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Sample records for brushtail possum trichosurus

  1. Predicting summer site occupancy for an invasive species, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in an urban environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Adams

    Full Text Available Invasive species are often favoured in fragmented, highly-modified, human-dominated landscapes such as urban areas. Because successful invasive urban adapters can occupy habitat that is quite different from that in their original range, effective management programmes for invasive species in urban areas require an understanding of distribution, habitat and resource requirements at a local scale that is tailored to the fine-scale heterogeneity typical of urban landscapes. The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula is one of New Zealand's most destructive invasive pest species. As brushtail possums traditionally occupy forest habitat, control in New Zealand has focussed on rural and forest habitats, and forest fragments in cities. However, as successful urban adapters, possums may be occupying a wider range of habitats. Here we use site occupancy methods to determine the distribution of brushtail possums across five distinguishable urban habitat types during summer, which is when possums have the greatest impacts on breeding birds. We collected data on possum presence/absence and habitat characteristics, including possible sources of supplementary food (fruit trees, vegetable gardens, compost heaps, and the availability of forest fragments from 150 survey locations. Predictive distribution models constructed using the programme PRESENCE revealed that while occupancy rates were highest in forest fragments, possums were still present across a large proportion of residential habitat with occupancy decreasing as housing density increased and green cover decreased. The presence of supplementary food sources was important in predicting possum occupancy, which may reflect the high nutritional value of these food types. Additionally, occupancy decreased as the proportion of forest fragment decreased, indicating the importance of forest fragments in determining possum distribution. Control operations to protect native birds from possum predation in

  2. Predicting summer site occupancy for an invasive species, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Amy L; Dickinson, Katharine J M; Robertson, Bruce C; van Heezik, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are often favoured in fragmented, highly-modified, human-dominated landscapes such as urban areas. Because successful invasive urban adapters can occupy habitat that is quite different from that in their original range, effective management programmes for invasive species in urban areas require an understanding of distribution, habitat and resource requirements at a local scale that is tailored to the fine-scale heterogeneity typical of urban landscapes. The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is one of New Zealand's most destructive invasive pest species. As brushtail possums traditionally occupy forest habitat, control in New Zealand has focussed on rural and forest habitats, and forest fragments in cities. However, as successful urban adapters, possums may be occupying a wider range of habitats. Here we use site occupancy methods to determine the distribution of brushtail possums across five distinguishable urban habitat types during summer, which is when possums have the greatest impacts on breeding birds. We collected data on possum presence/absence and habitat characteristics, including possible sources of supplementary food (fruit trees, vegetable gardens, compost heaps), and the availability of forest fragments from 150 survey locations. Predictive distribution models constructed using the programme PRESENCE revealed that while occupancy rates were highest in forest fragments, possums were still present across a large proportion of residential habitat with occupancy decreasing as housing density increased and green cover decreased. The presence of supplementary food sources was important in predicting possum occupancy, which may reflect the high nutritional value of these food types. Additionally, occupancy decreased as the proportion of forest fragment decreased, indicating the importance of forest fragments in determining possum distribution. Control operations to protect native birds from possum predation in cities should

  3. Immunocontraception of Eastern Grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) with recombinant brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) ZP3 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Anne L; Harman, Amanda; Kay, David J; McCartney, Carmen A; Mate, Karen E; Rodger, John C

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the potential of a recombinant marsupial zona pellucida 3 protein as a contraceptive vaccine for the Eastern Grey kangaroo, a marsupial that is locally overabundant in several regions of eastern Australia. First, a pilot study using porcine zona pellucidae (PZP) demonstrated that ZP proteins, primarily the ZP3 component of PZP, are highly immunogenic in the grey kangaroo and produce a long-lasting humoral response to a single immunisation, as found in other marsupials. Immunisation with 300 microg of a non-glycosylated recombinant brushtail possum ZP3 (recBP-ZP3) protein in complete Freund's adjuvant produced a similar, significant and sustained antibody response, and none of the immunised kangaroos (n=7) produced offspring during the following breeding season compared with four out of the six control animals. An epitope analysis of the B-cell response to recBP-ZP3 using a brushtail possum ZP3 identified numerous B-cell epitope regions clustered around the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. Two regions of interest for further fertility vaccine development based on their immunogenicity and fertility trials and functional studies in other species were found to be immunogenic. These results suggest that immunocontraception based on targeting the ZP3 protein within the zona pellucida may be an effective strategy for fertility reduction in Eastern Grey kangaroos.

  4. Triacylglycerol estolides, a new class of mammalian lipids, in the paracloacal gland of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Stuart; Davies, Noel W; Nichols, David S; Mcleod, Bernie J

    2015-06-01

    The paracloacal glands are the most prevalent scent glands in marsupials, and previous investigation of their secretions in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) has identified many odorous compounds together with large amounts of neutral lipids. We have examined the lipids by LC-MS, generating ammonium adducts of acylglycerols by electrospray ionisation. Chromatograms showed a complex mixture of coeluting acylglycerols, with m/z from about 404 to 1048. Plots of single [M + NH4](+) ions showed three groups of lipids clearly separated by retention time. MS-MS enabled triacylglycerols and diacylglycerol ethers to be identified from neutral losses and formation of diacylglycerols and other product ions. The earliest-eluting lipids were found to be triacylglycerol estolides, in which a fourth fatty acid forms an ester link with a hydroxy fatty acid attached to the glycerol chain. This is the first report of triacylglycerol estolides in animals. They form a complex mixture with the triacylglycerols and diacylglycerol ethers of lipids with short- and long-chain fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation. This complexity suggests a functional role, possibly in social communication.

  5. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Byrom

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula. Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted <10 days. Dispersing possums settled predominantly in river valleys. A simulation model was developed for the 3-6-month dispersal season; it demonstrated a probability of <0.001 that an infected possum, originating from a low-density population with low disease prevalence in untreated forest, would move across 3 km of recently controlled forest buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  6. Cost-Effective Large-Scale Occupancy-Abundance Monitoring of Invasive Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus Vulpecula on New Zealand's Public Conservation Land.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Gormley

    Full Text Available There is interest in large-scale and unbiased monitoring of biodiversity status and trend, but there are few published examples of such monitoring being implemented. The New Zealand Department of Conservation is implementing a monitoring program that involves sampling selected biota at the vertices of an 8-km grid superimposed over the 8.6 million hectares of public conservation land that it manages. The introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus Vulpecula is a major threat to some biota and is one taxon that they wish to monitor and report on. A pilot study revealed that the traditional method of monitoring possums using leg-hold traps set for two nights, termed the Trap Catch Index, was a constraint on the cost and logistical feasibility of the monitoring program. A phased implementation of the monitoring program was therefore conducted to collect data for evaluating the trade-off between possum occupancy-abundance estimates and the costs of sampling for one night rather than two nights. Reducing trapping effort from two nights to one night along four trap-lines reduced the estimated costs of monitoring by 5.8% due to savings in labour, food and allowances; it had a negligible effect on estimated national possum occupancy but resulted in slightly higher and less precise estimates of relative possum abundance. Monitoring possums for one night rather than two nights would provide an annual saving of NZ$72,400, with 271 fewer field days required for sampling. Possums occupied 60% (95% credible interval; 53-68 of sampling locations on New Zealand's public conservation land, with a mean relative abundance (Trap Catch Index of 2.7% (2.0-3.5. Possum occupancy and abundance were higher in forest than in non-forest habitats. Our case study illustrates the need to evaluate relationships between sampling design, cost, and occupancy-abundance estimates when designing and implementing large-scale occupancy-abundance monitoring programs.

  7. Cost-Effective Large-Scale Occupancy–Abundance Monitoring of Invasive Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus Vulpecula) on New Zealand’s Public Conservation Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Andrew M.; Forsyth, David M.; Wright, Elaine F.; Lyall, John; Elliott, Mike; Martini, Mark; Kappers, Benno; Perry, Mike; McKay, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    There is interest in large-scale and unbiased monitoring of biodiversity status and trend, but there are few published examples of such monitoring being implemented. The New Zealand Department of Conservation is implementing a monitoring program that involves sampling selected biota at the vertices of an 8-km grid superimposed over the 8.6 million hectares of public conservation land that it manages. The introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus Vulpecula) is a major threat to some biota and is one taxon that they wish to monitor and report on. A pilot study revealed that the traditional method of monitoring possums using leg-hold traps set for two nights, termed the Trap Catch Index, was a constraint on the cost and logistical feasibility of the monitoring program. A phased implementation of the monitoring program was therefore conducted to collect data for evaluating the trade-off between possum occupancy–abundance estimates and the costs of sampling for one night rather than two nights. Reducing trapping effort from two nights to one night along four trap-lines reduced the estimated costs of monitoring by 5.8% due to savings in labour, food and allowances; it had a negligible effect on estimated national possum occupancy but resulted in slightly higher and less precise estimates of relative possum abundance. Monitoring possums for one night rather than two nights would provide an annual saving of NZ$72,400, with 271 fewer field days required for sampling. Possums occupied 60% (95% credible interval; 53–68) of sampling locations on New Zealand’s public conservation land, with a mean relative abundance (Trap Catch Index) of 2.7% (2.0–3.5). Possum occupancy and abundance were higher in forest than in non-forest habitats. Our case study illustrates the need to evaluate relationships between sampling design, cost, and occupancy–abundance estimates when designing and implementing large-scale occupancy–abundance monitoring programs. PMID:26029890

  8. In vitro hepatic microsomal metabolism of meloxicam in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), rats (Rattus norvegicus) and dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, B; Li, K M; Valtchev, P; Higgins, D P; Krockenberger, M B; Govendir, M

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative and qualitative aspects of in vitro metabolism of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam, mediated via hepatic microsomes of specialized foliage (Eucalyptus) eating marsupials (koalas and ringtail possums), a generalized foliage eating marsupial (brushtail possum), rats, and dogs, are described. Using a substrate depletion method, intrinsic hepatic clearance (in vitro Clint) was determined. Significantly, rates of oxidative transformation of meloxicam, likely mediated via cytochromes P450 (CYP), were higher in marsupials compared to rats or dogs. The rank order of apparent in vitro Clint was brushtail possums (n=3) (mean: 394μL/min/mg protein), >koalas (n=6) (50), >ringtail possums (n=2) (36) (with no significant difference between koalas and ringtail possums), >pooled rats (3.2)>pooled dogs (in which the rate of depletion, as calculated by the ratio of the substrate remaining was meloxicam, at a first-order rate constant, 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite (M1) was identified in the brushtail possums and the rat as the major metabolite. However, multiple hydroxyl metabolites were observed in the koala (M1, M2, and M3) and the ringtail possum (M1 and M3) indicating that these specialized foliage-eating marsupials have diverse oxidation capacity to metabolize meloxicam. Using a well-stirred model, the apparent in vitro Clint of meloxicam for koalas and the rat was further scaled to compare with published in vivo Cl. The closest in vivo Cl prediction from in vitro data of koalas was demonstrated with scaled hepatic Cl(total) (average fold error=1.9) excluding unbound fractions in the blood and microsome values; whereas for rats, the in-vitro scaled hepatic Cl fu(blood, mic), corrected with unbound fractions in the blood and microsome values, provided the best prediction (fold error=1.86). This study indicates that eutherians such as rats or dogs serve as inadequate models for dosage extrapolation of this drug to marsupials due to differences in

  9. Characterization of the hemoglobins of the neonatal brushtailed possum Trichosurus vulpecula (Kerr): evidence for a highly cooperative, aggregated isoform of hemoglobin.

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    Henty, Kristen; Wells, Rufus M G; Brittain, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    The red blood cells of the neonatal brushtailed possum exhibit unusually strong cooperativity at high levels of oxygen saturation (n=5.4) which appear to arise from a concentration dependent aggregation of one of the neonatal hemoglobin isoforms. Red blood cells from neonatal pouched young exhibit a Bohr factor of -0.36. Stripped hemolysate is sensitive to added 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) (apparent binding constant K=35 micromol L(-1)) and ATP (K=180 micromol L(-1)), but is largely insensitive towards chloride ions. Five isoforms of non-adult hemoglobin were identified using isoelectric focusing. Mass spectrometry indicated that two early isoforms contain alpha chains identical to the adult alpha chain. The remaining three isoforms are composed of identical alpha type and beta type gene products, but differ in their isoelectric points due to differential post-translational modification.

  10. Clinical, microbiological and pathological findings of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in three Australian Possum species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn R O'Brien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, with endemicity predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The mode of transmission and the environmental reservoir(s of the bacterium and remain elusive. Real-time PCR investigations have detected M. ulcerans DNA in a variety of Australian environmental samples, including the faeces of native possums with and without clinical evidence of infection. This report seeks to expand on previously published findings by the authors' investigative group with regards to clinical and subclinical disease in selected wild possum species in BU-endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-seven clinical cases of M. ulcerans infection in free-ranging possums from southeastern Australia were identified retrospectively and prospectively between 1998-2011. Common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus, a common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula and a mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami were included in the clinically affected cohort. Most clinically apparent cases were adults with solitary or multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions, generally confined to the face, limbs and/or tail. The disease was minor and self-limiting in the case of both Trichosurus spp. possums. In contrast, many of the common ringtail possums had cutaneous disease involving disparate anatomical sites, and in four cases there was evidence of systemic disease at post mortem examination. Where tested using real-time PCR targeted at IS2404, animals typically had significant levels of M. ulcerans DNA throughout the gut and/or faeces. A further 12 possums without cutaneous lesions were found to have PCR-positive gut contents and/or faeces (subclinical cases, and in one of these the organism was cultured from liver tissue. Comparisons were made between clinically and subclinically affected possums, and 61 PCR-negative, non-affected individuals

  11. Abdominal muscle and epipubic bone function during locomotion in Australian possums: insights to basal mammalian conditions and Eutherian-like tendencies in Trichosurus.

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    Reilly, Stephen M; McElroy, Eric J; White, Thomas D; Biknevicius, Audrone R; Bennett, Michael B

    2010-04-01

    Mammals have four hypaxial muscle layers that wrap around the abdomen between the pelvis, ribcage, and spine. However, the marsupials have epipubic bones extending anteriorly into the ventral hypaxial layers with two additional muscles extending to the ventral midline and femur. Comparisons of South American marsupials to basal eutherians have shown that all of the abdominal hypaxials are active bilaterally in resting ventilation. However, during locomotion marsupials employ an asymmetrical pattern of activity as the hypaxial muscles form a crosscouplet linkage that uses the epipubic bone as a lever to provide long-axis support of the body between diagonal limb couplets during each step. In basal eutherians, this system shifts off the femur and epipubic bones (which are lost) resulting in a shoulder to pelvis linkage associated with shifts in both the positions and activity patterns of the pectineus and rectus abdominis muscles during locomotion. In this study, we present data on hypaxial function in two species (Pseudocheirus peregrinus and Trichosurus vulpecula) representing the two major radiations of possums in Australia: the Pseudocheiridae (within the Petauroidea) and the Phalangeridae. Patterns of gait, motor activity, and morphology in these two Australian species were compared with previous work to examine the generality of 1) the crosscouplet lever system as the basal condition for the Marsupialia and 2) several traits hypothesized to be common to all mammals (hypaxial tonus during resting ventilation, ventilation to step synchrony during locomotion, and bilateral transversus abdominis activity during locomotor expiration). Our results validate the presence of the crosscouplet pattern and basic epipubic bone lever system in Australian possums and confirm the generality of basal mammalian patterns. However, several novelties discovered in Trichosurus, reveal that it exhibits an evolutionary transition to intermediate eutherian-like morphological and motor

  12. Characterization of flow and mixing regimes within the ileum of the brushtail possum using residence time distribution analysis with simultaneous spatio-temporal mapping.

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    Janssen, P W M; Lentle, R G; Asvarujanon, P; Chambers, P; Stafford, K J; Hemar, Y

    2007-08-01

    We studied the flow and mixing regimes in isolated segments of the terminal ileum of brushtail possums during spontaneous circumferential and longitudinal contractions under conditions that allowed backflow and compared them with those of inactive segments. Residence time distributions (RTDs) were determined by perfusion with two probes of different rheological properties to which an inert dye marker was added. Ileal segment volume and oscillatory flow during the period of RTD determination were derived from spatiotemporal maps. High viscosity guar gum solution generated RTDs characteristic of laminar flow in inactive ileal segments which confirmed that no slip was occurring at the mucosal layer. In active segments, motility and consequent oscillatory flow imparted significant additional axial dispersion to the flow patterns of both probes. Mixing occurred episodically during periods when intestinal volume was reduced and onflow was augmented by peristalsis, which may prevent the establishment of steady state conditions. Marker concentration rose more steeply when active ileal segments were being perfused with a probe of similar viscosity to normal digesta than with low viscosity Earle's/Hepes solution, each being subject to similar levels of oscillatory flow. This indicated that a coarser mixing regime prevailed and that absorption of nutrients from viscous digesta would rely to a greater degree on molecular diffusion.

  13. The consequences of introducing non-indigenous species: two case studies, the grey squirrel in Europe and the brushtail possum in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, C; Cown, P; Bertolino, S; Lurz, P W W; Peters, A R

    2010-08-01

    Two examples of the introduction of non-indigenous invasive species are reviewed: the grey squirrel in Europe (United Kingdom, Ireland and Italy) and the brushtail possum in New Zealand. Both have become very successful in their respective non-native habitats since their introductions in the mid-to-late 19th Century. Both species impact extensively on native biodiversity, environmental sustainability, forestry, and agriculture through a range of direct and indirect mechanisms. Management is currently mainly by lethal control, namely poisoning, trapping and shooting. Such methods of control are, however, increasingly contentious for both species, and alternative, non-lethal methods of population control, e.g. fertility control, are being developed. The case studies highlight many of the issues in invasive animal control; for example, prevention being better than control, lack of good understanding of impacts and the success of control measures on reducing impacts, interactive impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystems, the telling influence of public opinion on management options and, lastly, the need to better inform and educate the public.

  14. Evaluation of the POSSUM, p-POSSUM, o-POSSUM, and APACHE II scoring systems in predicting postoperative mortality and morbidity in gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikai Hong

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The POSSUM scoring system performed well with respect to predicting morbidity risk following gastric cancer resection. For predicting postoperative mortality, p-POSSUM and o-POSSUM exhibited superior performance relative to POSSUM and APACHE II.

  15. The Ambiguous Voices of Possum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2016-01-01

    A categorization of the levels of the soundtrack will provide the foundation for analytical notions on how the soundtrack of Possum challenges the recipient by operating in a field between diegetic and nondiegetic, realistic and supernatural, and human and animal sounds.......A categorization of the levels of the soundtrack will provide the foundation for analytical notions on how the soundtrack of Possum challenges the recipient by operating in a field between diegetic and nondiegetic, realistic and supernatural, and human and animal sounds....

  16. Evaluation of POSSUM and P-POSSUM as predictors of mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-28

    Jan 28, 2010 ... In order to standardize surgical audit proce- dures, a number of scoring systems have been developed for the comparison of case mixes. Evaluation of POSSUM and P-POSSUM as predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing laparotomy at a referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Background.

  17. Evaluation of POSSUM and P-POSSUM as predictors of mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The Physiological and Operative Severity Score for enUmeration of Morbidity and Mortality (POSSUM) and its Portsmouth modification (P-POSSUM) were developed for comparative audit in surgical patients. This study evaluated applicability of these systems in estimating mortality and morbidity risks in a cohort ...

  18. Evaluation of the POSSUM, p-POSSUM, o-POSSUM, and APACHE II scoring systems in predicting postoperative mortality and morbidity in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shikai; Wang, Shengying; Xu, Guozeng; Liu, JinLu

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most prevalent cancer worldwide. The ability to accurately predict surgery-related morbidity and mortality is critical in deciding both the timing of surgery and choice of surgical procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the POSSUM, p-POSSUM, o-POSSUM, and APACHE II scoring systems for predicting surgical morbidity and mortality in Chinese gastric cancer patients, as well as to create new scoring systems to achieve better prediction. Data from 612 gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy between January 2007 and December 2011 were included in this study. The predictive abilities of the four scoring systems were compared by examining observed-to-expected (O/E) ratios, the receiver operating characteristic curve, Student t test, and χ2 test results. The observed complication rate of 34% (n = 208) did not differ significantly from the rate of 36.6% (n = 208) predicted by the POSSUM scoring system (O/E ratio = 0.93). The observed mortality rate was 2.9% (n = 18). For predicting mortality, POSSUM had an O/E ratio of 0.34 as compared with p-POSSUM (O/E ratio = 0.91), o-POSSUM (O/E ratio = 1.26), and APACHE II (O/E ratio = 0.28). The POSSUM scoring system performed well with respect to predicting morbidity risk following gastric cancer resection. For predicting postoperative mortality, p-POSSUM and o-POSSUM exhibited superior performance relative to POSSUM and APACHE II. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  19. POSSUM scoring system in patients undergoing laparotomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Consecutive patients, who underwent a Laparotomy in the three surgical wards in Mulago Hospital, were scored using POSSUM system. For each patient the predicted risk of mortality and morbidity was calculated from POSSUM equation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the ...

  20. Validation of the use of POSSUM score in enteric perforation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The objective of the study was to present our last 5-years experience of peritonitis and validate POSSUM score in predicting mortality and morbidity in patients of enteric perforation (EP) peritonitis. Methods: Data was collected prospectively for all peritonitis cases admitted in single surgical unit from January ...

  1. Perioperative mortality and morbidity prediction using POSSUM, P-POSSUM and APACHE II in Chinese gastric cancer patients: surgical method is a key independent factor affecting prognosis.

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    Fang, Yantian; Wu, Chunhsien; Gu, Xiaodong; Li, Zhengyang; Xiang, Jianbin; Chen, Zongyou

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. Predicting morbidity and mortality is important in deciding timing of surgery and type of surgery offered. APACHE II, POSSUM, and P-POSSUM are the most reliable scoring methods in use today. This is the first paper to evaluate the utility of all three scoring systems in China. We collected data on 851 patients (583 male and 268 female) who underwent surgery between 1991 and 2011. Physiological and pathological data was entered in spreadsheet format and analyzed using STATA version 11.0 to generate ROC curves for each scoring system. In predicting mortality, P-POSSUM and POSSUM were most effective and APACHE II was ineffective. POSSUM predicted a higher morbidity risk than was actually encountered. Age and type of operation were found to be independent risk factors for mortality. The utility of the APACHE II score in gastric cancer patients is limited. APACHE II is suitable for considering group versus individual effect. The POSSUM score is useful in general surgery, but needs improvement. We found the P-POSSUM score to be superior for morbidity and mortality prediction. P-POSSUM is useful for both the general population and for a specific cohort. The type of surgery is a key decision point for surgeons, and independently affects prognosis. Based upon these findings and clinical scoring systems, clinicians can develop individualized treatment algorithms.

  2. Plasmodium infection in a Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T F; McLaren, P J; Tatarczuch, L; Slocombe, R F

    2016-08-01

    A wild-caught, adult female Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) died while in captivity after suffering from chronic ill-thrift that progressed to acute respiratory distress. On histopathological examination of tissues, the cause of death was determined to be severe acute pneumonia with pulmonary oedema associated with an intracellular protozoan parasite present within erythrocytes. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on lung tissues and organisms consistent for Plasmodium sp. were identified within numerous erythrocytes. Molecular characterisation of the parasite from DNA extracted from tissue blocks of fixed lung determined the organism to belong to the genus Plasmodium (100% similarity to Plasmodium species when a BLAST analysis was performed); however, speciation of the organism was not possible. This is the first report of Plasmodium sp. infection and subsequent disease in a native Australian mammal. The lifecycle of this parasite remains unknown. It is also unknown what effects haemoparasitism may have on the population dynamics of this endangered possum species. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Quantifying short-term foraging movements in a marsupial pest to improve targeted lethal control and disease surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor J Yockney

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, the introduced marsupial brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula is a pest species subject to control measures, primarily to limit its ability to transmit bovine tuberculosis (TB to livestock and for conservation protection. To better define parameters for targeted possum control and TB surveillance, we here applied a novel approach to analyzing GPS data obtained from 44 possums fitted with radio-tracking collars, producing estimates of the animals' short-term nocturnal foraging patterns based on 1-, 3- or 5-nights' contiguous data. Studies were conducted within two semi-arid montane regions of New Zealand's South Island High Country: these regions support low-density possum populations ( 3 consecutive nights at 150 m interval spacings, would likely place >95% of the possums in this type of habitat at risk of encountering these devices, year-round. Modelling control efficacy against operational expenditure, based on these estimations, identified the relative cost-effectiveness of various strategies that could be applied to a typical aerial poisoning operation, to reduce the ongoing TB vectorial risk that possums pose in the High Country regions. These habitat-specific findings are likely to be more relevant than the conventional pest control and monitoring methodologies developed for possums in their more typical forested habitat.

  4. O-POSSUM score predicts morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay-Domínguez, Elena; Lajara-Marco, Francisco; Bernáldez-Silvetti, Pablo Federico; Veracruz-Gálvez, Eva María; Muela-Pérez, Beatriz; Palazón-Banegas, Miguel Ángel; Salinas-Gilabert, José Eduardo; Lozano-Requena, Juan Antonio

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the O-POSSUM score capacity to predict the morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients older than 65years old, operated on for hip fractures between January 2012 and December 2013. Of 229 patients, the mean age was 82.3years and 170 were women. We collected comorbidities, type of surgery, and expected morbidity and mortality O-POSSUM values. After a minimum follow up of one year, 38 deaths were reported and 77 patients had complications. The expected mortality according to the O-POSSUM was 35 patients and expected morbidity 132. By comparing the observed results with those predicted, the O-POSSUM scale is reliable in predicting mortality and overestimates morbidity. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. APACHE II, POSSUM, and ASA scores and the risk of perioperative complications in patients with colorectal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Nicola; Di Fabio, Francesco; Pata, Giacomo; Nascimbeni, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the role of the ASA, POSSUM and APACHE II score systems for predicting the complications in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal diseases. We retrospectively analyzed 539 patients undergoing colorectal surgery between January 1996 and December 2006. The accuracy of ASA, POSSUM and APACHE II score systems for predicting perioperative complications has been analysed. Total postoperative morbidity was 15%, overall perioperative mortality was 1.5%. APACHE II and POSSUM predicted with the same accuracy the perioperative complications (0.65 and 0.68, respectively), while ASA score system revealed a poorer predicting accuracy (0.56). POSSUM predicted death rate more accurately compared to the APACHE II classification (1.6% vs. 10.4%). APACHE II and POSSUM score systems may be useful tools helping surgeons to identify patient groups at high risk for complications. The ASA classification resulted less accurate, probably because related to the anesthesiologist's knowledge.

  6. Parasites of the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tamsin S; Goldizen, Anne W; Morton, John M; Coleman, Glen T

    2010-01-01

    The brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata) is listed as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Parasitic diseases have been proposed as possible contributing factors to the decline of the species, but very little is known about the effects of parasites on this host. This study determined the antibody prevalence of the protist Toxoplasma gondii in a wild brush-tailed rock-wallaby population from three neighboring colonies in southeast Queensland, Australia. Fecal egg and oocyst count, tick count, severity of skin rash, and presence of lice and microfilariae were also monitored during four or five trapping periods over 1 yr. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 5% of animals (3/64). Fecal egg and oocyst counts were highly variable, but fecal egg counts were lower in subadult animals relative to adults. Neither fecal egg count nor oocyst count was associated with variation in blood variables or condition index, but a negative association between fecal egg count and oocyst count was observed. Microfilariae (Breinlia spelaea), lice (Heterodoxus octoseriatus), and skin lesions were seen more frequently during the November trapping period. A mite, Thadeua sp., was more likely to be detected in these skin lesions than in skin of unaffected wallabies. Tick (Ixodes holocyclus and Haemaphysalis bancrofti) counts also varied between trapping periods and were lowest in the April/May trapping period. This study provides the most detailed account to date of parasite burdens in a vulnerable macropodid, but no clear evidence emerged linking parasites to adverse impact on the host.

  7. A Major Role for Mammals in the Ecology of Mycobacterium ulcerans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Legione, Alistair R.; O'Brien, Carolyn R.; Stinear, Timothy P.; Pidot, Sacha J.; Seemann, Torsten; Benbow, M. Eric; Wallace, John R.; McCowan, Christina; Johnson, Paul D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU), a destructive skin disease found predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The precise mode(s) of transmission and environmental reservoir(s) remain unknown, but several studies have explored the role of aquatic invertebrate species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental distribution of M. ulcerans in south-eastern Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings A range of environmental samples was collected from Point Lonsdale (a small coastal town southwest of Melbourne, Australia, endemic for BU) and from areas with fewer or no reported incident cases of BU. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA was detected at low levels by real-time PCR in soil, sediment, water residue, aquatic plant biofilm and terrestrial vegetation collected in Point Lonsdale. Higher levels of M. ulcerans DNA were detected in the faeces of common ringtail (Pseudocheirus peregrinus) and common brushtail (Trichosurus vulpecula) possums. Systematic testing of possum faeces revealed that M. ulcerans DNA could be detected in 41% of faecal samples collected in Point Lonsdale compared with less than 1% of faecal samples collected from non-endemic areas (p<0.0001). Capture and clinical examination of live possums in Point Lonsdale validated the accuracy of the predictive value of the faecal surveys by revealing that 38% of ringtail possums and 24% of brushtail possums had laboratory-confirmed M. ulcerans skin lesions and/or M. ulcerans PCR positive faeces. Whole genome sequencing revealed an extremely close genetic relationship between human and possum M. ulcerans isolates. Conclusions/Significance The prevailing wisdom is that M. ulcerans is an aquatic pathogen and that BU is acquired by contact with certain aquatic environments (swamps, slow-flowing water). Now, after 70 years of research, we propose a transmission model for BU in which terrestrial mammals are implicated as reservoirs for

  8. Managing and eradicating wildlife tuberculosis in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, B; Livingstone, P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5–10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in

  9. P-POSSUM - Preditor de mortalidade e morbilidade em cistectomias radicais?

    OpenAIRE

    Calixto, L.; Areias, A; Amadeu, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A predição do risco pré-operatório pode ser um dado útil na tomada da decisão cirúrgica. O P-POSSUM (Portsmouth POSSUM - Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity) é um sistema baseado em variáveis fisiológicas e cirúrgicas, validado para cirurgia geral, que estima a mortalidade e morbilidade de cada doente aos 30 dias após a cirurgia (1). Em grandes séries de doentes submetidos a cistectomia radical estão descritas taxas de 2,5 e 28...

  10. Family-level relationships among the Australasian marsupial "herbivores" (Diprotodontia: Koala, wombats, kangaroos and possums).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew J; Pratt, Renae C

    2008-02-01

    The marsupial order Diprotodontia includes 10 extant families, which occupy all terrestrial habitats across Australia and New Guinea and have evolved remarkable dietary and locomotory diversity. Despite considerable attention, the interrelations of these families have for the most part remained elusive. In this study, we separately model mitochondrial RNA and protein-coding sequences in addition to nuclear protein-coding sequences to provide near-complete resolution of diprotodontian family-level phylogeny. We show that alternative topologies inferred in some previous studies are likely to be artifactual, resulting from branch-length and compositional biases. Subordinal groupings resolved herein include Vombatiformes (wombats and koala) and Phalangerida, which in turn comprises Petauroidea (petaurid gliders and striped, feathertail, ringtail and honey possums) and a clade whose plesiomorphic members possess blade-like premolars (phalangerid possums, kangaroos and their allies and most likely, pygmy possums). The topology resolved reveals ecological niche structuring among diprotodontians that has likely been maintained for more than 40 million years.

  11. Diversity of Cryptosporidium in brush-tailed rock-wallabies (Petrogale penicillata managed within a species recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke T. Vermeulen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Host–parasite relationships are likely to be impacted by conservation management practices, potentially increasing the susceptibility of wildlife to emerging disease. Cryptosporidium, a parasitic protozoan genus comprising host-adapted and host-specific species, was used as an indicator of parasite movement between populations of a threatened marsupial, the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata. PCR screening of faecal samples (n = 324 from seven wallaby populations across New South Wales, identified Cryptosporidium in 7.1% of samples. The sampled populations were characterised as captive, supplemented and wild populations. No significant difference was found in Cryptosporidium detection between each of the three population categories. The positive samples, detected using 18S rRNA screening, were amplified using the actin and gp60 loci. Multi-locus sequence analysis revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium fayeri, a marsupial-specific species, and C. meleagridis, which has a broad host range, in samples from the three population categories. Cryptosporidium meleagridis has not been previously reported in marsupials and hence the pathogenicity of this species to brush-tailed rock-wallabies is unknown. Based on these findings, we recommend further study into Cryptosporidium in animals undergoing conservation management, as well as surveying wild animals in release areas, to further understand the diversity and epidemiology of this parasite in threatened wildlife.

  12. Le POSSUM : un bon score pour prédire la mortalité du sujet âgé ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le but de notre étude est une validation du POSSUM chez le sujet âgé (>70 ans) opéré pour une urgence digestive. Nous nous proposons d'étudier les meilleurs seuils du POSSUM, composé d'un score physiologique et d'un score opératoire, pour prédire la mortalité dans cette population. Méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude ...

  13. [Value of PUSSOM and P-POSSUM for the prediction of surgical operative risk in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingtai; Chu, Yunmian; Che, Xu; Lan, Zhongmin; Zhang, Jianwei; Wang, Chengfeng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the value of Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) and a modification of the POSSUM system (P-P0SSUM) scoring system in predicting the surgical operative risk of pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary tumors. POSSUM and P-POSSUM scoring systems were used to retrospectively evaluate the clinical data of 432 patients with periampullar tumors who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy in the Department of Abdominal Surgery, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 1985 to December 2010. The predictive occurrence of postoperative complications and mortality rate were calculated according to the formula. ROC curve analysis and different group of risk factors were used to determine the discrimination ability of the two score systems, and to determine their predictive efficacy by comparing the actual and predictive complications and mortality rates, using Hosmer-Lemeshow test to determine the goodness of fit of the two scoring systems. The average physiological score of the 432 patients was 16.1 ± 3.5, and the average surgical severity score was 19.6 ± 2.7. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under ROC curve for mortality predicted by POSSUM and P-POSSUM were 0.893 and 0.888, showing a non-significant difference (P > 0.05) between them. The area under ROC curve for operative complications predicted by POSSUM scoring system was 0.575. The POSSUM score system was most accurate for the prediction of complication rates of 20%-40%, showing the O/E value of 0.81. Compared with the POSSUM score system, P-POSSUM had better ability in the prediction of postoperative mortality, when the predicted value of mortality was greater than 15%, the predictive result was more accurate, and the O/E value was 1.00. POSSUM and P-POSSUM scoring system have good value in predicting the mortality of patients with periampullary tumors undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, but a poorer value of

  14. Feasibility of a Modified E-PASS and POSSUM System for Postoperative Risk Assessment in Patients with Spinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dong Hyun; Kim, Do Young; Choi, Sun Kyu; Shin, Dong Ah; Ha, Yoon; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum; Yi, Seong

    2017-12-23

    This retrospective case control study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using Estimation of Physiological Ability and Surgical Stress (E-PASS) and Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) systems in patients undergoing spinal surgical procedures. Degenerative spine disease has increased in incidence in aging societies, as has the number of older adult patients undergoing spinal surgery. Many older adults are at a high surgical risk because of comorbidity and poor general health. We retrospectively reviewed 217 patients who had undergone spinal surgery at a single tertiary care. We investigated complications within 1 month after surgery. Criteria for both skin incision in E-PASS and operation magnitude in the POSSUM system were modified to fit spine surgery. We calculated the E-PASS and POSSUM scores for enrolled patients, and investigated the relationship between postoperative complications and both surgical risk scoring systems. To reinforce the predictive ability of the E-PASS system, we adjusted equations and developed modified E-PASS systems. The overall complication rate for spinal surgery was 22.6%. Forty-nine patients experienced 58 postoperative complications. Nineteen major complications, including hematoma, deep infection, pleural effusion, progression of weakness, pulmonary edema, esophageal injury, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, reoperation, renal failure, sepsis, and death, occurred in 17 patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicted postoperative complications after spine surgery was 0.588 for E-PASS and 0.721 for POSSUM. For predicted major postoperative complications, the AUC increased to 0.619 for E-PASS and 0.842 for POSSUM. The AUC of the E-PASS system increased from 0.588 to 0.694 with the Modified E-PASS equation. The POSSUM system may be more useful than the E-PASS system for estimating postoperative surgical risk in patients undergoing

  15. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  16. Cystic echinococcosis in a wild population of the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata), a threatened macropodid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, T S; Goldizen, A W; Morton, J M; Coleman, G T

    2008-05-01

    Infection of small macropodids with the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus can cause fatalities as well as significant pulmonary impairment and other adverse sequelae. The brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata) is a small macropodid listed as vulnerable on the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. This study used radiographic techniques to determine the prevalence and severity of pulmonary hydatid infection and growth rates of hydatid cysts in a wild population of this macropodid. The overall prevalence was 15.3% (9/59 animals) with 20.0% (8/40 animals) of adults infected. During the study period, the death of at least 1 infected animal was directly attributed to pulmonary hydatidosis. Rapid cyst growth occurred in some animals (up to 43% increase in cyst volume in 3 months). Cyst volume reduced lung capacity by up to 17%. Secondary pulmonary changes were uncommon but, in 1 animal, resulted in reduction in lung capacity by approximately 50%. Infection was associated with a higher blood urea concentration, but no significant differences in other blood variables were detected. These results indicate that hydatid infection may be a significant risk to threatened populations of small macropodids and should be addressed in conservation management plans for these animals.

  17. Development of integrated surveillance systems for the management of tuberculosis in New Zealand wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, DP; Ramsey, DSL; de Lisle, GW; Bosson, M; Cross, ML; Nugent, G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Disease surveillance for the management of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand has focussed, to a large extent, on the development of tools specific for monitoring Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife. Diagnostic techniques have been modified progressively over 30 years of surveillance of TB in wildlife, from initial characterisation of gross TB lesions in a variety of wildlife, through development of sensitive culture techniques to identify viable mycobacteria, to molecular identification of individual M. bovis strains. Of key importance in disease surveillance has been the elucidation of the roles that different wildlife species play in the transmission of infection, specifically defining brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) as true maintenance hosts compared to those that are predominantly spillover hosts, but which may serve as useful sentinel species to indicate TB persistence. Epidemiological modelling has played a major role in TB surveillance, initially providing the theoretical support for large-scale possum population control and setting targets at which control effort should be deployed to ensure disease eradication. As TB prevalence in livestock and wildlife declined throughout the 2000s, more varied field tools were developed to gather surveillance data from the diminishing possum populations, and to provide information on changing TB prevalence. Accordingly, ever more precise (but disparate) surveillance information began to be integrated into multi-faceted decision-assist models to support TB management decisions, particularly to provide informed parameters at which control effort could be halted, culminating in the Proof of Freedom modelling framework that now allows an area to be declared TB-free within chosen confidence limits. As New Zealand moves from large-scale TB control to regional eradication of disease in the coming years, further integrative models will need to be developed to support management decisions, based on

  18. Toward eradication: the effect of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife on the evolution and future direction of bovine tuberculosis management in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, PG; Hancox, N; Nugent, G; de Lisle, GW

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New Zealand's bovine tuberculosis (TB) control programme has greatly reduced the burden of tuberculosis on the farming industry, from 11% of mature cattle found with TB at slaughter in 1905 to New Zealand implemented TB control measures in cattle from the mid-twentieth century, and later in farmed deer. Control was based on established methods of tuberculin testing of herds, slaughter of suspect cases, and livestock movement control. Unexplained regional control failures and serious disease outbreaks were eventually linked to wildlife-vectored infection from the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), which also triggered a wildlife disease complex involving a range of introduced species. This paper reviews the progressive elucidation of the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in New Zealand's wildlife and farmed livestock, and the parallel development of research-led, multi-faceted TB control strategies required to protect New Zealand's livestock industries from damaging infection levels. The adoption of coordinated national pest management strategies, with increasingly ambitious objectives agreed between government and industry funders, has driven a costly but very successful management regime targeted at controlling TB in the possum maintenance host. This success has led to initiation of a strategy designed to eradicate TB from New Zealand's livestock and wildlife, which is considered a realistic long-term prospect. PMID:25273888

  19. Feral ferrets (Mustela furo) as hosts and sentinels of tuberculosis in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, AE; Caley, P; Paterson, BM; Nugent, G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The control and eventual eradication of bovine tuberculosis (TB) poses major challenges in New Zealand, given the variety of wildlife species susceptible to TB, many of which are capable of onwards transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Here we discuss the role of feral ferrets (Mustela furo), focussing on potential transmission or risk pathways that have implications for management of TB. Firstly inter-specific transmission to ferrets. Ferrets scavenge potentially infected wildlife, including other ferrets, thus prevalence of TB can be amplified through ferrets feeding on tuberculous carcasses, particularly brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). Secondly intra-specific transmission between ferrets. The rate of ferret-ferret transmission depends on population density, and in some places ferret densities exceed the estimated threshold for disease persistence. TB can therefore potentially be maintained independently of other sources of infection. Thirdly transmission from ferrets to other wildlife. These include the main wildlife maintenance host, brushtail possums, that will occasionally scavenge potentially tuberculous ferret carcasses. Fourthly transmission from ferrets to livestock. This is considered to occur occasionally, but the actual rate of transmission has never been measured. Fifthly geographical spread. M. bovis-infected ferrets can travel large distances and cause new outbreaks of TB at locations previously free of TB, which may have caused an expansion of TB-endemic areas.Ferrets play a complex role in the TB cycle in New Zealand; they are capable of contracting, amplifying and transmitting M. bovis infection, sometimes resulting in ferret populations with a high prevalence of TB. However, ferret population densities are usually too low to sustain infection independently, and transmission to other wildlife or livestock appears a rarer event than with possums. Nevertheless, management of ferrets remains a key part of the National

  20. Use of released pigs as sentinels for Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Graham; Whitford, Jackie; Young, Nigel

    2002-10-01

    Identifying the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB; Mycobacterium bovis) in wildlife is crucial in guiding management aimed at eradicating the disease from New Zealand. Unfortunately, surveys of the principal wildlife host, the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), require large samples (> 95% of the population) before they can provide reasonable confidence that the disease is absent. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using a more wide-ranging species, feral pig (Sus scrofa), as an alternative sentinel capable of indicating TB presence. In January 2000, 17 pigs in four groups were released into a forested area with a low density of possums in which TB was known to be present. The pigs were radiotracked at 2 wk intervals from February to October 2000, and some of them were killed and necropsied at various intervals after release. Of the 15 pigs successfully recovered and necropsied, one killed 2 mo after release had no gross lesions typical of TB, and the only other pig killed at that time had greatly enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. The remainder were killed at longer intervals after release and all had gross lesions typical of TB. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from all 15 pigs by mycobacterial culture. Home range sizes of pigs varied widely and increased with the length of time the pigs were in the forest, with minimum convex polygon range-size estimates averaging 10.7 km2 (range 4.7-20.3 km2) for the pigs killed after 6 mo. A 6 km radius around the kill site of each pig would have encompassed 95% of all of their previous locations at which they could have become infected. However, one pig shifted 35 km, highlighting the main limitation of using unmarked feral pigs as sentinels. This trial indicates use of resident and/or released free-ranging pigs is a feasible alternative to direct prevalence surveys of possums for detecting TB presence.

  1. Comparison of APACHE II, P-POSSUM and SAPS II scoring systems in patients underwent planned laparotomies due to secondary peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Koray; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Karateke, Faruk; Uzun, Abdurrahman Selcuk; Sozen, Selim; Ozdas, Sabri

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to discuss the factors affecting mortality rate in patients with severe intraabdominal sepsis treated with planned relaparotomy. The second aim was to compare APACHEE II, P-POSSUM and SAPS II scoring systems to allow identification of high-risk patients. A series of 34 patients who had intra-abdominal sepsis and treated with planned relaparotomy between January 2009 and January 2012 were included the study. The source of the peritonitis, type and number of surgical procedures, number of planned relaparatomies, microbiology surveillance, total intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay duration, number of intubated days, morbidity and mortality were analyzed. APACHEE II, SAPS II, P-POSSUM scores and estimated mortality ranges at admission were compared. The mean age was 46 (16-76 years) and 73.5 % (n=25) were male. A total of 119 operations and 50 surgical procedures were performed. The overall mortality rate was 20.6% (n=7). Complications developed in %53 (n=18) of the patients. Mortality was higher in upper GIS leaks (6/20 versus 1/14 patients). Areas under the curve calculated by ROC curve analysis for APACHE II, SAPS II and P-POSSUM were 0.958, 0.955 and 0.931, respectively. The highest values for sensitivity (100%) and specivity (85.2%) together were reached in APACHE II, when cut off value for it was set to 20.5. The SAPS II and P-POSSUM physiology scores were correlated with overall hospital stay (p=0.022 r=0.438 and p=0.001 r=0.609 respectively), but this correlation was not found for APACHEE II score (p=0.085 r=0.337). However, all three scoring systems provided clear estimation of ICU stay duration. We suggest that, in secondary peritonitis patients reserved for planned relaparotomy, APACHE II is more reliable for prediction of mortality and P-POSSUM scoring system is more reliable for prediction of overall hospital stay duration.

  2. Development of the New Zealand strategy for local eradication of tuberculosis from wildlife and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, P G; Hancox, N; Nugent, G; Mackereth, G; Hutchings, S A

    2015-06-01

    We describe the progressive development of New Zealand's national strategy for control of tuberculosis (TB) in its agricultural sector over the last four decades. The strategy is globally unique, reflecting the need for effective and co-ordinated management of TB in a wildlife maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), in addition to controlling infection in cattle and farmed deer herds. Since the early 1990s, the strategy has been developed by the Animal Health Board (AHB), formed to empower the farming industry to take the leadership role in funding of TB control, policy development and administration. The AHB became the first non-government organisation to develop and gain acceptance by the funders (farming industry and government) of a National Pest Management Strategy (NPMS) under the Biosecurity Act 1993. A key outcome of the NPMS for TB control was the development and inclusion of very challenging objectives that provided direction for management, research and possum control. This paper describes the process whereby the NPMS was revised twice, following achievement of each successive set of strategy objectives within budget. Success was based on firstly, reorganisation of the AHB and its operational systems to achieve increased efficiency; secondly, improved efficiency through contracting possum and disease control, and thirdly research delivering effective and practical applications, while also providing a scientific basis for setting directions for future control strategies. The last revision of the NPMS was implemented in 2011, and included objectives to eradicate Mycobacterium bovis-infected wildlife populations over 2.5 million hectares by 2026. This ambitious objective was adopted only after extensive forecast modelling enabled stakeholders to identify and select the most cost-effective long-term solution for the management of M. bovis-infected possum populations. The accomplishment of New Zealand's TB control programme, in meeting

  3. Optimising the application of multiple-capture traps for invasive species management using spatial simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Warburton

    Full Text Available Internationally, invasive vertebrate species pose a significant threat to biodiversity, agricultural production and human health. To manage these species a wide range of tools, including traps, are used. In New Zealand, brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula, stoats (Mustela ermine, and ship rats (Rattus rattus are invasive and there is an ongoing demand for cost-effective non-toxic methods for controlling these pests. Recently, traps with multiple-capture capability have been developed which, because they do not require regular operator-checking, are purported to be more cost-effective than traditional single-capture traps. However, when pest populations are being maintained at low densities (as is typical of orchestrated pest management programmes it remains uncertain if it is more cost-effective to use fewer multiple-capture traps or more single-capture traps. To address this uncertainty, we used an individual-based spatially explicit modelling approach to determine the likely maximum animal-captures per trap, given stated pest densities and defined times traps are left between checks. In the simulation, single- or multiple-capture traps were spaced according to best practice pest-control guidelines. For possums with maintenance densities set at the lowest level (i.e. 0.5/ha, 98% of all simulated possums were captured with only a single capacity trap set at each site. When possum density was increased to moderate levels of 3/ha, having a capacity of three captures per trap caught 97% of all simulated possums. Results were similar for stoats, although only two potential captures per site were sufficient to capture 99% of simulated stoats. For rats, which were simulated at their typically higher densities, even a six-capture capacity per trap site only resulted in 80% kill. Depending on target species, prevailing density and extent of immigration, the most cost-effective strategy for pest control in New Zealand might be to deploy several

  4. Wildlife disease reservoirs: the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the European badger (Meles meles) and other British mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahay, R J; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection has been confirmed in a wide range of mammals hosts throughout the world. The European badger (Meles meles) and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) are implicated as significant sources of infection for domestic cattle in the UK and New Zealand respectively. The risk of transmission of infection between a wildlife population and domestic animals will be determined by both the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of the host. In the UK, surveys by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) have identified M. bovis infection in deer (Cervus sp., Capreolus sp., Dama sp.), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), mink (Mustela vison), feral ferret (Mustela furo), mole (Talpa europaea), brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) and feral cat (Felis catus). However, the potential contribution to cattle herd breakdowns, of reservoirs of M. bovis infection in mammals other than the badger is poorly understood and is the subject of current research. In contrast, M. bovis infection in the badger has been the subject of a long term ecological and epidemiological study at Woodchester Park in South-West England, where the prevalence and distribution of infection in a wild population has been intensively monitored. The pattern of infection in the population and potential risks to cattle, are profoundly influenced by badger social organization and behaviour. The pattern of land use and cattle farming practices in the UK brings badgers into close contact with domestic animals and provides conditions that may enhance the likelihood of disease transfer. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  5. Detection of Helicobacter species in the gastrointestinal tract of ringtail possum and koala: possible influence of diet, on the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldham, Thosaporn; Rose, Karrie; O'Rourke, Jani; Neilan, Brett A; Dalton, Helen; Lee, Adrian; Mitchell, Hazel

    2013-10-25

    The presence of Helicobacter spp. was examined in the liver and in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) including the stomach, 3 cm above ileum, ileum, caecum, colon and rectum of 10 ringtail possums (RTPs) and 3 koalas using a combination of microscopy, culture and PCR. Helicobacter was detected in the distal end of the GIT of 7 of 10 RTPs by direct PCR and in all (10/10) RTPs by nested PCR. Five 'S' shaped isolates with bipolar sheathed flagella were isolated from the lower bowel of 3 of the 10 RTPs. 16S rRNA sequence analysis of these 5 isolates confirmed them as potentially novel Helicobacter species. No Helicobacter species were cultured from the koalas, however Helicobacter DNA was detected, in the majority of liver and/or stomach samples of the three koalas and in the colonic region of one koala, using nested PCR. The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced directly from DNA extracted from the homogenised livers and mucus scrapings of the stomach from koala 1 and were confirmed to be Helicobacter species. Based on histopathological examination of sections from the liver and intestine no evidence of infection could be related to the presence of helicobacters in either the RTP or koala. Based on our results, it is possible that diet may influence the detection of Helicobacter species; however this required further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An Endangered Arboreal Specialist, the Western Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis, Shows a Greater Genetic Divergence across a Narrow Artificial Waterway than a Major Road.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yokochi

    Full Text Available The fragmentation of habitats by roads and other artificial linear structures can have a profound effect on the movement of arboreal species due to their strong fidelity to canopies. Here, we used 12 microsatellite DNA loci to investigate the fine-scale spatial genetic structure and the effects of a major road and a narrow artificial waterway on a population of the endangered western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis in Busselton, Western Australia. Using spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found positive genetic structure in continuous habitat over distances up to 600 m. These patterns are consistent with the sedentary nature of P. occidentalis and highlight their vulnerability to the effects of habitat fragmentation. Pairwise relatedness values and Bayesian cluster analysis also revealed significant genetic divergences across an artificial waterway, suggesting that it was a barrier to gene flow. By contrast, no genetic divergences were detected across the major road. While studies often focus on roads when assessing the effects of artificial linear structures on wildlife, this study provides an example of an often overlooked artificial linear structure other than a road that has a significant impact on wildlife dispersal leading to genetic subdivision.

  7. Duration of one-lung ventilation stage, POSSUM value and the quality of post-operative analgesia significantly affect survival and length of stay on intensive care unit of patients undergoing two-stage esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almakadma, Yasin Said; Riad, Tamer Hunein; Ayad, Ismaei I; Ibrahim, Tamer Hussein

    2013-07-01

    To analyze different factors affecting the outcome of patients undergoing Two Stage Esophagectomy (TSE) for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma (EC) while relating these factors to the length of stay on Intensive Care Unit (ILOS), mortality, and morbidity. Retrospective study of case-notes of 45 patients who underwent a TSE for resection of EC at a general district hospital in the United Kingdom (UK). These procedures were performed by the same surgical team and followed same approach, known as the Ivor-Lewis procedure. The duration of One Lung Ventilation (OLV) during TSE was found to be critical for patient's outcome. Statistical analysis suggested a potentially strong effect of the duration of OLV (range: 90-320 minutes) on the ILOS (P=0.001). The ratio OLV: Total duration of surgery (TOT) was significantly different in early post-operative (PO) deaths (within 3 months) and late deaths after the third month (P=0.032). The POSSUM value (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for Enumeration of Mortality) correlated well with ILOS (P=0.05). Regression analysis showed a strong relationship between the two variables (P=0.03). An excellent to good quality of PO analgesia allowed for shorter ILOS (P=0.023). Duration of the OLV appears as an important factor in the outcome of patients. POSSUM value could help in planning the post-operative critical care need of patients undergoing TSE. A well managed post-operative pain allowed to reduce the ILOS.

  8. Seed dispersal of the Australian cycad Macrozamia miquelii (Zamiaceae): are cycads megafauna-dispersed "grove forming" plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John A; Walter, Gimme H

    2013-06-01

    Plants that invest in large, heavy seeds and colorful, fleshy fruits or analogous structures seem adapted for dispersal by large vertebrates. Some such plants, like Australian cycads in the genus Macrozamia, do not disperse well, which could be explained by seed-dispersal relationships with megafauna that are rare or extinct in contemporary ecosystems. Such plants provide an opportunity to investigate the ecological consequences of low seed-dispersal distances. • We investigated seed dispersal of Macrozamia miquelii in Central Queensland by tracking the fate of marked seeds, identifying the dispersal fauna and quantifying population demography and spatial structure. • We found that 70-100% of marked seeds remained within 1 m of maternal females (cycads are dioecious). Of the 812 seeds recovered (from 840 originally marked) only 24 dispersed >1 m from maternal females, the greatest observed dispersal being 5 m. We found an average of 2.2 seedlings and 0.7 juveniles within 1.5 m of mature females, which suggests that most seeds that remain in the vicinity of maternal females perish. Within-stand densities ranged between 1000 and 5000 plants/ha. The brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula was the only animal observed to move the seeds. • Macrozamia are adapted for dispersal by megafauna that are rare or absent in contemporary ecosystems. We argue that Macrozamia are "grove forming" plants that derive ecological benefit from existing as high-density, spatially discrete populations, the function of megafaunal dispersal adaptations being the infrequent dispersal of seeds en masse to establish new such groves in the landscape.

  9. Density-dependent home-range size revealed by spatially explicit capture–recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efford, M.G.; Dawson, Deanna K.; Jhala, Y.V.; Qureshi, Q.

    2016-01-01

    The size of animal home ranges often varies inversely with population density among populations of a species. This fact has implications for population monitoring using spatially explicit capture–recapture (SECR) models, in which both the scale of home-range movements σ and population density D usually appear as parameters, and both may vary among populations. It will often be appropriate to model a structural relationship between population-specific values of these parameters, rather than to assume independence. We suggest re-parameterizing the SECR model using kp = σp √Dp, where kp relates to the degree of overlap between home ranges and the subscript p distinguishes populations. We observe that kp is often nearly constant for populations spanning a range of densities. This justifies fitting a model in which the separate kp are replaced by the single parameter k and σp is a density-dependent derived parameter. Continuous density-dependent spatial variation in σ may also be modelled, using a scaled non-Euclidean distance between detectors and the locations of animals. We illustrate these methods with data from automatic photography of tigers (Panthera tigris) across India, in which the variation is among populations, from mist-netting of ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) in Maryland, USA, in which the variation is within a single population over time, and from live-trapping of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, modelling spatial variation within one population. Possible applications and limitations of the methods are discussed. A model in which kp is constant, while density varies, provides a parsimonious null model for SECR. The parameter k of the null model is a concise summary of the empirical relationship between home-range size and density that is useful in comparative studies. We expect deviations from this model, particularly the dependence of kp on covariates, to be biologically interesting.

  10. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  11. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W David Walter

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles, brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type. Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  12. 9 CFR 93.701 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Miscellaneous Animals § 93.701 Prohibitions. (a) No person may import a... where foot-and-mouth disease exists. (b) No person may import a brushtail possum or hedgehog into the...

  13. Recent advances in the management of bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel J; Schmitt, Stephen M; Rudolph, Brent A; Nugent, Graham

    2011-07-05

    Established foci of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis [bTB]) in free-ranging wildlife are currently under various stages of management on three continents (Africa, Europe and North America) and in New Zealand. Other, as yet undiagnosed, foci seem likely to exist elsewhere. The complex roles that these wildlife foci play in the ecology of bTB remain among the greatest challenges facing bTB control globally. Conceptually, management of bTB in free-ranging wildlife can be thought of as progressing from the discovery of an outbreak through frequently overlapping stages of epidemiological characterization, initial control, simulation and forecasting, focused control, and verification of eradication. Surveillance in its various forms remains a critical component of assessment throughout. Since the Fourth International M. bovis Conference in 2005, research on management of bTB in free-ranging wildlife has encompassed such areas as the human dimensions of wildlife management, mitigation of bTB risks from wildlife on cattle farms, vaccine biology, and epidemiology, with a major contribution from simulation modeling. In order to advance the actual field management of bTB, however, research must be sufficiently grounded to aid development of practical, affordable and politically defensible management interventions which stand a reasonable chance of being implemented. The current management of two wildlife reservoirs of bTB, brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA, serve as contrasting examples of different wildlife management strategies aimed at achieving a common goal. In New Zealand, the importance of agricultural export markets and the status of the possum as a non-native pest have facilitated direct, aggressive management of the disease reservoir, resulting in considerable progress towards bTB freedom since 1994. In Michigan, the relative importance of the

  14. [Use of a computer program (POSSUM) in examination of residents in a home for developmentally handicapped children and adults in Veternik-Novi Sad for occurrence and diagnostic significance of dysmorphologic signs on the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Slobodan; Krstić, Aleksandar; Poljacki, Mirjana; Tasić, Sinica

    2002-01-01

    The authors have examined frequency of dysmorphological signs by POSSUM at the Home for developmentally handicapped children and adults in Vetemik--Novi Sad. The aim was to establish possible different hereditary and congenital skin diseases and genetic syndromes in this population. The study was based on the following methods: method of family history including genealogy; dermatoglyphic methods; screening tests methodology in medical genetics; method of cytogenetic analysis; histo-pathological analysis; method of dermatovenerologic, genetic and dysmorphologic examinations of skin diseases by analysis of dysmorphological signs on the skin using a special computer programme. The study included 504 wards with 269 males and 235 females, and sex ratio of 1:1.14 in favour to males. Non-parametric statistics and Log-linear analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the incidence of dysmorphological signs in the studied group and the Vojvodina population. The obtained incidence of dysmorphological signs in the examined group is presented in tables. Our results regarding the incidence of dysmorphological signs in the examined group showed significantly increased values in comparison to the population of Vojvodina.

  15. Potential wildlife sentinels for monitoring the endemic spread of human buruli ulcer in South-East australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Carson

    Full Text Available The last 20 years has seen a significant series of outbreaks of Buruli/Bairnsdale Ulcer (BU, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, in temperate south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria. Here, the prevailing view of M. ulcerans as an aquatic pathogen has been questioned by recent research identifying native wildlife as potential terrestrial reservoirs of infection; specifically, tree-dwelling common ringtail and brushtail possums. In that previous work, sampling of environmental possum faeces detected a high prevalence of M. ulcerans DNA in established endemic areas for human BU on the Bellarine Peninsula, compared with non-endemic areas. Here, we report research from an emergent BU focus recently identified on the Mornington Peninsula, confirming associations between human BU and the presence of the aetiological agent in possum faeces, detected by real-time PCR targeting M. ulcerans IS2404, IS2606 and KR. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA was detected in 20/216 (9.3% ground collected ringtail possum faecal samples and 4/6 (66.6% brushtail possum faecal samples. The distribution of the PCR positive possum faecal samples and human BU cases was highly focal: there was a significant non-random cluster of 16 M. ulcerans positive possum faecal sample points detected by spatial scan statistics (P<0.0001 within a circle of radius 0.42 km, within which were located the addresses of 6/12 human cases reported from the area to date; moreover, the highest sample PCR signal strength (equivalent to ≥10(6 organisms per gram of faeces was found in a sample point located within this cluster radius. Corresponding faecal samples collected from closely adjacent BU-free areas were predominantly negative. Possums may be useful sentinels to predict endemic spread of human BU in Victoria, for public health planning. Further research is needed to establish whether spatial associations represent evidence of direct or indirect transmission between possums and humans, and the

  16. Evaluación de la morbilidad y mortalidad con el sistema Possum puntuación fisiológica y operativa de severidad de mortalidad y morbilidad en cirugía gastrointestinal programada y urgente, en el Hospital Dr. Enrique Garcés durante el año 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Muñoz, Víctor Hugo; Valdivieso Menéndez, Félix Javier

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en el Hospital Enrique Garcés, en los pacientes sometidos a cirugía gastrointestinal tanto programada como emergencia. Objetivo: Evaluar la morbilidad y mortalidad con el sistema POSSUM entre cirugía gastrointestinal programada versus urgente. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cuantitativo y observacional, para lo cual se requirió de un diseño epidemiológico, analítico, longitudinal de cohortes, utilizando la curva de ROC para comparar los resultados observados...

  17. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, William D.; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research onM. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovisidentified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  18. Valuing conservation benefits of disease control in wildlife: A choice experiment approach to bovine tuberculosis management in New Zealand's native forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter; Saunders, Caroline; Nugent, Graham; Rutherford, Paul

    2017-03-15

    We assess the non-monetary environmental benefits that accrue incidentally in New Zealand (NZ) from pest management conducted primarily to control an animal disease, bovine tuberculosis (TB). TB is an infectious disease that is one of the world's most serious animal health problems and, in many parts of the developing world, still a major mortality risk for humans. The incidence of TB in New Zealand (NZ) farmed livestock has been reduced progressively over the last 20 years, largely due to extensive and sustained population control of the main wildlife reservoir of disease, the introduced brushtail possum. Possums are also major pests that threaten indigenous forest biodiversity, and so extensive possum control for TB mitigation also incidental benefits conservation, but the extent and public value of this benefit has yet to be quantified. We conducted a choice experiment survey of the NZ public in an effort to value the native forest biodiversity benefits of TB-related possum control. We find strong public support for conservation outcomes consequent to TB-possum control in public native forests. The public place substantial value on the most observable biodiversity benefits of TB possum control, such as improved forest canopies and presence of native birds. The benefits, costs and values of TB-possum control are discussed in relation to the future directives of NZ's TB control programme, which is headed toward first regional and then national level disease eradication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards a ZP-based contraceptive for marsupials: comparative analysis and developmental expression of marsupial ZP genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Carmen A; Harris, Merrilee S; Rodger, John C; Mate, Karen E

    2007-12-01

    Fertility control in the form of a zona pellucida (ZP)-based immunocontraceptive has shown potential as a humane form of control for overabundant marsupials including the brushtail possum and macropods. Further refinement and development of a ZP-based vaccine requires detailed knowledge of the protein structure and expression in order to ensure maximum efficacy and specificity. Sequencing and comparative analysis of the ZP3 protein from three marsupial orders in this study found a high overall level of conservation; within order Diprotodontia, the ZP3 protein is 86.9-98.9% identical. ZP3 identity falls to 56.6-57.2%, when the grey, short-tailed opossum (a Didelphimorphian) is compared to dasyurid and diprotodontan marsupials. This is similar to its amino acid identity with ZP3 from eutherian species (50.7-52.8%). Comparison of a 21 amino acid epitope in marsupial ZP3 that has shown contraceptive effects, reveals 95-100% identity between the four macropodid species, 81-86% amino acid identity between brushtail possum and the macropods and 67-71% identity between the diprotodontans and the fat-tailed dunnart (a dasyurid). This is comparable to the level of identity between related eutherian mammals. The expression pattern of three ZP genes during brushtail possum and tammar wallaby pouch young development was examined by RT-PCR. This analysis of ZP gene expression has confirmed that ZP mRNA transcription begins in the ovary during pouch young development by about 51 days of age. The presence of ZP transcripts at this stage in pouch young development suggests that marsupial ZP gene transcription begins before the onset of follicular development. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in wild deer and feral pigs and their roles in the establishment and spread of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, G; Gortazar, C; Knowles, G

    2015-06-01

    In New Zealand, wild deer and feral pigs are assumed to be spillover hosts for Mycobacterium bovis, and so are not targeted in efforts aimed at locally eradicating bovine tuberculosis (TB) from possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), the main wildlife host. Here we review the epidemiology of TB in deer and pigs, and assess whether New Zealand's TB management programme could be undermined if these species sometimes achieve maintenance host status. In New Zealand, TB prevalences of up to 47% have been recorded in wild deer sympatric with tuberculous possums. Patterns of lesion distribution, age-specific prevalences and behavioural observations suggest that deer become infected mainly through exposure to dead or moribund possums. TB can progress rapidly in some deer (new infection to wild deer has been halted. Tuberculosis prevalence in New Zealand feral pigs can reach 100%. Infections in lymph nodes of the head and alimentary tract predominate, indicating that TB is mostly acquired through scavenging tuberculous carrion, particularly possums. Infection is usually well contained, and transmission between pigs is rare. Large reductions in local possum density result in gradual declines (over 10 years) in TB prevalence among sympatric wild deer, and faster declines in feral pigs. Elimination of TB from possums (and livestock) therefore results in eventual disappearance of TB from feral pigs and wild deer. However, the risk of spillback infection from deer to possums substantially extends the time needed to locally eradicate TB from all wildlife (compared to that which would be required to eradicate disease from possums alone), while dispersal or translocation of pigs (e.g. by hunters) creates a risk of long-distance spread of disease. The high rate at which pigs acquire M. bovis infection from dead possums makes them useful as sentinels for detecting TB in wildlife. It is unlikely that wild deer and feral pigs act as maintenance hosts anywhere in New Zealand, because

  1. The Eagle and the Possum a Difference in Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    do what it took to achieve the desired results. This paper will discuss how General Curtis “Eagle” LeMay’s leadership style and willingness to...Daylight Precision Bombing (HADPB) against Germany and Japan. Next, will be a discussion of General LeMay’s viewpoint on strategic bombing and leadership ...otherwise, General Hansell made the results fit what he was trying to accomplish. General Hansell told his subordinate commanders that leadership was

  2. Can individual and social patterns of resource use buffer animal populations against resource decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam C Banks

    Full Text Available Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing, as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater's possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1:1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species' biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance.

  3. Has one of Captain Cook’s possums landed in Leiden? The possible holotype of Pseudocheirus peregrinus (Boddaert, 1785)

    OpenAIRE

    Smeenk, C.

    2009-01-01

    The identity of an old female specimen of Pseudocheirus peregrinus (Boddaert, 1785) in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, is discussed and the early descriptions and nomenclatural history of the species are reviewed. The assumption by Temminck (1824) and Jentink (1888) that the animal originated from one of Cook’s expeditions is extensively considered, since in that case it would be the holotype of Didelphis peregrinus Boddaert, 1785 and of some objective synonyms. The documentat...

  4. Mycobacterium bovis: A Model Pathogen at the Interface of Livestock, Wildlife, and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell V. Palmer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex and dynamic interactions involving domestic animals, wildlife, and humans create environments favorable to the emergence of new diseases, or reemergence of diseases in new host species. Today, reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in animals, and sometimes humans, exist in a range of countries and wild animal populations. Free-ranging populations of white-tailed deer in the US, brushtail possum in New Zealand, badger in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, and wild boar in Spain exemplify established reservoirs of M. bovis. Establishment of these reservoirs is the result of factors such as spillover from livestock, translocation of wildlife, supplemental feeding of wildlife, and wildlife population densities beyond normal habitat carrying capacities. As many countries attempt to eradicate M. bovis from livestock, efforts are impeded by spillback from wildlife reservoirs. It will not be possible to eradicate this important zoonosis from livestock unless transmission between wildlife and domestic animals is halted. Such an endeavor will require a collaborative effort between agricultural, wildlife, environmental, and political interests.

  5. Mycobacterium bovis: A Model Pathogen at the Interface of Livestock, Wildlife, and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Thacker, Tyler C; Waters, W Ray; Gortázar, Christian; Corner, Leigh A L

    2012-01-01

    Complex and dynamic interactions involving domestic animals, wildlife, and humans create environments favorable to the emergence of new diseases, or reemergence of diseases in new host species. Today, reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in animals, and sometimes humans, exist in a range of countries and wild animal populations. Free-ranging populations of white-tailed deer in the US, brushtail possum in New Zealand, badger in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, and wild boar in Spain exemplify established reservoirs of M. bovis. Establishment of these reservoirs is the result of factors such as spillover from livestock, translocation of wildlife, supplemental feeding of wildlife, and wildlife population densities beyond normal habitat carrying capacities. As many countries attempt to eradicate M. bovis from livestock, efforts are impeded by spillback from wildlife reservoirs. It will not be possible to eradicate this important zoonosis from livestock unless transmission between wildlife and domestic animals is halted. Such an endeavor will require a collaborative effort between agricultural, wildlife, environmental, and political interests.

  6. Wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis worldwide: hosts, pathology, surveillance, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, S D; Kaneene, J B

    2013-05-01

    Bovine tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease classically carried by cattle and spilling over into humans primarily by the ingestion of milk. However, in recent decades, there have been many endemic geographic localities where M. bovis has been detected infecting wildlife reservoirs, limiting the progress toward eradication of this disease from cattle. These include cervids in North America, badgers in Great Britain, feral pigs in Europe, brushtailed possums in New Zealand, and buffalo in South Africa. An overview of these wildlife hosts will provide insight into how these reservoirs maintain and spread the disease. In addition, the authors summarize the pathology, current ongoing methods for surveillance, and control. In many instances, it has proven to be more difficult to control or eradicate bovine tuberculosis in wild free-ranging species than in domesticated cattle. Furthermore, human influences have often contributed to the introduction and/or maintenance of the disease in wildlife species. Finally, some emerging themes regarding bovine tuberculosis establishment in wildlife hosts, as well as conclusions regarding management practices to assist in bovine tuberculosis control and eradication in wildlife, are offered.

  7. The sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps): a laboratory host for the nematode Parastrongyloides trichosuri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Thomas J; Zhu, Xiaodong; Ketschek, Andrea; Cole, Joan; Grant, Warwick; Lok, James B; Schad, Gerhard A

    2007-10-01

    Parastrongyloides trichosuri is a nematode parasite of the Australian brush-tailed possums that can be propagated through many generations in vitro. This makes P. trichosuri uniquely suited for genetic investigations, including those involving transgenesis. However, an obstacle to its use as an experimental model has been the fact that its host is limited to Australia and New Zealand and that it cannot be exported because of its status as a protected species or agricultural pest, respectively. In previous studies, conventional laboratory animals such as rats, mice, rabbits, ferrets, and chickens have failed to support infections. In the present study, gerbils and short-tailed opossums proved similarly refractory to infection. In contrast, the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps, family Petauridae) proved to be a good host for P. trichosuri. Patent infections resulted using as few as 6 infective larvae (L3i) and as many as 2,000 L3i. Large numbers of L3i (1,000-2,000) produced patent infections of much shorter duration than those seen when 100 L3i were initially given to the sugar glider. In one case, an infection initiated with 100 L3i was patent for over 1 yr. Parastrongyloides trichosuri is easily cryopreserved using a method developed for Strongyloides stercoralis. Thus, we have identified an experimental host for P. trichosuri that will make it possible to conduct research on this parasite in laboratories outside the endemic sites.

  8. Image collection: 165 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 165 Trichosurus_vulpecula_NL.png フクロギツネ Trichosurus vulpecula Trichosurus vulpecula 9337 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,後獣下綱,

  9. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance, white boxes (high reflectance, and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and

  10. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Rowland, Jessica A; Briscoe, Natalie J; Lentini, Pia E; Handasyde, Kathrine A; Lumsden, Linda F; Robert, Kylie A

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  11. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jessica A.; Briscoe, Natalie J.; Lentini, Pia E.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Lumsden, Linda F.; Robert, Kylie A.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  12. Immunome database for marsupials and monotremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papenfuss Anthony T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the evolutionary origins of our own immune system, we need to characterise the immune system of our distant relatives, the marsupials and monotremes. The recent sequencing of the genomes of two marsupials (opossum and tammar wallaby and a monotreme (platypus provides an opportunity to characterise the immune gene repertoires of these model organisms. This was required as many genes involved in immunity evolve rapidly and fail to be detected by automated gene annotation pipelines. Description We have developed a database of immune genes from the tammar wallaby, red-necked wallaby, northern brown bandicoot, brush-tail possum, opossum, echidna and platypus. The resource contains 2,235 newly identified sequences and 3,197 sequences which had been described previously. This comprehensive dataset was built from a variety of sources, including EST projects and expert-curated gene predictions generated through a variety of methods including chained-BLAST and sensitive HMMER searches. To facilitate systems-based research we have grouped sequences based on broad Gene Ontology categories as well as by specific functional immune groups. Sequences can be extracted by keyword, gene name, protein domain and organism name. Users can also search the database using BLAST. Conclusion The Immunome Database for Marsupials and Monotremes (IDMM is a comprehensive database of all known marsupial and monotreme immune genes. It provides a single point of reference for genomic and transcriptomic datasets. Data from other marsupial and monotreme species will be added to the database as it become available. This resource will be utilized by marsupial and monotreme immunologists as well as researchers interested in the evolution of mammalian immunity.

  13. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea in wildlife: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Spratt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20 given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100–500 larvae often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna

  14. 75 FR 916 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... 25, 2009. John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment 0 Accordingly..., Orig Walterboro, SC, Lowcountry Rgnl, RNAV (GPS) RWY 35, Orig Graford, TX, Possum Kingdom, NDB OR GPS-A, Amdt 1, CANCELLED Graford, TX, Possum Kingdom, RNAV (GPS) RWY 2, Orig Graford, TX, Possum Kingdom, RNAV...

  15. 76 FR 61733 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... (Grus vipio), Red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis), Cuban parrot (Amazona leucocephala), Golden parakeet... American crocodile). Species: Brush-tailed rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata), White-cheeked gibbon...

  16. L'élevage d'athérures (Atherurus africanus, Gray 1842 au Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houben, P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Breeding of Brush-tailed Porcupines (Atherurus africanus, Gray 1842 in Gabon. The brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus is a much appreciated bush meat in Gabon. On the project "Development of Game Breeding", brush-tailed porcupines are bred in two types of enclosures : an out-door enclosure and an indoor enclosure. They are fed with a diversified diet based on tubers. To obtain a successful reproduction, one male and one female have to stay together for 60 days then the female has to be separated from the male till the birth. The brush-tailed porcupine has a satisfactory growth rate but some of the reproduction features seem to call into question the profitability of its breeding.

  17. 78 FR 7652 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... 18, 2013. John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment Accordingly... Muni. 7-Mar-13 TX Graford Possum Kingdom...... 3/0511 01/11/13 RNAV (GPS) RWY 20, Orig 7-Mar-13 TX.......... Mineral Wells....... 3/0513 01/11/13 GPS RWY 31, Orig-A 7-Mar-13 TX Graford Possum Kingdom...... 3/0514 01...

  18. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Kentaro; Taufik, Epi; Kikuchi, Megumi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Newgrain, Keith; Green, Brian; Messer, Michael; Urashima, Tadasu

    2016-09-01

    Previous structural characterizations of marsupial milk oligosaccharides have been performed in the tammar wallaby, red kangaroo, koala, common brushtail possum and the eastern quoll. To clarify the homology and heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides among marsupial species, which could provide information on their evolution, the oligosaccharides of wombat milk carbohydrate were characterized in this study. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the carbohydrate fractions of two samples of milk of the common wombat and characterized by (1) H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of six neutral saccharides were found to be Gal(β1-4)Glc (lactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-galactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3',3"-digalactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (galactosyl lacto-N-novopentaose I) and Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novooctaose), while those of six acidic saccharides were Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc. (sialyl 3'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl 3',3"-digalactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose c), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc,, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc and Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc. In addition, small amounts of sulfated oligosaccharides but no oligosaccharides containing Neu5Gc or α(2-6) linked Neu5Ac were detected. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. 75 FR 25760 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    .... John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment 0 Accordingly, pursuant to... Obstacle DP, Orig Follett, TX, Follet-Lipscomb County, VOR/DME-A, Amdt 3 Grayford, TX, Possum Kingdom...

  20. 75 FR 21983 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ..., 2010. John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment 0 Accordingly... Graford, TX, Possum Kingdom, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig- A Higgins, TX, Higgins-Lipscomb...

  1. Economics of an ecotourism operation in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Patrick; Shave, Mary; Shave, Paul

    1995-09-01

    The economic inputs and outputs for the Possum Point Biological Station in Belize during 1990 1992 are described to illustrate some aspects of an ecotourism operation. Eight hundred fifty-four people in 59 groups visited Possum Point during the study period to tour rain forests, estuaries, and coral reefs. The economic input to Possum Point from these groups increased from 74,552 in 1990 to 166,268 in 1992. Outputs were for license fees, capital improvements, goods and services, labor, fossil fuels, and development of a historic sugar mill site. An annual donation was also made to a scholarship fund for local Belizean students. The net cash balance of income and outputs changed from negative (-6678) in 1990 to positive (+4811) in 1992, suggesting development of the economic operation. Possum Point meets the economic criteria for ecotourism by feeding back some tourist monies for community and environmental support, particularly donations for the sugar mill site and the scholarship fund. Most of the outputs from Possum Point (about 80%) were retained in the local economy through employment and purchases, which have a positive influence on the local community. We conclude that ecotourism operations, such as Possum Point, offer important sustainable development opportunities for Belize.

  2. Tooth Morphogenesis and FGF4 Expression During Development of Molar Tooth in Three Muroid Rodents: Calomyscus elburzensis (Calomyscidae), Mesocricetus auratus (Cricetidae) and Mus musculus (Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Kordiyeh; Darvish, Jamshid; Matin, Maryam M; Javanmard, Athar Sadat; Kilpatrick, C William

    2017-08-14

    To date, no studies have examined the tooth formation during developmental stages of brush-tailed mice (Calomyscidae) and true hamsters (Cricetidae). Herein, we compared the timing of tooth morphogenesis and FGF4 expression pattern during development of the first lower molar in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse, Calomyscus elburzensis with two other muroid rodents; the house mouse, Mus musculus (Muridae), model organism for tooth morphogenesis, and the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus which shares great similarities in cusp pattern with brush-tailed mice. All three species were bred in captivity and developing embryos were isolated at different embryonic days (E). Histological evaluation of lower molars was performed and spatiotemporal pattern of FGF4 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that morphogenesis of the tooth cusps starts at the beginning of the cap stage of the first lower molar (E14 in house mouse, about E11.5 in golden hamster and E22 in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse). During the cap to bell stage (E15 in house mouse, E12 in golden hamster and at about E24 in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse), a decrease in the expression of FGF4 was observed in the mesenchyme, except for the cusp tips. According to our observations, the developmental process of the first lower molar formation in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse began much later as compared with the other two species. Despite the differences in the temporal pattern of molar development between these three members of the same superfamily (Muroidea), the correlation in the expression of FGF4 with specific stages of tooth morphogenesis supported its regulatory function. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Adjusted Hospital Outcomes of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery Reported in the Dutch Surgical Aneurysm Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijftogt, N; Vahl, A C; Wilschut, E D; Elsman, B H P; Amodio, S; van Zwet, E W; Leijdekkers, V J; Wouters, M W J M; Hamming, J F

    2017-04-01

    The Dutch Surgical Aneurysm Audit (DSAA) is mandatory for all patients with primary abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in the Netherlands. The aims are to present the observed outcomes of AAA surgery against the predicted outcomes by means of V-POSSUM (Vascular-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity). Adjusted mortality was calculated by the original and re-estimated V(physiology)-POSSUM for hospital comparisons. All patients operated on from January 2013 to December 2014 were included for analysis. Calibration and discrimination of V-POSSUM and V(p)-POSSUM was analysed. Mortality was benchmarked by means of the original V(p)-POSSUM formula and risk-adjusted by the re-estimated V(p)-POSSUM on the DSAA. In total, 5898 patients were included for analysis: 4579 with elective AAA (EAAA) and 1319 with acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAAA), acute symptomatic (SAAA; n = 371) or ruptured (RAAA; n = 948). The percentage of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) varied between hospitals but showed no relation to hospital volume (EAAA: p = .12; AAAA: p = .07). EAAA, SAAA, and RAAA mortality was, respectively, 1.9%, 7.5%, and 28.7%. Elective mortality was 0.9% after EVAR and 5.0% after open surgical repair versus 15.6% and 27.4%, respectively, after AAAA. V-POSSUM overestimated mortality in most EAAA risk groups (p high risk groups, and underestimated in low risk groups (p Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Morbid obesity: postsurgical predictive factors and prioritization of the waiting list Obesidad mórbida: factores predictivos postquirúrgicos y priorización de la lista de espera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sabench Pereferrer

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study a sample of patients with morbid obesity who are on the waiting list for a surgical intervention, to establish various scores of surgical risk (Possum and severity score, and to assess potential criteria for list prioritization. Design: we calculated physiological and surgical Possum scores for every patient, and analysed comorbidities and other associated factors to calculate the severity score. Likewise, we calculated the predictive rates of morbimortality. Differences between associated comorbidities in body mass index (BMI were also analyzed. The correlation between Possum score, prediction rates, and severity score were analyzed. Patients: fifty-two patients on the surgical waiting list in our institution (San Juan University Hospital, Reus from 26/4/02 to 5/03/04. Results: the mean qualitative score is significantly higher in the female sex. Invalidating arthropathy and socio-occupational and/or psychiatric criteria are significantly higher in women. There is a significant correlation between the severity score and Possum score. Age does not correlate with any of the variables studied. Conclusions: possum scores are significantly related to BMI, particularly in terms of morbidity rates. The degree of correlation between the Possum score and the qualitative score tells how useful the latter is to cover other determinant factors in the severity of this condition. Socio-occupational and psychiatric criteria, and invalidating arthropathy are the main variables to be taken into account for postsurgical prediction, and are directly related to BMI degree.Objetivo: estudio de una muestra de pacientes afectos de obesidad mórbida y en lista de espera para intervención quirúrgica, determinar el riesgo quirúrgico según diferentes scores (Possum y score de gravedad y valorar los posibles criterios en la priorización de dicha lista. Diseño: cálculo del Possum fisiológico y quirúrgico para cada paciente y análisis de las

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05475-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 46 1.3 1 ( DY594159 ) KIDNEYF042327N20 POSSUM_01-POSSUM-KIDNEY-2KB Tric... 46 1.3 1 ( DB871834 ) Lipochromis sp. 'matumbi hunter...' cDNA clone:hm764... 46 1.3 1 ( DB870676 ) Lipochromis sp. 'matumbi hunter...' cDNA clone:hm750... 46 1.3 1 ( DB864953 ) Lipochromis sp. 'matumbi hunter' cDNA clone:hm78..... 44 5.3 1 ( DN683050 ) CGX27-G02.x1d-t SHGC-CGX Gasterosteus aculeatus c... 44 5.3 1 ( DB874016 ) Lipochromis sp. 'matumbi hunter

  6. Management of Herbaceous Seeps and Wet Savannas for Threatened and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    possum-haw (Viburnum nudum), and vaccinium ( Vaccinium corymbosum ; MacRoberts and MacRoberts 1990). For a detailed description of species occurring...racemiflora) and vaccinium also may be common (Christensen 1988). However, shrub dominance may indicate fire suppression or other disturbances. Bridges and

  7. Evolutionary anticipation of the human heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, S.; Nayak, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the comparative anatomy of hearts from fish, frog, turtle, snake, crocodile, birds (duck, chicken, quail), mammals (elephant, dolphin, sheep, goat, ox, baboon, wallaby, mouse, rabbit, possum, echidna) and man. The findings were analysed with respect to the mechanism of evolution of the heart.

  8. The concept of damage control: extending the paradigm to emergency general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawicki, S Peter; Brooks, Adam; Bilski, Tracy; Scaff, David; Gupta, Rajan; Schwab, C William; Gracias, Vicente H

    2008-01-01

    A damage control (DC) approach was developed to improve survival in severely injured trauma patients. The role of DC in acute surgery (AS) patients who are critically ill, as a result of sepsis or overwhelming haemorrhage continues to evolve. The goal of this study was to assess morbidity and mortality of AS patients who underwent DC, and to compare observed and predicted morbidity and mortality as calculated from APACHE II and physiological and operative severity score for the enumeration of mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) scores. Consecutive acute surgery patients who underwent DC from 2002 to 2004 were included. Retrospectively collected data included patient demographics, physiological parameters, surgical indications and procedures, mortality, morbidity, as well as volumes of crystalloid and colloid (plasma and red blood cell) resuscitation. Observed mortality and complications were compared to those calculated from APACHE II and POSSUM scores. Data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test for median values, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests for proportions. Sixteen patients (mean age 53 years, seven men, nine women) underwent DC. The most common indications for DC included abdominal sepsis (6/15), intraoperative bleeding (5/15), and bowel ischaemia (3/15). The mean intraoperative blood loss during the index procedure was 2060mL. There were 2.4 average procedures per patient. At the end of DC II (36.5h), mean infusion of crystalloid was 17L, packed red blood cells was 3.6L, and plasma was 3L. Eight of 16 patients required vasopressor administration during resuscitation. At 28 days, there were five unexpected survivors as predicted by POSSUM and three by APACHE II (observed mortality seven, predicted mortality by the two methods: 12 (P=0.074), and 10 (P=0.24), respectively). Five patients died prior to definitive abdominal closure. Split thickness skin grafting (4/16) and primary fascial closure (4/16) constituted the most common methods of abdominal

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06541-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GH_MBb Gossypium hirsutum genomic ... 46 1.9 1 ( ES226393 ) MpSG_ag6_H04 Myzus pe...rsicae, tobacco lineage, aph... 46 1.9 1 ( ES222169 ) MpGVN_ag2_O17 Myzus persicae, line G006, PLRV fre... 4...6 1.9 1 ( ES221451 ) MpGV_ag3_J16 Myzus persicae, line G006, PLRV infe... 46 1.9 1 ( EG617027 ) REPROTRACTF0...95449F22 POSSUM_01-POSSUM-C-REPROTRAC... 46 1.9 1 ( EE570712 ) A01_A01fv4m1_pDNRf_531608 Myzus... persicae, line F0... 46 1.9 1 ( EE263373 ) F02_F02gf1c4_pDNRf_501665 Myzus persicae, line G0..

  10. Epidemic host community contribution to mosquito-borne disease transmission: Ross River virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhof, I S; Carver, S

    2017-03-01

    Most vector-borne diseases infect multiple host species, but disentangling the relative importance of different host species to transmission can be complex. Here we study how host species' abundance and competence (duration and titre of parasitaemia) influence host importance during epidemic scenarios. We evaluate this theory using Ross River virus (RRV, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a multi-host mosquito-borne disease with significant human health impacts across Australia and Papua New Guinea. We used host contribution models to find the importance of key hosts (possums, wallabies, kangaroos, horses, humans) in typical mammal communities around five Australian epidemic centres. We found humans and possums contributed most to epidemic RRV transmission, owing to their high abundances, generally followed by macropods. This supports humans as spillover hosts, and that human-mosquito and possum-mosquito transmission is predominant during epidemics. Sensitivity analyses indicate these findings to be robust across epidemic centres. We emphasize the importance of considering abundance and competence in identifying key hosts (during epidemics in this case), and that competence alone is inadequate. Knowledge of host importance in disease transmission may help to equip health agencies to bring about greater effectiveness of disease mitigation strategies.

  11. Cahermoyle House Nursing Home, Ardagh, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Calpin, P

    2016-11-01

    We sought to compare the weight of patient’s medical records (MRW) to that of standardised surgical risk scoring systems in predicting postoperative hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality in patients with hip fracture. Patients admitted for surgical treatment of a newly diagnosed hip fracture over a 3-month period were enrolled. Patients with documented morbidity or mortality had significantly heavier medical records. The MRW was equivalent to the age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index and better than the American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status score (ASA), the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM,) and Portsmouth-POSSUM score (P-POSSUM) in correlation with length of hospital admission, p = .003, 95% CI [.15 to .65]. Using logistic regression analysis MRW was as good as, if not better, than the other scoring systems at predicting postoperative morbidity and 90-day mortality. Medical record weight is as good as, or better than, validated surgical risk scoring methods. Larger, multicentre studies are required to validate its use as a surgical risk prediction tool, and it may in future be supplanted by a digital measure of electronic record size. Given its ease of use and low cost, it could easily be used in trauma units globally.

  12. Short and medium-term outcomes for general surgery in nonagenarian patients in a district general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A J; Davda, A; El-Hadi, M; Murphy, P; Papettas, T

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Surgeons are increasingly performing surgery on older patients. There are currently no tools specifically for risk prediction in this group. The aim of this study was to review general surgical operations carried out on patients aged over 90 years and their outcome, before comparing these with predictors of morbidity and mortality. Methods A retrospective review was carried out at our district general hospital of all general surgery patients aged over 90 years who underwent a general surgical operation over a period of 14 years. Information collected included demographics, details of procedures, P-POSSUM (Portsmouth Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity), complications and outcomes. Results A total of 119 procedures were carried out, 72 involving entry into the peritoneal cavity. Overall, 14 patients (12%) died within 30 days and 34 (29%) died within one year. Postoperative complications included infection (56%), renal failure (24%), need for transfusion (17%) and readmission within 30 days (11%). Logistical regression analysis showed that the P-POSSUM correlated well with observed mortality and infection was a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (p=0.003). Conclusions The P-POSSUM correlates significantly with outcome and should be used when planning major elective or emergency surgery in patients over 90 years of age. Infective complications appear to be a significant predictor of postoperative mortality. This study supports operative intervention as an option in this extreme age group but we emphasise the importance of appropriate patient selection and judicious clinical care.

  13. Medical record weight (MRW): a new reliable predictor of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality in the hip fracture population?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Calpin, P

    2016-11-01

    We sought to compare the weight of patient’s medical records (MRW) to that of standardised surgical risk scoring systems in predicting postoperative hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality in patients with hip fracture. Patients admitted for surgical treatment of a newly diagnosed hip fracture over a 3-month period were enrolled. Patients with documented morbidity or mortality had significantly heavier medical records. The MRW was equivalent to the age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index and better than the American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status score (ASA), the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM,) and Portsmouth-POSSUM score (P-POSSUM) in correlation with length of hospital admission, p = .003, 95% CI [.15 to .65]. Using logistic regression analysis MRW was as good as, if not better, than the other scoring systems at predicting postoperative morbidity and 90-day mortality. Medical record weight is as good as, or better than, validated surgical risk scoring methods. Larger, multicentre studies are required to validate its use as a surgical risk prediction tool, and it may in future be supplanted by a digital measure of electronic record size. Given its ease of use and low cost, it could easily be used in trauma units globally.

  14. Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal contamination of rainwater tanks.

  15. Distinguishing succulent plants from crop and woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Everitt, J. H.; Richardson, A. J.; Rodriguez, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    We compared laboratory spectrophotometrically measured leaf reflectances of six succulents (peperomia, possum-grape, prickly pear, spiderwort, Texas tuberose, wolfberry) with those of four nonsucculents (cenizo, honey mesquite, cotton, sugarcane) for plant species discrimination. Succulents (average leaf water content of 92.2 percent) could be distinguished from nonsucculents (average leaf water content of 71.2 percent) within the near-infrared water absorption waveband (1.35 to 2.5 microns). This was substantiated by field spectrophotometric reflectances of plant canopies. Sensor bands encompassing either the 1.6- or 2.2-wavelengths may be useful to distinguish succulent from nonsucculent plant species.

  16. The Voices of Women in the Night: Veronica and Judith

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    Shirley Walker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available quite often leave the radio playing all night on the bedside table; my only company in an all too empty house. It shuts out the noises of the night: the cry of the great owl in the rain-forest trees, the scurrying of possums on the roof, or the rustle of the neighbourhood carpet snake, a beautiful multi-coloured python, slithering into or out of the roof-space. I’m used to him (or her. She’s harmless —just another presence in the night.

  17. Consommation de la viande de brousse dans la zone du Parc National de Conkouati-Douli, Congo (Brazzaville: nature du gibier et modalités de consommation

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    Makosso Vheiye, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of Bushmeat in the Conkouati-Douli National Park, Congo (Brazzaville: Nature of Game and Characteristics of Consumption. In order to identify the species hunted in the Conkouati- Douli National Park (CDNP, Brazzaville (Congo and to appreciate the methods of consumption of the bushmeat by the bordering populations, 52 hunters from 16 to 62 years old were a surveying over a period of one month and half. The results indicate that hunt to involve rodents, bovidae, various carnivores, suidae, reptiles and birds. However, the african brush-tailed porcupines (Atherurus africanus and blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola were the most appreciated animals. The modes of consumption of the bushmeat were diversified. The smoked meat was used most frequently (48.1% followed by fresh meat consumption (40.2%. All political and legislative measurements are to be necessary to preserve the resources of this protected area.

  18. Mortality risk factor analysis in colonic perforation: would retroperitoneal contamination increase mortality in colonic perforation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ri Na; Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Gun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2017-10-01

    Colonic perforation is a lethal condition presenting high morbidity and mortality in spite of urgent surgical treatment. This study investigated the surgical outcome of patients with colonic perforation associated with retroperitoneal contamination. Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 patients diagnosed with colonic perforation caused by either inflammation or ischemia who underwent urgent surgical treatment in our facility from January 2005 to December 2014. Patient characteristics were analyzed to find risk factors correlated with increased postoperative mortality. Using the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) audit system, the mortality and morbidity rates were estimated to verify the surgical outcomes. Patients with retroperitoneal contamination, defined by the presence of retroperitoneal air in the preoperative abdominopelvic CT, were compared to those without retroperitoneal contamination. Eight out of 30 patients (26.7%) with colonic perforation had died after urgent surgical treatment. Factors associated with mortality included age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and the ischemic cause of colonic perforation. Three out of 6 patients (50%) who presented retroperitoneal contamination were deceased. Although the patients with retroperitoneal contamination did not show significant increase in the mortality rate, they showed significantly higher ASA physical status classification than those without retroperitoneal contamination. The mortality rate predicted from Portsmouth POSSUM was higher in the patients with retroperitoneal contamination. Patients presenting colonic perforation along with retroperitoneal contamination demonstrated severe comorbidity. However, retroperitoneal contamination was not found to be correlated with the mortality rate.

  19. Preoperative early warning scores can predict in-hospital mortality and critical care admission following emergency surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, Giuseppe; Ganga, Ramarao; Neal, Christopher P; Ong, Seok L; Dennison, Ashley R; Berry, David P

    2010-04-01

    EWS is frequently used to monitor acute admissions requiring emergency surgery. This study examined preoperative early warning scoring (EWS) and its ability to predict mortality and critical care admission. Postoperative EWS was also evaluated as a predictor of mortality. Preoperative EWS, age, physiologic and operative severity (POSSUM) scores, ASA grade, and serology were compared in 280 patients undergoing emergency surgery. Two hundred eighty patients were identified with a mortality of 15%. Among the physiological scoring systems, ASA grade and POSSUM scores were the best predictors of mortality (AUC values of 0.81). EWS, APACHE II, and age were the next best predictors (AUC values of 0.70). Postoperative APACHE II and EWS both predicted mortality. EWS on day 2 postoperatively was the best overall predictor of mortality of all the variables studied (AUC value of 0.83). Survival between patients with "improving or stable" EWS and those with "deteriorating or failing to improve" EWS was also found to be significantly different (P scores improve or deteriorate, is a highly significant factor in predicting survival following emergency surgery. These findings support the use of EWS in monitoring the acute surgical patient.

  20. Morphological aspects of the salivary glands of Crab-eating racoon (Procyon cancrivorus - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.12675

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    Eugênio Gonçalves de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Procyon cancrivorus is a wild mammal from the Procyonidae family, being one of the least studied Brazilian carnivores. The aim of this study was to describe the morphological aspects of the salivary glands of Procyon cancrivorus, and to compare with literature data on the morphology of domestic animals and wilds animals, such as coatis and possums. Three adult animals were collected on highways (roadkilled, fixed 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and submitted to desiccation. The salivary glands of the crab-eating raccoon are formed by the parotid, mandibular, sublingual and zygomatic glands. The parotid gland shows irregularly triangular shape with its respective duct. The mandible gland shows rounded outline surrounded by a fibrous capsule with its respective duct. The sublingual gland is divided into two parts: the caudal part, located in the occiptomandibular region of the digastric muscle and the rostral part between the tunica mucosa of the mouth and the mylohyoid muscle with its respective duct. The zygomatic gland is small and rounded, located in the rostral part of the pterygopalatine fossa with its respective duct. The morphology of the salivary glands of crab-eating raccoon presents great similarity in shape and arrangement with the glands of dog, cat, coatis and possum.  

  1. Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability

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    Rodney van der Ree

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are pervasive components of landscapes throughout the world: they cause wildlife mortality, disrupt animal movements, and increase the risk of extinction. Expensive engineering solutions, such as overpasses and tunnels, are increasingly being adopted to mitigate these effects. Although some species readily use such structures, their success in preventing population extinction remains unknown. Here, we use population viability modeling to assess the effectiveness of tunnels for the endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus in Australia. The underpasses reduced, but did not completely remove, the negative effects of a road. The expected minimum population size of a "reconnected" population remained 15% lower than that of a comparable "undivided" population. We propose that the extent to which the risk of extinction decreases should be adopted as a measure of effectiveness of mitigation measures and that the use of population modeling become routine in these evaluations.

  2. Damage Control Orthopedics Management as Vital Procedure in Elderly Patients with Femoral Neck Fractures Complicated with Chronic Renal Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenhui; Wang, Yunjiao; Wang, Ziming; Wang, Yu; Wu, Siyu; Du, Quanyin; Wang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes to hip fractures in elderly patients, with high subsequent mortality. Selection and timing of the surgical procedure of such patients is a serious challenge. Many clinicians believe in earlier surgery as preferable and providing better outcomes. Damage control orthopedics (DCO) aids to adjust and optimize the overall condition of patients. Methods In 32 patients with femoral neck fractures complicated with CRF, we evaluated how the timing of the surgery determines the mortality rates if the DCO approach is applied. Preoperative ASA grading, POSSUM score, P-POSSUM score and DCO were carried out. Based on the assessment, timing of the surgery was ascertained. Results Of a total of 32 patients, twenty-nine patients were accepted for either early (< 48 hours; n = 18) or delayed (3–10 days; n = 10) surgery. Hip arthroplasty (total hip arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty) was the principal surgery option. All patients survived operation and were followed up postoperatively with the average time of 30 days. Postoperative complications tended to occur at higher rates in the early vs. delayed surgery group (7/18 vs. 5/10). During follow up, a total of 3 patients died in both groups (2/18 in the early surgery and 1/10 in the delayed surgery group), mostly from multi-organ failures and acute respiratory distress syndrome. There was no significant difference in complication rates and Harris hip score between both groups. Conclusion In patients with femoral neck fracture complicated with CRF, delaying the surgery for several days does not increase the incidence of postoperative adverse events. PMID:27149117

  3. Damage Control Orthopedics Management as Vital Procedure in Elderly Patients with Femoral Neck Fractures Complicated with Chronic Renal Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhui Dong

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure (CRF predisposes to hip fractures in elderly patients, with high subsequent mortality. Selection and timing of the surgical procedure of such patients is a serious challenge. Many clinicians believe in earlier surgery as preferable and providing better outcomes. Damage control orthopedics (DCO aids to adjust and optimize the overall condition of patients.In 32 patients with femoral neck fractures complicated with CRF, we evaluated how the timing of the surgery determines the mortality rates if the DCO approach is applied. Preoperative ASA grading, POSSUM score, P-POSSUM score and DCO were carried out. Based on the assessment, timing of the surgery was ascertained.Of a total of 32 patients, twenty-nine patients were accepted for either early (< 48 hours; n = 18 or delayed (3-10 days; n = 10 surgery. Hip arthroplasty (total hip arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty was the principal surgery option. All patients survived operation and were followed up postoperatively with the average time of 30 days. Postoperative complications tended to occur at higher rates in the early vs. delayed surgery group (7/18 vs. 5/10. During follow up, a total of 3 patients died in both groups (2/18 in the early surgery and 1/10 in the delayed surgery group, mostly from multi-organ failures and acute respiratory distress syndrome. There was no significant difference in complication rates and Harris hip score between both groups.In patients with femoral neck fracture complicated with CRF, delaying the surgery for several days does not increase the incidence of postoperative adverse events.

  4. Can hibernators sense and evade fires? Olfactory acuity and locomotor performance during deep torpor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Julia; Delesalle, Marine; Stawski, Clare; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-10-01

    Increased habitat fragmentation, global warming and other human activities have caused a rise in the frequency of wildfires worldwide. To reduce the risks of uncontrollable fires, prescribed burns are generally conducted during the colder months of the year, a time when in many mammals torpor is expressed regularly. Torpor is crucial for energy conservation, but the low body temperatures ( T b) are associated with a decreased responsiveness and torpid animals might therefore face an increased mortality risk during fires. We tested whether hibernators in deep torpor (a) can respond to the smell of smoke and (b) can climb to avoid fires at T bs below normothermic levels. Our data show that torpid eastern pygmy-possums ( Cercartetus nanus) are able to detect smoke and also can climb. All males aroused from torpor when the smoke stimulus was presented at an ambient temperature ( T a) of 15 °C ( T b ˜18 °C), whereas females only raised their heads. The responses were less pronounced at T a 10 °C. The first coordinated movement of possums along a branch was observed at a mean T b of 15.6 °C, and animals were even able to climb their prehensile tail when they reached a mean T b of 24.4 °C. Our study shows that hibernators can sense smoke and move at low T b. However, our data also illustrate that at T b ≤13 °C, C. nanus show decreased responsiveness and locomotor performance and highlight that prescribed burns during winter should be avoided on very cold days to allow torpid animals enough time to respond.

  5. Strict Selection Criteria During Surgical Training Ensures Good Outcomes in Laparoscopic Omental Patch Repair (LOPR) for Perforated Peptic Ulcer (PPU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelat, Vishal G; Ahmed, Saleem; Chia, Clement L K; Cheah, Yee Lee

    2015-02-01

    Application of minimal access surgery in acute care surgery is limited due to various reasons. Laparoscopic omental patch repair (LOPR) for perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) surgery is safe and feasible but not widely implemented. We report our early experience of LOPR with emphasis on strict selection criteria. This is a descriptive study of all patients operated on for PPU at academic university-affiliated institutes from December 2010 to February 2012. All the patients who were operated on for LOPR were included as the study population and their records were studied. Perioperative outcomes, Boey score, Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), and physiologic and operative severity scores for enumeration of mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) scores were calculated. All the data were tabulated in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using Stata Version 8.x. (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). Fourteen patients had LOPR out of a total of 45 patients operated for the PPU. Mean age was 46 years (range 22-87 years). Twelve patients (86%) had a Boey score of 0 and all patients had MPI < 21 (mean MPI = 14). The predicted POSSUM morbidity and mortality were 36% and 7%, respectively. Mean ulcer size was 5 mm (range 2-10 mm), mean operating time was 100 minutes (range 70-123 minutes) and mean length of hospital stay was 4 days (range 3-6 days). There was no morbidity or mortality pertaining to LOPR. LOPR should be offered by acute care surgical teams when local expertise is available. This can optimize patient outcomes when strict selection criteria are applied.

  6. Fgfr1 signalling in the development of a sexually selected trait in vertebrates, the sword of swordtail fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offen, Nils; Blum, Nicola; Meyer, Axel; Begemann, Gerrit

    2008-10-09

    One of Darwin's chosen examples for his idea of sexual selection through female choice was the "sword", a colourful extension of the caudal fin of male swordtails of the genus Xiphophorus. Platyfish, also members of the genus Xiphophorus, are thought to have arisen from within the swordtails, but have secondarily lost the ability to develop a sword. The sustained increase of testosterone during sexual maturation initiates sword development in male swordtails. Addition of testosterone also induces sword-like fin extensions in some platyfish species, suggesting that the genetic interactions required for sword development may be dormant, rather than lost, within platyfish. Despite considerable interest in the evolution of the sword from a behavioural or evolutionary point of view, little is known about the developmental changes that resulted in the gain and secondary loss of the sword. Up-regulation of msxC had been shown to characterize the development of both swords and the gonopodium, a modified anal fin that serves as an intromittent organ, and prompted investigations of the regulatory mechanisms that control msxC and sword growth. By comparing both development and regeneration of caudal fins in swordtails and platyfish, we show that fgfr1 is strongly up-regulated in developing and regenerating sword and gonopodial rays. Characterization of the fin overgrowth mutant brushtail in a platyfish background confirmed that fin regeneration rates are correlated with the expression levels of fgfr1 and msxC. Moreover, brushtail re-awakens the dormant mechanisms of sword development in platyfish and activates fgfr1/msxC-signalling. Although both genes are co-expressed in scleroblasts, expression of msxC in the distal blastema may be independent of fgfr1. Known regulators of Fgf-signalling in teleost fins, fgf20a and fgf24, are transiently expressed only during regeneration and thus not likely to be required in developing swords. Our data suggest that Fgf-signalling is

  7. Dynamique de la filière viande de brousse dans la partie continentale du Rio Muni en Guinée équatoriale

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    Puit, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic of Bush Meat Networks in the Continental Region of Rio Muni in Equatorial Guinea. The aim of this study was to do surveys about bush meat networks around urban centers near the Monte Alen National Park in Equatorial Guinea. During 8 weeks, in the Mundoasi market, one of two principal market of Bata, 4328 wild animal carcases have been indexed, representating 22,600 kg of biomass. A total of 48 animals species have been identified, including 14 which hunting are prohibited. The mammals represent 91.87% of total number with 3 dominants orders, ungulates (37.7%, primates (28.6% and rodents (18%. The duiker (Cephalophus, the African Brushtailed Porcupine and Guenon are the most important. The district of Niefang, Bata and Evinayong are the principal sources of supply. Hunting with gun becomes very important, follow by snaring, a very wasteful method. Despite that this business squarely growth, signs of wildlife decrease are perceptible, showing evidence of overexploitation. As far as Monte Alen National Park is concerned, this study shows the positive effects of this protected area as wildlife reservoir for peripheral hunting zones.

  8. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, Nélida R; Driscoll, Don A; Escobar, Martín A H; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will

  9. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida R Villaseñor

    Full Text Available With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula. We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1 habitat quality/preference, (2 species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3 spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This

  10. Inheritance of resistance to mammalian herbivores and of plant defensive chemistry in an Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Potts, Brad M; McArthur, Clare; Davies, Noel W; Tilyard, Paul

    2005-02-01

    Hybridization in plants provides an opportunity to investigate the patterns of inheritance of hybrid resistance to herbivores, and of the plant mechanisms conferring this resistance such as plant secondary metabolites. We investigated how inter-race differences in resistance of Eucalyptus globulus to a generalist mammalian herbivore, Trichosurus vulpecula, are inherited in their Fl hybrids. We assessed browsing damage of 3-year-old trees in a common environment field trial on four hybrid types of known progeny. The progeny were artificial intra-race crosses and reciprocal inter-race F1 hybrids of two geographically distinct populations (races) of E. globulus north-eastern Tasmania and south-eastern Tasmania. Populations of trees from north-eastern Tasmania are relatively susceptible to browsing by T. vulpecula, while populations from south-eastern Tasmania are more resistant. We assessed the preferences of these trees in a series of paired feeding trials with captive animals to test the field trial results and also investigated the patterns of inheritance of plant secondary metabolites. Our results demonstrated that the phenotypic expression of resistance of the inter-race Fl hybrids supported the additive pattern of inheritance, as these hybrids were intermediate in resistance compared to the pure parental hybrids. The expression of plant secondary metabolites in the Fl hybrids varied among major groups of individual compounds. The most common pattern supported was dominance towards one of the parental types. Together, condensed tannins and essential oils appeared to explain the observed patterns of resistance among the four hybrid types. While both chemical groups were inherited in a dominant manner in the inter-race Fl hybrids, the direction of dominance was opposite. Their combined concentration, however, was inherited in an additive manner, consistent with the phenotypic differences in browsing.

  11. Parasite and predator risk assessment: nuanced use of olfactory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John G; Garnick, Sarah; Elgar, Mark A; Coulson, Graeme

    2015-10-22

    Foraging herbivores face twin threats of predation and parasite infection, but the risk of predation has received much more attention. We evaluated, experimentally, the role of olfactory cues in predator and parasite risk assessment on the foraging behaviour of a population of marked, free-ranging, red-necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus). The wallabies adjusted their behaviour according to these olfactory cues. They foraged less, were more vigilant and spent less time at feeders placed in the vicinity of faeces from dogs that had consumed wallaby or kangaroo meat compared with that of dogs feeding on sheep, rabbit or possum meat. Wallabies also showed a species-specific faecal aversion by consuming less food from feeders contaminated with wallaby faeces compared with sympatric kangaroo faeces, whose gastrointestinal parasite fauna differs from that of the wallabies. Combining both parasite and predation cues in a single field experiment revealed that these risks had an additive effect, rather than the wallabies compromising their response to one risk at the expense of the other. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Preoperative depression and hospital length of stay in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerper, L F; Spies, C D; Buspavanich, P; Balzer, F; Salz, A L; Tafelski, S; Lau, A; Weiß-Gerlach, E; Neumann, T; Glaesmer, H; Wernecke, K D; Brähler, E; Krampe, H

    2014-09-01

    The association of depression and hospital length of stay (LOS) has rarely been examined in surgical patients outside of cardiovascular surgery. This study investigates whether clinically significant preoperative depression shows an independent association with LOS in patients from various surgical fields after adjusting for age, gender and important somatic factors. A total of 2624 surgical patients were included in this prospective observational study. Data were collected before the preoperative anesthesiological examination within a computer-assisted psychosocial self-assessment including screening for depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D). Data on peri- and postoperative somatic parameters were obtained from the electronic patient management system of the hospital six months after the preoperative assessment. LOS of patients with clinically significant depression (N.=296; median: 5 days, interquartile range: 3-8 days) was longer than LOS of patients without depression (N.=2328; median: 4 days, interquartile range: 2-6 days) (Psurgical field and POSSUM operative severity rating. Data suggest that the association of depression and LOS is independent of the impact of age, gender, surgical field, preoperative physical health, severity of medical comorbidity and extent of surgical procedure. Integration of depression therapy into routine care of surgical patients might be an option to improve outcomes.

  13. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA not detected in faecal samples from Buruli ulcer patients: results of a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred S Sarfo

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that in a Buruli ulcer (BU endemic region of southeastern Australia, significant numbers of possums (native tree-dwelling marsupials have clinical BU disease. Furthermore, based on quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis, animals with BU lesions (and some without shed M. ulcerans DNA in their faeces, indicative of bacterial loads of up to 10(8 organisms/gram. These findings led us to propose that humans might also harbour M. ulcerans in their gastrointestinal tract and shed the bacterium in their faeces. We conducted a pilot study and collected faecal swabs from 26 patients with confirmed BU and 31 healthy household controls. Faecal samples were also collected from 10 healthy controls from non-endemic regions in Ghana. All 67 specimens were negative when tested by IS2404 PCR. The detection sensitivity of this method was ≥10(4 bacteria per gram (wet-weight of human faecal material. We conclude that the human gastrointestinal tract is unlikely to be a significant reservoir of M. ulcerans.

  14. Diversity of Color Vision: Not All Australian Marsupials Are Trichromatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Wiebke; Natoli, Riccardo C.; Hemmi, Jan M.

    2010-01-01

    Color vision in marsupials has recently emerged as a particularly interesting case among mammals. It appears that there are both dichromats and trichromats among closely related species. In contrast to primates, marsupials seem to have evolved a different type of trichromacy that is not linked to the X-chromosome. Based on microspectrophotometry and retinal whole-mount immunohistochemistry, four trichromatic marsupial species have been described: quokka, quenda, honey possum, and fat-tailed dunnart. It has, however, been impossible to identify the photopigment of the third cone type, and genetically, all evidence so far suggests that all marsupials are dichromatic. The tammar wallaby is the only Australian marsupial to date for which there is no evidence of a third cone type. To clarify whether the wallaby is indeed a dichromat or trichromatic like other Australian marsupials, we analyzed the number of cone types in the “dichromatic” wallaby and the “trichromatic” dunnart. Employing identical immunohistochemical protocols, we confirmed that the wallaby has only two cone types, whereas 20–25% of cones remained unlabeled by S- and LM-opsin antibodies in the dunnart retina. In addition, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the rod photopigment (rod opsin) is expressed in cones which would have explained the absence of a third cone opsin gene. Our study is the first comprehensive and quantitative account of color vision in Australian marsupials where we now know that an unexpected diversity of different color vision systems appears to have evolved. PMID:21151905

  15. Diversity of color vision: not all Australian marsupials are trichromatic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Ebeling

    Full Text Available Color vision in marsupials has recently emerged as a particularly interesting case among mammals. It appears that there are both dichromats and trichromats among closely related species. In contrast to primates, marsupials seem to have evolved a different type of trichromacy that is not linked to the X-chromosome. Based on microspectrophotometry and retinal whole-mount immunohistochemistry, four trichromatic marsupial species have been described: quokka, quenda, honey possum, and fat-tailed dunnart. It has, however, been impossible to identify the photopigment of the third cone type, and genetically, all evidence so far suggests that all marsupials are dichromatic. The tammar wallaby is the only Australian marsupial to date for which there is no evidence of a third cone type. To clarify whether the wallaby is indeed a dichromat or trichromatic like other Australian marsupials, we analyzed the number of cone types in the "dichromatic" wallaby and the "trichromatic" dunnart. Employing identical immunohistochemical protocols, we confirmed that the wallaby has only two cone types, whereas 20-25% of cones remained unlabeled by S- and LM-opsin antibodies in the dunnart retina. In addition, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the rod photopigment (rod opsin is expressed in cones which would have explained the absence of a third cone opsin gene. Our study is the first comprehensive and quantitative account of color vision in Australian marsupials where we now know that an unexpected diversity of different color vision systems appears to have evolved.

  16. [Mycobacterium bovis in wildlife of the dairy regions of Santa Fe (Argentina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Alejandro A; Garbaccio, Sergio; Zumárraga, Martín; Tarabla, Héctor D

    2015-01-01

    Control eradication campaigns of bovine tuberculosis based on the «test and slaughter» approach were successful in many countries and regions; however, in some areas the infection persists and one of the main reasons is Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild life species. Argentina has applied the same approach since 1999, achieving progress in dairy cattle herds. Nonetheless, the wildlife role has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if wildlife from the Santa Fe dairy area is infected with M. bovis. Wildlife species having a positive tuberculin skin test were captured in five dairy farms. Ninety five wildlife mammals were captured; M. bovis was recovered from 7 possums (Didelphys albiventris), from one fox (Lycolapex gimnocercus) and from one rat (Rattus norvegicus). None of the animals exhibited macroscopic lesions. The most frequently isolated M. bovis spoligotypes were types 34 (4 isolates) and 12 (3 isolates). Spoligotype 34 is the most frequently isolated type in Argentine cattle. The role of D. albiventris as spillover host of M. bovis is discussed in this study. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of imbalanced nutrients and immigration on Prymnesium parvum community dominance and toxicity: Results from in-lake microcosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errera, R.M.; Roelke, D.L.; Kiesling, R.L.; Brooks, B.W.; Grover, J.P.; Schwierzke, L.; Urena-Boeck, F.; Baker, J.W.; Pinckney, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Prymnesium parvum, a haptophyte species, forms harmful blooms, including those that have caused severe fish kills in Texas, USA, over the past 6 yr. We studied P. parvum dynamics using in situ microcosm experiments at Lake Possum Kingdom, Texas, during 3 seasons (fall 2004, winter and spring 2005). Experimental treatments included full and partial nutrient enrichment (encompassing nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P] deficient treatments), P. parvum immigration and combinations of these factors. In the control and N and P deficient treatments, P. parvum populations dominated the community, but only in the N deficient treatments did P. parvum experience a significant growth in the population. In contrast, when nutrients were not limiting, P. parvum tended to lose its competitive edge to other taxa such as chlorophytes, euglenophytes and diatoms, which then dominated the community. Population growth of P. parvum was also stimulated through immigration, but only during the winter experiment, a period of the year when bloom initiation is common. This finding suggests that movement into the water column may be an important process leading to P. parvum bloom initiation. Toxicity of P. parvum to fish was also affected by the nutrient changes: during conditions of no nutrient addition P. parvum was most toxic; intermediate toxicity was observed under N and P deficient conditions, and full nutrient enrichments resulted in nearly non-toxic conditions. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  18. B-chromosome systems in the greater glider, Petauroides volans (Marsupialia: Pseudocheiridae). II. Investigation of B-chromosome DNA sequences isolated by micromanipulation and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, L R; Hill, R J; Francis, D

    1994-01-01

    B chromosomes, despite their common occurrence throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, have not been investigated extensively at the molecular level. While the majority of B chromosomes occurring in animals have been described as heterochromatic, only a few researchers have examined the DNA of these chromosomes beyond this gross cytological level. This is the case in the largest of the gliding marsupial possums, the greater glider, Petauroides volans. To examine the molecular composition and localization of B-chromosome DNA sequences in P. volans, a combination of micromanipulation and the polymerase chain reaction was used in this study to isolate and then amplify the DNA of the B chromosomes. Localization of the isolated B-chromosome sequences to metaphase chromosomes was investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The B chromosomes in this species are shown to be composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sequences, some of which are unique to the B chromosomes, while others exhibit homology to the centromeric regions of the autosomal complement.

  19. Postoperative outcome after oesophagectomy for cancer: Nutritional status is the missing ring in the current prognostic scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, B; Scarpa, M; Cavallin, F; Cagol, M; Alfieri, R; Saadeh, L; Ancona, E; Castoro, C

    2015-06-01

    Several prognostic scores were designed in order to estimate the risk of postoperative adverse events. None of them includes a component directly associated to the nutritional status. The aims of the study were the evaluation of performance of risk-adjusted models for early outcomes after oesophagectomy and to develop a score for severe complication prediction with special consideration regarding nutritional status. A comparison of POSSUM and Charlson score and their derivates, ASA, Lagarde score and nutritional index (PNI) was performed on 167 patients undergoing oesophagectomy for cancer. A logistic regression model was also estimated to obtain a new prognostic score for severe morbidity prediction. Overall morbidity was 35.3% (59 cases), severe complications (grade III-V of Clavien-Dindo classification) occurred in 20 cases. Discrimination was poor for all the scores. Multivariable analysis identified pulse, connective tissue disease, PNI and potassium as independent predictors of severe morbidity. This model showed good discrimination and calibration. Internal validation using standard bootstrapping techniques confirmed the good performance. Nutrition could be an independent risk factor for major complications and a nutritional status coefficient could be included in current prognostic scores to improve risk estimation of major postoperative complications after oesophagectomy for cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Hunting for Livelihood in Northeast Gabon: Patterns, Evolution, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We suggest an ethno-biological approach to analyze the cultural and social drivers of hunting activities and assess sustainability in villages near Makokou, northeast Gabon, based on interviews with hunters, participatory mapping of hunting territories, and daily records of offtakes for 1 yr. Hunting in villages of northeast Gabon is practiced for both local consumption and cash income to cover basic family expenses. There appears to be no clear tendency to abandon subsistence hunting for commercial hunting as in other regions of Africa. Cultural and socioeconomic factors explain the temporal and spatial variation in hunting activities. Hunting increases in the dry season during circumcision ceremonies, when it is practiced mainly at > 10 km from villages, and decreases during the rainy season because most hunters are occupied by other economic activities. Degraded forest such as secondary regrowth supplies 20% of the animals killed and the greatest diversity of species at short distances from villages. Mature forest supplies the species with the greatest commercial value, e.g., red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus, and is the preferred source of meat for traditional ceremonies. In the last 15 yr, hunting patterns have changed rapidly, mainly because of the spread of gun hunting, which had serious implications for the nature of offtakes. Our results suggest that there is potential to allow hunting for resistant species such as blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola and African brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus. Other species such as red river hog and small diurnal monkeys require more attention. Specific management systems could be discussed in participatory hunting management plans to identify possible solutions to maintain the population levels of the more critical species.

  1. Does bipedality predict the group-level manual laterality in mammals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Giljov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining patterns of laterality manifestation in mammals remain unclear. In primates, the upright posture favours the expression of manual laterality across species, but may have little influence within a species. Whether the bipedalism acts the same in non-primate mammals is unknown. Our recent findings in bipedal and quadrupedal marsupials suggested that differences in laterality pattern, as well as emergence of manual specialization in evolution might depend on species-specific body posture. Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that the postural characteristics are the key variable shaping the manual laterality expression across mammalian species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied forelimb preferences in a most bipedal marsupial, brush-tailed bettong, Bettongia penicillata in four different types of unimanual behavior. The significant left-forelimb preference at the group level was found in all behaviours studied. In unimanual feeding on non-living food, catching live prey and nest-material collecting, all or most subjects were lateralized, and among lateralized bettongs a significant majority displayed left-forelimb bias. Only in unimanual supporting of the body in the tripedal stance the distribution of lateralized and non-lateralized individuals did not differ from chance. Individual preferences were consistent across all types of behaviour. The direction or the strength of forelimb preferences were not affected by the animals' sex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support the hypothesis that the expression of manual laterality depends on the species-typical postural habit. The interspecies comparison illustrates that in marsupials the increase of bipedality corresponds with the increase of the degree of group-level forelimb preference in a species. Thus, bipedalism can predict pronounced manual laterality at both intra- and interspecific levels in mammals. We also conclude that quadrupedal position in

  2. Base flow (1966-2009) and streamflow gain and loss (2010) of the Brazos River from the New Mexico-Texas State line to Waco, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Schalla, Frank E.

    2012-01-01

    .28 and 0.23, respectively. The largest median base-flow index for any station was 0.35 at USGS streamflow-gaging station 08091500 Paluxy River at Glen Rose, Tex. The second largest base-flow index was 0.30 at USGS streamflow-gaging station 08095000 North Bosque River near Clifton, Tex. Median base-flow indexes on the main stem of the Brazos River upstream from Possum Kingdom Lake were 0.22 at USGS streamflow-gaging station 08082500 Brazos River at Seymour, Tex., and 0.24 at USGS streamflow-gaging station 08088000 Brazos River near South Bend, Tex. The base-flow indexes for stations between Possum Kingdom Lake and Lake Granbury were 0.19 and 0.27 at USGS streamflow-gaging stations 08089000 Brazos River near Palo Pinto, Tex., and 08090800 Brazos River near Dennis, Tex., respectively. A median base-flow index of 0.19 was also measured at USGS streamflow-gaging station 08091000 Brazos River near Glen Rose, Tex., located between Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney. A Mann-Kendall trend analysis test was performed on annual base-flow index values from each of the 11 streamflow records that were analyzed. Upward trends in base-flow index values indicating increasing flows during the study period were found for USGS streamflow-gaging stations 08080500 Double Mountain Fork Brazos River near Aspermont, Tex., 08089000 Brazos River near Palo Pinto, Tex., and 08090800 Brazos River near Dennis, Tex. Flows at these three streamflow-gaging stations are regulated by reservoir releases, and additional analyses are needed before these streamflow trends can be characterized as indicative of changes in base flow over time.

  3. Automated analysis protocol for high resolution BOLD-fMRI mapping of the fingertip somatotopy in brodmann area 3b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannmöller, Jörg P; Schweizer, Renate; Lotze, Martin

    2016-02-01

    To introduce a standardized and automatized method for functional MRI (fMRI) examinations of the cortical sensory somatotopy in large samples for investigations of the fingertip somatotopy in the primary somatosensory cortex. At 3 Tesla, T2* (spin-spin relaxation time) weighted images (gradient-echo echo planar imaging, voxel size 1.5 × 1.5 × 2 mm3) were acquired during stimulation of the finger tips for thumb, index and middle finger on both hands, in a group of 18 healthy participants. In addition, structural T1 weighted (magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo, isotropic voxel size 1 mm) and MR-angiography (time of flight, voxel size 0.26 × 0.26 × 0.5 mm3) images were recorded. Boundary based register served to combine movement correction and registration in FreeSurfer Functional analysis stream (FS-Fast), resulting in fine scale corrections, as revealed with FSL Possum (FSL FMRIB Software Library Physics-Oriented Simulated Scanner for Understanding MRI) simulations. Automated data analysis was achieved by inclusion of cytoarchitectonic probability maps for calculation of functional activation in Brodmann area 3b. Draining vessel artifacts were identified using the peak value approach and the MR-angiography. Distances were computed as the shortest connection within the gray matter. The fMRI somatotopic maps agreed with the expected fingertip somatotopy in 63% of the investigated subjects, an improvement of 34% compared with FS-Fast. Artifacts have been removed completely. Adjacent fingertips showed average distances of 8 ± 4.3 mm, and between thumb and middle finger 13.4 ± 4.8 mm was found. Distances for both hands were similar as expected from the characteristics of the fingertip spatial tactile resolution. The introduced evaluation procedure allowed automated analysis of the fingertip representation in excellent agreement with preceding results. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Consistent patterns of vehicle collision risk for six mammal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintin, Casey; van der Ree, Rodney; McCarthy, Michael A

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence and rate of wildlife-vehicle collisions are related to both anthropocentric and environmental variables, however, few studies compare collision risks for multiple species within a model framework that is adaptable and transferable. Our research compares collision risk for multiple species across a large geographic area using a conceptually simple risk framework. We used six species of native terrestrial mammal often involved with wildlife-vehicle collisions in south-east Australia. We related collisions reported to a wildlife organisation to the co-occurrence of each species and a threatening process (presence and movement of road vehicles). For each species, we constructed statistical models from wildlife atlas data to predict occurrence across geographic space. Traffic volume and speed on road segments (also modelled) characterised the magnitude of threatening processes. The species occurrence models made plausible spatial predictions. Each model reduced the unexplained variation in patterns and distributions of species between 29.5% (black wallaby) and 34.3% (koala). The collision models reduced the unexplained variation in collision event data between 7.4% (koala) and 19.4% (common ringtail possum) with predictor variables correlating similarly with collision risk across species. Road authorities and environmental managers need simple and flexible tools to inform projects. Our model framework is useful for directing mitigation efforts (e.g. on road effects or species presence), predicting risk across differing spatial and temporal scales and target species, inferring patterns of threat, and identifying areas warranting additional data collection, analysis, and study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    some members of Diprotodontia are of comparable encephalization to eutherians of similar body weight. In particular, honey possums and some gliders show an encephalization level comparable to prosimians, perhaps reflecting convergence in adaptation to similar arboreal niches. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Stress triangle: do introduced predators exert indirect costs on native predators and prey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Anson

    Full Text Available Non-consumptive effects of predators on each other and on prey populations often exceed the effects of direct predation. These effects can arise from fear responses elevating glucocorticoid (GC hormone levels (predator stress hypothesis or from increased vigilance that reduces foraging efficiency and body condition (predator sensitive foraging hypothesis; both responses can lead to immunosuppression and increased parasite loads. Non-consumptive effects of invasive predators have been little studied, even though their direct impacts on local species are usually greater than those of their native counterparts. To address this issue, we explored the non-consumptive effects of the invasive red fox Vulpes vulpes on two native species in eastern Australia: a reptilian predator, the lace monitor Varanus varius and a marsupial, the ringtail possum Pseudocheirus peregrinus. In particular, we tested predictions derived from the above two hypotheses by comparing the basal glucocorticoid levels, foraging behaviour, body condition and haemoparasite loads of both native species in areas with and without fox suppression. Lace monitors showed no GC response or differences in haemoparasite loads but were more likely to trade safety for higher food rewards, and had higher body condition, in areas of fox suppression than in areas where foxes remained abundant. In contrast, ringtails showed no physiological or behavioural differences between fox-suppressed and control areas. Predator sensitive foraging is a non-consumptive cost for lace monitors in the presence of the fox and most likely represents a response to competition. The ringtail's lack of response to the fox potentially represents complete naiveté or strong and rapid selection to the invasive predator. We suggest evolutionary responses are often overlooked in interactions between native and introduced species, but must be incorporated if we are to understand the suite of forces that shape community

  7. Why biosecurity matters: students' knowledge of biosecurity and implications for future engagement with biosecurity initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Rajesh; France, Bev; Birdsall, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on biosecurity is important as New Zealand's agricultural export-driven economy is susceptible to biosecurity threats. Because New Zealand is reliant on the primary industries to drive its economy, bovine diseases such as foot and mouth could have a devastating effect on the economy. Purpose: Making sure that the general public are aware of the importance of maintaining biosecurity is crucial in order to protect New Zealand's economy, human health, the environment, and social and cultural values. New Zealand Year 9 students' knowledge of biosecurity was gauged as these students represented the next generation of individuals tasked to maintain biosecurity in New Zealand. Design: A qualitative approach using the interpretive mode of inquiry was used to investigate the knowledge about biosecurity with New Zealand Year 9 students. Questionnaires and interviews were the data collection tools. Sample: One hundred and seventy-one students completed a questionnaire that consisted of Likert-type questions and open-ended questions. Nine students were interviewed about their knowledge. Results: The findings showed that New Zealand Year 9 students lacked specific knowledge about unwanted plants, animals and microorganisms. These students saw illicit drug plants as unwanted plants and mainly saw possums as unwanted animals in New Zealand. Their knowledge about unwanted microorganisms in New Zealand was dominated by human-disease-causing microbes. A lack of knowledge of biosecurity issues in New Zealand was seen as the major factor in these students limited understanding of biosecurity. Conclusions: Based on these findings, it can be said that knowledge of an issue is critical in enabling individuals to develop an understanding about biosecurity. Explicit teaching of biosecurity-related curriculum topics could provide New Zealand Year 9 students with an opportunity to develop knowledge about biosecurity in New Zealand.

  8. [Diagnosis and risk assessment of postoperative complications of gastric cancer in Japan and Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Chi

    2017-02-25

    Radical surgery of gastric cancer (D2 lymph node dissection) as the standard operation is widely used in clinical practice and satisfactory prognosis can be obtained in patients who receive radical gastrectomy. But surgical invasion can cause high morbidity of complications and mortality. The data of large-scale evidence-based medical clinical trials and large databases in Japan and Korea showed that anastomotic leakage, pancreatic leakage and abdominal abscess were the most common complications after gastrectomy, and the morbidity of complication was about 20% and mortality was about 1%. The risk factors such as elderly, obesity, and comorbidities may increase the morbidity of complications and mortality, and these factors were regarded as poor predictors after operation. Postoperative complications criteria of gastric cancer surgery is mainly used with Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications as international standard, and this criteria is also used in Korea. The postoperative complications are evaluated with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.0) and Japanese Clinical Oncology Group(JCOG) postoperative complications criteria for grading definitions of postoperative complications after gastric surgery in Japan. These classifications of postoperative complications criteria were adopted widely in Japan with large-scale evidence-based medical clinical trials of gastric cancer. PS, ASA, POSSUM, E-PASS, APACHE-II(, Charison weighted index of comorbidities (WIC), Frailty Score was used in predicting postoperative mortality and morbidity in gastric cancer patients. These risk factors were assigned points in scoring systems to objectively evaluate risk of surgery, and surgical operation method was one of the risk factors on the basis of these scoring systems. We can use these scoring systems for choosing reasonable surgical methods and proper perioperative management.

  9. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospira Seropositivity in Beef Cattle, Sheep and Deer Farmers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J; Collins-Emerson, J M

    2017-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis that in New Zealand affects primarily people occupationally exposed to livestock. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of five Leptospira serovars in farmers working on cattle, sheep and deer farms that had the serological status of animals previously assessed and to identify risk factors for farmer seropositivity. A total of 178 farmers from 127 properties participated in the study. Blood samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira. Samples with a MAT titre ≥48 were considered seropositive. Using Bayesian statistical analysis, the median seroprevalence of Leptospira, all serovars combined, was estimated to be 6.6% (95% probability interval (PI) 3.6-10.9%). Risk factors associated with seropositivity were assisting deer or cattle calving, farming deer, having ≥25% of flat terrain and high abundance of wild deer on farm, while high possum abundance on farm was negatively associated with seropositivity. No association was observed between farmer serostatus and previously recorded livestock serology. Leptospira seropositivity was associated with influenza-like illness of farmers (RR = 1.7; 95% PI 1.0-2.5). Assuming a causal relationship, this suggested an annual risk of 1.3% (95% PI 0.0-3.0%) of influenza-like illnesses due to Leptospira infection in the population of farmers. The association between seropositivity and disease can be used to estimate the public health burden of leptospirosis in New Zealand. Identifying and understanding risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity can inform preventive measures, hence contributing to the reduction of leptospirosis incidence in farmers. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. A collaborative transdisciplinary "geriatric surgery service" ensures consistent successful outcomes in elderly colorectal surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok-Yang; Tan, Phyllis; Tan, Lawrence

    2011-07-01

    We hypothesized that a dedicated collaborative transdisciplinary Geriatric Surgery Service (GSS) will improve care for elderly colorectal surgery patients. Patients older than 75 years of age who underwent major colorectal surgery were included in this study. The Geriatric Surgery Service employed a transdisciplinary, collaborative model of care. There were frequent quality reviews and a patient-centered culture was ensured. Treatment protocols and checklists were instituted. Perioperative outcome data were collected prospectively between 2007 and 2009. These data were compared to those from similar patients not managed by the service. Success and failure of surgical treatment of the two groups were analyzed using CUSUM methodology. Failure was defined as mortality, prolonged hospital stay for any reason, including morbidity, and failure to regain preoperative function by 6 weeks. Twenty-nine patients managed by the GSS were compared to 52 patients who underwent standard treatment. The median age of the patients managed by the GSS was higher but there was no difference in the ASA score and predicted morbidity scores based on the POSSUM model. The GSS achieved lower mortality and major complication rates. A large majority (84.6%) of the patients managed by the GSS returned to preoperative functional status by 6 weeks. The GSS was able to produce a trend of successively desired outcomes consistently leading to the CUSUM curve exhibiting a sustained downward slope. This was in contrast to patients not managed by the GSS. The Geriatric Surgery Service, through its transdisciplinary, collaborative care processes, was able to achieve sustained superior outcomes compared to standard management.

  11. Establishment of an open database of realistic simulated data for evaluation of partial volume correction techniques in brain PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Ana [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Cuplov, Vesna [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Schott, Jonathan; Hutton, Brian; Thielemans, Kris [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Drobnjak, Ivana [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Dickson, John [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Bert, Julien [INSERM UMR1101, LaTIM, CHRU de Brest, Brest (France); Burgos, Ninon; Cardoso, Jorge; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Erlandsson, Kjell [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    The Partial Volume (PV) effect in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging leads to loss in quantification accuracy, which manifests in PV effects (small objects occupy partially the sensitive volume of the imaging instrument, resulting in blurred images). Simultaneous acquisition of PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) produces concurrent metabolic and anatomical information. The latter has proved to be very helpful for the correction of PV effects. Currently, there are several techniques used for PV correction. They can be applied directly during the reconstruction process or as a post-processing step after image reconstruction. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the different PV correction techniques in brain- PET, we are constructing a database of simulated data. Here we present the framework and steps involved in constructing this database. Static 18F-FDG epilepsy and 18F-Florbetapir amyloid dementia PET/MR were selected because of their very different characteristics. The methodology followed was based on four main steps: Image pre-processing, Ground Truth (GT) generation, MRI and PET data simulation and reconstruction. All steps used Open Source software and can therefore be repeated at any centre. The framework as well as the database will be freely accessible. Tools used included GIF, FSL, POSSUM, GATE and STIR. The final data obtained after simulation, involving raw or reconstructed PET data together with corresponding MRI datasets, were close to the original patient data. Besides, there is the advantage that data can be compared with the GT. We indicate several parameters that can be improved and optimized.

  12. Mammals from ‘down under’: a multi-gene species-level phylogeny of marsupial mammals (Mammalia, Metatheria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. May-Collado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marsupials or metatherians are a group of mammals that are distinct in giving birth to young at early stages of development and in having a prolonged investment in lactation. The group consists of nearly 350 extant species, including kangaroos, koala, possums, and their relatives. Marsupials are an old lineage thought to have diverged from early therian mammals some 160 million years ago in the Jurassic, and have a remarkable evolutionary and biogeographical history, with extant species restricted to the Americas, mostly South America, and to Australasia. Although the group has been the subject of decades of phylogenetic research, the marsupial tree of life remains controversial, with most studies focusing on only a fraction of the species diversity within the infraclass. Here we present the first Methaterian species-level phylogeny to include 80% of the extant marsupial species and five nuclear and five mitochondrial markers obtained from Genbank and a recently published retroposon matrix. Our primary goal is to provide a summary phylogeny that will serve as a tool for comparative research. We evaluate the extent to which the phylogeny recovers current phylogenetic knowledge based on the recovery of “benchmark clades” from prior studies—unambiguously supported key clades and undisputed traditional taxonomic groups. The Bayesian phylogenetic analyses recovered nearly all benchmark clades but failed to find support for the suborder Phalagiformes. The most significant difference with previous published topologies is the support for Australidelphia as a group containing Microbiotheriidae, nested within American marsupials. However, a likelihood ratio test shows that alternative topologies with monophyletic Australidelphia and Ameridelphia are not significantly different than the preferred tree. Although further data are needed to solidify understanding of Methateria phylogeny, the new phylogenetic hypothesis provided here offers a well

  13. Mammals from ‘down under’: a multi-gene species-level phylogeny of marsupial mammals (Mammalia, Metatheria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, C. William; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2015-01-01

    Marsupials or metatherians are a group of mammals that are distinct in giving birth to young at early stages of development and in having a prolonged investment in lactation. The group consists of nearly 350 extant species, including kangaroos, koala, possums, and their relatives. Marsupials are an old lineage thought to have diverged from early therian mammals some 160 million years ago in the Jurassic, and have a remarkable evolutionary and biogeographical history, with extant species restricted to the Americas, mostly South America, and to Australasia. Although the group has been the subject of decades of phylogenetic research, the marsupial tree of life remains controversial, with most studies focusing on only a fraction of the species diversity within the infraclass. Here we present the first Methaterian species-level phylogeny to include 80% of the extant marsupial species and five nuclear and five mitochondrial markers obtained from Genbank and a recently published retroposon matrix. Our primary goal is to provide a summary phylogeny that will serve as a tool for comparative research. We evaluate the extent to which the phylogeny recovers current phylogenetic knowledge based on the recovery of “benchmark clades” from prior studies—unambiguously supported key clades and undisputed traditional taxonomic groups. The Bayesian phylogenetic analyses recovered nearly all benchmark clades but failed to find support for the suborder Phalagiformes. The most significant difference with previous published topologies is the support for Australidelphia as a group containing Microbiotheriidae, nested within American marsupials. However, a likelihood ratio test shows that alternative topologies with monophyletic Australidelphia and Ameridelphia are not significantly different than the preferred tree. Although further data are needed to solidify understanding of Methateria phylogeny, the new phylogenetic hypothesis provided here offers a well resolved and detailed tool

  14. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda

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    Alain de Chambrier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes, a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new, including representatives from 54 genera (80% and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained

  15. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new), including representatives from 54 genera (80%) and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera) appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained

  16. Abnormalities of GH secretion in a young girl with Floating-Harbor syndrome.

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    Cannavò, S; Bartolone, L; Lapa, D; Venturino, M; Almoto, B; Violi, A; Trimarchi, F

    2002-01-01

    We present a 9.1-year-old girl of Calabrian (Italy) ancestry, with clinical features (cranio-facial dysmorphism, short stature with delayed bone age and speech delay) suggesting the diagnosis of Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS). Physical examination showed: height 113.9 cm (-2.9 SD), with a parent's target of 156.2 cm (+1.0 SD), weight 20.7 kg, BMI 16.0 (-0.04 SD), and many phenotypic abnormalities: long eyelashes, large bulbous nose with broad nasal bridge, short philtrum, moderately broad mouth, tooth folding and malocclusion, posteriorly rotated ears, low posterior hair line, short neck, clinodactyly of the 5th finger and hyperextensible finger joints. Diffused hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis with sporadic pubic terminal hairs, but neither clitoromegaly nor other signs of hyperandrogenism and/or precocious puberty, were observed (T1, P1). Carpal bone evaluation showed a delayed bone age (TW2: 5-5/10, - 3.6 yr) and the statural age/bone age ratio was 1.1. Other dysmorphic syndromes were excluded on the basis of clinical evidence, also evaluated by a computer-assisted search (P.O.S.S.U.M. version 3.5, 1992). Analysis of chromosome 22 by the FISH method, using specific probes Cos29 and Tuple1, excluded microdeletions in the region 22q11.2, typical of Velo-cardio-facial syndrome. In this case, we report the impairment of serum GH responsiveness (GH baseline values: 0.2-1.9 ng/ml) to the administration of oral 150 microg clonidine [peak 4.7 ng/ml, normal values (nv)>10 ng/ml] and oral 4 mg dexamethasone (8.1 ng/ml, nv>10 ng/ml). Moreover, the evaluation of spontaneous 24-h GH secretion (Carmeda AB, Stockholm, Sweden) showed low mean GH levels (1.75 ng/ml, nv>3.0 ng/ml), with a maximum sleep-related peak of 2.8 ng/ml. Serum IGF-1 values were in the low-normal range (80-176 ng/ml, nv 133-626 ng/ml). While in FHS the cranio-facial features minimize with advancement of age, the impairment of growth velocity is permanent and results in severe dwarfism. In our case

  17. The phylogenetic position of the musky rat-kangaroo and the evolution of bipedal hopping in kangaroos (Macropodidae: Diprotodontia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, A; Westerman, M; Springer, M

    1998-09-01

    approximately 45 million years ago. This estimate is comparable to divergence estimates among families of Australasian possums based on single-copy DNA hybridization and 12S rRNA transversions. Macropodines and potoroines, in turn, diverged approximately 30 million years ago. Among macropodines, Dorcopsis and Dorcopsulus separated from other taxa approximately 10 million years ago.

  18. Endoscopic resection of large duodenal and papillary lateral spreading lesions is clinically and economically advantageous compared with surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Amir; Ahlenstiel, Golo; Tate, David J; Burgess, Nicholas; Richardson, Arthur; Pang, Tony; Byth, Karen; Bourke, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Background and study aims  Adenomas of the duodenum and ampulla are uncommon. For lesions ≤ 20 mm in size and confined to the papillary mound, endoscopic resection is well supported by systematic study. However, for large laterally spreading lesions of the duodenum or papilla (LSL-D/P), surgery is often performed despite substantial associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to compare actual endoscopic outcomes of such lesions and costs with those predicted for surgery using validated prediction tools. Patients and methods  Patients who underwent endoscopic resection of LSL-D/P were analyzed. Two surgeons assigned the hypothetical surgical management. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), and the Portsmouth Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (P-POSSUM) were used to predict morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. Actual endoscopic and hypothetical surgical outcomes and costs were compared. Results  A total of 102 lesions were evaluated (mean age of patients 69 years, 52 % male, mean lesion size 40 mm). Complete endoscopic resection was achieved in 93.1 % at the index procedure. Endoscopic adverse events occurred in 18.6 %. Recurrence at first surveillance endoscopy was seen in 17.7 %. For patients with ≥ 2 surveillance endoscopies (n = 55), 90 % were clear of disease and considered cured (median follow-up 27 months). Compared with hypothetical surgical resection, endoscopic resection had less morbidity (18 % vs. 31 %; P  = 0.001) and shorter hospital stay (median 1 vs. 4.75 days; P  < 0.001), and was less costly than surgery (mean $ 11 093 vs. $ 19 358; P  < 0.001). Conclusion  In experienced centers, even extensive LSL-D/P can be managed endoscopically with favorable morbidity and mortality profiles, and reduced costs, compared with surgery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. RNAseq Analyses Identify Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Inflammation as a Major Abnormality in ALS Spinal Cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Brohawn

    Full Text Available ALS is a rapidly progressive, devastating neurodegenerative illness of adults that produces disabling weakness and spasticity arising from death of lower and upper motor neurons. No meaningful therapies exist to slow ALS progression, and molecular insights into pathogenesis and progression are sorely needed. In that context, we used high-depth, next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq, Illumina to define gene network abnormalities in RNA samples depleted of rRNA and isolated from cervical spinal cord sections of 7 ALS and 8 CTL samples. We aligned >50 million 2X150 bp paired-end sequences/sample to the hg19 human genome and applied three different algorithms (Cuffdiff2, DEseq2, EdgeR for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEG's. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA identified inflammatory processes as significantly elevated in our ALS samples, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF found to be a major pathway regulator (IPA and TNFα-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2 as a major network "hub" gene (WGCNA. Using the oPOSSUM algorithm, we analyzed transcription factors (TF controlling expression of the nine DEG/hub genes in the ALS samples and identified TF's involved in inflammation (NFkB, REL, NFkB1 and macrophage function (NR1H2::RXRA heterodimer. Transient expression in human iPSC-derived motor neurons of TNFAIP2 (also a DEG identified by all three algorithms reduced cell viability and induced caspase 3/7 activation. Using high-density RNAseq, multiple algorithms for DEG identification, and an unsupervised gene co-expression network approach, we identified significant elevation of inflammatory processes in ALS spinal cord with TNF as a major regulatory molecule. Overexpression of the DEG TNFAIP2 in human motor neurons, the population most vulnerable to die in ALS, increased cell death and caspase 3/7 activation. We propose that therapies targeted to reduce inflammatory TNFα signaling may be

  20. Quality of total mesorectal excision and depth of circumferential resection margin in rectal cancer: a matched comparison of the first 20 robotic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnajian, M; Pettet, D; Kazi, E; Foppa, C; Bergamaschi, R

    2014-08-01

    There are concerns about the impact of robotic proctectomy on the quality of total mesorectal excision (TME) and the impact of laparoscopic proctectomy on the depth of the circumferential resection margin (CRM). The aim of this study was to compare the first 20 consecutive robotic proctectomies performed in our unit with matched series of open and laparoscopic proctocolectomy performed by the same surgeon. Data on the first 20 consecutive patients treated with robotic proctectomy for rectal cancer, CRM clearance was reported in millimetres. Physiological parameters and operative severity were assessed. Age (P = 0.619), Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Morbidity and Mortality (POSSUM) score (P = 0.657), operative severity score (P = 0.977), predicted mortality (P = 0.758), comorbidities (P = 0.427), previous abdominal surgery (P = 0.941), tumour height (P = 0.912), location (P = 0.876), stage (P = 0.984), neoadjuvant chemoradiation (P = 0.625), operating time (P = 0.066), blood loss (P = 0.356), ileostomy (P = 0.934), conversion (P = 0.362), resection type (P = 1.000), flatus (P = 0.437), diet (P = 0.439), length of hospital stay (P = 0.978), complications (P = 0.671), reoperations (P = 0.804), reinterventions (P = 0.612), readmissions (P = 0.349), tumour size (P = 0.542; P = 0.532; P = 0.238), distal margin (P = 0.790), nodes harvested (P = 0.338) and pathology stage (P = 0.623) did not differ among the three groups. The quality of TME showed a trend to be lower following robotic surgery, although this was not statistically significant [open 95/5/15 (complete/nearly complete/incompete) vs laparoscopic 95/5/15 vs robotic 80/5/15; P = 0.235], but the degree of clearance at the CRM was significantly greater in robotic patients [open 8 (0-30) mm vs laparoscopic 4 (0-30) mm vs robotic 10.5 (1-30) mm; P = 0.02]. The study reports no statistically significant difference between open

  1. Ручной колоанальный или аппаратный колоректальный анастомоз? Сравнительный анализ лапароскопических низких резекций прямой кишки.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    оизведена лапароскопическая ИСРПК. Обе группы были сопоставимы по полу, возрасту, ИМТ, шкале CR-POSSUM. Результаты: Средняя продолжительность вмешательства в группах достоверно не отличалась: 206±46 мин против 216±24 мин (р= 0,72. По средней кровопотере, различия также были не достоверны: 85 мл против 113мл (р=0,93. Во всех случаях циркулярный и дистальный края резекции были интактны. У 18 больных I группы (75% и у 14 пациентов II группы (77,7% качество ТМЭ было оценено как grade 3 (p=0,83. Осложнения после УНПРПК (20,8% не потребовали хирургической коррекции. Зафиксировано 3 несостоятельности (12,5%, 1 стриктура (4,2% анастомоза и 1 задержка мочи (4,2%. Частота послеоперационных осложнений в II группе составила 27,8%.  Некроз низведенной кишки у 2 больных (11,2% и несостоятельность колоанального анастомоза в одном случае (5,6% потребовали повторной операции. Стриктура анастомоза зафиксирована у 2 пациентов (11,1%, им выполнили бужирование анастомоза. Среднее значение функции анального недержания через  месяц после операции по шкале Векснера оказалось достоверно выше во II группе и составило 9,3 против 6,2 в I группе больных. УНПРПК п