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Sample records for brushtail possum trichosurus

  1. Predicting summer site occupancy for an invasive species, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in an urban environment.

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    Amy L Adams

    Full Text Available Invasive species are often favoured in fragmented, highly-modified, human-dominated landscapes such as urban areas. Because successful invasive urban adapters can occupy habitat that is quite different from that in their original range, effective management programmes for invasive species in urban areas require an understanding of distribution, habitat and resource requirements at a local scale that is tailored to the fine-scale heterogeneity typical of urban landscapes. The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula is one of New Zealand's most destructive invasive pest species. As brushtail possums traditionally occupy forest habitat, control in New Zealand has focussed on rural and forest habitats, and forest fragments in cities. However, as successful urban adapters, possums may be occupying a wider range of habitats. Here we use site occupancy methods to determine the distribution of brushtail possums across five distinguishable urban habitat types during summer, which is when possums have the greatest impacts on breeding birds. We collected data on possum presence/absence and habitat characteristics, including possible sources of supplementary food (fruit trees, vegetable gardens, compost heaps, and the availability of forest fragments from 150 survey locations. Predictive distribution models constructed using the programme PRESENCE revealed that while occupancy rates were highest in forest fragments, possums were still present across a large proportion of residential habitat with occupancy decreasing as housing density increased and green cover decreased. The presence of supplementary food sources was important in predicting possum occupancy, which may reflect the high nutritional value of these food types. Additionally, occupancy decreased as the proportion of forest fragment decreased, indicating the importance of forest fragments in determining possum distribution. Control operations to protect native birds from possum predation in

  2. Histological and immunohistological investigation of alimentary tract lymphoid tissue in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus).

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    Hemsley, S W; Canfield, P J; Husband, A J

    1996-01-01

    The histological appearance and distribution of T cells, B cells and plasma cells were investigated for oropharyngeal tonsils, small intestinal lymphoid aggregations (Peyer's patches), caecocolic lymphoid patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) and common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus). The histological organisation and distribution of lymphoid cell subpopulations of these tissues were similar to those described in eutherian mammals, although some differences were found in comparison with previous descriptions of American opossum tissues. The main variation among the 3 species was in the structural organisations of the oropharyngeal tonsil and the caecocolic lymphoid patch which were more complex in the koala than in possums. In the koala the extensive crypts of the oropharyngeal tonsils and folding of the mucosa of the caecocolic lymphoid patch increased their surface area and, in addition, both structures had areas of epithelium heavily infiltrated with T and B cells. These features could indicate that these structures are important in immunological surveillance of orally presented antigens in koalas. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:8621326

  3. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

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    Byrom, Andrea E; Anderson, Dean P; Coleman, Morgan; Thomson, Caroline; Cross, Martin L; Pech, Roger P

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB) to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  4. Assessing the Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Management in Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula, through Indirect Surveillance of Mycobacterium bovis Infection Using Released Sentinel Pigs

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    G. Nugent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, wild pigs acquire Mycobacterium bovis infection by scavenging tuberculous carrion, primarily carcasses of the main disease maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula. We investigated the utility of captive-reared, purpose-released pigs as sentinels for tuberculosis (TB following lethal possum control and subsequent population recovery. Within 2-3 years of possum control by intensive poisoning, TB prevalence and the incidence rate of M. bovis infection in released sentinel pigs were lower than in an adjacent area where possums had not been poisoned. Unexpectedly, TB did not decline to near zero levels among pigs in the poisoned area, a fact which reflected an unanticipated rapid increase in the apparent abundance of possums. Monitoring infection levels among resident wild pigs confirmed that TB prevalence, while reduced due to possum control, persisted in the poisoned area at >20% among pigs born 2-3 years after poisoning, while remaining >60% among resident wild pigs in the nonpoisoned area. When fitted with radio-tracking devices, purpose-released pigs provided precise spatial TB surveillance information and facilitated effective killing of wild pigs when employed as “Judas” animals to help locate residents. Sentinel pigs offer value for monitoring disease trends in New Zealand, as TB levels in possums decline nationally due to large-scale possum control.

  5. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Byrom

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula. Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted <10 days. Dispersing possums settled predominantly in river valleys. A simulation model was developed for the 3-6-month dispersal season; it demonstrated a probability of <0.001 that an infected possum, originating from a low-density population with low disease prevalence in untreated forest, would move across 3 km of recently controlled forest buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  6. Cost-Effective Large-Scale Occupancy-Abundance Monitoring of Invasive Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus Vulpecula on New Zealand's Public Conservation Land.

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    Andrew M Gormley

    Full Text Available There is interest in large-scale and unbiased monitoring of biodiversity status and trend, but there are few published examples of such monitoring being implemented. The New Zealand Department of Conservation is implementing a monitoring program that involves sampling selected biota at the vertices of an 8-km grid superimposed over the 8.6 million hectares of public conservation land that it manages. The introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus Vulpecula is a major threat to some biota and is one taxon that they wish to monitor and report on. A pilot study revealed that the traditional method of monitoring possums using leg-hold traps set for two nights, termed the Trap Catch Index, was a constraint on the cost and logistical feasibility of the monitoring program. A phased implementation of the monitoring program was therefore conducted to collect data for evaluating the trade-off between possum occupancy-abundance estimates and the costs of sampling for one night rather than two nights. Reducing trapping effort from two nights to one night along four trap-lines reduced the estimated costs of monitoring by 5.8% due to savings in labour, food and allowances; it had a negligible effect on estimated national possum occupancy but resulted in slightly higher and less precise estimates of relative possum abundance. Monitoring possums for one night rather than two nights would provide an annual saving of NZ$72,400, with 271 fewer field days required for sampling. Possums occupied 60% (95% credible interval; 53-68 of sampling locations on New Zealand's public conservation land, with a mean relative abundance (Trap Catch Index of 2.7% (2.0-3.5. Possum occupancy and abundance were higher in forest than in non-forest habitats. Our case study illustrates the need to evaluate relationships between sampling design, cost, and occupancy-abundance estimates when designing and implementing large-scale occupancy-abundance monitoring programs.

  7. Field Trial of an Aerially-Distributed Tuberculosis Vaccine in a Low-Density Wildlife Population of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).

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    Nugent, Graham; Yockney, Ivor J; Whitford, E Jackie; Cross, Martin L; Aldwell, Frank E; Buddle, Bryce M

    2016-01-01

    Oral-delivery Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in a lipid matrix has been shown to confer protection against M. bovis infection and reduce the severity of tuberculosis (TB) when fed to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), the major wildlife vector of bovine TB in New Zealand. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of aerial delivery of this live vaccine in bait form to an M. bovis-infected wild possum population, and subsequently assess vaccine uptake and field efficacy. Pre-trial studies indicated a resident possum population at very low density (matrix baits in weather-proof sachets could be successfully sown aerially via helicopter and were palatable to, and likely to be consumed by, a majority of wild possums under free-choice conditions. Subsequently, sachet-held lipid baits containing live BCG vaccine were sown at 3 baits/ha over a 1360 ha area, equating to >5 baits available per possum. Blood sampling conducted two months later provided some evidence of vaccine uptake. A necropsy survey conducted one year later identified a lower prevalence of culture-confirmed M. bovis infection and/or gross TB lesions among adult possums in vaccinated areas (1.1% prevalence; 95% CI, 0-3.3%, n = 92) than in unvaccinated areas (5.6%; 0.7-10.5%, n = 89); P = 0.098. Although not statistically different, the 81% efficacy in protecting possums against natural infection calculated from these data is within the range of previous estimates of vaccine efficacy in trials where BCG vaccine was delivered manually. We conclude that, with further straightforward refinement to improve free-choice uptake, aerial delivery of oral BCG vaccine is likely to be effective in controlling TB in wild possums. We briefly discuss contexts in which this could potentially become an important complementary tool in achieving national eradication of TB from New Zealand wildlife.

  8. Field Trial of an Aerially-Distributed Tuberculosis Vaccine in a Low-Density Wildlife Population of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula.

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    Graham Nugent

    Full Text Available Oral-delivery Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine in a lipid matrix has been shown to confer protection against M. bovis infection and reduce the severity of tuberculosis (TB when fed to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula, the major wildlife vector of bovine TB in New Zealand. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of aerial delivery of this live vaccine in bait form to an M. bovis-infected wild possum population, and subsequently assess vaccine uptake and field efficacy. Pre-trial studies indicated a resident possum population at very low density (5 baits available per possum. Blood sampling conducted two months later provided some evidence of vaccine uptake. A necropsy survey conducted one year later identified a lower prevalence of culture-confirmed M. bovis infection and/or gross TB lesions among adult possums in vaccinated areas (1.1% prevalence; 95% CI, 0-3.3%, n = 92 than in unvaccinated areas (5.6%; 0.7-10.5%, n = 89; P = 0.098. Although not statistically different, the 81% efficacy in protecting possums against natural infection calculated from these data is within the range of previous estimates of vaccine efficacy in trials where BCG vaccine was delivered manually. We conclude that, with further straightforward refinement to improve free-choice uptake, aerial delivery of oral BCG vaccine is likely to be effective in controlling TB in wild possums. We briefly discuss contexts in which this could potentially become an important complementary tool in achieving national eradication of TB from New Zealand wildlife.

  9. The role of maternal thyroid hormones on the development of the brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula.

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    Gemmell, R T; Buaboocha, W

    1998-01-01

    Thyroxine (T4) is a vital hormone for the development of mammals. To determine the role of maternal thyroid hormones on organ development, methimazole, an inhibitor of T4, was first administered via a minipump to 13 mothers with pouch young between days 10 and 80 post partum for 28 days. Three young survived and 10 of the young died at 104.0 +/- 10.8 days post partum (mean, SEM). Methimazole was then administered for 28 days to 6 lactating adult possums with pouch young at day 20 post partum. The effects of this treatment on the maternal plasma concentrations of T4 were monitored and the development of the lung, kidney and brain of the young were examined at day 90 post partum. There was no difference in the morphology of the lung, kidney and brain of pouch young at day 90 post partum whose mothers were treated with methimazole or saline. Thus methimazole administered to lactating possums for a short period early in lactation can cause the demise of the young about day 100 post partum although the cause of death is unknown. It is possible that the development of the central nervous system or some other vital organ has been inhibited, this altered state not being apparent morphologically. Nevertheless the marsupial appears to be similar to the eutherian in its requirement for thyroxine for normal development. However whereas this requirement is apparent during fetal development and around the time of birth in eutherians thyroxine is of importance during pouch development in marsupials.

  10. Lipid-formulated bcg as an oral-bait vaccine for tuberculosis: vaccine stability, efficacy, and palatability to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand.

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    Cross, Martin L; Henderson, Ray J; Lambeth, Matthew R; Buddle, Bryce M; Aldwell, Frank E

    2009-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (Tb), due to infection with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, represents a threat to New Zealand agriculture due to vectorial transmission from wildlife reservoir species, principally the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). An oral-delivery wildlife vaccine has been developed to immunize possums against Tb, based on formulation of the human Tb vaccine (M. bovis BCG) in edible lipid matrices. Here BCG bacilli were shown to be stable in lipid matrix formulation for over 8 mo in freezer storage, for 7 wk under room temperature conditions, and for 3-5 wk under field conditions in a forest/pasture margin habitat (when maintained in weatherproof bait-delivery sachets). Samples of the lipid matrix were flavored and offered to captive possums in a bait-preference study: a combination of 10% chocolate powder with anise oil was identified as the most effective attractant/palatability combination. In a replicated field study, 85-100% of wild possums were shown to access chocolate-flavored lipid pellets, when baits were applied to areas holding approximately 600-800 possums/km(2). Finally, in a controlled vaccination/challenge study, chocolate-flavored lipid vaccine samples containing 10(8) BCG bacilli were fed to captive possums, which were subsequently challenged via aerosol exposure to virulent M. bovis: vaccine immunogenicity was confirmed, and protection was identified by significantly reduced postchallenge weight loss in vaccinated animals compared to nonvaccinated controls. These studies indicate that, appropriately flavored, lipid delivery matrices may form effective bait vaccines for the control of Tb in wildlife.

  11. In vitro hepatic microsomal metabolism of meloxicam in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), rats (Rattus norvegicus) and dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

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    Kimble, B; Li, K M; Valtchev, P; Higgins, D P; Krockenberger, M B; Govendir, M

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative and qualitative aspects of in vitro metabolism of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam, mediated via hepatic microsomes of specialized foliage (Eucalyptus) eating marsupials (koalas and ringtail possums), a generalized foliage eating marsupial (brushtail possum), rats, and dogs, are described. Using a substrate depletion method, intrinsic hepatic clearance (in vitro Clint) was determined. Significantly, rates of oxidative transformation of meloxicam, likely mediated via cytochromes P450 (CYP), were higher in marsupials compared to rats or dogs. The rank order of apparent in vitro Clint was brushtail possums (n=3) (mean: 394μL/min/mg protein), >koalas (n=6) (50), >ringtail possums (n=2) (36) (with no significant difference between koalas and ringtail possums), >pooled rats (3.2)>pooled dogs (in which the rate of depletion, as calculated by the ratio of the substrate remaining was <20% and too slow to determine). During the depletion of meloxicam, at a first-order rate constant, 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite (M1) was identified in the brushtail possums and the rat as the major metabolite. However, multiple hydroxyl metabolites were observed in the koala (M1, M2, and M3) and the ringtail possum (M1 and M3) indicating that these specialized foliage-eating marsupials have diverse oxidation capacity to metabolize meloxicam. Using a well-stirred model, the apparent in vitro Clint of meloxicam for koalas and the rat was further scaled to compare with published in vivo Cl. The closest in vivo Cl prediction from in vitro data of koalas was demonstrated with scaled hepatic Cl(total) (average fold error=1.9) excluding unbound fractions in the blood and microsome values; whereas for rats, the in-vitro scaled hepatic Cl fu(blood, mic), corrected with unbound fractions in the blood and microsome values, provided the best prediction (fold error=1.86). This study indicates that eutherians such as rats or dogs serve as inadequate models for dosage

  12. Blowfly succession from possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) carrion in a sheep-farming zone.

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    Lang, M D; Allen, G R; Horton, B J

    2006-12-01

    The significance of brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr (Diprotodontia: Phalangeridae) carcasses to the succession and production of Diptera species and its relevance to fly strike management in Tasmania, Australia was examined. Calliphora stygia (Fabricius), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were found to be the most abundant and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) always the least abundant (Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Chrysomya varipes (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and putative tertiary flies (Hydrotaea rostrata Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae)) to the number of C. vicina or C. stygia to emerge. There was enormous variability in the numbers of secondary/tertiary fly species to emerge from carcasses (0-11 450) that negatively correlated with the proportion of all flies to emerge that were primary, and with the mean size of adult L. sericata. Although carcass temperatures, especially those with a large larval population, were elevated, this did not appear to result in significant pre-adult fly mortality. The most important primary fly strike species L. cuprina was only found in insignificant numbers, whereas three other members of the fly strike fauna C. stygia, L. sericata and Ch. rufifacies did use possum carrion as an important breeding resource, but left implications for fly strike management inconclusive.

  13. Determination of Villous Rigidity in the Distal Ileum of the Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

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    Lim, Yuen Feung; Lentle, Roger G.; Janssen, Patrick W. M.; Williams, Martin A. K.; de Loubens, Clément; Mansel, Bradley W.; Chambers, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the passive mechanical properties of villi in ex vivo preparations of sections of the wall of the distal ileum from the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) by using a flow cell to impose physiological and supra-physiological levels of shear stress on the tips of villi. We directly determined the stress applied from the magnitude of the local velocities in the stress inducing flow and additionally mapped the patterns of flow around isolated villi by tracking the trajectories of introduced 3 µm microbeads with bright field micro particle image velocimetry (mPIV). Ileal villi were relatively rigid along their entire length (mean 550 µm), and exhibited no noticeable bending even at flow rates that exceeded calculated normal physiological shear stress (>0.5 mPa). However, movement of villus tips indicated that the whole rigid structure of a villus could pivot about the base, likely from laxity at the point of union of the villous shaft with the underlying mucosa. Flow moved upward toward the tip on the upper portions of isolated villi on the surface facing the flow and downward toward the base on the downstream surface. The fluid in sites at distances greater than 150 µm below the villous tips was virtually stagnant indicating that significant convective mixing in the lower intervillous spaces was unlikely. Together the findings indicate that mixing and absorption is likely to be confined to the tips of villi under conditions where the villi and intestinal wall are immobile and is unlikely to be greatly augmented by passive bending of the shafts of villi. PMID:24956476

  14. The distribution of organised lymphoid tissue in the alimentary tracts of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and possums (Trichosurus vulpecula and Pseudocheirus peregrinus).

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    Hemsley, S W; Canfield, P J; Husband, A J

    1996-01-01

    The anatomical arrangement of organised lymphoid tissues of the alimentary tract for 3 Australian marsupials, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula and the common ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), was determined by gross dissection and acetic acid treatment. Oropharyngeal tonsils were consistently found in the dorsolateral wall of the caudal oropharynx in all 3 species and additionally in the ventral soft palate of the koala. Aggregated lymphoid nodules (Peyer's patches) were present in the small intestine of koalas, ringtail possums and brushtail possums and were of similar appearance for all 3 species. Bilateral large intestinal lymphoid patches were detected in the caecocolic lateral wall adjacent to the termination of the ileum for all 3 species. Caecocolic patches were more complex in koalas and had mucosal folds and a central recess. In addition, solitary and grouped large intestinal lymphoid nodules were variably present in the proximal colon and caecum of the koala. In contrast, possums had solitary and grouped large intestinal lymphoid nodules present in the proximal colon and rectum but not the caecum. Aggregated lymphoid tissue was not detected in the tongue, oesophagus or stomach for all 3 species. In contrast to a previous report, this study did not find a paucity of lymphoid tissue associated with the gut of the koala. The appearance and distribution of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in koalas and possums was found to be similar to that described in other marsupials and eutherian mammals, although some variations in appearance and anatomical location were observed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8621325

  15. Lysine and glutamate transport in the erythrocytes of common brushtail possum, Tammar Wallaby and eastern grey, kangaroo.

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    Ogawa, E; Kuchel, P W; Agar, N S

    1998-04-01

    It was recently coincidentally discovered, using 1H NMR spectroscopy, that the erythrocytes of two species of Australian marsupials, Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and Bettong (Bettongia penicillata), contain relatively high concentrations of the essential amino acid lysine (Agar NS, Rae CD, Chapman BE, Kuchel PW. Comp Biochem Physiol 1991;99B:575-97). Hence, in the present work the rates of transport of lysine into the erythrocytes from the Common Brushtail Possum (Dactylopsilia trivirgata) and Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) (which both have low lysine concentrations), and Tammar Wallaby were studied, to explore the mechanistic basis of this finding. The concentration-dependence of the uptake was studied with lysine alone and in the presence of arginine, which may be a competitor of the transport in some species. In relation to GSH metabolism, glutamate uptake was determined in the presence and absence of Na+. The data was analysed to yield estimates of the maximal velocity (Vmax) and the Km in each of the species. Erythrocytes from Tammar Wallaby lacked saturable lysine transport in contrast to the other two species. The glutamate uptake was normal in all three animals for adequate GSH biosynthesis.

  16. Clinical, microbiological and pathological findings of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in three Australian Possum species.

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    Carolyn R O'Brien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, with endemicity predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The mode of transmission and the environmental reservoir(s of the bacterium and remain elusive. Real-time PCR investigations have detected M. ulcerans DNA in a variety of Australian environmental samples, including the faeces of native possums with and without clinical evidence of infection. This report seeks to expand on previously published findings by the authors' investigative group with regards to clinical and subclinical disease in selected wild possum species in BU-endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-seven clinical cases of M. ulcerans infection in free-ranging possums from southeastern Australia were identified retrospectively and prospectively between 1998-2011. Common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus, a common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula and a mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami were included in the clinically affected cohort. Most clinically apparent cases were adults with solitary or multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions, generally confined to the face, limbs and/or tail. The disease was minor and self-limiting in the case of both Trichosurus spp. possums. In contrast, many of the common ringtail possums had cutaneous disease involving disparate anatomical sites, and in four cases there was evidence of systemic disease at post mortem examination. Where tested using real-time PCR targeted at IS2404, animals typically had significant levels of M. ulcerans DNA throughout the gut and/or faeces. A further 12 possums without cutaneous lesions were found to have PCR-positive gut contents and/or faeces (subclinical cases, and in one of these the organism was cultured from liver tissue. Comparisons were made between clinically and subclinically affected possums, and 61 PCR-negative, non-affected individuals

  17. Oral vaccination of brushtail possums with BCG: Investigation into factors that may influence vaccine efficacy and determination of duration of protection.

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    Buddle, B M; Aldwell, F E; Keen, D L; Parlane, N A; Hamel, K L; de Lisle, G W

    2006-10-01

    To determine factors that may influence the efficacy of an oral pelleted vaccine containing Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to induce protection of brushtail possums against tuberculosis. To determine the duration of protective immunity following oral administration of BCG. In Study 1, a group of possums (n=7) was immunised by feeding 10 pellets containing dead Pasteur BCG, followed 15 weeks later with a single pellet of live Pasteur BCG. At that time, four other groups of possums (n=7 per group) were given a single pellet of live Pasteur BCG orally, a single pellet of live Danish BCG orally, 10 pellets of live Pasteur BCG orally, or a subcutaneous injection of live Pasteur BCG. For the oral pelleted vaccines, BCG was formulated into a lipid matrix, and each pellet contained approximately 107 colony forming units (cfu) of BCG, while the vaccine injected subcutaneously contained 106 cfu of BCG. A sixth, non-vaccinated, group (n=7) served as a control. All possums were challenged by the aerosol route with a low dose of virulent M. bovis 7 weeks after vaccination, and killed 7-8 weeks after challenge. Protection against challenge with M. bovis was assessed from pathological and bacteriological findings. In Study 2, lipid-formulated live Danish BCG was administered orally to three groups of possums (10-11 per group), and these possums were challenged with virulent M. bovis 8, 29 or 54 weeks later. The possums were killed 7 weeks after challenge, to assess protection in comparison to a non-vaccinated group. The results from Study 1 showed that vaccine efficacy was not adversely affected by feeding dead BCG prior to live BCG. Feeding 10 vaccine pellets induced a level of protection similar to feeding a single pellet. Protection was similar when feeding possums a single pellet containing the Pasteur or Danish strains of BCG. All vaccinated groups had significantly reduced pathological changes or bacterial counts when compared to the non-vaccinated group

  18. An investigation by LA-ICP-MS of possum tooth enamel as a model for identifying childhood geographical locations of historical and archaeological human remains from New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, N.E.; Balks, M.; Littler, R.; Manley-Harris, M.; Te Awekotuku, N.

    2012-01-01

    LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) has been used to analyse enamel from the teeth of brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in order to model a method for identifying the childhood geographical origin of human remains within New Zealand. The model application of the method is promising for establishing locations of historical and archaeological human remains, including preserved heads, upoko tuhi. (author). 30 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. The Ambiguous Voices of Possum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2016-01-01

    A categorization of the levels of the soundtrack will provide the foundation for analytical notions on how the soundtrack of Possum challenges the recipient by operating in a field between diegetic and nondiegetic, realistic and supernatural, and human and animal sounds....

  20. PoSSUM: Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere

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    Reimuller, J. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Thomas, G. E.; Taylor, M. J.; Mitchell, S.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Watchorn, S. R.; Baumgarten, G.; Plane, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Project PoSSUM (www.projectpossum.org) is a suborbital research project leveraging imaging and remote sensing techniques from Reusable Suborbital Launch Vehicles (rSLVs) to gather critical climate data through use of the PoSSUM Observatory and the PoSSUM Aeronomy Laboratory. An acronym for Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere, PoSSUM grew from the opportunity created by the Noctilucent Cloud Imagery and Tomography Experiment, selected by the NASA Flight Opportunities Program as Experiment 46-S in March 2012. This experiment will employ an rSLV (e.g. the XCOR Lynx Mark II) launched from a high-latitude spaceport (e.g. Eielson AFB, Alaska or Kiruna, Sweden) during a week-long deployment scheduled for July 2015 to address critical questions concerning noctilucent clouds (NLCs) through flights that transition the cloud layer where the clouds will be under direct illumination from the sun. The 2015 Project PoSSUM NLC campaign will use the unique capability of rSLVs to address key under-answered questions pertaining to NLCs. Specifically, PoSSUM will answer: 1) What are the small-scale dynamics of NLCs and what does this tell us about the energy and momentum deposition from the lower atmosphere? 2) What is the seasonal variability of NLCs, mesospheric dynamics, and temperatures? 3) Are structures observed in the OH layer coupled with NLC structures? 4) How do NLCs nucleate? and 5) What is the geometry of NLC particles and how do they stratify? Instrumentation will include video and still-frame visible cameras (PoSSUMCam), infrared cameras, a mesospheric temperatures experiment, a depolarization LiDAR, a mesospheric density and temperatures experiment (MCAT), a mesospheric winds experiment, and a meteoric smoke detector (MASS). The instrument suite used on PoSSUM will mature through subsequent campaigns to develop an integrated, modular laboratory (the ';PoSSUM Observatory') that will provide repeatable, low cost, in-situ NLC and aeronomy observations as well

  1. Quantifying short-term foraging movements in a marsupial pest to improve targeted lethal control and disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yockney, Ivor J; Latham, M Cecilia; Rouco, Carlos; Cross, Martin L; Nugent, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, the introduced marsupial brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is a pest species subject to control measures, primarily to limit its ability to transmit bovine tuberculosis (TB) to livestock and for conservation protection. To better define parameters for targeted possum control and TB surveillance, we here applied a novel approach to analyzing GPS data obtained from 44 possums fitted with radio-tracking collars, producing estimates of the animals' short-term nocturnal foraging patterns based on 1-, 3- or 5-nights' contiguous data. Studies were conducted within two semi-arid montane regions of New Zealand's South Island High Country: these regions support low-density possum populations (control) or monitoring devices (for TB surveillance), set for > 3 consecutive nights at 150 m interval spacings, would likely place >95% of the possums in this type of habitat at risk of encountering these devices, year-round. Modelling control efficacy against operational expenditure, based on these estimations, identified the relative cost-effectiveness of various strategies that could be applied to a typical aerial poisoning operation, to reduce the ongoing TB vectorial risk that possums pose in the High Country regions. These habitat-specific findings are likely to be more relevant than the conventional pest control and monitoring methodologies developed for possums in their more typical forested habitat.

  2. Risk adjusted surgical audit in gynaecological oncology: P-POSSUM does not predict outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N; Talaat, A S; Naik, R; Lopes, A D; Godfrey, K A; Hatem, M H; Edmondson, R J

    2006-12-01

    To assess the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enumeration of mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) and its validity for use in gynaecological oncology surgery. All patients undergoing gynaecological oncology surgery at the Northern Gynaecological Oncology Centre (NGOC) Gateshead, UK over a period of 12months (2002-2003) were assessed prospectively. Mortality and morbidity predictions using the Portsmouth modification of the POSSUM algorithm (P-POSSUM) were compared to the actual outcomes. Performance of the model was also evaluated using the Hosmer and Lemeshow Chi square statistic (testing the goodness of fit). During this period 468 patients were assessed. The P-POSSUM appeared to over predict mortality rates for our patients. It predicted a 7% mortality rate for our patients compared to an observed rate of 2% (35 predicted deaths in comparison to 10 observed deaths), a difference that was statistically significant (H&L chi(2)=542.9, d.f. 8, prisk of mortality for gynaecological oncology patients undergoing surgery. The P-POSSUM algorithm will require further adjustments prior to adoption for gynaecological cancer surgery as a risk adjusted surgical audit tool.

  3. oPOSSUM: integrated tools for analysis of regulatory motif over-representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Fulton, Debra L.; Arenillas, David J.; Kwon, Andrew T.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2007-01-01

    The identification of over-represented transcription factor binding sites from sets of co-expressed genes provides insights into the mechanisms of regulation for diverse biological contexts. oPOSSUM, an internet-based system for such studies of regulation, has been improved and expanded in this new release. New features include a worm-specific version for investigating binding sites conserved between Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae, as well as a yeast-specific version for the analysis of co-expressed sets of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. The human and mouse applications feature improvements in ortholog mapping, sequence alignments and the delineation of multiple alternative promoters. oPOSSUM2, introduced for the analysis of over-represented combinations of motifs in human and mouse genes, has been integrated with the original oPOSSUM system. Analysis using user-defined background gene sets is now supported. The transcription factor binding site models have been updated to include new profiles from the JASPAR database. oPOSSUM is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/oPOSSUM/ PMID:17576675

  4. Managing and eradicating wildlife tuberculosis in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, B; Livingstone, P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5–10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in

  5. oPOSSUM-3: advanced analysis of regulatory motif over-representation across genes or ChIP-Seq datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Andrew T; Arenillas, David J; Worsley Hunt, Rebecca; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-09-01

    oPOSSUM-3 is a web-accessible software system for identification of over-represented transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and TFBS families in either DNA sequences of co-expressed genes or sequences generated from high-throughput methods, such as ChIP-Seq. Validation of the system with known sets of co-regulated genes and published ChIP-Seq data demonstrates the capacity for oPOSSUM-3 to identify mediating transcription factors (TF) for co-regulated genes or co-recovered sequences. oPOSSUM-3 is available at http://opossum.cisreg.ca.

  6. POSSUM--a model for surgical outcome audit in quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K J; Yii, M K

    2003-10-01

    Comparative surgical audit to monitor quality of care should be performed with a risk-adjusted scoring system rather than using crude morbidity and mortality rates. A validated and widely applied risk adjusted scoring system, P-POSSUM (Portsmouth-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality) methodology, was applied to a prospective series of predominantly general surgical patients at the Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching over a six months period. The patients were grouped into four risk groups. The observed mortality rates were not significantly different from predicted rates, showing that the quality of surgical care was at par with typical western series. The simplicity and advantages of this scoring system over other auditing tools are discussed. The P-POSSUM methodology could form the basis of local comparative surgical audit for assessment and maintenance of quality care.

  7. [Value of PUSSOM and P-POSSUM for the prediction of surgical operative risk in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingtai; Chu, Yunmian; Che, Xu; Lan, Zhongmin; Zhang, Jianwei; Wang, Chengfeng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the value of Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) and a modification of the POSSUM system (P-P0SSUM) scoring system in predicting the surgical operative risk of pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary tumors. POSSUM and P-POSSUM scoring systems were used to retrospectively evaluate the clinical data of 432 patients with periampullar tumors who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy in the Department of Abdominal Surgery, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 1985 to December 2010. The predictive occurrence of postoperative complications and mortality rate were calculated according to the formula. ROC curve analysis and different group of risk factors were used to determine the discrimination ability of the two score systems, and to determine their predictive efficacy by comparing the actual and predictive complications and mortality rates, using Hosmer-Lemeshow test to determine the goodness of fit of the two scoring systems. The average physiological score of the 432 patients was 16.1 ± 3.5, and the average surgical severity score was 19.6 ± 2.7. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under ROC curve for mortality predicted by POSSUM and P-POSSUM were 0.893 and 0.888, showing a non-significant difference (P > 0.05) between them. The area under ROC curve for operative complications predicted by POSSUM scoring system was 0.575. The POSSUM score system was most accurate for the prediction of complication rates of 20%-40%, showing the O/E value of 0.81. Compared with the POSSUM score system, P-POSSUM had better ability in the prediction of postoperative mortality, when the predicted value of mortality was greater than 15%, the predictive result was more accurate, and the O/E value was 1.00. POSSUM and P-POSSUM scoring system have good value in predicting the mortality of patients with periampullary tumors undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, but a poorer value of

  8. Validity of the CR-POSSUM model in surgery for colorectal cancer in Spain (CCR-CARESS study) and comparison with other models to predict operative mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baré, Marisa; Alcantara, Manuel Jesús; Gil, Maria José; Collera, Pablo; Pont, Marina; Escobar, Antonio; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Redondo, Maximino; Briones, Eduardo; Dujovne, Paula; Quintana, Jose Maria

    2018-01-29

    To validate and recalibrate the CR- POSSUM model and compared its discriminatory capacity with other European models such as POSSUM, P-POSSUM, AFC or IRCS to predict operative mortality in surgery for colorectal cancer. Prospective multicenter cohort study from 22 hospitals in Spain. We included patients undergoing planned or urgent surgery for primary invasive colorectal cancers between June 2010 and December 2012 (N = 2749). Clinical data were gathered through medical chart review. We validated and recalibrated the predictive models using logistic regression techniques. To calculate the discriminatory power of each model, we estimated the areas under the curve - AUC (95% CI). We also assessed the calibration of the models by applying the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. In-hospital mortality was 1.5% and 30-day mortality, 1.7%. In the validation process, the discriminatory power of the CR-POSSUM for predicting in-hospital mortality was 73.6%. However, in the recalibration process, the AUCs improved slightly: the CR-POSSUM reached 75.5% (95% CI: 67.3-83.7). The discriminatory power of the CR-POSSUM for predicting 30-day mortality was 74.2% (95% CI: 67.1-81.2) after recalibration; among the other models the POSSUM had the greatest discriminatory power, with an AUC of 77.0% (95% CI: 68.9-85.2). The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed good fit for all the recalibrated models. The CR-POSSUM and the other models showed moderate capacity to discriminate the risk of operative mortality in our context, where the actual operative mortality is low. Nevertheless the IRCS might better predict in-hospital mortality, with fewer variables, while the CR-POSSUM could be slightly better for predicting 30-day mortality. Registered at: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02488161.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin following oral and subcutaneous administration in the common ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T F; Devi, J L; Woodward, A P; Whittem, T

    2015-10-01

    [Correction added on 23 March 2015, after first online publication: Terminal half-life values of enrofloxacin is corrected in the fourth sentence of the abstract] Clinically healthy common ringtail possums (n = 5) received single doses of 10 mg/kg enrofloxacin orally and then 2 weeks later subcutaneously. Serial plasma samples were collected over 24 h for each treatment phase, and enrofloxacin concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Following oral administration, plasma concentrations were of therapeutic relevance (Cmax median 5.45 μg/mL, range 2.98-6.9 μg/mL), with terminal-phase half-life (t½ ) shorter than in other species (median 3.09 h, range 1.79-5.30 h). In contrast, subcutaneous administration of enrofloxacin did not achieve effective plasma concentrations, with plasma concentrations too erratic to fit the noncompartmental model except in one animal. On the basis of the AUC:MIC, enrofloxacin administered at 10 mg/kg orally, but not subcutaneously, is likely to be effective against a range of bacterial species that have been reported in common ringtail possums. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. CAGEd-oPOSSUM: motif enrichment analysis from CAGE-derived TSSs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, David J; Forrest, Alistair R R; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Mathelier, Anthony

    2016-09-15

    With the emergence of large-scale Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) datasets from individual labs and the FANTOM consortium, one can now analyze the cis-regulatory regions associated with gene transcription at an unprecedented level of refinement. By coupling transcription factor binding site (TFBS) enrichment analysis with CAGE-derived genomic regions, CAGEd-oPOSSUM can identify TFs that act as key regulators of genes involved in specific mammalian cell and tissue types. The webtool allows for the analysis of CAGE-derived transcription start sites (TSSs) either provided by the user or selected from ∼1300 mammalian samples from the FANTOM5 project with pre-computed TFBS predicted with JASPAR TF binding profiles. The tool helps power insights into the regulation of genes through the study of the specific usage of TSSs within specific cell types and/or under specific conditions. The CAGEd-oPOSUM web tool is implemented in Perl, MySQL and Apache and is available at http://cagedop.cmmt.ubc.ca/CAGEd_oPOSSUM CONTACTS: anthony.mathelier@ncmm.uio.no or wyeth@cmmt.ubc.ca Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Feasibility of a Modified E-PASS and POSSUM System for Postoperative Risk Assessment in Patients with Spinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dong Hyun; Kim, Do Young; Choi, Sun Kyu; Shin, Dong Ah; Ha, Yoon; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum; Yi, Seong

    2018-04-01

    This retrospective case control study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using Estimation of Physiological Ability and Surgical Stress (E-PASS) and Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) systems in patients undergoing spinal surgical procedures. Degenerative spine disease has increased in incidence in aging societies, as has the number of older adult patients undergoing spinal surgery. Many older adults are at a high surgical risk because of comorbidity and poor general health. We retrospectively reviewed 217 patients who had undergone spinal surgery at a single tertiary care. We investigated complications within 1 month after surgery. Criteria for both skin incision in E-PASS and operation magnitude in the POSSUM system were modified to fit spine surgery. We calculated the E-PASS and POSSUM scores for enrolled patients, and investigated the relationship between postoperative complications and both surgical risk scoring systems. To reinforce the predictive ability of the E-PASS system, we adjusted equations and developed modified E-PASS systems. The overall complication rate for spinal surgery was 22.6%. Forty-nine patients experienced 58 postoperative complications. Nineteen major complications, including hematoma, deep infection, pleural effusion, progression of weakness, pulmonary edema, esophageal injury, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, reoperation, renal failure, sepsis, and death, occurred in 17 patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicted postoperative complications after spine surgery was 0.588 for E-PASS and 0.721 for POSSUM. For predicted major postoperative complications, the AUC increased to 0.619 for E-PASS and 0.842 for POSSUM. The AUC of the E-PASS system increased from 0.588 to 0.694 with the Modified E-PASS equation. The POSSUM system may be more useful than the E-PASS system for estimating postoperative surgical risk in patients undergoing

  12. Retrospective analysis of causes of death in mountain pygmy-possums (Burramys parvus) at Healesville Sanctuary, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T F; Dobson, E C

    2015-11-01

    Identification and characterisation of deaths is important for the veterinary management of both wild and captive animals. It is especially important as a tool for monitoring health and disease within populations of endangered species for which little information on morbidity and mortality is known. Investigations into the causes of death and other important necropsy findings were made in a captive population of the critically endangered mountain pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus). Necropsy records from January 2000-December 2013 were reviewed for all possums that had lived and died at Healesville Sanctuary (n = 48). The average age of death of possums in this population was 4.7 years. The most common histological change in mountain pygmy-possums was varying degrees of chronic progressive kidney disease (n = 17). Of these cases, eight animals (47%) had histological changes suggesting the kidney disease was the likely cause of death. Other causes of death included neoplasia (n = 5), necrotising pancreatitis (n = 4), pneumonia (n = 2), reproductive disease (n = 2) and trauma (n = 2). No cause of death was able to be identified in 33.3% (n = 16) of cases. Hepatic lipidosis (n = 5), pneumonia (n = 2) and degenerative joint disease (n = 2) were the most common comorbidities found. Progressive renal disease, often with secondary metastatic mineralisation, appears to be a significant cause of mortality in captive mountain pygmy-possums and further investigation into its pathophysiology, antemortem diagnosis and treatment is warranted. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Foliar Nutritional Quality Explains Patchy Browsing Damage Caused by an Invasive Mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R Windley

    Full Text Available Introduced herbivores frequently inflict significant, yet patchy damage on native ecosystems through selective browsing. However, there are few instances where the underlying cause of this patchy damage has been revealed. We aimed to determine if the nutritional quality of foliage could predict the browsing preferences of an invasive mammalian herbivore, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in a temperate forest in New Zealand. We quantified the spatial and temporal variation in four key aspects of the foliar chemistry (total nitrogen, available nitrogen, in vitro dry matter digestibility and tannin effect of 275 trees representing five native tree species. Simultaneously, we assessed the severity of browsing damage caused by possums on those trees in order to relate selective browsing to foliar nutritional quality. We found significant spatial and temporal variation in nutritional quality among individuals of each tree species examined, as well as among tree species. There was a positive relationship between the available nitrogen concentration of foliage (a measure of in vitro digestible protein and the severity of damage caused by browsing by possums. This study highlights the importance of nutritional quality, specifically, the foliar available nitrogen concentration of individual trees, in predicting the impact of an invasive mammal. Revealing the underlying cause of patchy browsing by an invasive mammal provides new insights for conservation of native forests and targeted control of invasive herbivores in forest ecosystems.

  14. PoSSuM v.2.0: data update and a new function for investigating ligand analogs and target proteins of small-molecule drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Jun-ichi; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Yamada, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Tomii, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    PoSSuM (http://possum.cbrc.jp/PoSSuM/) is a database for detecting similar small-molecule binding sites on proteins. Since its initial release in 2011, PoSSuM has grown to provide information related to 49 million pairs of similar binding sites discovered among 5.5 million known and putative binding sites. This enlargement of the database is expected to enhance opportunities for biological and pharmaceutical applications, such as predictions of new functions and drug discovery. In this release, we have provided a new service named PoSSuM drug search (PoSSuMds) at http://possum.cbrc.jp/PoSSuM/drug_search/, in which we selected 194 approved drug compounds retrieved from ChEMBL, and detected their known binding pockets and pockets that are similar to them. Users can access and download all of the search results via a new web interface, which is useful for finding ligand analogs as well as potential target proteins. Furthermore, PoSSuMds enables users to explore the binding pocket universe within PoSSuM. Additionally, we have improved the web interface with new functions, including sortable tables and a viewer for visualizing and downloading superimposed pockets. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  16. A remarkably quick habituation and high use of a rope bridge by an endangered marsupial, the western ringtail possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yokochi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rope bridges are being increasingly installed worldwide to mitigate the negative impacts of roads on arboreal animals. However, monitoring of these structures is still limited and an assessment of factors influencing the crossing behaviours is lacking. We monitored the use of a rope bridge near Busselton, Western Australia by the endangered western ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus occidentalis in order to identify the patterns of use and factors influencing the crossings. We installed motion sensor cameras and microchip readers on the bridge to record the crossings made by individual animals, and analysed these crossing data using generalised linear models that included factors such as days since the installation of the bridge, breeding season, wind speed, minimum temperature and moonlight. Possums started investigating the bridge even before the installation was completed, and the first complete crossing was recorded only 36 days after the installation, which is remarkably sooner than arboreal species studied in other parts of Australia. The possums crossed the bridge increasingly over 270 days of monitoring at a much higher rate than we expected (8.87 ± 0.59 complete crossings per night. Possums crossed the bridge less on windy nights and warm nights probably due to the risk of being blown away and heat stress on warmer days. Crossings also decreased slightly on brighter nights probably due to the higher risk of predation. Breeding season did not influence the crossings. Pseudocheirus occidentalis habituated to the bridge very quickly, and our results demonstrate that rope bridges have a potential as an effective mitigation measure against the negative impacts of roads on this species. More studies and longer monitoring, as well as investigating whether crossing results in the restoration of gene flow are then needed in order to further assess the true conservation value of these crossing structures.

  17. A strategic approach to eradication of bovine TB from wildlife in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, S A; Hancox, N; Livingstone, P G

    2013-11-01

    A review and amendment of New Zealand's National Pest Management Strategy for bovine tuberculosis (TB) has led to adoption of new strategy objectives for localized eradication of disease from the principal wildlife maintenance host and infecting vector for farmed cattle and deer, the brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula. Historic programmes have been based on management of disease within herds and control of wildlife directed towards reducing infected herd prevalence. From July 2011, the TB strategy has been redirected towards eradication of TB from possums and other wildlife over a total area of at least 2.5 million hectares over a 15-year period. The amended strategy is intended to provide large-scale proof of concept, using two extensive bush areas, that TB can be eradicated from wildlife in New Zealand in the longer term, leading to eventual savings in control programmes needed to protect cattle and deer herds from infection. Achievement of strategy objectives will be supported by major research together with technical and managerial improvements in wildlife TB control and surveillance, and these are reviewed. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. The effects of wildfire on mortality and resources for an arboreal marsupial: resilience to fire events but susceptibility to fire regime change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam C Banks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Big environmental disturbances have big ecological effects, yet these are not always what we might expect. Understanding the proximate effects of major disturbances, such as severe wildfires, on individuals, populations and habitats will be essential for understanding how predicted future increases in the frequency of such disturbances will affect ecosystems. However, researchers rarely have access to data from immediately before and after such events. Here we report on the effects of a severe and extensive forest wildfire on mortality, reproductive output and availability of key shelter resources for an arboreal marsupial. We also investigated the behavioural response of individuals to changed shelter resource availability in the post-fire environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We fitted proximity-logging radiotransmitters to mountain brushtail possums (Trichosurus cunninghami before, during and after the 2009 wildfires in Victoria, Australia. Surprisingly, we detected no mortality associated with the fire, and despite a significant post-fire decrease in the proportion of females carrying pouch young in the burnt area, there was no short-term post-fire population decline. The major consequence of this fire for mountain brushtail possums was the loss of over 80% of hollow-bearing trees. The types of trees preferred as shelter sites (highly decayed dead standing trees were those most likely to collapse after fire. Individuals adapted to resource decline by being more flexible in resource selection after the fire, but not by increased resource sharing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite short-term demographic resilience and behavioural adaptation following this fire, the major loss of decayed hollow trees suggests the increased frequency of stand-replacing wildfires predicted under climate change will pose major challenges for shelter resource availability for hollow-dependent fauna. Hollow-bearing trees are typically biological

  19. The Effects of Wildfire on Mortality and Resources for an Arboreal Marsupial: Resilience to Fire Events but Susceptibility to Fire Regime Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sam C.; Knight, Emma J.; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Big environmental disturbances have big ecological effects, yet these are not always what we might expect. Understanding the proximate effects of major disturbances, such as severe wildfires, on individuals, populations and habitats will be essential for understanding how predicted future increases in the frequency of such disturbances will affect ecosystems. However, researchers rarely have access to data from immediately before and after such events. Here we report on the effects of a severe and extensive forest wildfire on mortality, reproductive output and availability of key shelter resources for an arboreal marsupial. We also investigated the behavioural response of individuals to changed shelter resource availability in the post-fire environment. Methodology/Principal Findings We fitted proximity-logging radiotransmitters to mountain brushtail possums (Trichosurus cunninghami) before, during and after the 2009 wildfires in Victoria, Australia. Surprisingly, we detected no mortality associated with the fire, and despite a significant post-fire decrease in the proportion of females carrying pouch young in the burnt area, there was no short-term post-fire population decline. The major consequence of this fire for mountain brushtail possums was the loss of over 80% of hollow-bearing trees. The types of trees preferred as shelter sites (highly decayed dead standing trees) were those most likely to collapse after fire. Individuals adapted to resource decline by being more flexible in resource selection after the fire, but not by increased resource sharing. Conclusions/Significance Despite short-term demographic resilience and behavioural adaptation following this fire, the major loss of decayed hollow trees suggests the increased frequency of stand-replacing wildfires predicted under climate change will pose major challenges for shelter resource availability for hollow-dependent fauna. Hollow-bearing trees are typically biological legacies of previous

  20. Optimising the application of multiple-capture traps for invasive species management using spatial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Bruce; Gormley, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, invasive vertebrate species pose a significant threat to biodiversity, agricultural production and human health. To manage these species a wide range of tools, including traps, are used. In New Zealand, brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), stoats (Mustela ermine), and ship rats (Rattus rattus) are invasive and there is an ongoing demand for cost-effective non-toxic methods for controlling these pests. Recently, traps with multiple-capture capability have been developed which, because they do not require regular operator-checking, are purported to be more cost-effective than traditional single-capture traps. However, when pest populations are being maintained at low densities (as is typical of orchestrated pest management programmes) it remains uncertain if it is more cost-effective to use fewer multiple-capture traps or more single-capture traps. To address this uncertainty, we used an individual-based spatially explicit modelling approach to determine the likely maximum animal-captures per trap, given stated pest densities and defined times traps are left between checks. In the simulation, single- or multiple-capture traps were spaced according to best practice pest-control guidelines. For possums with maintenance densities set at the lowest level (i.e. 0.5/ha), 98% of all simulated possums were captured with only a single capacity trap set at each site. When possum density was increased to moderate levels of 3/ha, having a capacity of three captures per trap caught 97% of all simulated possums. Results were similar for stoats, although only two potential captures per site were sufficient to capture 99% of simulated stoats. For rats, which were simulated at their typically higher densities, even a six-capture capacity per trap site only resulted in 80% kill. Depending on target species, prevailing density and extent of immigration, the most cost-effective strategy for pest control in New Zealand might be to deploy several single

  1. Development of the New Zealand strategy for local eradication of tuberculosis from wildlife and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, P G; Hancox, N; Nugent, G; Mackereth, G; Hutchings, S A

    2015-06-01

    We describe the progressive development of New Zealand's national strategy for control of tuberculosis (TB) in its agricultural sector over the last four decades. The strategy is globally unique, reflecting the need for effective and co-ordinated management of TB in a wildlife maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), in addition to controlling infection in cattle and farmed deer herds. Since the early 1990s, the strategy has been developed by the Animal Health Board (AHB), formed to empower the farming industry to take the leadership role in funding of TB control, policy development and administration. The AHB became the first non-government organisation to develop and gain acceptance by the funders (farming industry and government) of a National Pest Management Strategy (NPMS) under the Biosecurity Act 1993. A key outcome of the NPMS for TB control was the development and inclusion of very challenging objectives that provided direction for management, research and possum control. This paper describes the process whereby the NPMS was revised twice, following achievement of each successive set of strategy objectives within budget. Success was based on firstly, reorganisation of the AHB and its operational systems to achieve increased efficiency; secondly, improved efficiency through contracting possum and disease control, and thirdly research delivering effective and practical applications, while also providing a scientific basis for setting directions for future control strategies. The last revision of the NPMS was implemented in 2011, and included objectives to eradicate Mycobacterium bovis-infected wildlife populations over 2.5 million hectares by 2026. This ambitious objective was adopted only after extensive forecast modelling enabled stakeholders to identify and select the most cost-effective long-term solution for the management of M. bovis-infected possum populations. The accomplishment of New Zealand's TB control programme, in meeting

  2. UTILIDAD DE LA PUNTUACIÓN DE BOEY Y PORTSMOUTH-POSSUM FISIOLÓGICO EN PACIENTES CON ÚLCERA PÉPTICA PERFORADA

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán S, Marcelo A; Díaz J, Ramón I; Valenzuela V, Catalina; Iribarren R, Gabriel; Balanzo A, Andrea De; Rodríguez V, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Puntuaciones pronósticas como la de Boey y el Portsmouth-POSSUM han sido utilizadas en pacientes con úlcera perforada para estratificar el riesgo quirúrgico. No existen estudios que comparen ambas puntuaciones. El objetivo del presente estudio es el de comparar el rendimiento de estas puntuaciones en pacientes con úlcera péptica perforada. Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio comparativo retrospectivo que incluyó 108 pacientes consecutivos mayores de 15 años sometidos a cirugía de urge...

  3. Using probability modelling and genetic parentage assignment to test the role of local mate availability in mating system variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod; Lindenmayer, David B

    2012-02-01

    The formal testing of mating system theories with empirical data is important for evaluating the relative importance of different processes in shaping mating systems in wild populations. Here, we present a generally applicable probability modelling framework to test the role of local mate availability in determining a population's level of genetic monogamy. We provide a significance test for detecting departures in observed mating patterns from model expectations based on mate availability alone, allowing the presence and direction of behavioural effects to be inferred. The assessment of mate availability can be flexible and in this study it was based on population density, sex ratio and spatial arrangement. This approach provides a useful tool for (1) isolating the effect of mate availability in variable mating systems and (2) in combination with genetic parentage analyses, gaining insights into the nature of mating behaviours in elusive species. To illustrate this modelling approach, we have applied it to investigate the variable mating system of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) and compared the model expectations with the outcomes of genetic parentage analysis over an 18-year study. The observed level of monogamy was higher than predicted under the model. Thus, behavioural traits, such as mate guarding or selective mate choice, may increase the population level of monogamy. We show that combining genetic parentage data with probability modelling can facilitate an improved understanding of the complex interactions between behavioural adaptations and demographic dynamics in driving mating system variation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) scoring system in elderly patients with pressure sores undergoing fasciocutaneous flap-reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Kazuo; Morita, Eishin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to predict operative morbidity in elderly patients with deep pressure sores by using the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) scoring system. Fifteen patients over 70 years old were retrospectively reviewed who had undergone gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous flap-reconstruction for pressure sores of the sacral region from 1 April 2005 to 31 March 2007. Complications were seen in six cases (40%) after operation. Four were wound infection, one was chest infection and another was septicemia. The subjects were divided into two groups by the presence (complicated group) or absence (non-complicated group) of postoperative complications. Each item of physiological scores, physiological score (PS), operative severity score (OS) and predicted morbidity rate (R) were calculated and compared between two groups. As a result, hemoglobin (P = 0.0276), PS (P = 0.0023) and R (P = 0.0078) differed significantly between the two groups. It is noteworthy that the PS were over 25 in all of the complicated group, but in only one of nine in the non-complicated group (P = 0.0014). Our study suggests that, for pressure sores in the sacral region in elderly patients, gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous flap-reconstruction can be employed in patients whose PS are under 24 in the POSSUM scoring system.

  5. Efficacy of oral BCG vaccination in protecting free-ranging cattle from natural infection by Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Graham; Yockney, Ivor J; Whitford, Jackie; Aldwell, Frank E; Buddle, Bryce M

    2017-09-01

    Vaccination of cattle against bovine tuberculosis could be a valuable control strategy, particularly in countries faced with intractable ongoing infection from a disease reservoir in wildlife. A field vaccination trial was undertaken in New Zealand. The trial included 1286 effectively free-ranging cattle stocked at low densities in a remote 7600ha area, with 55% of them vaccinated using Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Danish strain 1311). Vaccine was administered orally in all but 34 cases (where it was injected). After inclusion, cattle were exposed to natural sources of M. bovis infection in cattle and wildlife, most notably the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Cattle were slaughtered at 3-5 years of age and were inspected for tuberculous lesions, with mycobacteriological culture of key tissues from almost all animals. The prevalence of M. bovis infection was 4.8% among oral BCG vaccinates, significantly lower than the 11.9% in non-vaccinates. Vaccination appeared to both reduce the incidence of detectable infection, and to slow disease progression. Based on apparent annual incidence, the protective efficacy of oral BCG vaccine was 67.4% for preventing infection, and was higher in cattle slaughtered soon after vaccination. Skin-test reactivity to tuberculin was high in vaccinates re-tested 70days after vaccination but not in non-vaccinates, although reactor animals had minimal response in gamma-interferon blood tests. In re- tests conducted more than 12 months after vaccination, skin-test reactivity among vaccinates was much lower. These results indicate that oral BCG vaccination could be an effective tool for greatly reducing detectable infection in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  7. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W David Walter

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles, brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type. Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  8. Preliminary evaluation of a primary care intervention for cry-fuss behaviours in the first 3-4 months of life ('The Possums Approach'): effects on cry-fuss behaviours and maternal mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela S; Miller, Yvette; Bucetti, Anne; Hill, Peter S; Creedy, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Problem crying in the first few months of life is both common and complex, arising out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors. Parents whose babies cry and fuss a lot receive conflicting advice as they seek help from multiple health providers and emergency departments, and may be admitted into tertiary residential services. Conflicting advice is costly, and arises out of discipline-specific interpretations of evidence. An integrated, interdisciplinary primary care intervention ('The Possums Approach') for cry-fuss problems in the first months of life was developed from available peer-reviewed evidence. This study reports on preliminary evaluation of delivery of the intervention. A total of 20 mothers who had crying babies under 16 weeks of age (average age 6.15 weeks) completed questionnaires, including the Crying Patterns Questionnaire and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, before and 3-4 weeks after their first consultation with trained primary care practitioners. Preliminary evaluation is promising. The Crying Patterns Questionnaire showed a significant decrease in crying and fussing duration, by 1h in the evening (P=0.001) and 30 min at night (P=0.009). The median total amount of crying and fussing in a 24-h period was reduced from 6.12 to 3h. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale showed a significant improvement in depressive symptoms, with the median score decreasing from 11 to 6 (P=0.005). These findings are corroborated by an analysis of results for the subset of 16 participants whose babies were under 12 weeks of age (average age 4.71 weeks). These preliminary results demonstrate significantly decreased infant crying in the evening and during the night and improved maternal mood, validating an innovative interdisciplinary clinical intervention for cry-fuss problems in the first few months of life. This intervention, delivered by trained health professionals, has the potential to mitigate the costly problem of health professionals giving

  9. Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W D; Fischer, J W; Anderson, C W; Marks, D R; Deliberto, T; Robbe-Austerman, S; Vercauteren, K C

    2013-07-01

    Wildlife reservoir hosts of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the UK and New Zealand, respectively. Similar species warrant further investigation in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA due to the continued presence of bTB on cattle farms. Most research in Michigan, USA has focused on interactions between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) for the transmission of the infectious agent of bTB, Mycobacterium bovis, due to high deer densities and feeding practices. However, limited data are available on medium-sized mammals such as Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; hereafter referred to as opossum) and their movements and home range in Michigan near cattle farms. We conducted surveillance of medium-sized mammals on previously depopulated cattle farms for presence of M. bovis infections and equipped opossum with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to assess potential differences in home range between farms inside and outside the bTB core area that has had cattle test positive for M. bovis. On farms inside the bTB core area, prevalence in opossum was comparable [6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-11.0] to prevalence in raccoon (Procyon lotor; 4%, 95% CI 1.0-9.0, P=0.439) whereas only a single opossum tested positive for M. bovis on farms outside the bTB core area. The prevalence in opossum occupying farms that had cattle test positive for M. bovis was higher (6.4%) than for opossum occupying farms that never had cattle test positive for M. bovis (0.9%, P=0.01). Mean size of home range for 50% and 95% estimates were similar by sex (P=0.791) both inside or outside the bTB core area (P=0.218). Although surveillance efforts and home range were not assessed on the same farms, opossum use of farms near structures was apparent as was selection for farms over surrounding forested habitats. The use of farms, stored feed, and structures by opossum

  10. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research onM. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovisidentified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  11. The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in wild deer and feral pigs and their roles in the establishment and spread of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, G; Gortazar, C; Knowles, G

    2015-06-01

    In New Zealand, wild deer and feral pigs are assumed to be spillover hosts for Mycobacterium bovis, and so are not targeted in efforts aimed at locally eradicating bovine tuberculosis (TB) from possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), the main wildlife host. Here we review the epidemiology of TB in deer and pigs, and assess whether New Zealand's TB management programme could be undermined if these species sometimes achieve maintenance host status. In New Zealand, TB prevalences of up to 47% have been recorded in wild deer sympatric with tuberculous possums. Patterns of lesion distribution, age-specific prevalences and behavioural observations suggest that deer become infected mainly through exposure to dead or moribund possums. TB can progress rapidly in some deer (wildlife (compared to that which would be required to eradicate disease from possums alone), while dispersal or translocation of pigs (e.g. by hunters) creates a risk of long-distance spread of disease. The high rate at which pigs acquire M. bovis infection from dead possums makes them useful as sentinels for detecting TB in wildlife. It is unlikely that wild deer and feral pigs act as maintenance hosts anywhere in New Zealand, because unrestricted year-round hunting keeps densities low, with far less aggregation than on New Zealand farms. We conclude that active management of wild deer or feral pigs is not required for local TB eradication in New Zealand.

  12. Can individual and social patterns of resource use buffer animal populations against resource decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam C Banks

    Full Text Available Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing, as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater's possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1:1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species' biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance.

  13. Further characterisation of two Eimeria species (Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis) in quokkas (Setonix brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, J M; Friend, J A; Yang, R; Ryan, U M

    2014-03-01

    The identification and characterisation of novel Eimeria species has largely been based on sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphology, the host species and the geographical range. Variation in the size and shape of Eimeria oocysts across their host range however, make the identification and characterisation of novel species using traditional methodologies alone problematic. The use of molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis has greatly advanced our ability to characterise Eimeria species and has recently been applied to understand evolutionary relationships among Eimeria species from Australian marsupials. In the present study, Eimeria species isolated from quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) captured from Two Peoples Bay, Bald Island and Rottnest Island, Western Australia, were morphologically identified as Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis. Both Eimeria species were identified as being polymorphic in nature with regards to sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphometrics. Phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA and COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) genes, grouped E. quokka and E. setonicis within the Eimeria marsupial clade together with Eimeria trichosuri from brushtail possums, Eimeria macropodis from tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) and several unidentified macropod Eimeria species from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). This study is the first to characterise E. quokka and E. setonicis by molecular analysis, enabling more extensive resolution of evolutionary relationships among marsupial-derived Eimeria species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurogenesis in the brain auditory pathway of a marsupial, the northern native cat (Dasyurus hallucatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitkin, L.; Nelson, J.; Farrington, M.; Swann, S.

    1991-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the auditory pathway of the marsupial Dasyurus hallucatus was studied. Intraperitoneal injections of tritiated thymidine (20-40 microCi) were made into pouch-young varying from 1 to 56 days pouch-life. Animals were killed as adults and brain sections were prepared for autoradiography and counterstained with a Nissl stain. Neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus were generated prior to 3 days pouch-life, in the superior olive at 5-7 days, and in the dorsal cochlear nucleus over a prolonged period. Inferior collicular neurogenesis lagged behind that in the medial geniculate, the latter taking place between days 3 and 9 and the former between days 7 and 22. Neurogenesis began in the auditory cortex on day 9 and was completed by about day 42. Thus neurogenesis was complete in the medullary auditory nuclei before that in the midbrain commenced, and in the medial geniculate before that in the auditory cortex commenced. The time course of neurogenesis in the auditory pathway of the native cat was very similar to that in another marsupial, the brushtail possum. For both, neurogenesis occurred earlier than in eutherian mammals of a similar size but was more protracted

  15. Has one of Captain Cook’s possums landed in Leiden? The possible holotype of Pseudocheirus peregrinus (Boddaert, 1785)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, C.

    2009-01-01

    The identity of an old female specimen of Pseudocheirus peregrinus (Boddaert, 1785) in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, is discussed and the early descriptions and nomenclatural history of the species are reviewed. The assumption by Temminck (1824) and Jentink (1888) that the animal

  16. Image collection: 165 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 165 Trichosurus_vulpecula_NL.png フクロギツネ Trichosurus vulpecula Trichosurus vulpecula 9337 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,後獣下綱,

  17. 133 East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 12 Number ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Josephine Nakato

    predicted risk of mortality and morbidity was calculated from POSSUM equation. Multivariate logistic ... Recommendations: The POSSUM scoring system can be used in decision-making process before a ... study, a dual scoring system of POSSUM ..... A P-POSSUM type risk model ... Kazibwe R.N.K.S Dynamic intestinal.

  18. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea in wildlife: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Spratt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20 given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100–500 larvae often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna

  19. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance, white boxes (high reflectance, and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and

  20. L'élevage d'athérures (Atherurus africanus, Gray 1842 au Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houben, P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Breeding of Brush-tailed Porcupines (Atherurus africanus, Gray 1842 in Gabon. The brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus is a much appreciated bush meat in Gabon. On the project "Development of Game Breeding", brush-tailed porcupines are bred in two types of enclosures : an out-door enclosure and an indoor enclosure. They are fed with a diversified diet based on tubers. To obtain a successful reproduction, one male and one female have to stay together for 60 days then the female has to be separated from the male till the birth. The brush-tailed porcupine has a satisfactory growth rate but some of the reproduction features seem to call into question the profitability of its breeding.

  1. Validation of risk assessment scoring systems for an audit of elective surgery for gastrointestinal cancer in elderly patients: an audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hisao; Sano, Takanori; Yachida, Shinichi; Okano, Keiichi; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2007-10-01

    The goal of this study was to validate the usefulness of risk assessment scoring systems for a surgical audit in elective digestive surgery for elderly patients. The validated scoring systems used were the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) and the Portsmouth predictor equation for mortality (P-POSSUM). This study involved 153 consecutive patients aged 75 years and older who underwent elective gastric or colorectal surgery between July 2004 and June 2006. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected prior to each surgery. The predicted mortality and morbidity risks were calculated using each of the scoring systems and were used to obtain the observed/predicted (O/E) mortality and morbidity ratios. New logistic regression equations for morbidity and mortality were then calculated using the scores from the POSSUM system and applied retrospectively. The O/E ratio for morbidity obtained from POSSUM score was 0.23. The O/E ratios for mortality from the POSSUM score and the P-POSSUM were 0.15 and 0.38, respectively. Utilizing the new equations using scores from the POSSUM, the O/E ratio increased to 0.88. Both the POSSUM and P-POSSUM over-predicted the morbidity and mortality in elective gastrointestinal surgery for malignant tumors in elderly patients. However, if a surgical unit makes appropriate calculations using its own patient series and updates these equations, the POSSUM system can be useful in the risk assessment for surgery in elderly patients.

  2. Identification of the high risk emergency surgical patient: Which risk prediction model should be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonelake, Stephen; Thomson, Peter; Suggett, Nigel

    2015-09-01

    National guidance states that all patients having emergency surgery should have a mortality risk assessment calculated on admission so that the 'high risk' patient can receive the appropriate seniority and level of care. We aimed to assess if peri-operative risk scoring tools could accurately calculate mortality and morbidity risk. Mortality risk scores for 86 consecutive emergency laparotomies, were calculated using pre-operative (ASA, Lee index) and post-operative (POSSUM, P-POSSUM and CR-POSSUM) risk calculation tools. Morbidity risk scores were calculated using the POSSUM predicted morbidity and compared against actual morbidity according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. The actual mortality was 10.5%. The average predicted risk scores for all laparotomies were: ASA 26.5%, Lee Index 2.5%, POSSUM 29.5%, P-POSSUM 18.5%, CR-POSSUM 10.5%. Complications occurred following 67 laparotomies (78%). The majority (51%) of complications were classified as Clavien-Dindo grade 2-3 (non-life-threatening). Patients having a POSSUM morbidity risk of greater than 50% developed significantly more life-threatening complications (CD 4-5) compared with those who predicted less than or equal to 50% morbidity risk (P = 0.01). Pre-operative risk stratification remains a challenge because the Lee Index under-predicts and ASA over-predicts mortality risk. Post-operative risk scoring using the CR-POSSUM is more accurate and we suggest can be used to identify patients who require intensive care post-operatively. In the absence of accurate risk scoring tools that can be used on admission to hospital it is not possible to reliably audit the achievement of national standards of care for the 'high-risk' patient.

  3. Economics of an ecotourism operation in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Patrick; Shave, Mary; Shave, Paul

    1995-09-01

    The economic inputs and outputs for the Possum Point Biological Station in Belize during 1990 1992 are described to illustrate some aspects of an ecotourism operation. Eight hundred fifty-four people in 59 groups visited Possum Point during the study period to tour rain forests, estuaries, and coral reefs. The economic input to Possum Point from these groups increased from 74,552 in 1990 to 166,268 in 1992. Outputs were for license fees, capital improvements, goods and services, labor, fossil fuels, and development of a historic sugar mill site. An annual donation was also made to a scholarship fund for local Belizean students. The net cash balance of income and outputs changed from negative (-6678) in 1990 to positive (+4811) in 1992, suggesting development of the economic operation. Possum Point meets the economic criteria for ecotourism by feeding back some tourist monies for community and environmental support, particularly donations for the sugar mill site and the scholarship fund. Most of the outputs from Possum Point (about 80%) were retained in the local economy through employment and purchases, which have a positive influence on the local community. We conclude that ecotourism operations, such as Possum Point, offer important sustainable development opportunities for Belize.

  4. Tooth Morphogenesis and FGF4 Expression During Development of Molar Tooth in Three Muroid Rodents: Calomyscus elburzensis (Calomyscidae), Mesocricetus auratus (Cricetidae) and Mus musculus (Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Kordiyeh; Darvish, Jamshid; Matin, Maryam M; Javanmard, Athar Sadat; Kilpatrick, C William

    2017-12-01

    To date, no studies have examined the tooth formation during developmental stages of brush-tailed mice (Calomyscidae) and true hamsters (Cricetidae). Herein, we compared the timing of tooth morphogenesis and FGF4 expression pattern during development of the first lower molar in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse, Calomyscus elburzensis with two other muroid rodents; the house mouse, Mus musculus (Muridae), model organism for tooth morphogenesis, and the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus which shares great similarities in cusp pattern with brush-tailed mice. All three species were bred in captivity and developing embryos were isolated at different embryonic days (E). Histological evaluation of lower molars was performed and spatiotemporal pattern of FGF4 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that morphogenesis of the tooth cusps starts at the beginning of the cap stage of the first lower molar (E14 in house mouse, about E11.5 in golden hamster and E22 in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse). During the cap to bell stage (E15 in house mouse, E12 in golden hamster and at about E24 in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse), a decrease in the expression of FGF4 was observed in the mesenchyme, except for the cusp tips. According to our observations, the developmental process of the first lower molar formation in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse began much later as compared with the other two species. Despite the differences in the temporal pattern of molar development between these three members of the same superfamily (Muroidea), the correlation in the expression of FGF4 with specific stages of tooth morphogenesis supported its regulatory function. Anat Rec, 300:2138-2149, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Risk-adjusted scoring systems in colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Edmund; McArdle, Kirsten; Wong, Ling S

    2011-01-01

    Consequent to recent advances in surgical techniques and management, survival rate has increased substantially over the last 25 years, particularly in colorectal cancer patients. However, post-operative morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer vary widely across the country. Therefore, standardised outcome measures are emphasised not only for professional accountability, but also for comparison between treatment units and regions. In a heterogeneous population, the use of crude mortality as an outcome measure for patients undergoing surgery is simply misleading. Meaningful comparisons, however, require accurate risk stratification of patients being analysed before conclusions can be reached regarding the outcomes recorded. Sub-specialised colorectal surgical units usually dedicated to more complex and high-risk operations. The need for accurate risk prediction is necessary in these units as both mortality and morbidity often are tools to justify the practice of high-risk surgery. The Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) is a system for classifying patients in the intensive care unit. However, APACHE score was considered too complex for general surgical use. The American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade has been considered useful as an adjunct to informed consent and for monitoring surgical performance through time. ASA grade is simple but too subjective. The Physiological & Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) and its variant Portsmouth POSSUM (P-POSSUM) were devised to predict outcomes in surgical patients in general, taking into account of the variables in the case-mix. POSSUM has two parts, which include assessment of physiological parameters and operative scores. There are 12 physiological parameters and 6 operative measures. The physiological parameters are taken at the time of surgery. Each physiological parameter or operative variable is sub-divided into three or four levels with

  6. Development of thermodynamically-based models for simulation of hydrogeochemical processes coupled to channel flow processes in abandoned underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, N.A., E-mail: natalie.kruse@ncl.ac.uk [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Younger, P.L. [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    Accurate modeling of changing geochemistry in mine water can be an important tool in post-mining site management. The Pollutant Sources and Sinks in Underground Mines (POSSUM) model and Pollutant Loadings Above Average Pyrite Influenced Geochemistry POSSUM (PLAYING POSSUM) model were developed using object-oriented programming techniques to simulate changing geochemistry in abandoned underground mines over time. The conceptual model was created to avoid significant simplifying assumptions that decrease the accuracy and defensibility of model solutions. POSSUM and PLAYING POSSUM solve for changes in flow rate and depth of flow using a finite difference hydrodynamics model then, subsequently, solve for geochemical changes at distinct points along the flow path. Geochemical changes are modeled based on a suite of 28 kinetically controlled mineral weathering reactions. Additional geochemical transformations due to reversible sorption, dissolution and precipitation of acid generating salts and mineral precipitation are also simulated using simplified expressions. Contaminant transport is simulated using a novel application of the Random-Walk method. By simulating hydrogeochemical changes with a physically and thermodynamically controlled model, the 'state of the art' in post-mining management can be advanced.

  7. Morbid obesity: postsurgical predictive factors and prioritization of the waiting list Obesidad mórbida: factores predictivos postquirúrgicos y priorización de la lista de espera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sabench Pereferrer

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study a sample of patients with morbid obesity who are on the waiting list for a surgical intervention, to establish various scores of surgical risk (Possum and severity score, and to assess potential criteria for list prioritization. Design: we calculated physiological and surgical Possum scores for every patient, and analysed comorbidities and other associated factors to calculate the severity score. Likewise, we calculated the predictive rates of morbimortality. Differences between associated comorbidities in body mass index (BMI were also analyzed. The correlation between Possum score, prediction rates, and severity score were analyzed. Patients: fifty-two patients on the surgical waiting list in our institution (San Juan University Hospital, Reus from 26/4/02 to 5/03/04. Results: the mean qualitative score is significantly higher in the female sex. Invalidating arthropathy and socio-occupational and/or psychiatric criteria are significantly higher in women. There is a significant correlation between the severity score and Possum score. Age does not correlate with any of the variables studied. Conclusions: possum scores are significantly related to BMI, particularly in terms of morbidity rates. The degree of correlation between the Possum score and the qualitative score tells how useful the latter is to cover other determinant factors in the severity of this condition. Socio-occupational and psychiatric criteria, and invalidating arthropathy are the main variables to be taken into account for postsurgical prediction, and are directly related to BMI degree.Objetivo: estudio de una muestra de pacientes afectos de obesidad mórbida y en lista de espera para intervención quirúrgica, determinar el riesgo quirúrgico según diferentes scores (Possum y score de gravedad y valorar los posibles criterios en la priorización de dicha lista. Diseño: cálculo del Possum fisiológico y quirúrgico para cada paciente y análisis de las

  8. Product Operations Status Summary Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Atsuya; Toole, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The Product Operations Status Summary Metrics (POSSUM) computer program provides a readable view into the state of the Phoenix Operations Product Generation Subsystem (OPGS) data pipeline. POSSUM provides a user interface that can search the data store, collect product metadata, and display the results in an easily-readable layout. It was designed with flexibility in mind for support in future missions. Flexibility over various data store hierarchies is provided through the disk-searching facilities of Marsviewer. This is a proven program that has been in operational use since the first day of the Phoenix mission.

  9. calvyn oor die leiding van die heilige gees in die verklaring van die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mittel alters, bis er zur Ruhe kommt bei den kanonischen Schriften der. Urzeit der christlichen Ära (Barth ... (ego tamen dimoveri non possum ab amore compendii, CO 10, 403). Deur die boodskap van die .... Idem ergo spiritus qui per os prophetarum loquutus est, in corda nostra penetret necesse est, ut persuadeat fideliter ...

  10. Fear-related confirmation bias in children: a comparison between neutral- and dangerous-looking animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Fliek, Lorraine; Meesters, Cor

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine confirmation bias in children without explicitly inducing fear. Eighty non-clinical children (7-13 years) were shown pictures of a neutral animal (quokka) and two dangerous-looking animals (aye aye and possum). For each animal, levels of perceived fear, threat and request for additional threatening or non-threatening information were obtained. A behavioral approach test (BAT) was included as behavioral measure of fear. The results indicated that the aye aye and possum were rated as more threatening and fearful than the quokka. For the aye aye and possum higher fear levels coincided with search for more threatening than non-threatening information. This pattern was absent in non-fearful children and for the non-threatening quokka. During the BAT the quokka was more often approached first compared to the aye aye and possum. Our findings suggest that confirmation bias in children can be observed without using verbal fear induction.

  11. The Postoperative Complications Prediction in Mulago Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... management in surgery. Knowing which patient to operate and those at high risk of developing complications contributes significantly to the quality of surgical care and cost reduction. The postoperative complications of patients who underwent Laparotomy in Mulago Hospital were studied using POSSUM scoring system.

  12. Portsmouth physiological and operative severity score for the Enumeration of Mortality and morbidity scoring system in general surgical practice and identifying risk factors for poor outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ashish; Nagpal, Nitin; Sidhu, D. S.; Singh, Amandeep; Tyagi, Anjali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Estimation of the outcome is paramount in disease stratification and subsequent management in severely ill surgical patients. Risk scoring helps us quantify the prospects of adverse outcome in a patient. Portsmouth-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (P-POSSUM) the world over has proved itself as a worthy scoring system and the present study was done to evaluate the feasibility of P-POSSUM as a risk scoring system as a tool in efficacious prediction of mortality and morbidity in our demographic profile. Materials and Methods: Validity of P-POSSUM was assessed prospectively in fifty major general surgeries performed at our hospital from May 2011 to October 2012. Data were collected to obtain P-POSSUM score, and statistical analysis was performed. Results: Majority (72%) of patients was male and mean age was 40.24 ± 18.6 years. Seventy-eight percentage procedures were emergency laparotomies commonly performed for perforation peritonitis. Mean physiological score was 17.56 ± 7.6, and operative score was 17.76 ± 4.5 (total score = 35.3 ± 10.4). The ratio of observed to expected mortality rate was 0.86 and morbidity rate was 0.78. Discussion: P-POSSUM accurately predicted both mortality and morbidity in patients who underwent major surgical procedures in our setup. Thus, it helped us in identifying patients who required preferential attention and aggressive management. Widespread application of this tool can result in better distribution of care among high-risk surgical patients. PMID:28250670

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03802-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available T-2KB Trichosurus... 48 3e-11 4 ( DY894715 ) CeleSEQ14351 Cunninghamella elegans pBluescript (... 58 4e-11 3... letters Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value Contig-U03802-1 (Contig-U... letters Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant al...1... 62 4e-05 1 ( EJ306703 ) 1095390099376 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-27-01-01-1... 62 4e-05 1 ( CP000238 ) Baumannia cicadellinicola... AY241394 |pid:none) Melopsittacus undulatus Mn superox... 244 2e-63 AF329270_1( AF329270 |pid:none) Gallus gallus manganes

  14. Improving the Design of a Conservation Reserve for a Critically Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chris; Cadenhead, Natasha; Lindenmayer, David B; Wintle, Brendan A

    2017-01-01

    Setting aside protected areas is a key strategy for tackling biodiversity loss. Reserve effectiveness depends on the extent to which protected areas capture both known occurrences and areas likely to support the species. We assessed the effectiveness of the existing reserve network for Leadbeater's Possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) and other forest-dependent species, and compared the existing reserve system to a set of plausible reserve expansion options based on area targets implied in a recent Population Viability Analysis (PVA). The existing Leadbeater's Reserve and surrounding reserve system captured 7.6% and 29.6% of cumulative habitat suitability, respectively, across the landscape. Expanded reserve scenarios captured 34% to 62% of cumulative habitat suitability. We found acute trade-offs between conserving Leadbeater's Possum habitat and conserving habitat of other forest-dependent species. Our analysis provides a template for systematically expanding and evaluating reserve expansion options in terms of trade-offs between priority species' needs.

  15. Improving the Design of a Conservation Reserve for a Critically Endangered Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Taylor

    Full Text Available Setting aside protected areas is a key strategy for tackling biodiversity loss. Reserve effectiveness depends on the extent to which protected areas capture both known occurrences and areas likely to support the species. We assessed the effectiveness of the existing reserve network for Leadbeater's Possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri and other forest-dependent species, and compared the existing reserve system to a set of plausible reserve expansion options based on area targets implied in a recent Population Viability Analysis (PVA. The existing Leadbeater's Reserve and surrounding reserve system captured 7.6% and 29.6% of cumulative habitat suitability, respectively, across the landscape. Expanded reserve scenarios captured 34% to 62% of cumulative habitat suitability. We found acute trade-offs between conserving Leadbeater's Possum habitat and conserving habitat of other forest-dependent species. Our analysis provides a template for systematically expanding and evaluating reserve expansion options in terms of trade-offs between priority species' needs.

  16. Medical record weight (MRW): a new reliable predictor of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality in the hip fracture population?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Calpin, P

    2016-11-01

    We sought to compare the weight of patient’s medical records (MRW) to that of standardised surgical risk scoring systems in predicting postoperative hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality in patients with hip fracture. Patients admitted for surgical treatment of a newly diagnosed hip fracture over a 3-month period were enrolled. Patients with documented morbidity or mortality had significantly heavier medical records. The MRW was equivalent to the age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index and better than the American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status score (ASA), the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM,) and Portsmouth-POSSUM score (P-POSSUM) in correlation with length of hospital admission, p = .003, 95% CI [.15 to .65]. Using logistic regression analysis MRW was as good as, if not better, than the other scoring systems at predicting postoperative morbidity and 90-day mortality. Medical record weight is as good as, or better than, validated surgical risk scoring methods. Larger, multicentre studies are required to validate its use as a surgical risk prediction tool, and it may in future be supplanted by a digital measure of electronic record size. Given its ease of use and low cost, it could easily be used in trauma units globally.

  17. Double bypass for inoperable pancreatic malignancy at laparotomy: postoperative complications and long-term outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausania, F; Vallance, AE; Manas, DM; Prentis, JM; Snowden, CP; White, SA; Charnley, RM; French, JJ; Jaques, BC

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Between 4% and 13% of patients with operable pancreatic malignancy are found unresectable at the time of surgery. Double bypass is a good option for fit patients but it is associated with high risk of postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to identify pre-operatively which patients undergoing double bypass are at high risk of complications and to assess their long-term outcome. METHODS Of the 576 patients undergoing pancreatic resections between 2006 and 2011, 50 patients who underwent a laparotomy for a planned pancreaticoduodenectomy had a double bypass procedure for inoperable disease. Demographic data, risk factors for postoperative complications and pre-operative anaesthetic assessment data including the Portsmouth Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (P-POSSUM) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) were collected. RESULTS Fifty patients (33 men and 17 women) were included in the study. The median patient age was 64 years (range: 39–79 years). The complication rate was 50% and the in-hospital mortality rate was 4%. The P-POSSUM physiology subscore and low anaerobic threshold at CPET were significantly associated with postoperative complications (p=0.005 and p=0.016 respectively) but they were unable to predict them. Overall long-term survival was significantly shorter in patients with postoperative complications (9 vs 18 months). Postoperative complications were independently associated with poorer long-term survival (p=0.003, odds ratio: 3.261). CONCLUSIONS P-POSSUM and CPET are associated with postoperative complications but the possibility of using them for risk prediction requires further research. However, postoperative complications following double bypass have a significant impact on long-term survival and this type of surgery should therefore only be performed in specialised centres. PMID:23131226

  18. The Voices of Women in the Night: Veronica and Judith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Walker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available quite often leave the radio playing all night on the bedside table; my only company in an all too empty house. It shuts out the noises of the night: the cry of the great owl in the rain-forest trees, the scurrying of possums on the roof, or the rustle of the neighbourhood carpet snake, a beautiful multi-coloured python, slithering into or out of the roof-space. I’m used to him (or her. She’s harmless —just another presence in the night.

  19. A multicenter prospective study of surgical audit systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yoshio; Ikejiri, Koji; Wada, Yasuo; Takahashi, Tadateru; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Akiyama, Noriyoshi; Koike, Shoichiro; Koseki, Masato; Saitoh, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate a modified form of Estimation of Physiologic Ability and Surgical Stress (E-PASS) for surgical audit comparing with other existing models. Although several scoring systems have been devised for surgical audit, no nation-wide survey has been performed yet. We modified our previous E-PASS surgical audit system by computing the weights of 41 procedures, using data from 4925 patients who underwent elective digestive surgery, designated it as mE-PASS. Subsequently, a prospective cohort study was conducted in 43 national hospitals in Japan from April 1, 2005, to April 8, 2007. Variables for the E-PASS and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status-based model were collected for 5272 surgically treated patients. Of the 5272 patients, we also collected data for the Portsmouth modification of Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (P-POSSUM) in 3128 patients. The area under the receiver operative characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate discrimination performance to detect in-hospital mortality. The ratio of observed to estimated in-hospital mortality rates (OE ratio) was defined as a measure of quality. The numbers of variables required were 10 for E-PASS, 7 for mE-PASS, 20 for P-POSSUM, and 4 for the ASA status-based model. The AUC (95% confidence interval) values were 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for E-PASS, 0.86 (0.79-0.92) for mE-PASS, 0.81 (0.75-0.88) for P-POSSUM, and 0.73 (0.63-0.83) for the ASA status-based model. The OE ratios for mE-PASS among large-volume hospitals significantly correlated with those for E-PASS (R = 0.93, N = 9, P = 0.00026), P-POSSUM (R = 0.96, N = 6, P = 0.0021), and ASA status-based model (R = 0.83, N = 9, P = 0.0051). Because of its features of easy use, accuracy, and generalizability, mE-PASS is a candidate for a nation-wide survey.

  20. Mortality risk factor analysis in colonic perforation: would retroperitoneal contamination increase mortality in colonic perforation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ri Na; Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Gun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2017-10-01

    Colonic perforation is a lethal condition presenting high morbidity and mortality in spite of urgent surgical treatment. This study investigated the surgical outcome of patients with colonic perforation associated with retroperitoneal contamination. Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 patients diagnosed with colonic perforation caused by either inflammation or ischemia who underwent urgent surgical treatment in our facility from January 2005 to December 2014. Patient characteristics were analyzed to find risk factors correlated with increased postoperative mortality. Using the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) audit system, the mortality and morbidity rates were estimated to verify the surgical outcomes. Patients with retroperitoneal contamination, defined by the presence of retroperitoneal air in the preoperative abdominopelvic CT, were compared to those without retroperitoneal contamination. Eight out of 30 patients (26.7%) with colonic perforation had died after urgent surgical treatment. Factors associated with mortality included age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and the ischemic cause of colonic perforation. Three out of 6 patients (50%) who presented retroperitoneal contamination were deceased. Although the patients with retroperitoneal contamination did not show significant increase in the mortality rate, they showed significantly higher ASA physical status classification than those without retroperitoneal contamination. The mortality rate predicted from Portsmouth POSSUM was higher in the patients with retroperitoneal contamination. Patients presenting colonic perforation along with retroperitoneal contamination demonstrated severe comorbidity. However, retroperitoneal contamination was not found to be correlated with the mortality rate.

  1. Meta-analysis of cancer transcriptomes: A new approach to uncover molecular pathological events in different cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To explore secrets of metastatic cancers, individual expression of true sets of respective genes must spread across the tissue. In this study, meta-analysis for transcriptional profiles of oncogenes was carried out to hunt critical genes or networks helping in metastasizing cancers. For this, transcriptomic analysis of different cancerous tissues causing leukemia, lung, liver, spleen, colorectal, colon, breast, bladder, and kidney cancers was performed by extracting microarray expression data from online resource; Gene Expression Omnibus. A newly developed bioinformatics technique; Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA was applied for enrichment analysis of transcriptional profiles using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID. Furthermore, oPOSSUM (v. 2.0 and Cytoscape (v. 2.8.2 were used for in-depth analysis of transcription factors and regulatory gene networks respectively. DAVID analysis uncovered the most significantly enriched pathways in molecular functions that were 'Ubiquitin thiolesterase activity' up regulated in blood, breast, bladder, colorectal, lung, spleen, prostrate cancer. 'Transforming growth factor beta receptor activity' was inhibited in all cancers except leukemia, colon and liver cancer. oPOSSUM further revealed highly over-represented Transcription Factors (TFs; Broad-complex_3, Broad-complex_4, and Foxd3 except for leukemia and bladder cancer. From these findings, it is possible to target genes and networks, play a crucial role in the development of cancer. In the future, these transcription factors can serve as potential candidates for the therapeutic drug targets which can impede the deadly spread.

  2. Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) risk assessment and risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eason, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) is a vertebrate pesticide widely used for possum control in New Zealand. Fluoroacetate is also a toxic component of poisonous plants found in Australia, South Africa, South America, and India. Because of its importance and effectiveness in pest control and the highly toxic nature of this compound, its acute sub-lethal and target organ toxicity have been extensively studied. In relation to its use as a pesticide its environmental fate, persistence, non-target impacts and general toxicology have been and continue to be extensively studied. Toxic baits must be prepared and used with extreme care, otherwise humans, livestock, and non-target wildlife will be put at risk. The high risk of secondary poisoning of dogs is a cause for concern. 1080 acts by interfering with cellular energy production. Possums die from heart failure, usually within 6-18 h of eating baits. Long-term exposure to sub-lethal doses can have harmful effects and strict safety precautions are enforced to protect contractors and workers in the bait manufacturing industry. Considerable care is taken when using 1080 to ensure that the risks of using it are outweighed by the ecological benefits achieved from its use. When its use is controversial, risk communicators must take care not to trivialise the toxicity of the compound. The benefits of 1080 use in conservation, pest control, and disease control should be weighed up alongside the risks of using 1080 and other techniques for pest control

  3. Damage Control Orthopedics Management as Vital Procedure in Elderly Patients with Femoral Neck Fractures Complicated with Chronic Renal Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenhui; Wang, Yunjiao; Wang, Ziming; Wang, Yu; Wu, Siyu; Du, Quanyin; Wang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes to hip fractures in elderly patients, with high subsequent mortality. Selection and timing of the surgical procedure of such patients is a serious challenge. Many clinicians believe in earlier surgery as preferable and providing better outcomes. Damage control orthopedics (DCO) aids to adjust and optimize the overall condition of patients. Methods In 32 patients with femoral neck fractures complicated with CRF, we evaluated how the timing of the surgery determines the mortality rates if the DCO approach is applied. Preoperative ASA grading, POSSUM score, P-POSSUM score and DCO were carried out. Based on the assessment, timing of the surgery was ascertained. Results Of a total of 32 patients, twenty-nine patients were accepted for either early (failures and acute respiratory distress syndrome. There was no significant difference in complication rates and Harris hip score between both groups. Conclusion In patients with femoral neck fracture complicated with CRF, delaying the surgery for several days does not increase the incidence of postoperative adverse events. PMID:27149117

  4. Benchmarking against the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yiu Ming; Cappello, Julie; Kousary, Ramin; McGowan, Brian; Wysocki, Arkadiusz P

    2018-05-01

    The Royal College of Anaesthetists published the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA) to describe and compare inpatient care and outcomes of major emergency abdominal surgery in England and Wales in 2015 and 2016. The purpose of this article is to compare emergency abdominal surgical care and mortality in a regional hospital (Logan Hospital, Queensland, Australia) with NELA results. Data were extracted from two databases. All deaths from May 2010 to April 2015 were reviewed and patients who had an emergency abdominal operation within 30 days of death were identified. The health records of all patients who underwent abdominal surgery were extracted and those who had an emergency laparotomy were identified for analysis. Three hundred and fifty patients underwent emergency laparotomy and were included in the analysis. The total 30-day mortality during this 5-year period was 9.7%. Factors affecting mortality included age, Portsmouth-Physiological and Operative Severity Score (P-POSSUM) and admission source. Timing of antibiotic administration, use of perioperative medical service and frequency of intensive care admission were the same in patients who died and survived. Mortality in patients following emergency laparotomy at Logan Hospital compares favourably with 11.1% reported by NELA. This may be partly attributable to case mix distribution as for each P-POSSUM risk Logan Hospital mortality was at the upper end of that reported by NELA. Further Australia data are required. Improved compliance with NELA recommendations may improve outcomes. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Consommation de la viande de brousse dans la zone du Parc National de Conkouati-Douli, Congo (Brazzaville: nature du gibier et modalités de consommation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makosso Vheiye, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of Bushmeat in the Conkouati-Douli National Park, Congo (Brazzaville: Nature of Game and Characteristics of Consumption. In order to identify the species hunted in the Conkouati- Douli National Park (CDNP, Brazzaville (Congo and to appreciate the methods of consumption of the bushmeat by the bordering populations, 52 hunters from 16 to 62 years old were a surveying over a period of one month and half. The results indicate that hunt to involve rodents, bovidae, various carnivores, suidae, reptiles and birds. However, the african brush-tailed porcupines (Atherurus africanus and blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola were the most appreciated animals. The modes of consumption of the bushmeat were diversified. The smoked meat was used most frequently (48.1% followed by fresh meat consumption (40.2%. All political and legislative measurements are to be necessary to preserve the resources of this protected area.

  6. Emission and thermal performance upgrade through advanced control backfit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Reducing emission and improving thermal performance of currently operating power plants is a high priority. A majority of these power plants are over 20 years old with old control systems. Upgrading the existing control systems with the latest technology has many benefits, the most cost beneficial are the reduction of emission and improving thermal performance. The payback period is usually less than two years. Virginia Power is installing Stone & Webster`s NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor and Advanced Steam Temperature Control systems on Possum Point Units 3 and 4 to achieve near term NO{sub x} reductions while maintaining high thermal performance. Testing has demonstrated NO{sub x} reductions of greater than 20 percent through the application of NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor on these units. The Advanced Steam Temperature Control system which has been operational at Virginia Power`s Mt. Storm Unit 1 has demonstrated a signification improvement in unit thermal performance and controllability. These control systems are being combined at Units 3 and 4 to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and achieve improved unit thermal performance and control response with the existing combustion hardware. Installation has been initiated and is expected to be completed by the spring of 1995. Possum Point Power Station Units 3 and 4 are pulverized coal, tangentially fired boilers producing 107 and 232 MW and have a distributed control system and a PC based performance monitoring system. The installation of the advanced control and automation system will utilize existing control equipment requiring the addition of several PCs and PLC.

  7. Dynamique de la filière viande de brousse dans la partie continentale du Rio Muni en Guinée équatoriale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puit, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic of Bush Meat Networks in the Continental Region of Rio Muni in Equatorial Guinea. The aim of this study was to do surveys about bush meat networks around urban centers near the Monte Alen National Park in Equatorial Guinea. During 8 weeks, in the Mundoasi market, one of two principal market of Bata, 4328 wild animal carcases have been indexed, representating 22,600 kg of biomass. A total of 48 animals species have been identified, including 14 which hunting are prohibited. The mammals represent 91.87% of total number with 3 dominants orders, ungulates (37.7%, primates (28.6% and rodents (18%. The duiker (Cephalophus, the African Brushtailed Porcupine and Guenon are the most important. The district of Niefang, Bata and Evinayong are the principal sources of supply. Hunting with gun becomes very important, follow by snaring, a very wasteful method. Despite that this business squarely growth, signs of wildlife decrease are perceptible, showing evidence of overexploitation. As far as Monte Alen National Park is concerned, this study shows the positive effects of this protected area as wildlife reservoir for peripheral hunting zones.

  8. Taxonomic revision of Phascogale tapoatafa (Meyer, 1793) (Dasyuridae; Marsupialia), including descriptions of two new subspecies and confirmation of P. pirata Thomas, 1904 as a ‘Top End’ endemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, K. P.; Rhind, S. G.; Ten Have, J.; Chesser, R. Terry

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Brush-tailed Phascogale (Phascogale tapoatafa sensu lato) has a broad but highly fragmented distribution around the periphery of the Australian continent and all populations are under significant ongoing threat to survival. A new appraisal of morphological and molecular diversity within the group reveals that the population in the ‘Top End’ of the Northern Territory is specifically distinct from all others, including those in the Kimberley region of Western Australia to the west and on Cape York of Queensland to the east. The name P. pirata Thomas, 1904 is available for the ‘Top End’ taxon. Three geographically disjunct populations are distinguished at subspecies level within P. tapoatafa on a suite of external and cranio-dental features; these are found in southeast Australia from South Australia to mid-coastal Queensland (nominotypical tapoatafa), southwest Western Australia (wambenger subsp. nov.), and the Kimberley region of Western Australia (kimberleyensis subsp. nov.). A potential fourth subspecies occurs on Cape York but remains too poorly represented in collections for adequate characterization. Molecular divergence estimates based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene indicate that the range disjunction across southern Australia probably dates from the Late Pliocene, with the multiple disjunctions across northern Australia being more recent though almost certainly exceeding 400,000 years. An argument is made for the continued use of the subspecies rank in Australian mammalogy, despite a general lack of consistency in its current application.

  9. Transfusão sangüínea no intra-operatório, complicações e prognóstico Transfusión sanguínea en el intraoperatorio, complicaciones y pronóstico Complications and prognosis of intraoperative blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manoel Silva Junior

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Transfusões sangüíneas no intra-operatório estão associadas a aumento de complicações no pós-operatório e custos hospitalares. Portanto, este estudo avaliou as características, complicações e possíveis fatores de riscos para morte em pacientes cirúrgicos que necessitaram de transfusões sangüíneas no intra-operatório. MÉTODO: Coorte prospectiva, durante período de um ano, no centro cirúrgico de hospital terciário. Incluíram-se pacientes com idade acima de 18 anos que necessitaram de transfusões sangüíneas no intra-operatório. Testemunhas de Jeová, pacientes que receberam transfusões prévias, falência coronariana e lesão encefálica aguda foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: O estudo envolveu 80 pacientes, com idade média de 68,4 ± 14,1 anos. Os pacientes ASA II foram prevalentes com 69,6% dos casos, os escores APACHE II e POSSUM foram em média, respectivamente, 13,6 ± 4,4 e 37,5 ± 11,4. A hemoglobina média no momento da transfusão era 8,2 ± 1,8 g.dL-1 e 19% dos pacientes apresentavam hemoglobina maior que 10 g.dL-1. Os pacientes receberam em média 2,2 ± 0,9 UI de concentrados de hemácias. A mortalidade hospitalar foi 26,3%. As complicações pós-transfusões totalizaram 57,5% dos casos no pós-operatório e a mais freqüente foi infecção. Foram fatores independentes de morte na regressão logística os escores APACHE II (OR = 1,34; IC 95% 1,102 - 1,622, POSSUM (OR = 1,08; IC 95% 1,008 - 1,150 e número de unidades de concentrados de hemácias recebidas (OR = 2,22; IC 95% 1,100 - 4,463. Quanto maior o número de transfusões sangüíneas, maiores as incidências de complicações e mortalidade. CONCLUSÕES: O valor de hemoglobina e o número de unidades de concentrados de hemácias utilizados foram elevados comparados com os estudos que preconizam estratégias restritivas. Foi encontrada nesta amostra alta incidência de complicações, principalmente infecções, e elevada

  10. Testing an Alternative Method for Estimating the Length of Fungal Hyphae Using Photomicrography and Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinhua; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Hedley, Mike J; Camps Arbestain, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and test an unbiased and rapid methodology to estimate the length of external arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in soil. The traditional visual gridline intersection (VGI) method, which consists in a direct visual examination of the intersections of hyphae with gridlines on a microscope eyepiece after aqueous extraction, membrane-filtration, and staining (e.g., with trypan blue), was refined. For this, (i) images of the stained hyphae were taken by using a digital photomicrography technique to avoid the use of the microscope and the method was referred to as "digital gridline intersection" (DGI) method; and (ii), the images taken in (i) were processed and the hyphal length was measured by using ImageJ software, referred to as the "photomicrography-ImageJ processing" (PIP) method. The DGI and PIP methods were tested using known grade lengths of possum fur. Then they were applied to measure the hyphal lengths in soils with contrasting phosphorus (P) fertility status. Linear regressions were obtained between the known lengths (Lknown) of possum fur and the values determined by using either the DGI (LDGI) (LDGI = 0.37 + 0.97 × Lknown, r2 = 0.86) or PIP (LPIP) methods (LPIP = 0.33 + 1.01 × Lknown, r2 = 0.98). There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the LDGI and LPIP values. While both methods provided accurate estimation (slope of regression being 1.0), the PIP method was more precise, as reflected by a higher value of r2 and lower coefficients of variation. The average hyphal lengths (6.5-19.4 m g-1) obtained by the use of these methods were in the range of those typically reported in the literature (3-30 m g-1). Roots growing in P-deficient soil developed 2.5 times as many hyphae as roots growing in P-rich soil (17.4 vs 7.2 m g-1). These tests confirmed that the use of digital photomicrography in conjunction with either the grid-line intersection principle or image processing is a suitable method for the

  11. Comparison of algorithms for determination of rotation measure and Faraday structure. I. 1100–1400 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X. H.; Akahori, Takuya; Anderson, C. S.; Farnes, J. S.; O’Sullivan, S. P.; Rudnick, L.; O’Brien, T.; Bell, M. R.; Bray, J. D.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Ideguchi, S.; Kumazaki, K.; Stepanov, R.; Stil, J.; Wolleben, M.; Takahashi, K.; Weeren, R. J. van

    2015-01-01

    Faraday rotation measures (RMs) and more general Faraday structures are key parameters for studying cosmic magnetism and are also sensitive probes of faint ionized thermal gas. A definition of which derived quantities are required for various scientific studies is needed, as well as addressing the challenges in determining Faraday structures. A wide variety of algorithms has been proposed to reconstruct these structures. In preparation for the Polarization Sky Survey of the Universe's Magnetism (POSSUM) to be conducted with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder and the ongoing Galactic Arecibo L-band Feeds Array Continuum Transit Survey (GALFACTS), we run a Faraday structure determination data challenge to benchmark the currently available algorithms, including Faraday synthesis (previously called RM synthesis in the literature), wavelet, compressive sampling, and QU-fitting. The input models include sources with one Faraday thin component, two Faraday thin components, and one Faraday thick component. The frequency set is similar to POSSUM/GALFACTS with a 300 MHz bandwidth from 1.1 to 1.4 GHz. We define three figures of merit motivated by the underlying science: (1) an average RM weighted by polarized intensity, RM wtd , (2) the separation Δϕ of two Faraday components, and (3) the reduced chi-squared χ r 2 . Based on the current test data with a signal-to-noise ratio of about 32, we find the following. (1) When only one Faraday thin component is present, most methods perform as expected, with occasional failures where two components are incorrectly found. (2) For two Faraday thin components, QU-fitting routines perform the best, with errors close to the theoretical ones for RM wtd but with significantly higher errors for Δϕ. All other methods, including standard Faraday synthesis, frequently identify only one component when Δϕ is below or near the width of the Faraday point-spread function. (3) No methods as currently implemented work well

  12. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, Nélida R; Driscoll, Don A; Escobar, Martín A H; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will

  13. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida R Villaseñor

    Full Text Available With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula. We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1 habitat quality/preference, (2 species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3 spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This

  14. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA not detected in faecal samples from Buruli ulcer patients: results of a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred S Sarfo

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that in a Buruli ulcer (BU endemic region of southeastern Australia, significant numbers of possums (native tree-dwelling marsupials have clinical BU disease. Furthermore, based on quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis, animals with BU lesions (and some without shed M. ulcerans DNA in their faeces, indicative of bacterial loads of up to 10(8 organisms/gram. These findings led us to propose that humans might also harbour M. ulcerans in their gastrointestinal tract and shed the bacterium in their faeces. We conducted a pilot study and collected faecal swabs from 26 patients with confirmed BU and 31 healthy household controls. Faecal samples were also collected from 10 healthy controls from non-endemic regions in Ghana. All 67 specimens were negative when tested by IS2404 PCR. The detection sensitivity of this method was ≥10(4 bacteria per gram (wet-weight of human faecal material. We conclude that the human gastrointestinal tract is unlikely to be a significant reservoir of M. ulcerans.

  15. Postoperative outcome after oesophagectomy for cancer: Nutritional status is the missing ring in the current prognostic scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, B; Scarpa, M; Cavallin, F; Cagol, M; Alfieri, R; Saadeh, L; Ancona, E; Castoro, C

    2015-06-01

    Several prognostic scores were designed in order to estimate the risk of postoperative adverse events. None of them includes a component directly associated to the nutritional status. The aims of the study were the evaluation of performance of risk-adjusted models for early outcomes after oesophagectomy and to develop a score for severe complication prediction with special consideration regarding nutritional status. A comparison of POSSUM and Charlson score and their derivates, ASA, Lagarde score and nutritional index (PNI) was performed on 167 patients undergoing oesophagectomy for cancer. A logistic regression model was also estimated to obtain a new prognostic score for severe morbidity prediction. Overall morbidity was 35.3% (59 cases), severe complications (grade III-V of Clavien-Dindo classification) occurred in 20 cases. Discrimination was poor for all the scores. Multivariable analysis identified pulse, connective tissue disease, PNI and potassium as independent predictors of severe morbidity. This model showed good discrimination and calibration. Internal validation using standard bootstrapping techniques confirmed the good performance. Nutrition could be an independent risk factor for major complications and a nutritional status coefficient could be included in current prognostic scores to improve risk estimation of major postoperative complications after oesophagectomy for cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Unexpected consequences of control: competitive vs. predator release in a four-species assemblage of invasive mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscoe, Wendy A; Ramsey, David S L; Pech, Roger P; Sweetapple, Peter J; Yockney, Ivor; Barron, Mandy C; Perry, Mike; Nugent, Graham; Carran, Roger; Warne, Rodney; Brausch, Chris; Duncan, Richard P

    2011-10-01

    Invasive species are frequently the target of eradication or control programmes to mitigate their impacts. However, manipulating single species in isolation can lead to unexpected consequences for other species, with outcomes such as mesopredator release demonstrated both theoretically and empirically in vertebrate assemblages with at least two trophic levels. Less is known about the consequences of species removal in more complex assemblages where a greater number of interacting invaders increases the potential for selective species removal to result in unexpected changes in community structure. Using a replicated Before-After Control-Impact field experiment with a four-species assemblage of invasive mammals we show that species interactions in the community are dominated by competition rather than predation. There was no measurable response of two mesopredators (rats and mice) following control of the top predator (stoats), but there was competitive release of rats following removal of a herbivore (possums), and competitive release of mice following removal of rats. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Does bipedality predict the group-level manual laterality in mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giljov, Andrey; Karenina, Karina; Malashichev, Yegor

    2012-01-01

    Factors determining patterns of laterality manifestation in mammals remain unclear. In primates, the upright posture favours the expression of manual laterality across species, but may have little influence within a species. Whether the bipedalism acts the same in non-primate mammals is unknown. Our recent findings in bipedal and quadrupedal marsupials suggested that differences in laterality pattern, as well as emergence of manual specialization in evolution might depend on species-specific body posture. Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that the postural characteristics are the key variable shaping the manual laterality expression across mammalian species. We studied forelimb preferences in a most bipedal marsupial, brush-tailed bettong, Bettongia penicillata in four different types of unimanual behavior. The significant left-forelimb preference at the group level was found in all behaviours studied. In unimanual feeding on non-living food, catching live prey and nest-material collecting, all or most subjects were lateralized, and among lateralized bettongs a significant majority displayed left-forelimb bias. Only in unimanual supporting of the body in the tripedal stance the distribution of lateralized and non-lateralized individuals did not differ from chance. Individual preferences were consistent across all types of behaviour. The direction or the strength of forelimb preferences were not affected by the animals' sex. Our findings support the hypothesis that the expression of manual laterality depends on the species-typical postural habit. The interspecies comparison illustrates that in marsupials the increase of bipedality corresponds with the increase of the degree of group-level forelimb preference in a species. Thus, bipedalism can predict pronounced manual laterality at both intra- and interspecific levels in mammals. We also conclude that quadrupedal position in biped species can slightly hinder the expression of manual laterality, but the evoked biped

  18. Evaluation of next generation sequencing for the analysis of Eimeria communities in wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Elke T; Lott, Matthew J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Power, Michelle L

    2016-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques are well-established for studying bacterial communities but not yet for microbial eukaryotes. Parasite communities remain poorly studied, due in part to the lack of reliable and accessible molecular methods to analyse eukaryotic communities. We aimed to develop and evaluate a methodology to analyse communities of the protozoan parasite Eimeria from populations of the Australian marsupial Petrogale penicillata (brush-tailed rock-wallaby) using NGS. An oocyst purification method for small sample sizes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the 18S rRNA locus targeting Eimeria was developed and optimised prior to sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A data analysis approach was developed by modifying methods from bacterial metagenomics and utilising existing Eimeria sequences in GenBank. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) assignment at a high similarity threshold (97%) was more accurate at assigning Eimeria contigs into Eimeria OTUs but at a lower threshold (95%) there was greater resolution between OTU consensus sequences. The assessment of two amplification PCR methods prior to Illumina MiSeq, single and nested PCR, determined that single PCR was more sensitive to Eimeria as more Eimeria OTUs were detected in single amplicons. We have developed a simple and cost-effective approach to a data analysis pipeline for community analysis of eukaryotic organisms using Eimeria communities as a model. The pipeline provides a basis for evaluation using other eukaryotic organisms and potential for diverse community analysis studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A new lineage of trypanosomes from Australian vertebrates and terrestrial bloodsucking leeches (Haemadipsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P B; Stevens, J R; Gidley, J; Holz, P; Gibson, W C

    2005-04-01

    Little is known about the trypanosomes of indigenous Australian vertebrates and their vectors. We surveyed a range of vertebrates and blood-feeding invertebrates for trypanosomes by parasitological and PCR-based methods using primers specific to the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of genus Trypanosoma. Trypanosome isolates were obtained in culture from two common wombats, one swamp wallaby and an Australian bird (Strepera sp.). By PCR, blood samples from three wombats, one brush-tailed wallaby, three platypuses and a frog were positive for trypanosome DNA. All the blood-sucking invertebrates screened were negative for trypanosomes both by microscopy and PCR, except for specimens of terrestrial leeches (Haemadipsidae). Of the latter, two Micobdella sp. specimens from Victoria and 18 Philaemon sp. specimens from Queensland were positive by PCR. Four Haemadipsa zeylanica specimens from Sri Lanka and three Leiobdella jawarerensis specimens from Papua New Guinea were also PCR positive for trypanosome DNA. We sequenced the SSU rRNA and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes in order to determine the phylogenetic positions of the new vertebrate and terrestrial leech trypanosomes. In trees based on these genes, Australian vertebrate trypanosomes fell in several distinct clades, for the most part being more closely related to trypanosomes outside Australia than to each other. Two previously undescribed wallaby trypanosomes fell in a clade with Trypanosoma theileri, the cosmopolitan bovid trypanosome, and Trypanosoma cyclops from a Malaysian primate. The terrestrial leech trypanosomes were closely related to the wallaby trypanosomes, T. cyclops and a trypanosome from an Australian frog. We suggest that haemadipsid leeches may be significant and widespread vectors of trypanosomes in Australia and Asia.

  20. Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E

    2013-06-01

    Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. © 2013 Society for Conservation

  1. Stress triangle: do introduced predators exert indirect costs on native predators and prey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Anson

    Full Text Available Non-consumptive effects of predators on each other and on prey populations often exceed the effects of direct predation. These effects can arise from fear responses elevating glucocorticoid (GC hormone levels (predator stress hypothesis or from increased vigilance that reduces foraging efficiency and body condition (predator sensitive foraging hypothesis; both responses can lead to immunosuppression and increased parasite loads. Non-consumptive effects of invasive predators have been little studied, even though their direct impacts on local species are usually greater than those of their native counterparts. To address this issue, we explored the non-consumptive effects of the invasive red fox Vulpes vulpes on two native species in eastern Australia: a reptilian predator, the lace monitor Varanus varius and a marsupial, the ringtail possum Pseudocheirus peregrinus. In particular, we tested predictions derived from the above two hypotheses by comparing the basal glucocorticoid levels, foraging behaviour, body condition and haemoparasite loads of both native species in areas with and without fox suppression. Lace monitors showed no GC response or differences in haemoparasite loads but were more likely to trade safety for higher food rewards, and had higher body condition, in areas of fox suppression than in areas where foxes remained abundant. In contrast, ringtails showed no physiological or behavioural differences between fox-suppressed and control areas. Predator sensitive foraging is a non-consumptive cost for lace monitors in the presence of the fox and most likely represents a response to competition. The ringtail's lack of response to the fox potentially represents complete naiveté or strong and rapid selection to the invasive predator. We suggest evolutionary responses are often overlooked in interactions between native and introduced species, but must be incorporated if we are to understand the suite of forces that shape community

  2. Improving outcomes of emergency bowel surgery using nela model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, R.; Zafar, H.

    2018-01-01

    To find outcomes of emergency bowel surgery and review the processes involved in the care of these patients on the same template used in National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA). Study Design:An audit. Place and Duration of Study:Surgery Department, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from December 2013 to November 2014. Methodology:Patients undergone emergency bowel surgery during the review period were included. Demographic data, type of admission, ASA grade, urgency of surgery, P-POSSUM score, indication of surgery, length of stay and outcome was recorded. Data was then compared with the data published by NELA team in their first report. P-value for categorical variables was calculated using Chi-square tests. Results:Although the patients were younger with nearly same spectrum of disease, the mortality rate was significantly more than reported in NELA (24% versus 11%, p=0.004). Comparison showed that care at AKUH was significantly lacking in terms of proper preoperative risk assessment and documentation, case booking to operating room timing, intraoperative goal directed fluid therapy using cardiac output monitoring, postoperative intensive care for highest risk patients and review of elderly patients by MCOP specialist. Conclusion:This study helped in understanding the deficiencies in the care of patients undergoing emergency bowel surgery and alarmingly poor outcomes in a very systematic manner. In view of results of this study, it is planned to do interventions in the deficient areas to improve care given to these patients and their outcomes with the limited resources of a developing country. (author)

  3. Aquatic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Because of the high reproduction rates of the plankton and good tidal mixing at existing plants, depletion of plankton populations has not occurred. Spawning occurs throughout the Bay for the species of fish present here, so local depletions are insufficient to decrease Bay populations. Impingement totals are small compared to mortality due to other sources. In addition, efforts to reduce these totals are now underway at all three existing plants, Calvert Cliffs, Morgantown, and Chalk Point. Habitat modification effects, usually more subtle in nature, have minor, localized impacts. Coupled together, the power plant monitoring studies show a low cumulative impact on the mesohaline environment. The major area of concern within this region is the impact of cooling water withdrawals upon the nursery and spawning areas of striped bass and other anadromous species. Possum Point and Vienna have the highest potential for impact. New facilities planned for this region (Douglas Point, Summit, and Vienna) would increase withdrawals. The overall impact upon striped bass due to entrainment drops from an estimated 6.6% entrainment (upper bound) of the eggs and larvae spawned in the Maryland portion of the Bay at present to an estimated 3.4% (upper bound) after 1987. The addition of Douglas Point and Summit is more than off-set by the retirements of the once-through cooling units at Vienna. No impingement data are available at any of the present plants; however, degraded water quality at the Baltimore and Washington plants appears to have severely restricted fish populations in these waters. The proposed plants are expected to have no major impacts in the areas of impingement or habitat modification due to the small amount of water withdrawn

  4. Final environmental statement related to the proposed construction of Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-448 and 50-449)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Potomac Electric Power Company for the construction of the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, located in Charles County, Maryland. The exhaust steam will be cooled via a closed-cycle mode incorporating natural-draft wet cooling towers. The water used in the cooling system will be obtained from the Potomac River. Construction-related activities on the site will convert about 290 acres of the 1390 acres of forested land at the Douglas Point site to industrial use. In addition to acreage at the site, approximately 4.5 miles of transmission corridor will require about 211 acres of land for rights-of-way. This corridor will connect with 27 miles of existing rights-of-way over which a line connecting Possum Point to Burches Hill has already been approved. The installation of new transmission line, uniquely identified with Douglas Point, along the existing right-of-way will involve approximately 464 additional acres. As described in the application, the maximum river water intake will be about 97,200 gpm. Of this, a maximum of about 28,000 gpm will be lost in drift or evaporation from the cooling towers. About 700 gpm maximum of fresh well water will be consumed. It is conservatively assumed that all aquatic organisms entrained in the service water system will be killed due to thermal and mechanical shock. It is further estimated that at 97,200 gpm maximum total river water intake, the maximum impact on the striped bass fishery will be a reduction of <5%. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure is very low. 32 figs., 59 tabs

  5. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospira Seropositivity in Beef Cattle, Sheep and Deer Farmers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J; Collins-Emerson, J M

    2017-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis that in New Zealand affects primarily people occupationally exposed to livestock. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of five Leptospira serovars in farmers working on cattle, sheep and deer farms that had the serological status of animals previously assessed and to identify risk factors for farmer seropositivity. A total of 178 farmers from 127 properties participated in the study. Blood samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira. Samples with a MAT titre ≥48 were considered seropositive. Using Bayesian statistical analysis, the median seroprevalence of Leptospira, all serovars combined, was estimated to be 6.6% (95% probability interval (PI) 3.6-10.9%). Risk factors associated with seropositivity were assisting deer or cattle calving, farming deer, having ≥25% of flat terrain and high abundance of wild deer on farm, while high possum abundance on farm was negatively associated with seropositivity. No association was observed between farmer serostatus and previously recorded livestock serology. Leptospira seropositivity was associated with influenza-like illness of farmers (RR = 1.7; 95% PI 1.0-2.5). Assuming a causal relationship, this suggested an annual risk of 1.3% (95% PI 0.0-3.0%) of influenza-like illnesses due to Leptospira infection in the population of farmers. The association between seropositivity and disease can be used to estimate the public health burden of leptospirosis in New Zealand. Identifying and understanding risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity can inform preventive measures, hence contributing to the reduction of leptospirosis incidence in farmers. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. The distribution of polarized radio sources >15 μJy IN GOODS-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, L.; Owen, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    We present deep Very Large Array observations of the polarization of radio sources in the GOODS-N field at 1.4 GHz at resolutions of 1.''6 and 10''. At 1.''6, we find that the peak flux cumulative number count distribution is N(> p) ∼ 45*(p/30 μJy) –0.6 per square degree above a detection threshold of 14.5 μJy. This represents a break from the steeper slopes at higher flux densities, resulting in fewer sources predicted for future surveys with the Square Kilometer Array and its precursors. It provides a significant challenge for using background rotation measures (RMs) to study clusters of galaxies or individual galaxies. Most of the polarized sources are well above our detection limit, and they are also radio galaxies that are well-resolved even at 10'', with redshifts from ∼0.2-1.9. We determined a total polarized flux for each source by integrating the 10'' polarized intensity maps, as will be done by upcoming surveys such as POSSUM. These total polarized fluxes are a factor of two higher, on average, than the peak polarized flux at 1.''6; this would increase the number counts by ∼50% at a fixed flux level. The detected sources have RMs with a characteristic rms scatter of ∼11 rad m –2 around the local Galactic value, after eliminating likely outliers. The median fractional polarization from all total intensity sources does not continue the trend of increasing at lower flux densities, as seen for stronger sources. The changes in the polarization characteristics seen at these low fluxes likely represent the increasing dominance of star-forming galaxies.

  7. Establishment of an open database of realistic simulated data for evaluation of partial volume correction techniques in brain PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Ana [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Cuplov, Vesna [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Schott, Jonathan; Hutton, Brian; Thielemans, Kris [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Drobnjak, Ivana [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Dickson, John [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Bert, Julien [INSERM UMR1101, LaTIM, CHRU de Brest, Brest (France); Burgos, Ninon; Cardoso, Jorge; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Erlandsson, Kjell [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    The Partial Volume (PV) effect in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging leads to loss in quantification accuracy, which manifests in PV effects (small objects occupy partially the sensitive volume of the imaging instrument, resulting in blurred images). Simultaneous acquisition of PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) produces concurrent metabolic and anatomical information. The latter has proved to be very helpful for the correction of PV effects. Currently, there are several techniques used for PV correction. They can be applied directly during the reconstruction process or as a post-processing step after image reconstruction. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the different PV correction techniques in brain- PET, we are constructing a database of simulated data. Here we present the framework and steps involved in constructing this database. Static 18F-FDG epilepsy and 18F-Florbetapir amyloid dementia PET/MR were selected because of their very different characteristics. The methodology followed was based on four main steps: Image pre-processing, Ground Truth (GT) generation, MRI and PET data simulation and reconstruction. All steps used Open Source software and can therefore be repeated at any centre. The framework as well as the database will be freely accessible. Tools used included GIF, FSL, POSSUM, GATE and STIR. The final data obtained after simulation, involving raw or reconstructed PET data together with corresponding MRI datasets, were close to the original patient data. Besides, there is the advantage that data can be compared with the GT. We indicate several parameters that can be improved and optimized.

  8. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain de Chambrier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes, a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new, including representatives from 54 genera (80% and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained

  9. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new), including representatives from 54 genera (80%) and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera) appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained unresolved and

  10. Common TDP1 Polymorphisms in Relation to Survival among Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: A Multicenter Study from the International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Sakoda, Lori C; Amos, Christopher I; Arnold, Susanne M; Christiani, David C; Davies, Michael P A; Field, John K; Haura, Eric B; Hung, Rayjean J; Kohno, Takashi; Landi, Maria Teresa; Liu, Geoffrey; Liu, Yi; Marcus, Michael W; O'Kane, Grainne M; Schabath, Matthew B; Shiraishi, Kouya; Slone, Stacey A; Tardón, Adonina; Yang, Ping; Yoshida, Kazushi; Zhang, Ruyang; Zong, Xuchen; Goodman, Gary E; Weiss, Noel S; Chen, Chu

    2017-12-15

    Purpose: DNA topoisomerase inhibitors are commonly used for treating small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP1) repairs DNA damage caused by this class of drugs and may therefore influence treatment outcome. In this study, we investigated whether common TDP1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are associated with overall survival among SCLC patients. Experimental Design: Two TDP1 SNPs (rs942190 and rs2401863) were analyzed in 890 patients from 10 studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate genotype associations with overall mortality at 36 months postdiagnosis, adjusting for age, sex, race, and tumor stage. Results: Patients homozygous for the minor allele (GG) of rs942190 had poorer survival compared with those carrying AA alleles, with a HR of 1.36 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.72, P = 0.01), but no association with survival was observed for patients carrying the AG genotype (HR = 1.04, 95% CI, 0.84-1.29, P = 0.72). For rs2401863, patients homozygous for the minor allele (CC) tended to have better survival than patients carrying AA alleles (HR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.02, P = 0.07). Results from the Genotype Tissue Expression (GTEx) Project, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), and the ePOSSUM web application support the potential function of rs942190. Conclusions: We found the rs942190 GG genotype to be associated with relatively poor survival among SCLC patients. Further investigation is needed to confirm the result and to determine whether this genotype may be a predictive marker for treatment efficacy of DNA topoisomerase inhibitors. Clin Cancer Res; 23(24); 7550-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Establishment of an open database of realistic simulated data for evaluation of partial volume correction techniques in brain PET/MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Ana; Cuplov, Vesna; Schott, Jonathan; Hutton, Brian; Thielemans, Kris; Drobnjak, Ivana; Dickson, John; Bert, Julien; Burgos, Ninon; Cardoso, Jorge; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien; Erlandsson, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    The Partial Volume (PV) effect in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging leads to loss in quantification accuracy, which manifests in PV effects (small objects occupy partially the sensitive volume of the imaging instrument, resulting in blurred images). Simultaneous acquisition of PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) produces concurrent metabolic and anatomical information. The latter has proved to be very helpful for the correction of PV effects. Currently, there are several techniques used for PV correction. They can be applied directly during the reconstruction process or as a post-processing step after image reconstruction. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the different PV correction techniques in brain- PET, we are constructing a database of simulated data. Here we present the framework and steps involved in constructing this database. Static 18F-FDG epilepsy and 18F-Florbetapir amyloid dementia PET/MR were selected because of their very different characteristics. The methodology followed was based on four main steps: Image pre-processing, Ground Truth (GT) generation, MRI and PET data simulation and reconstruction. All steps used Open Source software and can therefore be repeated at any centre. The framework as well as the database will be freely accessible. Tools used included GIF, FSL, POSSUM, GATE and STIR. The final data obtained after simulation, involving raw or reconstructed PET data together with corresponding MRI datasets, were close to the original patient data. Besides, there is the advantage that data can be compared with the GT. We indicate several parameters that can be improved and optimized.

  12. Mammals from ‘down under’: a multi-gene species-level phylogeny of marsupial mammals (Mammalia, Metatheria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. May-Collado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marsupials or metatherians are a group of mammals that are distinct in giving birth to young at early stages of development and in having a prolonged investment in lactation. The group consists of nearly 350 extant species, including kangaroos, koala, possums, and their relatives. Marsupials are an old lineage thought to have diverged from early therian mammals some 160 million years ago in the Jurassic, and have a remarkable evolutionary and biogeographical history, with extant species restricted to the Americas, mostly South America, and to Australasia. Although the group has been the subject of decades of phylogenetic research, the marsupial tree of life remains controversial, with most studies focusing on only a fraction of the species diversity within the infraclass. Here we present the first Methaterian species-level phylogeny to include 80% of the extant marsupial species and five nuclear and five mitochondrial markers obtained from Genbank and a recently published retroposon matrix. Our primary goal is to provide a summary phylogeny that will serve as a tool for comparative research. We evaluate the extent to which the phylogeny recovers current phylogenetic knowledge based on the recovery of “benchmark clades” from prior studies—unambiguously supported key clades and undisputed traditional taxonomic groups. The Bayesian phylogenetic analyses recovered nearly all benchmark clades but failed to find support for the suborder Phalagiformes. The most significant difference with previous published topologies is the support for Australidelphia as a group containing Microbiotheriidae, nested within American marsupials. However, a likelihood ratio test shows that alternative topologies with monophyletic Australidelphia and Ameridelphia are not significantly different than the preferred tree. Although further data are needed to solidify understanding of Methateria phylogeny, the new phylogenetic hypothesis provided here offers a well

  13. Transitions between Andean and Amazonian centers of endemism in the radiation of some arboreal rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The tropical Andes and Amazon are among the richest regions of endemism for mammals, and each has given rise to extensive in situ radiations. Various animal lineages have radiated ex situ after colonizing one of these regions from the other: Amazonian clades of dendrobatid frogs and passerine birds may have Andean ancestry, and transitions from the Amazon to Andes may be even more common. To examine biogeographic transitions between these regions, we investigated the evolutionary history of three clades of rodents in the family Echimyidae: bamboo rats (Dactylomys-Olallamys-Kannabateomys), spiny tree-rats (Mesomys-Lonchothrix), and brush-tailed rats (Isothrix). Each clade is distributed in both the Andes and Amazonia, and is more diverse in the lowlands. We used two mitochondrial (cyt-b and 12S) and three nuclear (GHR, vWF, and RAG1) markers to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships. Tree topologies and ancestral geographic ranges were then used to determine whether Andean forms were basal to or derived from lowland radiations. Results Four biogeographic transitions are identified among the generic radiations. The bamboo rat clade unambiguously originated in the Amazon ca. 9 Ma, followed by either one early transition to the Andes (Olallamys) and a later move to the Amazon (Dactylomys), or two later shifts to the Andes (one in each genus). The Andean species of both Dactylomys and Isothrix are sister to their lowland species, raising the possibility that highland forms colonized the Amazon Basin. However, uncertainty in their reconstructed ancestral ranges obscures the origin of these transitions. The lone Andean species of Mesomys is confidently nested within the lowland radiation, thereby indicating an Amazon-to-Andes transition ca. 2 Ma. Conclusions Differences in the timing of these biogeographic transitions do not appear to explain the different polarities of these trees. Instead, even within the radiation of a single family, both Andean and

  14. Comparative analysis of laparoscopic low rectal resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Chernikovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the immediate results of laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (ISR and ultralow anterior resection (ULAR of the rectum.Subjects and methods. The results of surgical treatment in 42 patients operated on in the Saint Petersburg Clinical Research-Practical Center for Specialized Medical (Oncology Cares in March 2014 to January 2015 are given. The inclusion criteria were the lower edge of cT1–3N0 adenocarcinoma 2-5 cm above the dentate line and no signs of invasion into the sphincter and levators. All the patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 24 patients who had undergone laparoscopic ISR; 2 18 patients who had laparoscopic ULAR. Both groups were matched for gender, age, body mass index, and CR-POSSUM predicted mortality scores. Thirty-two patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Results. The mean duration of operations did not differ significantly in the groups: 206 ± 46 and 216 ± 24 min (р = 0.72. The differences in the mean volume of blood loss were also insignificant: 85 and 113 ml (р = 0.93. Circular and distal resection margins were intact in all the cases. In 18 (75 % patients in Group 1 and in 14 (77.8 % patients in Group 2, the quality of total mesorectumectomy (TME was rated as grade 3 according to the Quirk criteria (p = 0.83. In Group 1, complications requiring no reoperation occurred in 5 (20.8 % cases: anastomotic incompetence in 3 (12.5 % cases, anastomotic stricture with further bougienage in 1 (4.2 %, and urinary retention in 1 (4.2 %. In Group 2, postoperative coтplications were also observed in 5 (27.8 % cases: necrosis of the brought-out bowel in 2 (11.1 % patients and coloanal incompetence in 1 (5.6 % required reoperation; 2 (11.1 % patients underwent bougienage due to established anastomotic stricture. One month postoperatively, the Wexner constipation scoring system was used to rate the degree of encopresis: anal incontinence turned out to be significantly higher in Group 2 and amounted

  15. RNAseq Analyses Identify Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Inflammation as a Major Abnormality in ALS Spinal Cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Brohawn

    Full Text Available ALS is a rapidly progressive, devastating neurodegenerative illness of adults that produces disabling weakness and spasticity arising from death of lower and upper motor neurons. No meaningful therapies exist to slow ALS progression, and molecular insights into pathogenesis and progression are sorely needed. In that context, we used high-depth, next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq, Illumina to define gene network abnormalities in RNA samples depleted of rRNA and isolated from cervical spinal cord sections of 7 ALS and 8 CTL samples. We aligned >50 million 2X150 bp paired-end sequences/sample to the hg19 human genome and applied three different algorithms (Cuffdiff2, DEseq2, EdgeR for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEG's. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA identified inflammatory processes as significantly elevated in our ALS samples, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF found to be a major pathway regulator (IPA and TNFα-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2 as a major network "hub" gene (WGCNA. Using the oPOSSUM algorithm, we analyzed transcription factors (TF controlling expression of the nine DEG/hub genes in the ALS samples and identified TF's involved in inflammation (NFkB, REL, NFkB1 and macrophage function (NR1H2::RXRA heterodimer. Transient expression in human iPSC-derived motor neurons of TNFAIP2 (also a DEG identified by all three algorithms reduced cell viability and induced caspase 3/7 activation. Using high-density RNAseq, multiple algorithms for DEG identification, and an unsupervised gene co-expression network approach, we identified significant elevation of inflammatory processes in ALS spinal cord with TNF as a major regulatory molecule. Overexpression of the DEG TNFAIP2 in human motor neurons, the population most vulnerable to die in ALS, increased cell death and caspase 3/7 activation. We propose that therapies targeted to reduce inflammatory TNFα signaling may be