisite study that administered oral cannabidiol (0, 200, 400, 800 mg) alone and in combination with smoked marijuana (0.01%, 5.3-5.8% THC). Participants received one dose combination across 8 once-weekly outpatient sessions (7.5 hrs). The primary findings on the drug interaction effects were previously reported (Haney et al., 2016). The present study is a secondary analysis of the data to examine the abuse liability profile of oral cannabidiol (200, 400, 800 mg) in comparison to oral placebo and active smoked marijuana (5.3-5.8% THC). Results Active marijuana reliably produced abuse-related subjective effects (e.g., high) (p.05). Conclusions Overall, CBD did not display any signals of abuse liability at the doses tested and these data may help inform U.S. regulatory decisions regarding CBD schedule on the CSA. PMID:28088032

  9. Induced seismicity and the potential for liability under U.S. law (United States)

    Cypser, Darlene A.; Davis, Scott D.


    Research by seismologists over the past 30+ years has firmly established that some human activities induce seismicity. Sometimes induced seismicity causes injuries to people or property. The activities which induce seismicity generally involve extraction of energy, or natural resources, or the disposal of wastes. As the human population increases these extraction and disposal activities will increase in number of sites and intensity of effort as the demands become greater and the resources scarcer. With these increases the number and severity of damaging induced earthquakes is likely to increase. Induced seismicity may cause injuries by vibrations or by seismically induced ground failure. In either case compensation for injuries caused by induced seismicity should be paid for by the inducer. In the United States the inducer of damaging seismicity can be made to pay for the harm caused. Liability for damage caused by vibrations can be based on several legal theories: trespass, strict liability, negligence and nuisance. Our research revealed no cases in which an appellate court has upheld or rejected the application of tort liability to an induced earthquake situation. However, there are numerous analogous cases that support the application of these legal theories to induced seismicity. Vibrations or concussions due to blasting or heavy machinery are sometimes viewed as a `trespass' analogous to a physical invasion. In some states activities which induce earthquakes might be considered `abnormally dangerous' activities that require companies engaged in them to pay for injuries the quakes cause regardless of how careful the inducers were. In some circumstances, a court may find that an inducer was negligent in its site selection or in maintenance of the project. If induced seismicity interferes with the use or enjoyment of another's land, then the inducing activity may be a legal nuisance, even if the seismicity causes little physical damage. In most states of the

  10. Comparing Different Approaches for Mapping Urban Vegetation Cover from Landsat ETM+ Data: A Case Study on Brussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Canters


    Full Text Available Urban growth and its related environmental problems call for sustainable urban management policies to safeguard the quality of urban environments. Vegetation plays an important part in this as it provides ecological, social, health and economic benefits to a city’s inhabitants. Remotely sensed data are of great value to monitor urban green and despite the clear advantages of contemporary high resolution images, the benefits of medium resolution data should not be discarded. The objective of this research was to estimate fractional vegetation cover from a Landsat ETM+ image with sub-pixel classification, and to compare accuracies obtained with multiple stepwise regression analysis, linear spectral unmixing and multi-layer perceptrons (MLP at the level of meaningful urban spatial entities. Despite the small, but nevertheless statistically significant differences at pixel level between the alternative approaches, the spatial pattern of vegetation cover and estimation errors is clearly distinctive at neighbourhood level. At this spatially aggregated level, a simple regression model appears to attain sufficient accuracy. For mapping at a spatially more detailed level, the MLP seems to be the most appropriate choice. Brightness normalisation only appeared to affect the linear models, especially the linear spectral unmixing.

  11. In our common interest: Liability and redress for damage caused to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those instruments that do, however, contain a liability regime, reveal serious flaws to the degree that not all categories of armed conflict are attended to and only criminal sanctions (with no civil liability) are envisaged, coupled with the significant failure to extend liability to States Parties. Some international instruments fail to ...

  12. Development and testing of the central computer and sequencer for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft (United States)

    Lingon, U. S.


    The central computer and sequencer subsystem has been an important part of the Mariner series of interplanetary spacecraft since their inception. As with other spacecraft subsystems, the CC&S has increased in complexity and capability with each spacecraft project. This report describes the design, fabrication, and test associated with the development of the Mariner Mars 1971 CC&S subsystem.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szyda


    Full Text Available Internet commerce in Poland is growing rapidly, entering into new industries and of-fering a wider and wider range of goods and services. For electronic commerce is open maritime industry, as evidenced by the maritime e-commerce. This aspect of e-commerce is not a popular topic of publications and research. In this article the author presents the genesis of electronic commerce in the maritime industry taking into account the particular business relationship business-to-business (B2B. Then attempt to characterize maritime e-commerce in business-to-customer (B2C relationship. The purpose of this article is to identify the attributes of internet commerce in the maritime industry, having particular re-gard to Polish online market, especially retail.

  14. Administração por convênios, um instrumento gerencial de políticas: uma análise dos convênios da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo - 1987 Administration by agreement a management tool of health policies: an analysis of agreements made by the Health Secretariat of S. Paulo State, Brazil - 1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Naked de Castro Sá


    Full Text Available Foi realizada análise dos 1.141 convênios vigentes no primeiro semestre de 1987, celebrados pela Secretaria de Saúde do Estado de São Paulo, segundo os objetivos dos convênios e entidades conveniadas. Foram consideradas as potencialidades do convênio como instrumento de execução de políticas públicas de saúde e as necessidades de resposta organizacional da Secretaria para definição, acompanhamento, avaliação e controle dos convênios. Foram recomendadas algumas medidas para aumentar o rendimento de ações conveniadas para aperfeiçoar a expressão orçamentário-financeira da administração por convênios, com base num plano abrangente das ações de saúde.Research was carried out into 1,141 agreements made by the State Health Department of S. Paulo State, Brazil, and which were in force during the first semester of 1987. An analysis was made of the objectives of the agreements and the entities with which they were made and of the potentialities of the agreements as such as tools for the execution of public health policies as well as of the need for an organizational answer on the part of the State Health Department for the definition, follow-up and control of the agreements. Some patterns of action with a view to increasing the efficacy of the activities agreed on, for the improvement of the budgetary and financial expressions of the administration by means of agreements, on the overall basis of comprehensive planning of health actions, are recommended.

  15. Automatic slice identification in 3D medical images with a ConvNet regressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Bob D.; Viergever, Max A.; de Jong, Pim A.; Išgum, Ivana


    Identification of anatomical regions of interest is a prerequisite in many medical image analysis tasks. We propose a method that automatically identifies a slice of interest (SOI) in 3D images with a convolutional neural network (ConvNet) regressor. In 150 chest CT scans two reference slices were

  16. Varying high levels of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in rural villages in Shandong, China: implications for global health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is considered a major threat to global health and is affected by many factors, of which antibiotic use is probably one of the more important. Other factors include hygiene, crowding and travel. The rapid resistance spread in Gram-negative bacteria, in particular extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E, is a global challenge, leading to increased mortality, morbidity and health systems costs worldwide. Knowledge about resistance in commensal flora is limited, including in China. Our aim was to establish the faecal carriage rates of ESBL-E and find its association with known and suspected risk factors in rural residents of all ages in three socio-economically different counties in the Shandong Province, China. Faecal samples and risk-factor information (questionnaire were collected in 2012. ESBL-E carriage was screened using ChromID ESBL agar. Risk factors were analysed using standard statistical methods. Data from 1000 individuals from three counties and in total 18 villages showed a high and varying level of ESBL-E carriage. Overall, 42% were ESBL-E carriers. At county level the carriage rates were 49%, 45% and 31%, respectively, and when comparing individual villages (n = 18 the rate varied from 22% to 64%. The high level of ESBL-E carriage among rural residents in China is an indication of an exploding global challenge in the years to come as resistance spreads among bacteria and travels around the world with the movement of people and freight. A high carriage rate of ESBL-E increases the risk of infection with multi-resistant bacteria, and thus the need for usage of last resort antibiotics, such as carbapenems and colistin, in the treatment of common infections.

  17. Inter-professional Perinatal Simulation training: A valuable educational model to improve competencies amongst student midwives in Brussels, Belgium. (United States)

    Vermeulen, Joeri; Beeckman, Katrien; De Clercq, Gerlinde; Vandelannoote, Isabelle; Gucciardo, Léonardo; Laubach, Monika; Swinnen, Eva


    Simulation training is a powerful and evidence-based teaching method for students and healthcare professionals. The described educational model of Inter-professional Perinatal Simulation training is the result of a collaborative project with the Erasmus University College Brussels, the Medical School of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and the University Hospital Brussels. This model enhances student midwives to acquire competencies in all fields of midwifery according to national and European legislation and to the International Confederation of Midwives Global Standards for Midwifery Education. In our educational program, simulation training enhanced the achievement of decision-making and inter-professional communication competences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Moment Method Calculation of Reflection Coefficient for Waveguide Elements in a Finite Planar Phased Antenna Array (United States)


    CONV[RGLN’t. TIS1 - fOR RL($ JIRED NUJMBER OF OVERLAPPING PIECEIIISE- SINUSOIDAL EXPANSION FUNCTIONS PER APERTURE 120 REFLECTION COEFFICIENT 1ABULATIOIN...12. N. N. Wang , J. H. Richmond, and M. C. Gilreath, "Sinusoidal Reaction Formulation for Radiation and Scattering from Con- ducting Surfaces," IEEE...S. M. Selby, CRC Standard Mathematical Tables, 19th Edition, The Chemical Rubber Co., 1971, p. 43H. 37. J. H. Pichmond and N. Wang , "Sinusoidal

  19. Self-reported load carriage injuries of military soldiers. (United States)

    Orr, Robin Marc; Coyle, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Pope, Rodney


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational load carriage constitutes a significant source of injury to military soldiers. An online survey was sent to soldiers serving in specific Australian Army Corps known to experience the greatest occupational exposure to load carriage. Of the 338 respondents, 34% sustained at least one load carriage injury. Fifty-two per cent of those injured during initial training reported sustaining an additional load carriage injury. The majority of injuries (61%) were to the lower limbs with bones and joints the most frequently injured body structures (39%). Endurance marching (continuous marching as part of a physical training session) was the activity accounting for most (38%) injuries. Occupational load carriage is associated with military soldier injuries and, once injured, soldiers are at a high risk of future load carriage injury. The bodily sites and nature of self-reported injuries in this study are akin to those of formally reported injuries and those of other militaries.

  20. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Precipitation, 1971-2000 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of...

  1. The Systems Integration of Autonomous Behavior Analysis to Create a "Maritime Smart Environment" for the Enhancement of Maritime Domain Awareness (United States)


    Scene Understanding ( ASU ) System...........52 3. Comprehensive Maritime Awareness (CMA).................................54 4. Maritime Automated...Intelligence AIS – Automated Information System, Automated Identification System ASU – Automated Scene Understanding ASUW – Anti-surface Warfare ASW – Anti...Sonar (ALFS) and greatly increases sonobuoy and acoustic signal processing using a Commercial of the Shelf (COTS) Enhanced Modular Signal Processor. In

  2. 29 CFR 18.411 - Liability insurance. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Liability insurance. 18.411 Section 18.411 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.411 Liability insurance... evidence of insurance against liability when offered for another purpose, such as proof of agency...

  3. 33 CFR 401.23 - Liability insurance. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability insurance. 401.23....23 Liability insurance. (a) It is a condition of approval of an application for preclearance that the vessel is covered by liability insurance equal to or exceeding $100 per gross registered ton. (b) No...

  4. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, James R.


    The document represents the 1971 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with ''An Introduction to the Atomic Energy Programs during 1971'' followed by 3 Parts, each with various chapters, plus a final index. Parts and Chapters are as follows. Part One, Regulatory Activities, has Chapters (1) Licensing and Regulation; (2) Reactor Licensing; and (3) Materials Control. Part Two, Environmental Safety, has Chapters (4) Environmental Considerations; (5) Radioactive Wastes; and (6), Operational Safety. Part Three, Operating and Developmental Functions, has Chapters (7) National Defense; (8) Reactor Technology; (9) Nuclear Materials; (10) Applications Research; (11) Basic Research; (12) International Affairs; and, (13) Educational and Administrative.

  5. Relevance of carbon stocks of marine sediments for national greenhouse gas inventories of maritime nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvania Avelar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining national carbon stocks is essential in the framework of ongoing climate change mitigation actions. Presently, assessment of carbon stocks in the context of greenhouse gas (GHG-reporting on a nation-by-nation basis focuses on the terrestrial realm, i.e., carbon held in living plant biomass and soils, and on potential changes in these stocks in response to anthropogenic activities. However, while the ocean and underlying sediments store substantial quantities of carbon, this pool is presently not considered in the context of national inventories. The ongoing disturbances to both terrestrial and marine ecosystems as a consequence of food production, pollution, climate change and other factors, as well as alteration of linkages and C-exchange between continental and oceanic realms, highlight the need for a better understanding of the quantity and vulnerability of carbon stocks in both systems. We present a preliminary comparison of the stocks of organic carbon held in continental margin sediments within the Exclusive Economic Zone of maritime nations with those in their soils. Our study focuses on Namibia, where there is a wealth of marine sediment data, and draws comparisons with sediment data from two other countries with different characteristics, which are Pakistan and the United Kingdom. Results Results indicate that marine sediment carbon stocks in maritime nations can be similar in magnitude to those of soils. Therefore, if human activities in these areas are managed, carbon stocks in the oceanic realm—particularly over continental margins—could be considered as part of national GHG inventories. Conclusions This study shows that marine sediment organic carbon stocks can be equal in size or exceed terrestrial carbon stocks of maritime nations. This provides motivation both for improved assessment of sedimentary carbon inventories and for reevaluation of the way that carbon stocks are assessed and valued. The

  6. Relevance of carbon stocks of marine sediments for national greenhouse gas inventories of maritime nations. (United States)

    Avelar, Silvania; van der Voort, Tessa S; Eglinton, Timothy I


    Determining national carbon stocks is essential in the framework of ongoing climate change mitigation actions. Presently, assessment of carbon stocks in the context of greenhouse gas (GHG)-reporting on a nation-by-nation basis focuses on the terrestrial realm, i.e., carbon held in living plant biomass and soils, and on potential changes in these stocks in response to anthropogenic activities. However, while the ocean and underlying sediments store substantial quantities of carbon, this pool is presently not considered in the context of national inventories. The ongoing disturbances to both terrestrial and marine ecosystems as a consequence of food production, pollution, climate change and other factors, as well as alteration of linkages and C-exchange between continental and oceanic realms, highlight the need for a better understanding of the quantity and vulnerability of carbon stocks in both systems. We present a preliminary comparison of the stocks of organic carbon held in continental margin sediments within the Exclusive Economic Zone of maritime nations with those in their soils. Our study focuses on Namibia, where there is a wealth of marine sediment data, and draws comparisons with sediment data from two other countries with different characteristics, which are Pakistan and the United Kingdom. Results indicate that marine sediment carbon stocks in maritime nations can be similar in magnitude to those of soils. Therefore, if human activities in these areas are managed, carbon stocks in the oceanic realm-particularly over continental margins-could be considered as part of national GHG inventories. This study shows that marine sediment organic carbon stocks can be equal in size or exceed terrestrial carbon stocks of maritime nations. This provides motivation both for improved assessment of sedimentary carbon inventories and for reevaluation of the way that carbon stocks are assessed and valued. The latter carries potential implications for the management of

  7. Socioeconomic status and trends in disparities in 4 major risk factors for cardiovascular disease among US adults, 1971-2002. (United States)

    Kanjilal, Sanjat; Gregg, Edward W; Cheng, Yiling J; Zhang, Ping; Nelson, David E; Mensah, George; Beckles, Gloria L A


    It is unknown whether the previously recognized disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors related to annual income and educational level have diminished, persisted, or worsened in recent decades. The objective of this study was to examine 31-year trends in CVD risk factors by annual income and educational levels among US adults. Four cross-sectional national surveys were used: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (1971-1974), II (1976-1980), III (1988-1994), and 1999-2002. The main outcome measure was prevalence of high cholesterol (> or =240 mg/dL [> or =6.2 mmol/L]), high blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg), smoking, and diabetes mellitus. Between 1971 and 2002, the prevalence of all CVD risk factors, except diabetes, decreased in all income and education groups, but there has been little reduction in income- and education-related disparities in CVD risk factors and few improvements during the past 10 years. The prevalence of high blood pressure declined by about half in all income and education groups, ranging from 30.3% to 40.6% in 1971-1974 and 16.4% in 1999-2002, with the greatest reduction among those in the lowest income quartile and those with less than a high school education (18.0 and 15.9 percentage points, respectively). High cholesterol prevalence also declined in all groups and ranged from 28.8% to 32.4% in 1971-1974 and 15.3% to 22.0% in 1999-2002, with the largest decline (15.9 percentage points) among people with the highest incomes. Education- and income-related disparities in smoking widened considerably, because there were large declines in smoking prevalence among people with high incomes and education (from about 33% in 1971-1974 to about 14%-17% in 1999-2002) but only marginal reductions among those with low incomes and education (about 6-percentage point decline). Diabetes prevalence increased most among persons with low incomes and education. Despite the general success in reducing CVD risk factors in the US

  8. [The modified Brussels scale as a predictor of mortality in the Intensive Care Unit]. (United States)

    Sánchez Velázquez, L D; Carrillo-Muñoz, A; Díaz-Riveros, M A


    To compare discrimination and calibration of the modified Brussels score with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score version 3 (SAPS-3) in predicting mortality. A prospective cohort study was carried out. The Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of Mexico General Hospital. A total of 251 patients out of 285 admissions to the RICU in 2012 were included. The mean age was 48.4±17.1 years, and 132 of the patients were men (52.8%). None. Demographic data, SAPS-3 score upon admission and the modified Brussels score on the day 1 of stay in the RICU. On day 1, the modified Brussels and SAPS-3 scores were 4.7 ± 3.8 and 54.7 ± 17.8, respectively. Areas under the ROC curve for the modified Brussels score on day 1 and the SAPS-3 were 0.837 ± 0.025 (95% CI 0.787-0.887) and 0.813 ± 0.027 (95% CI 0.761-0.865), respectively. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit values were 5,885 (P=.660) and 4,026 (P=.855), respectively. The modified Brussels score on day 1 offers excellent discrimination and calibration in predicting mortality in the RICU, comparable to that of the SAPS-3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  9. [Medical liability issues]. (United States)

    Lebrun, C


    Of the 1603 civil liability cases filed between 2002 and 2012 related to upper-limb surgery, we found 20 proceedings (11 in court and 9 in front of the French CCI [commission for medical accidents]) that involved a total of 24 physicians: three proceedings involved multiple parties for a single patient and implicated two physicians in two cases and three physicians in one case. The grounds for liability being invoked varied greatly, but a good many of these cases concerned outcomes that were deemed unsatisfactory or insufficient in light of the initial injury. Information is always difficult to convey in an emergency setting, but is not generally disputed. However, the information process must be completed during the postoperative period and the patient informed of the injury assessment, expected results, potential complications and the possibility of surgical revision in the medium term. An expert found grounds for physician liability and breach of best practices in only three cases. In summary, this study shows that trauma-related flexor tendon injuries are rarely grounds for indictment of physicians before courts of civil jurisdiction (12 per 1000) and findings of liability for breach of best practices are even more rare (2 per 1000). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Radiocarbon evidence for maritime pioneer colonization at the origins of farming in west Mediterranean Europe (United States)

    Zilhão, João


    Most radiocarbon dates for the earliest Neolithic cultures of west Mediterranean Europe are on samples of unidentified charcoal. If only results obtained on short lived samples (seeds, shells, and bone) of diagnostic material (domesticates, artifacts, and human remains) are considered, then the dates for the first appearance of the Neolithic package are indistinguishable statistically from central Italy to Portugal and cluster around 5400 calendar B.C. This rapidity of spread, no more than six generations, can be best explained in the framework of a maritime pioneer colonization model. PMID:11707599

  11. Bullying and School Liability--Implications for School Personnel (United States)

    Essex, Nathan


    Bullying is a serious and escalating problem in public schools across America. Each day, thousands of students face taunts and humiliation stemming from bullies. Bullying victims experience emotional and psychological problems that may persist for a lifetime. Other victims commit suicide or retaliate against bullies out of fear for their own…

  12. Economic analysis of the principles of liability in tort in the backdrop of liability for compensation for damage occurring as a result of the activities of one entity to the goods of another entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kuźmicka-Sulikowska


    Full Text Available The article addresses basic issues associated with the economic analysis of liability in tort principles. The deliberations focus on an attempt to define the economic and social consequences of introducing various combinations of principles of tortious liability for damage suffered as a result of the activities of one entity borne in the goods of another. Lack of liability situations are treated in some detail as well as liability based on the principle of risk and the principle of fault. The analyses were conducted based on unilateral and bilateral models. Factors coming into play in determining the economically effective level of carefulness in actions are discussed. A series of other factors of significant relevance for the choice of an optimal principle of liability from the economic point of view are also highlighted. In this context the role of the level of activity of entities, availability of insurance policies and costs associated with pursuing compensation claims are discussed. The deliberations are concluded with a summary, which also entails a critical look at the method of economic analysis of law.

  13. Legal Liabilities of Administrators. (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  14. Benefits and liabilities of pets for the homeless. (United States)

    Kidd, A H; Kidd, R M


    Observations in the streets and parks of San Francisco East Bay cities and suburbs suggested that many of the homeless people own and maintain pet animals in spite of circumstances and environmental conditions. Accordingly, 105 homeless adult men and women, half of whom owned pets, were interviewed for this pilot study. Responses indicated that homeless pet-owners were extremely attached to their pets and had owned significantly more pets during childhood and adolescence than nonowners although there were no significant differences in attachment to pets between parents and nonparents or between married and single persons. Providing food and veterinary care for pets, however, was a very significant problem for the majority of the homeless pet-owners. It was clear that many homeless adults did have pets which were important for their mental and physical health and that pet care was associated with unique problems.

  15. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas


    of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew......The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...

  16. The Maritime Potential of ASEAN Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers


    Full Text Available Countries may utilize a long coastline in relation to their landmass as a resource to develop their maritime economy. This paper argues that ASEAN countries differ in utilizing their maritime potential. As a basis for further comparative studies the Center for Policy Research and International Studies (CenPRIS in Penang developed a set of indicators to measure the maritime potential of nations, the state of their maritime industries, and the degree to which the maritime potential has actually been utilized. Using the CenPRIS Ocean Index (COI shows that Brunei and the Philippines have underutilized their maritime potentials, whereas Singapore and Thailand have made full use of it. Malaysia still has the potential to further develop its maritime economy.

  17. A Meta-Analysis Of Corrosion Studies for Maritime Patrol and Reconnaissance Aircraft (MPRA) (United States)


    Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology , and Logistics USN United States Navy xv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The mission of Maritime Patrol...SCOTCH-WELD TAMPER PROOF SEALANT 1252, WHITE ZINC OXIDE 1314-13-2 130586 3M SURFACE PRE-TREATMENT AC-131 CB PART B METHANOL 67-56-1 82650 446-22...WHITE BAC 702 715480 TOLUENE 108-88-3 85408 454-4-1; INTEGRAL FUEL TANK COATING ACETALDEHYDE 75-07-0 85408 454-4-1; INTEGRAL FUEL TANK COATING BENZENE

  18. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.


    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under these circu......To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... commitment period. In addition, the proposals are tested for their sensitivity to national circumstances and to market power. We find that penalties are sufficient to deter non-compliance if they are high enough and are effectively enforced. If the non-compliance penalties are weak or poorly enforced...

  19. Overexpression of a partial fragment of the salt-responsive gene OsNUC1 enhances salt adaptation in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa L.) during salt stress. (United States)

    Sripinyowanich, Siriporn; Chamnanmanoontham, Nontalee; Udomchalothorn, Thanikarn; Maneeprasopsuk, Somporn; Santawee, Panudda; Buaboocha, Teerapong; Qu, Li-Jia; Gu, Hongya; Chadchawan, Supachitra


    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) nucleolin gene, OsNUC1, transcripts were expressed in rice leaves, flowers, seeds and roots but differentially expressed within and between two pairs of salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rice lines when subjected to salt stress. Salt-resistant lines exhibited higher OsNUC1 transcript expression levels than salt-sensitive lines during 0.5% (w/v) NaCl salt stress for 6d. Two sizes of OsNUC1 full-length cDNA were found in the rice genome database and northern blot analysis confirmed their existence in rice tissues. The longer transcript (OsNUC1-L) putatively encodes for a protein with a serine rich N-terminal, RNA recognition motifs in the central domain and a glycine- and arginine-rich repeat in the C-terminal domain, while the shorter one (OsNUC1-S) putatively encodes for the similar protein without the N-terminus. Without salt stress, OsNUC1-L expressing Arabidopsis thaliana Atnuc1-L1 plants displayed a substantial but incomplete revertant phenotype, whereas OsNUC1-S expression only induced a weak effect. However, under 0.5% (w/v) NaCl salt stress they displayed a higher relative growth rate, longer root length and a lower H2O2 level than the wild type plants, suggesting a higher salt resistance. Moreover, they displayed elevated AtSOS1 and AtP5CS1 transcript levels. We propose that OsNUC1-S plays an important role in salt resistance during salt stress, a new role for nucleolin in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Legal liability for failure to prevent pregnancy (wrongful pregnancy)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overpopulation and the alleviation of poverty. Owing to huge scientific advances, we now have more options with regard to procreation than ever before. For example, the development of contraceptive measures brought the possibility of avoiding procreation, where procreation would be economically devastating to the ...

  1. [Liability for hepatitis after blood transfusion (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Fiedler, H; Hackethal, B


    1) Only a very limited amount of all cases of so-called "post-transfusion-hepatitis" (pth) is really due to infectivity of the transfused blood. Regardless of the mostly unknown true source of the infection, the occurrence of "pth" for itself does not qualify the recipient and/or his illness-insurance company for a legitimate action for damages against the blood bank under current West Germany Federal Law. 2) All West German blood banks are obliged by Federal Law to insure themselves against strictly defined damage claims. Their damage-insurance companies are not entitled to pay compensations to the illness-insurance companies of any victim of "pth" without meticulous investigation of the exact circumstances if expenses exceeding the legally defined limitations are included in the premium of damage-insurance charged to the blood banks. 3)Since nearly all inhabitants of West Germany are legally or voluntarily insured against illness, compensations paid by damage-insurance companies to illness-insurance companies are no appropriate means for any cost containment of the latter: The blood banks have no other choice than to calculate the additional premium costs into the costs of the blood units to be debitted to the illness-insurance companies.

  2. The Liability of Churches for the Historical Sexual Assault of Children by Priests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Calitz


    Full Text Available Could a church be held liable for the sexual assault of children by priests when the victims claim as adults only many years after the event? Complainants can claim damages on the basis that the church is either directly or vicariously liable for the alleged acts. If the victims rely on vicarious liability, they will have to prove that the wrongdoer was an employee of the defendant and will further have to prove that the assaults were committed within the course and scope of the wrongdoer's employment. The requirement that a priest must be an employee has in the past created a hurdle for victims, since courts in different countries have traditionally held that priests are not employees of the church as they are servants of God, subject to ecclesiastic law and not civil law. However, in John Doe v Bennet in Canada and JGE v Diocese of Portsmouth in the UK the courts have recently held that even a relationship akin to employment is sufficient to be a basis for vicarious liability. In Bazley v Curry the Canadian Supreme Court moreover extended the traditional meaning of the "course and scope of employment" by developing the "close connection" test. The court found that the acts of a warden of a children's home were so closely connected with his duties that it was fair that his employer (a charitable organisation should be held liable for his conduct. The close connection test was followed by the House of Lords in the United Kingdom and by the South African Constitutional Court in K v Minister of Safety and Security, although in another context. Adult complainants in cases such as these will further have to prove that their claim has not expired as a result of prescription. In Canada, the UK and South Africa courts have in different ways acknowledged the fact that victims of child sexual abuse are often not able to process their claims timeously, because of psychological factors. The victims are allowed to bring their claims often decades after

  3. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Wettenschwiler

    Full Text Available Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports. It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (p<0.001 predictor of discomfort during load carriage in the shoulder and hip region, accounting for 85% or more of the variation in discomfort. As an additional finding, we discovered that the regression coefficients of these predictors are significantly smaller for the hip than for the shoulder region. As static peak pressure is measured directly on the body, it is less dependent on the type of load carriage system than static strap force. Therefore, static peak pressure is well suited as a generally applicable, objective mechanical parameter for the optimization of load carriage system design. Alternatively, when limited to load carriage systems of the type backpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Fodor


    Full Text Available Evasion is equivalent to the offense or crime, and what is civil or criminal depending on the seriousness and rufnesse. Reasons for this phenomenon in Romania is difficult to quantify and are prevented complex and numerous, among them may be mentioned: many imperfections and speculiarities in the tax laws, the business tax accounting method, not using the national macroeconomic record, massive tax evasion carried out by various interest groups and economic agents only appear to take advantage of loopholes laws lack of a tax code, the principle of confidentiality.

  5. Member States’ liability for judicial error resulting in breaches of European Union Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamt Valentin Paul


    Full Text Available This paper presents the remedies available to persons whose European law rights have been infringed by judgments given by national Courts. The paper firsts presents the concept of state liability for judicial errors in relation to European law, as it stems from the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, then goes on to show how the European Court of Human Rights may give redress to such aggrieved parties. Finally, it discusses the differences in the possibility of redress given by the two courts and the compatibility between their approaches, finally leading to a discussion on the possible convergence of the two.

  6. New legislation on civil liability for nuclear facilities; Nueva legislacion sobre responsabilidad civil en instalaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The criteria followed by the new regulation is to both qualitatively and quantitatively broaden the liability of a nuclear power plant operator. This increase, in both senses, goes above and beyond what the traditional insurance market is technically in a position to handle. This has resulted in the need for public funds to cover what the insurance companies cannot. Enforcement of the requirements of the new regulation has been postponed because most of the signatory countries have not ratified the 2004 Protocol to the Paris convention. At this time it is difficult to say when this will take place. (Author)

  7. The Liability of European States for Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger H J Cox


    Full Text Available According to climate science and the 195 signatory States to the UN Climate Convention, every emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributes to climate change. Furthermore, they hold that a two degree Celsius rise of Earth’s average temperature is to be considered as a dangerous climate change to mankind and all of the world’s ecosystems. Using the climate proceedings of Dutch citizens against the Dutch state as a starting point, the author of this case note explains why each European Member State’s contribution to dangerous climate change as a result of inadequate emission reduction policies constitutes a tort of negligence against its citizens and poses a real threat for its citizens’ effective enjoyment of human rights. The author argues that this makes individual European Nations severally liable for dangerous climate change and gives European citizens and non-governmental organisations the possibility to request their Nation State’s competent court to compel the Nation’s government to implement stricter emission reductions in accordance with what is deemed necessary to help avoid dangerous climate change and to protect their human rights.

  8. Ligações culturais entre portugueses na Alemanha: o futebol e a gastronomia como espaços sociais para convívios internacionais Cultural attachments among Portuguese in Germany: football and cuisine as social spaces for international encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Clara Tiesler


    Full Text Available O presente artigo examina os modos pelos quais os migrantes portugueses estabelecem elos de ligação ao seu país de origem. Como é que eles reconstroem e reinventam elementos da sua “cultura de origem” (narrada em ­Hamburgo e noutras regiões da Alemanha do Norte? Baseadas em material etnográfico e num inquérito, as conclusões sugerem que, a par do declínio das competências linguísticas e da participação nas associações portuguesas, muitos dos elementos que moldaram as representações de cultura portuguesa dos migrantes estão a perder importância, ao mesmo tempo que a importância do futebol enquanto elemento de identificação, bem de consumo e prática recreativa parece manter-se estável ou estar até a aumentar. O futebol proporciona um espaço privilegiado para performances de pertença e cultura (popular portuguesas, constituindo ao mesmo tempo um espaço social para o convívio intercultural. O mesmo se pode dizer a propósito dos estabelecimentos gastronómicos portugueses, que favorecem o desenvolvimento do sincretismo culinário e linguístico.The paper examines the ways in which Portuguese migrants connect to their country of origin. How do they re-construct or re-invent elements of their (narrated “culture of origin” in ­Hamburg and in other parts of Northern Germany? Based on ethnographic material and a quantitative survey, the findings suggest that alongside the decrease in language skills and participation in Portuguese associations, many elements which had shaped migrant constructions of Portuguese culture in diasporic settings, are losing importance while football identification, consumption and leisure activity seemingly remain important or are even increasing. Football provides a privileged space for performances of Portuguese belonging and (popular culture while at the same time being a platform for intercultural encounters. The latter also holds true for Portuguese gastronomic establishments, which

  9. Plasmid-mediated AmpC : Prevalence in community-acquired isolates in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and risk factors for carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Reuland (E. Ascelijn); Halaby, T. (Teysir); J.P. Hays (John); D.M.C. de Jongh (Denise); Snetselaar, H.D.R. (Henrieke D. R.); Van Keulen, M. (Marte); P.J.M. Elders (Petra); P.H.M. Savelkoul (Paul); C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls (Christina); Al Naiemi, N. (Nashwan)


    textabstractObjectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of pAmpC beta-lactamases in community-acquired Gram negative bacteria in the Netherlands, and to identify possible risk factors for carriage of these strains. Methods: Fecal samples were obtained from

  10. Adsorptive potential of cationic Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) dye onto natural untreated clay (NUC) from aqueous phase: Mass transfer analysis, kinetic and equilibrium profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztürk, A.; Malkoc, E., E-mail:


    Highlights: • In this work, natural untreated clay (NUC) was studied for the removal of Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) from aqueous solution in batch system. The effects of initial BY2 concentration, contact time, solution temperature and solution pH on BY2 adsorption were investigated. • In FTIR spectra, various functional groups detected on the surface of NUC before and after adsorption. There are some peaks were shifted, disappeared and new peaks were also detected in the BY2 dye adsorbed NUC. Six significant bands at 3621, 3349, 1651,1608,1435 and 872 cm⁻¹ which indicated the bonds, –OH groups, –NH stretching, C–H and C–C bend group were increased. These six significant bands in the spectrum indicate the possible involvement of the respective functional group on the surface of NUC in BY2 dye adsorption process. • Obtained XRD result suggests that the BY2 dye adsorbed NUC might induce bulk phase changes. • The most probable pore size was about 5 nm, according to pore size distribution, therefore it was regarded as a mesoporous material of NUC. • From BET analysis, the specific BET and Langmuir surface area of NUC was found to be 90.5454 and 123.1516 m²/g with corresponding total pore volume of 0.1155 cm³/g (P/P₀ = 0.98). Micropore volume and micropore surface area were calculated using the t-plot method. The micropore surface area, calculated by the t-plot method, was 23.544 m²/g for NUC. • Pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits the adsorption process accurately. The Langmuir isotherm model was well described by the equilibrium data with maximum adsorption capacity of 833.33 mg/g at 25 °C. From Boyd plot, the adsorption of BY2 on NUC took place by film diffusion mechanism. Thermodynamic calculation indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Abstract: In this work, natural untreated clay (NUC) was studied for the removal of Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) from aqueous solution in batch system. The effects of initial BY2

  11. Considerations on the Debtor's Fault - Structural Condition, Distinct and Absolutely Necessary for the Commitment of the Contractual Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Andreea Daghie


    Full Text Available Traditionally, both types of liability are committed in the presence of the same conditions. Thus, for a person to be responsible both under the criminal civil liability and the contractual civil liability, the following conditions must be fulfilled: an injury caused to another person; to have committed an act with unlawful character; between the unlawful act committed and the injury caused to another person to exist a direct causal link; the author of the act causing a prejudice to be at fault; the latter (the author to have had the criminal possibility when the crime was committed. Lately, the repair function has gained, progressively, autonomy engaging the duty of compensation of the victim in the absence of the imputable character of the person responsible. The influence of the economic dimension of civil liability on its repair function has increased significantly, which requires reconsidering the functions of this institution, offering new opportunities for the full compensation for the prejudice, through the interpretation of the fundamentals of civil liability.

  12. Mies in Brussels 1934. Synthesis of an Unbuilt Exhibition Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lizondo Sevilla


    Full Text Available The article delves into the complex world of exhibition architectures, those whose destiny is reduced to be mounted, exposed and dismantled in a short period of time. A process that allows a quick experience of architecture, bounded in time, and whose experimentation gives rise to the birth of new concepts. The text focuses on the German Pavilion designed by Mies van der Rohe for the Brussels World’s Fair of 1934, his only unbuilt ephemeral architecture due to the political uniqueness of the moment. Now, criticism and the archive allow us to reinterpret its contribution to the history of architecture.

  13. Maritime heritage in and around Chilika lake, Orissa: Geological evidences for its decline

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.

    to the decline of maritime activities in Chilika. In maritime history, Orissa has played a great role since the early historical pe riod. In maritime trade, Kalinga (ancient Orissa) had a prom i- nent place on the east coast of India. Kalidas has... with the Chilika lak e. Earlier studies suggest that port towns around Chilika lake had established their cultural and commercial contacts with Ceylon, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, China, Rome and African countries during the early centuries of the Christian era...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage inpatients in a tertiary care hospital's chest clinic in Turkey. (United States)

    Oguzkaya-Artan, M; Artan, C; Baykan, Z


    We aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for nasal methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) carriage among patients admitted to a chest clinic of a tertiary care hospital in this study. Nasal samples were taken from anterior nares were cultured in CHROMagar S. aureus plates, MRSA was determined by disc diffusion method (cefoxitin 30 μg) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines and CHROMagar MRSA plates. A questionnaire was applied to determine the demographic characteristics of the participants and risk factors for carriage. Fisher's exact test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. A P statistically significant difference. This is a cross-sectional study covering all the patients (n = 431) admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital's Chest Clinic from January 1st to 31st 2014. Of all these patients 55 (12.8%) were nasal S. aureus carriers. MRSA positivity was in five among these patients. In multivariate analysis, being under 65 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-3.3), and having prosthesis (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.6-13.9) were found as risk factors for MSSA colonization. The prevalence of nasal carriage of MSSA was low in our study population. The only risk factors playing role in carriage were found as being under the age of 65 and having prosthesis.

  15. Screening Maritime Shipping Containers for Weapons of Mass Destruction (United States)


    Table 1: Chemical Simulant Set for Test Bed Demonstration Chemical Representation Toluene Toxic Industrial Chemical Ill-Xylene Toxic Industria l...phosphonate Nerve Agent 2- Nitrotoluene Explosive Taggant 2,3 -di methyl-2,3-din itrobutane Explosive Taggant MIT Lincoln Laboratory has evaluated...library like that shown for 2- nitrotoluene in Figure 10. The top match for each peak is the output of the sensor in real-time. The user can also set

  16. Hub and Spoke Logistics for Maritime Patrol and Reconnaissance Operations (United States)


    are for JP8, GSF , GSE and ORDN at H&S. .................................................................................16 Table 2. Percentage of...extremis level). Approximately 98%–100% of the H&S demands are being met for JP8, GSE, and GSF . DAKBG only achieves a 67% sustainment rate for ORDN...Equipment GSF Ground Support Equipment Diesel Fuel H&S Hub and Spoke ISAR Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar JP8 Aviation Fuel (Jet Propeller and

  17. Risk Factors for Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Carriage in Young Children in Peru: Community-Based Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study (United States)

    Kalter, Henry D.; Gilman, Robert H.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Cullotta, Anna R.; Cabrera, Lilia; Velapatiño, Billie


    Few studies have examined the influence of individual-, household-, and community-scale risk factors on carriage of resistant commensal bacteria. We determined children's medical, agricultural, and environmental exposures by household, pharmacy, and health facility surveys and Escherichia coli cultures of children, mothers' hands, household animals, and market chickens in Peru. Among 522 children with a positive stool culture, by log-binomial regression, using “any antibiotic” and 1–14 (versus 0) sulfa doses in the past 3 months increased children's risk, respectively, for ampicillin- and sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli carriage (P = 0.01–0.02). Each household member taking “any antibiotic” increased children's risk for sulfamethoxazole- and multidrug-resistant E. coli carriage (P < 0.0001). Residence in a zone where a larger proportion of households served home-raised chicken (as contrasted with intensively antibiotic-raised market chicken) protected against carrying E. coli resistant to all drugs (P = 0.0004–0.04). Environmental contamination with drug-resistant bacteria appeared to significantly contribute to children's carriage of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. PMID:20439971

  18. Acts of terrorism in Paris and Brussels: common and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych


    Full Text Available The article investigates the common and distinctive features of the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016. The attacks have confirmed the weakness of European security system in the context of the protection of its citizens from the threat № 1 in the world. The high level of democracy and liberalism are not allowed to use power instruments effectively in the fight against terrorism, which was the result of the fact that the terrorists were able to freely access to the place of their acts and to implement them. It was determined that the common features are the following: in Paris and in Brussels, the attacks were carried out by terrorist militaristic group «The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant» (ISIL; the places of commission of terrorist acts; guns of terrorists; military units of France and Belgium are parties of the armed conflict in Syria on the side of the Syrian opposition and struggle against ISIL; there were a few terrorist attacks. It is proved that the differences are as follows: in Paris, in addition to explosives, packed with nails, also were used automatic weapons and grenades, but only explosives in Brussels; France is more active in the fight against terrorism in the international arena and in every way opposed to violence against humanity, so there is a terrorist attack can be seen as a blow to the democratic and humanitarian values; Belgium is a «political heart» of the European Union that’s why the terrorist attack on it can be seen as a blow to the political system of the EU; in Paris, the attack was supposed to apply except for the population and for high officials in the name of F. Hollande and F. Steinmeier, and in Brussels – only civilians.conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers, investors, influential foreign

  19. Offset-QPSK modulation for maritime satellite communications (United States)

    Lee, Lin-Nan; Rhodes, Smith A.

    Consideration is given to design trade-offs and performance limitations of offset-QPSK (O-QPSK) modulation in a power- and bandwidth-limited nonlinear channel in a mobile environment. Computer simulations and hardware tests show that O-QPSK with a class-C HPA is a viable alternative to a QPSK with a class-A HPA if filters are properly selected. For the Inmarsat-B channel, a square-root Nyquist filter with 60-percent rolloff factor is found to be appropriate. It also can be applied to the high-rate voice channel for aeronautical mobile communications, where coded data will be transmitted in a 17.5-kHz SCPC channel. The degradation in both cases is only about 0.3 to 0.6 dB. This seems to be a good tradeoff for the substantial cost saving which may be obtained by using a class-C HPA.

  20. Human Factors Plan for Maritime Safety: Annotated Bibliography (United States)


    required. The paper reports increasing industry support for mandatory practical training, especially related to automation and Hazops . Proposed would review deck and engine department functions, determine Hazops and special training needs. Also, this report suggests the need to evaluate

  1. Research topics on EO systems for maritime platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.; Bijl, P.; Broek, S.P. van den; Eijk, A.M.J. van


    Our world is constantly changing, and this has its effect on worldwide military operations. For example, there is a change from conventional warfare into a domain that contains asymmetric threats as well. The availability of high-quality imaging information from Electro-Optical (EO) sensors is of

  2. Coordinated Guidance Strategy for Multiple USVs During Maritime Interdiction Operations (United States)


    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION ...strategy for a group of pursuers based on PN guidance philosophy to approach simultaneously the locations sufficiently close to a moving target while...been the main source of motivation as I strived toward my goals. 1 I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned systems and autonomous systems have gradually become

  3. A Maritime Phase Zero Force for the Year 2020 (United States)


    trailer) • Two hotel services trailers ( toilet /shower) By 2010 MCM assets could be "assigned" to the CVBG, ARG, or forward based available for...carry: • Six semi-trailers with fully-equipped operating rooms • Four water tankers • Four food trailers • Four toilet /shower trailers • Six...the JTF, but medical, dental, joint rescue, mortuary affairs, public affairs, psychological operations, civil affairs, special operations, and

  4. Chirping for large-scale maritime archaeological survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole


    ) interactive surveying, for example, immediate detailed investigation of potential archaeological anomalies on detection with a denser pattern of subbottom survey lines; (c) onboard interpretation during data acquisition; (d) recognition of nongeological anomalies. Consequently, this strategy differs from......Archaeological wrecks exposed on the sea floor are mapped using side-scan and multibeam techniques, whereas the detection of submerged archaeological sites, such as Stone Age settlements, and wrecks, partially or wholly embedded in sea-floor sediments, requires the application of high...

  5. Economics and Maritime Strategy: Implications for the 21st Century (United States)


    battle. Mahan, perhaps unfairly regarded as the apostle of this approach for Mahan’s Creed, which emphasised the importance and the mil- itary character... Mohamed (9-11 mastermind), visited with al Nashiri and his associates to support his opera- tions both in the Middle East and in Southeast Asia. By...with Khalid Sheikh Mohamed and Tawfiq bin Attash, also a former bodyguard of the al Qaeda leader. 5. CNN’s Nic Robertson recovered about 200 tapes

  6. Scalable Adaptive Architectures for Maritime Operations Center Command and Control (United States)


    34 for Decision Maker in the figure. Fig. 2. Basic Task Graph Allocation Now we assume that Decision Maker 2 ( DM2 ) has become overloaded, and we need to...coordination that enable this augmentation. These include DM 4 taking over either f2 or f4, DM2 and DM4 both working on f2 and f4 in parallel, or DM4 assisting... DM2 in one or both of the tasks. These possibilities require different information exchanges and possible coordination. Figure 3 shows several of

  7. Biologically inspired force enhancement for maritime propulsion and maneuvering

    CERN Document Server

    Weymouth, G D


    The move to high performance applications greatly increases the demand to produce large instantaneous fluid forces for high-speed maneuvering and improved power efficiency for sustained propulsion. Animals achieve remarkable feats of maneuvering and efficiency by changing their body shape to generate unsteady fluid forces. Inspired by this, we have studied a range of immersed bodies which drastically change their shape to produce fluid forces. These include relatively simple shape- changes, such as quickly changing the angle of attack of a foil to induce emergency stops and the use of tandem flapping foils to generate three times the average propulsive force of a single flapping foil. They also include more unconventional shape-changes such as high-speed retracting foil sections to power roll and dive maneuvers and the use of soft robotics to rapidly shrink the frontal area of an ellipsoid to power 68% efficient fast-start maneuvers or even completely cancel the drag force with 91% quasi-propulsive efficiency...

  8. Revisiting impulsivity in suicide: implications for civil liability of third parties. (United States)

    Smith, April R; Witte, Tracy K; Teale, Nadia E; King, Sarah L; Bender, Ted W; Joiner, Thomas E


    Previous research and popular conceptualizations of suicide have posited that many suicides are the result of impulsive, "on a whim" decisions. However, recent research demonstrates that most suicides are not attempted impulsively, and in fact involve a plan. Legally, suicide has historically been considered to be a superseding intervening cause of death that exonerates other parties from liability, but currently there are two general exceptions to this view. Specifically, another party may be found responsible for a suicide if that party either caused the suicide or failed in its duty to prevent the suicide from occurring. Both of these exceptions assume that the resulting suicide was foreseeable. Given that recent research has indicated that most suicides are planned, and thereby foreseeable to a certain extent under many circumstances, this article discusses issues of foreseeability as they pertain to litigation involving third party liability for the suicide of university students, prison inmates, and mental health patients. The authors contend that the surest way for universities, prison staff, and mental health practitioners to avoid being held liable for a suicide is to appropriately assess for suicidal intent. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. SIMOcean: Maritime Open Data and Services Platform for Portuguese Institutions (United States)

    Almeida, Nuno; Grosso, Nuno; Catarino, Nuno; Gutierrez, Antonio; Lamas, Luísa; Alves, Margarida; Almeida, Sara; Deus, Ricardo; Oliveira, Paulo


    Portugal is the country with the largest EEZ in the EU and the 10th largest EEZ in the world, at 3,877,408 km2, rendering the existence of an integrated management of Portuguese marine system crucial to monitor a wide range of interdependent domains. A system like this assimilates data and information from different thematic areas, ranging from ocean and atmosphere state variables to higher level datasets describing human activities and related environmental, social and economic impacts. Currently, these datasets are collected by a wide number of public and private institutions with very diverse purposes (e.g., monitoring, research, recreation, vigilance) leading to dataset duplication, inexistence of common data and metadata standards across organizations, and the propagation of closed information systems with different implementation solutions. This lack of coordination and visibility hinders the marine management, monitoring and vigilance capabilities, not only by making it more difficult to access, or even be aware of, the existence of certain datasets, but also by minimizing the ability to create added value products or services through dataset integration from different sources. Adopting Open Data approach will bring significant benefits by reducing the cost of information exchange and data integration, promoting the extensive use of this data. SIMOcean (System for Integrated Monitoring of the Ocean), co-funded by the EEA Grants Programme, is integrated in the initiative of the Portuguese Government to develop a set of coordinated systems providing access to national marine data. These systems aim to improve the Portuguese marine management, monitoring and vigilance capabilities, aggregating different data, including specific human activities datasets (vessel traffic, fishing records, oil spills), and environment variables (waves, currents, wind). Those datasets, currently scattered among different departments of the Portuguese Meteorological (IPMA) and the

  10. Multi-methodical realisation of the new Austrian climate maps for 1971-2000 (United States)

    Auer, I.; Böhm, R.; Hiebl, J.; Reisenhofer, S.; Schöner, W.


    Constantly changing climate, the further development of geostatistical interpolation methods and the availability of a higher resolved digital elevation model gave reason for updating the most frequently demanded climate maps out of the Austrian digital climate atlas (ÖKLIM) from 1961-1990 to 1971-2000. The resulting 19 grids concern 30-year-means of air temperature (annual, January, July means) and derived indices (ice days, frost days, freeze-thaw days, summer days, hot days, heating degree days), precipitation (annual, winter half-year, summer half-year sums) and derived indices (days with precipitation, percentage of solid precipitation), snow (sum of fresh-fallen snow, snow cover duration, maximum snow depth) and sunshine (January, July absolute sunshine duration) parameters. For application in all branches of geosciences (e.g. climate variability and modelling, hydrology, biogeography, natural hazards) as well as for planning in all kinds of contexts (e.g. agriculture, tourism, generation of renewable energy, climate change adaption) such digital grids of standard climate information are greatly demanded and likely to gain even more importance in the near future. Data preparation was carried out with large effort. In order to avoid adverse border effects and to guarantee an equal state of quality across all parts of the country, the study region was extended beyond the national borders and stations from all neighbouring countries were requested. The final data collection includes between 319 (percentage of solid precipitation) and 1,399 (annual precipitation sum) records from eleven national and foreign institutes. To achieve a station density as high as possible, data gaps of up to five or ten years were filled considering the same parameter at reference stations or a related parameter station-wise. According to the climate parameter, different geostatistical interpolation methods were applied. Multiple regressions against elevation, longitude, latitude and

  11. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. (United States)


    .... (iii) The term “related entity” may also apply to a State, or an agency or institution of a State... for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CROSS-WAIVER OF LIABILITY § 1266.102 Cross-waiver of...

  12. Liability of the police for the medical protection of persons in custody. (United States)

    Moon, Angus


    The following is a transcript of a talk relating to aspects of the medical protection given to those in custody by the domestic legislation, by the common law and by the European Convention on Human Rights. So far as domestic legislation is concerned, consideration is given to the provisions of the Prison Act 1962 as amended by the Offender Management Act 2007, and the Prison Rules. The protection afforded at common law is considered by reference to some of the leading cases including Leigh v Gladstone (1909) TLR 139, Secretary of State for the Home Office v Robb [1995] 1 All ER 677 and Brooks v Home Office [1999] 2 FLR 33. The question of whether a lower standard of care in law is to be applied to those in custody compared with that applied to those who are not in custody is addressed. Cases involving suicide in prison and liability for negligent release from custody are discussed. The extent to which there may be liability for breaching a patient's confidence is considered. Lastly the talk touches upon the circumstances in which the authorities might be liable for breaches of Articles 2 and 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights by reference to the ECtHR decision in Tarariyeva v Russia [2009] 48 EHRR 26.

  13. The Public Trust Doctrine and Liability for Historic Water Pollution in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris


    Full Text Available The public trust doctrine is now, in the post-constitutional era, part and parcel of South African natural resources law. However, the precise meaning and content remain, to some extent, unclear. This is particularly true in respect of the relationship between the public trust doctrine and the polluter pays principle and the extent to which liability for pollution and degradation of natural resources also lies within the realm of the public trust doctrine. This article sets out to explore the public trust doctrine in South African law and its potential for assigning liability in a natural resources law context. It does so in the context of South Africa’s challenges in dealing with acid mine drainage (AMD, a legacy from defunct mines, but a continuing by-product of existing mining. It revisits the traditional scope of the public trust doctrine and argues for an expansive view in line not only with the constitutional imperatives embodied in South Africa’s environmental right, but also by way of an analogy between the public trust doctrine and the common heritage of mankind principle as it presents itself in international environmental law. In doing so this article also explores the development of the doctrine in US law which in some respects has set the course for its application with respect to natural resources law.

  14. Captivity mark as Foundation of Civil Liability for Risk in Prol Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio de Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available The postmodern society can be seen as risk society. From the Ulrich Beck’s idea that the acquired knowledge allows the current development model, but its generates uncontrollable risks, this study attempts to make a validation of trademark captivity theory as the basis for civil liability for risk. The strength of the brands as fundamental goals in today’s economic process is seen as a vector of liability for consumers as a vulnerable class. The difficulty of consumers in the process of accountability for damages suffered in their relations is still present. The supply process is complex and is formed by a network arrangements which stresses the consumer’s vulnerability. The trademark captivity allows the identification of an economic group participants by sharing the brand. The proposal in this article, is to strengthen the idea of   captivity mark as accountability paradigm from the brand with the theory of risk, examining its feasibility framing the sole paragraph of Article 927 of the Brazilian Civil Code.The methodology will be based on a legal-economic aspect and depart from an inductive analysis and bibliographic surveys, with the theoretical framework of Ulrich Beck, Antonny Giddens and Claudia Lima Marques.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ulianova


    Full Text Available Environmental protection is one of the main stream in business development.The purpose of this research is to identify how company should account their environmental liability. The article consists of National Accounting Standards or International Accounting Standard Company analyses as both can be used in Ukraine. This article describes options for environmental liability accounting. On the one hand, company can identify environmental liability, and book it on below-line balance account. It is called contingent liability in that case. On the other hand, such liability can be considered as object for provisions. The second option means that company not only identify its environmental liability, but also will step to step create essential amount for environmental management. Also such allocation can be included into expenses. In that way company divide potential losses between periods and secure company from the big one in some recognized period. Sometimes such outstanding liabilities can lead to bankruptcy because of huge amounts.

  16. Cross-country Differences in Reporting Practices – the Case of Provisions for Liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Klimczak


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore and compare reporting practices on provisions for liabilities in different countries. Methodology: The research was limited to the types of provisions that are addressed in the International Accounting Standard 37 - Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. For the purpose of the study, financial statements of the biggest public companies in Great Britain, Germany and Poland have been chosen to be taken into consideration. The following detailed issues have been explored: - Presentation of the types of provisions in a statement of financial position and additional notes to a financial statement, - Presentation of the amounts of provisions made, used, and reversed during a given period and the effects of changes in the discount rate, - Scope and quality of descriptions of the nature of obligations presented by entities. The results of the analysis have been viewed from two perspectives - the areas of compliance and non-compliance of reporting on provisions with IFRS have been identified and a comparison of the extent of compliance with particular requirements between companies from different countries has been developed. Findings: The results of the analysis have revealed that companies from selected countries demonstrate different levels of compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Substantial differences in the scope and the quality of descriptive disclosures on provisions have been also identified. Originality/value: The study contributes to the research on cross-country differences in reporting practices and indicates the need for a further analysis of the underlying determinants


    Bărcan, Cristian


    Current legislation, namely Law no. 95/2006 on healthcare reform in the medical malpractice domain stipulates that medical staff can be held accountable in the following forms: disciplinary liability, administrative liability, civil liability and criminal liability. Each form of legal liability presents its features, aspects that are found mainly in the procedural rules. However, the differences between the various legal forms of liability are not met only in the procedural rules but also in their effects and consequences. It is necessary to know what the procedure for disciplinary responsibility, administrative liability, civil liability, or criminal liability is. In addition to the differentiation determined by the consequences that may arise from the different forms of legal liability, it is important to know the competent authorities to investigate a case further and the solutions which various public institutions can take regarding the medical staff. Depending on the type of legal liability, authorities have a specialized authority. If the Disciplinary Committee is encountered at the College of Physicians, it may not intervene in cases before the monitoring and competence for malpractice cases Committee. The latter two committees cannot intervene directly in the legal assessment of civil or criminal cases, as no criminal investigation authorities cannot intervene in strictly civilian cases. Therefore, the importance of knowing the competent institutions is imperative.

  18. Association of dopamine receptor gene polymorphism and psychological personality traits in liability for opioid addiction (United States)

    Mehić-Basara, Nermana; Oruč, Lilijana; Kapur-Pojskić, Lejla; Ramić, Jasmin


    There is a clear evidence that same psychoactive substance may cause various individual physiological reactions in same environmental conditions. Although there is a general attitude on equal liability to opioid addiction, latest genetic analysis findings imply there are certain quantifiable factors that could lead to elevated individual liability towards development of opioid addiction. The goal of this study was to investigate association of certain personality traits and genetic factors (separately and in combination) with heroin addiction. Total of 200 individuals participated in the study: 100 patients on Metadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) and 100 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. All were medically examined, interviewed and psychologically evaluated using Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) and genotyped for DRD2 (rs1800497) using PCR-RFLP method. Overrepresentation of certain personality traits (neuroticism, psychoticism and extraversion/intraversion), together with environemental risk factors such as: upbringing within incomplete families and familial history of psychotropic substances abuse, are associated with high-risk development of opioid addiction. PMID:23988166

  19. Association of dopamine receptor gene polymorphism and psychological personality traits in liability for opioid addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermana Mehić-Basara


    Full Text Available There is a clear evidence that same psychoactive substance may cause various individual physiological reactions in same environmental conditions. Although there is a general attitude on equal liability to opioid addiction, latest genetic analysis findings imply there are certain quantifiable factors that could lead to elevated individual liability towards development of opioid addiction. The goal of this study was to investigate association of certain personality traits and genetic factors (separately and in combination with heroin addiction. Total of 200 individuals participated in the study: 100 patients on Metadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT and 100 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. All were medically examined, interviewed and psychologically evaluated using Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ and genotyped for DRD2 (rs1800497 using PCR-RFLP method. Overrepresentation of certain personality traits (neuroticism, psychoticism and extraversion/intraversion, together with environemental risk factors such as: upbringing within incomplete families and familial history of psychotropic substances abuse, are associated with high-risk development of opioid addiction.

  20. Effects of variation of chitosan concentration on the characteristics of membrane cellulose bacteria-chitosan biocomposites as candidates for artificial dura mater (United States)

    Widiyanti, Prihartini; Jabbar, Hajria; Rudyardjo, Djony Izak


    This study was conducted to determine the effect of variation in concentration of chitosan on the physical and biological characteristics of the membrane of bacterial cellulose-chitosan biocomposites through immersion precipitation method. Bacterial cellulose membrane was soaked in a solution of chitosan whose concentration variation are 0.1%; 0.3%; 0.5% and 0.7%. The characterization tests which were conducted included the analysis of functional groups (FTIR), tensile strength test, morphology test (SEM), and cytotoxicity assay using MTT Assay method. Based on the cluster analysis test, the results of FTIR spectra indicate changes in the physical bond which means that there is interaction between the bacterial cellulose membrane with chitosan on each sample. The bacteria produced cellulose membrane with tensile strength of 10.53 ± 0.19 MPa while the microbial cellulose membrane by adding 0.5% chitosan concentration had tensile strength value of 8:58 ± 0.19 MPa. It shows that with the addition of chitosan it would decrease the tensile strength in microbial cellulose membrane. This was shown by 496.2 nm - 2,032 µm pore size with a thickness (mm) of 0:35 ± 0.33 to 0.81 ± 0.26. Based on the test results of the analysis of functional groups, tensile strength test, and morphology test, membrane microbial cellulose-chitosan biocomposites have the potential to be used as artificial dura mater candidate.

  1. Civil Liability And Indemnity For Moral Damage In Labour Law: Application Of The Doctrine Of Punitive Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Geremias


    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain and analyze the importance of the civil liability under labour law with particular emphasis on the application of the doctrine of "punitive damages" as a breakthrough for the development of Brazilian law in the field of solutions to real problems to the fundamental rights at work. The problem of the research is to identify the application of the doctrine of "punitive damages", its justification under the system of civil liability and, in particular, its applicability as a defense mechanism for fundamental rights at work. The research is descriptive and explanatory, documentary-bibliographical.

  2. Synthetic aperture radar for maritime domain awareness: Ship detection in a South African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, CP


    Full Text Available Maritime Domain Awareness is an initiative started to help each sea-bordering country improve its understanding of its Exclusive Economic Zone. A country that improves its Maritime Domain Awareness ensures that activities such as piracy and Illegal...

  3. 78 FR 47716 - Final Guidance Regarding Voluntary Inspection of Vessels for Compliance With the Maritime Labour... (United States)


    ... Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability . SUMMARY: The... voluntary compliance with the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MLC or Convention). The Convention enters... being available in the docket, please go to , and follow the instructions on...

  4. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. (United States)


    ...-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... stockholders' equity. Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity Accounts To Be Maintained by Class A and Class B... equity: Capital stock 4510 4510 Additional paid-in capital 4520 4520 Treasury stock 4530 4530 Other...

  5. The Limits of Responsibility: Liability for Damage in the Deep Seabed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plakokefalos, I.


    This contribution seeks to discuss the limits of state responsibility as they are witnessed in the topic of international liability. The first part addresses the intersection between responsibility and liability using as a reference point the work of the International Law Commission. The second part

  6. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate analysis for the characterization and discrimination of extractable and nonextractable polyphenols and glucosinolates from red cabbage and Brussels sprout waste streams. (United States)

    Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Raes, Katleen; Vanhoutte, Hanne; Coelus, Sofie; Smagghe, Guy; Van Camp, John


    Nonextractable polyphenol (NEP) fractions are usually ignored because conventional extraction methods do not release them from the plant matrix. In this study, we optimized the conditions for sonicated alkaline hydrolysis to the residues left after conventional polyphenol extraction of Brussels sprouts top (80°C, 4M NaOH, 30min) and stalks (60°C, 4M NaOH, 30min), and red cabbage waste streams (80°C, 4M NaOH, 45min) to release and characterize the NEP fraction. The NEP fractions of Brussels sprouts top (4.8±1.2mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g dry waste) and stalks (3.3±0.2mg GAE/g dry waste), and red cabbage (11.5mg GAE/g dry waste) waste have significantly higher total polyphenol contents compared to their respective extractable polyphenol (EP) fractions (1.5±0.0, 2.0±0.0 and 3.7±0.0mg GAE/g dry waste, respectively). An LC-MS method combined with principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to tentatively identify and discriminate the polyphenol and glucosinolate composition of the EP and NEP fractions. Results revealed that phenolic profiles of the EP and NEP fractions are different and some compounds are only found in either fraction in all of the plant matrices. This suggests the need to account both fractions when analyzing the polyphenol and glucosinolate profiles of plant matrices to attain a global view of their composition. This is the first report on the discrimination of the phenolic and glucosinolate profiles of the EP and NEP fractions using metabolomics techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Delfi AS v. Estonia: Grand Chamber confirms liability of online news portal for offensive comments posted by its readers


    VOORHOOF, Dirk


    On 16 June 2015 the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights has delivered the long awaited final judgment in the case of Delfi AS v. Estonia, deciding on the liability of an online news portal for the offensive comments posted by its readers below one of its online news articles. The Grand Chamber has come to the conclusion that the Estonian courts’ finding of liability against Delfi had been a justified and proportionate restriction on the news portal’s freedom of expression, in ...

  8. 75 FR 2132 - Maine Maritime Academy; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Petition for Relief Filing and... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Maine Maritime Academy; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Petition for... intention and petition for relief from the requirements of hydropower licensing has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of Filing: Declaration of Intention and Petition...

  9. Some considerations on disciplinary liability overlapping criminal liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania DUMITRACHE


    Full Text Available Among the various forms of legal liability there are many points of contact reflected in their common goal - the encouragement of active members of society. Starting from the statement - the independent nature of the various forms of legal liability does not mean they are excluded - in what follows, given the legal autonomy of spheres of social relations protected by various laws, we will consider disciplinary overlapping with other forms of legal liability - criminal liability. Of course, this is possible only if the act committed by the employee is both disciplinary and criminal. This form of accumulation are possible without violating the principle of non bis in idem that since each of the envisaged legal rules protect different social relations. In addition of this applying the same principle prohibits two or more same kind sanctions for an unlawful action

  10. Development of a basal area growth system for maritime pine in northwestern Spain using the generalized algebraic difference approach (United States)

    Marcos Barrio Anta; Fernando Castedo Dorado; Ulises Dieguez-Aranda; Juan G. Alvarez Gonzalez; Bernard R. Parresol; Roque Rodriguez Soalleiro


    A basal area growth system for single-species, even-aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in Galicia (northwestern Spain) was developed from data of 212 plots measured between one and four times. Six dynamic equations were considered for analysis, and both numerical and graphical methods were used to compare alternative models. The double...

  11. Let’s Think Twice before We Revise! ‘Égalité’ as the Foundation of Liability for Lawful Public Sector Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, Esther; van den Broek, Berthy; de Jong, Ferry; Keirse, Anne; de Kezel, Evelien


    This contribution focuses on the égalité principle as the leading ground for liability after lawful acts by the State, local authorities and public authorities. Two Dutch legislative initiatives are dealt with in particular, that seek to codify, improve and expand égalité liability in administrative

  12. 49 CFR 375.201 - What is my normal liability for loss and damage when I accept goods from an individual shipper? (United States)


    ...; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Before Offering Services to My Customers Liability Considerations § 375.201... of household goods and all related services identified on your lawful bill of lading. (b) Full Value Protection Obligation—In general, your liability is for the household goods that are lost, damaged, destroyed...

  13. New Tsunami Response, Mitigation, and Recovery Planning "Playbooks" for California (USA) Maritime Communities (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K.; Eskijian, M.; Dengler, L. A.; Ayca, A.; Keen, A.; Admire, A. R.; Siegel, J.; Johnson, L. A.; Curtis, E.; Hornick, M.


    The 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan tsunamis both struck the California coast offering valuable experience and raised a number of significant issues for harbor masters, port captains, and other maritime entities. There was a general call for more planning products to help guide maritime communities in their tsunami response, mitigation, and recovery activities. The State of California is working with the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), and other tsunami experts to provide communities with new tsunami planning tools to address these issues: Response Playbooks and plans have been developed for ports and harbors identifying potential tsunami current hazards and related damage for various size events. Maps have been generated showing minor, moderate, and severe damage levels that have been linked to current velocity thresholds of 3, 6, and 9 knots, respectively. Knowing this information allows harbor personnel to move ships or strengthen infrastructure prior to the arrival of distant source tsunamis. Damage probability tools and mitigation plans have been created to help reduce tsunami damage by evaluating the survivability of small and large vessels in harbors and ports. These results were compared to the actual damage assessments performed in California and Japan following the 2011 Japanese tsunami. Fragility curves were developed based on current velocity and direction to help harbor and port officials upgrade docks, piles, and related structures. Guidance documents are being generated to help in the development of both local and statewide recovery plans. Additional tools, like post-tsunami sediment and debris movement models, will allow harbors and ports to better understand if and where recovery issues are most likely to occur. Streamlining the regulatory and environmental review process is also a goal of the guidance. These maritime products and procedures are being integrated into guidance

  14. Maritime Co-operation among South Atlantic Countries and Repercussions for the Regional Community of Security Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Evangelista Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to examine the importance of co-operation for maritime security in the South Atlantic, focusing on the relationship between the national and sub-regional institutions that have leveraged this process, especially those from Brazil. For this purpose, the diagnosis addresses the debates around the contemporary roles of the navy and the importance of international co-operation for its mission accomplishment, highlighting the tasks judged as subsidiary, among them being that of maritime traffic control. The alignment of these co-operative activities with foreign policy and national defence projects can be seen through the navy’s participation in multilateral co-operation projects involving South America, particularly the Co-ordination for the South Atlantic Maritime Area (CAMAS. The research detects the existence of a particular model of a community of security practice in which national and sub-regional institutions have been generating an important maritime co-operative system, which is more stable than in other areas of co-operation in the same region.

  15. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  16. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation With Colregs for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles (United States)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Wolf, Michael T. (Inventor); Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V. (Inventor); Aghazarian, Hrand (Inventor); Huntsberger, Terrance L. (Inventor); Howard, Andrew B. (Inventor)


    Systems and methods for operating autonomous waterborne vessels in a safe manner. The systems include hardware for identifying the locations and motions of other vessels, as well as the locations of stationary objects that represent navigation hazards. By applying a computational method that uses a maritime navigation algorithm for avoiding hazards and obeying COLREGS using Velocity Obstacles to the data obtained, the autonomous vessel computes a safe and effective path to be followed in order to accomplish a desired navigational end result, while operating in a manner so as to avoid hazards and to maintain compliance with standard navigational procedures defined by international agreement. The systems and methods have been successfully demonstrated on water with radar and stereo cameras as the perception sensors, and integrated with a higher level planner for trailing a maneuvering target.

  17. Development and testing of the S-band antenna subsystem for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft (United States)

    Brejcha, A. G.


    The Mariner Mars 1971 S-band antenna subsystem is used to transmit and receive S-band signals to and from the Deep Space Instrumentation Facility ground stations. The antenna subsystem consists of a low-gain antenna, a medium-gain antenna, a directional coupler, a high-gain antenna, and all transmission lines required to interconnect the antennas to the spacecraft radio frequency subsystem. The low-gain antenna is used to transmit signals during cruise and receive signals throughout the mission. The medium-gain antenna is coupled to the low-gain antenna via the directional coupler and is used to transmit and receive signals during Mars orbit insertion. The high-gain antenna is used to transmit high data rate signals primarily during Mars orbit.

  18. Variable flow controls of closed system pumps for energy savings in maritime power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chun-Lien; Liao, Chi-Hsiang; Chou, Tso-Chu


    Pumps are extensively used in maritime industries as marine vessels utilize a wide range of pumps and pumping techniques to transfer and distribute all types of air and fluids. The electrical energy consumed by the various motors accounts for about 70% of a vessel’s total power consumption......, and this presents a problem in unique marine environments. Such situations are especially conducive to energy-saving strategies using variable frequency drives (VFDs) in centrifugal load service. This paper presents the design and results of applying variable frequency constant pressure technology in closed system...... pumps on marine vessels. The existing problem of traditional control methods for closed system pumps is analyzed and a mathematical model for variable flow controls with the appropriate control settings is derived. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated and verified through experimental...

  19. International research collaboration in maritime health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten


    The new ILO-2006-convention and the EU Commission's strategic objectives for the EU maritime transport policy 2008-2018, mentions the necessity of a modern health and safety system for maritime transportation. However, there is no specific strategy for the development of maritime health and safety....... The area is regulated by international standards based on international research-based knowledge on health and safety. Moreover, many of the world's seafarers come from developing countries with specific disease problems like HIV and no possibility of independent maritime health research. The international...... maritime health research is sparse, and an increase in such research is necessary to help benefit needed shipping as a highly globalized industry. This paper presents an example of such research, accompanied by a discussion of methods and opportunities to increase international maritime health research....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Lykhova


    Full Text Available Purpose: the main task of this scientific research is to study the problem of public danger, which arises as a result of the capture or hijacking of an aircraft. The problems of criminal responsibility for this socially dangerous act have been studied in this article. Methods: optimization of the legislation providing for criminal liability for this crime in accordance with the criminal legislation of Ukraine. Results: the socially dangerous consequences resulting from the seizure or hijacking of an aircraft were investigated. The issues of delimitation of socially dangerous acts that constitute the objective side of this crime are investigated. Discussion: objective and subjective signs of the crime, the main international normative acts aimed at ensuring aviation security, compliance of the norms of domestic criminal legislation with international norms and standards in the field of aviation security.

  1. How Foreignness can be an Asset and a Liability for Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Jörg; Sofka, Wolfgang


    Many modern firms compete globally. However, research is inconclusive on whether foreignness provides an asset or a liability in competition with domestic firms. We argue that foreign MNC subsidiaries are not per se advantaged or disadvantaged. We suggest that the distinction originates from...... the nature of the subsidiary’s activity in the host country. We focus on two activities: knowledge search and deployment. We predict theoretically that domestic firms have advantages from their embeddedness in the host country when they search for knowledge. However, foreign MNC subsidiaries have advantages...... in knowledge deployment because they draw from a richer, international knowledge pool. Still, these advantages accrue to all multinational firms, foreign and domestic. We test and support these predictions for a longitudinal dataset of 2900 firm observations in Spain. We develop recommendations for research...

  2. Liability of German suppliers and service providers for foreign projects; Haftung deutscher Lieferanten und Dienstleister bei Auslandsprojekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)


    Main topic is the question of the extent to which German plant constructors, suppliers, engineering consultants, experts or operators expose themselves to liability for the delivery of their products and services abroad. In principle, in almost all nuclear power countries, liability is channelled to the operator; suppliers and service providers are exempted from liability. However, there are conceivable cases in which this principle does not apply. This can occur, for example, if a major accident is assumed to have an impact on neighbouring countries of the country of destination; here, depending on the applicable law, the German supplier or service provider could be ordered to pay for damages. The risk of liability remaining in this way can be reduced if necessary by means of an exemption clause in the supply contract. The regulation of the operator's recourse to the contractor, insofar as the latter is responsible for the accident, and the - controversial -question of to what extent damage to the plant itself gives rise to claims for damages by the operator against the contractor are also discussed.

  3. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation (United States)

    Wright, Jeneva


    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  4. The death throes of the old spanish system of liability for environmental damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Valencia Martín


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the last judgments in the case of the Aznalcóllar mines (or Boliden case. A well-known event in Spain that produced significant environmental damage, and that, having occurred before the new Law on Environmental Liability and to be resolved under the previous legislation, is causing countless problems for reimbursement of the substantial expenditures invested by the Spanish Public Administration inrepairing the damage. Posed a negative conflict of jurisdiction between civil and administrative courts, the Special Chamber of Conflicts of Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court has just returned the matter back to the former. To the author, it is, however, a false or apparent conflict, because of loopholes in that previous law, fortunately overcome for the future.

  5. VT Mean Winter Precipitation - 1971-2000 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ClimatePrecip_PRECIPW7100 includes mean winter precipitation data (October through March) for Vermont (1971-2000). It's a raster dataset derived...

  6. VT Mean Annual Precipitation - 1971-2000 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ClimatePrecip_PRECIPA7100 includes mean annual precipitation data (in inches) for Vermont (1971-2000). It's a raster dataset derived from...

  7. 48 CFR 52.247-23 - Contractor Liability for Loss of and/or Damage to Household Goods. (United States)


    ... Loss of and/or Damage to Household Goods. 52.247-23 Section 52.247-23 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Household Goods. As prescribed in 47.207-7(e), insert the following clause: Contractor Liability for Loss of and/or Damage to Household Goods (JAN 1991) (a) Except when loss and/or damage arise out of causes...

  8. Intellectual Property Law as an Internal Limit on Intellectual Property Rights and Autonomous Source of Liability for Intellectual Property Owners (United States)

    Judge, Elizabeth F.


    This article considers the interplay between intellectual property rights and classic property rights raised by Hoffman v. Monsanto (2005) and advances the idea that intellectual property law can serve as an autonomous source of liability for intellectual property owners. The article develops the conceptual advantages of demarcating physical and…

  9. Risk Management And Liability For EnvironmentalL Harm Caused By GMOS – The South African Regulatory Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Feris


    Full Text Available Biotechnology is still relatively new and as with any new technology, it carries some level of risk. This necessitates appropriate risk assessments and appropriate risk management. One element of risk management however, is taking into account that during the production, development, transport or release of a GMO it may cause injury to person, property or the environment, regardless of risk management procedures. This calls for the existence of a liability regime that will place some legal responsibility on the party responsible for the harm. This paper assesses the South African regulatory framework of relevance to GMOs, which is composed of a fragmented set of laws that deals with risk assessment, risk management and liability for damage to the environment. It discusses the GMO Act as the principle legislation regulation GMOs and also the recent amendment thereof and also consider other legislation such as the ECA, NEMA and NEMA Biodiversity Act in an attempt to determine whether the regulatory framework addresses risk management and liability in an effective and adequate manner. It comes to the conclusion that South Africa does not as yet have a satisfactory legal regime that provides for risk management and liability in the context of GMOs.

  10. Evaluation of New Visualization Approaches for Representing Uncertainty in the Recognized Maritime Picture (United States)


    projet de recherche appliquée intitulé Visualisation et gestion de l’information pour accroître la vigilance dans le secteur maritime, qui relève du...c’est-à-dire la représentation visuelle des navires de surface qui empruntent la zone d’intérêt maritime du Canada. Dans le contexte du projet ...intitulé Visualisation et gestion de l’information pour accroître la vigilance dans le secteur maritime, qui relève du vecteur de Recherche

  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in the Gaza strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal infections cause major morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We report the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae carriage in a developing region, the Gaza strip, and evaluate the theoretical coverage of carriage strains by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. METHODOLOGY: In 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. pneumoniae carriage in healthy children and their parents, living throughout the Gaza strip. Data were collected and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Vitek-2 and serotypes by the Quellung reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in 189/379 (50% of children and 30/376 (8% of parents. Carriage prevalence was highest in children <6 months of age (63%. Significant predictors for child carriage were number of household members and DCC attendance. The proportion of pediatric and adults isolates with serotypes included in PCV7 were 32% and 20% respectively, and 46% and 33% in PCV13 respectively. The most prominent non-vaccine serotypes (NVT were 35B, 15B/C and 23B. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains were carried by 70% of carriers, penicillin-resistant strains (PRSP by 13% and Multi-drug-resistant (MDR by 30%. Of all PRSP isolates 54% belonged to serotypes included in PCV7 and 71% in the PCV13. Similarly, 59% and 73% of MDR-SP isolates, would theoretically be covered by PCV7 and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that, PCV13-included strains were carried by 46% and 33% of pediatric and adult subjects respectively. In the absence of definitive data regarding the virulence of the NVT strains, it is difficult to predict the effect of PCVs on IPD in this region.

  12. Optical design of a light-emitting diode lamp for a maritime lighthouse. (United States)

    Jafrancesco, D; Mercatelli, L; Sansoni, P; Fontani, D; Sani, E; Coraggia, S; Meucci, M; Francini, F


    Traffic signaling is an emerging field for light-emitting diode (LED) applications. This sustainable power-saving illumination technology can be used in maritime signaling thanks to the recently updated norms, where the possibility to utilize LED sources is explicitly cited, and to the availability of high-power white LEDs that, combined with suitable lenses, permit us to obtain well-collimated beams. This paper describes the optical design of a LED-based lamp that can replace a traditional lamp in an authentic marine lighthouse. This source recombines multiple separated LEDs realizing a quasi-punctual localized source. Advantages can be lower energy consumption, higher efficiency, longer life, fewer faults, slower aging, and minor maintenance costs. The proposed LED source allows us to keep and to utilize the old Fresnel lenses of the lighthouse, which very often have historical value.

  13. Global mobile satellite communications theory for maritime, land and aeronautical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ilčev, Stojče Dimov


    This book discusses current theory regarding global mobile satellite communications (GMSC) for maritime, land (road and rail), and aeronautical applications. It covers how these can enable connections between moving objects such as ships, road and rail vehicles and aircrafts on one hand, and on the other ground telecommunications subscribers through the medium of communications satellites, ground earth stations, Terrestrial Telecommunication Networks (TTN), Internet Service Providers (ISP) and other wireless and landline telecommunications providers. This new edition covers new developments and initiatives that have resulted in land and aeronautical applications and the introduction of new satellite constellations in non-geostationary orbits and projects of new hybrid satellite constellations. The book presents current GMSC trends, mobile system concepts and network architecture using a simple mode of style with understandable technical information, characteristics, graphics, illustrations and mathematics equ...

  14. Developing a Formal Specification for the Mission Systems of a Maritime Surveillance Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Laure; Billington, Jonathan; Kristensen, Lars Michael


    The mission system of an aircraft is a complex real-time distributed system consisting of a mission control computer, different kinds of devices interconnected by a number of serial data buses. The complexity and real-time requirements of mission systems have motivated research into the application...... system with Coloured Petri Nets and analysed the model using state spaces. Here, we describe how this model was refined and modified to obtain a Coloured Petri Net model for the AP-3C Orion maritime surveillance aircraft....... of formal techniques to investigate and predict the effects of upgrades on mission system behaviour. This paper reports on a joint research project between the University of South Australia and Australia's Defence Science and Technology Organisation. In previous work we modelled a generic avionics mission...

  15. Nasal carriage of methicillin resistant staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Nuno A; Conceição, Teresa; Miragaia, Maria


    . A total of 54 patients (80%) were colonized with staphylococci that included nine different species identified by internal transcribed spacer PCR (ITS-PCR) and 16S RNA sequencing. The highest rates of colonization were found for S. epidermidis (58%) and S. aureus (39%). Methicillin resistance was present......%). Carriage of multiple species was detected in 20 patients (30%), 16 of whom were colonized with both S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In two cases, simultaneous carriage of different methicillin resistant species was detected. However, the strains carried different SCCmec types. Additional studies in the same...

  16. Liability of mental health services for injuries incurred during community treatment. (United States)

    Scott, Russ


    The aim of this paper is to examine the recent decision of the NSW Supreme Court, which considered a personal injuries action brought by a patient treated in the community following a 6 day voluntary hospital admission. The judicial reasoning in Walker v Sydney West Area Health Service provides some comfort to mental health professionals practising in other jurisdictions whose legislative provisions are similar to those contained in the Civil Liability Act (NSW). In applying the Bolam principle, rather than the higher common law standard previously imposed by the High Court in Rogers v Whitaker, the decision is encouraging for mental health professionals whose management accords with accepted current good practice. The infrequent scrutiny by courts and coroners of management practice and systems in mental health is a further incentive to maintain continuous improvement of quality of care (by clinical audits, active risk management, professional development and supervision, and patient/family participation) consistent with the principles of clinical governance.

  17. The Texas space flight liability act and efficient regulation for the private commercial space flight era (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher D.


    In the spring of 2011, the American state of Texas passed into law an act limiting the liability of commercial space flight entities. Under it, those companies would not be liable for space flight participant injuries, except in cases of intentional injury or injury proximately caused by the company's gross negligence. An analysis within the framework of international and national space law, but especially informed by the academic discipline of law and economics, discusses the incentives of all relevant parties and attempts to understand whether the law is economically "efficient" (allocating resources so as to yield maximum utility), and suited to further the development of the fledgling commercial suborbital tourism industry. Insights into the Texas law are applicable to other states hoping to foster commercial space tourism and considering space tourism related legislation.

  18. Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    This document provides an initial high level strategy for carrying out the responsibilities of the national Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub to deliver a standards based service...

  19. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: 1971 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  20. Slade Waterfowl Production Area : Narrative Report : 1971 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Slade National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  1. Arrowwood Wetland Management District : Narrative report : 1971 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  2. Crosby Wetlands Management District: Narrative report: 1971 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crosby Waterfowl Production Area Management Office outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins...

  3. Gentamicin- and Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Cattle Farms in Israel: Risk Factors for Carriage and the Effect of Microbiological Methodology on the Measured Prevalence. (United States)

    Adler, Amos; Sturlesi, Na'ama; Fallach, Noga; Zilberman-Barzilai, Deniz; Hussein, Omar; Blum, Shlomo E; Klement, Eyal; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Carmeli, Yehuda


    Our objectives were to establish a methodology for surveillance of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and gentamicin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CPRE and GNRE, respectively) in cattle and to study the prevalence and risk factors for carriage of these bacteria in a national survey. This was a point prevalence study conducted from July to October 2013 in Israel. Stool samples were collected from 1,226 cows in 123 sections of 40 farms of all production types. The number of CPRE- and GNRE-positive cows was highest in quarantine stations and fattening farms and was lowest in pasture farms (p 25 months) and highest in calves (analysis, other variables that were significant risk factors for CPRE and GNRE carriage included fewer troughs, crowding, lack of manure cleaning, and recent arrival of new calves. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was given almost exclusively to calves and was associated with a higher prevalence of carriers (p methodology for their surveillance.

  4. Absolute and convective instabilities in a one-dimensional Brusselator flow model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, S.P.; Mosekilde, Erik; Dewel, G.


    The paper considers a one-dimensional Brusselator model with a uniform flow of the mixture of reaction components. An absolute as well as a convective instability can arise for both the Hopf and the Turing modes. The corresponding linear stability analysis is presented and supported by the result...

  5. Temporal trend analysis of avoidable mortality in Taiwan, 1971-2008: overall progress, with areas for further medical or public health investment. (United States)

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh


    Avoidable mortality (AM), or "unnecessary untimely death," is considered an indicator of health care quality. We investigated trends in the age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) and associated standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL) for deaths amenable to medical care or public health measures in Taiwan from 1971-2008, with an emphasis on identifying areas where additional medical or public health investment may help reduce the burden of AM. Taiwan's ASMRs per 100,000 for AM and other causes of death were calculated using data from the National Death Certificate Registry in five-year bins from 1971 to 2008. SEYLL rates per 100,000 were calculated annually from 1971 to 2008 using the same data source. ASMR for almost all AM and other causes of death declined dramatically from 1971 to 2008 except for lung cancer (16.6% and 7.4% increase among men and women, respectively) and breast cancer (109.8% increase among women). In the same period, SEYLL due to lung cancer increased from 269.2 to 555.7 for men and 249.7 to 342.5 for women. For women, SEYLL due to breast cancer increased from 263.5 in 1971 to 659.3 in 2008. There were gender-specific differences in the reduction (or increase) in AM rates, with women showing larger rates of reduction or smaller rates of increase. Among men, AM fell by 65.9% from 1971-1975 to 2006-2008, and deaths from other causes increased by 15.6%. Among women, AM and deaths from other causes fell by 80.8% and 59.8% respectively. SEYLL decreased, respectively among males and females, from 23,147.3 and 24,081.1 in 1971 to 11,261.8 and 5,929.6 in 2008. From 1971 to 2008, Taiwan experienced a dramatic reduction in most AM and corresponding SEYLL except for lung cancer (for both males and females) and breast cancer (for females). Additional effort should be devoted to public health measures to combat the rising prevalence of smoking in Taiwan, which may be responsible for the increasing AM from lung cancer. If AM in breast cancer continues

  6. Sea Piracy in Southeast Asia: Implications for Countering Maritime Terrorism in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geragotelis, John M


    Sea piracy has infested the seven seas throughout history. In modern times, the United States has paid little attention to piracy because the nation's isolated vastness has protected the shipping industry from maritime crime...

  7. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Compatibility Determination for Aggregated Uses in the Comprehensive Conservation Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Compatibility determination finding that aggregated uses are compatible with Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge purposes. Aggregated uses include: boating...

  8. Accounting and tax optimization for individual entrepreneurs and companies with limited liability


    Kosinová, Taťána


    Presents a comparison of individual entrepreneurs and companies with limited liability. It deals with the tax burden, red tape and-registry duties above types of businesses. It also aims to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Responsabilidade civil do Estado por omissão estatal Civil liability of the State for environmental neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haide Maria Hupffer


    doctrinary differences, adopts the objective civil liability for the State through the theory of administrative risk based on the illicit act and the acceptance of the risk.

  10. New economical concept of maritime terminal for LNG; Nouveau concept de terminal maritime a cout reduit pour le GNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, B. [EURODIM S.A. (France)


    This series of slides present a new concept of marine terminal for LNG tanker-ships that requires less investments and offers a better adaptability to loading/unloading sites with a bad accessibility. This concept uses flexible cryogenic flow-lines developed by Coflexip Stena Offshore, double-envelope submarine pipes with a reinforced thermal insulation and the multi-purpose cryogenic connection module developed by Eurodim S.A. (J.S.)

  11. Maritime NORAD: Setting a Course for Success in Joint, Interagency, and Bi-National Maritime Homeland Security and Defense (United States)


    of North America.17 Procedures for dealing with hijacked aircraft followed the old 1970s and 1980s paradigm of hijackers flying to Havana , Cuba, or... gold star in lieu of a second), the Coast Guard Achievement Medal ( gold star in lieu of a second), and the Commandant’s Letter of Commendation...Ribbon ( gold star in lieu of a second). He is also authorized to wear the advanced Boat Forces Operations Insignia.

  12. Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress (United States)


    Cape Verde, China, Egypt, Haiti, India, Iran, Kenya, Malaysia, Maldives , Mauritius, North Korea, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka... organization /143224.pdf. The text is also available at archives/speeches/1983/31083c.htm...International Maritime Organization , Status of Multilateral Conventions and Instruments in Respect of Which the International Maritime Organization or its

  13. Air Carrier's Liability for Damages According to the New Montreal Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Kaštela


    Full Text Available The liability of air carriers in international air traffic is stillregulated by the Warsaw Convention from 1929and its amendments.In 1999the Montreal Convention was accepted, whichcompletely substitutes the rules contained in the Warsaw Conventionincluding all its later amendments, and the most importantmodifications have been made regarding the air can·iers'liabilities in case of passenger injury or death on intemationaI flights.

  14. Trends in radionuclide concentrations for selected wildlife and food products near the Hanford Site from 1971 through 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; Price, K.R.; Carlile, D.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game, Juneau, AK (USA))


    From 1971 through 1988 at least 40 species of wildlife and 27 different types of food products were collected and analyzed for radionuclides as part of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Environmental Monitoring Program. This report summarizes the results of these analyses for sample types collected for all or most of the 18-year period. The objectives of this summary investigation were to identify long-term trends or significant year-to-year changes in radionuclide concentrations and, if possible, relate any observed changes in radionuclide concentrations to their sources and probable causes. Statistical techniques were employed to test for long-term trends. Conspicuous short-term changes in radionuclide concentrations were identified from inspection of the data. 30 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: data from a nation-wide surveillance study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samonis Georgios


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nation-wide surveillance study was conducted in Greece in order to provide a representative depiction of pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccination era and to evaluate potential risk factors for carriage of resistant strains in healthy preschool children attending daycare centers. Methods A study group was organized with the responsibility to collect nasopharyngeal samples from children. Questionnaires provided demographic data, data on antibiotic consumption, family and household data, and medical history data. Pneumococcal isolates were tested for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and resistant strains were serotyped. Results Between February and May 2004, from a total population of 2536 healthy children, a yield of 746 pneumococci was isolated (carriage rate 29.41%. Resistance rates differed among geographic regions. Recent antibiotic use in the last month was strongly associated with the isolation of resistant pneumococci to a single or multiple antibiotics. Serotypes 19F, 14, 9V, 23F and 6B formed 70.6% of the total number of resistant strains serotyped. Conclusion Recent antibiotic use is a significant risk factor for the colonization of otherwise healthy children's nasopharynx by resistant strains of S pneumoniae. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide coverage for a significant proportion of resistant strains in the Greek community. A combined strategy of vaccination and prudent antibiotic use could provide a means for combating pneumococcal resistance.

  16. Diet as a risk factor for pneumococcal carriage and otitis media: a cross-sectional study among children in day care centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Tapiainen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharyngeal bacteria are exposed to different sugar conditions depending on the diet of the child. We hypothesized that dietary factors such as daily intake of carbohydrates could be associated with pneumococcal carriage and the occurrence of otitis media in children. METHODS: Our study design was a cross-sectional study among 1006 children attending child day care centers. Parents filled in a food frequency questionnaire. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from each child. The primary outcome was the occurrence of pneumococcal carriage and the secondary outcome the number of acute otitis media episodes during life. Principal component analysis was used to group dietary intake into nine factors. The models were adjusted for age, gender of the child and educational level of the mother. RESULTS: The dietary factor which included high consumption of sweet pastries and jam was associated with an increased risk of pneumococcal carriage (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36, P-value 0.04. The factor including frequent consumption of fruit and berries was associated with a decreased risk of acute otitis (regression coefficient -0.51, 95% CI -0.98 to -0.03, P=0.04. A high intake of consumption of sweets and snacks (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.80, P=0.03 was associated with an increased risk of caries. CONCLUSIONS: Diet was associated with a risk of pneumococcal carriage and the occurrence of otitis media. Diet may thus be a modifiable risk factor for the occurrence of acute otitis media.

  17. Comprehensive Maritime Awareness (CMA) - Joint Capabilities Technology Demonstration (JCTD), FY 06-09

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dwyer, Chris


    ...) vision is to share maritime shipping information and tracks throughout the world to deter use of commercial maritime shipping for terrorism, WMD proliferation, drugs, piracy, and human trafficking...

  18. Short-term increase in prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus following mass drug administration with azithromycin for trachoma control. (United States)

    Bojang, Ebrima; Jafali, James; Perreten, Vincent; Hart, John; Harding-Esch, Emma M; Sillah, Ansumana; Mabey, David C W; Holland, Martin J; Bailey, Robin L; Roca, Anna; Burr, Sarah E


    Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is a corner-stone of trachoma control however it may drive the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. In a cluster-randomized trial (Clinical trial gov NCT00792922), we compared the reduction in the prevalence of active trachoma in communities that received three annual rounds of MDA to that in communities that received a single treatment round. We used the framework of this trial to carry out an opportunistic study to investigate if the increased rounds of treatment resulted in increased prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two villages receiving three annual rounds of MDA (3 × treatment arm). Surveys were conducted immediately before the third round of MDA (CSS-1) and at one (CSS-2) and six (CSS-3) months after MDA. The final survey also included six villages that had received only one round of MDA 30 months previously (1 × treatment arm). In the 3 × treatment arm, a short-term increase in prevalence of S. aureus carriage was seen following MDA from 24.6% at CSS-1 to 38.6% at CSS-2 (p azithromycin resistant (Azm R ) strains from 8.9% at CSS-1 to 34.1% (p azithromycin were associated with a short-term increase in both the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of S. aureus and prevalence of carriage of Azm R and iMLS B S. aureus. This study was ancillary to the Partnership for the Rapid Elimination of Trachoma, NCT00792922 , registration date November 17, 2008.

  19. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and detrimental meteorological conditions for vegetation of crops in Poland (1971–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziernicka-Wojtaszek Agnieszka


    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of extreme and detrimental meteorological conditions for vegetation of crops in Poland (1971-2010. The subject, and aim of this study is the comparison of the frequency of occurrence of thermal, precipitation and pluvio-thermal conditions detrimental to agriculture in Poland during two periods: 1971-2000 and 1981-2010, constituting the former, and the current climate normal, respectively. Each month of the vegetation period (April-October was, in accordance with the current accounts carried out by agriculture correspondents, assigned to one of the following categories: favorable for vegetation, dry, dry and cool, cool, cool and humid, humid, dry and hot. An identical classification of meteorological vegetation conditions was also carried out for months characterized by extreme air temperature and precipitation values. Extreme values were defined as those monthly temperature mean values, and monthly precipitation totals, the probability of exceeding of which is lower than 10%, i.e. their probability of occurrence, or the socalled recurrence interval, is once every 10 years. The differences existing between the analyzed 30-year periods, can be attributed to the present day climate change - a significant increase in air temperature in April, June, July, and August, with a lack of significant precipitation trends. In the two compared periods, an increase in the number of extreme months from 74 to 82 was stated. The biggest changes during the extreme months were observed for precipitation deficits combined with hot air temperatures, namely, an increase from 15 to 29 months. In general, all the analyzed months of the vegetation period showed an increase in dry months (90 to 105 cases and a decrease in cool months (44 to 24 cases.

  20. 75 FR 71721 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee to submit their application for membership, to the Captain of the Port, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. DATES: Applications for membership should reach the...

  1. 42 CFR 57.314 - Repayment of loans made after November 17, 1971, for failure to complete a program of study. 2 (United States)


    ..., for failure to complete a program of study. 2 57.314 Section 57.314 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... made after November 17, 1971, for failure to complete a program of study. 2 2 Effective November 26... in nursing for which an eligible education loan was made upon certification by a school of nursing...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona R. Jurewicz


    Full Text Available In Roman law the liability for contractual obligations was initially based on the objective premise - the creation of the vinculum iuris (legal bond. During the development of the system of formulary procedure the praetor began to consider the subjective premises of obligation liability, such as voluntas,scientia or ignorantia agens. As for the additional liability in Roman law, this kind of liability may have resulted from the ignorantia, scientia or demonstrated voluntas of head of family/slave owner. These subjective bias’s of the contractual liability diversified its scope - from the lesser degree (based on de peculio, de in rem verso through tightened (on the base of in tributum vocariup to most wide scope of liability (in solidum based on the voluntas of the head of family/slave owner. The voluntas should be always demonstrated, in the case of scientia the declaration of will was needed only in the case of opposition from the head of family/slave owner. Precise differentiation of the subjective bases of the additional liability of superior is the effect of the interpretation of the edict of praetor urbanus by classical jurists.

  3. Measuring liability for substance use disorder among college students: implications for screening and early intervention. (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Vincent, Kathryn B; Caldeira, Kimberly M


    Heavy drinking and illicit drug use among college students has been a longstanding public health concern. Current methods to screen and identify college students at-risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) are somewhat limited. This study aimed to cross-validate the work by Kirisci et al. ( [1] ), who developed the Transmissible Liability Index (TLI), by deriving a set of items that would be potentially useful for characterizing SUD risk across multiple dimensions among college students. We examined: 1) variations in the TLI-College Version (TLI-CV) by race, sex, SES, religiosity, and family history of substance use problems; 2) the association between the TLI-CV and alcohol and/or marijuana dependence, both cross-sectionally and prospectively, by race and sex; and, 3) the sensitivity and specificity of the TLI-CV for identifying cases of marijuana and/or alcohol dependence. Data from an ongoing longitudinal study of college students (n = 1,253) was used to conduct item response theory (IRT) analyses; the resulting TLI-CV consisted of 33 items. The TLI-CV was significantly associated with baseline dependence and significantly higher for non-dependent individuals who later became dependent during the subsequent three years of college. These associations were observed for both sexes, Whites, Blacks/African-Americans, Asians, and other racial minorities. The sensitivity and specificity were suboptimal. The TLI-CV advances prior research to identify college students at risk for SUD. This approach holds potential promise to identify and ultimately modify the trajectories of college students who may be at risk for the development of SUD.

  4. Measuring Liability for Substance Use Disorder among College Students: Implications for Screening and Early Intervention (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.


    Background Heavy drinking and illicit drug use among college students has been a longstanding public health concern. Current methods to screen and identify college students at-risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) are somewhat limited. Objectives This study aimed to cross-validate the work by Kirisci et al., (1) who developed the Transmissible Liability Index (TLI), by deriving a set of items that would be potentially useful for characterizing SUD risk across multiple dimensions among college students. We examined: 1) variations in the TLI-college version (TLI-CV) by race, sex, SES, religiosity, and family history of substance use problems; 2) the association between the TLI-CV and alcohol and/or marijuana dependence, both cross-sectionally and prospectively, by race and sex; and, 3) the sensitivity and specificity of the TLI-CV for identifying cases of marijuana and/or alcohol dependence. Methods Data from an ongoing longitudinal study of college students (n=1,253) was used to conduct item response theory (IRT) analyses which resulted TLI-CV, comprised of 33 items. Results The TLI-CV was significantly associated with baseline dependence and significantly higher for non-dependent individuals who later became dependent during the subsequent three years of college. These associations were observed for both sexes, Whites, Blacks/African-Americans, Asians, and other racial minorities. The sensitivity and specificity were sub-optimal. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The TLI-CV advances prior research to identify college students at risk for SUD. This approach holds potential promise to identify and ultimately modify the trajectories of college students who may be at risk for the development of SUD. PMID:20180676

  5. Abuse liability assessment in preclinical drug development: predictivity of a translational approach for abuse liability testing using methylphenidate in four standardized preclinical study models. (United States)

    Teuns, Greet B A; Geys, Helena M; Geuens, Sonja M A; Stinissen, Piet; Meert, Theo F


    Preclinical abuse liability assessment of novel clinical CNS-active candidates involves several tests, addressing different aspects characteristic for abuse potential, which are considered predictive for substance abuse of these candidates, thus ensuring an appropriate translational approach. To demonstrate how such a strategy could work, a known drug of abuse, methylphenidate was evaluated in a full rodent test battery, comprising four test models, and in accordance with the requirements of the FDA, ICH and EMA guidelines. Methylphenidate was tested orally at 2.5, 5 or 10mg/kg for its physical dependence potential in a repeated dose non-precipitated withdrawal test, for its drug profiling in a drug discrimination learning procedure (single escalating doses), and for its reinforcing properties in a conditioned place preference test (alternate dosing days) and an intravenous self-administration procedure (0.05 to 1mg/kg/IV infusion during 5 daily 1-h test sessions). The stimulant d-amphetamine served as positive control and was administered subcutaneously at 0.8mg/kg in the first three test models. In the intravenous self-administration procedure rats were habituated to intravenously self-administer d-amphetamine at 0.06mg/kg/IV infusion prior to methylphenidate substitution. Cessation of subchronic dosing up to 10mg/kg methylphenidate led to sustained or even exacerbated effects on locomotion and behavior, body temperature, body weight, food consumption, and alteration of the diurnal rhythm during withdrawal. Clear generalization to d-amphetamine was obtained in the drug discrimination test at 5 and 10mg/kg. Distinct reinforcing properties were present in the conditioned place preference test at 10mg/kg and in the intravenous self-administration study from 0.05mg/kg/IV infusion onwards. The maximum plasma exposure after oral administration of methylphenidate over the dose ranges tested in the present rat studies covered at least 1.9-fold to 18.9-fold the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiana Puspitawati


    Full Text Available Located in a strategic position, that is between two great oceans and two land masses have made Indonesia a centre of international trade and shipping. In fact, 90% of international trades are carried out through the ocean. It is therefore crucial to assure that the activities in carrying goods across the ocean are incident free. However, if accident happens, assistance from professionals to preserve items of property is desirable. In such, salvage law emerged. This paper discusses comprehensively Indonesian salvage law within the framework of contemporary maritime law. While Indonesian maritime law is mostly based on its national law on the carriage of goods by the sea, in fact, the development of maritime law is highly affected by international practices which are largely based on international conventions and regulations. This research finds that while Indonesian salvage law can be found in Book II Chapter VII article 545-568k Wetboek Van Koophandel or known as Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Dagang (KUHD, which focused narrowly on the value of salved property as the primary measures of success, yet Indonesian salvage law has not been developed in accordance with current international salvage law, which adopted a broader and more balanced approached in both commercial and environmental aspects. Although it is believed that such approached is “culturally unrecognized” in Indonesia, this research argued that since Indonesian waters are part of international waters, all process by waters including salvage should confirm the relevant international practices and regulations. While Indonesia has taken out salvage law from KUHD and regulates it within Act Number 17/2008 on navigation, however, such act only provides one article for salvage stating that salvage will be regulates further by Ministry Regulation. Untill this paper was written no such government regulation produced yet by Indonesia. Since Indonesian waters is the centre of international

  7. 42 CFR 57.214 - Repayment of loans made after November 17, 1971, for failure to complete a program of study. (United States)


    ..., for failure to complete a program of study. 57.214 Section 57.214 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... after November 17, 1971, for failure to complete a program of study. In the event that the Secretary... eligible education loan was made upon certification by a health professions school that the individual...

  8. All at Sea: Sustaining livelihoods through maritime tourism in Croatia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to be an essential framework and toolkit for tourism development in the observed community. Despite evident ongoing challenges, maritime tourism activities provide a commercially viable way of life in this community. Keywords: Sustainable livelihoods, maritime tourism, seafaring community, entrepreneurship, Croatia.

  9. Effects of two neuromuscular training programs on running biomechanics with load carriage: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Liew, Bernard X W; Morris, Susan; Keogh, Justin W L; Appleby, Brendyn; Netto, Kevin


    In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program. This will be a two group, parallel randomized controlled trial design, with single assessor blinding. Thirty healthy runners will be recruited to participate in a six weeks neuromuscular training program. Participants will be randomized into either a generic training group, or a biomechanically informed training group. Primary outcomes include self-determined running velocity with a 20 % body weight load, jump power, hopping leg stiffness, knee extensor and triceps-surae strength. Secondary outcomes include running kinetics and kinematics. Assessments will occur at baseline and post-training. To our knowledge, no training programs are available that specifically targets a runner's ability to carry load while running. This will provide sport scientists and coaches with a foundation to base their exercise prescription on. ANZCTR ( ACTRN12616000023459 ) (14 Jan 2016).

  10. Random Finite Set Based Data Assimilation for Dynamic Data Driven Simulation of Maritime Pirate Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang


    Full Text Available Maritime piracy is posing a genuine threat to maritime transport. The main purpose of simulation is to predict the behaviors of many actual systems, and it has been successfully applied in many fields. But the application of simulation in the maritime domain is still scarce. The rapid development of network and measurement technologies brings about higher accuracy and better availability of online measurements. This makes the simulation paradigm named as dynamic data driven simulation increasingly popular. It can assimilate the online measurements into the running simulation models and ensure much more accurate prediction of the complex systems under study. In this paper, we study how to utilize the online measurements in the agent based simulation of the maritime pirate activity. A new random finite set based data assimilation algorithm is proposed to overcome the limitations of the conventional vectors based data assimilation algorithms. The random finite set based general data model, measurement model, and simulation model are introduced to support the proposed algorithm. The details of the proposed algorithm are presented in the context of agent based simulation of maritime pirate activity. Two groups of experiments are used to practically prove the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Strategic and operational considerations for the implementation of performance based logistics within the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force


    Harada, Gaku


    MBA Professional Report The Japan Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF) will initiate its first performance-based logistics (PBL) contract in fiscal year 2010. This first contract is an experiment in contracting with private firms to provide direct support for military forces. Performance-based logistics is a very new concept for the Japan Self Defense Force, and many policy issues remain unaddressed. The purpose of this Master's project is to explore the critical strategic and operation...

  12. Trapping Plan : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Brussels District (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR- Brussels District trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  13. Irrationality in Politics and Governance of Maritime Affairs: The Collapse of Sovereign Maritime Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Duru


    Full Text Available This paper investigates maritime policies from the perspective of behavioural law and economics by questioning the role of political instruments, levels of development, groupthink bias, moral hazards and practical examples. Through the emergence of deregulation and procedural simplification, the reasons behind overregulation need to be revisited. The future of maritime governance is expected to hollow out several functions for alternative institutions and keep the governance simple for performing other roles such as advisory services, mainstreaming, amongst others. Therefore, the concept of maritime governance without a government can be thought as a driving force for the future. Based on the deregulation and the hollow-out framework, maritime governance (particularly in developing and developed countries should focus on the softpower of maritime administration and the role of expert power; as well as referent power to mainstream the maritime industry.

  14. Liability of statutory organs in limited liability companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Janků


    Full Text Available Statutory organs of business companies (and similarly of co-operatives have numerous obligations imposed by generally binding provisions; relied with these is the liability for non-fulfilment of the latter. Some of the obligations are imposed directly by the laws, some are assumed on contractual basis. Their infringements may lead to the liability for the situation and consequences occurred. The regulation of the liability of persons engaged in the company’s bodies covers persons that are entrusted by the management of foreign assets. Sometimes these are in fact not entirely foreign assets because, although the assets are legally owned by the business company, persons acting as statutory organs are mostly partners (shareholders in these companies as well. As such they manage the foreign assets but the company properties were created by their contributions or through the business by themselves. The paper analyses the requirements laid down for the function of managing directors (jednatel in the limited company. Consequently it analyses the scope of the liability of managing directors firstly, in relationship to the company’s creditors (persons standing outside the company and, subsequently, in relationship to the shareholders. It also presents and characterises the recent trends in the Commercial Court’s judgement of the conditions required for the liability for damage and claims for damages put forward by action to recover damages by the managing directors. De lege ferenda the paper recommends that the legal regulation will be amended by provisions limiting the scope of persons to be appointed as executive director and/or extending the liability for damages for the partners of the company in cases where the damage in such cases can not be compensated by the executive director and the partners should bear consequences for their culpa in eligendo.

  15. Analysis of Jammer Resistant, Spread Spectrum, VSAT Communication Scheme for Maritime Platform Using DS-CDMA (United States)

    Aras, Ersin


    In this thesis, a new VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) Communication system is developed using Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) for multiple maritime mobile users in the footprints of national communication satellites. The Forward Error Correction (FEC) is implemented by applying convolution encoding with soft decision decoding. The worst case scenario is always considered by placing VSAT system and different types of jammers on the footprint where the minimum signal- to-noise ratio is possible. Using this assumption, the performance of the system is analyzed for different convolution code rates, for a different number of users and for the different jammer powers. The Walsh codes are used to establish an orthogonal cover between CDMA channels in a VSAT. Additionally, spread spectrum is included by PN sequences to ensure as much orthogonal coverage as possible between the VSATs. Also, that spreading is the key to minimizing these hostile jammers effects. After analyzing VSAT system for possible scenario elements, optimum system parameters are introduced for military and civilian applications.

  16. Maritime Interdiction Operations Small Craft Detection


    Dougan, A.; Trombino, D.; Bordetsky, A.; Dunlop, W.


    The Naval Postgraduate School has been conducting Tactical Network Topology (TNT) Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) experiments with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since early in 2005. In this work, we are investigating cutting edge technology to evaluate use of networks, advanced sensors and collaborative technology for globally-supported maritime interdiction operations. Some examples of our research include communications in harsh environments, ...

  17. Surgery for children in low-income countries affected by humanitarian emergencies from 2008 to 2014: The Médecins Sans Frontières Operations Centre Brussels experience. (United States)

    Flynn-O'Brien, Katherine T; Trelles, Miguel; Dominguez, Lynette; Hassani, Ghulam Hiadar; Akemani, Clemence; Naseer, Aamer; Ntawukiruwabo, Innocent Bagura; Kushner, Adam L; Rothstein, David H; Stewart, Barclay T


    Pediatric surgical care is deficient in developing countries disrupted by crisis. We aimed to describe pediatric surgical care at Médecins Sans Frontières-Brussels (MSF-OCB) projects to inform resource allocation and define the pediatric-specific skillset necessary for humanitarian surgical teams. Procedures performed by MSF-OCB from July 2008 to December 2014 were reviewed. Project characteristics, patient demographics and clinical data were described. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of perioperative death. Of 109,828 procedures, 26,284 were performed for 24,576 children (22% of all procedures). The most common pediatric operative indication was trauma (13,984; 57%). Nine percent of all surgical indications were due to violence (e.g., land mines, firearms, gender-based violence, etc.). The majority of procedures (19,582; 75%) were general surgical, followed by orthopedic (4350; 17%), and obstetric/gynecologic/urologic (2135; 8%). Perioperative death was low (42; 0.17%); independent predictors of death included age surgery and infant perioperative care is particularly needed. These findings are important when resourcing projects and training surgical staff for humanitarian missions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ship Routing with Pickup and Delivery for a Maritime Oil Transportation System: MIP Model and Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius P. Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This paper examines a ship routing problem with pickup and delivery and time windows for maritime oil transportation, motivated by the production and logistics activities of an oil company operating in the Brazilian coast. The transportation costs from offshore platforms to coastal terminals are an important issue in the search for operational excellence in the oil industry, involving operations that demand agile and effective decision support systems. This paper presents an optimization approach to address this problem, based on a mixed integer programming (MIP model and a novel and exploratory application of two tailor-made MIP heuristics, based on relax-and-fix and time decomposition procedures. The model minimizes fuel costs of a heterogeneous fleet of oil tankers and costs related to freighting contracts. The model also considers company-specific constraints for offshore oil transportation. Computational experiments based on the mathematical models and the related MIP heuristics are presented for a set of real data provided by the company, which confirm the potential of optimization-based methods to find good solutions for problems of moderate sizes.

  19. Optimal medical outcomes with limited liability: risk management principles for medical practices at the intersection of medicine, law, and business. (United States)

    Paterick, Timothy J; Paterick, Timothy E; Waterhouse, Blake E


    Physicians practice at the intersection of medicine, law, and business. Each discipline creates its own challenges for the practicing physician: to practice efficient, effective medicine; to limit potential liability; and to create a positive financial outcome. Those challenges increase with escalating costs and reduced reimbursements. In this paper, the common clinical presentation of chest pain has been used to create a paradigm to educate physicians to understand efficient and effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment, and how effective communication with patients and meticulous documentation of all medical encounters can limit the potential for liability. Ultimately, given today's reimbursement formulas, physicians must also understand the cost of testing, in relation to its benefits, in an attempt to yield a positive financial outcome.

  20. Incorporation of the time aspect into the liability-threshold model for case-control-family data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Luise; Holst, Klaus K.; Andersen, Klaus K.


    Familial aggregation and the role of genetic and environmental factors can be investigated through family studies analysed using the liability-threshold model. The liability-threshold model ignores the timing of events including the age of disease onset and right censoring, which can lead...... and inverse probability of censoring weights are used to adjust for right censoring. In the case-control-family setting, recognising the existence of competing events is highly relevant to the sampling of control probands. Because of the presence of multiple family members who may be censored at different...... ages, the estimation of inverse probability of censoring weights is not as straightforward as in the twin setting but requires consideration. We propose to employ a composite likelihood conditioning on proband status that markedly simplifies adjustment for right censoring. We assess the proposed...

  1. Core outcome measures for opioid abuse liability laboratory assessment studies in humans: IMMPACT recommendations (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D.; Zacny, James P.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Turk, Dennis C.; Bigelow, George E.; Foltin, Richard W.; Jasinski, Donald R.; Sellers, Edward M.; Adams, Edgar H.; Balster, Robert; Burke, Laurie B.; Cerny, Igor; Colucci, Robert D.; Cone, Edward; Cowan, Penney; Farrar, John T.; Haddox, J. David; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Hertz, Sharon; Jay, Gary W.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Junor, Roderick; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Klein, Michael; Kopecky, Ernest A.; Leiderman, Deborah B.; McDermott, Michael P.; O’Brien, Charles; O’Connor, Alec B.; Palmer, Pamela P.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rappaport, Bob A.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Rowbotham, Michael C.; Sampaio, Cristina; Setnik, Beatrice; Sokolowska, Marta; Stauffer, Joseph W.; Walsh, Sharon L.


    A critical component in development of opioid analgesics is assessment of their abuse liability (AL). Standardization of approaches and measures used in assessing AL has the potential to facilitate comparisons across studies, research laboratories, and drugs. The goal of this report is to provide consensus recommendations regarding core outcome measures for assessing abuse potential of opioid medications in humans in a controlled laboratory setting. Although many of the recommended measures are appropriate for assessing the AL of medications from other drug classes, the focus here is on opioid medications because they present unique risks from both physiological (e.g., respiratory depression, physical dependence) and public health (e.g., individuals in pain) perspectives. A brief historical perspective on AL testing is provided and then those measures that can be considered primary and secondary outcomes and possible additional outcomes in AL assessment are discussed. These outcome measures include: (1) subjective effects (some of which comprise the primary outcome measures, including drug liking); (2) physiological responses; (3) drug self-administration behavior; and (4) cognitive and psychomotor performance. Prior to presenting recommendations for standardized approaches and measures to be used in AL assessments, the appropriateness of using these measures in clinical trials with patients in pain is discussed. PMID:22998781

  2. Assessing the main threats to marine ecosystem components of the Adriatic - Ionian Region for the implementation of Maritime Spatial Planning (United States)

    Lipizer, Marina


    Marine and coastal ecosystems and the related benefits they provide for humans are threatened by increasing pressures and competing usages. To address these issues, in the last decade, several EU legislations have been formulated to guarantee and promote sustainable use of the sea (e.g. Common Fishery Policy, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Maritime Spatial Planning). As a first step to implement cross-border Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) in the Adriatic - Ionian Seas, a review of the main anthropogenic pressures due to maritime activities involving the Adriatic - Ionian Region (AIR) as well as of the most relevant environmental components has been carried out. The main objective of the analysis is to better identify the spatial distribution of human uses of the sea and of the key environmental components and the ecosystem services provided. The analysis of the existing conditions includes a description of the human activities per economic sector, considering type, location, dimension and magnitude of the activity in the AIR and the spatial extent of the main environmental and ecological values present in the AIR. The environmental status has been characterized according to the descriptors proposed by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD Directive 2008/56/EC) and the most sensitive ecosystem components in the AIR have been pointed out. A qualitative analysis of the relationships between good environmental status descriptors sensu MSFD and ecosystem services in the AIR has been carried out to provide useful information for the implementation of MSP. Cross-border Maritime Spatial Planning is particularly needed in a semi-enclosed basin such as the Adriatic Sea, hosting very diverse human activities, ranging from fishery to tourism, sand extraction, commercial and passenger transport, oil and gas exploration and exploitation, which may partially overlap and severely threaten ecosystem functioning and the associated services.

  3. Economic analysis of the principles of liability in tort in the backdrop of liability for compensation for damage occurring as a result of the activities of one entity to the goods of another entity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuźmicka-Sulikowska, Joanna


    ... of the activities of one entity borne in the goods of another. Lack of liability situations are treated in some detail as well as liability based on the principle of risk and the principle of fault...

  4. Intermittent communications modeling and simulation for autonomous unmanned maritime vehicles using an integrated APM and FSMC framework (United States)

    Coker, Ayodeji; Straatemeier, Logan; Rogers, Ted; Valdez, Pierre; Griendling, Kelly; Cooksey, Daniel


    In this work a framework is presented for addressing the issue of intermittent communications faced by autonomous unmanned maritime vehicles operating at sea. In particular, this work considers the subject of predictive atmospheric signal transmission over multi-path fading channels in maritime environments. A Finite State Markov Channel is used to represent a Nakagami-m modeled physical fading radio channel. The range of the received signal-to-noise ratio is partitioned into a finite number of intervals which represent application-specific communications states. The Advanced Propagation Model (APM), developed at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, provides a characterization of the transmission channel in terms of evaporation duct induced signal propagation loss. APM uses a hybrid ray-optic and parabolic equations model which allows for the computation of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation over various sea and/or terrain paths. These models which have been integrated in the proposed framework provide a strategic and mission planning aid for the operation of maritime unmanned vehicles at sea.

  5. 11he Final Report: Information Visualization and Management for Enhanced Domain Awareness in Maritime Security (United States)


    projet de recherches appliquées (PRA) : visualisation et gestion de l’information pour une meilleure connaissance du domaine en...sécurité maritime (11he). Le présent rapport constitue le dernier rapport sur ce projet R & D de 4 ans, dont le but était de faire progresser la ...menées au cours de ce projet , notamment une étude sur le « tableau de la situation maritime futur », et une étude de pointe de la visualisation

  6. Maritime Crime in Nigeria and Waters Beyond Analysing the Period ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidents of maritime crime in Nigerian waters have become of punctuated interest recently, with maritime criminals finding the water spaces of the country conducive for their activities, and these waters thus becoming some of the most dangerous in the world. This paper considers maritime crime alongside the rise of the oil ...

  7. The Extent of Maritime Terrorism and Piracy: A Comparative Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (WMD) or that a ship with dangerous cargo could be used as a weapon. No exclusively maritime terrorist organisations exist today. Maritime terrorism is only one of the areas of operation for terrorist organisations. Links between maritime pirates and terrorists are also limited, as the objectives of these organisations differ.

  8. A Natural Ventilation Alternative to the Passivhaus Standard for a Mild Maritime Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sassi


    Full Text Available This study examines the need in mild maritime climates, such as the southern areas of the UK, for mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR as required by the German Passivhaus standard. It considers the comfort, air quality and energy impacts of MVHR versus natural ventilation and reviews the post-occupancy monitoring data of two flats in Cardiff designed to Passivhaus standards, one of which had been operated as a naturally ventilated building rather than with MVHR. The energy consumption of this free-running flat was significantly lower (36 kWh primary energy/m²a than the Passivhaus Planning Package modeling had predicted (93 kWh primary energy/m²a with no adverse effects on occupant comfort, air quality or excessive humidity, and advantages of lower capital cost and maintenance. The paper concludes that in climates with mild winters and cool summers the use of MVHR could be omitted without compromising comfort levels and achieving at least equivalent energy savings resulting from adopting the Passivhaus model and at a lower capital cost. This suggests the potential for a naturally ventilated, ultra-low energy model with lower capital investment requirements and lower disruption when applied to retrofit that would facilitate its mainstream adoption.

  9. DXBC: a long distance wireless broadband communication system for coastal maritime surveillance applications (United States)

    Vastianos, George E.; Argyreas, Nick D.; Xilouris, Chris K.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.


    The field of Homeland Security focuses on the air, land, and sea borders surveillance in order to prevent illegal activities while facilitating lawful travel and trade. The achievement of this goal requires collaboration of complex decentralized systems and services, and transfer of huge amount of information between the remote surveillance areas and the command & control centers. It becomes obvious that the effectiveness of the provided security depends highly on the available communication capabilities between the interconnected areas. Although nowadays the broadband communication between remote places is presumed easy because of the extensive infrastructure inside residential areas, it becomes a real challenge when the required information should be acquired from locations where no infrastructure is available such as mountain or sea areas. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos within the PERSEUS FP7- SEC-2011-261748 project has developed a wireless broadband telecommunication system that combines different communication channels from subGHz to microwave frequencies and provides secure IP connectivity between sea surveillance vessels and the Command and Control Centers (C3). The system was deployed in Fast Patrol Boats of the Hellenic Coast Guard that are used for maritime surveillance in sea boarders and tested successfully in two demonstration exercises for irregular migration and smuggling scenarios in the Aegean Archipelagos. This paper describes in detail the system architecture in terms of hardware and software and the evaluation measurements of the system communication capabilities.

  10. Assessment of Performance Measures for Security of the Maritime Transportation Network, Port Security Metrics : Proposed Measurement of Deterrence Capability (United States)


    This report is the thirs in a series describing the development of performance measures pertaining to the security of the maritime transportation network (port security metrics). THe development of measures to guide improvements in maritime security ...

  11. A parietal biomarker for ADHD liability:As predicted by The Distributed Effects Perspective Model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sigi eHale


    Full Text Available Background: We previously hypothesized that poor task-directed sensory information processing should be indexed by increased weighting of right hemisphere (RH biased attention and visuo-perceptual brain functions during task operations, and have demonstrated this phenotype in ADHD across multiple studies, using multiple methodologies. However, in our recent Distributed Effects Model of ADHD, we surmised that this phenotype is not ADHD specific, but rather more broadly reflective of any circumstance that disrupts the induction and maintenance of an emergent task-directed neural architecture. Under this view, increased weighting of RH biased attention and visuo-perceptual brain functions is expected to generally index neurocognitive sets that are not optimized for task-directed thought and action, and when durable expressed, liability for ADHD. Method: The current study tested this view by examining whether previously identified rightward parietal EEG asymmetry in ADHD was associated with common ADHD characteristics and comorbidities (i.e., ADHD risk factors. Results: Barring one exception (non-right handedness, we found that it was. Rightward parietal asymmetry was associated with carrying the DRD4-7R risk allele, being male, having mood disorder, and having anxiety disorder. However, differences in the specific expression of rightward parietal asymmetry were observed, which are discussed in relation to possible unique mechanisms underlying ADHD liability in different ADHD RFs. Conclusion: Rightward parietal asymmetry appears to be a durable feature of ADHD liability, as predicted by the Distributed Effects Perspective Model of ADHD. Moreover, variability in the expression of this phenotype may shed light on different sources of ADHD liability.

  12. Intelligent maritime security system with sensor networks for coastal environmental and homeland security applications (United States)

    Carapezza, Edward M.; Bucklin, Ann


    This paper proposes an innovative command and control system design and the use of low, cost distributed sensor networks for an intelligent maritime security system. This concept utilizes a network of small passive and active multi-phenomenological unattended sensors and shore based optical sensors to detect, classify, and track submerged threat objects approaching high value coastal assets, such as ports, harbors, residential, commercial, and military facilities and areas. The network of unattended, in-water sensors perform the initial detection, classification, and coarse tracking and then queues shore based optical laser radar sensors. These shore-based sensors perform a high resolution sector search to develop a precision track on the submerged threat objects. Potential threat objects include submarines, submerged barges, UUV's, swimmers carrying threat objects such as explosives, chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear materials. Reliable systems with low false alarm rates (FAR) are proposed. Tens to hundreds of low cost passive sensors are proposed to be deployed conjunctively with several active acoustic and optical sensors in threat and facility dependant patterns to maximize the detection, tracking and classification of submerged threat objects.

  13. The Fuel Efficiency of Maritime Transport. Potential for improvement and analysis of barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Behrends, B. [Marena Ltd., s.l. (United Kingdom); Lee, D.S. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Machester (United Kingdom)


    There is significant potential to improve the fuel efficiency of ships and thus contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from maritime transport. It has long been recognised that this potential is not being fully exploited, owing to the existence of non-market barriers. This report analyses the barriers to implementing fuel efficiency improvements, and concludes that the most important of these are the split incentive between ship owners and operators, a lack of trusted data on new technologies, and transaction costs associated with evaluating measures. As a result, in practice about a quarter of the cost-effective abatement potential is unavailable. There are several ways to overcome these barriers. The split incentive can - to some extent - be overcome by providing more detailed information on the fuel efficiency of vessels, making due allowance for operational profiles. This would allow fuel consumption to be more accurately projected and a larger share of efficiency benefits to accrue to ship owners, thus increasing the return on investment in fuel-saving technologies. This would also require changes to standard charter parties. The credibility of information on new technologies can be improved through intensive collaboration between suppliers of new technologies and shipping companies. In order to overcome risk, government subsidies could provide an incentive. This could have the additional benefit that governments could require publication of results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Cristina DUȚESCU


    Full Text Available With the evolution and modernization of the liberal professions, both practitioners and clients are also aware of their rights and obligations, the risks involved in exercising professions that depend on the accuracy of information, the stability of decisions, and the observance of deadlines. The present study looks at the appearance of the particularities of the civil liability in the liberal professions existing in Romania in relation to the legal obligation to conclude an insurance policy for professional liability, as well as the situations and conditions in which it produces its effects.

  15. 26 CFR 1.461-2 - Contested liabilities. (United States)


    ... bill received for services may represent asserted liabilities. (2) Definition of the term “contest... liability— (A) Purchasing a bond to guarantee payment of the asserted liability; (B) An entry on the...

  16. Urgensi Pengaturan Keamanan Maritim Nasional di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiana Puspitawati


    Full Text Available Located between two continents and two oceans, Indonesia is vulnerable to various transnational crimes. Hence, the concept of maritime security emerged. This paper focuses on three crucial matters, maritime delimitation, IUU Fishing as well as piracy and armed robbery at sea. This research aims to analyze the urgency of national maritime security legal framework in Indonesia. This research uses normative method with statute approach and comparative approach. It is submitted that although regional dan international cooperation is important to address maritime threats, national legal instrument is also necessary. Unfortunately, Indonesia still does not have comprehensive national legal instrument in place. Thus, it is argued that Indonesia should formulate specific policy and national legal frameworks in addressing maritime threats completed with certain measures for each threats as well as point out which institutions competent in handling each threats.

  17. Fiscal Liability of State Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Fajardo-Peña


    Full Text Available The State contract is one of the most important tools for public management. The formation, execution and liquidation of State contracts are also a potential cause of State patrimonial damages. Perhaps for this reason, many State contractors are prosecuted as if they were public spending managers. The question, however, is not as simple. The fiscal liability process has a qualified recipient: the fiscal manager. In this article, through a conceptual exposition and a case study, we identify the criterion for determining in which cases a State contractor acquires the function of controlling public funds and when he/she can be subjected to a fiscal liability.

  18. The lawyer civil liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionaş, D.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the lawyer civil liability, with its two forms, namely the tort and the contractual liability, a question of real interest as the civil liability cases are much more numerous than many other criminal or disciplinary cases. We focused on the regulation and content of the lawyer civil liability, analyzing the provisions of Law no 51/1995 regarding the organization and exercise of advocacy in Romania and also on the provisions of the Statute of advocacy and that of the Code of Ethics.

  19. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco


    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider...

  20. Comparative evaluation of guided tissue regeneration with use of collagen-based barrier freeze-dried dura mater allograft for mandibular class 2 furcation defects (a comparative controlled clinical study). (United States)

    Patel, Sandeep; Kubavat, Ajay; Ruparelia, Brijesh; Agarwal, Arvind; Panda, Anup


    The aim of periodontal surgery is complete regeneration. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare clinically soft tissue changes in form of probing pocket depth, gingival shrinkage, attachment level and hard tissue changes in form of horizontal and vertical bone level using resorbable membranes. Twelve subjects with bilateral class 2 furcation defects were selected. After initial phase one treatment, open debridement was performed in control site while freezedried dura mater allograft was used in experimental site. Soft and hard tissue parameters were registered intrasurgically. Nine months reentry ensured better understanding and evaluation of the final outcome of the study. Guided tissue regeneration is a predictable treatment modality for class 2 furcation defect. There was statistically significant reduction in pocket depth as compared to control (p tissue parameter, significant defect fill resulted in experimental group, while in control group, less significant defect fill was found in horizontal direction and nonsignificant defect fill was found in vertical direction. The results showed statistically significant improvement in soft and hard tissue parameters and less gingival shrinkage in experimental sites compared to control site. The use of FDDMA in furcation defects helps us to achieve predictable results. This cross-linked collagen membrane has better handling properties and ease of procurement as well as economic viability making it a logical material to be used in regenerative surgeries.

  1. Basic Study on Term of Warranty Liability for Water Supply, Drainage, and Sanitation Arrangement Work Defect in Apartment Building (United States)

    Park, Junmo; Seo, DeokSeok


    The defect lawsuit of the apartment which is the representative residential style of Korea continues and becomes a social problem. In the defect lawsuit, the term of warranty liability is a period that can demand the defect repair according to defect occurrence, and the exclusion period of the exercise of rights. However, the term of warranty liability stipulated in relevant laws such as Enforcement Decree of the Housing Act is being changed arbitrarily, without any established grounds. Therefore, a reasonable standard for establishing the term of warranty liability is required. In this study, the defects of water supply, drainage and sanitation arrangement work were studied. As a result of analyzing the number of defect occurrence in the apartment, it was shown that the defects in water supply, drainage and sanitation arrangement work occurred more than 80% in the 1st ∼ 2nd year after completion. However, the occurrence of defects from the 3rd year was extremely slight. On the other hand, it was confirmed that the defect occurrence continued until fairly late point of time as the end point of time of the defects was in the 7th to 9th years.

  2. Interaction of ionizing radiation with mater; Oddzialywanie promieniowania jonizujacego z materia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogocki, D. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)


    The early radiation effects (e.g. excitation, ionization) have been described and compared for different kind of radiation interacting with mater. The mechanism of energy deposition in connection with radiation dose and their spatial distribution has been shown.The commonly used definitions and units in radiation dosimetry have been also reviewed. 4 refs, 4 figs.

  3. Optimal claim behaviour for third-party liability insurances with perfect information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P. Dellaert (Nico); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); I. Voshol (Ilje)


    textabstractIn this paper we analyse the optimal claim behaviour of a policy holder having a third-party liability insurance in which one is allowed to decide at the end of an insurance year which damages occurred during that year should be claimed. This analysis can only be carried out in detail in

  4. Emerging Issues in Special Education Tort Liability: Implications for Special Educators and Teacher Trainers. (United States)

    McAfee, James K.


    Critical issues in tort liability that confront special educators and teacher trainers include malpractice (failure to learn), misdiagnosis, immunity, impact of a handicap on standard of care, confidentiality, access to emergency medical services, the use of aversive consequences, child abuse and corporal punishment, and school violence.…




  6. Understanding and Limiting School Board Member Liability. (United States)

    Hodges, Terry; Jones, Stephanie; Purvis, Mary L.; Rubin, David B.; Thrasher, Doralee; Underwood, Julie; Watkins, W. David

    This book is a primer on board-member liability issues and is intended for both board members and school attorneys. The first chapter, "The Legal System," examines federal sources of legal authority, state and local sources of legal authority, and federal and state judicial structures. Liability under state tort law is the subject of chapter 2,…

  7. Legal liability under an IDM program. (United States)

    Wolfe, D L; Stanton, T J


    Integrated disability management (IDM) programs offer employers a simple, strategic approach to managing health and lost time. However, components of these programs also present potential liabilities under federal, and sometimes, state law. This article reviews the sources of these liabilities and summarizes techniques for minimizing the risk of employers (and managers individually).

  8. Identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Using Simultaneous Detection of mecA, nuc, and femB by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). (United States)

    Chen, Changguo; Zhao, Qiangyuan; Guo, Jianwei; Li, Yanjun; Chen, Qiuyuan


    The aim of this study was to develop a rapid detection assay to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by simultaneous testing for the mecA, nuc, and femB genes using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. LAMP primers were designed using online bio-software ( ), and amplification reactions were performed in an isothermal temperature bath. The products were then examined using 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. MecA, nuc, and femB were confirmed by triplex TaqMan real-time PCR. For better naked-eye inspection of the reaction result, hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB) was added to the amplification system. Within 60 min, LAMP successfully amplified the genes of interest under isothermal conditions at 63 °C. The results of 2% gel electrophoresis indicated that when the Mg 2+ concentration in the reaction system was 6 μmol, the amplification of the mecA gene was relatively good, while the amplification of the nuc and femB genes was better at an Mg 2+ concentration of 8 μmol. Obvious color differences were observed by adding 1 μL (3.75 mM) of HNB into 25 μL reaction system. The LAMP assay was applied to 128 isolates cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which were separated from the daily specimens and identified by Vitek microbial identification instruments. The results were identical for both LAMP and PCR. LAMP offers an alternative detection assay for mecA, nuc, and femB and is faster than other methods.

  9. Towards a Global Maritime Surveillance- A New European Challenge for European Security (United States)

    Claverie, Alain; Barbagelata, Andrea; Pasco, Xavier; Darnis, Jean Pierre


    The illegal immigration connected to traffic and criminal activity is creating problems in Europe. Maritime surveillance is one of the most problematic dimensions.The political decision and the international agreement of the development of VTMS and the AIS are a first step towards securing the maritime traffic and protecting the maritime borders.The weight of the terrorism through the emergence of new set of threats is changing the situation in creating new needs of control through a global approach. The recent sea trial of the US department of Homeland Security is an indicator of this evolution. Space technologies have unique capabilities to support this kind of global approaches:• GNSS and the satellite telecommunication fleet (e.g. INMARSAT, ORBCOM) have a direct contribution to the extension of the AIS.• Satellite remote sensing is the logic extension of the control of the "VTMS" area.The new generation of satellite fleet (e.g. Pléiades, TerraSar, COSMO/SkyMed, Radarsat) should ensure an acceptable first level of control.The revisitation time, the near real time transmission with fast processing is an effective answer to the need of the Maritime Security Authorities.

  10. Searching for sanctuary: government power and the location of maritime piracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daxecker, U.E.; Prins, B.C.


    Recent systematic work on the incidence of maritime piracy shows the importance of various political, economic, and geographic correlates at the country level. Yet these correlates tell us little about the determinants of piracy location off states’ coasts, despite the fact that piracy is well known

  11. Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress (United States)


    particularly on maritime security. American men and women in uniform are working together with countries in the region to build that capacity—especially on...than 16 million citizens who trace their ancestry to the Asia-Pacific. Given the importance of the Asia-Pacific to our interests, we owe it to the

  12. Carriage of λ Latent Virus Is Costly for Its Bacterial Host due to Frequent Reactivation in Monoxenic Mouse Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne De Paepe


    Full Text Available Temperate phages, the bacterial viruses able to enter in a dormant prophage state in bacterial genomes, are present in the majority of bacterial strains for which the genome sequence is available. Although these prophages are generally considered to increase their hosts' fitness by bringing beneficial genes, studies demonstrating such effects in ecologically relevant environments are relatively limited to few bacterial species. Here, we investigated the impact of prophage carriage in the gastrointestinal tract of monoxenic mice. Combined with mathematical modelling, these experimental results provided a quantitative estimation of key parameters governing phage-bacteria interactions within this model ecosystem. We used wild-type and mutant strains of the best known host/phage pair, Escherichia coli and phage λ. Unexpectedly, λ prophage caused a significant fitness cost for its carrier, due to an induction rate 50-fold higher than in vitro, with 1 to 2% of the prophage being induced. However, when prophage carriers were in competition with isogenic phage susceptible bacteria, the prophage indirectly benefited its carrier by killing competitors: infection of susceptible bacteria led to phage lytic development in about 80% of cases. The remaining infected bacteria were lysogenized, resulting overall in the rapid lysogenization of the susceptible lineage. Moreover, our setup enabled to demonstrate that rare events of phage gene capture by homologous recombination occurred in the intestine of monoxenic mice. To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first quantitative characterization of temperate phage-bacteria interactions in a simplified gut environment. The high prophage induction rate detected reveals DNA damage-mediated SOS response in monoxenic mouse intestine. We propose that the mammalian gut, the most densely populated bacterial ecosystem on earth, might foster bacterial evolution through high temperate phage activity.

  13. Characterizing liability for cranial nerve injuries: a detailed analysis of 209 malpractice trials. (United States)

    Svider, Peter F; Sunaryo, Peter L; Keeley, Brieze R; Kovalerchik, Olga; Mauro, Andrew C; Eloy, Jean Anderson


    The potential for adverse events with lasting functional effects makes cranial nerve (CN) injury a target for litigation. Our objective was to comprehensively examine records of malpractice trials and detail issues influencing outcomes. Retrospective analysis. The Westlaw database (Thomson Reuters, New York, NY) was searched for jury verdict reports related to medical malpractice and CN injury. After excluding nonrelevant cases, we examined 209 trials for characteristics including nerve(s) injured, alleged causes of malpractice, demographic information, specialty, and outcome. The most commonly litigated CNs were VII (24.4%) and II (19.6%). Sixty-nine (33.0%) trials resulted in damages awarded. Outcomes varied, ranging from a 29.2% plaintiff success rate for CN XI injury to 48.4% for CN II injury. Plaintiffs had less success with increasing age. Average damages awarded were $1.7 million. The most commonly named defendants were otolaryngologists and general surgeons. Individual considerations varied but commonly included alleged deficits in informed consent (25.4%), unnecessary procedures (14.8%), undergoing additional surgery (25.8%), and untimely recognition of complications (23.9%). Malpractice trials were resolved in the defendant's favor the majority of the time. In cases where plaintiffs were successful, however, awards were considerable, averaging nearly $2 million. Factors influencing case outcome included age, location, perceived deficits in informed consent, allegedly unnecessary surgery, requiring additional surgery to repair a complication, and untimely recognition of complications. Although specific factors should be taken into consideration with each procedure, providing detailed informed consent and communicating with patients regarding expectations may minimize liability. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco


    Idrissa Diawara; Khadija Bekhti; Driss Elhabchi; Rachid Saile; Naima Elmdaghri; Mohammed Timinouni; Mohamed Elazhari


    Background and objectives Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes. Patients and Methods Nasal swab specim...

  15. Traditional Posterior Load Carriage: Ergonomic Assessment and Intervention Efficacy


    Muslim, Khoirul


    There is a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among manual material handling (MMH) workers. However, limited investigations have been undertaken among one large group of workers using a particular MMH method called traditional posterior load carriage (PLC). Such load carriage is typically done without the use of an assistive device (e.g., backpack) in developing countries, and involves exposure to known risk factors for MSS such as heavy loads, non-neutral postures, and high ...

  16. Generational differences in American students' reasons for going to college, 1971-2014: The rise of extrinsic motives. (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Donnelly, Kristin


    We examined generational differences in reasons for attending college among a nationally representative sample of college students (N = 8 million) entering college between 1971-2014. We validated the items on reasons for attending college against an established measure of extrinsic and intrinsic values among college students in 2014 (n = 189). Millennials (in college 2000s-2010s) and Generation X (1980s-1990s) valued extrinsic reasons for going to college ("to make more money") more, and anti-extrinsic reasons ("to gain a general education and appreciation of ideas") less than Boomers when they were the same age in the 1960s-1970s. Extrinsic reasons for going to college were higher in years with more income inequality, college enrollment, and extrinsic values. These results mirror previous research finding generational increases in extrinsic values begun by GenX and continued by Millennials, suggesting that more recent generations are more likely to favor extrinsic values in their decision-making.

  17. Liability of physicans and dentists – key issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michał Zalewski; Kamila Fux-Zalewska


    ... (contractual liability) or unlawful and culpable conduct in the exercise of medical action taken toward the patient who is not bound to the doctor by a legal relationship (tort liability). When a physician or a dentist is assigned a liability, he/she is obliged to redress the pecuniary damage and compensate for the non-pecuniary injury (wrong) suffered by the injured party.

  18. 37 CFR 10.78 - Limiting liability to client. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limiting liability to client... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.78 Limiting liability to client. A practitioner shall not attempt to exonerate himself or herself from, or limit his or her liability to, a client for his or her...

  19. Managing Contingent Liabilities in Public-Private Partnerships


    Irwin, Timothy; Mokdad, Tanya


    Contingent liabilities create management problems for governments. They have a cost, but judging what the cost is and whether it is worth incurring is difficult. Except in the case of contingent liabilities created by simple guarantees of debt, governments usually can incur contingent liabilities without budgetary approval or recognition in the governments accounts. So governments may pref...

  20. New microsatellite-based concept for monitoring of maritime traffic by navigation radar detection (United States)

    Eriksen, Torkild; Narheim, Bjoern T.; Hoye, Gudrun; Wahl, Terje


    The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment and industry partners develop a new sensor concept for maritime surveillance by passive detection of X-band navigation radars from a micro-satellite in polar LEO. The Phase-A study was finished June 2001. According to the International Convention for the Safety Of Life At Sea (SOLAS), all vessels longer than 45 m are required to be equipped with X- band navigation radar. The proposed localization of vessels is based on in-orbit detection and processing of navigation radar signals, using precise direction-finding techniques for geolocation. The optimum sensor configuration is side viewing towards the horizon, giving an approximately 1200 km wide swath for detection of the radar's main lobe signal. From polar LEO, the sensor can cover Norwegian waters more than four times per day. This exceeds the coverage of existing SAR systems by more than a factor of four, and at a much lower price. An orthogonal microwave antenna array and a multi-channel receiver are used for acquisition of the radar signals. Utilizing advanced signal processing, the angle of arrival of individual pulses is determined with a precision that corresponds to an error smaller than 1 km in the geographic position. The orbit and attitude determination systems of the platform are high performance and closely connected to the payload, to give satellite position and orientation with knowledge or 15 m and 0.001 degree(s), respectively. A high degree of on-board autonomy is required to process the radar signals to user-data packets. The satellite provides a dedicated downlink channel to broadcast the vessel traffic data to compact user terminals in near real time.